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V-8: ^URBOCHARGE Your 64's Graphics!

COMPUTED
July
1988

FOR COMMODORE PERSONAL COMPUTER USERS

\SSUE1

ON A DISK!
Hard Drives Add
Speed, Power,
if I i
and Reliability to
Your 64 & 128

1 &&%'%<
I I I -''■_ .- ~. t I ! ill \
I ■ 1

JT'S CIVIL WAR!


Blue Battles Gray
iI (
in Great New Disk
Simulations

SUPER
PRINTER
DRIVER
NLQ Printing for
GEOS 64 & 128

BAGGER
Frantic Fun at the
rocery Checkout

9 Valuable Programs
In This Issue!
When the Bard's scared sober, trust a thief

henihcB.ird'siiilf THE BARDS TALE III


began, we lived a
charmed lite. Good
ale. Good song.
J Good company.
Manga'r came along, but we nit
him to pieces before he amid
blink. Soon Ihe world goi bigger,
and its problems got bigger. We
wandered the wilderness for
months to find the pieces of that-
infernal Destiny Wand. But once
we reforged it, Lagoth Zanta was
history.

Back then, being a thief was dull.


Pick this lock. Disarm that trap.
When things got hot, they'd tell
me "Into the shadows, wimp." I
should've lilted their gold and split
long ago. But it's too late now.

We battle through the seven


worlds. Cast Warsirike and ELECTRONIC ARTV

Rimefang over and over. Cut down


the endless Hookfangs and
Slathbeasts. And suddenly, The
Archrnage is powerless. The War lih-Til 'I I ;Ph-tI

rior is weak. The Bard can't play.


Now they say I'm the only hope.
I'm slick. I'm sneaky. And I'm
going to fight the Mad God... . fit 3frt- Cowl 3p»-l J1C J|it*'CM«A StTl-i

alone.

Some fate.
Over 5 Your slats show,you're hot at
kinds
"'TlTti"lTr lock picking, trap disarming .,
you. Some might even join and hiding. Need more help
your parly. than that? Seven kinds of
spelltasiers—Including new
Chronomancers and Geo-
THE BARD'S TALE1" HI mancets—cast over 100 spells.

THIEF OF FATE™

FREE CLUES

3 WAYS TO ORDER:
1) Visil ymiT ri-Milcr.
2) Cilt B0O-I4J-4525 from U.S. or i in.ul.i, 8am lo
Spm PST, in order by VISA/MC. Nfw auio-map fLMiiirf lets
3) M.iil check (U.S. t) or VISA/MC #. cardholder you find your way in ilie 84
name, and rap. dale to Electronic Arts Direct Salts, dungeon levels .ind seven
RO. Bon 7530. San Maito. CA 94403. Apple 11
dimensions. No copy protection
version S49.95, Commodore version S39.95, phis S3
shipping/handling. CA residents add 6.5% sales lax. 10 slow you (town. Save th
Allow .1-3 weeks tot U.S. delivery. j:.iim.- .11 iiny lucJtion.
..
ELECTRONIC ARTS
Results
with proven software and books from Abacus.

Super Pascal—Gel the tastest and Cadpak—The professional design tool. Super C—You can now develop
complete Pascal for your computer. Enter simple or intricate drawings with software or just learn C on your
Super Pascal is a full implementation the keyboard, lightpen or 1531 mouse. computer. Easy-to-use and takes full
ol standard Pascal. Extensive editor With the flexible object editor you can advantage of ihis versatile language.
features search, replace, etc. Even add create libraries of furniture, electronics, Produces 6502 machine code and is
machine language routines wilh the built- etc. as intricate as screen resolution many times faster lhan BASIC. Includes
in assembler. Fast graphics library. C-64 permits. Zoom in to do detailed work. full-screen editor (search, replace and
version has high-speed DOS for taster Produce exact scaled output to most block operations), compiler, (inker and
access. More than just a compiler- printers in inches, feet, etc. Get design handbook. Libraries for graphics and
Super Pascal is a complete system results fast with Cadpak and your advanced math are included. Whether
that gives you programming results. Commodore® computer. you want to [earn C, or program in a
C-64 S59.95 C-12B $59.95 C-64 S39.95 C-128 S59.95 serious C environment for your
Commodore. Super C is the one to buy.
C-64 S59.95 C-128 $59.95

BASIC Compiler—Now GEOS1" Tricks & Tips—A


anyone can make their BASIC new book with something for
programs run faster! Easily everyone. Contains over 50
converts your programs into fast tricks and tips that you can use
machine language or speed everyday. Converts any word
code. Even speed up programs processor file into geoWrile
written in Simon's Basic. Video format; edit existing GEOS fonts
Basic etc. if your program walks or create your own; Write in
or crawls, give it speed to RUN! machine language or explore the
C64 $39.95 C128 $59.95 internals of GEOS. $16.95

Please no/a our new address and phone numbers

AbacusH!
Dept. G1 • 5370 52nd Street SE • Grand Rapids, Ml 49508
Phone 616/698-0330-Telex 709-101 -Telefax 616/698-0325
Call or write today for your free catalog or the name of your nearest
dealer. Or you can order direct using your Visa, American Express or
MasterCard. Add $4.00 per order for shipping and handling. Foreign
orders add $12.00 por itom. 30-day money back guarantee on
software. Dealer inquiries welcome—over 2400 doalers nationwide.
Brian Dougherty
Software Designer/CEO
Berkeley Softworks

\ nd Q-Link, the dynamic telecommunications service for


IX Commodore* owners, does just that!
IX As the developer of GEOS, the graphics environment operating
system for Commodore 64s and 128s, 1 know how good Q-Link is.
Personally and professionally. Here at my company, we recommend
Q-Link to all our customers. We use it ourselves, too, for online
customer service... so you can get help when you need it. We've
also found it's a very efficient way to provide upgrades and patches
and to announce new GEOS-compatible products.
With just your Commodore, a modem and Q-Link software, a new
world of personal computing options opens up: thousands of
programs you can download and keep; advanced graphics (thanks
to GEOS); an exclusive help line to experts at Commodore;
online educational courses taught by real teachers; fun; games;
friendship, you-name-it. Q-Link lets you realize the full potential of
Commodore computing-right at your fingertips.
Do 1 use Q-Link? Absolutely! And what's really impressive is that
when you join Q-Link, you get a modem and Q-Link Software free! To
my mind that's a tough offer to turn down. But don't take my word
for it Find out for yourself. Call...

1-800-782-2278^.^
Call today to get your free modem and software.

8619 Westwood Center!


Views. VA.221S1
COMPUTERS
i**1* ^ m^ F*™ "W T

July 1988 Vol. 6, No. 7

features
Hard Disk Drives: The Powerful Peripherals Tom Netsel 14 *
The Civil War on Disk Neil Randal! 24 *

reviews
Apollo 18 Ervin Bobo 28 64
Warp Speed Art Hunkins 30 128/64
Merlin 128 Robert Bixby 31 12B
The Train Ervin Bobo 32 64
Speed Buggy Robert Bixby 34 64

games
Bagger Kevin Black 36 64
Scrambler Rhett Anderson and David Hensley, Jr 47 64

programming
BASIC for Beginners: BASIC Geometry Larry Cotton 38 128/64/ + 4/16
Machine Language Programming: Simple Counting Loops Jim Butterfietd 44 128/64
Power BASIC: Quick Save Buck Chiidress 43 128/64/+4/16
Hints & Tips: Disks and Files 46 128/64/+4/16
V-8: Turbocharged Graphics for the 64 Stephan R. Border) 53 64
Error Analyzer Sanjoy Dasgupta 59 64
SYS Stamper Phil Kinkade 61 128/64/+4/16
Emergency BASIC James Host 62 64
Musical Zippers Larry Cotton 65 64

departments
The Editor's Notes Lance Eiko 4 •
Letters to the Editor 6 *
Feedback Editors and Readers 8 *
Simple Answers to Common Questions Tom R. Halfhiil 37 *
Diversions: The Intimate Machine Fred D'ignazio 40 *
Horizons: Viral Infections Todd Heimarck 41 *
The GEOS Column: Super Printer Driver Douglas Blakely 42 128/64
Bug-Swatter: Modifications and Corrections 62 *
News & Products 64 *

program listings
How to Type In COMPUTERS Gazette Programs 88 *
The Automatic Proofreader 90 128/64/+4/16
MLX: Machine Language Entry Program for Commodore 64 92 64

Advertisers Index 100

'^General. 64-Commodore 64. +4=Plus/4, 16 ^Commodore 16, 128-Commodore 128

COMPUTERS QAZgTTE (ISSN 0737-3716) is a COMPUTE1 PuWeation. ana is puohsned monmiy Of ABC Consumer Magazines. Inc. &5 Sevenm Ave NewYont.NY 10019. a Division o(
ABC Publisnmg, t"c, a Capflal Grdes/ABC lr>c. company © 1966 ABC Consumer Magazines. Inc. An rights reservec. Editorial offices are located al Smle 200 324 Wast VJenoover Aye.,
Greensboro. NC 27408. Domestic suBscnnlons: 12 issues. 124 POSTMASTER' Send aaorasscnangoslo COMPUTE'S GAZETTE, P.O Bok 10957. DOS MoinBS, IA 50340 Second class
postage pa-o at New YorK NY ana addilional mailing offices.
COMPUTED
'-- COMMODORE - - &SQNAL COMPUTF& USERS

Ed'tor Lance Elko


Art Director Janice R. Fiiry
FaaturoS Ed Dor Keith Fonell
Technical Edilor Patrick Pa rush
Assistant Editor Rhetl Anflerson
Assisiant Technical Effltor Dale McBane
As you may have noticed on the lished sparingly. As the magazine Assistani Features EtfclC* Tom Nelsel
cover, this issue marks a mile grew, so did the readers and users Assistant Ecitoi
SuDrrrssions & Ois*-. Products Davifl Henley
stone—it's our fifth anniversary. In who programmed. We began writ Editorial Assistant Mickey McLean
Cop/ Ed'tOrS Karen Siepnk
looking over the contents of the de ing about machine language, and, Lori Sonoiki
but issue (July 1983)n ml comparing correspondingly, we received an in Tammio Toylor
Karen Uhlendorl
them with this one, it's easy to see creasing number of machine lan Programming AbSiBlanl Troy Tucker
ConjiiDutinQ Cdnais Todd He 1 marc k
not only the evolution of a maga guage programs, each batch more Jim Butler field

zine, but also that of an industry. ambitious and sophisticated than (Toronto. Cdnddfll
Fred D'lgnaj 10

just a glance at the 1983 table the previous one. The quality of the (E Lan&ing. Wl|

of contents tells you that VIC-20 BASIC programs increased dramati ART DEPARTMENT

coverage exceeded that of the 64. cally as well. When it became appar Associate Art DirectO' Lee Noel, Jr.
Moch,i nic.il Arti\t:. Scotty Billing a

The main feature of that first issue ent that we had a consistent flow of Robm Case
Kim Polls
was "Does Your Computer Need a outstanding software, we broke
Cassette Recorder?" The reviews ground with a disk product. The PRODUCTION
DEPARTMENT

section included dose-up looks at GAZETTE Disk was born in May PioOuctron D :ectot Irma Swam
Assistant Prcrtjct-ci Wa-iager De Potter
the Exatron 5tringy Floppy—a 1984, and it remains a key compo Typeset isng Carole Dunion

high-speed, minicassette storage nent of our publications group. Advertising Production


A*isi5tan( Anila ArmfialJ

device priced at $200—and the All of these developments COMPUTE! PUBLICATIONS


Deadly Duck cartridge game for the have taken place in an environment Group Vice Pfusiduni
PuWiSner/ECilOrMl Dirfclor Wilham Tynan
2K VIC ($35). Programs in that issue in which three, and even four, years '.■. - r ■ ifiiin Kalhloen Marlinek
Senior Editor Lance Elko
included "VIC Timepiece," a graph ago, many industry observers pre ErJrtoral OpeiaTionb O'eCUJf Tony Roberts

ic display of balls rolling through dicted the quick decline of an eight- Edrffii-. COMPUTE' Books Stephen Levy
ExecujtiyB Assistant Sybil Agee
chutes to mark the passing of sec bit Commodore computer market. Semor Aaminr^ifit'^H
Assistant Julia Fleming
onds and minutes; "VIC Marquee"; The obvious correlation is that we, AdrmrnstrdtiYu A^sislanl Iris !!rurj'-

and "Alfabug," a race involving six the GAZETTE, should have long ABC CONSUMER

bugs trying to get from the right side been buried as well. So there's a lot MAGA^FNEfi
Stfn^r Vice Presidoni Marc Ranch
of the screen to the left. to celebrate on this fifth anniversa Senior Vice Proii3onl
AdvertiB-rx] Richard J. Manno
And we handled reader ques ry. We have an active, healthy read Vrce Presn»m Finance Richard Willn

tions such as "If I buy prepro ership and some exciting future te President Operation-} Lucian A. Parnale
■ce President. Prot>JC(«n lleoe Berson-Wemer

grammed cassettes from Timex or plans. It also affords us the oppor


CIRCULATION
Atari, can I play them (m my VIC- tunity to say a special thanks to DEPARTMENT

20?" you, our readers, for your loyalty Vice Pr Robert I. Gursho
Ora Black man-Do Brown

While you're smiling, try to re and support. Milch Frank


Tom Slater

member what computing was like Two more comments. It's inter James J Smith

in the summer of '83. It would be esting to note that in our first issue, Customer
Single Copy Sales
Kay Harris
A. Healhcr Wood

ludicrous in 1988 to publish any of we covered the tape drive as the


most popular data-storage device. In QnectiteMC PIBUSHING ^Companies
the articles or programs from that Preaidi nl Robe'l G Burion
issue, but the debut magazine was this issue, we have an exciting fea 1330 A -pnuo of the Amer^as

received with accolades and a tidal ture on a different kind of storage He II totk. NY !0019

uvni? of .subscription forms. And device: the hard drive. Also, we're ADVERTISING OFFICES
H*w yo<* ABC Cm <*J Ungnren I

while its contents can elicit a few not the only ones celebrating an an Iferl Ui lOOlQ V i3l?i 244AHO fVis T jy^inwyv
iV.'^'f,■-.j r>*-r,-r B*"n.i',:j Ihootiiij > *n.*'t**ig p^
O

laughs now (and perhaps a bit of niversary in July. This month marks Grtrniborn' C0VPUt[h Pul>ciTiona Sw ^00 3^4 VtoV

nostalgia), so can the advertise the 125th anniversary of the Battle Hp- England A Mid Ail.inltC B^rn^rd J Tl*utalfl J' <?Uj
agrees Pew Hmo^aM] &s i sow
ments. There's the Universal Tape of Gettysburg. In keeping with our "idv-esi S Soum*«t. J^r^ Tri^-nu^on LuCiiic Der.ni? |31J|
/M-£Oi7 [Cntdgti] i/i3i 731 3605 [Te
Interface and Duplicator ($49), a reflective mood, we've included Xc^iaiK] m15i 34BW7Z1C.iii1u.rMal

ten-key numeric keypad ($70), a "The Civil War on Disk," a feature WeiI Hdt:h^p^1 & Hr-lni CcHumbi*1 J

24K memory-expansion board for that we think everyone will enjoy. -. -■'" --' -■ .

tiV , <■ ItWtt ID ^i'li Arm'^lcf tON


the VIC (5149), and an "under S2J Wr^i Window *<■ Suiie 2W

$600" Commodore 64.


All of the programs in that first i.'l.luiMi inaWflS ■.r.'.iii.l ii- Jiililri-^iiKl Ij ThO EOi
gazette BtfWMO M4 W«[ W«UovBr A™
issue were written in BASIC. Ma
chine language programs did not
emerge until several months later, Lance Elko
and for the next year were pub- Senior Editor

A COMPUTERS Guzeire July 198B


AUGUST 20,2087
Nothing could be worse than this god
forsaken, radioactive desert.
More Sniperdroids! All tracking me with them
death glares. And them Uzis. They're weird trigger-
twitchin' folks. I suspect it's them poisoning
the water.
Or maybe it's those LeatherThugs. Heck, I
don't know anymore. I heard they
have a bunch of civilians cut off east
of Ranger Center, which is where
I'm headed. Hope not. They want
me dead. Like every other mutant 3 WAYS TO 0RDE8: UVisityour retailer. 2) Call 800-
this side of Vegas. 245-4525 from U.S. or Canada, Sam to 5pm PST to
The worst part is, I'm getting order by VISA/MC. 3) Mail check (U.S.S) orVlSA/MC
#, cardholder name, and exp. date to Elect ronicArts
to be as bad as they are. You
Direct Sales, R 0. Box 7530, San Mateo, CA 94403.
wouldn't believe some of the ways Apple II version $49.95, Commodore version S39.95,
I've learned to kill. I hang out in plus $3 shippingrtiandling. CA residents add 6.5%
sewers, and my best friend is a sales tax. Allow 1-3 weeks for U.S. delivery.
MAC 17 submachine gun.
Gramps talked about life before the nuclear
war. All I know is 1 don't want others living this way.
Gotta rebuild this desert right. Gotta make it so
you can sleep with your eyes closed.
ELECTRONIC ARTS'
" WASTELAND."1 A new role-playing game from Apple II is a registered trademark ol Apple Computer. Inc.
the creators of the Bard's Tale"1 series. Commodore iifl registered trademark of CommodoreButineii
MuhlnctUd,
The Rumor Mill Call to 128 Programmers few 128Ds coming back for repair.
A reader from California called re In response to Matt Getman's letter It seems there is a design deficiency
cently to tell us that a number of bul (April), I totally agree that there in the drive door lever mechanism.
letin boards and user groups have should be more support for the 128. If the drive door is not handled with
been reporting the imminent demise I am not an avid programmer, but I extreme caution, irreparable dam
of GAZETTE. Ami the editor of a ri have a suggestion to those of us age may result to the internal
val publication called recently to ask who are: Write a program for the drive—it must be replaced, at about
if we would comment on the rumor 128 and put it on the market. the cost of an external drive. There
that we were going out of business. To is nothing in the 128D manual
Edward Grenga, jr.
those who have been propagating this warning of this situation. I had to
Syracuse, NY
rumor or to those who may have hear it from the repair shop after it
heard it, we'd like to respond with The attitude of many software compa was too late.
"no, nyet, nah, nope, nein, and not a nies is thai if you own a 128, you own
Donald A. Weaver
chance." GAZETTE has consistently a 64, and, thus, a 64 product can be
Osawatomie, KS
had the largest circulation of any marketed to both 64 and 128 users.
Commodore magazine since our start- (Remember, there are ten million 64 We've not had any problem with the
upfive years ago this month, ami we owners.) This is the major reason why 128D drive here at the office, nor have
still have the largest. We don't know there have not been a lot of commer we had any readers reporting this
how these rumors got started, but we cial 128 releases. kind of trouble. A Commodore repre
would like everyone to know that we're When you admonish 128 pro sentative told us that while they are
doing just fine. And we plan to serve grammers to put their wares on the not aware of any problem with the
our readers for a long time to come. market, we'd like them to consider 128D drive, it is true that if a drive
GAZETTE as a publisher. We run the door lever were bent or twisted, the
best of what we get for the 128, but entire drive would be seriously dam
the overwhelming majority of pro aged. Since the repair persons in your
Taking Exception gram submissions we receive are for area noted that several USDs have
I think Rich Mdntyre made a mis the 64. So, yes, 128 programmers, we been returned, you could suspect that
take during your interview with agree with Matt and Edward—10rife your drive was one of a bad shipment.
him in the May issue. He stated, some good software, and don't forget If any other readers have had this
"There's no recreational software that we'd be delighted to see it. problem, we'd like to hear from you.
per se written for the 128." I have
Bureaucracy and Beyond Zork, both
from [nfocom. GAZETTE Index? New 64?
I also take exception to "The Do you have an index that covers the I've heard rumors of a 64D, a Com
multitude of articles, programs, modore 64 with a built-in disk
View from Activision" by Bruce
hints, etc., from the first issue to date? drive. Do you have any information
Davis. First he remarks that Com
on this?
modore needs to improve its price/ Burr White
value relationship {by claiming that Rachel Bimpcrs
Richmond, VA
the 64 has been selling at the same Bozeman, MT
price, with the same features, for We have a large file comprised of let
ters of request for an index. While we At the recent Software Publishers As
quite a few years). He then admon
don't have one available now, we do sociation (SPA) Spring Symposium in
ishes Commodore to either lower
have one in the works, it will be avail Berkeley, California, Commodore held
the price or add features. What else
able on disk later this year, and will a seminar and emphatically denied
in this world of inflation has held the existence of such a machine, but
include every issue from fuly 1983
the line and not had price increase? added that the company had heard
through December 1988. Look for de
Mr. Davis then goes on to be this of rumor for some time. Represen
moan what he calls a "price degra
tails beginning in the October issue.
tatives noted that there are no current
dation" only on the 64 software. Is
plans to modify the existing 64 or
that not what he just previously re
128D Blues 128D, both of which continue to sell
quested from Commodore? It I got my 128D back after a month in very well. They also stated that Com
seems to me that Mr. Davis wants modore is stili selling annually more
the shop and one program later my
to have his cake and eat it, too!
drive failed again. The technicians than a million 64s—about half of
Frederick R. Claus at the authorized Commodore facil these in the US.—with minimal pro
Frankfort, KY ity told me there had been quite a motional activity.
6 COMPUTEfs GaztfflQ July 1988
BRUTE
he22nd century.
Aircraft Carrier
oes more than launch
ancs. At close range or
iics away, its ability to

Breakthrough propulsion
systems put its top speed ai over60
knots. Space aRe defcnie and
360-dcgrec turret mounted laser
cannons make it virtually invincible.
Prom the bridge of the future you
control the ship itself, a squadron of
remote fighters, an amphibious
assault division, and a huge array of
onboard weapons systems.
• Protect your ship with defense
drones and 360-degrce turret-
mounted laser cannon with lelephoto
tracking,
• ConiWi your war maneuvers in a
huge territory that includes 64
islands. Your goal is to capture the
enemy complex and destroy its
forces.
• Take on the enemy carrier, run ,i
gauntlet of missiles and confront
futuristic naval threats.
• Dispatch the amphibious assault
division to establish beachheads,
capture airstrips and missile .silos.
• JD solid-filled graphics, smooth
■ii idlliiii; land and sea-scapes, i\u\
great sounds and special effects.
Carrier Ciimmand. A step .ihead of
shun tit thus.
Available now on Atari ST.
Coming soon on Amiga, C64, Mac
and IBM,
f\

REALTIME- ^SOFTWARE

K'fii joiJ
trjtk'mirkiof Hrrmh lU«irnimumi.-at«nu I'l-C

Aliri 5T*" Atari Corporation,

©
Scrcrnshou (torn Ami ST.
Mac and Apple II Apple Lornpurrn Inc*
Telecom Soft, P.O. Box 2227, Menlo Park, California 94026. I i'M IrH.T-i.iHi'-i.il Ruiinrml M ,lI rn i '<•■;■ ..": ■ .i
Editors and Readers

Do you have a question or a problem? RD 130 CLOSE1 In this case, it's not a memory conflict, but
Have uoti discovered something thai KH 140 PRINT"CLEAR ALL VARIABL a hardware feature that's causing the
could help Other Commodore users? ES...":CLH
problem. As mentioned above, the VIC-li
QG 150 PRINT"READ THE ARRAY FR
We want to hear from you. Write to chip can handle only 16K of memory at
OM THE FILE "
Gazette Feedback, COMPUTERS Kft 160 0PEN1,8,2,"0:ARRAY,S,R" anyone lime. The fourvideo banks use the
Gazette, P.O. Box 5406, Greensboro, :R£M TAPE USERS REMOVE following sections of memory:
North Carolina 27403. We regret that, {SPACElTHIS LINE
KF 170 REM OPEN 1,1,0,"ARRAY": bank 0 0-16383
due to the volume of mail received, nv
REM TAPE USERS REMOVE T bmd 1 16384-32767
cannot respond individually to pro-
HE FIRST REM FROM THIS batik 2 32768-49151
grmttinittg questions. I SPACE]LINE bank 3 49152-655.15
GQ 180 INPUTU,Xf*:REM READ SI
ZE OF ARRA¥ The hi-res screen and the sprite
DC 193 DIM AR(X,Y|:REM DIMENSI shapes must occupy the same video bank.
Saving Arrays ON THE ARRAY TO SIZE X,
A Doodle screen uses locations 24576-
Y
] need lo know if you can save two- and 32575, and the color memory loads at
Git 200 for i=1tox:forj=1toy:in
three-dimensional arrays to file. If so, 23552. Thai leaves you 7K of available
put#1,ah(i,j):printar[i
please write a program It) save them to ,j);"{2 spaces}";:nextj memory in video bank I—from 16.384 to
and load them from a file. :PRint:nexti 23551—which is much more than you
Kingston Cassidy CH 210 CLOSE1 need for 20 sprites. Since sprites use 64
East Port Orchard, WA bytes each, you can start the sprite shapes
Line 80 opens the file as a sequential at 23552-1280 or at location 22272 (in
Multidimensional arrays can be stored in stead of location 3192).
file for writing. You must explicitly tell
a file as long as you're careful about the Two things change when you move
BASIC that you want to write to the file;
order in which you write and read the Otherwise it will assume you remit to read the sprites up in memory. Instead of using
dala. The following program writes a two-
the file. POKE 55,0; POKE 56,92 lo move the top of
dimeusional array to disk, dears the array, BASIC down, preventing it from interfering
Line 110 writes the size of the array
and reads l/ie data back into the array. (Tape to the file. It's necessary for the program with the screen, you must use POKE 55,0:
users; Follow thi1 directions in the REM POKE 56.87, because 87 * 256 is 22272.
reading the file to know how large to di
statements. You will also 'iced to rewind the mension its array. The sprite pointers also move. In
tape when the message READ THE ARRAY stead of locations 2040-2047, use loca
Lines 120 and 130 write the array
FROM THE FILE . .. appears.) tions 24568-24575, which are at the end
data to the file and close the file.
CC 10 X»10:Y=3:REM THE SIZE OF Line 160 opens the file as a sequen of hi-res color memory. The offsets are cal
THE ARRAY tial file for reading. Because BASIC as culated relative to the start of the video
KP 20 OIM AR(X,Y) sumes that you want to read a sequential bank. To point to the sprite at 22272, sub
QX 30 PRINT"Fir.L THE ARRAY WIT file, line 160 could be entered us 160 tract 16384 and divide by 64. POKE the
H RANDOM VALUES..."
Ol'IiNl,D,2,"0: ARRAY". resulting value (92) into one of the eight
GP 40 FORI=1TOX:FORJ=1TO¥:REM
{SPACEFILL THE ARRAY WI Lines 180 and 190 read the size of the pointers. POKE 24575,92, for example, to
give the shape at 22272 to sprite 7.
TH RANDOM INTEGERS array from the file and dimension a new
KF 50 AR{I,J)=INT(RND(l)»10):P array of that size.
RINT AR(I,J);"{2 SPACES}
Line 200 reads the data from the file
80 Columns
MK 60 NEXTJ:PRINT:NEXTI into the array and prints each value to the
screen.
[ am considering the purchase of a
FE 70 PRINT "SAVE THE ARRAY TO
DISK..." As an experiment, exchange the vari Commodore 64. [ want an 80-column
SF 80 OPEN15,8,lS1"S<J:ARKA¥tlsC ables X and Y in lines 190 and 200. cartridge and a 128K HAM expansion
L0SE15:REM TAPE USERS RE and a word processor that utilizes them.
MOVE THIS LINE I know ihese items are available for Ap
AD 90 OPENl.,8,2,"0:ARRAY,S,W"i ple computers. Do you have any advice
REM TAPE USERS REMOVE TH Unscrambling Sprites
or suggestions?
IS CINE I am making a game that uses 20 sprites
BK L00 REM OPEN 1,1,L,"ARRAY": Mel Anderson
in memory ai 8192 and a hi-res screen
HEM TAPE USERS REMOVE T I loughton, MO
at 24576, which 1 created with Doodle.
HE FIRST REM FROM THIS
{SPACE}LINE
Tlit' problem occurs when I switch to One of the differences between the Apple
SG 110 PRINTII1.,X:PRINT(I1,¥:REM hi-res and turn on the sprites. The pic II series and the Commodore 64 is expand
SAVE THE SIZE OF THE A ture is fine, but the sprites are scram ability. The Apple has expansion slots,
RRAY bled. Can you tell me why this happens permitting easy additions. The 64 has a
RJ 120 FOR I=1TOX:FORJ=1TO¥:PR
and how to overcome it? cartridge port designed primarily far soft
INT(1,AR(I,J):NEXTJ,I:R
EM SAVE THE ARRAY ITSEL Chris Cole ware, not expansion.
Barberton, OH In the past, there have been 80-column
8 COMPUTE! s Gatetto July 1988
ictoryt

1
& ■
»'- '
I
J

Through Exclusive Arrangement with (/xixxt/


You look up at the clock...eight HAT TRICK1" and MINI-GOLF'"
seconds to play...the score's tied. by CAPCOM put the thrill and
You streak towards the goal, excitement of competitive sports in
weaving and bobbing. your Commodore. Vibrant graphics
You lake inside...the goalie make these games so real that you
lunges. ..slapshot...score. ..the can leel the pressure of intense
crowd goes wild! athletic competition. The outcome of
You're in a bunker just off the
these CAPCOM Sports Series
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relieves and brilliant strategy.
You swing...the bad floats out
CAPCOMs HAT TRICK"' and
in a putt ot sand.
It rolls gently breaking MINI-GOLF'"—games so real you
towards the hole...then can hear the roar ot the crowd!
drops.

CAPCOM
You've won!

CAPCOM U.S.A., Inc.


12B3-C Mountain View/Alviso Hoad
Sunnyvale, CA 94089
408-745-7081
cartridges for the 64, but tiny did not gen // chip can access only 16K of memory at The machine language BPL instruc
erate a crisp display- If you require 80 col any one lime. The default video bank is 0 tion stands for Branch if Plus, which can
umns, you're better off buying a (from location 0 to location 163831. which be tricky. The status register holds a nega
Commodore 128. Here is a list of word means that the screen, the sprite shapes, tive flag thai keeps track of positive or
processors that work in 80-column mode: and the custom character shapes must all negative values. For instance, 15 —13 is 2
reside within that 16K section. Since a (a plus result) and 13-15 is —2 (also
Fontmaster 128, 569.95
Xctec complete character set uses 2048 bytes, called 254, which is minus). But 254-3
2804 Arnold Rd.
it's fairly common to use the 2K at the top should be 251, which you might consider a
Salina, KS 67401 of the video bank. This puts the characters positive number. It's not: 254 is a negative
at 14336-16383. number (—2), and when you add a —3,
PaperClip I! and III, $79.95 The BASIC language built into the 64 the answer is —5 (251). just remember
Batteries Included requires a continuous section of memory. that absolute values of 0-127 are positive
(distributed by Electronic Arts) The computer uses locations 0-1023 for and the absolute values of 128-255 are
1820 Gateway Dr. its own purposes. Screen memory and negative. If you're using BPL and BMI
San MattO, CA 94404 sprite pointers occupy 1024-2047. The commands, also remember that there are
Pocket Writer 2, $49.% first byte available for BASIC is 2048. two points where the sign changes: from
Digital Solutions Read only memory (ROM) starts at 40960, 255 (minus) to 0 (plus) and from 127 (plus)
2-30 Vfertheim Ct. which means that, in normal situations, to 128 (minus).
Richmond Hill, Ontario BASIC controls all of the memory from
Canada L4B 1B9 2048 to 40959. But what about the custom
characters at 14336-16383?That's some- Magic POKEs
Superscript 128, $79.95
lohere in the middle of the memory BASIC I am writing a program for the 64 and
Progressive Peripherals & Software
thinks it owns. When your program runs, need to disable and enable some keys.
464 Kalamalh St.
BASIC assumes it can use any and all of Is there a routine that shows me the val
Denver. CO 80204
the available memory, which sets the ues to POKE to disable or enable a key?
Term Paper Writer, 539.95 scene for custom characters that turn to
jose L. Stephens
Activision garbage. As the BASIC program uses more
Santiago, Chile
2350 Bayshore Frontage Rd. and more variables, they gradually fill up
Mountain View, CA 94043 memory and, in the end, overwrite your You didn't say which keys you wanted to
character shapes. disable, so here are two answers.
Word Writer 128, S69.95
There are two solutions: Move the If you're trying to limit keyboard in
Timeworks
characters or move BASIC. Moving the put to certain keys, you can do it with a
444 Lake Cook Rd.
character set involves changing video series of IF-THENs:
Dcerfield, II 60015
banks, which also means you have to 400 PRINT "NORTH, SOUTH, EAST,
GAZETTE also has a fine 80-column move the screen and the HIBASE pointer OR WEST?"
word processor for the 128: SpoedScript at 648. Plus, you must either avoid pressing 410 GET AS: IF AS - "" THEN 410
128. ll was published in the October RUN/ STOP-RESTORE or disable the RE 420 IF AS = "N" THEN 500
1987 issue and on that issue's compan STORE key (see below). It's easier to move 430 IF A$ - "S" THEN 600
ion disk. BASIC. To transfer the start of BASIC 440 IF AS - "E" THEN 700
450 IF AS <> "W" THEN 410
from 2048 to 16384 (which is just past the
end of your character set), enter these There's no need to explicitly disable
Memory Management
lines in direct mode before you load your the other keys when you can write a pro
I'm working on a game for the 64. It program: gram to filter out the acceptable answers.
contains redefined characters and makes POKE 43,1: POKE 44,64: POKE 16384,0: Note that line 450 checks for the final
extensive use of three-dimensional ar NEW character and goes back to 410 if it's not
rays. The problem is that when the pro W. If the user types a W, the program falls
gram gets lo a certain length, the screen through to the next line.
turns to trash when I run it. Nothing Plus Means 0-127
can be deciphered except for reversed I have a question regarding the ma
characters. Can you help? 1 think the chine language BPL instruction. I've en Software Security Key
problem is a memory limit. !f it is, could closed a program that doesn't work with I recently purchased a game that in
it be corrected if 1 rewrote the program BPL. I've managed to make the program cluded a security key that plugs into the
in 128 mode? run correctly with BCS, however. cassette port. What is the purpose of
Abe Kauffman Wayne Dooley this key and is it safe to leave it in the
Payette, ID Winchester, VA cassette port when running any other
programs?
The problem you describe is a typical ML programmers tend !o think that bytes
Wayne Addington
memory conflict. Within your program, hold values in the range 0-255, which is
Winchester, WI
you've put the new character shapes in a true. It's just as true to say that bytes can
certain chunk of memory. Later, as the hold positive values from 6-127 and nega The purpose of the security key (also
program uses variables, BASIC ends up tive values of 128-255. Like a clock, bytes known as a dangle) is to prevent software
storing the variable values in the same have a wraparound point. A clock dis piracy. The key is one of several protection
memory where the character shapes are. plays the hours 1-12 and then starts over schemes designed to stop illegal distribu
The screen isn't turning to garbage; the at 1. A memory location can count from tion of programs.
individual character shapes are. The 0-255 before it starts over at 0. The buyer can make as many backup
reverse character shapes are in the second The positive number 255 can be re copies of the program as he or she needs, but
half of the character set, so they're the last garded as — 1. Thus, 254 is — 2, and so on. pirates cannot run these copies without the
to be trashed. If you think in terms of clock arithmetic, security key. Programs that use the tape
The Video Interface Chip (VIC-II) ten hours is the same as minus two hours drive must have the key unplugged. Other
handles till video-related jobs, including (four o'clock plus ten hours is 14:00, which programs should function properly, but to
display of the character shapes. The VIC- is two o'clock, so 4 + 10 = 2). be on the safe side, disconnect the key. <B
10 COMPUTEfs Gazotto July 198B
Keep it
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Tom Netsel, Assistant Features Editor fjf
Jar r ;-

- ^ ? m ij.... T^TT

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Hitching a hard disk drive to a 64 or 128 may not Hard disk drives are the power
houses of data storage devices.
be for everyone. But power users who need massive When it comes to managing massive
storage capacity and programs that load in an amounts of data in a hurry, nothing
instant say a hard drive is worth its weight in compares to a unit whose storage
capacity is measured in megabytes.
floppies. That's million* of bytes worth of
information. In addition to having
large storage capacity, a hard disk
COMPUTE'S Gazouo July 1988
drive is also fast—it can load pro gram can appreciate the convenience Who Needs One?
grams almost instantaneously. of a hard disk drive. So can the per Right now, most individuals buying
This speed and power is not in son who has to swap disks half a hard drives for their 64 or 128 use
expensive, at least not yet, and not dozen times to complete one com them to run electronic bulletin
everyone can justify the cost of puter chore. But buyjng a hard boards. Software developers are
adding a hard disk to his or her 64 drive is another matter. Your partic another group of people buying
or 128 system. But anyone who has ular budget and computing needs hard drives. Business and profes
ever waded through a stack of flop will determine whether a hard sional people use hard drives to
pies trying to find one specific pro drive is for you or not. handle inventory, accounts payable
COMPUTERS Gazette July 1988 15
and receivable, payroll, and other minute, while a hard disk drive gal "It's the only drive that you can fill
data-intensive chores necessary in lops along at 3600 rpm. The top and up in any state of the union and
running a business. In the business bottom surfaces of the disk each then ship to Sydney, Australia,"
world, the bottom line can easily have a read/write head that is con says JCT vice president Eddie Cate.
justify the cost of a hard disk system. siderably smaller than the heads in "Bring it back, plug it in, and you
There are only a few manufac a floppy drive. Each side of the disk won't lose any data."
turers making hard disk systems for can store about 5 megabytes of The read/write heads arc also
the 64 or 128. Prices still are not information. Therefore, a 20-mega much smaller than those found on a
cheap, but they have dropped from byte drive, such as Xetec's Lt. Ker floppy drive. These smaller heads
the SI ,500 range they were in just a nal, has two disks sealed inside its and faster drive speeds are what ac
couple of years ago. (See "Why Do outer cabinet. count for the system's tremendous
Big Blue's Cost Less?") Unlike the read/write heads of storage capacity. While the diame
The Lt. Kernal {Xetec, 2804 a 1541 or 1571, the heads on a hard ter of a hard disk is the same as that
Arnold Road, Salina, Kansas 67401) drive do not actually touch the of a floppy, the hard disk system
is a 20-megabyte drive that sells for disk's magnetic oxide coating. In packs data into a much smaller area.
$899.95 for the 64 version, and stead, they float a few millionths of
$949.95 for the 128 model. The an inch above the surface of the How Much Data?
drive includes a set of commands spinning disk. This close tolerance A 1541 stores about 370 kilobytes
that upgrade the 64's BASIC. The is why the systems are sealed. A of data on a floppy disk. That's the
128 drive requires the installation speck of dirt or even a particle of equivalent of 130 pages of double-
of an additional adapter board in smoke that wedges itself between spaced typewritten text. In compar
side the computer. For 1571 burst the head and disk could cause ir ison, a 20-megabyte hard disk drive
compatibility, a computer modifica reparable damage to the head or can hold the equivalent of 118 1541
tion is required, but all necessary in disk surface, ruining any data floppy disks, or approximately
structions are included in the current stored there. 15,340 pages of text. If you stacked
versions of the technical manual. those same 118 disks on top of each
JCT (P.O. Box 286, Grants other, you'd have a pile almost 15
Pass, Oregon 97526) has two hard inches tall. That's a lot of data at
drives for the 64 and 128. TheJCT- your finger tips.
1005 is a 5-megabyte drive selling
A 20-megabyte hard disk
for $495. The JCT-1010 is a 10-mega-
How Fast?
byte system with a suggested retail drive can hold the With all this storage capacity, how
price of $595. Both drives work
fast can a hard disk drive find a file
with either the 64 or the 128. They equivalent of 118 1541 or program? Then, once the data is
support all DOS and wedge com located, how long does it take to
mands and are compatible with the floppy disks, or
transfer the data to the computer?
CEOS operating system. The drives
approximately 15,340 Since the heads on a hard drive are
come with a built-in floppy drive.
so close to the disk's surface, they
pages of text. do not have to be lifted, moved, and
What Do 1 Get for lowered every time they change po
My Money? sitions. This cuts down on access
A hard disk drive is probably the time. While it usually takes a floppy
dullest-looking peripheral you disk drive about a second to locate
could add to your 64 or 128. You data, a hard disk can find it in a few
won't be impressed looking at one Handle with Care milliseconds.
on your dealer's shelf. Typically, Improvements over the past couple Data transfer from the JCT is
it's an enclosed metal box that has of years have made the drives less via the serial bus, and reportedly is
one or two small indicator lights, a susceptible to head crashes that can 1.7-2 times faster than on the 1541.
power cord, and an interface to con destroy data, but they still should That's a modest gain in speed, but it
nect il to the computer. There are be handled with care. If you physi still faces the serial bottleneck that
no fancy lights to watch, no buttons cally move a drive from one place has earned the 1541 a reputation
to push, no musical sounds to en to another, the heads should first be for slowness. To truly demonstrate
tertain you—but it's hard to imagine parked in a safe position. Most the advantage of a hard disk drive,
a device that expands a computer's drives have a special command to data must be passed a byte at a time
capabilities as dramatically. do this, if you have children or pets rather than a bit at a time. JCT of
There isn't much to see on the in the house who are liable to jostle fers this parallel mode of data trans
outside because hard disk drives the drive even when it's off, park fer, which speeds up the process
are sealed to keep dirt, dust, and the heads while you are away. considerably. In parallel mode, the
even cigarette smoke away from The |CT drives have a load arm JCT transfers data at the rate of
the interior. The disk itself is about that reportedly protects the heads 32,000 bytes per second. The Lt.
the same size as a floppy, but the from crashing, especially while the Kernal has a transfer rate of 38,000
5'A-inch coated aluminum platter drives are being moved. The heads bytes per second for the 64. That's
rotates at a much higher speed. A are automatically protected and no reportedly fast enough to load a full
floppy spins at 300 revolutions per special park command is necessary. screen of high-resolution color
16 COMPUTE'S Guiana July I9B8
WHAT'S A TAITO?..

■m
That'sa verygoodquestion. Taito (pronounced Tie-toe)

is one of the oldest and biggest names in the arcade industry.

Taito is the world's largest manufacturer and operator

of arcade games. We've been in the business since 1953.

And that's just the beginning. Taito practically started

the video game industry with our classic arcade hit, Space :

Invaders.7" And over the years, Taito has created more than
AftKANOlQ:33 screens of spacv*age e*citem«i[ Award winning coin-op
'lfon sokJin Japan. "One of the best everT—Electronic Game
1,000 other great action games for arcade and home play.

Now Taito has something equally exciting for you to

slip into your home computer. Taito is bringing you the same

pioneering spirit, technical quality and excitement that made

us the arcade leader for play on your Commodore, Amiga,

IBM, Apple and Atari computers.

We are the arcade leader fora very goodreason. We con

sistently make great video games that bring more action and
RENEGADE This is the one andonly. Don't settle forimitations. Blistering,
fastpacedandrealtile street-style Karateaction. One ofthe hottestgames
•nE"fB<"i value to the people who play ourgames. And literally millions

ofpeople play our games in arcades all over the world.

Our strength comes from the massive development

effort we put into creating the kind ofgames that satisfy the

ever-growing arcade appetite and the research gathered from

the more than 100,000 arcade machines Taito operates in

Japan. (The money in the coin boxes at the end ofthe day tells

very quickly if you've got a good game or not.) And Taito is


ALCON: Jho ultimate in inler-pfafielary combat Bailie aliens
homing missiles, bombs and shields. Fantastic vertical scrolling future-
a/ways working hard to develop the most exciting new video

,,4. S*v Shar*'" end Gladiator"* are trademarks of Tula America, inc. Copyright © 13B8. All
Taito?- Arianuid;" RnnegedeJ" Aleonp* Rattan!" Bubble Bobble!" Operation Wall,'" rights nsBrvtd. Amiga, Commodortt Appln IBM end Atari art trademarks respectively ol
games that push the technology to its limits*

Because arcade games are the benchmark for home

video games, Taito's leadership in the arcade translates into

more home video thrills—more mesmerizing arcade quality

graphics, sound and above all, action!

That's whynobodybutTaito can bringyou more ofwhat

you're looking for in home computer video games.


RASTAN; Ono of the biggest com-op hits of 1387. Slut tnmg gmjihics. Non
stop, mythicnf super hero action with multiple weapons, enomtos find
You don't get to be the biggest in the arcade business by

developing and manufacturing run of the mill video games.

When you buy Taito games, you're getting more than

just fun. We bring you games that test your nerve and your

strategy. Games that make you laugh andput you on the edge

of your seat, games of adventure and excitement. Taito takes

you on voyages to places you've never been be fore—to brave

new worlds ofimagination and fantasy. After all, isn't that what
BUBBLEBOBBLEAddic!iveaaion.Upto!QOIevelsotan:adequaliryplay.
One or two player action- The number one game in Europe for three
moMhs in b row. great video games are all about?

And every action game we put our name on is more than just competitive confrontation.

Taito games are all about the values ofgood triumphing over evil, ofbeing the best you can be—games

like ArkanoidJ" Renegade'," Aicon]" Rastan'," and Bubble Bobble'." And we have more arcade block

busters like Operation Wolf/" Sky Shark,'" and Gladiator™ coming soon to software formats for play

on your home computer. Taito's home-bound hit parade of video fun has just begun.

Who but the arcade leader could bring you so much? That's Taito! Aren't you glad you asked?

Buy Taito products at leading computer stores everywhere. If no stores are near you, Visa/

MasterCard holders can order any where in the U.S. by calling 1-800-663-8067.

Commodore -Amiga, Ins., Commodore BtKI/onlca, Ltd, Apple Computer Inc., International ''IIyou think you've got the technical'anaennttive utilityto develop mind-blowing vidaogamos.
Business Machines 6ndAtari Corporation. Advartisamenl by Dually Si Company Inc., iChicago) ivuforo Taita Attention: Product Dt>velopmant, at tho above Bddrnss.
Why Do Big Blue's Cost Less?
Affordability has always been a major selling point for Shoultys says an interface is needed to get from
hardware and software for the 64 and 128. This is espe the SCSI card on ihe drive to the computer, which does
cially true when comparing their prices against similar not have a SCSI port. That interface is a powerful tittle
items developed for the !I3M PC and compatibles. With device that has ROM and memory built in, so it does
a list price of $899.95, the Lt Kernal hard drive has not take any memory away from the 64 or 128. That
been described as a data storage device that uses a 64 speeds up the whole process, he says.
as a plug-in accessory. When a drive costs five times as The 200K disk operating system {version 7.0) is
much as the computer it supports, it's hard to say built into the drive and is not sold separately, as MS-
which is the peripheral. But, if you can buy a 20-mega- DOS is. You don't get an operating system with most
byte drive for an IBM for less than $300, why does one hard drive kits, he says.
for the 64 or 128 cost three times that amount? "When you combine all these things," Shoultys
"The Commodore wasn't designed for a hard says, "you end up with an 18-pound package that gets
drive," explains John Shoultys, sales manager for shipped to the customer with a pretty comprehensive
Xetec, distributor of the Lt. Kernal hard disk drive. manual and a lot of other goodies that make this sys
Commodore designors originally thought the cassette tem work on these two computers. If you can take thai
tape recorder would be the storage device everyone $200 drive and make it work on your Commodore,
would use. To interface a hard drive with a 64 and get it more power to you . . . but it's not going to happen."
to work at high speed require solving problems Big At ICT, where the ten-megabyte jCT-1010 lists for
Blue and clones never had to face. It's not just a simple $595, and the five-megabyte JCT-1005 sells for $495,
matter of plugging in additional hardware. vice president Eddie Cate offers further explanation.
"You can go out and buy a drive for $200 and stick "Let's face it, the IBM and PCs have been out there
it in your IBM, and it'll probably run," Shoultys says. for so many years that there's a lot of competition. It
"The hard drive we sell has a built-in SCSI (Small hasn't been too many years—less than five—that
Computer System Interface, pronounced scuzzy) card, there's been a hard drive for the Commodore 64 and
a power supply, a fan, a line filter, and ail the FCC- 128. It's basically a brand-new product, and nobody's
approved wiring and cabinetry to house it." really ventured into that marketplace."

graphics (about 11 kilobytes) in less not seem too important at first, but the hard disk, or copied directly
than one second. The Lt. Kernel's it will as you add more and more from a floppy via a number of built-
transfer rate for the 128 is 65,000 programs to your drive. in copy commands. The biggest
bytes per second, or as much as 65 The Productivity directory problem associated with using a
times faster than that of the 1541. could be divided into areas contain hard drive comes from trying to in
ing Word Processing, Spreadsheet, stall copy-protected software.
Where Is That File? and Database files, A directory
A hard drive can store a tremendous called School could be subdivided to Backing Up Copy-Protected
number of programs, find each one contain the notes for each of your Software
in less than a second, and load one classes. The idea is to divide the An interesting command on the Lt.
into memory almost instantly. But if drive into logical directories that Kernal is one called ICQUB, (pro
you can't locate the program you make it easy for you to find the pro nounced ice cube). 1CQUB captures
want, the whole process slows to a gram you want. memory-resident programs in 64
crawl, imagine searching through a mode and stores them on the hard
directory that holds the equivalent Extra Commands drive. The program can then be
of 118 floppies. Managing the files Both the JCT drives and the Lt. Ker called from the hard drive and
on a hard disk system requires a little nal use standard Commodore com started where it left off when it was
planning and learning a few new mands plus a number of special saved. This is not meant to be a
DOS commands. ones that facilitate the creation and software-pirating feature. Programs
Rather than making one large use of subdirectories. The Lt. Ker- saved with ICQUB can be run only
directory, you can divide hard disk nal's DOS (version 7.0) has almost from the hard drive. Copies saved
systems into subdirectories. These 50 enhanced system commands, in to a floppy will not run. This feature
subdirectories can themselves be cluding AUTOMOVE, a command permits users to back up copy
subdivided. For example, you could that moves files from one subdirec protected software and use it with
have a directory called Games and tory to another. CP/M commands the convenience of a hard disk. If a
another called Productivity, Under have also been added to the latest program returns to the floppy to
Games, you could have subdirec versions of the Lt. Kemal's DOS to look for specific modules, then IC
tories for BASIC, Machine Lan take advantage of the vast amount of QUB may not capture all of the pro
guage, Arcade, Adventure, and any CP/M software available for the 128. gram. If a program calls for a
other categories that would help Programs can be loaded into security key to be plugged into a
you find a desired game. This may the computer's memory, saved to joystick port, ICQUB will not elimi-

20 COMPUTEI's Gazette July 19B8


Lt Kernal Battles the Bad Guys
When the prototype of the Lt. Kernal hard drive system read it off the screen."
was being refined, its designers at Fiscal Information Fingerprints are unique, but they can be grouped
came up with a rather interesting test. They gave an into several general classifications. After technicians
early version of the 20-megabyte hard drive to the po lifted a print from the scene of a crime, it was digitized.
lice in Lakeland, Florida to help with the department's The 64 scanned the digitized print and dropped it into
fingerprint analysis. a specific class. A fingerprint expert would then call up
The department computerized a portion of its fin prints with similar criteria, looking for a match.
gerprint files, using a Commodore 64 and a Computer- "He could bring up both prints, move them closer
Eyes video digitizer. Fingerprints were scanned with a together, reverse the screens, look at them in reverse
video camera, digitized, and then stored on the Lt. Ker field—anything he wanted," Salvadore said.
nal prototype. Fiscal Information devised a program to The department tested the drive with the finger
record a person's fingerprints, along with that person's print analysis program for about four months, Salva
name, address, physical description, and mug shot. This dore said, but the software was never developed fully
information could be called up quickly on a monitor. for permanent use. The hard drive, the 64, and the digi
The police could digitize prints found at the scene tizer performed well, but converting the records and
of a burglary, for example, and then quickly compare entering them into the computer was time consuming.
them for identification with those stored on the drive. The police department lacked the personnel to com
"You could do searches and comparisons," says Offi plete the necessary digitization.
cer Joseph Salvadore of the department's Computer "lt was taking about seven seconds to digitize a
Applications Unit. "It would split the screen and put print, and we had to digitize all ten fingers and store
the suspect on one side and the print you were compar them," Salvadore said. "We have 25,000 fingerprint
ing it with on the other side, instead of reading the cards on file, so you're talking about a significant amount
print with an eyepiece off a card, you could actually of time. But the svstem itself worked excellently."

nate that requirement. A company warranty on the drive and a one- capacity. Xetec offers a 40-mega-
representative said there are no year warranty on all other hard byte streaming-tape drive that pro
plans to make a version of ICQUB ware. The Lt. Kernal is covered by a vides a fast means of backing up a
for the 128. limited one-year warranty. If you whole hard disk.
Several companies are produc have warranty questions about As noted earlier, disk drives
ing software for the 64 and 128 that your Lt. Kernal, Xetec offers a BBS are still expensive accessories for a
is hard disk-friendly. If the pro at its Kansas headquarters. For moderately priced 64 or 128. Xetec
grams are not totally unprotected, technical questions, the drive's de has been selling the Lt, Kerna! for
then they at least have provisions signers at Fiscal Information in just over a year, and the price has
for installation to a hard disk. Few, Florida provide a BBS as well. stayed around the $900 mark. In
if any, of these are games; most are As with many electronic and the past year, JCT has lowered
productivity-oriented. Sttperbase, electro-mechanical devices, the ma prices for* the 1005 and 1010 by
Progressive Peripheral's popular jority of failures usually occur dur $100 and $200, respectively. There
and powerful database program, is ing the first few days of operation. is talk of JCT offering a 20-mega-
being released for use on a hard Many technicians recommend turn byte drive. If one drive doesn't offer
disk drive. Owners of protected ing the drive on once you get it up enough storage capacity, they all
versions can purchase updates for a and running, and then leaving it on can be daisy-chained or expanded.
modest cost. Timeworks, Spinna for several weeks. If a drive is going As more 64 and 128 owners expe
ker, and Electronic Arts are other to fail, most problems should occur rience the speed and convenience
firms who offer unprotected word during this period, while the war of hard disk drives and begin buy
processors, spreadsheets, and data ranty is in effect. A hard disk drive ing them in greater numbers, we'll
bases. More and more firms are ex consumes less power than a 50- see lower price tags in the future.
pected to offer products for hard watt light bulb does, so it won't add When Commodore owners
disk drives. much to your power bill. first saved programs on tape cas
settes just a few years ago, it would
Reliability Make Those Backups have been difficult to imagine just
Compared to floppy drives, hard Despite a drive's reliability, as with how sophisticated data storage
disk drives offer improved speed any other storage medium, it is im would become. While a hard disk
and storage capacity. Because of portant to back up important files. drive may not be on everyone's
these advantages, once people use This can be tedious with large files, shopping list this year, it goes to
a hard disk system, most of them but imagine the problems if such show how much power is available
are reluctant to return to floppies. files or programs were lost. Floppy for 64 and 128 owners. It also re
In addition to speed and storage ca disks are perhaps the most conven veals the fact that the 64 and 128
pacity, the drives are reliable. The ient way to back up files, but special are still among the most versatile
JCT series has a limited five-year tape drives have a higher storage machines on the computer scene.®

COMPUTE'S Gazelle July 1988 21


DON'T SETTLE FOR LESS—
COMMODORE COMMODORE. ( (1 M M (I II (l X 1

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Six score and five years ago.. .. Chickamauga to Wilson's Creek
On July 1, 1863, Heth met Bu- and Pea Ridge, with man-to-man
ford near the small Pennsylvania battle games and strategic-scale
town of Gettysburg. Heth's men theater games showing up as well.
wanted to find new shoes; Buford One Civil War game, SI'I's Terrible
wanted to find the Confederate Swift Sword, is arguably the best
army. war game ever produced.
Buford was more successful. Strangely, though, computer
Within hours, reinforcements games based on the Civil War were
appeared for both sides. Soon, the relatively slow in coming. Games
bulk of Lee's Army of Northern Vir of World War II and contempor
ginia was pushing back the bulk of ary hypothetical warfare domi
Meade's Army of tho Potomac. nated the early 1980s, Not until
Two days later. Lee and his men comparatively recently has
were in full retreat. It was to be the the Civil War surfaced on disk.
start of a retreat that, for the Con Strategic Simulations Incorporated
federate States of America, would (SSI) leads the pack, quantitatively

The Civil War


on Disk M
Neil Randall

last for almost two years. at least, on this topic


As world history goes, 125 as on pretty well all other
years is a very short time. But for war topics, but they aren't
North America, which counts his alone. At least one smaller
tory in decades rather than centu company, Garde Games of
ries, it is long enough. In the 125 Distinction, has produced
years since the Battle of Gettysburg, a thoroughly
the American Civil War has contin notable game,
ued to gain historical significance, and
not just for the United States but for
much of the western world. For one
thing, along with the American
Revolution, it was one of only two
truly important wars ever fought in
the New World. For another, it real
ly did affect global destiny.
Australia's Strategic
It did one other thing as well. It
Studies Group (SSG)
captured the imagination of story has released the first
tellers and historians. And, through
in a series of Civil War
the historians, it captured the
efforts. Suddenly, the Civil
imagination of designers of histori War gamer has a fair bit to
cal games. choose from.

The Games Arrive SSI's Civil War


Over its 30-year life span, the war- SSI, unquestionably the hobby's
gaming hobby has seen a plethora war-gaming leader, offers three titles.
of games based on the Civil War. Gettysburg: The Turning Poinl, Aulieltuii,
One of the first of all war games and Rebel Charge at Chickamauga all use
was Milton Bradley's Battle Cry, the same gaming system. As with many
and one of the offerings of the SSI games, players can choose from among
fledgling Avalon Hill Game Com basic, intermediate, and advanced rules, with each
pany was the original Gettysburg. set increasing the complexity, the playing time,
Since then, the hobby has seen and the gamer's sense of realism. The games emphasize
games recreating almost all Civil both the movement of units and the problems of com
War battles, from Antietam through mand, and the systems reflect this emphasis. Since Rebe
24 COMPUTErs Gazette July 1988
Rebel Charge at Chickamauga Blue Powder, Grey Smoke Decisive Battles of the American Civil
War, Volume One

Charge is the most recent, we'll let it En Garde seemingly realistic and somewhat
stand here as an example of SSI's Just as serious are the designers at disorienting.
approach to the War Between the Garde Games of Distinction. The Blue Powder, Grey Smoke is
States. manual for Blue Poii'der, Grey Smoke, challenging, feature-pa eked, and a
On the whole, war gamers are in fact, introduces the designers as little confusing. What it lacks in
served by the best manuals in the "veterans of countless campaigns, ease of play, though, it makes up
computer industry, and SSI's are at late nights and not a few lost week for in sheer character. Players who
the top of the heap. Ten densely ends." The manual then proceeds take the time to learn its systems
packed pages explain the rules of along the now standard war-game will find themselves drawn back to
Rebel Charge, and these are fol lines, with a quasi-legal numbering it again and again, even if playing is
lowed by the Order of Battle, orga system (the rule for Skirmish forma not always a satisfying experience.
nization charts for both armies, an tion is number 7.2.3), a discussion of An unusual game, it's well worth
explanation of the computer's cal the game's subsystems, notes on examining.
culations, four pages of maps, and a Civil War tactics, and a full explana
six-page analysis of the historical tion of the three scenarios. Unsur
battle. The manual is important to prisingly, the chosen scenarios are The Australian View
the understanding of the game, be the big ones: Gettysburg, Antietam, The most recent addition to the
cause without it, the relationship and Chickamauga. Civil War library is SSG's Decisive
between leaders and units and the The Commodore 64 version of Battles of the American Civil War,
reasons for the results of movement Blue Powder, Grey Smoke operates Volume One. SSG's focus has been
and combat are lost. entirely with a joystick. At the bot primarily on World War II (even
The game is playable by one tom of the screen is a series of though designer Roger Keating
player against the computer, or by menus {actually, one menu with ac made his name with SSI's 1985 se
two human opponents. Setting up cessible submenus), and all the ries), but for well over a year they
the game requires decisions about game's functions are controlled have been promising a strategic
how difficult you want your job to through them. There are three map level Civil War effort. It hasn't sur
be, and whether you want ad levels, ranging from a depiction of faced yet, but the Decisive Battles
vanced rules and hidden units. the entire battlefield to detailed series might ease the long wait.
Once started, the game runs views of small portions of the bat The big news is the move away
through the various parts of the se tle. The game worries about the from the big three battles. Decisive
quence of play, beginning with density of units, the posture of units Battles, Volume One simulates six
Command Control and ending (standing, kneeling, or lying down), engagements from the first half of
with Victory Determination, in be formations, and firing by quad, file, the war, with six more to follow in
tween are the vital parts, Reinforce or rank. In addition, BPGS offers 11 Volume Two. Here are First Bull
ments, Operations, and Combat. different types of terrain and differ Run, Shiloh, Second Bull Run, Fre-
The focus is on the player's entiates among the seasons of the dericksburg, and Chancellorsville.
ability to control the battle. Each year. The sixth is Antietam once more,
unit is moved individually, and you The game's focus is on com but the first five are the drawing
must worry about such things as mand, even though units are often cards.
where the leaders are, what direc individually controlled. As com SSG followers will recognize
tion the units are facing, and how mander, you must issue orders to Decisive Battles' systems. The game
much ammunition your units are your troops in a simulated realtime is menu-driven, with a structure
using. And all that is on top of wor environment. This is what makes modified (considerably) from the
rying about what you have to do to BPGS unique. Rather than a series company's popular Battlefraiit se
win the game. In other words, of game "phases," things keep hap ries. As in all SSG games, except the
there's a great deal to do, and a pening until you press the button to venerable Reach for the Stars, the
turn, on the whole, takes a consid give new orders. Then, with the Ex menu IS the game, and learning
erable amount of time. War gamers, ecute command, you start the battle your way around the menus is es
for the most part, are notoriously rolling once more. The effect is sential to learning how to play.
serious about their games, a fact quite convincingly that of a battle Once the menus are mastered,
that SSI fully recognizes. continually evolving, an effect both players can concentrate on strategy.
26 COMPUTE'S Gazette July 1988
SSG's trademark is its emphasis on the role played
Tevex Computer Software
by the player. Here, you are in command, and you can
even select a personal profile. Being cautious will mini 1-800-456-1162
mize personal danger but do nothing to inspire the
C-64/128 software Lratj Ou'f C-64/128 software Lisl i Oui i
troops, while being heroic (the opposite end of the Airborne Ranger $35 S24 Mtghl & Magic $40 $28
scale) will lift the troops to great heights and you, prob Aliens $35 $24 ML Wresiing $30 $21
B-24 $35 $24 NBA $40 S28
ably, to the heavens. This is an extremely nice touch,
Bard's Tale tor II $40 S23 Pulton & Rommel $30 $21
and it reflects the fact that the Civil War was in one Battles - Civil War $40 $28 Phantasie III $40 $28
sense the last of the personally led wars. Beyond Zork $45 $31 Pi rales $40 $28
California Games $40 $28 Questron II $40 $28
Beyond that, the game is easy to control. You give
Chuck Yeager AFT $35 $24 Sinbad S35 $24
general orders to each brigade, telling them to move, Defender-Crown $35 $24 Skate or Die $30 $21
fight, or rest, and the computer takes it from there. Dragon's Lair $25 $18 Sons of Liberty $35 $24
Echelon $45 $31 Slarfleel I $40 $28
Unlike Rebel Charge or Blue Powder, Decisive Battles Games: Wintered $40 S28 Stealth Fighter $40 $28
does not allow individual unit commands because the Gauntlet $35 $24 Strike Fleet $30 $21
Gunship $35 S24 Test Drive $30 $21
game requires you to adopt a specific role. In this way
fJ Red October $40 S2B Three Stooges $35 $24
it's the opposite of Rebel Charge, while taking the menu Ikari Warrior S35 $24 Under Fire $35 $24
interface of BPGS to a highly playable but sometimes Lasl Ninia $35 S24 Wargame Conslr. $30 $21
Legacy Ancients $30 S21 Wizardry I $40 $28
frustrating level. Maniac Mansion S35 $24 Wooden Ships $35 $24

More to Come Same Day


There are other games, all with their own strengths and
Shipping
weaknesses. GDVV's Chickamauga (distributed by Elec
Just call us before 3:30
tronic Arts) offers great flexibility in rules, but it suffers
and we'll ship your order
somewhat in payability and interest. SSI's Wargame
today by UPS. Your package
Construction Set includes a First Bull Run scenario, but is only days away with Tevex. TEVEX
it's limited by the game's need of standardized sys 4205 FirstAvo #100

1
tems. Eagerly anticipated is Avalon Hill's Civil War, the Free 40 page catalog with Tucker. GA 30084
your first order. We stock
adaptation of the superb board game from Victory hundreds ofC-64 games. 404-934-5059
Games. It was not available as of this writing. New products are underlined

What is apparent, even at this early stage in com Whon crderiig bf mail send money cdef.
Indude phone nun*ar. SKIPPING: US, ordws We accept
puter gaming, is that the Civil War is becoming increas aid S3.00 Iff shipping and handling charge.
Georgia rH5>der-it! a ! Visa or Mastercard
ingly well represented. Furthermore, the games them
selves arc very good. With this kind \ •. ■- r m

of start, and the fact that many as


pects of the war have yet to be sim
ulated, we can only assume that the
Excellence...
future holds many fine offerings.
for the Commodore
On disk as in the history books, the
American Civil War remains fully
alive.
Product Family
Blue Powder, Grey Smoke
Garde Games of Distinction Look for the name that
8 Bishop Ln. spells Quality,
Madison CT 06443 Ajfordability,
and Reliability.
Decisive Battles of the American
Civil Wnr
Strategic Studies Group
Lt. Kernal - a 20 or 40
distributed by Electronic Arts Megabyte Hard Drive which sup
1820 Gateway Dr. ports CP/M.
San Mateo, CA 94404 Super Graphix GOLD - the ultimate printer interface including a 32K buf
fer, 4 built-in fonts, a utility disk with 27 fonts and more.
Chickamauga Super Graphix - an enhanced printer interface including NLQ, an 8K buffer,
Game Designers' Workshop
reset button, a utility disk with 27 fonts and more.
distributed by Electronic Arts
Super Graphix jr - an economical printer interface with NLQ and graphics.
FontMaster 11 - a powerful wordprocessor for the C64 with 30 fonts ready
Rebel Charge at Chickamauga
to use, 65 commands, font creator and more.
Gettysburg: The Turning Point
Antietam FontMaster 128 - a super wordprocessor for the 128 including 56 fonts ready
Wargame Construction Set (o use, a 102,000 word spell checker and much more.
SSI All Hardware is FCC Certified All Interfaces include a Lifetime Warranty
1046 N. Regstorff Ave.
_ .=■_=_ ^_=_ _=_ C64 and 118 arc reg. TM of Commodore Business Machines, Inc.
Mountain View, CA 94043
^.^i^ti 2804 Arnold Rd. Salina, KS. 67401 (913) 827-0685
o

Apollo 18: Mission and the time left to liftoff.


A digitized voice tells you to go to
to the Moon the telemetry screen, where you make
the necessary adjustments to ensure
Although I wish them well, there is a that all systems are "Go." Then flip
sadness in seeing former Apollo astro back to Command Center and watch as
nauts on TV, extolling the virtues of the countdown progresses.
cold medicines. It comes from knowing
Your initial tasks will be to fire
there is no employment for their special
your rockets at precisely the right time,
skills since the Apollo series ended release the umbilical cables, and then
more than 15 years ago.
separate the first stage. All events are
With the release of Apollo 18 {the
accomplished by pressing the fire but
last real mission was number 17), Acco ton at precisely the right instant, Time must come togetherand function perfect
lade makes it possible for those of us
is measured in thousandths of a second, ly. (It worked for the real astronauts,)
who remember the voyages into space
and an accumulated error of 148/1000 As each major event is accom
to continue flying missions with a Com
second or greater results in an aborted plished, you'll be treated to a graphics
modore 64. Those too young to remem
mission. During an abort, you must fire screen that shows the earth and the
ber the original missions can learn of
escape-tower rockets, jettison fuel, and moon, with a point of light belween the
some of the excitement of the last of the
so on. two indicating your craft's progress. If
great explorations—the manned mis
On the other hand, you may you survive reentry (which even the
sions to the moon.
achieve orbit, in which case, you must badly crippled Apollo 13 managed),
I don't know what they teach about
again check all systems on the telem you'll see your capsule descending un
them in school these days—my own
etry screen. If you are "Go," the rocket der parachutes and be told whether you
children know of the missions through
burns for translunar injection will be landed at the correct spot.
their parents, through stories handed
made by onboard computers. You'll As we've come to expect from Ac
down like folk legends. But whatever is
then go to a sketchy control panel and colade, graphics and sound are as good
taught, Apollo 18 will introduce you lo
perform the joystick maneuvers neces as any seen and belter than most. The
history worth remembering; America's sary lo accomplish docking with the digitized voice of Mission Control adds
assault against the last frontier.
landing module. to the total experience. When you
And yet it is not an accurate simu
These sketchy control panels are waich your rocket lift off, roll, ami go
lation. If compared to such classics as
some of the elements that keep Apollo through stage separations, you are
Flight Simulator II or F-15 Strike Eagle,
18 from being a true simulator: Each watching what many of us were privi
Apollo 18 would quickly go begging. In
shows only the instruments necessary leged to see on live television. It is an
effect, nothing that can he stuffed into a
for the job at hand. This deficiency is experience worth reliving,
64K computer can duplicate the work
somewhat alleviated by the telemetry I think the one weak spot is the
ings of the control panel and the numer
screens, which are a shorthand way of documentation. All the information
ous computers aboard real spacecraft.
indicating the many functions found in you need seems to be there, but the or
Then again, this is not what Acco
the onboard controls. Since il is a solu ganization reminds me of a breathless
lade attempted, making the failure a
tion to an impossibility, it works well. person with much to say and too little
moot point. Rather, they have tried to
time to say it. Plan to spend some time
simulate a mission—to take you from Other events encountered will be
with the booklet.
liftoff to splashdown, with at least a midcourse corrections, insertion into
At the end of the game—or at the
nod to every major routine along the lunar orbit, landing on the moon, and
end of any event—you'll be prescnled
way. In abandoning the impossible, retrieving pieces of Surveyor 111 (an ac
with a score card. Each mission and
they have created a mission simulator, tual mission of Apollo 12). After blast
sub-mission event has its own score,
as opposed to an Apollo simulator. They off from the moon and rendezvous with
the command capsule, there are more and these numbers are then averaged
have broken the mission down into sev
for a final score. As you'll see when you
en distinct parts—each with its own sub midcourse corrections on the way
boot up the game, all the real Apollo as
missions—and have based the challenge home, EVA activity which includes de
tronauts are credited with a perfect
upon timing and quick reflexes. ployment or retrieval of a satellite, and
finally the reentry procedure.
score of 25, and that's the mark for
The look and feel of a real mission
which you'll want to shool.
are there for Ihose who remember. You Each broad category has a number
But don't get the idea lhat it's going
begin with a screen showing the interi- of sub-missions designed to test your
to be easy. Nothing worth doing ever is,
or of the Command Center. Ahead of liming and reflexes in new ways. These
—Enrin Bobo
you, at screen center is a large TV moni tests make it difficult to complete a mis
tor, watched by those who labor at the sion on your first attempt but keep you Apollo 18
desks. At the lower right are timing in coming back for more. Think of all the Accolade
struments; on the left is a trajectory aborted missions as simulator training 550 S, Winchester Blvd.
map; and at low center is the event win that gets you ready for the real tiling, Cupertino, CA 95128
dow, apprising you of the current task where all your newly acquired skills 529.95
2B COMPUTE'S Gazette July 1988
THE NAME OF THE GAME IS SURVIVAL.

V-:

n Vietnam, an American of war-torn Southeast Asia.


soldier soon learned that There you will encounter
there were no winners in guerilla fighters, snipers,
this deadly game. To survive booby-trapped trip wires,
each mission with his morale armed patrols, and napalm
and sanity intact, and return air strikes. You must pick up
to base safely, was all he food, medical supplies, and
could hope for, This was cap ammunition along the way.
tured in the award-winning At times, the odds may
film, Platoon. seem insurmountable. But
In Data East's Platoon, don't think about winning -
you will experience the full to survive is enough.
impact of the film as you lead
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the screen directory is even easier than make it a delight to use, including a di
Warp Speed FastLoad; just type / or % and press rect text-entry mode and commands
RETURN (no need to blank out the re that make it possible to load successive
The accelerator cartridge war contin
maining "block-size" digits). sectors of a file without typing in track
ues! One of the latest and most impres-
The cartridge works identically on and sector numbers.
sive entries is Warp Speed from
Clnemaware, a company famous for its the 64 and the 128; a small switch se Also unique is the TYPE com
lects the desired mode. On the 64, mand, which lists any text file to the
interactive software movies.
choosing the 128 position disables the screen, sector by sector, without cor
The utility cartridge market is
cartridge—a handy feature. There Is a rupting memory. This works well with
crowded and competitive, so any new
reset button as well. With this, together Warp Speed's ability to dump any text
entry must have its own unique
with a welcome UNNEW command screen to a printer.
strengths. Warp Speed does. It's almost
(TU}, you can recover a BASIC program Type *$ for an auto-run disk menu
totally compatible with FastLoad, the
original turbo-loader from Epyx that after a system crash. (This is possible on with a highlighted directory that allows
the 64 even with the carlridge disabled; single-key load/run of selected files.
has been the leader for years. Of course,
just switch to the 64 position, reset, and This is a mixed blessing—not only does
it does a lot more than FastLoad, and it
type TU.) it take longer to access the directory this
works both on the 64 and the 128 (in
A KILL command (*K) is available way, but the directory overwrites mem
native mode). In this last respect it is, to
to disable the accelerator if and when ory. It would seem a simple matter to
my knowledge, unique.
Warp Speed loads, saves, verifies, necessary. On the 128, Warp Speed set have allowed the Commodore-RUN
copies, and formats at turbo speed (disk to 64 will automatically place the com key combination to execute any pro
puter in 64 mode—another simple yet gram from Ihe usual onscreen directory
only). Scratch and validate are done, un
fortunately, at a slow speed. Fast-loading useful feature. (which doesn't corrupt memory); at
time is comparable to other cartridges least one competing cartridge does this.
(including FastLoad), and saving is This simple change would eliminate the
quicker than most. The DOS wedge, as need for a separate auto-run menu.
well as main menu, follows the FastLoad The cartridge market is There are two features, contained
format. The short-hand for the save com on several competing cartridges, that I
crowded, but Warp Speed has miss on Warp Speed: a set of Aid utilities
mand (the back-arrow key) seems to be
more dependable and bug-free. (Delete, Merge, Renumber, and so on),
its own unique strengths—and
Many FastLoad commands are un and programmed or reprogrammable
changed. The directory is accessed by it works both on the 64 and function keys. Of course, readily repro
typing $. The first program on disk is grammable function keys might require
loaded by pressing the Commodore- 125. the addition of RAM to Warp Speed
RUN key combination. Loading from (which it lacks). Perhaps this is asking
too much of a 16K ROM cartridge. As
the programmers profess, "We have
taken 32K of machine language code
Particularly elegant are the copy
and have rewritten it over and over un
and scratch submenus—copying and
til we could fit it inside a 16K ROM (to
scratching at their "user-friendliest."
keep your cost down)."
Both are very flexible. There are both
e m
This brings me to a final observa
3 m dual {two-drive, fast, nibble-type) and
tion: S49.95 seems a bit steep for even
O single (fully verified) copiers. Since
c Warp Speed compresses data, complete an excellent 16K ROM cartridge. Sever
ID al competing cartridges offer 32K ROM
cn disk copies—using the single copier—
for only S5 to S10 more, and one even
in are made in from one to three disk
includes 8K RAM.
swaps. This takes less than three min
t That wish list notwithstanding,
utes. In general, copying on the 64
Warp Speed is a fine cartridge. If you
takes more swaps than the 128 (but still
no more than three), though the load/ want FastLoad compatibility and an ac
CD save speed seems to be the same. I
celerator cartridge that works in both 64
a>
should also mention that Warp Speed
and 128 mode, choose Warp Speed.
o
at
always saves in a format ("skew 6") —Art Hunkins
A
.S3 CM that subsequently permits somewhat
Warp Speed
faster loading.
Cinemaware
I
O
o According to the satisfactory, if not
CO 4165 Thousand Oaks Blvd.
copious documentation, Warp Speed
Westlake Village, CA 91362
accommodates the 1541, 1571, 1581,
S49.95
and "most compatible disk drives," in
cluding various hard drives, and the
•e MSD dual drive. (The cartridge sup
ports single and dual-drive systems,
u
single or double-sided modes, and flex
-a ible renumbering of drives.)
COMPUTED GAZETTE
Another significant feature offered
TOLL FREE
by Warp Speed is the well-integrated
disk sector editor and ML monitor. You
Subscription Order Line
•5 go from one to the other and back again
1-800-727-6937
directly. Doth have features you expect
in today's better software. The sector
editor in particular includes some that
columns of comment, about the same build up your own libraries of simulat
Merlin 128 number as with Merlin 64 (although ed instructions. Unfortunately, as with
long comments in Merlin 64 wrap). Merlin 64, you're left to your own de
I thus! in all honesty begin by saying
lhat Merlin 64 is one of only two pieces 1 believe most users would prefer a vices when it comes to using the macros
of software thai inspired me to write a substantial comment field, perhaps 160 provided on the disk. The assembler it
columns. I rarely use the comment self is very friendly, but the documenta
far letter.
As a result, one of my principal field, but as far as I'm concerned, as tion hasn't improved. It's virtually
reasons for wanting to review the Mer long as I'm free to write something indistinguishable from the 64 version—

lin 128 assembler was to see how the when the spirit moves me, I'm happy. very thin and spare. Merlin 128 also
designers could possibly improve on comes with Sourceror, a powerful and
the original package. In case you're not fast disassembler that can be downright
user-rude. For instance, the help screen
familiar with it, Merlin 64 is a fast and
Merlin 128 is a powerful tells you to enter the beginning address
friendly assembler for the 64. It's even a
little slick (an adjective rarely applica of the disassembly as S8000I if your
assembler that comes on a
ble td professional-level 64 programs). code begins at $8000. This will generate
Merlin 64 has line numbers like a 1571-farmalted disk packed to an error message. You have to enter
BASIC program. Merlin 128 also has line 80001—don't ask how long it took me
numbers that appear when the source within an inch of its life. to figure that out. But this is entirely In
code is listed, but only the current line keeping with Sourceror 64, with which
number is visible in edit mode, in the I have to spend half an hour to relearn
upper right corner of Ihe screen. 1 miss each time 1 use it.

the line numbers. They made a nice Merlin 128 features many demon The Sourceror 128 help screen is
transition from BASIC, even though stration programs and macros on its bigger than the 64's, and there are addi
they were not usable as labels. (If 1 had a 1571-formatted disk. In fact, it's packed tional features. Disassembly of a 4K
subroutine that began at line 2000, I to within an inch of its life. If you have a program takes only a few minutes.
would still have to insert a label on that 1581 drive, my advice is to copy all the Merlin 128, like its predecessor, al
line to which the JSR could jump.) files immediately onto a 3'/2-inch work lows you to assemble to and from disk,
1 also miss the 40-column screen. disk so you have a little breathing saving time and memory, and it sup

Merlin 128 runs only on the 80-column room. Roger Wagner Publishing has ports conditional assembly. It goes be
generously provided an unprotected yond the 64 version by converting
screen (if you boot while in 40-column
mode, you are given a message to disk. Reward this considerate company integers to floating-point and by pro
switch). You might think that using an by guarding your copies with your life. viding a linker that can generate relo
80-column screen would allow you to Don't allow anyone to "borrow" a copy. cated code (useful with the 128's
have longer comments, but this is not Like Merlin 64, Merlin 128 is a mac varying BASIC text storage area).
the case. You can have only about 70 ro assembler. That means that you can Merlin 128's biggest improvement

ESTERN EUROPEAN TOUR"


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This monlh we fly to Paris, city of lights. Few


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Now off to our left you can see Notre


ii^"
Dame cathedral, situated on an island in
the Seine. Olher Paris highlights Include
the Arc de Triomphe. Socre Coeur. Con
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Next month we'll finish our tour ot Paris and


, continue on to Germany.

"Find Red Square" Contest!


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OlUI'I'rf injl,nv*«ii
ova Merlin 64 by far, however, is its what arguably is the most advanced 8- the best Hollywood tradition. Fail to
ability to scroll in two directions in edit bit computer that will ever be manufac duck (or accidentally shoot Le Due),
mode. Nothing is so tiresome as listing tured. If you are interested in 128 and the game is over.
a section again and again, trying to find machine language programming (from After taking the station, you board
the beginning of a routine or the crucial what 1 have read, there is a dearth of the train, Before you lie controls for the
constant list that always seems to hover 128-specific software), you should seri throttle, brakes, steam blowoff, whistle,
jusl inches above the visible screen. ously consider Merlin 128. and so on. All the operating controls
Scrolling backward through a file is a —Robert Bixfa will be used during the course of your
dizzying experience, and not all that run. Keep your eyes on the gauges that
Merlin 128
common even on assemblers for more
Roger Wagner Publishing show steam pressure and boiler tem
sophisticated machines, I am told. You perature—you'll have to open the fire
1050 Pioneer Way
can cursor up and down through the box so you can shovel in more coal from
Suite P
file, or you can use the cursor keys in time to time.
E! Cajon, CA 92020
comblnaton with the Commodore key As if this weren't enough, you're
569.95
to move up ami down by "pages" (a
likely to receive a warning from Le Due
page is generally understood to mean a thai enemy fighters are attacking. When
screenful of material). this happens, switch your view to the
Merlin 128 allows about 35K of The Train front or rear of the train and hold off the
source code in memory at one time
attack with the guns mounted there.
(enough to generate about 8K of object When I set out to explain The Train, a
Other messages tell you when
code, if you don't use too many com new game by Accolade, to my wife, it
you're nearing a bridge, a switch, or an
was easiest to say that the train in ques
ments) before you have to concern other station. These are the three other
yourself with disk assembly and in tion held the finest art treasures of
hazards you'll encounter. In the case of
clude files. Nazi-occupied France, and that Hurl
Lancaster and a band of French resis the switch, you must refer to the map to
Using the 80-column screen and find out which way to go and then blow
the 1581 disk drive results in real 8502 tance fighters had to steal the train and
the whistle in a code that will tell the
processing speeds. 1 assembled a 77- take it behind Allied lines. That pretty
French resistance how you wish the
block source file to get a sense of the well sums up both the computer game
switch to be set.
program's speed. Merlin 128 loaded in and the motion picture, but in the
game, Burt Lancaster isn't there to help
If you fail to stop at bridges, you'll
just 5 seconds. It loaded the source code
you. You and Le Due, a resistance fight be destroyed by the gunboats in the riv
in 5 seconds. It assembled the 19K
ers. All stops must be precise. Warnings
source into a 4K machine language pro er, have to do it yourselves.
If that sounds simple, remember
that a bridge or station is ahead will
gram in 13 seconds and then saved the also include the distance to them in
object code to disk in 9 seconds. This that the Allied lines can be reached only
kilometers—these count down as you
should help me in my weight-loss plan. by crossing miles of Nazi-occupied ter
approach. Unless you stop at zero kilo
Merlin 64 was always considerate ritory. Also remember that the Nazis
meters, you've bungled it (though at a
enough to let me eat while it performed have their hearts set on taking these
station you can back up).
its various functions; now 1 have barely treasures to Berlin, where they may be
Once properly stopped on a
enough lime to take a sip of coffee. held to ransom a negotiated settlement
bridge, the screen shifts and puts you in
If you have a 1581 drive, I must to World War 11.
control of a cannon mounted in the cen
warn you that the operating system ter of the train. To survive, you must
may have a few remaining bugs. At
destroy the gunboats before they de
leasl one person has discovered a stroy you.
scrambled directory after renaming a You see the buiiets walking
Train stations must be taken the
file. My own testing revealed a disturb
through the dirt toward you in same way that you took the first station:
ing tendency to "lose" source code. Ad
Fire at the Nazis (who are again shoot
mittedly, this happens less often with
the best Hollywood tradition. ing back) in the lighted windows, giving
Merlin 12S than with Merlin 64. In an
the shadowy Le Due the necessary cover
informal test, 1 discovered that it failed
lo get inside and capture the telegraph.
to save the source code between 1.5 and
20 percent of the attempts. In one test, Pay close attention as you read the
two out of 40 test saves were crossed Before you can begin your race
latest messages. They contain infor
(that is, one file was misdirected to across France, you must capture the sta mation about the track ahead and the
blocks containing another file). My ad progress of the war. Afler all, you need
tion where the train is waiting, With the
vice is to treat the 1581 as if it were a to know where the Allies are before you
perspective that has become a trade
small hard disk. Keep your application can deliver the train to them.
mark of Accolade games, you sec the
files (like Merlin 128, SpeedScrtpt, and so action through the eyes of your charac You can also use the telegraph to
on) on your 3Vi-!nch disk and use your ter, in this case looking over the busi request specific help from the French
5Vi-inch disk to save your source code, ness end of a submachine gun. Your underground. Ask them to take the next
text files, and data files. Like some hard problem is to take out the Nazis you see station or bridge, or ask for repairs. If a
disks, the 1581 has terrific capacity and behind the lighted windows, while the request can be granted, you'll be told
speed, but less than terrific reliability. shadowy figure of Le Due creeps into what time the services will be in effect.
I knew from the outset that Merlin the station telegraph office. Once back aboard the train, you can ad
128 would be better than Merlin 64. My Strangely, with the action under just your speed so as not to arrive too
main question was whether Merlin 128 way, the game pauses and asks which early. If a bridge can't be taken until
was improved enough to win me over level you'd like to play. Perhaps the 3:30, it won't do to arrive at 3:15.
from my previous practice of writing idea is that, once you survive the first Since scoring is based on how-
and assembling 128 programs in 64 half-dozen Nazis, you are equipped to many guards you kill while taking a sta-
mode and toggling between the two go on. At any rate, the bad guys are fir lion and on how many gunboats you
computers using the reset switch. It is. ing back, and you see their bullets sink at a bridge, you'll want to use the
Merlin MS is a superior assembler for walking through [he dirt toward you in underground sparingly to avoid rob-
32 COMPUTE!'* Gazette July I9B8
$25,000
We're
giving
away In prizes, in our BeckerBASIC
GEOS application contest

List of prizes
You already know GEOS. And if you know BASIC, then
Grand Prize $1000 CASH (1 winner)
you can write applications to run under GEOS using our
2nd Prize Choice of Abacus books and new and exciting BeckerBASIC for the C-64.
software (2 awards) $500 value
3rd Prize Choice of Abacus books and Now Abacus is sponsoring a contest to find the most
software (2 awards) (400 value
4th Prize Choice of Abacus books and
talented authors among you. We're looking for the best
software (2 awards) $300 value GEOS applications written using our powerful
5th Prize Our complete C-64 Library BeckerBASIC. With more than 270+ new commands and
Set-$227 value (100 awards) functions, BeckerBASIC makes writing GEOS
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To leam more about BeckerBASIC or our contest write or


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Here's the contest rules:

■acktrlASIC glvw you ov»r Z70 commend* 1. Write your entries using BeckerBASIC to run under GEOS.
Entries must be submitted on a diskette.
2. You can submit multiple entries provided that all entries fit on a
single diskette.
3. Entries must be accompanied by the official entry form you'll
find inside the BeckerBASIC package. Xerox or reproductions of
the entry form are not acceptable.
4. You must make sure that your entry is received by Abacus no
later than August 31, 1988.
5. We'll announce the winning entries by October 31, 1988.
c™>!» Hl-raa ikam\ngt on Ihe QEO3 eeraan
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Dept M3 ■ 5370 52nd Street SE ■nd booki tef the Cormoda™ 64 or Commodore 12B.
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bing yourself of points. (The number of
Speed Buggy
er than I am.
enemy fighter planes shot down also If you complete the leg in the allot
figures into your score—which is writ At its heart, Speed Buggy from Data East ted time, you'll be given a new time
ten to a high-score table on the disk.) is just a race game. And at its heart, the limit and bonus points.
The elimination of planes, boats, Mona Lisa is just a picture of a lady.
and train stations requires the skills Well, maybe that comparison is a
you've honed on arcade games. The dif little high-flown. But Speed Buggy is ac
ference here is that they are better suited tually superior to the Mona Lisa in
to the story line than in games where the many ways. First of all, it's more afford
story is written only after the arcade se able. Also, coming in a rectangular box,
quences are done. For the rest of it, it's stackable, a claim Leonardo
you'll learn how and when to control couldn't make for his masterpiece. And
the train as you go along. Control is logi finally, just try racing the Mona Lisa
cal, such as using the steam blow-off along five completely different tracks
when the steam pressure climbs too high. with the aid of a joystick. The guards at
Such control soon becomes instinctive. the Louvre would do a pas de deux on
your pate de foie gras.
What's unique about Speed Buggy
The five different race courses rep
is the junk littering the road. This junk
resent open-ended courses located at
is what makes the game interesting.
You'll play it again and again, learning the four points of the compass, plus a
fifth looping course at an indeterminate
the choreography to avoid the pitfalls
location. The track in the north, for in
of rally racing. It's a matter of honing
stance, has a background of snow and
your reflexes and kinesthetic memory.
pines. The west is a desert. The courses
In fact, if you're driving fast enough to
win, the obstacles will appear much too differ primarily in their shape. It would
fast for you to react. have been interesting to have an icy
northern course, for instance, or a dust
v ■. I storm in the west, complete with tum-
bleweeds, but the authors let this op
You control the train by joystick
portunity slip by.
and a few easily memorized key com You'll play Speed Buggy again You often will find yourself driving
mands for switching positions. All
and again, learning the on two wheels. The manual suggests that
graphics are very well done, as are the
this is a good way to squeeze through
numerous sound effects. 1 particularly
choreography to avoid the narrow openings between fences or
like hearing the roar of the fire when
boulders. 1 was not able to master this
ever the firebox door is opened—it pitfalls. skill. You can also fly by running over a
shows someone was thinking of mak
log. This happened to me once in real
ing the game complete.
life, and I can attest to the game's realism
In other simulations, such as The
of this maneuver. Unfortunately, you
Dam Blisters and The Desert Fox, Acco
Actually, the Speed Buggy course can't steer in the air (which is also realis
lade provided in-depth background
isn't very different from the street 1 tic), and you're in danger of landing on
material on the times, weapons, and
used to live on in Kalamazoo. The only top of something (which, thankfully,
mission. That has not been done with
real differences are that there aren't any didn't happened to me).
The Train. Since my only prior knowl
potholes in the software and the drivers Speed Buggy is a solid value and a
edge of the mission is through the mov
generally try to avoid running into true adrenaline-pumper. You'll work
ie, I have no idea whether the event
things in Speed Buggy. your joystick like a Charles Atlas
ever occured.
You will occasionally see another dynamic-tension machine.
No matter. If it didn't happen, it
car, but it doesn't really play a part in —Robert Bixby
should have, for this is the stuff of
the game, and it doesn't last long. With Speed Buggy
which myths are made. When 1 wrote
in seconds it crashes into a wall and
the review of The Dam Busters almost Data East USA
bursts into flames, or falls into the lake.
two years ago, 1 expressed the hope that 470 Needles Dr.
Generally, as 1 said, you try to San Jose, CA 95112
such history transformed into computer
avoid running into things like boulders, S29.95
games would inspire other program
gates, brick walls, and trees in order to
mers to new games of varied richness,
avoid the delay of putting your car back
Apparently someone took heed, for The
on its wheels. In addition to avoiding
Train presents us with new challenges COMPUTE'S Gazette is looking for
the obstacles, you must also beat the
that should not be missed. utilities, games, applications,
clock. As you proceed through the
The Train should appeal to model educational programs, and tutorial
game, you'll face more obstacles and
railroaders who would ralher be inside articles. If you've created a pro
have less time to take the course.
their toys, operating all the levers and
While avoiding hazards, try to run gram lhat you think other readers
switches. Certainly it will appeal to all might enjoy or find useful, send it,
down flags and drive under banners to
of us who appreciate good computer on tape or disk, to: Submissions
collect points. Time banners add extra
craftsmanship.
seconds onto the next (not the current) Reviewer, COMPUTE! Publications,
— Brain Bobo
leg of the race. Time banners are almost P.O. Bon 5406, Greensboro, NC
The Train always behind trees or in front of rocks. 27403. Please enclose an SASE if
Accolade You'll have to slow down, gaining time you wish to have the materials
550 S. Winchester Blvd. for the next leg at the expense of time in returned. Articles are reviewed
Cupertino, CA 95128 the current leg. The benefit is question within four weeks of submission.
S29.95 able, unless you are a much better driv
34 COMPUTE!:: Gaielle July 1986
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Almost all modems (and services) are set up to communicate in
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Bagger
Kevin Black

This challenging arcade-style action game will keep you on your toes.
You'll have to pass bags to customers, collect tips, and keep everything
running smoothly at four counters to win. For the 64 with joystick.

A new sport has just been added to When you first run the pro simply move the joystick forward
the Summer Olympics: bagging. In gram, you'll see the moving title or backward. All you have to do to
spired by the millions of baggers in screen. To start playing, press pick up a tip is be at the end of the
supermarkets across the country, RUN/STOP. You'll be notified of table when it arrives.
the new event will test the skills of the starting level and immediately If you send one bag too many
bag boys and girls around the will be sent to the bagging arena. down a table, fail to get a bag to a
world. You've been chosen to rep Here you'll see four tables with customer, or fail to pick up your tip,
resent your country and bring back moving conveyor belts and two you'll lose one of your lives. But
the bagging gold. boxes at the bottom of the screen don't worry, you have four lives in
To succeed at the bagging chal that display your score and number Bagger.
lenge, you'll have to supply a of lives remaining. Satisfying all your customers
steady stream of customers with and picking up all your tips means
bags of groceries and collect the tips you progress to the next level. At
they leave. This would be easy uiiiiiiimiMMMiiiimmii each new level, there are more cus
enough if there were only one tomers to supply with bags and
counter, but in "Bagger" you have more tips to collect.
four to service. IMHIfflllllimilHMIIHIII
Big Scores
Getting Started ;IiimmilIliJittuiftillImi■ Scoring in Bagger is simple. Each
Since Bagger is written in machine ■ -».. time a customer receives a bag, you
language, you'll need to enter it mtimiiimiiiimiimmni earn 5 points. Every time you pick
with "MLX," the machine language up a tip, you receive 20 points. And
entry program printed elsewhere in when you finish the current level,
"Bagger needed for aisle two." Bag gro
this issue. When you run MLX, you earn 100 points.
ceries and collect lips iti this unusually
you'll be asked for the starting and To make playing the game eas
busy supermarket.
ending addresses of the data you'll ier, there are some helpful features
be entering. Here are the values to in Bagger. First, to pause the game,
Meeting the Challenge
use for Bagger: press SHIFT. The game will stay
You have two missions in Bagger:
Starting address: 0801 paused as long as SHIFT is pressed.
to supply each customer with a bag,
Ending address: I82S You can pause the game for a long
making sure you don't hand out
er period with SHIFT/LOCK. Sim
Follow the MLX instructions any extra packages, and to pick up
ply press the key to stop the game
carefully, and be sure to save a copy any tips your customers leave. Cus
and press it again to restart. If you
of the Bagger data before you leave tomers appear at the left end of
want to end the current game at any
MLX. After you've saved the data, each counter and gradually move
time, you can press RUN/STOP.
plug your joystick into port 2 and toward you. To send a bag down
To exit Bagger, reset your 64.
then load and run Bagger just as the table, press the joystick's fire
you would any BASIC program. button. To move from table to table, See program listing on page 70. 0
36 COMPUTE! s Gazette July 1988
Tom R. Haltlull cult to master than higher-level lan instructions for executing these
guages like BASIC, and machine functions whether they're actually
Each month, COMPUTED Gazette language programs take longer to used in the program or not. This is
tackles some questions commonly design, write, and debug. As with referred to as overhead, and it ex
asked by Commodore users. If you all labor-intensive tasks, sometimes plains why even a one-line pro
have a question you'd like to see the high quality of the results aren't gram compiles into a file several
answered here, send it to this judged to be worth the investment kilobytes long.
column, c/o COMPUTED Gazette, in time. An interpreted BASIC program
P.O. Box 5406, Greensboro, North That's why compilers were in doesn't need to include this over
Carolina 27403. vented. A compiler lets you write a head because it's built into BASIC
program in a familiar high-level itself. The machine language instruc
V<» I bought a BASIC compiler language like BASIC. When you tions for PRINT and all other BASIC
for my Commodore 64 to make have a debugged version of the pro commands are permanently stored
my programs run faster. Why is it gram working, the compiler trans in the computer's read-only memory
(hat the compiled programs are so lates the program into machine (ROM) chips. When the computer
much larger than the uncompiled language instructions. encounters a PRINT command in a
programs? Unlike an interpreter, howev BASIC program, the BASIC inter
er, a compiler does not carry out preter jumps to the appropriate ma
f\ • To answer this question, this translation "on the fly" as the chine instructions in ROM that print
we'll have to briefly review what a program runs. Instead, it translates a character on the screen.
BASIC compiler is and how it works. the BASIC instructions into ma To put things into perspective,
Normally, when you run a chine language instructions just you could consider the BASIC in
BASIC program on a Commodore once, during a step known as com terpreter in ROM as the "over
64 or 128, you're using ihe comput pilation. The translated machine head" for an interpreted BASIC
er's built-in BASIC interpreter. An language instructions are then program. The BASIC interpreter in
interpreter takes each individual in stored in a disk file that usually can a Commodore 64 occupies 10K of
struction in a program and trans be run like any other machine lan ROM; when you add this to the
lates it into the corresponding guage program. length of an interpreter BASIC pro
machine language instructions that As you've noticed, though, this gram, it's more in line with the
the computer really understands. compiled program is much longer length of an equivalent compiled
When you run a BASIC pro than the original BASIC program BASIC program.
gram, the interpreter does Us job— with which you started. It's also In case you're also wondering
translating BASIC statements one much longer than an equivalent pro why even a compiled BASIC pro
at a time. Note that even a seeming gram would be if written directly in gram runs more slowly than a simi
ly simple BASIC instruction such as machine language in the first place. lar program written directly in
PRINT may translate into a fairly The main reason is that all of machine language, it's because to
large number of machine language the machine instructions required day's compilers aren't nearly as ef
instructions. Due to these two fac to carry out a BASIC instruction ficient as the competent machine
tors, BASIC interpreters run pro such as PRINT must be included in language programs. If you were to
grams at a relatively slow speed. the program when it's compiled. examine the compiled code (with a
Machine language programs, Every command you use in the disassembler), you'd find numerous
on the other hand, run at the com BASIC program forces the compiler examples of sloppy programming.
puter's top speed. That's because to add a whole series of machine Much more efficient compilers
the program is already written in language instructions to the final, (known as optimizing compilers) are
the true language that Iho computer compiled version. available for larger computers.
understands, so no interpretation or In addition, the compiler must These compilers analyze and im
translation is necessary. include many more instructions to prove the code thai they produce,
It would be great if all pro handle such routine jobs as keeping resulting in smaller and faster pro
grams were written in machine lan track of variables, translating deci grams. Unfortunately, it will proba
guage, but that just isn't practical. mal numbers into binary, perform bly take several years for advanced
Machine language (a term that we ing mathematical computations, optimizing techniques to "trickle
use synonomously with assembly and so forth. Most compilers auto- down" to compilers made for home
language, by the way) is more diffi maticallv include all of the machine computers like your 64. 41
COMPUTE's Gatette July 19B6 37
BASIC Geometry

Larry Cotton ■10 PRINT stant 3.14. The diameter of a circle


SO PRINT "THE PERIMETER OF THE is its width through the center. En
Ninv tlmt we've learned liow to RECTANGLE IS"
ter this program;
60 PRINT PUNCHES."
program the four BASIC math func
10 INPUT "CIRCLE'S DIAMETER IN
tions, let's find some ways to put Last month we learned about
INCHES";D
our new abilities to practical use. My Dear Aunt Sally—the mne 20 C = rc*D
Geometry is a good start. Sup monic phrase that reminds us that 30 PRINT
pose you wanted to calculate the multiplication and division are per 40 PRINT "THE CIRCLE'S CIRCUM
FERENCE IS"C"INCHES,"
distance around certain figures, formed before addition and sub
such as triangles, rectangles, traction. In line 30, variable L is Your answer will be about nine
squares, and circles. The distance multiplied by 2, W is multiplied by digits long with a decimal. For this
around a plane (fiat) figure is called 2, and then the two results are month, let's leave it that way; we'll
the perimeter, except in the special added together and are assigned to save rounding—the shortening of a
case of the circle, where it's known the variable P. Note that line 30 number to fewer decimal places—
as the circumference. could be replaced by this mathe for next month.
The accompanying illustra matical equivalent:
tions show various geometric fig MP-2'(L+W| Calculating Areas
ures. As we write our programs,
The parentheses keep My Dear The areas of plane figures are ex
refer to these illustrations to see the pressed in square units, such as
Aunt Sally from multiplying I. by 2
logic behind the mathematic for square inches. The simplest formu
and then adding W. Parentheses
mulas we use.
are the only way to short-circuit My la for calculating the area of a trian
Let's start with the triangle. gle uses the length of the triangle's
Dear Aunt Sally.
We'll find its perimeter. Type in this base (B) and its height (H). Refer to
Here's a program to calculate
program:
the perimeter of a square. Since all the accompanying illustration. The
10 INPUT "LENCTH OF FIRST SIDE IN formula is:
four sides of a square are of equal
INCIIES";X
20 INPUT "LENGTH Of SECOND SIDE length, we can simply multiply one A = B X H / 2

IN INCHES";* side by 4. Here's one possible program to


30 INPUT "LENGTH OF THIRD SIDE
10 INPUT "LENGTH OF SQUARE'S calculate a triangle's area:
IN INCHE5";Z SIDE IN 1NCHES";S
■10 F-X+Y+Z 10 PRINT "ALL MEASUREMENTS ARE
20 P = 4'S
50 ['HINT IN INCHES."
.10 PRINT
60 ['HINT "TH8 PERIMETER OF THE 20 PRINT
■10 I'RINT "THE PERIMETER OF THE
TRIANGLE IS" 30 INPUT "WHAT IS THE TRIANGLE'S
SQUARE IS"
70 PRINT PUNCHES." HO PRINT PUNCHES."
HEIGHT";H
■10 INPUT "WHAT IS THE TRIANGLE'S
The three INPUT statements BASE";B
get the lengths of the three sides.
The Ever-Popular Pi 50 A = B*H/2
Line 40 calculates the perimeter, line 60 PRINT
Calculating the value of circle's pe 70 PRINT "THE TRIANGLE'S AREA IS"
50 prints a blank line, and line 60
rimeter is a little trickier. We can en 80 PRINT A"SQ. IN."
prints the answer in sentence form.
vision a triangle's, a rectangle's, or a
Notice that the variable P in The other formulas for areas are
square's sides and logically arrive at
line 70 is not within the quotation somewhat easier. For a rectangle,
the correct mathematical opera
marks. !f it were, the letter P would one side is multiplied by the other:
tions to total their lengths. But for a
bo printed instead of the value that A = L X w
circle we'll need this formula:
the variable P holds.
Circumference - n X Diameter The program:
Suppose we want to calculate a
10 INPUT "LENGTH OF RECTANGLE
rectangle's perimeter. Since there Pi (or it} is a constant used in
IN INCHES'.L
are four sides, but only two differ problems which involve circles. You 20 INPUT "WIDTH OF RECTANGLE IN
ent lengths, we can use multiplica can see the value of pi by entering INCHES"; W
tion and addition: this line and pressing RETURN: 30 A-I.-W
40 PRINT
10 INPUT "LENGTH OP RECTANGLE PRINT*
50 PRINT "THE AREA OF THE
IN 1NCHES";L
This never-ending decimal RECTANGLE IS"
20 INPUT "WIDTH OF RECTANGLE IN
60 PRINT A"SQ. IN."
INCHnS";W number is a subject unto itself, so
30 F = 2'L + 2*VV for now, just think of pi as the con Now we return to the square.
38 COMPUTE'S Gazelle July 19B8
Now we return to the square. area is out for this month. We should now
Here is one way it can be calculated: A = it x R"2
be familiar with adding, subtract

10 INPUT "LENGTH OF SQUARE'S


ing, multiplying, dividing, using
Here we use both k and *. The parentheses, and squaring numbers.
SIDE IN INCHES";S
20 A = S'S
formula in words is: The area Don't be discouraged if all this
30 PRINT equals pi times R-squared or simply
has been a bit difficult to absorb in
40 PRINT "SQUARE'S AREA IS"A"SQ. pi R-square. We are multiplying it
one sitting. As I've said before, the
IN." (the constant equal to about 3.14)
only way to learn anything well is
times the radius multiplied by itself.
to practice—$o spend a little time
Numbers and Powers Here's the program: playing with these exercises, enter
Variable S times variable S can also ing various values at the input
10 INPUT "CIRCLE'S DIAMETER IN
be expressed as S2, which is called INCHES";D prompts. Next month we'll take a
"raising S to a power of two" or sim 20 R-D/2;REM RADIUS IS HALF THE look at rounding. SI
ply "S-squared." Sz on a computer is DIAMETER
entered by typing S*2. The " is (at 30 A = 7[*R"2
JO PRINT
least on Commodore computers) co-
50 I'RINT "THE CIRCLE'S AREA
inridentally on the same key that k is IS"A"SQ. IN."
on, The 2 is the number of times S is
multiplied by itself. Try this: My Dear Aunt Sally doesn't
Use the handy
address raising numbers to a pow
S-5:PRINTS'2
er. Numbers are rais^."! to powers Reader Service Card
Enter this in the immediate
before any multiplication, division,
mode and press RETURN. You addition, or subtraction takes place. in the back of the
should see 25. Try making 5 equal If that were not true, line 30 would
to other numbers. You always see have to look like this: magazine to receive
the "square" of S (S multiplied by
30 A = n*(R'2>
itself) as the answer. additional information
The final exercise for this The parentheses then would
month will be to find the area of a guarantee that the radius is multi
plied by itself before the result is
on our advertisers.
circle. For this we need to know the
circle's radius, which is half its di multiplied by pi.
ameter. The formula for a circle's That's our mathematical work
COMPUTE's Gazette July 1968 39
The Intimate Machine

Fred D'lgnazio scribes the experiments underway What will we see? What will we
Contributing Editor at MIT's prestigious Media Lab by a think we see?
group of ingenious, multimedia You can get intimate with com
A term that is growing in popularity "hackers." puters, but you can also use com
those days is WYSIWYG (What You Much of the group's work falls puters to get intimate with other
See Is What You Get). It refers to under the heading "transmission of people—perhaps unintentionally.
the way newer computer programs presence." Transmission of pres If you ever want to get personal
let you see your final output on the ence is reminiscent of Star Trek. with a member of the opposite sex,
screen—just as it will look when However, since we don't have the just chat with them for a few min
you print it out. Starship Enterprise's transporter to utes in computereso. Have you ever
This is an admirable trend. But beam people from place to place, noticed how many computer buzz
think of its long-range implications. we have to figure out other ways to words have a kind of TV dating
Futurist writers have already de send people electronically to dis game feeling about them? For ex
scribed advanced CAD/CAM tant locations. One method is "talk ample, baud describes the transmis
(computer-aided design and manu ing heads." A TV signal of a sion rate of data from one computer
facturing) systems installed in ev person's face is beamed onto a plas to another, but it sounds to the av
ery person's basement which will tic bust of a human's head. It's re erage listener like you are describ
fabricate new consumer products markable how lifelike the bust ing the computer ("bod") as a hunk
on demand. For example, if you becomes with the TV picture super or a "number 10." Or else, even
want a new pair of shoes, just de imposed onto its generic features— worse, it sounds as if you are talk
sign them on your computer and almost like having the person in the ing about a computer with an off-
"print" them out. room with you. color, risque sense of humor (a
The concept of WYSIWYG has computer "bawd").
already reached an astounding Look into My Eyes And we chatter mindlessly
slage in advanced laboratories. A Another goal of MIT's researchers about computers, printers, moni
newspaper recently reported on a is to make technology more person tors, and so on, as being compatible
new compact disc (CD ROM) drive al and more intimate. They have or incompatible. Again, the com
in which the search time for the developed joysticks that fight back puter dating game. Just think how
disk had been reduced dramatically in a videogame; touch screens this sounds to other people.
by replacing the physical lens, which let you "feel" data; cartoons
which had to be moved mechani with intelligent characters (sharks, Careful with Those Semantics!
cally, with a laser-simulated lens. skeletons, and worms); playful, An example of this blindness to our
Think of it. A real-world object—a cuddly robot blimps, chairs, and own lingo happened recently when
lens—was created out of nothing stuffed animals which interact with I made a presentation to elementary
but pure light. Something from children; and computers that read school teachers. I talked for an hour
nothing. WYSIWYG! lips and track eye movements so about mating male and female ca
they can tell where you're looking bles with lots of vivid examples of
Multimedia Hackers on the screen. plugging cables together.
As computers become more inti Brand described an eerie ex Suddenly ! noticed the blushes
mate and personalized, the concept periment in which the intelligent on several teachers' faces, and I re
of WYSIWYG may extend to how character in a computer cartoon alized how I sounded. Mating in
we think about machines. When we turned and faced him while he was compatible machines using male
look at a computer in the future, staring at the computer screen. The and female connectors so they'll
what will wo see? What will we get? character looked Brand directly in share the same baud sounds more
I'm reading a great book which the eye. if this character had had like a talk on sex education than a
I recommend to anyone interested the ability to gauge where Brand lecture on high tech.
in personal computers of the future. was looking, it would have known To all you computer jocks out
It's called The Media Lab, and it was Brand was looking into its eyes. there, my advice is, when talking to
written by Stewart Brand, the au Brand describes the experience noncomputerists, mind your man
thor of The Last Whole Earth Catalog. as almost hypnotic and a little ners and watch what you say. You
(The Media Lab, from Viking Press, scary. The day is not far off when may think you're talking high tech,
came out in late 1987, and should we'll come eye to eye with a com but to your audience you sound like
be out soon in paperback.) It de- puter. Will'this be WYSIWYG? Dr. Ruth, w
40 COMPUTE'S Gazette July 1988
Viral Infections

Todd Heimarck But it contains an active virus. Viruses can't be installed on Com
Contributing Editor When you exit the original pro modore boot disks because the 64
gram, the virus remains in memory. doesn't use them. The DOS is al
A biological virus is a germ that en Without resetting your computer, ready in the disk drive.
ters your system, replicates, and you continue using it. At some The 128 does make provision
makes you sick. An influenza virus point, you look at a directory or for booting from disk, but most 128
gives you the flu, for example. load or save a file. During disk ac owners don't use boot disks for 64
Before you're actually ill, you may cess, the virus checks the disk's or 128 mode.
not know that you've got a bug; you boot sector fora copy of itself. If it's It's possible to create a 128 vi
might unwittingly spread it to others. not there, the virus copies itself to rus, but it probably wouldn't spread
A computer virus acts similar the disk. If the virus does exist on very far.
ly. It's a program that gets into a disk, it might decrement a counter.
computer, spreads contagiously by Whenever you boot from that disk Survival of the Fittest
making copies of itself (usually in the future, the virus copies itself Several years ago, Scientific Ameri
before anyone guesses that the into memory. If you switch disks, can published an idea for a com
computer has been infected), and the virus spreads. puter game called Core Wars (core is
eventually does something nasty. There's more. The virus's in an old name for computer memo
One of the first examples of a ternal counter counts down until it ry). The battlefield is a section of
computer virus is a key element in hits 0. It might wait for 10 or 250 memory that wraps around from
the book Shockwave Rider by John disk accesses before going into ac the highest byte to the lowest byte.
Brunner. Written before the advent tion. At that point, it formats the The combatants include two or
of personal computers, the book disk in the drive or scrambles your more computer programs that use a
presents a society that uses a huge data files. The screen then flashes a simple language, with instructions
supercomputer hooked up to mil message like Ha Ha, Gotcha. for branching, conditional branch
lions of dumb terminals located ing, looping, math, copying a byte
around the country. (A dumb ter The 64's Natural Immunity from one location to another, and
minal isn't a real computer. It only Most computers load the disk oper so on. There is also a STOP com
works if it's connected to a remote ating system (DOS) into memory mand that halts a program.
computer—sort of like having a 64 from a disk. A DOS is a program The goal of the game is surviv
that only works in conjunction with that knows how to move around al. You can pursue several interest
Quantum Link.) the disk, reading or writing disk ing strategies. The all-out offensive
The hero of the novel is a ge sectors. It also protects sectors in program sprays STOPs throughout
nius who controls his very own use and frees them up when you memory, attempting to hit the other
computer virus. Whenever he scratch a program. It takes care of program. Defensive tactics include
wants to change his identity, he ac updating the directory, formatting building buffer zones of STOPs
tivates the program. It creates the disks, and other disk-oriented jobs. around the program's perimeters,
new identity and erases all records If the disk-based DOS is later and copying the program to anoth
of the old one. upgraded, you simply get a new er location and jumping there if the
boot disk. The DOS disk is the place enemy gets too close.
Trojan Horses where viruses live. To infect such a You might discover that pro
Viruses are sometimes called Trojan disk, all you need is a single pro gram A usually beats program B,
Horses because computer users gram that puts the virus in the boot but B beats C, and C beats A. You
willingly invite them into their sector that loads DOS. The virus might attempt to write a program
computers only to find something then copies itself to any other disks that adjusts its actions according to
unpleasant inside. that might come along. the opponent it's facing. However,
The contagious program may The 64 and 128 have their op the longer the program is, the more
be downloaded from a bulletin erating system in read only memo memory it uses, which makes it
board system, borrowed from a ry (ROM). The DOS is built into the more vulnerable.
friend, or obtained at a user group disk drive. The disadvantage to this If you're interested in explor
meeting. Perhaps it prints a calen approach is clear: To upgrade, you ing viruses, don't write one that for
dar, calculates mortgage payments, must install replacement ROM mats disks or scrambles data files.
or plays tic-tac-toe. On the surface, chips. Instead, try inventing your own
it looks like an innocent program. But there's also an advantage; Core Wars language. 01

COMPUTE'S Gazono July 1988 4


Super Printer Driver

Douglas M. Bltikeley Customizer is written in Printer option. After choosing to


I3ASIC, so simply type it in, save a prinl a geoWrite or $et)Paint docu
This iuiv printer driver for Epson, copy on the same disk as Driver, ment, a new dialog box will appear,
Star, and compatible dot-matrix and type RUN. Customizer sets the allowing you to select the printer
printers offers near-Iasgr-printer- top of BASIC memory to 30720 to density. Choose the density you
quality printing with both GEOS provide a safe work area and then want by clicking once on the corre
and GEOS128. A customizer is loads PR.OB) into memory address sponding icon. The F icon selects
also included to allow you to fine- es 30720 to 32557. Please note thai, the filled 240-dots-per-inch mode,
tune the driver. although the driver you create with while the 240 icon selects the en
customizer can be used with either hanced mode.
GEOS or GEOS12S, you must cus Once the density has been cho
If you have an Epson or compatible
tomize the driver on the 64 (or a sen, the printer initializes to this
printer and you use GEOS or
128 in 64 mode). format and prints your document.
GEOS128, this new printer driver
When you run Customizer, it For those owning Writer's Work
can give you near-laser-printer- asks you for your printer type, shop, the new driver's menu will
quality printouts with print densi
printer address (4 or 5), and wheth appear after the initial print menu,
ties of 60, 72, 80, 120, 144, or 240
er you want the paper sensor dis which permits you to select starting
dots per inch (depending on your
abled. After these questions are and ending pages as well as high,
printer's capabilities). The driver
answered, Customizer patches the draft, or NLQ modes. If draft or
comes with preinstalled codes for
Driver's object code in memory and NLQ modes are selected, the sec
Epson FX-85/86e, Epson LX80/86, saves the customized Driver to ond menu will still appear. In this
and Star SG-10/15; it also has an
disk. This Driver is then converted case, select 80 dots per inch to con
option lh.it allows you to customize to a GEOS format file. The filename tinue printing.
the driver for other Epson-family EPSON' FH-85, EPSON LH-80, or When using printer densities of
printers as well.
STAR SC-10 is used depending on 72 and 144 dols per inch, geoWrile
The printer driver program
the printer you specified. The and -{cpPaint will make adjustments
comes in two parts. "Driver" (Pro
PR,OB] file is not destroyed in this on the printed page width. GeoWrile
gram 1), Is the machine code for the
process, so if you make a mistake, will widen the text by two-thirds of
printer driver. "Customizer" (Pro
you can start over. an inch while maintaining the same
gram 2), tailors the driver to a spe
Once the file has been convert number of characters per line as
cific printer and converts the driver
ed, treat the disk just like a GEOS shown on the monitor, making up
to a GEOS-format file. Program 2
disk. Don't use the standard disk the difference by narrowing the
also permits you to select the printer
validate command; use the GEOS margins. GeoPttint will not prinl the
device number (4 or 5) and disable
validate command instead. As a re rightmost three-fourths of an inch
the paper-out sensor to permit
minder that the printer driver is of the graphic. For this reason,
single-sheet printing with Writer's
multidensity, the file icon is modi don't use this rightmost area when
Workshop.
fied to include the letter M in the planning on using 72- or 144-dots-
upper left corner. per-inch densities.
Getting Started
Since Driver is written in machine
Using the Printer Driver Customizing
language, you'll need to enter it
Once the conversion program has For those with printers that are in
with "MLX," the machine language
been run, load the GEOS operating the Epson or Gemini family but
entry program printed elsewhere in
system and transfer Driver to a whose printer control codes differ,
this issue. When you run MLX, GEOS work disk. If the disk con there is an option to customize your
you'll be asked for the starting and taining the printer driver has not own printer driver. The use of this
ending addresses of the data you'll been used under GEOS, you'll be option requires careful consultation
be entering. Here are the values to
asked if you want the disk convert of your printer manual and should
use for Driver:
ed. You should answer yes, or you only be used once you understand
Marling addre«: 7804 won't be able to transfer the file the correct codes.
linding address: 7F33
with a single disk drive. After this option is selected,
Hollow the MLX instructions The new printer driver can be you'll be asked for the codes to se
carefully, and be sure to save a copy activated by selecting the GEOS lect certain features. For each ques
of [he Driver data with the filename menu in the upper left corner of the tion, the customizer will display the
PR.OBJ before you leave MLX. screen and choosing the Select number of bytes it expects for that
42 COMPUTE'S Gazette July 19B8
code. The control codes should be IDI

entered as decimal values. If the Quick Save


control codes for your printer are
less than the requested number of
bytes, you must enter leading zeros.
For example, if the code to select
244 dpi is ESC "z" (ASCII codes 27
and 90), you would enter 0, 27, 90
since three bytes are asked for. The
customizer creates a file with the
name CUSTOM.
If you create a custom driver Buck Chfldress RETURN. It's that easy. Quick Save
and find extra white space between saves your BASIC program with the
lines, you may need to recreate the Save your BASIC programs to disk name I-'ILE, followed by a number
custom driver and use 2/16-inch With ii single keystroke. For the in the range 00-99. The first pro
spacing instead of 8/72- inch spac Commodore 128, 64, Plus/4, and gram saved has the filename
ing. To do this, use the codes ESC 16. FILE00. After saving, the file
"3" 24 when asked for the three- counter automatically increments.
byte 8/72-inch code. For those with How many times have you lost the The next save uses FILE01, and so
IBM printers, or ones that use the program you were working on be on. Should you save through
IBM command set, you may need to cause of some interruption? Maybe FILE99, the file counter resets to 00.
use this code for another reason: the telephone rings. You get up to
The IBM printer's line spacing code answer it and return to find some Traps and Tips
requires five bytes instead of the one else sitting at your keyboard. To keep it short, Quick Save has no
three allotted in the driver program. Or perhaps an electrical storm built-in error checking. If you try to
Simply follow the directions above causes a power outage in your save a program without a disk in
and use ESC "3" 24 when asked for neighborhood. Or you accidentally the drive, Quick Save assumes the
line spacing. kick out the plug to the power sup program successfully saved and up
ply. Regardless of the cause, you've dates the file counter. Similarly, if
Notes on the Densities lost everything. "Quick Save" of you reload Quick Save and attempt
Printer densities of 72 and 144 dots fers a solution. It's designed to to use it a second time on the same
per inch produce round circles on make saving as quick and easy as disk, no saves occur until the file
the printout since these printers possible. counter is past the highest number
also have vertical densities of 72 With Quick Save installed, you of the existing files. In these cases,
dots per inch. These densities tend can save the current BASIC pro the red error light on the disk drive
to fill the printed page better, but gram to disk simply by pressing the should alert you to the problem.
there is a reduction in the width of English pound key (£). Versions are If you need to, you can man
the printed geoPaint document. included for the Commodore 128, ually change the file number for the
The 144 and 240 modes are 64, and the Plus/4 and 16. next save. For instance, suppose
best suited for use with the finer
you want the next file to save as
fonts such as BSW and University. Using the Program FILE15. To set the file counter to 15
These fonts use one pixel width for Quick Save is a BASIC loader—it (on the 64), you type
their letter structure and generally contains a machine language pro
POKE928, ASCCl ");POK E929, ASCC'5")
require a new ribbon to print clean gram in the form of DATA state
ly. The 144 density will print these ments. Type in the version for your On the 128, type
fonts with two very closely spaced computer using the "Automatic POKE2929.ASC('T'):POKE2930,ASCC5")
dots which fill out the letters. Proofreader" program found else And on the Plus/4 or 16, type
The 240-dots-per-inch mode is where in this issue. When you've
POKE920,ASCH"):]'OKE921,ASC("5")
implemented as a two-pass driver, finished typing, be sure to save a
much like a dot-matrix printer's copy of the program to tape or disk.
NLQ mode. Part of the letter struc To begin, simply load the program How It Works
ture is printed on each pass to make and type RUN. The machine lan Quick Save is just over 100 bytes of
best use of the printer's capability. guage program is POKEd into ML. When enabled, it redirects
This is a slow driver, but it's worth memory. Now, activate Quick Save BASIC'S error handler to point to it
the wait on final drafts. by SYSing to the address given on self. Whenever a BASIC error oc
See program listings on page 79. us the screen. On the 64, SYS 828; on curs, the program checks the input
the 128, SYS 2816; and on the buffer for the English pound char
Plus/4 or 16, SYS 818. (To disable acter. If this character is in the buff
COMING
Quick Save, SYS to it a second er, Quick Save takes over, saving
NEXT the BASIC program to disk and in
time.)
MONTH Whenever you want to save crementing the filename counter.
Using the 1581 your BASIC program, cursor to a Otherwise, the normal error-
blank line; then press £ (located on handler routine executes.
with GEOS
the right side of the keyboard) and Sec program listings on page 72. ffll
COMPUT£!'s Gazette July 198B 43
Simple Counting Loops

Mm Butt erfield gram will print ten asterisks. if X has reached 10 yet. If not, we go
Contributing Editor When the computer goes to back with this instruction:
S2000 (the BASiC command SYS 20DA DO F8 BNE S2002
One of the most basic elements of 8192 will do this), it executes this
programming is the counting loop, Branch if not equal (BNE) back
instruction, which causes it to load
which repeats a fixed number of to $2002. If X has not yet reached
the value for an asterisk character
times. Initially, a value is set to 0. 10, we go back and do it again.
(S2A) into the A register. After that,
Then, each time the loop is execut When we do so, X advances anoth
it goes on to the next address
ed, the count is increased. Eventu er notch and we repeat the test.
($21)02, decimal 8194) and looks for
ally, it reaches a maximum, and the Evenlually, X is 10 and we won't
another instruction.
program stops looping. Alterna take the branch, we'll move on to
We're ready to count to 10.
tively, the loop can "count down" the next instruction instead.
Let's use the X register to hold our
to 0—but we'll discuss that later. count value; 200C 60 RTS
For now, let's see how to set up a
20D2 A2 00 LDX #$00 RTS means return from the
simple upward-counting loop. subroutine. The ten asterisks have
We'll assume that the count is This tells us to load X (LDX)
been printed, and the machine lan
less than 256, so we may hold its with the actual value (P) of 0 ($00).
guage program is finished.
value inn single byte of memory for If you leave out the # sign, the com
in a register). This simplifies two puter will store the contents of mem
Options
jobs—incrementing and testing to ory location 0 in the X-register—not
Some programmers prefer to count
see if the count is within limits. what we want. After this instruc
downward. The program above
tion, the computer has the code for
could save two bytes and run ten
Custom Counters an asterisk in the A register and the
microseconds faster if we did so.
The 6502 family of processors has number 0 in X. Now we begin the
Personally, I don't need the two
two registers that are ideal for count body of the loop (the instruction or
bytes or the ten microseconds, so I
ing: X and Y. If either one is free, instructions that are executed each
usually count upward. There is less
looping is relatively painless. Let's time through the loop).
chance of a mistake.
assume that we wish to call the 200-1 20 D2 FP |SR SFFD2
If the X and Y registers are in
PRINT routine (the Kernal CHROUT This instruction asks the com use, you'll have to store the counter
subroutine at $FFD2) exactly ten
puter to jump to a subroutine (JSR) in memory. Set it to 0 with instruc
times. We'll start the program at at address $FFD2, a location in the tions like LDA #$00:STA $C000
S2000, (8192 in decimal—not the computer's ROM chips that con (provide an available memory loca
ideal place for machine language tains a routine that prints the char tion—$C000 is usually safe on the
programs, but available in almost all
acter in the A register. This 64). Increment it directly in memo
Commodore computers). Here we subroutine is known as CHROUT ry with the 1NC $C0OO instruction.
go, with details on the programming: or BASOUT, and it's always located To test it, you'll probably load the
:0D0 A9 2A LDA #S2A at $FFD2 in 8-bit Commodore com value to a register.
This is how you might see the puters. One more thing: This sub
program displayed by a machine routine leaves the contents of the High Counts
language monitor using the disas registers untouched. It takes more work to count above
sembly option. In hexadecimal, We've done the deed ... now 255. Your counter will occupy two
2000 is the address of this instruc let's count. bytes (a high byte and a low byte).
tion. A9 and 2A are the two bytes 2007 E8 INX Setting this double counter to 0 is a
making up the first instruction. snap—just store 0 in both bytes. In
These are also hexadecimal num INX stands for "increment X."
crementing and comparing take
From 0, it goes to 1. The next time
bers; you might know them better more work, though,
around the loop, it goes to 2, and so
as decimal 169 and 42. Next comes If you go above a one-byte
on. If we were using Y as a counter,
the instruction the way we like to count, you'll often switch to a new
we would use 1NY.
see it: LDA (LoaD A)," then the = type of looping system. Instead of a
sign (to tel! us what follows is a val 20D8 E0 OA CPX #S0A
two-byte count, you'll make use of
ue, not an address), and $2A for the Compare X with the value a two-byte address that points at
value $2A (decimal 42). Decimal 42 $()A, which is 10 in decimal. Our data somewhere in memory. We'll
is ASCII for an asterisk—this pro- counter is X, so we're testing to see discuss it next time. V
44 COMPUTE'S Gazelle July 1988
COMPUTER DIRECT

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COMPUTE'S Gazette My 19BB 45


Disks And Files

If you've discovered a clever time- simply load and run. Now, anytime filename of the file you wish to de
saving technique or a brief but you load, save, or verify a program, lete. Before pressing RETURN, be
effective programming shortcut, the computer automatically accesses sure that you have inserted the disk
send it to "Hints & Tips," c/o the disk drive, not the tape drive. that contains the file or files you
COMPUTE?* Gazette. If we use it, wish to scratch. After the scratch is
we'll pay you $35. We regret that, 10 FOR J=679 TO 716:READ K:POK complete, the prompt will again be
due to the volume of items submit E J,K:CS=CS+K:NEXT displayed. You can continue to
20 IF CSO4H9 THEN PRINT "•* scratch files for as long as you like.
ted, we cannot reply individually
ISPACEjERROR IN DATA ST
to submissions. ATEMENTS •*":END
Press N to quit. The program works
30 SYS 679 on the Commodore 64, 128, Plus/4,
40 DATA 169,002,14!,049,003,14 and 16.
1,051,003
64 Disk Defaulter 50 DATA 169,]86,141,048,003,16 10 PRINT "ICLRJ"
9,197,141
Arjun Nayyar 20 PRINTsPRINT "WOULD YOU LIKE
60 DATA 050,003,096,169,008,13 TO SCRATCH A FILE (Y/N)?
Are you tired of typing ,8 every 3,186,169
70 DATA 000,133,010,076,1.65,24
time you access your disk drive? 30 GET AS
4,169,008
40 IF AS="Y" THEN 80
Here's a short program that 90 DATA 133,186,076,237,245,01 50 IF AS""N" THEN 30
changes the default device number 0 60 PRINTiPRINT "DYE."
from 1 (tape) to 8 (disk). 70 END
80 INPUT "FILE TO BE SCRATCiJED
Type in the following listing File Protection ";FS
and save a copy to disk. To use it, 90 OPEN 15,8,15
Will Kaczmarek
100 PRINT#15,"S0:";FS
If you want to protect your program 110 INPUT#15,E,ES,F
120 CLOSE 15
files from unauthorized use,
MAIL TO. 130 PRINT!PRINT F;ES
CHR$(0) can help. To protect a file, 140 GOTO 20
COMPUTED GAZETTE
save your program like this:
SUBSCRIBER SERVICE
P.O. Box 109S8. Des Moinos, IA 50340-0958 SAVE CHR$(0) + 7i/rmiine",8 Autorun Programs
Change of Address: Please advise as early as When the file is listed in the di Eric Ferro
possible. Attach label with your old address and
rectory, only the last few letters of
write m new address below Here's a very useful technique that
the filename are displayed, and the
New Subscriber: Fill in your name and address makes your 64 programs run auto
file size appears ridiculously large,
below. Use separate shoe! lor gift orders. matically when loaded. To use it,
usually exceeding 10,000 disk
you must add this line to your
blocks (the file is not actually this
BASIC program:
large, of course).
0 POKE 770,131:POKE 771,164
The only way to access the
PLACE LABEL HERE program is to load it using the same Now, save the program like
format in which it was saved: this:
LOAD CHRS(0) + 7i/emtw«",8 PRINT"(CLR!":POKE770,113:
POKE77U68:POKE43,0:FOKE44,3:
Ranawd: Attach labal. To the average computerist— POKE157,0:SAVE7i7wiamr"18
One year S24.00 Two years S45.OO and even to many experienced
(Foreign subscribers please add $6.00 per year ones—this file appears impossible where filename is the name of the
for postage) program to be autorun. After the
to load. This tip works on all 1541-
compatible drives. program has been saved, the com
puter locks up, continually flashing
READY at the top of the screen. To
Easy File Scratch
return things to normal, simply
CrIY STATt IIP James Liek turn your computer off and on.
Pleasebillme Pay mem enclosed
This short program provides a fast Now the command LOAD
For olher subscriplion quasi ions or problems, and easy method to delete several "filename",8,1 automatically loads
please write a note and send entire [orm lo Ihe
above address, OR CALL TOLL-FREE: files from disk. Type it in, save a and runs your program. If you do
copy, then load and run it. You'll be not include the ,1 extension, the
1-(800) 727-6937 asked if you want to scratch a file. program does not work properly.
Just press Y for yes and type in the
46 COMPUTE! s Gazette July 1988
In the Hot Seat
Before you start the game, decide
on the rules. Will you allow proper
nouns? Are slang words acceptable?
What about single-letter words like
/ and A? You might want to use a
dictionary to resolve disputes.
The first player should be seat
ed at the computer's keyboard.
Press a key to begin the game. Thir
teen letters appear at the top of the
screen. The player uses these letters
to create words. The letters are dif
ferent every time a round is played.
This keeps players from memoriz
ing a list of words.
The letters can each be used
once. You can't use the word mess if
you have only one s, but you can
use it if you have two.
Scrambler won't let you type
the same word twice. If you try it,
you'll hear a buzz and the word will
disappear.
Keep an eye on the timer—it
shows the number of seconds re
maining on the clock. The border of

Scrambl
the screen turns red when you have
20 seconds left. When time runs
out, you'll be asked if you would
like to delete any of the words you
typed. If you answer Y, you can
Rhett Anderson and David Hensley, Jr. step through each word you typed
and check it in the dictionary. Press
Grab « dictionary—you'll need it to settle the disputes that Y to keep the word, N to delete it.
arise when you play Scrambler, a challenging word game for After the score has been reported,
one to four players. For the Commodore 64. Disk drive required the next player gets a chance to play
with a new set of letters.
to save high scores but not to play game.

How many words can you make Scrambler and save it to tape or
from the letters in the word Thanks disk before attempting to run it.
giving1? Tank, shin, knit, gnat, gin, When you're ready to play a
thin . . .that's a few. If you can find game of Scrambler, load the pro
more, you'll enjoy "Scrambler," a gram and type RUN. If you're using
word game that will keep you on a disk drive, Scrambler looks for a
the edge of your seat. Play head-to- high score file called SCRAMBLER
head against up to three opponents .HIGHS. If it can't find a file with
or play for a high score on your own. this name, it will create one.
Scrambler has many features Scrambler first asks you how

that will sharpen your skills—a many people will be playing. Enter
countdown timer, an intelligent a number from 1 to 4. Next, when "Scrambler" is a stmple-tQ-play but
keyboard routine that doesn't let Scrambler asks for the names of the demanding word garni:

you use unavailable letters, and a players, type them in one at a time.
duplication checker that makes sure Scrambler asks whether you want
you don't type the same word to play "words" or "points." High Scoring
twice. If you have a disk drive, your Choose words if you want Scram At the end of the game, the winner
bler to score each word as one will be announced. If the high score
high scores will be saved to disk.
point. Choose points if you'd rather beats the previous high score stored
have the game reward more points on disk, the SCRAMBLER.HIGHS
Getting Started to long words than to short ones. file will be updated. Note that a
Scrambler is written entirely in Finally, choose how long you want high score is kept for each type of
BASIC. Using the "Automatic the game to last. Scrambler is a game—there are eight combina
Proofreader" program found else timed game. You may choose to tions of scoring and time options
where in this issue, carefully type in play a 1-, 3-, 5-, or 7-minute game. See program listing on page 74. V
COMPUTEI's Gazelle July 1988 47
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V-8
Turbocharged Graphics for the 64
Stephan R. Borden

Add enormous graphics power to your 64 with this powerful ing, enabling and controlling the
horizontal and vertical positions of
but easy-to-use program. It adds the software equivalent of
sprites, and so on. You write to
seven additional VIC-II chips So your computer. these registers with BASIC'S POKE
command. With V-8's eight simu
The VIC-II is the engine that drives Once this is done, the starting and
lated VIC-II chips, you still use the
the Commodore f>4's powerful ending addresses and length of V-H
POKE command, but instead of 56
graphics. It controls eight sprites, are displayed on the screen. At this
registers, you now have eight times
produces high-resolution graphics point, V-8 Loader can save a copy
as many—448 registers in all.
with 16 colors, does smooth-scroll of V-8 on disk if you wish. This op
With one exception, noted be
ing, allows programmable charac tion can be used to change V-8
low, you must POKE to this section
ter sets, and more. Bui imagine the Loader to create a customized V-8
of "shadow" registers; POKEing to
effects you could achieve if the 64 file to suit your needs (see "Cus
the normal video registers won't
had, say, two or three VIC-II chips tomizing V-8" below), but for now
work. This section of 448 registers
to spare. Mixed text and graphics, ignore the save option and answer
(located at 49152 by default) is sub
additional sprites, or multicolored N to the SAVE IT TO DISK? prompt.
Next, V-8 Loader displays a list divided into 56 blocks of eight
borders and backgrounds would be
bytes each. Each block is responsi
just a few POKEs away. The graph of six important POKE and SYS
commands as shown in Table 1. Al ble for a different video function
ics vou could create would be
and each byte within the block con
in credible. though V-8 is a machine language
program, you don't need to know
trols that function for a correspond
"V-8" gives your 64 the power
ing shadow VIC-II. Blocks 0-46
of up to eigTrt VIC-II chips. With it, machine language to use it. A famil
control the VIC-II registers 53248-
you can divide the screen into mul iarity with the traditional POKEs
53294 (SD000-SD02E). Block 47
tiple sections, each of which func used to create graphics is all you
controls the video bank address at
tions independently of the others need to get started. If you're unfa
location 56576 (£DD00). Blocks
and retains almost all of the video miliar with programming graphics,
48-55 are the sprite pointer regis
chip's usual features. Using V-8, there are many books on Commo
ters which normally reside at
you can put 64 sprites, eight back dore 64 graphics. A copy of COM-
PUTIi! Books' Mapping the 64 is also
2040-2047 but move i'f the screen
ground colors, and high-res graph
location or video bank address is
ics with text, all on the screen helpful.
changed. Table 2 shows a detailed
simultaneously. And, as you'll soon
layout of the shadow registers.
see, that's really only a small sam Hundreds of Registers
ple of what's possible with V-8. Creating graphics with V-8 is not Calculating the correct loca
much different from creating tions to POKE is not as difficult as it
Typing It In graphics without it. The VIC-II chip may seem. Most BASIC programs
Program 1, "V-8 Loader," is a has 56 registers for such things as set a variable (usually V) equal to
BASIC program used to create V-8, vertical and horizontal fine scroll 53248—the start of the VIC chip-
which is a machine language pro
gram. Enter it using "The Automat
ic Proofreader," found elsewhere in Table 1: POKE and SYS Commands
this issue. Programs 2-6 are BASIC
Com rn.mil Function
demonstration programs. Carefully
type them in and save a copy of POKl; 49hhx.\' Number ol splits in screen
S^S 49S2? Initializes Shadow Registers
each program.
SYS 49664 Activates V-8
Once Program 1 has been SYS -1974 ft Deactivates V-8
saved, you're ready to load and run 49152-49599 Shadow Registers
it. Type RUN. There's a short delay 49873-499:* Table of Defaults
as the data is POKEd into memory.
COMPUTE's Gazette Juy 1988 53
Table 2 Layout of V-8 Shadow Registers

Shadow VIC-II Register Function

0 l 2 3 4 5 6 7

0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 Sprite 0 x Coordinate
8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 Sprite 0 Y Coordinate
16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 Sprite 1 X Coordinate
24 25 26 27 28 29 30 31 Sprik' 1 Y Coordinate
32 33 34 35 36 37 38 39 Sprite 2 X Coordinate
40 41 42 43 44 45 46 47 Sprite 2 Y Coordinate
48 49 50 51 52 53 54 55 Sprite 3 X Coordinate
56 57 58 59 60 61 62 63 Sprite 3 Y Coordinate
64 65 66 67 68 69 70 71 Sprite 4 X Coordinate
72 73 74 75 76 77 7K 79 Sprite -i Y Coordinate
80 81 82 83 84 85 86 87 Sprite 5 X Coordinate
88 89 90 9] 92 93 94 95 Sprite 5 Y Coordinate
96 97 98 99 100 101 102 103 Sprite 6 X Coordinate
104 105 106 107 108 109 110 1 1 1 Sprite 6 Y Coordinate
112 113 114 115 116 117 118 119 Sprite 7 X Coordinate
120 121 122 123 124 125 126 127 Sprite 7 Y Coordinate
128 129 130 131 132 133 134 135 Sprites 0-7 X MSB
136 137 138 139 140 141 142 143 Control Register 1
14-1 145 146 147 148 149 150 151 Raster Register
N/A N/A N/A N/A N/A N/A N/A N/A LJttht Pen X Coordinate
N/A N/A N/A N/A N/A N/A N/A N/A Ught Pen Y Coordinate
168 169 170 171 172 173 174 175 Sprite Enable
176 177 178 179 180 181 182 183 Control Register 2
184 !85 186 187 188 189 190 191 Sprites 0-7 Y Expansion
192 193 194 195 196 197 198 199 Memory Control
N/A N/A N/A N/A N/A N/A N/A N/A Interrupt Flags
N/A N/A N/A N/A N/A N/A N/A N/A Interrupt Enable
216 217 218 219 220 221 222 223 Sprite Background Priority
224 225 226 227 228 229 230 231 Sprites 0-7 MCM
232 233 234 235 236 237 238 239 Sprites 0-7 X Expansion
N/A N/A N/A N/A N/A N/A N/A N/A Sprite/Spri It' Collision
N/A N/A N/A N/A N/A N/A N/A N/A Sprite/Data Collision
256 257 258 259 260 261 262 263 Border Color
264 265 266 267 268 269 270 271 Background Color 0
272 273 274 275 276 277 278 279 Background Color 1
280 281 2H2 283 284 285 286 287 Background Color 2
2SP 289 290 291 292 293 294 295 Background Color 3
296 297 298 299 300 301 302 303 Sprite MCM 0
304 305 306 307 308 309 310 311 Sprite MCM 1
312 313 314 315 316 317 318 319 Sprite 0 Color
320 321 322 323 324 325 326 327 Sprite 1 Color
32H 329 330 331 332 333 334 335 Sprite 2 Color
336 337 338 339 340 341 342 343 Sprite 3 Color
344 345 346 347 348 349 350 351 Sprite 4 Color
352 353 354 355 356 357 358 359 Sprite 5 Color
360 361 362 363 364 365 366 367 Sprite 6 Color
368 369 370 371 372 373 374 375 Sprite 7 Color
376 377 378 379 380 381 382 383 16K Video Bank
384 385 386 387 388 389 390 391 Sprite 0 Definition
392 393 394 395 396 397 398 399 Sprite 1 Definition
400 401 402 403 404 405 406 407 Sprite 2 Definition
408 409 410 411 412 413 414 415 Sprite 3 Definition
416 417 418 419 420 421 422 423 Sprite 4 Definition
424 ■125 426 427 428 429 430 431 Sprite 5 Definition
432 433 434 435 436 437 438 439 Sprite 6 Definition
440 441 442 443 444 445 446 447 Sprite 7 Definition

Mid'.- These numbers an1 mi offset into shadow register uicnioiy. For ■ximnik, to calculate the address of the first shadow VIC-U's sprite 0
definition, add .184 to thi beginning address of shadow register memory.

and reference its registers as the sum using this method, you should have As a second example, say you
of V and .1 number from 0 to 46. no trouble using V-8; you just have had the screen divided into four
The reasoning behind this is to modify the formula slightly. sections and you wanted to change
that it's easier to work with the With V-8, the previous example be the border color on the third section
numbers 0-46 than it is to work comes POKE V + 21-8 + N.255 to ytllow. The border color register
with the numbers 53248-53294. where V is the start of the shadow is at 53280 or V + 32. The number
For example, most programmers registers, 21*8 is the base offset for of the screen you want to change
use POKE V + 21,255 (as opposed the sprite enable registers, and N is would be 2 (not 3—remember to
to POKE 53269,255) to turn on all the number (0-7) of the VIC-II chip start counting at 0), and 7 is the
sprites. If you're accustomed to or screen section you want to control. color code for yellow. Now just

54 COMPUTE'S Gaiotte July 1988


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make sure V has already been set to the sprites appear as solid blocks, possibly crash the computer. Type
the start of your shadow registers it's possible to give them all differ the second command in Table 1,
and POKE V + 32*8 + 2,7. That's all ent definitions. The sprites can be SYS 49825, to initialize the regis
there is to it. moved horizontally across the en ters. The default values stored in
tire screen, but vertical movement the shadow registers during initial
The Demos is limited to a narrow strip. ization are contained in a 56-bytc
If you'd like to learn how to create Program 6 demonstrates an table stored at the location shown
some more elaborate effects with V- easy method of experimenting with in Table 1. Each byte in this table
8, take a look at the five demonstra V-8. The contents of all the registers will go into corresponding posi
tion programs. They're written are listed in data statements starting tions in each of the eight shadow
entirely in BASIC (except for Pro at line 1000. For instance, list line registers, so each shadow VIC-II
gram 3, which uses a machine lan 1021. As you can see by the REM chip will have identical values in
guage routine to quickly clear the statement, this line controls the registers that perform like functions.
hi-res screen, and Program 4, sprite enable registers. If you This means each chip will be initial
which requires a short machine lan change the numbers in the line to ized with the same background
guage routine to move the scrolling 255,0, 255, 0, 255, 0, 255, 0 and run color, border color, and so on.
text one space to the left). the program again, you see sprites V-8 can now be enabled safely
Program 2, "Fade In/Out," in only four of the eight sections by typing the third command in
creates the opening and closing (doing this changes the checksum Table 1, SYS 49664. If you followed
screen effect by splitting the screen in line 50, so put a REM in front of directions correctly, nothing will ap
into two different background col line 50 if you decide to try this). As pear to have happened; however,
ors and continuously changing the you can see, it's easier to change a each shadow VIC-H chip is now get
raster registers. few data items than it is to type in ting its information from the shad
Program 3, "Mixed Modes," eight POKE commands. ow registers, and the screen has now-
shows how high-resolution graph been divided into three sections. Of
ics and normal text can be dis Creating a Screen course, since each section is identi
played on the same screen. Once you understand the basic cal, you can't see any difference.
Program 4, "Window Scroll," principles, you can put V-8 to work. The next step is to tell V-8
creates a one-line section at the bot Run the V-8 Loader again and let it where each screen section should
tom of the screen which can scroll create V-8 on disk. Turn your com begin and end. To do this, you must
smoothly and independently of the puter off and then back on, and POKE the ending raster tine of each
rest of tlie screen. load the copy of V-8 that you just screen area to its shadow register.
Program 5, "Color Creator," created by typing LOAD "V-8",8,l. The visible screen (excluding the
allows you to add to the 64's palette After it has loaded type NEW. border) starts at raster line 50 and
of 16 colors—something you prob To demonstrate how easy it is to ends at raster line 249. With 200
ably didn't realize was possible. It use V-8, let's create a simple display lines to work with, three equa! sec
does this by taking two regular col by dividing the screen into three tions will be about 67 lines each.
ors and switching between them equal sections. Each section will have The first section ends at line 50 +
very rapidly. Many combinations a different border and background 67, or line 117. The second section
flicker too much to be usable, but color. Before creating anything with ends at line 117 + 67, or line 184.
you may be surprised at the stabil V-8, there are several things we must The third section can end at line 1
ity of others. The flickering can do. First, we must tell the program so as to include the lower border.
even be used to advantage in some how many screen sections we want. Using what we have already learned,
cases—to liven up a game, for ex This is accomplished with the first we can POKE these values in. First
ample. The best color combinations POKE command in Table 1. Since set variable V equal to the start of
are ones that are of approximately we want three split screens, type shadow registers by typing
equal brightness levels, such as red POKE 4%65,3. V = 49152. Table 2 shows that the
and purple. Use the left and right The second step is to initialize raster control registers begin at a base
cursor keys to cycle through all the the shadow registers. If we turn on offset of 18"8, so the following line
possible combinations. V-8 without doing this, the random can be used to specify each section:
Program 6, "64 Sprites," puts values in the registers create a lot of I'OKE V + 1S*8,117: POKE V + 18'8 +
64 sprites on the screen. Although garbage on the screen and could I.IH4: I'OKl: V + 18-

56 COMPUTE's Gazette July 1988


The screen is now divided into times the screen will be split is spec these lines and you'll see a series of
three equal sections. To make these ified with POKE NM,X, where X is Is, 0s, and -Is'followed by a REM
divisions visible, let's change the the number of screen splits. The statement. The numbers corre
border color of each section. We'll shadow registers can be initialized spond to the registers described in
make the top section red, the middle with a simple SYS I. V-8 is activated the REM statement. At the mo
section white, and the bottom section with SYS S, and SYS O deactivates ment, most of these numbers will
blue. Table 2 shows that the border V-8. This will make V-8 easily re be Is. Simply change the registers
color has a base offset of 32*8, so we locatable: To make your program you don't need to 0s, and the pro
can use the following line: work with a relocated version of V- gram won't include them in the fin
POKE V + 32-8,2: I'OKE V + 32'8 + 1,1: 8, just change the variables V and S ished routine.
POKE V + 32'8 + 2,6 to the new shadow register address The seven —Is signify regis
and V-8 starting address, ters that are not and never should
You should now see the border
respectively. be included in V-8. They include
divided Into three different colors.
Let's go one step further and make
You may notice in your experi the light pen registers (who would
ments with V-8 an occasional flick need eight light pens?), the inter
■i flag design by changing the
er or "creeping" of the display. rupt registers (using them would
screen background too. The POKEs
There are two reasons for this. First confuse V-8), and the sprite colli
to do this are almost identical to the
of all, the 64 has to do other things sion registers (which don't really
previous ones—the color values are
besides keep track of the raster, It work right when there are more
the same except now we're chang
has to scan the keyboard, update than eight sprites on the screen). If
ing the background color instead of
the clock, and of course, run your your program must check for sprite
the border color, just reenter the
program. Occasionally, the raster collisions, it can be done by check
previous line changing the 32s to
interrupt will be ready to occur, but ing the sprite coordinate registers,
33s, like this:
the computer already will be in the and if they're equal or approximate
POKE V + 33"8,2: POKE V-t-33-8 + 1,1:
middle of some other task. It can't ly equal, a collision is occurring.
I'OKE V + 33'8 + 2,6
immediately stop what it's doing, You may also have noticed that the
You should now have red, so in the meantime, the raster will raster register is set to — I. As you
white, and blue sections on the move down a few lines. When the know, the program requires this
screen. To turn off the display and computer does change the display, register, so it's automatically in
reset the VIC-II chip to the values in it will be too late. In almost all cluded; setting it to 1 would be re
the default table use the last com cases, you can avoid this problem dundant. Also remember that all
mand from Table 1, SYS 49746. To by keeping the split screens as wide the registers that you don't include
reenable the display, type SYS as possible and by ending the last in V-8 require POKEs to their usual
49664. split screen on a line that is not visi locations, not the shadow registers.
ble on your monitor (line 1 should A second way to speed up V-8
Customizing V-8 work fine). is by omitting the sprite pointer reg
V-8 can be customized to make it A second kind of disturbance isters or setting them at a constant
more convenient and more effi occurs because V-8 has so much address. Unlike the other video reg
cient. In line 10 of Program 1, the work to do in a very short amount isters, the sprite pointers may not
variable S controls the starting ad of time. Specifically, 56 registers always be in the same place. They
dress of the program, and the vari have to be updated in the time it are always the last eight bytes of a
able V controls the starting address takes one raster line to be drawn— IK chunk of screen memory, but if
of the shadow registers. You can re about 1/15,780 second. Even ma you move screen memory or the
locate V-8 and the shadow registers chine language isn't fast enough to 16K bank that the VIC chip is using,
anywhere you want them. V-8 re do this. Thus, you may notice that the sprite pointer locations will also
quires a 639-byte area, while the certain parameters won't change on move. V-8 can deal with this, but it
shadow registers require 448 bytes. the exact line that you specify, but a takes extra time to perform the nec
Note that the SYS to turn o'n V- few lines lower. The registers that essary calculations. If you don't
8 is always its starting address. The V-8 takes care of first, like the sprite need more than eight sprite defini
SYS to turn it off is always the start coordinates registers, may be tions onscreen at once, the best
ing address plus 82. The initializa changed while the raster is on one thing to do is simply set ail the
tion SYS is the starting address plus pointer flags in line 1270 to 0s. If
line, but by the time V-8 gets to,
161, The number of times you wish say, the background colors or the you do need more than eight defini
to split the screen is always POKEd sprite definitions, the raster may tions but don't plan to move the
into the starting address plus 1. The have moved several lines. screen or video bank, set PG in line
table of defaults begins at the start 10 of V-8 Loader to the page where
Fortunately, V-8 can be modi
ing address plus 209. If you put the fied to avoid this problem. Very few the sprite pointers will be. The page
following line at the beginning of programs you write will need to number can be determined by di
each program that uses V-8, it will change all 36 registers at every ras viding any of the pointer locations
be much easier to remember these ter interrupt. You can create cus by 256 and discarding the remainder.
SYSs and POKEs: tomized versions of V-8 which will Both of these modifications will
10 V change only the registers you re avoid some time-consuming code
161:NM-S+ l:DF and should improve the display sig
quire. To do this, you must modify
Using this code, the number of lines 1190-1270 of V-8 Loader. List nificantly. Remember though that if

COMPUTErs Gazette July 1988 57


you do plan to move screen memo would set location 53281 (the back
ry, PG must be set to 0. ground color) to a 1 (white). When
COMPUTE! The final modification you can the raster returns to line 3, location
make to V-8 is changing the default 53281 would be set back to 0
Publications table in lines 1060-1140 of V-8 (black). Because these changes oc
cur within one frame of the video
SUBSCRIPTIONS Loader. These are the values that
are stored in the shadow registers display, there appears to be a dis
when they are initialized and stored tinct split in the middle of the
Magazines in the real video registers when the screen where the background turns
program is turned off. from black to white.
& Disks When experimenting with V-8, V-8 creates up to eight raster

use a fully configured version, After interrupts for you. All you have to
1-800-727-6937 you're sure what you want to do, do is specify new video parameters
you should create a customized for each interrupt through a series
version. When you create a new of POKEs very similar to the POKEs
version, be sure to write down what you use to create graphics. The
COMPUTE! registers, SYSs, and POKEs it uses background color is not the only
Publications so you can find the version you thing that can change during these
need when you need it, and have interrupts. Any or all of the VIC-H
Back Issues/Disk Orders registers, the 16K video bank address
the right commands on hand. Your
Individual back copies of maga at location 56576 (£DD00), and the
programs will also look more pro
zines and disks are available by fessional if you set up the shadow sprite pointers may also change. The
mail only while quantities last. registers before you SYS to turn on net effect of this is like having several
Please clip or photocopy and mail V-8. Otherwise, you'll see a lot of VIC-ll chips, each controlling a dif
completed coupon and check to: ferent section of the screen and each
flickering, and so on, as your screen
is being created. with its own set of registers.

COMPUTE!
How It Works Ideas to Try
Single Copy Sales
You don't have to know how V-8 The demos in this article only touch
P.O. Box 5188
Greensboro, NC 27403 works to use it, but you may be curi upon some of the things possible
ous. Its secret lies in a hardware fea with V-8. Here are some sugges
ture of the 64 known as the raster tions of things to try once you be
Name interrupt. The raster is the beam of come more proficient with it:
electrons that scans your TV or mon • Bitmap the screen—or a section of
Street.
itor left to right, top to bottom, draw it—with custom characters or sprites.
ing the screen as it goes. It moves
Crty _
•Access all 64K of memory with the
very rapidly—within one second the
VIC-M chip. Normally you can ac
Slate. _ Zip screen is redrawn 60 times.
cess only 16K at once, and pro
Memory location 53266 gramming gets complicated if all
(SD012) and bit 7 of location 53265 your graphics data won't fit there.
Issue Magazine
Oil utility [Month/War] Of Disk Name Mm1 (SD011) form a number from 0 to With V-8, you can put data wherever
2t>2 which represents the current you want and just change the video
raster scan line. Because the con bank address (V + 47*8 + N) to the
tents of these registers change so appropriate hank to access it.
quickly, they must be read from
• Divide the screen into sections,
machine language. By storing a ras
with each section scrolling smooth
ter line value in these registers, it's
ly in a different direction or at a dif
possible to make the computer in
ferent speed. You will have to know
terrupt what it's doing when it
some machine language to accom
reaches that line and transfer con
plish this.
trol to an ML routine (this is known
as a raster interrupt). The ML rou • Erase the upper and lower borders
tine can cause some change in the and put sprites there. (This effect is
visible display, creating what is described in "Impossible Scroll" in
SUB TOTALr
known as a split screen. the September 1987 GAZETTE.)
NY—Ada SV,% Tax'
For example, say you wanted •Make multicolored sprites with 16
NC—AdQ 5% Tax: colors.
to give the top half of the screen a
TOTAL: black background and the bottom Some of these ideas may not
■ Magazine pr-ces are 55 00
half a white background. You seem particularly useful, but they
' Dish prees are $1500 would set up a raster interrupt to do produce some interesting effects.
" Disk/Magazine combinations are £16 00
Sfcipiyng and rending included occur at line 150 (the middle of the In any case, there is still a tremen
NO CREDIT CARD ORDERS ACCEPTED. screen) and at line 1 (the top of the dous number of possibilities you
Payment rnuU be m U 5 tfoNars tiy cnech arawn
on U.S. Dank. screen). Whenever the raster can explore with V-8.
reached line 150, your routine See program listings on page 75. ffll
58 COMPUTES Gaza/to July 1988
Error Analyzer
Sanjoy Dasgupta

This short utility makes debugging BASIC programs easy by pro Be sure to save Program 2 on
the same disk as Program 1 with
viding more information about errors. lf?SYNTAX ERROR just
the name ERROR.OBJ. Next, load
doesn't help you understand the problem, then this utility is for and run Program 1, the loader.
you. For the 64. There will be a short delay while
Error Analyzer installs itself in a
safe area at the top of BASIC memo
Understanding and interpreting er gardless of whether Error Analyzer
ry. Pressing RUN/STOP-RESTORE
ror messages is an essential part of can provide further details or not.)
will disable Error Analyzer. Reen-
debugging a BASIC program. Many If the error occurs in program
able it with POKE 1,54.
of BASIC'S error messages make it mode, the offending line will also
Error Analyzer can provide ex
very dear what caused the error. be listed, with an inverse asterisk
tra information on several types of
For example, an ?UNDEFD STATE indicating the exact position of the
errors. Here are the error messages
MENT ERROR can only occur if error within the line.
that Error Analyzer may print:
your program references a nonexis
tent line number. However, other Typing It In ■ — EXPECTED
error messages, such as 7SYNTAX Error Analyzer consists of two pro ■ MISSING )
ERROR, are not so clear. Some grams. "ERROR.BOOT," Program • EXTRA CHARACTERS
have so many possible causes that 1, is a BASIC loader that loads and
• MUST BE POSITIVE
they leave you wondering what ac installs the machine language por
• MUST BE LESS THAN 256
tually went wrong. In BASIC 7.0, tion of Error Analyzer. Program 1
should be entered using "The Auto • MUST BE -32768 TO 32767
Commodore eliminated some of
this vagueness by providing the matic Proofreader" located else • NUMERIC TYPE EXPECTED
HELP command. The HELP com where in this issue. "ERROR.OBJ," • STRING EXPECTED
mand lists the line causing the Program 2, contains the machine • % VARIABLES DISALIJ3WED
problem and highlights the location language routines that are the heart
• OPERATOR USED TWICE
of the error within the line. "Error of Error Analy/.er. You'll need
• OUT OF STACK SPACE
Analyzer" adds this capability and "Ml.X," the machine language entry
more' to BASIC 2.0. program also found in this issue, to — EXPECTED. The computer
Whenever an error occurs, Er enter Program 2. MLX will ask for expected to find a particular charac
ror Analyzer provides a more de the starting and ending addresses of ter but didn't, thus causing a syntax
tailed explanation of the error, if it the data you're entering. Use the fol error. For example, enter this line: 10
can, and then displays the normal lowing values for ERROR.OBJ: INPUT "NAME:"N$. Now run the
BASIC error message. (The normal Slarting address: C0D0 short program. The program will
error message will be printed re Ending address: C2E7 stop, and Error Analyzer will display
COMPUWs Qazollo July 1988 59
;EXPECTED STRING EXPECTED. This er typo in POKE 3000,@ and Error
?SYNTAX ERROR IN 10
ror message is the inverse of the Analyzer displays
10 INPUT "NAME:"*NS
previous one. Error Analyzer prints
(EXPECTED
The first line is Error Analyz it when BASIC finds a numeric ex
7SYNTAX ERROR
er's explanation of what went pression where it expected a string,
wrong (the computer expected a ;). [-'or example, typing PRINT ASC(H) The Error Analyzer's explana
The second line is the normal Com gives tion may seem odd at first glance.
modore error message. Finally, the After POKE 3000, BASIC reads the
STRING EXPECTED
third line is the program line itself @. First it checks to see if it's a
7TYPE MISMATCH ERROR
with an inverse asterisk indicating number, and then it checks to see if
the point where the error occurred % VARIABLES DISAL it's a numeric variable. Since the @
(where BASIC expected to find a ;). LOWED. Error Analyzer prints this is neither of these, there is only one
To correct the line, simply move the message when BASIC finds an inte other thing it could be: a numeric
cursor over the asterisk, type a ger (%) variable where one isn't al expression within parenthesis.
semicolon, and press RETURN. lowed. The index in a FOR..NEXT Since the @ is not an opening pa
MISSING ). BASIC couldn't loop is an example of a variable that renthesis, Error Analyzer prints the
find the closing parenthesis for an cannot be an integer. error message ( EXPECTED. Re-
expression. For example, entering OPERATOR USED TWICE. member.if you don't understand Er
PRINT TAB(8 in immediate mode ror Analyzer's error message, you'll
Operators are mathematical sym
would yield bols like = and +. You cannot use always have the normal BASIC er
them more than once (as in II ror message to fall back on.
MISSING )
7SYNTAX ERROR X«3 THEN END) in an expres
sion. Error Analyzer will display Compatibility
EXTRA CHARACTERS.
this error message if you use an op Error Analyzer is designed to be
BASIC found characters that
erator more than once in the same compatible with most other pro
weren't necessary for the current
expression. grams. Although the values you
command. In some BASICs, this
gave MI.X suggest that Error Ana
line would be legal; 10 I'OKE OUT OF STACK SPACE.
lyzer occupies the area C000-C2E7
49152,1,2,3,4. Without the aid of GOSUBs and FOR..NEXT loops use
in memory, this is not the case.
Error Analyzer, this error could be the stack extensively. If a program
ERROR.BOOT loads Error Analyz
difficult for someone unfamiliar jumps out of a subroutine (a section
er at the top of the BASIC text space
with Commodore BASIC to trace. of code called by a GOSUB) or a
and protects it from other pro
MUST BE POSITIVE. Some FOR..NEXT loop, garbage is left on
grams. If other utilities also install
BASIC funtions require positive the stack. If this happens several
themselves in this area, Error Ana
values as arguments. If one of these times, the stack will fill up, and
lyzer will place itself immediately
functions is passed a negative val BASIC will return an ?OUT OF
below these utilities. Error Analyz
ue, the result would be MEMORY ERROR. In such a situa
er takes up 742 bytes of BASIC text
tion, printing FRE(O) will usually
MUST BE POSITIVE space so the amount of free memo
71LLEGAL QUANTITY ERROK show that BASIC still has plenty of
ry will be reduced slightly.
memory with which to work. The
MUST BE LESS THAN 256. Error Analyzer is very flexible.
problem is not that BASIC is actual
BASIC commands and functions It will probably adapt itself to other
ly out of memory, but that it has
that work on byte- values require BASIC utilities in memory. For ex
overflowed the stack. Error Analyz
their numeric arguments to be less ample, if you're using a package
er's OUT OF STACK SPACE mes
than 256 (255 is the largest value that adds new BASIC commands
sage should clear up any confusion.
that can be stored in one byte). (such as "MetaBASIC"), Error Ana
This list represents only a frac lyzer will often print error descrip
Passing such a command or func
tion of the errors that you can gen tions when you misuse the new
tion a value greater than 255 will
erate using BASIC. Even if Error commands, if you plan to use Error
cause Error Analyzer to display
Analyzer doesn't print its own de Analyzer with other utilities, re
MUST BE LESS THAN 256.
scription of an error, it will still member to load Error Analyzer
MUST BE -32768 TO 32767.
show the normal BASIC error mes after the other utilities.
Integer variables (and parameters
sage. In addition, if the error was
for many of the BASIC commands
encountered in program mode, it
and functions) must have values in How It's Done
will also list the erroneous line with
the range -32768 to 32767. Values Error Analyzer first copies BASIC
an inverse asterisk marking the
outside this range will result in a ROM to the underlying RAM and
place the error occurred. Some
MUST BE -32768 TO 32767 error. then switches out BASIC ROM. A
times just knowing where in the
NUMERIC TYPE EXPECTED. problem can occur here that is over
line the error occurred can be a
Error Analyzer displays this mes looked by most ROM-changing
great help.
sage if BASIC finds a string expres utilities. If you've already installed
sion where it expected a numeric a utility that changes both BASIC
expression. For example, typing Interpreting Error Messages and Kernal ROM, that utility would
PRINT CHR$("H") would display Sometimes, the explanations print have cleared bit 2 of memory loca
NUMERIC TYPE EXI'1-CTED ed by Error Analyzer may not seem tion 1. If Error Analyzer were to
mrPE MISMATCH ERROR to make much sense. For example, clear bit 1 as well, the computer
60 COMPUTE'S Gai-Blte July 1968
would crash. Therefore, Error Ana
lyzer checks to see whether BASIC
and the Kerna! have already been
switched out. If they have, it
doesn't clear bit 1 of location 1,
After copying the ROM, Error
Analyzer mnkes extensive changes
to BASiC. BASIC has several spe

SYS Stamper
cial routines that check for errors.
For example, the routine at SAEF7
checks fora ( character. In addition
to these error-checking routines,
some commands check for errois
themselves. Error Analyzer inter Phil Kinkade
cepts a large number of these rou-
tines and prints an error
explanation if BASIC finds an error.
Ever forget the SYS address for a machine language program?
Listing the erroneous line with
an inverse asterisk indicating the This program will save you hours of time. With 'SYS Stamper'
position of the error is a three-step you can display the SYS address of each program right in the
process, disk's directory, so it's always handy. For the 64, 128, Plus/4,
• When a program-mode error oc and 16.
curs, BASIC eventually reaches lo
cation $A471, which is part of the Remembering the starting address displayed, LAST SECTOR is printed
routine that displays IN LINE XXX. for every machine language program at the top of the screen. Eor example,
Error Analyzer changes the JMP you use is probably impossible. If on a disk containing 14 files, run
$BDC2 at this location to JMP to a you've ever spent lime searching ning the program shows the first
routine of its own. through back issues of your favorite eight filenames. Pressing 9 displays

• The new routine (which starts computer magazine to find the exe the next six filenames and the LAST
with JSR SBDC2) reads the charac cution address for a program, then SECTOR message. Now press 7 to

ter pointed to by the text pointer "SYS Stamper" is just what you return to the first eight filenames.
(S7A) and stores it. The offending need. Since this time-saving utility is Sectors with less than eight file
character is then replaced by a $01. written entirely in BASIC, it's as easy names occur when files have been
to type in as it is to use. deleted or the sector has not yet
A $01 should not normally be pre
been filled.
sent in a BASIC program line as it is
Getting Started After selecting a file, type in
neither a token nor a printable
After you've lyped in SY5 Stamper, the SYS address for the program se
ASCII code.
save one copy of the program on a lected. This can be any integer be
• Next, the list vector is changed,
scratch disk and one copy on a dif tween 0 and 65535. (It doesn't have
and the list routine is called to list
ferent disk. To be safe, the pro to be the starting address of the
the line. Each time a character in
grams on the scratch disk should be file.) This number is instantly writ
the line is to be printed, the com
backed up before you run SYS ten to your disk and shown on the
puter jumps to the new list routine.
Stamper. A typing error in this pro screen. Now you return to file se
This routine checks whether the
gram could destroy important di lection, where you can choose an
character is $01. If it isn't, it jumps
rectory information. other file or exit the program by
to the normal list routine. If it's $01,
Now you're ready to run the pressing 0.
Error Analyzer prints an inverse as
program. Put the scratch disk in the
terisk. It then prints the character
drive and type RUN. Remember, an Find the Address
which was previously saved and re
incorrect copy of this program can You don't need a copy of SYS
placed by $01. This character is also
corrupt other programs on the disk, Stamper to view the addresses in
put back into the program line.
so make sure it's working properly your directory. The SYS number re
Once this is done, the list vector is
before using it on important disks. places the file length number. To
restored to its previous value.
SYS Stamper presents you read the SYS addresses, just display
Error Analyzer was written with
with three options: select a file for a directory in normal fashion—
the aid of Too'lkil: BASIC (COM you'll see that the addresses are list
stamping, go to the next sector, or
PUTE! Books), a BASIC ROM refer
exit the program. ed before the filenames. This pro
ence manual by Dan Heeb. Despite a
You select the file by pressing gram modifies the directory track
few minor errors, this book and its
the number appearing to the left of by replacing the file length with the
companion volume Toolkit: Kcrnal
the filename. If you don't see the numbers you enter. The files them
are excellent. They describe the 64's
file you want, press the number dis selves aren't altered. You can erase
BASIC and Kernal ROM in great de
played to the left of NEXT SECTOR. the address stamps by resaving the
tail and are a boon for advanced ma
This displays the filenames from the programs with the same names.
chine language programmers.
next sector of the disk directory.
Sit program listings on page 69. it When all filenames have been Set' program listing on page 72. ®
COMPUJE's Gazollo July 1988 61
• The version of "Skeet" printed in

Emergency
the magazine ("The GEOS Column,"
May 1988) locks up the system
when executed from the GEOS
menu. The GAZETTE Disk version
doesn't have this problem. The cor

BASIC
rect version is listed at the end of
the program listings. We apologize
for any inconvenience.

• The day after the GAZETTE Disk


James Host was shipped, the author of "Super
Printer Driver" ("The GEOS Col
umn," this issue) told us about a
bug he had found in his program.
The Gemini printer driver does not
View directories, perform calculations, and even run short work with GEOS 1.2. The version of
BASIC programs at any time with this unique utility for the Super Printer Driver listed in this
Commodore 64. issue has been corrected. Only the
version on the GAZETTE Disk is in
Have you ever wished that you had gency BASIC can be used just as correct. To correct the disk version,
a second Commodore 64 next to the you'd use a BASIC program. change line 1070 in the file, PR
one on your desk? You could use it To use the program, just load it CUSTOMIZER as follows:
to get directories of your disks, con and type RUN. Emergency BASIC AS L070 POKE254,120:POKE253.4:
vert hexadecimal numbers to deci remains in memory, dormant, until POKE780,2 53:POKE?82,12
mal, or even run another program. it is needed. To invoke Emergency 7:POKE7ai,64:SYS65496
"Emergency BASIC" gives you a BASIC, hold down the CONTROL
second 64. At any time, in nearly Also, lines 121-123 must be added.
key and tap RESTORE. Release the
any program, a special keypress pops CONTROL key to enter the new RR 121 POKE31548,45:POKE31549,
you into BASIC. When you've fin BASIC environment. 127:POKE3163S,45:POKE31
ished, another keypress returns you You are now free to do any 639,127
GD 122 POKE31650,54:POKE31651,
to your program, which continues as thing you normally do in BASIC— 127:POKE30793,63
if it had never been interrupted. and you won't corrupt the program EQ 123 FOR 1=0 TO 17:REfiD A:PO
you arc running. KE (32557 + 1) ,A:NEXT
GC 124 DATA 32,95,194,32,93,19
Typing It In When you're ready to return to 3,76,92,194
Emergency BASIC is written entire your main program, repeat the key RM 125 DATA 32,95,194,32,99,19
ly in machine language. To enter it, press you used to enter Emergency 3,76,92,194
you must use "MLX," the machine BASIC: Hold down the CONTROL
• "Speed File for the 64" (April) has
language entry program found else key, tap RESTORE, then release the
a problem with its print routine, It
where in this issue. When you run CONTROL key.
will not print to Commodore 1525,
MLX, you are asked for the starting Emergency BASIC works with
1526, MPS-801, and MPS-803
and ending addresses of the data most BASIC and many machine
printers. We've found, however,
you'll be entering. Here are the val language programs, but it does not
that it will print to several 1525
ues to use with Emergency BASIC: work with programs which inter
compatibles, including the Star
Starting address; 0801 fere with the areas of memory re
Gemini II and the Commodore
Ending address: QACB quired by Emergency BASIC:
MPS-1200, as well as the Diablo
Follow the MLX instructions SCE00-$CFFF, the RAM beneath
630. We don't know yet why the
carefully, and be sure to save a copy the I/O block, the Kernal ROM,
print routine of Speed File is quirky,
and certain page-3 vectors.
of the Emergency BASIC data but we're doing some detective
before exiting MLX. Although it is work and hope to have a solution in
written in machine language, Emer- See program listing on page 69. VB this column next month. w
62 COMPUWS Gazetta July 19B8
So ymi can code circles around tlio pros, applications from Berkeley Softworks 6Judpnj; will lie performed hylhe stall of
■ Commodore peripherals: L6701200 Baud • Cotnpulei's Gazette Mapnne. The
eh! Well, here's your chance to prove il- It's
cli'irisions o( the judges are final In aD respects. This
ihe GEOS Programming Contest, And ;ill it Modem, 1351 Mouse and 1764 or 1750 RAM includes derisions regarding creativity, similarity
takes to win is a Commodore and your skill ElCpanBion Module among t-iitrios arid general suitability.
at programming under GEOS towininany ■ Sis month subscription to Q-I.ink. the lek?- 7Eniries become the property ol Berkeley
communicatioRS service and Q-Links ['ub- • Soflworto, uhiih reiervestheriijhi lo
four categories and walkaway with nil kinds
adapt, use or publish ^11 entries received. Entries may
of prizes. lic Domain Software Library from become pan ul a "shareware8 library to bo distributed
Including a check for $1,000. Quantum Computer Services liy Berkeley Softworks, Compuiel's Gazette and
Jusl send us Ihi1 GEOS-bastd program ■ Twelve month subscription tn Computed iju.muim Computer Services. As part of each

YOU WRITE THE PROGRAM


WE'LL WRITE THE CHECKS.
you're moat proud of—on The GEOS Programming Contest. submission, contestants should
include nt the proKram thdr name.
disk—by August 31,1988. address .mil a "user f*.r";iTnotim fin
There are four categories, Gazette magazine satisfied users to send adiscretionarvpaynienL
each with an Applications' and IVsk Avccsso Kijlht Second frizes! 8 Entries may bo written in any programming
rius" winner. Which means that there. ;irt; • Announcement in Computed Gazette . lamtuogo but must be ;i CEOS baaed program
eight first prizes. Bight second prizes. And jupportina the GEOS file stracture and be Buecuiable
Magazine from the (iHOSduskTiipnra (iliOS applkalkm,
L'ijjht thirds. • Complete library of Gil or C128 GEOS Whichever language is thosen. ifieivKleiuusibfa
And each prize consists of lots more applications from Berkeley Sufi works self-standinR program thai can be run by someone
prizes. Who duei n;j[ own the tmguagc. We muil be .ihlo to
• Commodore peripherals: 16701200 Uaud legally distribute the program without incurring
We may not be the only Modem and your choice of a 1764 or 1780 Ircensinafeea wanjr other obligations to II* mskeroi
ones writing checks. RAM Expansion Moduli1 ur [351 Mouse the language.
And that's only where tin* bucks start. • Three month subscription to Q-Link, the 9 Entries must be submitted on ?\'£i~ fluppy
Because if your program makea it into a telecommunications service and ()-Unk's • disks in 1 Ml/1571 [ormaL The (oflo*1npi
sinjuiit be clearly marked on boih the i>nnioui ana
GEOS Shareware Library, all kinds of satis Public Domain Software Library from ilu disk:
fied users may be writing you checks. Quantum Computer Services A. Contestant's name, address and phone nuuihcr,
So boot up and get down to pumping out • TVvelvG month subscription lo Compute! fe il. Category and division for the entry.
L'. tnlcnded use (i,r Ilic proaraiTi.
your most professional GEOS program. Gazette magazine
Then send it in with the information required | if Bnuics iimsi be accompanied by >i
Eight Third Prizes! JL \Jt flescripto whicli explains how lo use the
below. Who knows? We could be sending a - Announcement in Compute!^ Gazette program and what it does.
check riuhl back to you. Magazine n'llns contest is vuid where pr(,hibtkjd by law.
1. Applications art identified by the GliOS • Ybur choice of any live Oil orC128GEOS • ABfedend, state and local taxes aro the sole
Application File Type, are entered from and applications from Berkeley Softworks reaponsibliy of the winnew.
exit to the deakibpand conform to the • Commodore peripherals: 16701200 Baud Gcneriil Cunditions
GEOS user interface, Modem and your choice of :i 1764 or 17SD • BjUrieswil bejudRdoacreauvity, >rh^iiktliiy, lii
2. Desk Accessories are defined as pro RAM Expansion Module or 1351 Mouse quafityoCtheoode.
grams which are less complex than applica • Three month subscription to Q-Link. the • M;ikr sure y,iui tmuia will pnhin-i your disk from
tions, are identified hy the GEOS Desk telecommunications service mid Q-Liiik's damage. Alii* sufficient firsi clans postage. M;nl your
piintout. disk and oficiaJ entry bi:ink lo the above
Accessory File Type, may be entered and Public Domain Software Library from
pop-up within any application and upon exit Quantum Computer Services before ihe Auriui 31, isihh, detdlina
ing return the application to its prior slate. • 'IWcKe month subscription to Compute!^ • fflmers will lv .ininnmted by Odfiber, 19BB,
Sponsored liy Berkeley Softworks
Categories Gazette magazine anil < iiiiipuli-!1'. (.ii/flii1.
ENTERTAINMENT—Includes enter Official Rules
tainment am) games. For example,a Chess IEmployea .if Berkeley Softworks. Quantum
game (Applications Division) or a trivia . Computer Services, lisa Direct Computel's UKASE! THIN I

game (Desk Accessories Division).


Gazette Magurine, thciradvertisinii and promotional
agencies and their immediate families are nut etigfbki
I
Name _
EDUCATION—Primarily educational and
instructional. For example, a world geogra
to enter the contest.
I
phy program (Applications Division) or a 2. previously unpii Misled in any ftimi.
Hachenirv must be your original work,

All those nrofirams accepted will Ik.- required to affirm I


Hiunt.

Address.
flash card program (Desk Accessories
iIhs in writing.
Division).
PRODUCTIVITY- Designs that improve
3Conteatanu may enter multiple categories, but I
• may only submit one entry per category |k.t
personal productivity. Examples include an divi^HJii (&R. uiH.-1'niri in the Entertainment calegor) I City_
"outline processor" (Applications Division) Apiik.itnuK iJivisiun. undone entry in Ihe
State. Zip.
or a scientific ur financial calculator (Desk Entertainment Desk Accessories Division).
Rerardtcss of lire number of cateflories you enter, you
I
Accessories Division). will Only Ik: eligible to win one prifce. Age_
OPEN PR( IGRAMMING—Open design 4[ ii-.iii! i nt> tor entries is August ill. lass. Mail
I fW.KYi.nMJM FMKVMI M |\H [ UK Till'
category that includes programs ihk covered . entries lo Computers Gaj-cHe, KO. Bok5WB,
in other categories. Examples include disk Greensboro, NC. SMO3 I 'l il" |ir■ ipjr.i-zi iT:-xnl1> i nlilli-d i. ititu
l.Ll llh.- m.i..rh. I-IH- ixit iH.-i.-ri -utnibH-Ci] liil k

utilities, printer and input drivers and tele Ann: GEOS Programming Contest,

communications programs. 5Aiif ptam-e of on intry sh.ill not Create any I Iniiil || my ■AiMik iM
ik.|M,m., |ih Hit »|-l
mixli i»Liim|Hii1 y
inl Jk.kTihllhr.l |H
• bnpficBtun thai ilu- cnlry ha*, tx'^n reu'ived ,iniL b, i.i.ii -i-i ■*!'!.it . I unV^rnni tl
Over $25,000 in reviewed by Berkeley Softwo™ i>r luis bctn used in I j

, i'JlI rl. , m i.l i .v jf.^T

cash .mil prizes! any way in product development.


I
i.-rit ill v umpi1 lii-i-r J-, piVjancriu

Eight First I'rizes!


• $1,000 cash
• Announcement in Computers Gazette il Berkeley I Signature

Softworks
Magazine
• Complete library of Cli-1 or C128 GEOS

'Hie brightest minds we working with Berkeley.


Hyturian Star System from the pirate cially marked ten-packs of Bonus 5Vi-
Invasion of Europe planet of Nono. There are eight mis inch single-sided/double-density,
Avalon Hill has released Under Fire for sions to complete, with each having a double-sided/double-density, and
the Commodore 64. specific goal and time limit. The sug double-sided/high-density disks along
The game is set in Europe during gested retail price is $19.95. with $1 for shipping and handling. No
World War II and features forces from proof of purchase is necessary. The sug
BatticDroidz features a series of war
the United States, Germany, and the
?.ones that are divided into five levels of gested retail price of each ten-pack is
Soviet Union. Flayers have control over $9.25, S10, and $23, respectively.
difficulty. Players must maneuver their
paratroopers, engineers, mountain There are no quantity limitations,
three remote-controlled silicon and
iroops, assault guns, tanks, and weap allowing buyers of multiple boxes to
steel fighters while trying to capture the
ons such as machine guns, bazookas, send for an equivalent number of soft
energy keys that unlock the entrance to
and grenades. There are nine scenarios
the next zone. The object of the game is ware programs.
to choose from, and users can build Verbatim, Marketing Department,
to complete a horizontal line of war
their own scenarios with the construc 1200 W.T. Harris Blvd., Charlotte, NC
/ones. The suggested retail price for
tion set. 28213
BattleDroid: is S24.95.
The program contains a tutorial to Circle Reader Service Number 203.
help first-time players get involved Global Commander has players as
quickly. suming the role of the top government
Suggested retail price is $34.95. A official of the United Nuclear Nation.
He or she is responsible for the earth's
Nine Free Spirited Adventures
joystick is optional, and a Mapmaker Free Spirit Software has released nine
disk is available for $25. economics, detente, resources, food
new text adventure games on three
Tlw Avalon Hill Game Company, supplies, and communication. The
disks for the Commodore 64.
4517 Harford Rd., Baltimore, MD 21214 commander is also responsible for the
Eye of the Inca features four text
Circle Reader Service Number 200. distribution of all nuclear missiles. The
games. In the title game, players search
object of the game is to maintain world
for a diamond in an ancient temple.
peace by using intelligence and diplo
Players must survive and escape from a
Super 81 for the (A macy. Weekly status reports rate the
smith seas island in Shipwrecked. In Son
Following the release of the Commo player's performance. Global Commander
of AH Baba, the player must defeat an
dore 128 version of Super 81 Utilities, retails for $19.95.
evil magician and his army of monsters
I ree Spirit Software has announced that, In Tobruk, players battle Major
in Baghdad. The final game on the disk
due to consumer demand, it is releasing General Rommel and his forces for con
is called Perils of Darkest Africa, where
the program for the Commodore 64. trol of the Libyan port city of Tobruk.
players must search for jewels from
Super 81 Utilities copies whole The battle can take place both on the King Solomon's mines. The four-game
disks or files from 1541 or 1571 drives ground and in the air. Action can be disk retails for $19.95.
to the 1581 disk drive. The program controlled from tactical maps or directly
Tree Spirit's other four-game disk
also backs up disks or files with one or in land and air battles. The suggested
includes the title game, Revenge of the
two 3541 drives, one or two 1571 retail price for Tobruk is $19.95.
Moon Goddest. Players travel into the
drives, one or two 1581 drives, or any Electronic Arts, 1829 Gateway Dr., South American jungles in search of the
combination of drives. San Mateo, CA 94404
lost City of the Sun and the gold idol of
Features include a sector editor, Circle Reader Service Number 202.
the Moon Goddess. In Frankenstein's
partitioning utilities, scratch and un- Legacy, players encounter cadavers, old
scratch file utilities, lock and unlock file mansions, cemeteries, werewolves, and
utilities, rename file, format, and direct Free Software the Creature. Night of the Walking Dead
DOS-command utilities. Verbatim is offering personal-computer has players looking for the grave of
The program is available on both users a free software program each lime Aunt Bedilla, where her locket must bo
d'/i- and 3Vz-inch formats and boots on they purchase a specially marked boy of found without waking the dead. In the
either device 8 or 9. The suggested re Verbatim's Bonus disks from now Sea Phantom, players encounter ghost
tail price is 539.95. through December 1938. ships, sea caves, mansions, and a rest
Free Spirit Software, 905 W. Hill- Disk purchasers can choose from less spirit while traveling the Atlantic.
grave, Suite 6, La Grange, IL 60525 Sinbad's Gammon, a backgammon The suggested retail price for the four-
Circle Reader Service Number 201. game; Investtcalc, a financial calculation game disk is $19.95.
program; and Banner Maker, which In Three Hours to Live, a science-
prints message banners for parties and fiction text adventure, players must es
Four for the 64 special events. The three programs are cape an alien maze filled with poison
Electronic Arts has released four new available for the Commodore 64, the air in three hours or less to survive. It
software titles from Datasoft, one of its IBM PC and compatibles, and the Ap retails for $9.95.
affiliated lables. ple He and Me. Free Spirit Software, 905 W. Hill-
In the Rubicon Alliance, players To receive the software, buyers grovi; Suite 6, La Grans?, "- 60525
must protect the eight planets of the must mail the coupon inside the spe Circle Reader Service Number 204. Qt

64 COMPUTE'S Ga2ello July 1988


Musical Zippers
Larry Cotton

Try your ear at identifying two tunes played at the same time ally, each tune can be heard with
with this clever musical pastime. There are three variations to out interference from the other by
pressing and holding U to hear the
entertain you and test your musical detective skills. For the 64.
upper one or L to hear the lower
one. Try to guess what the tunes are
Musical zippers occur when two per opens further, and the pitch before pressing U or L.
tunes play simultaneously with ranges become sufficiently differ Zipper 3 allows either voice to
each tune's notes alternating with ent, identifying the two tunes be be heard above the other, depend
the other tune's notes. The notes comes relatively easy. ing on whether the + or - key is
are played in this order; first note of "Musical Zippers" consists of pressed. The "distance apart"
first tune, first note of second tune, three programs that demonstrate shown on the screen is actually the
second note of first tune, second this phenomenon. The first. Zipper value of the frequency multiplica
note of second tune, and so on. 1, plays two simple, well-known tion and division factor. When it's
When the zipper is closed, the tunes. The zipper is closed for the zero, the two tunes are playing in
two tunes play in essentially the first playing, as illustrated on the the same key and are close to the
same pitch, and they're almost im screen. On subsequent playings, same range. Either tune can be
possible to identify. the zipper gradually opens and the heard separately by pressing 1 or 2.
However, as the zipper starts tunes become identifiable. After you you've recognized
to open, the tunes gradually begin Zipper 2 asks the user to open what tunes are playing, it's often
to play In different pitches; one the zipper by pressing the space possible to identify them even with
tune plays in a higher range, the bar. Holding the space bar will the zipper closed.
other in a lower range. As the zip open the zipper further. Addition See program listings on page 73. «B

By now you've probably seen all ihe ads lor all the
different "Super Cartridges" on Ito market. Ana iney can
lalk all day. but lei's gel real no cartridge is going to back up
100% of anyimng, no cartridge is going to lurn your C-64 into
an Amiga, ana no fancy screens or hyperbolic claims are
going to give a cartridge any more power than it really das.
Tbat's why SUPER SNAPSHOT 15 still Itie best multi
function cartridge on the market 11 is s product ihat 15 the
result of a long process of refinement Our policy of conslant
upgrading ensures you Ilial you'll always own a state of the
ail device. SUPER SNAPSHOT will never ce "finalized" —
because it's built to evolve

T/tlX TH£ T41K.. W£ WAIK TH£

HERE'S WHAT SUPER SNAPSHOT U3 CAN DO FOR VOU!

• Copies 99% of an memory resident soltware Files run without the cartridge in place.
• Disable lealure lor irue Iransparency. Pre-programmed or user definable function keys.
• Extremely comnalible Turbo Dos lasl loader—1541/71/81. Dos wedge supports multiple drives—8. 9, 10, 11.
• Rom based scrolling M/L moniw will NOT corrupt memory High Res and multicolor screen dumps 10 punier or disk Hie
• Turbo !5—Formals lo' up to 25 times faster loads Fasl File copier, single or dual 15J1/71/8I
• Fast data copier, single or dual 1511/71 and 15B1/81. Spriie killer and exclusive extended life feature.
• Sectoi eOilor allows last examination and modilicalion. Fasl load and save routines are used inroughout
• Free KRACKER JAX parameters 101 Ihose tough cracks. Super Snapshot VI and V2 owners may upgrade for $20.00. Call us,
• Ten>day money back satisfaction guarantee. Our great Slideshow Creator available for only 114.95.
• Attention C-128 owners. An optional switch is available which allows you 10 Oisafile the C-SJ mode withoiil removing Ihe cartridge
Only $5 00 additional.

So while other companies spend their lime making their packages bolter, we'll iusi keep on making our producls beller,
Because we know Ihe difference belween TALKING THE TALK-ANO WALKING THE WALK. SUPER SNAPSHOT V3: ONLY S59 95'

ORDERING 1$ sample weaccepi money orders, eernirtd efweks personal cfcecfcE on prroi Uaii your order to Stfiwjrr- Sunpci >ni 013
SOFTUJflRE approval. VISA, MC, Discover and COD Raaso &tM S3 00 shipping and iiandbng per ?/QQ NE Andresen Road / Vancouver. WA GB6G1
outer. IJ-00 ;mdiuona] toi COD orders Orders oui&tde ol Nqrin America please add I? GO Or call our toll-froa order Una nt 1 E10Q-356-11/D,
per cartridge ror snipping Deieeuve Hems will &e replaced ai no charge in-siock orders Sam-Spin Pacific time, Morul.iy I'nct.tv- Alter hour-
aie processed within 7A nrs Returns are nal accepted mtnout autnojujiion I ordori accepied nt {206} 635-9643 7 day* a weak.
Washington Residents please add 7 3% sales u* Technical support avnilable, Cntl I2CSI Gtt M«.
3 .ii pj|]m Pffcilic limo, Monil.iv k t nl.iy

INTEHNAtlDNAL In Canada onlar Mirahvlaw Soliwara. PO Boi 1212, Sickvlll* NB E0A-3CD only 169.95 CDN.

DEALERS - WE HAVE THE SUPPORT YOU'RE LOOKING FOR!


COMPUTE'S Gaietle July 19B8 65
FAST SERVICE-RELIABILITY-SUPPORT

During tha inception ol Software Support International, we eiamlned the customer support
policies of many Commodore mall order houses. One thing became quite evident: MAIL ORDER i~\iti nlifi I ©oq[o)LDGIC
HOUSES ARE NOT ALL THE SAME!! Software Support International has developed customer tftrae in swdK am
3317
F S '*:■:- -i, C':c^r 1'fi 1416
support policies you can relate lo. Etlt 11.97
Fwt im Swnery 7 17.16
Etta rfit Boot ILbtltt) . 5.77
'CONVENIENCE: Out toll free order line, forinsldnce, saves you money and adds itis convenience Guild or Tn*wi 2197
FSS«ft«y Japan 15 9'
F.S Saneij SanFran 15-9?
of finger tip shopping. Atter hours order linos are provided lor late night or early morning shopping. Jnnv 2197 JM!, 27.3*
KnqhIOrc 1E.BT
SiM'th M.jiion 33 96
"FAST SERVICE; 24 hour processing, Insures your purchase will be received in a timely manner. Flail ♦ 11.17
5lllQlld.r 21.(7
'RELIABILITY: Polities such as NOT charging your charge card or cashing your check until TnaPawn ,,.,... 11.f7
shipping, replacing defective materials as quickly as possible and lolt.ng you know when an item inU II97

is backordeied, all adds up lo policies you can Irutt.


33 39
'SUPPORT: Our teclinlcal support line is manned by some of the most knowledge tile Commodore 33 39
!U'lUin«ei2. 17 1*
eiperts around. Dm Marnier 129 33 31!
Our catalog, listing detailed inlormation on our products as well as hundreds of others, is mailed U Pbl^ 39 et
Eiretro 13 92
automatically to our regular custmers. If you have never ordered from us, out would like to see General Ledger . 3! 36
33 36
why thousands ot lei low Commodore users havs chosen us as I heir main source of software and 3339
accessories, simply pick up the phons and give us a call, or drop us a line requesting our Spring' isfl?
Partner I2fl 3111
Pa.ion U 33 36
Summer 1998 catalog. Hemember, our business Is SOFTWARE SUPPORTI "•nm* 1S97
MnMicMdiiayi t* 17.19
S»irt«loS<de«ys "& 33 38
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'ATTENTION
TTENTION C-128
C128 OWNERS
OWNERS
how thai CammMkKfl hai released Ihs C-1 28D utrith S4K a' yOn FtAU,
•n ahauld be swing 1 ?fl programs addr&« Uiis lartaslic new feature .. Ptuwnn We assembled a Ham q! the hcttejl vchival programmer in me industry and gave then the
wot challenge ol their carreets create a professorial utility s>s'cn that would set Ihe lone for the fuluro oi Commodore
BASIC h: -.: -' as the capability of using all &4K of video RAM II you personal computing * a system lor |h& nflil decade and beyond.
5*n ihe C-128 in slock condition, you own all 16K 0l video RAW lhat Hundreds ol eipert houra later, thai learn delivered to us a uiiiify package of sobering power and scope. A package
Commodore left was necessary. Using Basic 8 lormat arnJ Ihe lull &4K thai could turn an average hacfcer into a superstar. A package created at the very boundary between whai is and is not
ol video RAM provides you with tfr& afci lily lo scroll Through video mem possible. A package called Renegade
ory as well as enhanced color resolution Renegade take* Ine very best ideas Irom Ihe past and re-creates them, combining stole of the Brl techniques with a
Up until now, lo upgrade Ehe C-12S to 64K ol vidflo HAM yoj noukl have conceptual grasp ol ito luture of computing The result is dynamic - classic utilises are trafisiormed into muscular
lo Tirn uarcfi oul tn* component, Unn hnd a competent re^aif ffjtlfll components of a lyslem deigned for ipeed. power, and fl«Hbtlity.
[q Ciiio *e\ and instill mo parts What a Mislo1 H*re tit Somf or th< Ftf1ur« Bull I Into Ttit RENEGADE1
SOLUTION — We have developed a modulo IM simply pluga in to the * Single or Dual UlTrn Fast File Copter
mother board of your C-123 Ho tplalltltd - ■• i. r — No htat >: i- * Single or Dual State ol the Arl Nibtiloi ft Capable of Archivrng RapidLok Prelection
- No httile. * DueClory Editor. Organize your Disks * Scrolling r,' i Monitor ,.irli Drivo Mon
This i-.jLh^cc Inclufoa lull easy to lollrw inslaNalion instructions, a lest * OCR Edrtor: For Iho Enpflriencod Hacker * Error Scanner wilh Unique Seclor Edllor
] ■ ■]' i-t to -1 ■ H" proper Inspiration and the plug-in upgrade module. * Ggos" Modual: PARAMETERS and TOOLS * Byte Pattern Scanner: High Speed Searches
* 200 Parms: For rhese tough to backup disks * Upgradable Sub Menu: New tools m Ihe works
only $34.95 * New Parameler updates only S9.9Seach * Major RENEGADE upgrades only $9 95 each
* Compalablev»ilhC-64-i2Bwith 1541,71 Drives # Technical support available: ol course
Renegade comes with ove* 225 paramBters, and add-on a I parameters a*e available eve ry 2 months1 Also, Renegade
program updates a<6 available lo registered owners 3 times a year to ensure that npnagade will always be a slepanead
ol anything else on ine marked
Now nollilng can slop you from taking TOTAL control of your eefiw^rei Honijgji<]n gives you rho rnosl ddvanced lools
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C-128 Helper Ponegade is produced by a company lhal knows Ifial the customer 15 our mosl valuable asset
Helper is an exciting new type of Sotlwate lor the C-128 Rtntgids: Nant gvnqrailnn Aoftwirfl - lor Ihe next ganarallon hacherr

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• Screen Based Dai a Das in 9
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• Screen dumps lo primer
• 15B1 version available This is Ihe uihmaie label utii ly Earns a 5 Star Rating
• OalaQasing with graphics included In INFO'S May-June "88 Issue
ONLY $24.95 • Supports Commodore as well as Epson ccmpaliBle
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• Lighimng fasl and easy to use! Revealed II with Hesmon Cartridge The best money you'll ever
ONLY $24.95 $23.50 spend on yaur Commodore!

CHMSIH0 It sirrnS wo sa«« mwwy mws, eeiWiea tin*!, personal HiKks <ny on pnw wpwil VIS*. Mail you' crotir 10 Sollware Support Int.
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Progrjm Submit nans Invited


Ntid more In la? Cm or *rlti lor aur Irei tilling

INTERNATIONAL
DEALERS - WE HAVE THE SUPPORT YOU'RE LOOKING FOR!
Exciting & New!
Commodore 64/128 Books
from COMPUTE!

COMPUTE!1*"
THIRD BOOK
POWER nrcoMMnpoiiK

BASIC GAMES

Get more power, education, and relaxation from your Commodore 64 or 128 with these
new books from COMPUTE!. And, as always, the programs are thoroughly tested and easy
to enter using our special program entry system. (Disks are available, too.)

COMPUTED Commodore 64/128 COMPUTEI'* More Machine Language COMPUTEI's Third Book of Commodore
Power BASIC Games for (he Commodore 64 64 Garnet
Edited Edited Edited
Collected in this one volume are more Seven of the best machine language COMPUTE! Publications, the leading pub
than two dozen short BASIC programs games for the 64 have been gathered lisher of programs for the Commodore
Irom COMPUTE!'* Gazette's popular into one volume in this follow-up to the 64, has brought together another excit
monthly column, "Power BASIC." In popular COMPUTEl's Machine Language ing collection of nerve-tingling games
cluded ore utilities that add an 8K RAM Games lor the Commodore <M. Selected that will delight the whole family—from
disk, read and write to disk sectors; from recent Issues o( COMPUTE! and preschoolers to teenage arcade fans to
make programs read Joysticks more COMPUTEI's Gazette, the games range those who enjoy games of logic. Clearly
quickly: and automatically generate line trom the frantic "Prisonball" to the written, with non-technical instructions,
numbers. There are olso programs such delighttu! "Biker Dave." This is more than this book contains hours of challenging
as "Stop and Go," which creates a just a collection of exciting fast-action entertainment for beginning computer
pause button to temporarily halt a pro games, though, because complete and fans as well as experienced pro
gram, and "Time Clock," which puts a commented source code for each pro grammers. There is o companion disk
digital clock on your screen. There is a gram is included in the book. Machine available for $12.95 that includes ail the
companion disk available lor $12.95 language programmers can see exactly programs in the book (955BDSK).
which includes all the programs Irom how each game is written and what de $17.95 ISBN 0-87455-095-5
the book (W8BDSK) sign techniques are used, A disk is avail
$17.95 ISBN 0-87455-OW-8 able for $12.95 which includes all the
progroms in the book. Including source
code (947BDSK).
$ 16.95 ISBN 0-87455-094-7

These books are now available af your local book or computer store.
You can also order directly from COMPUTEI by calling toll free 800-346-6767
or mailing your order to COMPUTE! Books, P.O. Box 2165. Radnor, PA 19D89.

Pieose include S2 00 postage and handling per book or disk. NC residents add 5 percent sales tax and PA residents
add 6 percent sales tax. Please allow 4-6 weeks for delivery.

COMPUTE! Publicationsjna©
A Capitol Cmes/ABC. inc Company ^^
COMPUTE! books are available outside the United States
from subsidiaries of McGraw-Hill International Book Company.
BA 360 DATA 339,337,357,36,39, C258:C8 B0 71 A4 51 AS 7A 00 39
BEFORE TYPING . . . 56,61,72,73 C263IA4 00 C3 00 DD 00 F2 00 B5
DX 370 DATA 132,639,649,655,70 C269:06 01 1A 01 2E 01 42 01 7F
Before typing in programs, please C270:4A 01 73
3,709 5E 01 02 D8 02 B6
refer to "How to Type In C278;20 C2 BD A0 00 Bl 7A BD C9
COMPUTERS GAZETTE Programs," Program 2: ERROR.OB) C2B0:B9 02 A9 01 91 7A AD 06 80
elsewhere in this issue. C288;03 8Q CF 02 AD 07 03 8D 2A
C290:Dfl 02 A9 AA 8D 06 03 A9 13
See instructions in article on page
C298I02 8D 07 03 A5 39 85 14 C4
59 before typing in. C2A0:A5 3A B5 15 20 13 A6 20 44

Error Analyzer C000:A5


C008:29
01
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29
43
02
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FB
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09
D0
A5
08
01
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Article on page 59. C018:20 AS 00 B9 00 A0 99 00 23
C2CB:80 07 03 A9 00 28 AC 1A 25
C020:A3 C8 D0 F7 EE ID 00 EE 98
C2D0:A7 00 4C F3 A6 4C 24 A7 49
C02B:20 00 CA □0 EE 68 85 01 45
Program 1: ERROR.BOOT C030:A2 00 A5 FB 4B AS FC 43 92
C2D8: 20 IE AB A4 3A C8 F0 03 8F
C2E0:20 C2 HD 4C 74 A4 00 00 D9
C038:BD 44 02 85 FB DD 45 82 A5
HE 10 REM COPYRIGHT 1988 COMPU C040:B5 FC A9 4C A0 00 91 FB El
TE! PUBLICATIONS, INC. - C048:BD 5E 02 C8 91 FB aa 5F 64
ALL RIGHTS RESERVED C050:02 C8 91
C058:D0 DE A9
FB
05
EB
SD
E8
BF
E0
B7
1A
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02
Emergency BASIC
HD 20 PR1NT"{CLR}[2 SPACES]COP
C060:85 FC 69 85 FB 60 D3 41 93
YRIGHT 19H3 COMPUTE! PUB See instructions in article on page
., INC." C063:4E 4A 4F 59 20 C4 41 53 0D
C073:47 55 5B 54 41 23 39 2F 66 62 before typing in.
CA 30 PRINTTAB(ll)"ALL RIGHTS
C07B:3B 37 A0 00 Dl 7A □0 03 15
tSPACE}RESERVED"
C080:4C 73 00 48 20 72 01 68 BE 0S01:0B 08 BA 00 9E 32 30 36 2E
JX 40 PR1NT"(2 DOWNLOADING IN 0839:34 00 00 33 00 00 00 A3 D3
C088:C9 B2 F0 15 C9 A5 D0 07 98
AT LOCATION"; 0811:00 B9 CC 08 99 00 CE B9 CD
C0 90:A9 46 20 D2 FF A9 4E 20 0D
KM 50 NU=PEEK(55)+256'PEEK(56)
C098:D2 FF A9 7C A0 01 20 IE E7 0 B19:CC 09 99 03 CF CB D0 Fl 3A
-742:GOSUB283 0821:B9 30 08 F0 06 20 D2 FF 80
C0A0:AB 4C 08 AF 90 0E 20 72 76
AX 60 PRINTNU;:PRINT"[LEFT] .": IE AB 60 0829:C8 D0 F5 23 00 CE 60 0D 9B
C0A8:01 A9 86 A0 01 20
POKE55,LO:POKE 56,HI:CLR 0B31:20 45 4D 45 52 47 45 4E 29
C0B0:A9 FF D0 0A 20 72 01 A9 38
GQ 70 SA=PEEK(55)+256*PEEK(56) 0839:43 59 20 44 49 52 45 43 EA
C0BS: 96 A0 01 20 IE AB A2 16 CA
:ADR=SA 0A 69 3A 130 08 09 0841:54 20 4D 4F 44 45 20 49 E2
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C0C8:S5 22 BA
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ii
C0D8:1E AB 4C 35 A4 20 5D BC 4A 0859:50 52 45 53 53 49 4E 47 A7
GC 100 INPUT*15,E,ES:IFE>0THEN 72 01 IB 0861:20 5B 43 4F 4E 54 52 4F 6D
C0E0:D0 03 4C 9B BC 20
PRINT"DISK ERROR: "ES:C C0E8IA9 BF A0 01 20 IE AB 4C 70 0B69:4C 5D 5B 52 45 53 54 4F F6
LOSE2:CLOSE15:END C0F0:48 B2 AS 66 30 03 4C BF 44 0871:52 45 5D 2E 0D 0D 20 46 AD
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01 A9 FE A0 01 69 08A1:4F 4C 5D 5B 52 45 53 54 70
+1,ASC(BS) C120:A7 20 72
08A9:4F 52 4 5 5D 20 54 4F 20 B5
BS 140 IFADR=SA+740THEN160 C12B:20 IE AB 4C 09 AF C9 29 39
08B1:52 45 54 55 52 4E 20 54 7C
KG 150 ADR=ADH+2:GOTO120 C130:D0 03 4C 06 AQ 20 72 01 8A
0 8B9:4F 0D 23 59 4F 55 52 20 E2
KG 160 CLOSE2:CLOSE15:PRINT"OK C13B:A9 0F A0 02 20 IE AB 4C A5
08C1:53 52 4F 47 52 41 4D 2E 4D
■r C14B:0B AF 20 79 00 D0 DA 4C 94
08C9:0D 0D 00 78 20 8A FF 58 AE
C148:49 B4 C5 4D 90 03 4C CF 24
SH 170 PRINT"{DOWN]RELOCATIWG- BBD1:AD 00 03 8D 5E CE 8D 2F 6A
'i. C150:AD 20 72 01 A9 19 A0 02 06
0BD9:CF AD 01 33 8D 5F CE 8D A2
C158:20 IE AS 4C 30 AE A5 10 45
OH 180 FORA=1TO10:COSUB270:GOS 70 CE 14
C160:D3 03 4C CC B0 20 72 01 4F 08E1:30 CF AD 26 03 8D
UB290 08E9:8D IB CF BD 3E CF AD 27 0E
C16B:A9 2D A0 02 20 IE AB 4C 5D
S3 190 HEX=HEX+4:GOSUB320iNEXT 08F1:03 8D 71 CE 3D 1C CF 8D 0C
C170:08 AF 2 0 CC FF A9 00 85 EH
AX 200 rORft=»l.TO12:GOSUB270:GOS AA 20 45 58 5fl 55 08F9:3F CF AD 18 03 BD 3C CF 0B
C178:13 4C D7
UB290:NEXT 0901:9D C6 CF AD 19 03 8D 0D 5D
C180:45 43 54 45 44 00 53 54 73
HJ 210 FORA=606+SATO630+SASTEP 58 50 DC 0909:CF 8D C7 CF A9 4C 8D 30 F5
C188: 52 49 4E 47 20 45
2 43 54 45 44 00 4E 55 7A 0911:03 A9 CE BD01 03 60 48 DE
C190:45
HG 220 HEX=A-1:GOSUB290:NEXT:H 0919:A9 00 9D F5 CF A9 60 BD 84
C198:4D 45 52 49 43 20 54 59 8F
EX=155+SA 45 43 C7 0921:26 03 A9 CE BD 27 03 68 A0
C1A0:50 45 20 45 58 50
AC 230 GOSUB320:HE"658-t-SA:LO = P 54 20 CB 0929:4C 03 33 03 7B 48 A9 72 8C
45 44 00 4F 55
EEK (HE + 1) 43 4B 20 0931:8D 18 03 A9 CE 8D 19 03 EC
C1B0:4F 46 20 53 54 41
EG 240 l!I = PEEK(HE + 6) :NU=LO+256 0939:63 29 4C 03 00 78 48 BA 10
C1RB: 20 53 50 41 43 45 00 4D BB
*HI+SA 20 2D E4 0941:48 98 48 AD F5 CF F0 33 55
C1C0S55 S3 54 20 42 45
QF 250 GOSUB280:POKEI!E*1,LO:PO C1CB:3 3 32 37 36 3B 20 54 4F F6 0 949:4C 06 CF 20 E3 CF C9 FB EC
KEHE+6,HI C1D0:20 33 32 37 36 37 00 4D C6 0951:F0 03 4C 06 CF EB F5 CF 7C
XD 260 PRIMT"130NE":SVSSA:ENi) C1D8:55 53 54 20 42 45 20 50 20 0959:20 E3 CF C9 FF D0 F9 A5 E7
QP 270 READHE:HE=HE+SA:RETUHN 54 49 56 45 09 7D 0961:01 8D F4 CF AD 00 DD 8D A9
C1E0:4F 53 49
MH 280 HI=INT (IJU/256) : LO^NU-HI C1E8:4D 55 53 54 20 42 45 20 CC 0969:F7 CF A9 30 85 0L A9 00 27
•256:RETURN C1F0:4C 45 53 53 20 54 48 41 AF 0971:A0 D0 A2 28 20 C8 CF A9 4C
CM 290 UU=PEEK(HE-H) <-256'IJEEK( C1FB:4E 20 32 35 36 00 45 58 D9 0979:37 85 01 A0 00 B9 00 08 72
HE+2) <-SA C200:54 52 41 20 43 48 41 52 7E 09B1:99 00 F8 B9 00 D9 99 00 D5
FA 300 GOSUB280iPOKeHB + l,r.O:PO C208:41 43 54 45 52 53 00 4D 0B 0989:F9 B9 00 DA 99 00 FA B9 31
C210M9 53 53 49 4E 47 20 29 07 0991:00 DB 99 00 FB B9 00 D0 65
KEHE*2,HI
C218:00 4F 50 45 52 41 54 4F 5F 0999:99 00 FC C8 D0 DF BA 9E AE
PK 310 RETURN
C220:52 20 55 53 45 44 20 54 86 39A1:F3 CF A2 FF 9A 20 84 FF 54
EX 320 M0=PEEK(HE)+256*PBF,K(HB
45 00 25 20 56 93 09A9:20 8A FF A2 00 A0 28 18 83
+2J+SA C228:57 49 43
C230:41 52 49 41 42 4C 45 53 49 09B1:20 99 FF 20 31 FF A9 0E A9
EJ 330 GOSUB280:POKEHE,LO: POKE
C238:20 44 49 53 41. 4C 4C 4F 60 09B9:8D 26 03 A9 CF BD 27 03 ID
HE+Z,HI
9B AD EA 09C1:58 A9 06 8D 20 D0 BD 96 E9
HP 340 RETURN C240:57 45 44 00 FF AE
C248:fB A3 C9 Bl B3 Bl A4 B7 AE 09C9;02 A9 0E SD 21 D0 6C 00 07
AS 350 DATA 166,180,208,229,24
C250:07 AB 02 AB 41 B4 CB AD A0 09D1:A0 68 A8 63 71A G8 4C 00 79
9,269,239
COMPUTE'S Gazelle July 1988 69
0 9D9i 00 43 A9 ID 3D 00 03 A9 21 3971 :B0 00 FF 2D 2D 2D 29 2A F0 0C19 6A A3 00 2A 30 00 2A 00 60
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0 9F9: 63 4C 00 00 43 A9 40 3D 4A 0991 :2A 2E 2F 00 00 00 2B 2C AC 0C39 00 33 00 00 00 00 00 F2 11
0A01: IB 03 A9 CF BD 19 03 63 53 0999 : 39 00 00 00 00 00 2C 29 Cl 0C41 20 D3 3C A9 00 3D DE 02 70
3A99: 4C 00 80 78 43 AD F6 CF 81 0 9A1 :2A 00 00 00 00 00 29 2A 45 0C4 9 A2 00 BD 3F 03 C9 00 F0 BE
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0A29i 85 01 A9 D2 A0 02 A2 26 IB 0 9C1 :F0 07 C9 12 F0 72 DE 3C B3 0C69 F3 5F FE 47 03 EB E003 A6
0A11: 20 C8 CF A0 00 A9 30 85 IB 0 9C9 :33 E8 E0 03 DO ED t\2 00 67 0C71 :D3 ED A2 00 BD 4F 03 C9 BC
0A39 01 B9 00 Dl 99 00 01 B9 El 09D1 :BD 44 33 C9 00 F0 07 C9 6C 0C79 :00 F0 07 C9 FF F0 4A FE A2
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36 before typing in. 0A89 :O0 00 00 00 00 00 00 FF 9D BD31 :E4 32 60 00 00 00 04 A9 FB
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Bagger F0 07 C9 FF AD
0AA1 :30 14 00 03 EB C0 0E AA 14 9D49 F0 30 EE 42 03 AD 4A 93 50
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0809:37 35 29 3A 12 42 41 47 2E 0AB1 :EB Bfl OE EB B0 0E EB B0 AE 0D59 EE 4A 03 AD 52 03 C9 30 EA
0811:47 45 52 00 00 00 A2 09 A5 3AB9 rQF EB F0 01 FF 40 A0 30 C0 0D61 :F0 07 C9 FF F0 14 EE 52 F6
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0B2L:C1 8D IB 03 A9 0F 3D IB 65 0AC9 :00 00 00 00 00 00 30 3C 1A 0D71 :C9 FF Ffl 06 EE 5A 03 4C 22
0829:D4 4C 63 15 F4 78 A9 23 15 0AD1 :00 33 FF 00 09 55 C0 01 BD 0D79 B1 0D A9 01 BD E0 02 60 31
0831:30 12 D0 AD 11 D0 29 7F IF 0AD9 :dd CO 01 55 40 01 F5 49 B4 0DS1 :AD DF 02 C9 03 FO 30 AS 14
0839:80 11 D0 A9 81 BD 1A D0 50 0AE1 :H0 55 00 OF AB F0 3A AA 7C 0D39 83 93 OA 0A 0A AB B9 42 98
0841:A9 4D A0 09 BD 14 03 BC 5D 0AE9 :AC 3A AA AC 3A AA AC 3B 14 0D91 33 C9 00 F0 03 4C B3 0D 76
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0B69:4C 8D 08 C9 66 B0 07 AB 4 5 0Blli:30 93 FF C0 90 55 00 00 49 0DB9i 30 A2 00 CE D7 02 BD 42 ED
0871:87 A2 01 4C 8D 0B C9 96 B 9 0B19::D7 33 1C 55 00 FC 7D 00 E2 0DC1: 03 C9 F5 90 10 98 CD D7 ED
0H79:B0 07 A0 B7 A2 32 4C 8D 76 0B21;!EC 14 99 EF EB C0 EA AA 94 9DC9: 02 DO 0ft A9 00 9D 42 33 F2
08B1:0B C9 C6 B0 DB A0 2 3 A2 36 0B29i:B0 FA AA B0 3F AB B0 03 C3 0DD1: A9 01 8D El 02 C8 98 BA 3F
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0891:41 09 3A 0A 0A 0A 8D 42 4C 0B39:r03 AB F0 93 FF 40 90 00 2C 0DE1: 07 02 60 33 03 03 AD D5 C9
0899:09 AA A3 00 80 A9 SD 10 67 0B41:il5 54 90 6A 94 01 55 64 55 0DE9: 02 C9 01 F0 IE C9 02 F0 B3
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0 8B1:3C 03 99 00 D0 BD 17 09 88 0B59::AA 64 01 AA 64 01 AA 64 89 0E01: 60 4C E6 0E 4C B3 0E C4
08B9:99 01 D0 C8 CB E8 C0 10 FB 0B61::01 55 50 00 00 00 00 00 57 OE09: 30 0E A9 ■i: 8D 05 04 E6
08C1:D0 ED A0 00 AE 42 09 BD 18 0B69: 00 33 00 00 00 00 00 00 7F 0E11: 14 8D 06 D4 A9 38 8D 04
08C9:5C 03 99 FB 07 29 37 09 22 0B71: 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 03 87 0E19: D4 A9 00 3D 02 D4 A9 E8
08D1:99 27 D8 CB E8 C3 08 D0 4A 0B79: 00 33 00 00 00 00 00 00 8F 0E21: 8D 01 04 A9 95 BD 03 Dl
0BD9;EE AD 3F 09 BD 25 D0 AD 95 0B81: 00 00 OA A0 AA 2A 82 A8 8E 0E29: A9 41 3D 04 D4 A9 28 0A
38E1:40 09 BD 26 D0 CE 43 09 B9 0B89: 00 40 00 04 01 04 00 43 48 0E31: IF 0F A9 40 8D 04 D4 B6
08E9:AD 43 09 C9 00 D0 21 A9 8E 0B91: 4 0 00 00 00 00 00 33 00 C7 0E39: A9 84 80 35 D4 A9 20 48
08F1:BC 8D 43 09 A0 00 B9 7C 99 0B99: 00 00 00 00 00 00 30 00 AF 0E41: 06 D4 8D 01 D4 A9 95 5D
0BF9:03 C9 00 F0 0E B9 5C 03 23 3BA1: 00 03 00 09 30 00 90 03 B7 0E49: 00 D4 A9 Bl BD 04 D4 80
0901:AA B9 7C 03 99 5C 03 8A 65 0BA9: 09 30 09 00 00 00 00 03 BF 0E51: 19 20 IF OF A9 80 8D 2C
0909:99 7C 03 ca C0 20 D0
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0911:68 AB 63 AA 68 4 0 3C 3C 32 3BB9: 00 00 09 00 00 00 00 03 D2 0E61: 44 A9 88 8D 06 D4 8D DC
0919:3C 2D 2D 2D 4A 3 5 6C 6C 79 0BC1: F0 00 31 53 00 33 53 33 22 0E69: D4 A9 95 8D 00 D 4 A9 89
0921:6C 5D 5D 5D 7A 65 9C 9C 81 0BC9: 05 50 00 03 50 03 31 0E71:
50 7B BD 04 D4 A9 3C 20 IF 5E
0 929:9C 8D BD BD AA 95 CC CC 89 0BD1: 00 00 A0 00 01 98 00 54 BA 0F.79: A9 80 3D 04 04 60 A9 4E
0931:CC BD SD BD DA C5 0B 08 B2 0BD9: 9A 30 00 9A 00 05 5A 30 AF 0E81: 8D 05 D4 8D 06 D4 A2 El
0939:0B 03 01 07 05 32 0A 00 E4 0BEI: 00 OA 00 00 0F 00 00 0F 02 0E39: BD AB 0E 30 01 D4 BD 43
0941:02 10 79 00 4C A0 03 B9 26 0BE9: 00 00 0F 00 00 0F 00 00 IE 9E91: 0E 8D 00 D4 A9 11 8D B7
0949:54 09 99 3C 03 C8 C0 60 DB 0BF1: BF 00 00 OF 00 00 0F 00 9E 0E99: D4 A9 IE 20 IF 0F A9 49
0951:D0 F5 60 00 00 00 00 00 55 0BF9: 00 FF 90 03 00 00 03 00 10 0EA1: 8D 04 04 E0 04 DO 9A
0959:30 00 17 00 00 00 00 30 4E 0C0l! 3F 00 00 3F 00 00 15 00 D6 0EA9: 60 B4 4E 5A 78 FA D3
0961:00 00 FF 00 00 00 00 30 73 0C09: 00 15 00 03 15 00 00 04 13 0EB1: AA A9 44 95 D4 A9 E8
0 9S9:00 00 FF 00 33 00 33 00 7B 0C11: 00 01 2A 19 01 2A 13 00 90 0EB9: 8D 06 D4 A2 00 BD EB FC
70 COMPUTERS Gaiolle July 1988
0EC1: 0E SD 01 04 BD E3 BE 8D DC 1169: 00 53 40 44 54 60 53 60 79 1411: 4C 02 L4 A9 83 8D 15 DO 32
0EC9: 00 D4 A9 21 9D 04 D4 A9 32 1171: 49 60 4B 63 6B 60 B9 60 AF 1419: A9 02 8D 64 15 A2 00 8E 50
0ED1: 7D 29 IF 0F A9 20 8D 04 76 1179: CA 60 EA 60 09 60 11 0F 77 1421: 66 15 8E 65 15 A9 30 BD 27
0ED9: D4 ES E0 03 D0 E0 60 3A BB 1181: F0 00 3F FC 00 7F FE 00 CF 1429: FF 07 A9 C8 8D 60 15 23 00
0EE1: 0F 0C 78 FA 46 A9 44 8D 36 1189: FC 7F 00 F8 IF 03 F8 IF A3 1431: 27 15 A9 2F 8D FF 07 A9 7E
0EE9: 05 D4 3D 06 D4 A9 AA BD FF 1191: 00 F8 3E 00 FF F8 33 FF 9D 1439: 32 SD D5 02 20 E7 0D AD 09
0EF1: 30 D4 AD IB 0F 18 69 3A 63 1199: EO 00 FF E0 00 FF FS 00 2C 1441: 15 DB 00 64 15 8D 15 D8 E9
0EF9: C9 92 F0 16 8D IB OF 8D 9F UA1: FF FE 00 FF FF 00 F8 3F 04 1449: AD 64 15 2A 3D 64 15 AE 7D
0F01: 01 D4 A9 11 9D 04 D4 A9 EA 11A9: 80 F0 IF 80 F0 OF 80 F0 E9 1451! 65 15 DE 02 D0 BD 02 DO BF
0F09: 0ft 20 IF 0F A9 13 8D 04 B5 11B1: 0F 80 FF FF B3 FF FF 00 7F 1459: AE 66 15 DD 53 15 F3 0B CE
9F11: D4 60 A9 9A SD IB 0F 4C CA 11B9: FF FE 30 00 33 00 00 30 9B 1461: A9 01 3D 60 15 20 27 15 E2
0F19: 00 0F 3C 02 01 IE 8D IE 5C ncii 30 00 00 3C 00 00 7E 00 A4 1469: 4C 50 14 EE 65 15 EE 65 FF
3F21: 0F BE 1C 0F 8C ID 0F AE 34 11C9: 03 FF 33 01 FF 80 03 C3 C7 1471: 15 EE 66 15 AD 66 15 C9 F8
0F29: IE 0F A0 00 C8 C9 FF F3 68 11D1 C0 07 Bl E0 07 81 E0 0F 63 1479: 06 F0 03 4C 26 14 A9 2A 05
0F31: 03 4C 2D 0F CA E0 00 F0 45 11D9: C3 F0 0F FF F0 0F FF F0 B0 1481: 80 F9 07 A9 95 80 01 DO DF
0F39: 03 4C 2B 0F AE 1C 0F AC F2 LIBlJ flF C3 F0 0F 81 F0 0F 81 FA 1489: A9 03 BD 33 D0 A9 FF 3D F2
0F41: ID BF 60 61 AD D9 02 C9 76 11E9: FO 0F 81 FB 0F 81 F0 9F F6 1491: 15 DO A9 34 BD D5 32 20 D5
0F49: 63 B0 03 4C 54 0F A9 63 FF 11F1: 81 F0 07 00 E0 02 00 40 41 1499: E7 30 A2 30 EE 00 DO A9 10
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0F59: A9 00 8D 20 D0 8D 21 D0 CF 1231: 00 00 03 FF 00 07 FF 80 22 14A9: 00 D0 DD 53 15 F0 33 4C 115
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0F69: 20 D2 FF A9 00 AE D9 02 57 1211: E0 BF 01 C0 0F 00 00 0F ID 14B9: E8 E0 06 F3 03 4C 9D 14 F6


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0F79: D0 10 A9 00 80 15 10 AD C7 1221: 0F 07 C0 0F 00 E0 0F 00 39 14C9: EE 30 D0 AD 00 DB C9 00 35
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0FA9: A9 3B A0 10 20 IE AB A2 E7 1251: 00 0F 00 00 0F 00 00 0F C0 14F9: D0 E8 4C F3 14 A9 14 3D 8A

0FB1: 00 A0 00 A9 12 B 5 FB A9 DA 1259: FC 00 0F FE 00 0F FC 00 04 1501: 60 15 20 27 15 83 C0 00 63


0FB9: D3 85 FD A9 04 85 FC A9 57 1261: 3F 00 00 OF 00 00 3F 90 1C 1509: F0 03 4C Fl 14 A9 FF 8D E9
0FC1: 07 85 FE A9 2B 91 FB 91 10 1269::00 0F 00 00 0F 80 33 0F DA 1511: 60 15 20 27 15 A9 00 3D 04

0FC9: FD 18 A 5 FB 69 28 85 FB 54 1271!:FF 80 07 FF C0 03 FF 80 29 1519: 15 D0 4C 9B 13 A9 05 8D 1C


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1009: BA 60 IF 4C 45 56 45 4C Al 12B1::33 C0 07 83 C3 03 01 80 75 1559: C3 Cl C2 C2 C3 C4 C5 01 96
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1919: 31 8D 19 10 8E 17 10 BC D6
12C9::D0 A9 00 80 7F 13 A9 BD 23 1571! 15 D0 A9 80 8D C9 02 3D 04
1021: IS 10 A2 00 A3 00 C3 C0 FC
12D1::A0 12 20 IE AB A9 EE A3 33 1579: CA 02 A9 04 8D CB 02 A9 48
1029! 23 P0 03 4C 27 10 KB E0 68
12D9!: 12 20 IE AB EE 7F 13 AD 06 1581! 0A 3D E5 17 A9 05 BO E6 A5
1031; FF F0 03 4C 25 13 AD L9 90
12Elis7F 13 C9 03 00 EF AS 13 A0 15B9: 17 A9 03 80 E4 02 20 46 38
1039: 10 AE 17 in AC IB 13 60 57
12E9:: 20 0 2 FF 60 93 11 LI L2 ED 1591: 39 A9 FF BD 43 33 A9 01 FD
1941: 54 IS AD CA 02 61)G8 32 411
12FL::9C 20 20 20 20 20 20 20 54 1599: BD D9 02 20 45 BF A9 96 93
1349: 8D CA 02 AD C9 02 69 JO 11
02 A0 90 A2 18 18 C7 12F9::20 23 20 20 20 20 23 20 IE 15A1: 20 14 17 20 46 09 A9 31 70
1951; BD C9
1359: 20 1301;:20 20 20 20 20 20 20 23 27 15A9: 8D D7 02 A9 17 80 43 03 E3
FF A9
F0 92 A0 10 20 B7
L309::23 23 20 23 20 20 20 20 2F 1SB1: 23 CO 12 A9 0A 20 14 17 09
1061! IE AB AE CA 02 A!) C9 02 5ft
1311::DF 0D 12 20 20 20 20 20 90 15B9: A9 02 3D E3 17 BD E4 17 F8
1059: 20 CD BD A3 18 A2 18 18 62
1319::20 20 20 20 20 23 20 20 3F 15CI ;A9 00 BD CB 02 20 42 10 24
1371: 20 F0 FF A9 9A A0 10 20 13
02 KB 52 1321::2O 20 20 20 23 20 20 20 47 15C9: A9 32 20 14 17 A9 04 8D BF
1079: IE A3 A9 90 AE CB
1329:: 20 20 20 20 20 23 20 20 4F 1501.;D5 02 20 E7 0D A9 00 BD a6
1081: 3A 90 05 A2 39 81) CB 32 AI)
1331;:20 20 20 DF 0D 12 05 B4 EO 15D9 : (111 32 20 A3 10 A9 00 aD 65
1089: 23 CD BD A9 13 20 D2 FF 313
1339::B4 B4 B4 B4 B4 B4 B4 B4 5F 15E1 !DE 02 BD E0 02 BD DC 02 BD
1091: 60 9E 53 43 4F 52 45 3A 30
1341 :B4 B4 84 B4 B4 B4 34 B4 67 15E9 :CS E3 17 AD E3 17 C9 00 41
1099::03 9F 4C 49 56 45 53 3A 68
lflftl: 00 42 AD 68 11 C9 01 33 11 1349 :B4 B4 B4 B4 B4 B4 B4 B4 6F 15F1 ;D0 ID A9 02 8D E3 17 AD F8
10A9:-28 EE 69 11 AD 69 11 C9 D6 1351 :B4 B4 B4 04 B4 34 B4 AA 6D 15F9.:E6 17 C9 01 F0 09 AD E6 94

10B1: 01 F0 ai 60 AD D7 02 38 BD 1359 :3D 12 05 B4 B4 B4 B4 B4 3D 1601: 17 20 14 17 4C 10 16 A9 2D

10H9: E9 01 0A 0A 0A 18 69 07 7B 1361 :B4 B4 B4 R4 B4 H4 B4 B4 87 1609: 02 3D E6 17 20 14 17 CE 36


19C1 :AA A9 2F 9D 5C 03 A9 00 A3 1369 :D4 B4 84 B4 B4 B4 B4 B4 8F 1611: E4 17 AD E4 17 C9 00 DO 2A
10C9 :SD 68 11 8D 69 11 4C 49 37 1371 :B4 B4 B4 B4 B4 B4 B4 B4 97 1619: 08 A9 03 8D E4 17 20 A3 54
19D1: 11 A9 03 BD D8 02 AD 30 E7 1379 :B4 B4 B4 AA 3D 00 03 62 39 1621: IB AD DB 02 C9 00 FO 10 9C
1381 :A0 00 B9 H9 U 99 00 30 56 1629: 20 56 17 AD El 17 C9 00 137
10D9: DC C9 7E F0 09 C9 7D F0 15
49 60 20 55 EB 1339 :CB C0 Cl 1)0 F5 A0 00 B9 75 1631 ;F0 06 8D 05 02 20 E7 3D D3
19F.1: 32 C9 6F F0
10E9: :11 1391 :40 12 99 C0 33 C8 C3 SI 43 1639: 23 B5 09 A9 33 3D DB 02 BE
AD D7 32 C9 01 F0 09 56
1399 :D9 F5 A9 93 20 t)2 FF A2 03 1641: 20 31 17 8D DF 02 23 39 19
19F1 :CE D7 02 AD D7 02 4C FF E9
13A1 :33 A9 A0 9D 58 36 A9 01 4F 1649:-00 AD El 02 C9 01 FB 0F 07
10F9 :10 A9 04 8D D7 02 38 E9 07
13A9 :9D 58 DA E8 Efl 50 D0 Fl 7A 1651 :A9 30 BD DF 02 20 3 8 0D 10
1101:!01 0A 3A 0A IS 69 07 AA 27
1381 :A9 FF 8L) 1C D0 A9 00 BD DA 1659 :AD El 02 C9 01 D0 10 A9 C6
1139 :A9 17 9D 1C 03 A9 2F 9D F7
13B9 : 2E 90 A9 03 8D 27 D0 A9 E4 1661: 04 80 D5 02 20 E7 0D A9 32
1111 :5C B3 60 20 55 11 AD D7 52
1119 :02 C9 04 FH 09 EE D7 02 F3 13C1 :3A 8D 25 D0 A9 03 BD 26 90 1669-- 14 8D C8 32 23 42 10 AD L4

A9 31 A9 13C9 :D0 A9 00 81) 20 D0 A9 06 39 1671 :E4 02 CD E5 17 D0 03 4C F6


1121 :AD D7 02 4C FF 10
13D1 : 8D 21 D0 8D 00 D0 A9 82 13 1679-:92 17 20 81 17 C9 00 SD 3E
1129 :HD D7 02 4C FF 10 A9 01 Al
13r>9 :A2 31 E0 3P) FB 11 CA A9 89 1681 :DD 02 AD E4 02 8D E3 17 40
1131 :8D 68 11 AD D7 32 38 E9 52
13E1 :E7 9D 02 D0 E8 A9 82 9D 41 1689:■20 41 0C A9 30 8D DD 02 26
1139 :01 0A 0A 0A 18 69 37 AA 5F
13E9 ES E8 4C D8 13 A9 92 1691 !AD E4 02 CD EO 17 F0 03 38
1141 :A9 30 9D SC 03 4C 54 11 C0
13F1 :FF 8D 0E D3 A9 82 8D OF CB 1699 A9 05 BD CB 02 29 42 10 3F
1149 :AD D7 32 8D DB 02 A9 01 8C
13F9 :D0 A2 00 8K 10 MB 8E 30 FA 16A1 !AD DC 32 C9 01 F0 2 9 AD 34
1151 :8D D9 02 60 AD D7 02 38 BF
1401 :D9 A9 20 E0 87 F0 0C 90 61 16A9' DE 02 C9 01 FO 27 AD E0 6F
1159 :E9 81 0A 0A 0A 18 69 07 ID
1439 :F9 07 E8 A9 09 90 27 D3 85 16B1 .02 C9 01 FB IB AD 8D 32 2D
1161 :AA A9 FF 9D 3C 03 60 03 C!)

COMPUIE! s Gaiaue July I98B 71


16B9 29 01 C9 01 D0 03 4C B6 E5 69,78,162,94,160 69,78,162,84,160
16C1 :16 A5 91 C9 7F D0 03 4C C2 BX 80 DATA 3,284,1,3,20B,9,169 BX 80 DATA 3,204,1,3,208,9,169
16C9 :CE 16 4C E9 15 4C 6E 15 D6 ,70,32,210 ,70,32,210
16D1 :A9 03 4C D8 16 A9 05 8D 99 MG 90 DATA 255,162,139,160,227 FX 90 DATA 255,162,134,160,134
16D9 :D5 02 30 E7 0D A9 C8 20 B4 ,142,0,3,140,1 ,142,0,3,140,1
16E1 :14 17 20 46 09 CE CB 02 63 XB 100 DATA 3,76,210,255,173,0 XB 100 DATA 3,76,210,255,173,0
16E9 :ad CB 02 C9 00 F0 03 4C D2 ,2,201,92,240 ,2,201,92,240
16F1 :A4 15 A9 E7 A0 17 20 IE 29
XH 110 DATA 3,76,139,227,206,0 MX 110 DATA 3,76,134,134,206,0
16F9 :AB A9 FF 20 14 17 4C 6E 6C ,2,169,5,152 ,2,169,5,162
1701 :15 78 A9 00 3D 1A DB A9 2D
QJ 120 DATA B,168,32,186,255,1 GS 120 DATA 8,168,32,186,255,1
1709 : 31 8D 1-5 03 A9 EA BD 15 8F
69,6,162,156,160 69,6,162,148,160
1711 :03 58 60 8D DC 17 8C DB F3
1719 :17
GF 130 DATA 3,32,189,255,169,4 GF 130 DATA 3,32,189,255,169,4
8E DA 17 AS A9 FF 8D"BC
1721 :DD 17
3,166,45,164,46 3,156,45,164,46
8D DE 17 80 DF 17 69
1729 :CE DD 17 AD DD 17 C9 00 02
FA 140 DATA 32,216,255,162,1,2 XF 140 DATA 32,216,255,162,1,2
54,160,3,189,160 54,152,3,189,152
1731 :D0 F6 CE DE 17 AD DE 17 91
1739 :C9 00 00 F6 CE DF 17 AD A7
FX 150 DATA 3,201,58,144,8,169 SB 150 DATA 3,201,58,144,B,169
IDF 17 C9 00 D0 F6 8B C0 92
,48,157,160,3 ,48,157,152,3
1749 : 00 U0 D2 AD DC 17 AC DB 59
KQ 160 DATA 202,16,238,76,116, CC 160 DATA 202,16,238,162,128
1751 :17 AE 164,70,73,76,69 ,76,134,134,70,73
DA 17 60 AC D7 02 EA
1759 :38 98 0A 0A 0A A2 00 8E 3D PA 170 DATA 48,48 FS 170 DATA 76,69,48,48
1761 :E1
17 A8 B9 3C 03 C9 09 78
1769 :D0 03 EE El 17 C8 E8 E0 4B Program 2: Quick Save—128
1771 :03 D0 F0
1779 :F0 05 A9
AD
02
El
8D
17
El
C9
17
00
60
4D
39
Version SYS Stamper
1781 :20 97 E0 A5 8C C9 00 F0 98 HE 10 REM COPYRIGHT 1988 COMPU
1789 :05 C9 05 B0 01 60 A9 00 35 TE! PUBLICATIONS, INC. - Article on page $1.
1791 ;60 20 46 09 A 9 FF 8D 43 FC ALL RIGHTS RESERVED
17 99 :03 AD E5 -17 C9 32 F0 2E 0A HG 20 »ANK15:PRINT"{CLR)
17A1 :18 69 14 BD E5 17 EE D9 D4 HE 10 REM COPYRIGHT 1989 COMPU
{3 SPACES}COPYRIGHT 1988
17A9 :02 20 45 0F A9 96 20 14 76 TE! PUBLICATIONS, INC. -
COMPUTE PUB., INC."
17B1 :17 A9 00 8D E4 02 20 46 64 ALL RIGHTS RESERVED
QP 30 PRINTTAH(ll)"ALL RIGHTS
17B9 :09 AD D9 02 C9 05 D0 03 3A {SPACE}RESERVED{DOWN}"
SK 20 dimbyS(255]:T=18:S=1:DNS
17C1 :EE CB 02 A9 64 an CB 02 22 GK 40 FORJ=2816TO2930:READA:PO
= "{15 dohn}":Z5=CHrS (0)
17C9 : 20 42 10 4C A4 15 A9 0A 36 jg 30 print"(clr}{3 spacesjcop
KEJ,A:X"X+A:NEXTJ
17D1 ;8D E5 17 CE E6 17 4C A7 E3 yright 1988 compute! pub
FM 50 IFXO12263THENPRINT"ERR0
17D9 : 17 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 93 ., INC."
R IN DATA STATEMENTS.":S
17E1 :00 00 00 00 00 00 90 13 44 TOP
BR 40 PRINTTAB(ll)"ALL RIGHTS
17E9 :11 11 11 11 11 11 11 11 18 XK 60 PRINT"S¥S 2816 TOGGLES Q fSPACE}RESERVED":FORI=lT
17F1 :11 11 11 11 11 ID ID ID 74 O1750:NEXT
UICK SAVE ON AND OFF."
17F9 :1D ID ID ID Id id ID ID 23 RS 50 BLS="{40 SPACES}":BLS="
SQ 70 DATA 169,79,32,210,255,1
1B01 I ID 47 41 4D 45 20 4F 56 2E {UP}"+BL$+B[,$ + "{2 UP}"
69,78,162,34,160
1809 ; 45 52 00 61 FF 30 FF A9 30 BM 60 OPEN15,8,15,"I0":GOSUB30
1811 :01
QR 80 DATA 11,204,1,3,208,9,16
A0 FA 88 99 00 D8 99 E9 0:OPEN5,B,5,"#"
9,70,32,210
1819 :FA IDS 99 F4 ■J9 99 EE DA 6D KK 70 PRINT"{CLR}SYS STAMPER
XX 90 DATA 255,162,63,160,77,1
1821 ;D0 Fl 60 00 03 00 00 00 42 [2 SPACES}"; :PRINTU5,"U
42,0,3,140,1
A:"5;0;T;S:N=0
XB 100 DATA 3,76,210,255,173,0
,2,201,92,240 MP 80 PRINT#15,"B-P:115;0:GET#5
,TS,SS:IFASC(T$+Z$)=0THE
EJ 110 DATA 3,76,63,77,206,0,2
BEFORE TYPING . .. NPRINT"{RVS}LAST SECTOR"
,169,0,141
Before typing in programs, please EE 120 DATA 0,255,169,5,162,8, i

AJ 90 PRINT:PRINT
refer to "How lo Type In 168,32,186,255
PD 100 FORI=2T0226STEP32:PRINT
COMPUTED GAZETTE Programs," GB 130 DATA 169,6,162,109,160,
#15,"B-P:"5;I
elsewhere in this issue. 11,32,189,255,169
PA 110 FORJ*1TOI+18:GET15,BYS(
DA 140 DATA 0,170,32,104,255,1
J):NEXT:GOSU8300
69,45,174,16,18
KJ 120 PRINTfU5,"B-P:"5;I+28:G
AH 150 DATA 172,17,18,32,216,2
Power BASIC: Quick
ET#S,BYS(I+28),BY$(I+29
55,162,1,254,113
EK 160 DATA 11,1B9,113,11,201,
KC 130 BL=ASC(BYS(I+28)+ZS)+25
Save 58,144,8,169,48
6*ASC{BYS(I+29J+ZS)
RM 170 DATA 157,113,11,202,16,
QK 140 IF(ASC(BYS(I)+ZS)AND127
Article on page 43. 238,76,55,77,70
J-0THEN170
AJ 180 DATA 73,76,59,48,43
AQ 150 N=N+1:BL(N)=BL:BY(N)=I:
PRINT"[RVS}"N"[OFF}
Program 1: Quick Save—64 Program 3: Quick Save—Plus {LEFT}"BL(N),
Version HR 160 FORK = I+3TOIH8STEP4:PRI
4/16 Version
NTBYS(K)BYS(K+l)B¥$(K+2
HE 10 REM COPYRIGHT 1988 COMPU HE 10 REM COPYRIGHT 1988 COMPU )BYS(K + 3) ;:NEXT:PRIHT
TE1 PUBLICATIONS, INC. - TE! PUBLICATIONS, INC. - RR 170 NEXT:N=N+1:PRINT:PRINT"
ALL RIGHTS RESERVED ALL RIGHTS RESERVED {RVS}"N"lOFF} = NEXT SE
GD 20 PRINT"(CLR}(3 SPACESjCOP GD 20 PRINT"(CLR}(3 SPACESlCOP CTOR" :PHINT"{RVS}>10"
BRIGHT 1988 COMPUTE PUB. YRIGHT 1988 COMPUTE PUB. {OFF} ' QUIT{HOME}"DNS;
, INC." , INC." EA 180 X=0:PRINTBLS;:PRINT"ENT
QP 30 PRINTTAB(11)"ALL RIGHTS QP 30 PRINTTAB(ll)"ALL RIGHTS ER SELECTION."
{SPACE}RESERVED{DOWN)" {S PAC E}RES ERVED{DOWN}" XA 190 GETXS:X=VAL(XS):IFXS<"0
JQ 40 FORJ=828TO929:READA:POKE JH 40 FORJ=818TO921:READA:POKE "ORXS>"9"ORX>NTHEN190
J,A:X=X+S:NEXTJ J,A:X=X+A:NEXTJ MQ 200 IFX'NORX=0THENONX+1GOTO
SP 50 IFXO11780THENPRINT"ERRO GJ 50 IFXO11820THENPRINT"ERRO 320:GOTO280
R IN DATA STATEMENTS.":S R IN DATA STATEMENTS.":S FQ 210 PRINT'MHOME){DOWN)"LEFT
TOP TOP S(DNS,X)X"[HOME}"DNS;
PP 60 PRINT"SYS 828 TOGGLES QU RJ 60 PRINT"SYS 818 TOGGLES QU CG 220 NV=-1:PRINTBLS;:INPUT"E
ICK SAVE ON AND OFF." ICK SAVE ON AND OFF." NTER STAMP";NV:NV=INT(N
FK 70 DATA 169,79,32,210,255,1 BP 70 DATA 169,79,32,210,255,1 V)

72 COMPUTE'S Gazette July 1988


HH 230 IFNV<0ORNV>65535THEN270 E VALUES HIGH VOICE KEV+12,9:POKEV<-13,16
AG 240 HI=INT(NV/256):LO=NV-HI QK 150 P0KEV3,INT(N/K):POKEV2, SM 150 POKEV+3,8:POKEV*10,8
•256:BLfX)=NV N-INT(N/K]*K:REM POKEAB XB 160 FORQ = 1TO48:READM,N:M='M<
RK 253 PRINTU5,"B-P:"5;BY(X) + LE VALUES LOW VOICE F:N=N/F
28:PRINTf5,CHR$(LO);CHH KG 160 POKEV+4,65:GOSUB240:POK KP 170 IFAS="L"THENM=0:REM CAN
S(HI); EV+4,64:REM PLAV UPPER CELS UPPER VOICE
PP 260 PRINTI!15,"U2:"5;0;T;S:G {SPACEjVOICE CF 1H0 IFAS°"<J"THENN = 0:REM CAN
OSUB300 KQ 170 POKEV+11,65:GOSUB250;PO CELS LOWER VOICE
EK 270 PRINT'MHOME}(DOWN)"LEFT KEV+11,64:REM PLAf LOWE OK 190 POKEV1,INT(M/K):POKEV,M
S(DN$rX)"(RVS)"X"(OFF) R VOICE -INTIM/K)*K
{LEFT]"LEFTS(STRS(BL(X) PD 1S0 PRINTTABt(B-Z)/D)"fCf"S MD 200 POKEV3.INT(N/K):POKEV2,
) + "{4 SPACES)",S)" PC(Z)"{CJ" N-INT(N/K)»K
!HOME)"DNS;:GOTO180 XG 190 NEXT:RE5T0RE:REM PRINT DS 210 POKEV+4,65:GOSUB270:POK
JG 280 T=ASC(TS+ZS):S=ASC(SS+Z {SPACEjZIPPER EV+4,64
$):IFT»aTHENT=18:S=l GQ 200 F=F*1.2:Z=Z+2:REM INCRE H3 220 POKEVH1,65:GOSUB280:PO
MJ 290 GOTO70 ASE RELATIVE PITCH FACT KEV+11,64
ED 300 INPUT#15,E,ES,ET,ES:IFE OR AND SPACE INSIDE ZIP FQ 230 GETAS: I FAS-""THEN260
"0THENRETURN PER FR 240 IFA?=" "THENF=F*1.0S:RE
HX 310 PKINT"{DOWN) ERROR *"E" KM 210 1FF>5THEUF-5:Z=1B:GOSUB M SPACE BAR INCREASES R
{LEFT],"ES","ET"{LEFT), 230 ELATIVE PITCH FACTOR
11ES KX 220 GOTO120 GX 250 IFF>4THENF=4:PRINT:PRIM
RH 320 CLOSE5:CLOSE15 KC 230 PRINT:PRINTTAB(6)"MUSIC T"{6 SPACESlMUSICAL ZIP
AL ZIPPER IS WIDE OPEN! PER IS WIDE OPEN!{2 UP)
":PRINT:RETURN
BEFORE TYPING . . . PS 240 FORT=1TO90:NEXT:RETURN XK 260 N£XT:REST0RE:GOT0163
AJ 250 FORT=1TO65:NEXT:RETURN HX 270 FORT=lTO50:NEXT:RETURN
Before typing in programs, please BP 260 DATA10S14,8583,9634,858 AJ 280 FORT=1TO35:NEXT:RETURN
refer to "How to Type In 3,8583,9634,9634,10814, PC 290 DATA6430,9634,7217,8583

COMPUTE! 's GAZETTE Programs," 10814,8583,10814,10814, ,8101,8101,9634,6430,85


10814 83,6430,3583,4817,10314
elsewhere in (his issue.
SQ 270 DATA9634,0,6430,9634,B5 ,6433
83,9634,8583,9634,9634, FS 300 OATA9634,6433,9634,8101
0,10814,10814,8583,1286 ,12860,6430,12139,8101,
0,0 12860,9634,9634,8583,81

Musical Zippers AP 280 DATA12860,6430,0,0,1081


4,8583,9634,8583,8583,9 DQ 310
01
DATA8131,6439,8583,7217
634,9634,10814,10814,11 ,7217,8101,7217,8583,54
Article on page 65. 37,9634,7217,10B14,7217
4 57
GX 290 DATA10B14,10314,10814,9 ,9634
Zipper 1 634,10814,8583,9634,a 10 PK 320 DATAB583,8583,7217,82(11
1,9634,64 3 0,10814,7271, ,8583,7217,10814,8101,9
HX 10 REM COPYRIGHT 19B8 COMPU 634,6430,8583,6069,8101
9634
TE PUBLICATIONS, INC. - ,6430
SP 300 DATA8101,8583,8583,0,0,
[SPACEjALL RIGHTS RESERV 0,8583,0,0 RD 330 DATA6430,7217,6430,4817
ED ,4817,6069,6430,7217,64
RH 20 PRINT"{CLR){3 SPACESjCOP 30, 8563,B101, 81111,6430,
YRIGHT 1988 COMPUTE! PUB Zipper 2 7217
., INC." E3 340 [1ATA8101,8101,9634,6430
AC 30 PRINTTAB(11)"ALL BIGHTS HX 10 REM COPYRIGHT 19B8 COMPU ,8583,7217,8131,8101, B5
{SPACE}RES ERVED":FORI■IT TE-PUBLICATIONS, INC. - 83,9634,8131,8583,8583,
O1500:NEXT (SPACE)ALL RIGHTS RESERV 8583
EH 40 FORI=1TO64:3EADA:X=X+A:N ED EF 350 DATA7217,13814,9634,963
EXT: IFXO517636THENPRINT RH 23 PRINT"(CLRK3 SPACESjCOP 4,8583,9634,8101,12860,
"{DOWN}DATA STATEMENT ER YRIGHT 19BB COMPUTE! PUJS 6430, 12L19,6430,12860,6
ROB":STOP ., INC." 430
EX 50 RESTORE:PRI(JT"(CLR) AC 30 PRINTTAB(ll)"ALL RIGHTS
(2 DOWN)":PRINTTAB(7)"MU {SPACE}RESERVED":FOHI=1T Zipper 3
SICAL ZIPPER IS CLOSED!" O1500:NEXT
XA 40 FORI=1T096:READA:X=X+A:N HX 10 REM COPYRIGHT 1988 COMPU
:PRINT
EXT: IFXO787236THENPRINT TS PUBLICATIONS, INC. -
KC 60 F3.94:R£M RELATIVE PITCH
"{D0WN}DATA STATEMENT ER (SPACE]ALL HISHTS RESSHV
FACTOR. SEE LINE 130.
El)
JQ 70 V=54272:V1=54273:V2=5427 ROR";STOP
9:V3=54280:K=256:B=38:D= AE 50 RESTORE:PRINT"{CLR) RH 23 PRIMT"{CLiOt3 SPACB5)C0P
[7 DOWN}":PRINTTAil[8) "PR YRIGHT 1988 COMPUTE! PUI3
2
XP 80 FORT-VTOV+23:POKET,0:NEX ESS AND HOLD SPACE BAR" ., INC."
XF 60 PR1NT:PRINTTAB(9)"TO OPE AC 33 PRIMTTA3(11)"ALL RIGHTS
T:REM CLEAR SOUND CHIP
{SPACE)RESERVED":FORI=1T
GP 90 POKEV+24,15:REM VOLUME, N MUSICAL ZIPPER"
(SPACE)BOTH VOICES QK 73 PRINT:PRINT:PRINTTAB(7)" O15HB:MBKT
QP 100 POKEV+5,9:POKEV+6,16:PO JM 40 FORI=1TO128:READA;X=X+A:
HOLD U TO HEAR UPPER VOI
KEV+12,9:POKEV+13,16:BE CE
NEXT: IFXO167193 2rHENPRI
M ADSR'E MX B0 PRINT:PRINrrAU(7)"HOLD L NT"{nOrfN)DArA ERROR":STO
XQ 110 POKEV+3,8:POKEV+10,B:RE TO HEAR LOWER VOICE P

M SQUARE WAVE SD 90 POKE650,12B:REM REPEAT A BG 50 RESTORE: PfU*JT"ECLR}


JB 120 FORQ=1TO32:READM,N:REM LL KEYS. NECESSARY WHEN (5 DOWN}":PRINTTAB[5I "PR
(SPACE)U AND L ARE HELD ESS t TO OPEN ZIPPER ONE
lSPACE)VALUES FROM PROG
RAMMER'S REFERENCE GUID {SPACE)!)OWN. WAY

HH 100 F=.9 AD 60 PRINT:P3INTTAB[4)"PRESS


E
qh 130 m=m*f:n=n/f:rem multipl EE 110 V=54272:V1=54273:V2=542 (SPACE}- TO OPEN ZIPPER
79:V3=54280:K=256 [SPACE)OrH£R riAY
v higher voice, divide
EK 123 FORT-VTQV+23:POKET,0:NE MC 70 PRINT:PR1NT:PRINT:PRINTT
(spaceJlower voice by f
ACTOR XT AB (12}"(-.7625 TO 4.25)"
JX 130 POKEV»24,15 PO B0 PRINT:PRINT:PRINTTAB(9)"
RC 140 POKEV1,INT(M/K):POKEV,M
-INT1M/K)*K:REM POKEABL CF 14B POKEV-t-5,9:POKEV*6,16:PO HOLD 1 TO HEAR VOICE 1

COMPUTE'S Gazette July 19B8 73


SF 99 PRINT:PRINTTAB(9)"HOLD 2 lSPACE)TYPE-HORDS, POIN
TO HEAR VOICE 2 BEFORE TYPING . . . TS (W,P)7 ";
PD 100 POKE658,128 GM 310 GET AS
110 F=1.2:G=.6:REM F IS BEL
Before typing in programs, please KE 320 IF AS«"W" AND ^$<>"P"
ATIVE PITCH FACTOR, G I refer to "How to Type In (SPACE)THEN PRINT"
S ABSOLUTE PITCH FACTOR COMPUTE!'s GAZETTE Programs," {2 UP)":GOTO 300
120 GOSUB310 SM 330 PRINT AS:GTS=AS
SE elsewhere in this issue.
130 V=54272:V1=54273:V2=542 MJ 340 PRINTSPC(3)"(DOWN)TIMER
QH
79:V3=54280:K=256 LENGTH (1,3,5,7)

RH 140 FORT=VTOl/ + 23:POKBT,0:NE {2 SPACES)3(3 LEFT)";:1


NPUT TLS
KB 150
XT
POKEV+24,15 Scrambler XP 350 IF TL3<>"1" AND TLS<>"3

MG 160 PQKEV+5,9:POKEV+6,16:PO 11 AND TLS<>"5" AND TLS<


>"7" THEN PRINT"{2 UP)"
KEV+12,9:PQK£V+13,16 Article on page 47.
FE 170 POKEV+3,8:POKEV+10,8 ;:GOTO 340
KR FOHU=1T064:REAO^,N:M=M* JM 10 S=54272 HP 360 TL=VAL(TLS)
F*G:N=N/f*G GD 20 OPEN 1,8,8,"SCRAMBLER HI BG 370 SPS="{3a SPACES)"
PP 19.* U'A?a"l"THENM=»a GHS,S,W":CLOSE llOPEN 1, XH 380
GJ 200 IFA$="2"TI!ENN=0 3,15:INPUT»1,A,BS AK 390 FOR PL=1 TO NP
DJ 210 POKEV1,INT(M/K):POKEV,M JH 30 IF BSO"F1LE EXISTS" THE GS 400
-INT(M/K)*K N CLOSE 1:QOSUB 1880 KS 410 GOSUB 1350
CC 220 POKEV3,INT (N/K):POKEV2, EK 40 CLOSE 1 AK 423 PRINT"{CLR}"
N-INT(N/K)*K QA 50 DIM W$(200) FB 430 POKE 53280,12:POKE 5323
PQ 23H POKEV+4,65:GOSUB330:FOK BA 60 DIM DCS (13),AL (26) 1,0:POKE 646,12
EV+4,64 XS 70 FOR 1=1 TO 13:READ DCS 11 SM 443 FOR D=55296 TO 55303:PO
CQ 240 POKEV + U,65:GOSUB340:PO ):NEXT I KE D,11:POKE D+32,11
KEV+11,64 GO 80 POKE 53280,0:POKE 53281, KB 450 POKE D-54272,160:POKE 0
SG 250 CETAS:IFAS=""THEN300 0:PRINT"{CLRl(DOWN)" -54249,160:NEXT
OF 260 1FA$="+"THENF=F'1.05:GO MA 90 GOSUB 1950 HF 4 60 FOR M=56256 TO 56295:PO
SUB310 GH 100 PRIHT"{¥EL)UCCK KE M,11:NEXT:FOR M=5627
RC 2 70 IFAS="-"THENF=F*.95:GOS [5 SPACES )<8}UC£1_ 4 TO 562?6:POKE M,6:NEX
UB310 {5 SPACES!(PUR)UIUI T H
QA 280 IFF>5THENF=5 {3 SPACES!"; JG •173 FOR M=56285 TO 56294:PO
SP 2 90 IFF<.25THENF=.25 PP 110 PRINT"{2 SPACES)<3}I_ KE M,6:NEXT M
BF 300 NEXT:RESTORE:GOTO180 (8 SPACES!{6>UCCI(YELJJ QQ 480 FORD=55296 TO 56256 STE
GB 310 POKE214,9:PR INT:POKE211 c_ci{5 spacesK8HQJ"; P 40:POKE D,11:POKE D+3
HR 120 PRfNT"lc){R}[U 9,11:POKE D-54272,160
ftC 320 PRINT"OISTANCE APAHT » {5 SPACES!{PUR)[h]Ijl EF 490 POKE D-54233,160:NEXT
[SPACE)"F-l"(LEFTj (k)tb) [5 SPACES){3Hh) FK 500 FOK D-1984 TO 2017:POKE
[9 SPACES)":RETURN [7 SPACES)"; D,160:NEXT
AJ 330 FORT=lTO50:NEXT:RETURN hm 130 print" {6hq}c{r}£(yel) JP 510 FOR D=2019 TO 2022:POKE
BH 343 FORT=1T028:NEXT:RETURN ucck{red)ucci {8jk j_k D,48:NEXT
MG 350 DATA14435,0,12860,17167 (blu!ucci~Tpur}k "; XK 520 FOR M=0 TO 5:POKE 2013+
,11457, 17167,10814, 1H5 DA 140 PRINT" Tj) T M,ASC(MIDS{"SCORE"+CHRS
7,11457,11457,12860,128 [2 c)( (122) ,Mt-l,l))-64:NEXT H
6fl {}() DM 530 PR INT"(HOME){BLU}":FOR
SJ 363 1&TftU4 57,11457,8583,10 !j!(y.){4 spacesHred) |SPACE)X=1 TO 23IPRINT"
314,7217,10814,7647,192 fb}"; (DOWN)";:NEXT
69,8585,19269,9634,1286 BB 150 PRINT"{8 SPACESKBLU) PD 54 0 PRINT"(RIGHT){BLU}"PS(P
0,3533 lQ>{2 cHW}{6 SPACES} L)"{HOMEi";
JP 373 MATA12863,7217, 14435,85 {GRN){QJ(2 cJ{W> GM 550 FOR X=l TO 8;PRINT"
83,12860,8,11457,11457, 13 SPACES)"; iDOWN)";:NEXT
11457,12868,22915, 1443 5 DO. 160 PR1HT" {CYN)(0J{c] SF 560 FOR X=>1 TO PL
,22915 £11 SPACES){RED![jj JG 570 IF X>1 THEN PRINTSPC(9)
KK 390 DATA13625,21629, 14435,2 {2 c)(k!(5 SPACES)[liLU! PS(X-l) i'"S SCORE WAS "
1629,13625,29415,14435, U) "; ;SC(X-1);"{DOWN)":POKE
2(1415,12860,19269,11457 AS 17B PRINT" J(6 SPACES)[GRNj {SPftCK)l98,0
,19269 {Z}CC£(4 SPACES)(CVH)JC PC 580 NEXT X
JE 390 UATA12860,18183,14435,1 CI^{5 SPACES]"; E3 590 PRINT" lOO.VM)": PRINTS PC (
918 8,12860,17167,12868, JE 180 GOSUB 1950 5) "(RVS) (8LIJ){4 SPACES)
17167,12139,19269,12360 FQ 190 PRINTSPC[4) "{DOWNX5JUD PRESS M1Y KEY TO START
,19269 I_ COPYRIGHT 1988" {4 SPACES}"
CR 400 DATA0,17167,14435,17167 CF 200 PRINTSPC(4)"GC^ COMPUTE MO 600 GOSUB 1930
,12860,17167,11457,1716 ! PUBLICATIONS INC." RES 610 GOSUB 1960
7,10814,11457,11457,114 FG 210 PRINTSPC(4)"JFK ALL RIG OR 620 !>HINT"tH0ME){4}(HVS)
57 UTS RESERVEDTT~DOWN)" (7 SPACES){5J ";
EJ 410 DATA12860,12860,11457,1 FK 220 PRINTSPC(3)"(WHTlNUMBKH GP 630 FOR 1=1 TO 13:PRINT MID
1457,3583,10814,7217,10 OF PLAYERS (1 - 4) ?(PE$,I,1);" "; :~JEXT I
814,7647,19269,3533,192 [2 SPACES) 1 (3 LEL-r}"; : I JP 640 FOR 1=1 TO 26:POKE 4915
69 NPUT NP 2+1,0:NEXT I
FJ 420 13ATA9634,12860,8583, 128 CK 230 IF NP<1 OR NP>4 THEN PR AG 650 FOR 1=1 TO 13
60,7217,14435,9533,1236 INT"(2 UP)":GOTO220 HE 663 N = ,\SC(MIOS(PSS,I,l})-64
0,0,11457,11457,11457,1 EP 240 FOR I»l TO NP JO 670 POKE 49152+N,PEEK(49152
2B60 HG 250 PRINTSPCI3)"(DOWN)PLAYE
ES 430 DATA14435,144 3 5,15294,1 R";I;",' TOUR name KS 630 NEXT 1:PRINT:PRINr:PRIM
7167,17167,0,19259,192S {16 SPACES)[16 LEFT}"; T"(RIGHT)";
9,21629,17167,22915,144 HD 260 INPUT PS(I) R'J 693 PRINT"[BLJ)";
35 QA 270 IF PS(I)="" THEN PS(I)= HH 7 00 NM = NM+1 :iJDS=""
JX 440 DATA17167,11457,14435,1 "PLAiTSR " + STR3(I ) XK 710 PRINT NM;
2860,15294,14435,16203, KB 280 IF LEN(PS (I)")>10 THEN P DS 720 FOR 1=49153 TO 49178:PO
0, 1716 7, 12860,1926 9,3,2 S(I)=LEFTS(PS(I),10) KE 100+1,PEEK(I):NEXT I
1629 FP 290 PRINT"{2 [IP)";:NEXT I FC 730 PRINT"<H)tPHLEFT)[WHT)
RG 450 UATAU457,22915,0,0 KD PRINTSPC(3)"{I)OWN)GAMF,
74 COMPUTE1 s Gazelle July 19B8
AG 740 GET AS:TM=TM-.6: IF SSO V AGAIN? (RED)S(BLIJ}AM KP 1680 RETURN
INT(TM/10) THEN SS=INT( E / (RED)N{BLU)EW / MF 1690 SS3=STRS{SS):SSS=RIGHT
TM/10):GOSUB 1690 (RED}Q{BLU)UITM $ (SSS,LEN(SSS)-l)
MA 758 IF SS<=0 THEN GOSUB 157 RC 1170 GOSUB 1930 HQ 1700 IF LEH(SSS)<3 THEN SSS
0:GOStIB 1630:GOTO 940 EH 1180 IF AS="S" THEN 390 =" "+SSS:G0TO 1700
DH 760 IF INT(SS)=20 THEN POKE SQ 1190 IF AS="N" THEN GOTO 80 MG 1710 FOR 1=1 TO 3:P0KE 2001
53283,2 KC 1200 IF AS="Q" THEN PRINT" ■t-I ,ASC(MIDS (SSS,I,1) ) :
HH 770 IF AS=CHRS (20) THEN IF (CLR}":END NEXT I
[SP.\CE)WDSO"" THEN PR1 FX 1210 GOTO 1170 BR 1720 RETURN
NT" (2 LEFT) iLEFTlfP} MH 1220 DATA BOWYOL QK 1733 GOSUB 1860
ILEFT)";:GOSUB 1660 BD 1230 DATA TIKRBH GC 1740 SC=SC(PL)
OB 780 IF ftS=CHRSU3) THEN 870 !)C 1240 DATA AEAEAE ME 1750 FOR 1=1 TO NM-L:PRINT"
JD 793 IF AS<"A" OH AS>"Z" THE RX 1250 DATA FPLH3N (HOME}{5 DOWN)
N 740 JH 1260 DATA FINUTP (2 i:ight|";ws (i); "
ER 800 TM-TM-2 FH 1270 DATA OCOMPW {9 SPACES)"
FA 810 A=ASC(AS)+491B8:IF PEEK CC 1280 DATA VQKSWS RB 1760 PRINT"(2 RIGHT)lS THIS
(A)=>0 THEN 740 AG 1290 DATA PQVWAI WOHO CORRECT? (Y/N)"
HK 820 GOSUB 1510 AC 1388 DATA SIHRUF HJ 1770 GOSUQ 1930
PS 830 PRINT AS; JP 1310 DATA KDGJMC QG 1780 IF AS="N" THEN WOS-WS(
sx 843 WDS=WDS»A$ QG 1320 DATA EAEAEA I):GOSiJB 1810
CJ 859 POKE A,PEEK(A)-1 GD 1330 DATA ZQXEVJ XD 1790 NEXT IiSC(PL)=SC
PM 860 GOTO 73 0 KH 1340 DATA SUMRGI EA 1800 RETURN
HP 870 IF WDS="" THEN 790 JD 1350 PSS="" GH 181H NL=LEN(WDS):IF NL>5 TH
MG 880 FL = 1:IF NM = 1 THEN 910 GJ 1360 FOR 1=1 TO 13:PS$=PS$* EN NL=6
OB 890 FOR 1=1 TO HM-llIF WDS= MIDS (DCS(I) ,INT(RND(0) RS 1820 NL=NL-[NL>3)-[NL>4)-[M
WS (I) THEN FL = 0 *6+l),1) L>5)
XS 900 NEXT I 8A 1370 NEXT I RQ 1830 IF GT$»"P" THEN SC-SC-
QQ 910 IF FL-1 THEN WS(NM)=WDS JG 13a<! RETURN NL
:GOSUB 1570:GOSUB 1390: OB 1390 PRINT" ";:POKE 783,1:S QK 1840 IF GTS="W" THEN SC»SC-
GOTO 690 YS 65523 1
JQ 920 FOR 1=1 TO 2+LEN(WD$+ST HJ 1400 IF PEEK(782)>28 THEN P DE 1950 RETURN
RS(NM)):PRINT" (2 LEFT) RINT:PRINT"(RIGHT)";:P RS 1863 PRINT"fHO^E!(D0WN}":FO
";:NEXT I;HH«HM-1 OKB 783,1:SYS 65520 RI = 1TO22:PR INT"(RIGHT)
MK 930 GOSUB 1630:PRINT" HQ 1410 IF PEEK(7S1)>22 THEN G (38 SPACES)":NBXTI
(RIGHT)";:GOTO 690 OSUB 1860:P^INT"(HOME} KH 1870 RETURN
Aft 940 SC{PL)=SC:POKE 53280,12 {2 DOWN)(RIGHT)"; XC 1880 OPEN1,9, 15,"S0:SCRAMBI,
SPRINT:PRINT"(DOWN) EB 1420 [JL'LENIWDS) : IF NL>5 Tl! ER HIGHS":CLOSE 1
(8 RIGHTjANY DELETIONS? EN NL=6 QH 1890 PRINT"(DOWN) (WIlTjlDRITI
MK 1430 NL=NL-(ML>3)-{NL>4)-(N NG NEW HI SCORE(D0WN}
XF 950 GOSUB 1930 L>5) (BLU)"
CB 960 IF AS="N" THEN 990 CJ 1440 IF GTS="P" THEN SC=SC+ XJ 19BH OPSV 1,8,3,"SCRAMBLER
NL (SPACE)HIGHS,S,W":FOR
FD 970 IF A0O"Y" THEN 950
XE 9B0 GOSUB 1730 EE 1450 IF GTS""W" THEN SC"SC+ (SPACE) I »1 TO 4:F0R J="
DC 990 NEXT PL 1 1 TO 2:PRINTIl,HS(I,J)
BQ 1000 PRINT"{CLR) (2 DOWN} MB 1460 SCS=STRS(SC) KE 1310 NEXT J:NEXT I
(BLU)";PRINT:IF N.P-1 T MB 1470 SC3=RIGHTS(SC5,LEN(SCS HB 1920 CLOSE liOPEN 1,8,15:IN

HEN 1H70 1-1} PUT#1,A,BS:CLDSE 1:HET

JF 1010 PRINT"THE SCOHES:":PR1 OH 1480 IF LEtJ(SCS)<4 THEM SCS URN

NT ="0"+SCS:GOTO 1480 SJ 1930 GET AS:IF AS="" THEN 1


HK 1020 HS=0:FOR 1=1 TO NP:PRI MQ 1490 FOR 1=1 TO LEN(3CS):P0 930

NT PS (I) ,SC(I) KE 2018+1,ASC[MIDS(SCS MP 1940 RETURN

FP 1030 IF SC(I]>HS THEN WN=Ii ,1,1)):NEXT I XR 1950 FOR U=l TO 40:PRINT"


HS=SC(I) EX 1500 RETURN (WHT)C";:NSXT
PE 1510 POKE S+24,11 AR 1960 RETURN
qa 1040 next i:print
rr 1050 print"!red)the winner DH 1520 POKE S+3,8:POKE S+5,8:
{space)is ";cs(wn) POKE S+6,240
SF 1530 POKE S,47:POKE 5+1,65 BEFORE TYPING . . .
XE 1060 GOTO 1080
jj 1070 ijkimt"1clrh2 down] RD 1540 POKE S+4,65 Before typing in programs, please
(red)vour score is ";s GM 1550 POKE S-M,64:POKE S + 24,
refer to "How to Type In
0
c{1):hs=sc(1):print" COMPUTE!'* GAZETTE Programs,"
(downHblu)" KD 1560 RETURN
KK 1573 POKE S+24,11 elsewhere in this issue.
xe 1080 open 1,9,2,"scrambler
(space)highs,s,r":for KJ 1580 POKE 5+1,130
(8pace}i»1 to 4:fqr j- EJ 1590 POKE S+5,9:POKE S+15,3
0
ck 1090
1
next
to 2: input#1,hs(i,j)
j:next hclose 1 EX 1600 POKE S+4,21 V-8
DK 1100 I=INT(TL/2)+l:J=(0-(GT GP 1610 FOR T=1TO 75:NEXT:POKE
S+4,20
Article on page 53.
S="W")]+1
AB 1110 IF HS>HS[I,J) THEN HS ( GJ 1620 POKE 54273,0:POKE 5427
2,0:RETURN
Program 1: V-8 Loader
I,J)=HS:GOSUB 188B
POKE S+24,10:POKE S+5, I'K 10 S = 49664 : V = 4 91 52 : PG = 0 : REM
EM 1120 PRINT"HIGH SCORES:" BX 1630
MR 1130 PRINT:PRINT"","(BLUlPO 128:POKE S+6,24B PG=0 IF SCREEN OR 16K B
EF 1640 POKE S+1,S:POKE S+4,33 ANK WILL CHANGE
INTS","WORDS"!PRINT"
{10 RIGHT)DD3[)DD :FOR B3«l TO 119:NEXT: PJ 15 POKE646.14:POKE53230,14:
(4 RIGHTlDDDDD" POKE S+1,0:POKE S+24,0 POKE53281,6
QB 1T40 FOR 1=1 TO 4:PRINT 1*2 RR 1650 POKE 54273,0IPOKE 542/ AG 20 PRINT"(CLR){RVS) V-8 LOA
DER(2 SPACESj-12 SPACES}
-1, ;:PRINT"(7 LEFTjMIN 2,0:RETURN
.13 SPACES}";:FOR J=l PD 1660 A=ASC(RIGHT3(WDS,1) I-6 COPYRIGHT 1988 COMPUTE!
(SPACEjTO 2 4:P0KS 49252+A,PEEK(49 (SPACE)"
FD 1150 PRINT HS(I,J),:NEXTJ:P DA 30 PHINT"{DOWN}"SPC(10)"CRE
RINT:NEXT I MD 1670 WDS=LEFTS(WDS,LEN(WDS) ATING PROGRAM ."
BJ 40 FORX=STOS+2B8:REAOD:POKE
GF 1160 PRINT'MRLU)[2 DOWNjPLA -1)

COMPUTE!* Gazette July 1988 75


X,D:CK=CK+D:NEXT ER 420 POKES + 176,L:POKES+177,I! 41
JD 50 IFCKO26449THENPRINT" FH 430 N=S+179:GOSUB680:POKES+ FC 850 DATA20,3,169,234,141,21
{DOWN MS SPACESjERROR IN 164,L:POKES+165,H SX 860 DATA3,169,129,141,13,22
DATA! LINES 690-1040":E GP 440 POKES+187,L:POKES+188,H 0
ND JC 450 POKES+193,L:POKES+194,H SA 870 DATA160,0,185,209,194,1
EC 60 FORX = S+209TOSi-264:READD: CP 460 N=S*180:GOSUB680:POKES+ 53
POKEX,D:NEXT 169,L:POKES+170,H MQ 8B0 DATA0,208,200,192,47,20
FG 70 CK=0:FORX=S+265TOS+277:R FF 470 PQKES+196.L:POKES+197,H a
EADD:POKEX,D:CK=CK+D:NEX RB 480 POKES+201,L:POKES+202,H SK 890 DATA245,185,209,194,141
T XE 490 N = S + 265:GOSUB6B0: POKES*- ,0
HS B0 IFCKO1848THENPR1NT" 67,L:POKES+72,H PH 9B0 DATA221,200,173,24,208,
<DOWN){5 SPACES)ERROR IN MA 500 N=S+154:GOSUB680:POKES+ 41
DATA! LINES 1150-1170": 147,L:POKES+148,H EF 910 DATA240,74,74,9,3,133
END DR 510 N=V:GOSU136B0: POKES + 162, SR 920 DATA253,173,0,221,73,3
DS 90 S2=S+278:T=S2:FORX=0TO46 L:POKES»167,H XD 930 DATA10,10,10,10,10,10
IREADD: IFDO1THEN120 DB 520 N=V+144:GOSUB680:POKES+ GM 940 DATA5,253,141,154,194,1
KC 100 N=V+X'8iGOSUB6B0 273,L:POKES*274,H 65
AP 110 POKET,1B5:POKET+1,L:POK GK 530 PRINT"{DOWN){2 SPACES)S JH 950 DATA239, 194,153,200,7,2
ET+2,H:POKET+3,141:POKE TART""S"END="E"LENGTH=" 00
LE CE 960 DATA192,56,208,245,96,1
CJ 120 NEXT EJ 540 INPUT"f2 DOWU} 69
FD 130 S3 = T:READD:IFDO1TKEN16 (11 SPACESlSAVE IT TO D BS 970 DATA0,141,179,194,169,1
a 92
ISK";lS
RM 140 N=V*376:GOSUB6B0 CC 550 IF IS<>"Y"THEN610 FX 980 DATA141,180,194,160,0,1
CR 150 P0KET,lB5:P0KET+l,LiP0K FD 560 tNPUT"(DOWN)[8 SPACES(F 62
ET + 2,H:POKET<-3, 141 : POKE ILENAME";FS:IFFS=""THEN JP 990 DATA0,185,209,194,157,0
610 MP 1000 DATA192,232,224,8,208,
JP 160 S4=T:FORX=0TO7:READD:IF CX 570 F$="0:"+F$:OP£Nl,a,l,FS 248
DO1THEN200 CE 5B0 N=S:GOSUB680:POKE253.L: JG 1010 DATA173,179,19.],24,105
KS 170 N=V+[48*X)*8:GOSUB680 POKE 254,K .8
HC 180 POKET,1B5:POKET+1,L:POK AJ 590 N=E+1:GOSUB680:POKE7B1, BB 1020 DftTA141,179,194,173,18
ET+2,H:POKET+3,141:POKE L:POKE732,H 0,194
T+4,X+24a:POKET+5,PG:T= KC 600 POKE780,253:EYE65496:CL DA 1030 DATA105,0,141,180,194,
T+6 OSE1 200
XB 190 SP(X)=1:SN-SN+1 BH 610 PRINT"(2 DOWN) SK 1040 DATA192,56,20B,221,96
XR 2BB NEXT
{2 SPACE5){RVS}t'OKE"NM" FQ 1050 REM ***** DEFAULTS **•
FP 210 CK»0:S 5 =TiFORX =E5TOS 5*8
{OFF)I OF SPLITS IN SCR
:READD:POKEX,D:CK=CK+D: KEN" RP 1060 DATA0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0
NEXT PP 620 PRIHT"{2 SPACES} (RVS)Si' DC 1070 DATA0,S,0,0,0,0,0,0,0
KF 220 IFCKO1401THENPRINT" S"I"(OFF)TO INIT. SHADO BA 1080 DATA27,0,0,0,0
{DOWN}(5 SPACESjERROR I W REGISTERS"
CR 1090 DATA200,0,21,120,240
N DftTA! LINES 1280-1300 SF 630 PRINT"{2 SPACES){RVS}SV XF 1100 DATA0,0,0,0,0
":END S"S"lOFF)TO ACTIVATE" SS 1110 DATA14,6,0,1,2,3,4
BM 230 T=0:S6=S5+9:IF(PG>0ANDP JG 640 PRINT"(2 SPACES}{RVS)SY
MG 1120 DATA5,6,7,8,9,10,11,12
G<2 56)QRSN=0TH£NFORX=0T S"O"|OFFlTO DE-ACTIVATE KX 1130 DATA199
O23:READD:NEXT:S7=S6:GO KS 1140 DATA0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0
TO310 PM 650 PRINT"{2 SPACES)(RVS)"V
SB 1150 REM SECTION 1 COfJT
KM 24 0 CK=0:FORX=S6TOS6+23:REA "fLEFTi";-V-447"[OFF]= 'D —
DD:POKEX,D:CK=CK+D:NEXT !SPACEjSHADOW REGISTERS XA 1160 DATA169,1,141,25,20B,1
QS 250 IFCKO2 2BaTHENPRINT" 64
(DOWN)[5 SPACESjERROR I OQ 660 PRINT"{2 SPACES}{RVS)"D
XD 1170 DATA252,185,144,192,14
N DATA! LINES 1310-1350 F"{LEFT)";-DF-55"{OFF)= 1,18,208
" : END DEFAULTS TABLE" FJ 1180 REM **«•■ VM REGISTERS
CX 260 F0RX-BTO7: IFSP(X)O1THE QA 670 END *****
N300 XQ 680 H=INT(N/256):L-N-H»256: FH 1190 DATA1,1,1,1,1,1,1,1:RE
AM 270 N=S4+5+T*2:GOSUB680 RETURN
KF 280 M SPRITE 0-3 X,¥ COORD
POKES6+T+24,141:POKES 6 + DQ 690 HEM SECTION 1 DATA
INATES
T+25,L:POKES6+T+26,H {SPACE}
DS 1200 iJATAl,1,1,1, 1,1,1, 1,1:
XR 290 POKES+T+3 2,141:POKES+T+ FR 700 DATA169,S,133,251,169,0
REM SPRITE 4-7 X,Y COO
33,L:POKES+T+3 4,H:T=T+3 Jf 710 DATA133,252,173,192,192
XS 300 RDINATES;SPR1TE 0-7 X
,41
EP 310
{SPACElMSB
IFT<24THENFORX=S+T+3 2TO DK 720 DATA240,74,74,9,3,133
PQ 1210 DATA1,-I,-1,-1,1:REM C
S+55:POKEX,234:NEXT FX 730 DATA253,173,120,193,73,
FH 32 0 TRL(53265);RASTER;LPX;
CK=0:FORX=S7TOS7+9:READ 3
LPV;SPRITE ENABLE
D:POKEX,D:CK=CK+D:NEXT JH 740 DATA10,10,10,10,10,10
QB 330 Jfl 1220 DATA1,1,1,-1,-1:REM CT
IFCKO1505THENPRINT" SF 750 DATA5,253,141,17,196,14
RL(53270);SPR 1 EXPAND
[D0WNM5 SPACES}ERROR I 1
[MEM CTRL;IRQ FLAG;IRQ
N DATA! LINES 1360-1380 EF 760 DATA23,196,141,29,196,1 ENABLE
":END 41
CM 1230 DATAl,l,l,-l,-l:REM SP
HG 340 E=S7t9:LE=E-3+l:O=S+8 2: XX 773 DATA35,196,141,41,196,1 R PRIORITY;SPR MCM;SPR
I =84-161 :MM = S + 1:DF = S + 2B9 41
RD 350
X EXPAND;SPR-SPR;SPR-
N=V + 192:GOSUB680:POKES * KF 780 DATA47,196,141,53,196,1 BKG
9,L:POKES + 10,il 41
FB 1240 DATA1.1,1,1,1,I,I:REM
DF 360 IFS7OS6THENP0KES6 + 1.L: CP 790 DATA59,196,169,27,141,1
POKES6+2.H
{SPACE]BORDER;BKC 0-3;
7
SPRITE MC 0-1
ES 370 N=V+376:GOSUB683:POKES+ DD 800 DATA23B,169,127,141,13,
AR 1250 DATA1,1,1,1,1,1,1,1:RE
20,L:POKES+21.H 220
M SPRITE 0-7 COLOR
DQ 3B0 IFS7OS6Ti)ENP0KES6 + 12,L BF 810 DATA169,9,141,20,3,169
DJ 1260 DATA1:REM 16K VIC BANK
:POKES6+13,H ME- 920 DATA195,141,21, 3,169,24
(56576)
BB 390 N=S+209:GOSUB6H0:POKES* 1
105,L:POKES+106,H XB 1270 DATA1,1,1,1,1,1,1,l:Ri:
RC 830 DATA141,26,208,96,169,2
PQ 400 POKES+116,L:POKES+117,H M SPRITE 0-7 POINTERS
40
XA 410
KG 1280 REM SECTION 5 DATA
POKES+150,L:POKES+1S1,H AD 840 DATA141,26,208, 169,49,1

76 COMPUTEfs Gazelle July 1988


HJ 1290 DATA200,196,251,208,2, S AND TEXT" Program 5: Color Creator
160 BC 170 PRINTSPC(7)"(OR OTHER G
GP 1309 DATA0,132,252 RAPHICS MODES)" KM 10 REM COLOR CREATOR - COPY
QA 1310 REM SECTION 6 DATA QQ 180 PRINT"{4 SPACESjCAN BE RIGHT 1988 COMPUTE! PUBL
[SPACE)MIXED OH THE SAM ICATIONS, INC.
JJ 1320 DATA185,192,192,41,240 E SCREEN." QG 20 REM REGISTERS: 32,33
,74 DS 190 PRINT"{2 DOWNHRVS) 3J 30 ^=49152:5=49664:O=S+82iI
QJ 1330 DATA74,9,3,133,253,185 {YEL}{17 SPACES)COSINE =S+161:DF=S+209
DM 1340 DATA120,193,73,3,10,10 [17 SPACES)" DP 40 POKES+1,6:SYSI
SK 1350 I)ATA10,10,10,10,5,253 8P 203 FORX = 193T021.9 SG 53 PRINT"(CLR)(2 OOWN}"SPC[
KX 1360 REM SECTION 7 DATA HR 210 Y1=INT(35+10'SIN[X/10)) 16)"COLOR 1"
:¥2 = 1 NT[170 + 10'COS(X/ia KP 60 PRIHT"(6 DOWN}"SPC(16)"C
GX 1370 DATA165,252,208,3,76,4 I) OLOR 2"
9 KE 220 Bl=ai92+INT(Yl/a)*320+I KA 70 PSINT"(8 DOWN!"SPC(14)"C
QK 1380 DATA234,76,188,254 NT(X/8)*8+(Y1AND7) OLORS 1 E. 2"
SD 230 B2=8192*INT|Y2/8)*323+I XH 83 POKEV+la*B+0,lH0:POKEV+l
Program 2: Fade In/Out NT(X/8)'8+ (V2AND7) 8 * 8 +1,1 5 0: PO KE V +18 * a+■ 2; 1
DB 240 BI-7-{XAND7) AK 93 POKE7tl8*a+3,130:POKEV+l
HQ IB REM FADE IN/OUT - COPYRI QB 250 POKEBl,PEEK(Bl)OR(2fBI) 8*8 + 4,150: POKEVHR '8 + 5,1
GHT 1988 COMPUTE! PUBLIC :POKEB2,PEEK(B2)OR(2[BI RQ 100 SYSS
ATIOMS, INC. ) MS 110 C«0
■-■: 23 REM REGISTERS: 32,33 ER 269 NEXTX AD 129 C1=IST(C/16)!C2=C-16'C1
PB 30 V=49152:S=4 9664:I=S+161: PG 270 GOTO270 JK 130 POKE7+32*a+0,Cl:POKEV+3
O*S+82:DF=E+209 XF 283 BH^INT (B/256):BL = B-BH*2 3*8+0,Cl:POKEVt32*8+3,C
CF 40 POKES+1,3:SYSI 56!POKE 823,BL:POKE 824,D l:POKEV+33*8+3,Cl
KB 50 PQKEV+32*8+0,0:POKEV+3 3* H CS 143 POKEV+32*8+2,Cl:POKEV+3
8 + 0,0
BB 293 EH'INT (E/256):EL-E-£H*2 3*8+2,Cl
RK 63 DO 159 POKEV+32'a+l,C2:POKEV+3
56:POKE84 3,EL:POKE847,E
an,7 3*8 +I,C2:POKEV + 32#8 + 4,C
H
PP 70 POKEV+32*B+2,0:POKEV+33' KG 330 POKE821,rJ:S¥S820:RETURN 2:POKEV+33*8+4,C2
8+2,0 HK 310 DATA169,9,141,255,255,2 KP 160 POKEV+32*8+5,C2:POKEV+3
CG 30 FOKEV+18*3,149:POKEV+1B* 38,55,3 3*8+5,C2
8+1,153:POKEV+18*8+2,1 XE 320 DATA173,55,3,208,3,238, MH 170 GETKS
HS 90 SYSS 56,3 GF 180 IFKS-"iLEFT}"THENC=C-l:
HG let) PiUNT"|CLR} (I1LK}"; :fORX GM 330 DATA173,55,3,201,0,238, IFC<3THENC-0
=1TO12:PRINT5PC(15)" 233,173 AA 190 IFKS="{RIGHT)"THEKC=C+1
(DOWN)FAD ING 1N":N£XT KJ 340 imTA56,3,291,0,208,226, : IFO255THENC-255
MR 110 FORX=0TO105: POKEV+18'8, 96 BR 230 GOTO120
14 9-X:POKEV+1B*B+1,150 +
X:NEXT Program 4: Window Scroll Program 6: 64 Sprites
GH 120 PRINT"(CLR]{YEL]";:FORX
=1TO12:PRINTSPC(15)" BH 13 REM WIHDOW SCROLL - COPY XK 13 REM 64 SPRITES - COPYRIG
{DOWNjFADING OUT":NEXT RIGHT 1988 COMPUTE! PUBt, HT 19B8 COMPUTE! PUBLICA
ICATIONS, INC. TtONS, INC.
BS 130 FORX=0TO10 5:POKEV+18*8,
44+X:P0KEV+18"8+l,255-X HJ 23 REM REGISTERS: 22,32,33 QF 20 REM HEGISTERS: ALL
:NEXT BJ 30 V=49L52:S=49664sO=S+B2:I BJ 30 V=49152:S=49664:O=S+82:I
JK 140 GOTO 100 ■S+161:DF'S+209 =S+161:DF=S+209
BC 43 FORX=82STOB52:READD:POKE EP 40 PRINT"(CLR]";:POKES+1,B:
X,D:NEXT SYSI
Program 3: Mixed Modes CF 50 POKES+1,2:SYSI BM 50 FORX=VTOV+447:READD:POKE

XP 10 REM MIXED MODES - COPYRI XC 60 POKEV+ia*8,238:POKEV+18* X,D:NEXT


GHT 1988 COMPUTE! PUBLIC 8+1, 1 GQ 60 SYSS
ATIONS, INC. JX 73 POKEV+22*8,230:POKEV+22* GK 70 FOHX=122S8T016383:POKEX,

KK 20 REM REGISTERS 17,24,32,3 8+1,192 255sNEXT


3 GD 83 POKEV+32*8,1:POKEV+32*B+ DJ 1030 OATA32,32,32,32,32,32,
BJ 30 V-49152:S=49664:O=S+82:I 1.1 32,32:REM 0X
=S+161:HF=S+209 MS 90 l'OKEV+33'8,l:POKEV + 33*8 + EQ 1001 DATA52,77,102,127,152,
HP 40 FORX=829TO853:READD: POKE 1,13 177,202,227:REM 0Y
X,D:NEXT RQ 100 SYSS DC 1002 DATA72,72,72,72,72,72,
BM 50 PRINT"{CLR}":POKES+1,2:S XH 110 PRINT'MCLR) {BLKl 72,72:REM IX
YSI (8 DOWN){3 SPACESlHOTIC JK 1003 DATA52,77,102,127,152,
GP 63 POKEV+18'8,114:POKEV+18* E HOW ONLY THE BOTTOM L 177,202,227:BEM 1Y

8+1,1B6 INE OF" KM 1004 DATA112,112,112,112,11


JJ 70 POKEV+32*8,l:POKEV+33«8, XB 123 PRIMT"{DOWN){3 SPACES}T 2, 112,112,112:REM 2X
3:POKEV+32*8+l,Ll POKEV+3 EXT SCROLLS.[2 SPACES}T QM 1005 DATA52,77,102,127,152,
3*8+1,0 HE UPPER PORTION" 177,202,227:REM 2Y
SX 80 POKEV+17#a,59:POKEV+17*8 XJ 130 PRINT'MDOHN) (3 SPACES}0 SE 1006 DATA152,152,152,152,15

+ 1,27 F THE SCREEN REMAINS ST 2,152,152,152:REH 3X


JB 90 POKEV+24*8,29:POKEV+24'8 ATIOHARY!" AG 1307 DATA52,77,102,127,152,
+ 1,21 SS 149 PKIfJT"{H DOWNi{GRN}THI 177,202,227:REM 3Y
RR 100 B=8192:E=16192:N=3:GOSU S IS A SMOOTH SCROLLING HA 1038 DATA192,192,192,192,19
3280 TEXT WINDOW."; 2,192,192,192:REM 4X
AB 110 B=1024:E=1334:N=48:GOSU HF 150 FORX-6TO0STEP-1:POKEV+1 ED 1039 DATA52,77,102,127,152,
B2S0 77,<PEEK!V+177)AMO248)+ 177,202,227:REM 4Y
RB 120 IJ = 1304 :E = 174.1 :N = 32:GOSiI X:NEXT KQ 1010 DATA232,232,232,232,23
B2S0 RQ 160 SYS828:POKEV+177,199:GO 2,232,232,232:REM 5X
XR 130 B=1744:E=2324:N=112:GOS TO 150 FC 1011 DATA52,77,102,127,152,
UB280 EG 179 OAT*173,18,298,208,251, 177,202,227:REM 5Y
RX 140 SYSS 173,192,7 MX 1012 I)ATA16,16,16,16,16,16,
RG 150 PRINT"{HOME)f9 DOWN! DR 180 DATA141,232,7,160,0,185 16,16:REM 6X
lRVS)(CYN}(18 SPACESlSl ,193,7,153 MX 1313 DATA52,77,102,127,152,
NE118 SPACES!" FA 190 DATA192,7,200,192,43,20 177,202,227:REM 6Y
KA 160 PRIHT3PC(12)"t7JHIGH-RE 8,245,96 BM 1014 DATA56.56,56,56,56,56,

COMPUTE'S Gaie!te Jiiy 19B3 77


56,56:REM 7X FINITION 40DPI ICON 'X' POSITION
SJ 1015 DATA52,77,102,127,152, GR 1051 DATA 195,203,211,219,2 KH 300 POKE31876,15:REM MOVE F
177,202,227:REM 7Y 27,235,243,251:REM 3DE ILL ICON "X1 POSITION
KR 1016 DATA192,192,192,192,19 FINITION RQ 310 POKE31B80,0:REM DELETE
2,192,192,192:REM MSB XP 1052 UATA 196,204,212,220,2 tSPACE)144DPI ICON
QK 1017 DATA27,27,27,27,27,27, 28,236,244,252:REM 4DE BQ 320 GOTO9S0
27,27:REM 53265 PIHITION JF 330
FP 1018 DATA70,95,120,145,170, UP 1053 DATA 197,205,213,221,2 EA 340 FS-"STAR SG-10"
195,220,1:REM RASTER 29,237,245,253:REM 5DE QF 3 50 POKE31275,66:REM NLQ CO
EQ 1019 DATA0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0:RE FINITION DE, BYTE 2
M LPX QP 1054 DATA 19B,206,214,222,2 GK 360 POKE31276,4:REM NLQ. COD
CO. 1020 DATA0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0:RE 30,238,246,254:REM 6DE E, BYTE 3
M LPY FIfJITIOM MJ 370 POKS31676,103:POKE 31962
DR 1821 DATA255,255,255,255,25 EP 1055 DATA 199,207,215,223,2 ,103:POKE32018,103
5,255,255,255:REM SPRI 31,239,247,255:REM 7DE CG 380 POKE31871,12:REM MOVE 2
TE ENABLE FINITION 40DPI ICON 'X' POSITION
CX 1022 OATA20O,200,200,200,20 RA 390 POKE31876,15:REM MOVE F
0,200,200,2O0:REM 5327 ILL ICON 'X' POSITION
0 BEFORE TYPING . . . ED 400 POKE31B80,0:REM DELETE
DC 1023 DATA0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0:RE (SPACE)144DPI ICON
Before typing in programs, please HC 410 GOTO 980
M ■{ EXPAND
ME1 1024 DATA21,21,21,21,21,21,
refer lo "How to Type In HP 420
21,21:REM HEM CONTROL COMPUTE!'* GAZETTE Programs," EH 430 P?="CUSTOM"
QP 1025 DATA0,0,0,0,120,120,12 elsewhere in (his issue. AR 440 PRINT"{DOWN)ENTER 4 BYT
0,120:REM INTERRUPT FL E NLQ CODE:"
AG KS 450 N=4:GOSUB1850
MP 1026 riATA0,9,0,0, 240,240,24 CP 460 POKE31274,D(1)
0,240:REM INTERRUPT EN
ABLE
The GEOS Column: MK
CQ
470
480
POKE31275,D(2)
POKE31276,D{3)
FX 1027 DATA255,255,255,255,25 Super Printer Driver KC 4 90 POKE31277,D(4)
5,255,255,255:REM SPRI FA 50 0
TE PRIORITY SX 513 PRINT"IDOHN!ENTER 2 BYT
ED 1029 DATA0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0:RE
Article on page 42. E 6 LINES/INCH CODE:"
M SPRITE MULTICOLOR MO DC 520 N=2:GOSU31850
DE Program 1: Driver BQ 530 POKE 31619,D(l):POKE312 0
SK 1029 nATA0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0:RE
M SPRITE X EXPAND XF 1B0 REM PR.OBJ PATCH PROGRA MG 540 POKE31620,D(2):POKE3120
BH 1030 DATA0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0:RE M 7,D(2)
M SPRITE-SPRITE COLLIS QJ 110 IF A=0 THEN POKE55,0:PO kd 550
ION KE56,120:CLR:A=1:REM SE RM 560 PRINT"[DOWN)ENTEW 3 BYT
KB 1031 DATA0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0:RE T TOP OF BASIC TO S7800 E 8/72 INCH CODE:"
M SPRITE-DATA COLLI5IO XI 123 IF A = l THEN A=2:LOA!)"0: I3G 570 N = 3:GOSUB18S0
N PU.OQJ",9,1 OX 580 POKEJ1621,D(l]
MG 1032 DATAl,l,l,l,l,l,l,1:RE RR 121 POKE31548,45iPOKE31549, HC 590 POKE31622,D(2)
M BORDER COLOR 127:POKE 31638,45:POKE 31 JD 600 POKE31623,O(3)
GE 1033 UATA0,0,0,0,8,0,0,0:RE 639,127 GH 610
M BACKGROUND 0 GD 122 POKE31650,54:POKE31651, Ml 520 INPUT"(DOWN)SUBSTITUTE
RE 1034 DATA2,2,2,2,240,240,24 127:POKE30793,63 lSPACE)60 DPI FOR 72 3i>
0,240:REM BACKGROUND 1 EQ 123 FOR 1-0 TO 17:READ A:PO
KB 1035 DATA3,3,3,3,241,241,24 KE (32557+1) ,A:NEXT DP 630 IF LEFTS(QS,1)="N" GOTO
l,241:REM BACKGROUND 2 GC 124 DATA 32,95,194,32,93,19 670
AR 1036 DATA4,4,4,4,242,242,24 3,76,92,194 AB 640 GOSUB1740
2,242:REM BACKGROUND 3 RM 125 DATA 32,95,194,32,99,19 XP 653 PRINT"(OO^N}ENTER 3 BYT
FF 1037 I)ATA2,5,7,5,243,243,24 3,76,92,194 E 60 DPI CODE:"
3,243:REM SPRITE MCM 0 RA 130 PRINT"{Cr.H)COPVRIGHT 19 XI! 660 1'DKE31952,60:GOTO680
KE 1038 IJATA3, 6, 5, 6, 244,244,24 88 COMPUTE! PUUL., INC. RB 670 PRINT"{DOHN)ENTER 3 tf£T
4,244:HEM SPRITE MCM I E 72 DPI CODE:"
FE 1039 DATAll,12, 15, 1,5,13,7, AB 140 PRINT"[6 SPACESjALL RIG AK 680 N=3:GOSUB1850
9:REM 0COLOR HTS RESERVED" HX 690 POKG31957,D(1)
HH 1040 DATA12,15,1,5,13,7,9,2 CR 150 PRrNT"{OOrtN(PR.OBJ PATC XJ 700 POKE31962,D(2)
;REM 1COLOR H PROGRAM/GEOS CONVERTE GC 710 POKE31967,()(3}
SD 1041 UATA15,1,5,13,7,9,2,8: R" HS 720
REM 2COL0R KQ 160 PRINT"{2 DOWNjSELECT BA Cft 730 PRINT"(DOrfN)ENTER 3 BYT
MQ 1042 »ATAl,5,13,7,9,2,8,10! SIC PRINTER TYPE:" E 80 DPI CODE:"
REM 3COLOR Gil 17*3 PIUNT"(2 S PACES H. EPSO PQ 74S1 N-3:GO3UB1850
ES 1043 DATA5,13,7,9,2,8,10,4: N FX85/86E" JQ 750 POKE31675,l)(L)
HEM 4COLOR SP 180 PRINT"{2 SPACES)2. EPSO BD 760 POKE31676,D(2)
GC 1044 DATA13,7,9,2,8,10,4,6: N LX80/86" KB 770 POKE31677,D(3)
REM 5C0LOR GA 190 PKIST"{2 SPACESJ3. STAR BJ 780 INPUT"{:X)WN}I5 THIS 240
HE 1045 DATA7,9,2,8,10,4,6,14: {2 SPACES)SG10/15" DPI CODE";3S
REM 6COLOR XR 200 PRINT"[2 SPACES14. CUST CE 790 IE1 LE?T3(QS,1) = "Y" THEN
EC 1046 1)ATA9,2,8, 10,4,6,14, 3: OM" POKE 31026,3:POKE31680
REM 7COLOR DF 210 INI'UT'MDOWNjSELECTION"; ,3
MM 1047 L1ATA199, 199, 199, 199,19 PTYPE FD 800 :
9,199,199,199:REM BANK JS 220 :
Fa 910 INPUT"(DOWN)SUBSTITUTE
PK 104B DATA 192,280,208,216,2 SG 230 ON PTVPE GOrO25a,2H0,34 1SPACEJ120 DPI FOR 144
24,232,243,248:REM 0DE 0,430 {5PACE}DPI";0.$
FINITION PB 240 G0TO133
MK 820 1? LEFTS(QS,1)="N" GOTO
FK 1049 DATA 193,201,20 9,217,2 KR 250 P$="EPSON FX-85" 860
25,233,241,249:REM IDE EK 260 GOTO930 EP 830 GOSUB1803
FINITION FC 270 : PM 840 PRIHT"(DOHN}ENTER 3 3Yr
MR 1050 DATA 194,202,210,218,2 SD 280 FS = '"EPSON LX-80" E 120 OPI CODE:"
26,234,242,250:REM 2DE RB 290 POKE31871,12:REM MOVE 2 0e 850

78 COMPUTED Gazelle July 1963


KB 860 PRINT"{DOWS}ENTEH 3 BYT t, s QK 1880 NEXT
E 144 DPI CODE:" PS 13 53 JOS'JiJ1580:GOSU81580:RE XK 1893 RETURN
FF 870 N=3:GOSUB1850 M DUMMY READ OF' NEXT T
XP 880 POKE31985,D(1) 5 S Program 2: Customizer
EM 890 POKE31993,D(2) EX 1360 IF E = 0 GOTO14O0
See instructions in article on page
XS 900 POKE31995,;)|1) FF 1373 FOR 1=1 TO 32*E:REM RE
AD TO DIRECTORY ENTRY 42 before typing in.
EM 919 :
EA 923 PRINT"(DOWN}ENTER 3 BYT RR 1380 GETI2.BS 7834:3F FP FF FF BB 00 01 ft2 7D
E 248 DPI CODE:" XD 1390 NEXT I 783Cr3F Fl Q6 i® 61 AA 57 61 B9
C.J 930 N-3:G03UBld5a GP 1400 PRINT#2,CHRS (128 + 3);:R 7814:A2 40 61 A2 42 61 80 B0 n%
JD 940 POKE32313,!)(1) EM CHANGE FILE TYPE TO 731C:C1 83 08 FD 85 00 CD B9 01
AF 950 POKE32318,D[2) ■ 'USR" 7824 :FF DD 90 00 3D Bf FF FD 85
HH 960 POKE32023,O(3) RS 1413 PRINT#2,MTS;MSS;:REM 1 782C:A0 33 79 A7 F3 71 A3 00 ^D
QS 970 : ST TSS OF PRINT DRIVER 7834:61 BF FF Cl 83 00 01 80 68
JP 980 INPUT"{OOWN)PAPER SENEO CODE 7S3CI03 31 33 00 01 FF b'F FF B5
H OFF (V/N)";PSENSES CH 1420 FOR 1=1 TO 16:REM READ 7344:83 09 00 03 79 2D 7F 30 B8
HE 99.J tt' LEfT5(P3ENSES,l) = "N" THRU FILENAME 784C:00 53 52 49 4E 54 44 52 CE
THEN POKE31618,57 JX 1430 GET#2,3 5 7854:49 56 45 52 A0 56 32 2E 3E
XR 1000 INPUT"(DOrfN}PR INTER DE AE 1440 NEXT I 785C:30 00 03 00 00 44 4F 53 o.\

VICE (4 OR 5) ";PDF.V RR 145U PRINTI2,HTS;HSS;CHRS(0 786-1:47 20 42 4C 41 4B 45 4C 1C


SJ 1010 IF PDEV»5 THEN POKE313 );GTS; 786C:45 59 33 03 00 00 00 03 56
26,PD5V EH 1460 PRINT#2,CHRS (87);CHRS ( 7874:00 B0 33 33 00 33 33 03 65
12);CHRS (28);;REM DATE 787C:i)0 0'J 32 03 00 00 00 3ti 50
CA 1020 i
SS 14 7a PRINTt2,CHRS(12);CHRS( 7834:00 00 03 00 00 00 03 00 75
JD 1030 OPEN15,8,15,"S0:"+FS:C
0);:REM TIME 78aC:30 00 00 00 00 03 00 00 7D
LOSE 15
7894:00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 85
AM 1040 POKE78O,1:POKE7Bl,8:PO JK 1480 GOSUB1563:REM WRITE DI
789C:03 30 33 3fl 41) 55 4C 54 3A
KE732,1:SYS65466:REM ' RECTORY BLOCK
7BA4:49 2D 44 45 4E 53 49 54 09
SETLPS1 PB 1490 CLOSE2
78AC:59 20 50 52 49 4E 54 45 F2
MH 1050 TS*FS:ZK=P2£K(53)+256* PC 1500 CLOSE15
73B4;52 20 44 52 49 56 45 52 05.
PEEK(54)-LEN(TS):POKE7 BR 1510 END
78BC:20 46 4F 52 20 55 53 45 A3
82.ZK/256 HA 1520
78C4:20 57 49 54 48 20 45 50 A7
EC 1060 P0KE781,ZK-256*PEEK(78 R!i PRINTU5,"U1";2;3;ASC(
15 3 H
73CC:53 4F 4E .20 46 58 2D 38 2D
2| :POKE783,LEN(TS) : SYS TS);ASC(SS) 78D4:35 20 4F 52 20 43 4F 4D 71
65469:REM "SETNAM1 FP 1543 PRI!JT#1S,"B-P";2;0 73DC:50 41 54 49 42 4C 45 20 53
AS 1070 POKE2S4,120:POKE253,4: ED 1553 RETURN 78E4I50 52 49 4E 54 45 52 2E 2B
POKE7B0,2 53:POKE 79 2,12 GF 15G3 PRINTU5,"U2";2;0;ASC( 78ECI0B 01! 03 00 30 00 00 00 PD
7:POKE781,64:5YS654 96 TS) ;ASC(SS) 78F4:00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 E5
JK 10B0 IF[PEEK (783) ANDL)OR(l') MC 1570 RETURN 78FC:00 00 03 03 4C F3 7B 4C 63
LANDSTJTHEN PRINT "EKR mf 1583 GET#2,B§iI? IS3"" THEN 7904:70 79 4C 30 79 4C 00 79 3A
OR OH SAVE...":END BS=CHR$(0) 790C:4C F5 79 4C 2E 7A 4C FD 98
MB 1090 REM PRG TO GEOS C AE 1599 RETURN 7914:79 4C 05 7A 45 50 53 4F 80
ONVERSIQN GE 1600 791C:4E 23 46 58 2D 38 35 00 41
DP 1100 OPElU5,8,15,"I0" RF 1618 7924:00 00 00 00 00 00 03 03 17
XG 1110 OPEN2,8,2,"t" GH 1620 GOSUB1580:I=1:REM READ 792C:00 00 00 00 00 50 04 FF 6B
MP 1120 TS»CHR$[1B):SS=GHRS{1) FILE TYPE 7934:FF AD 32 79 20 Bl FF A9 El
SO 1130 GOSUB1530 DB 1630 IF B$=CHRS(3) GDTO169^ 793C:F5 20 93 FF 20 AE FF 6B CO
XS 1140 GOSUB15B0:NT$=B5:GOSUB HP 1643 IF ASCC3S)O13li GOTO16 7944SAD 32 79 20 Bl FF A9 E5 92
1580:NS$=BS 90:REM CHECK FOR 'PRG' 794Ci20 93 FF 20 AE FF 63 hO 1A
CD 1150 FOR E=0 TO 7 TYPE 7954:32 79 23 Bl FP A9 65 23 6F
JS 1160 GOSUB1610 Clf 1650 795C:93 FF 63 8D 2E 79 A0 00 96
1580:HSS=QS:I=3:REM GE 7964:B1 08 23 A8 FF CS CC 2E AB
PD 1170 IF OS=FS GOTO1220
OS 'HEADER BLOCK' TSrS 796C:79 D0 F5 63 A9 00 8D 33 AD
BC 118a NEXT E
XQ 1660 GOSUB15B0:1 = 1 + 1 7974t79 AD 32 79 20 B0 C2 20 D6
DC 1190 IV NTS=CHRS<3) GOTO121
IF ASC(BS)=160 GOTO169 797C:5C C2 A9 00 85 90 20 35 67
0 BM 1670
0:REM END Of FILENAME 7984:79 A5 90 D0 12 20 53 79 ED
SB 1200 TS=NTS:SS=NS$:GOTO1130
798C:20 68 7B 20 4F 79 20 A5 61
EH 1210 IF DS*"" GOTO1490 XM 1683 SSS
7994:79 20 5F C2 A2 00 60 43 82
KA 1220 DT$=TS:DSSaSS:REM DIRE GK 1690 FOR I=ITO31:REM READ T
799C:20 44 79 20 5F C2 63 AA 63
CTORY T4S O END OF OIRECTORY RNT
79A4:63 A2 30 A0 03 88 D0 FD 3C
MA 1230 T$=HTS:SS=HSS:GOSUB153 RY
79ACJCA D0 FS 60 AD 32 79 20 A7
0 SS 1700 GGT#2,BS
79B4:B0 C2 20 5C C2 20 53 79 31
BJ 1240 GOSUB15B0:MT$=BS:GOSUB SE 1710 NEXT I
793CT20 5C 7A A9 0D 23 A8 FF FA
1530:MSS=B£:REM PRINT Bli 172(1 RETURN
79C4:A9 0A 20 A8 FF 20 4F 79 36
(SPACE)DRIVER 1ST TSS FR 1730 79CC:20 5F C2 60 AD 32 79 20 4F
CM 1250 FOR [-2 TO 67 XB 1740 REM MOVE 60DPI ICON RO
79D4:B0 C2 20 5C C2 20 53 79 51
RF 1263 GET#2,US UTINE
79DC:A9 0C 20 A8 FF A9 IB 20 33
QP 1270 NEXT I BE 17 51! fOR 1-0 TO 26
79E4IA8 FF A9 32 23 A8 FF 20 48
FA 1280 GOSUB1590:CT$=BS:REM C EG 17 60 i'OKE 32050 + 1,PEEK(3227
79EC:4F 79 23 44 79 20 5F C2 FB
OMMODORE FILE TYPE 0+-I) 79F4:60 AE 31 79 A0 5E A9 30 53
GF 1290 GOSUB15B0:GTS=BS:REM G PA 1773 MEXT
79FC:63 A9 FF 8D 33 79 4C 75 D8
EOS FILE TYPE CA 1783 RETURN 7AB4:79 AD 32 79 23 B0 C2 23 68
DM 1300 GOSUH1510SRSM REREAD H AC 17 90 7ft3C:5C C2 20 53 79 A9 50 80 B9
EADER BLOCK QD 1800 REM MOVE 120DPI ICON R 7Al4:31 79 A9 7A 85 09 A9 2* AA
HB 1310 PRINTI2,CHRS(0);CHRS(2 OUTINE 7<UC:9S 08 A9 04 23 5F 79 20 DC
55) ; :REM SINGLE FiLOCK GP 1810 FOR 1=0 TO 26 7f\24:4F 79 20 5F C2 63 IB 78 5F
FP 1320 PR1HT#2,CHRS(3);CHRS(2 BS 1B20 POKE 32149+1,PEEK[3229 7A2Ct01 0« AS 32 79 20 U0 C2 EA
1);:REM GEOS FILE ICON 7 + 1) 7A34:20 5C C2 23 53 79 A0 03 6C
15 3 BYTES X 21 PIXEL RF 1333 NEXT 7A3C:B1 32 F0 15 C9 00 1)0 35 23
S AF 1849 RETJRN 7^44:23 A8 FF A9 0A 23 A3 FF 30
HX 1330 GOSU81560:REM WRITE HE GF 1B50 7A4C:E6 02 00 EC E6 03 4C 3G 36
ADER BLOCK MH 1860 FOR 1=1 TO N 7A54:7A 20 4F 79 23 5F C2 60 74
QA 1348 T$=OTS:S$=OSS:GO5UB153 RQ 1870 PRINT"{2 SPACES)CODE(" 7A5k::23 2'i 713 U3 31 6;I 20 Cl >31
0;REM RRAU DIRECTORY T ;I;") = ";:INPUT D(I) 7A64:7S 20 89 73 A5 02 85 03 3!J

COMPUTE'S flaiorre July 1988 79


7A6-J:A5 i)38r> 33 a: 2F 79 AO F8 7D14:BC 7B A9 03 3D SD 7B A9 B5 C048:04 53 6B 65 65 74 20 20 CI
7A74:C0 7B C9 03 F0 ID 98 43 87 7O1C:03 3D ca 7B A9 FF 8D 34 68 C350:23 23 20 20 20 56 31 2E DA
7D24:79 4C C2 B0 FF FF FE 97 C35B;36 00 0fl 03 00 30 33 00 F4
7A7C:A0 30 Bl 08 AE C0 7B 29 38 BF
7A84:A8 FF CA DB FA C8 C0 38 68 7D 2C: 83 30 03 80 00 S3 83 E7 CA C360:00 30 03 00 00 03 30 00 El
7ABC:D3 F3 20 Id 7D 68 A3 83 53 7D34:03 80 23 83 80 20 83 83 1A C068:00 00 00 30 00 00 00 00 E9

7A94:D0 E4 69 A9 00 35 04 2C 1C 7D3C:40 83 80 87 03 81 08 03 Fl C073:00 00 00 00 33 33 30 00 Fl


7A9C;34 79 10 20 98 48 A3 00 06 7D44:82 08 03 82 08 03 82 3F 6B C07B:80 00 00 03 30 03 00 00 F9
7AA4:23 E9 7A 23 0A 7B C0 0B 3D 7D4C:83 80 00 03 80 00 03 FF 63 C0S0:03 33 30 00 00 FF FF FF 02
7AAC:D3 F6 20 10 7Q 68 A8 38 f'4 7D54:FF FF 7F FF FF B3 FF FF 32 C08tt:FF FF FF FF FF FF FF FF 0A
7AB4:i)0 EA A9 30 20 A8 FF 23 96 7D5C:FE 8(1 03 33 83 00 03 91 Q2 C090:FF FF FF FF FF FF FF FF 12
7ABC:AE 73 A5 02 85 OH A5 33 57 7D64:C7 03 82 28 83 82 2B 83 02 C098:FF FF FF FF 03 85 05 A9 E3
7AC4:B5 09 AC 2F 79 A9 03 85 3F 7D6C:82 2a 83 81 C8 83 82 28 nc C3A0:FF 85 06 85 37 23 8C 9D OC
7ACC:04 98 4a A3 03 23 3A 7B 3D 7374:83 82 28 83 82 28 83 81 4C C0A8:68 85 02 63 B5 33 A3 31 01
7AD4:2C 34 79 10 33 23 E9 7A 04 7D7C:C7 03 80 aa 03 as 00 03 49 C3B0:6S 91 02 83 68 91 02 20 41
7ADC:C0 03 30 Fl 21) ID 7B 63 42 7084:FF FF FF 7F FF FF B0 FF 08 C0BB:47 C2 20 35 C2 AD C4 88 C4
7AE4:A8 88 D0 E5 60 81 08 2C CE 7o8C:ff FG 80 33 33 83 00 33 74 C0C0:8D 12 C3 29 20 F0 3E AO B9
7AEC:33 79 33 02 25 04 20 A3 22 7!)94:34 10 23 8C 33 63 34 50 6B C0C3:36 B9 D8 CO 99 02 00 S3 40
7AF4:FF A9 33 23 A3 FF Bl 03 07 7o9C:ftl «4 91 23 33 12 23 85 2F C0D0:10 F7 20 CB C2 4C 2F 9F 2E
7AFC:3!i 34 ca 2C 33 71 30 HI 73 7DA4:F3 F3 84 IS 23 64 10 23 9* CGD3:03 84 03 79 00 05 33 20 47
7B34:31 08 20 A8 FF 63 A3 33 b-8 7DAC:8E 13 23 30 3;! 01 83 03 6C C0E0:51 FA 23 4E CB 20 1C CC 96
7B0C:20 A8 FF Bl 33 85 34 M 06 7DB4:03 FF FF FF 7F FF FF B0 oa C0E8:20 34 FD AD 9B 81 AE 9C 13
7Bl4:A8 FF A9 30 20 A3 FF C8 31 7DBC:FF FF FF 33 33 33 83 03 C3 C0FB:84 20 08 CI 58 B8 50 E7 22
7BlC:fi3 is 19 38 65 03 85 ya 5^) 7!)C4:03 8E 34 70 91 0C aa 81 3A C0FS:1E 30 DC EE 20 El CI 20 4C
7B24:90 32 E6 09 60 AD 31 i<i S6 7,3LJ'::14 8B UL 24 'W Zr, 44 Hi '■■5 C100:8A CI A9 B0 85 2F 23 A3 48
7B2C:8!) 2F Ti 3i ■» a A9 03 85 A3 73:M:9'J 7fi 33 90 34 Si 9J 04 19 C10B:C1 05 01 01 23 33 88 33 F2
7B34:99 C6 33 A 2 08 A8 33 23 75 TJDC-.SH 9C 04 7:1 83 3.1 33 8tf L'J C113:E8 00 30 07 20 00 88 35 95
7BiC:5n CI Vi \S a i ai 32 »•> BP 7JE4:fl3 03 ee FF FF 7i? fft Fh' ■J 'I C118:90 01 28 SO 93 03 F3 33 S3
7B44:38 A5 39 65 33 85 39 A3 3L 71)EC:A3 ee FE 30 3) 9F Fl 90 2F C12BI28 07 28 00 90 03 20 AE Fl
7il4C:37 I) I 0a 00 15 83 10 F-9 26 7DF4:13 90 03 9B F3 9B FJ 98 23 C128:C1 62 00 49 20 43 6F 70 17
7B54:38 AS 03 E9 08 85 08 Q3 37 73PC:73 9!J F3 9B F3 9B PJ 91 53 C133:79 72 69 67 68 74 20 31 37
7B5C:02 C6 39 CE 2F 79 D3 67 FC 7E04:F3 9F F3 80 03 FF FF FF 81 C138:39 38 38 00 20 AE CI 4E FA
7!364:13 60 33 60 A9 7B 85 09 DB 7E0C:FF aa 31 C7 03 32 23 33 AB C140:00 5A 43 4F 4D 50 55 54 62
736=:A9 7F 85 33 2C 30 79 30 BE 7E14:S2 08 83 82 08 83 83 CB OB C14B:45 21 20 50 75 62 6C 69 37
7B74:35 A9 39 4C 5F 79 A9 06 7H 7E1C:83 82 23 S3 82 2a 83 82 F6 C150:63 61 74 69 6F 6E 73 20 3E
7B7C:4C 5F 79 IB 40 IB 38 IB 4C 7E24:28 83 81 C7 03 84 71C3 93 C15B:49 6E 63 2E 33 23 AE CI 0B
7B84:32 IB 41 08 A9 00 85 (19 65 7E2C:8C 8A 23 84 0A 23 84 OA AE C160:63 03 6B 41 6C 6C 23 72 5C
7BHC:AD 2F 79 35 38 A2 08 A0 29 7E34:23 84 72 23 84 82 23 34 5D C168:69 67 68 74 73 20 72 65 35
71194:0} 20 5D CI AD C0 7B 85 C9 7E3C:82 23 84 32 23 BD F9 C3 37 C170:73 65 72 76 65 64 2E 00 D5
7B9C:04 A2 33 A3 34 20 63 CI 72 7E44:33 00 30 00 03 09 00 03 41 C178:A9 FF BD 9C 09 8D 9D 09 0F
7BA4:A5 08 SD BE 7B A5 09 81) 21! 7E4C:00 30 30 00 30 00 00 03 49 C130:CE 9D 39 DO FB A9 FF BD 15
7BAC:BF 7B A9 7B 85 33 A3 [IB AE 7E54:30 32 00 30 03 00 00 30 51 C188:9D 09 CF, 9C 09 D0 Fl 20 50
7884:85 aa A9 05 4C 5F 79 IB E3 7E5C:09 03 00 fl0 00 03 33 30 59 C190:A8 CI 35 01 01 30 03 98 EA
7BBC:2ft 04 83 02 31 ^5 a2 S5 ?,2 7E64:30 30 00 33 33 00 03 30 61 C198:33 F8 30 20 07 30 03 98 EF
7BC4:08 A 5 03 S5 39 AS 2F 79 ac 7E6C:33 33 00 00 ■3<S 03 00 00 69 C1A0:05 03 01 37 03 AI 03 01 C7
7BCC:3A 48 73 A3 37 m 38 A2 E5 7E74:O0 00 00 33 30 00 30 33 71 C1AB:01 17 87 37 00 AI 05 09 60
7BD4:07 6A 7E 24 79 CA 10 F9 3D 7E7C:3H 22 ii 33 00 80 00 03 79 C1B0:33 31 01 7F 37 37 00 AI C4
7H1)C:33 10 F2 59 A3 U7 B9 24 ue 7E34:00 0B 00 33 33 03 00 00 31 C1B8:O5 00 01 58 03 B8 33 E3 6D
7BE4:79 91 03 98 13 F8 20 ID 4a 7E8C:89 33 00 33 03 00 a-i 39 C1CO:00 9a 07 58 30 88 05 01 FD
7QEC:7li 68 AA CA 10 DA 60 A2 00 7E94:00 00 00 00 00 33 33 30 91 C1CH:01 D5 33 0D 03 FD 00 IB 36
7BF4:03 B5 02 48 CA IB FA 20 4C 7E9C:0B 30 30 00 00 33 33 99 C1D3:01 37 00 16 32 01 01 16 30
7BFC:3E 7C A0 00 Bl 34 91 02 09 7EA4:00 03 33 22 s:j 33 33 M CID 8: 30 20 AB CI SS 06 07 6F CF
7C04:AD IE 85 91 04 CB C3 18 02 7EAC:03 {!(! 00 S't oa 33 UU 33 *9 C1E0:19 IB 20 AE CI 5C 00 93 F6
7C 0C: 00 F2 23 5L 7C CA 13 EA 50 7EB4:00 00 00 33 33 30 33 33 3L C1EB:18 53 43 4F 52 45 3A IB El
7CL4:A9 68 85 02 A9 7C 85 03 1A 7E3C:0B 33 33 33 33 03 00 ay 69 C1F0:OO 20 AE CI 9B 00 93 18 72
7CIC:20 56 C2 20 3E 7C A3 00 3A 7EC4:00 00 00 30 00 00 03 33 CI C1F8:4F 55 54 20 4F 46 3A IB 29
7C24IB1 02 91 04 C8 C3 13 DO 33 7ECC:00 00 00 30 00 00 00 30 C9 C200I00 A9 00 BD AB 09 8D A9 F6
7C 2C! F 7 20 51 7C CA 10 EF A2 34 7E!)4:00 30 30 30 00 a;i 00 00 IH C208:O9 80 62 06 3D AB 39 80 DC
7C34:0H 68 95 32 E8 E0 34 1)3 bd 7EOC:00 00 03 30 110 00 03 ■a )9 C210:A4 09 8D A5 39 BD A6 09 0B
7C3C:F8 60 A9 20 85 02 A9 7E 05 7EE4:03 33 33 00 33 03 00 00 Bl C218:8D A7 39 78 20 09 0E 23 58
7C44:85 03 A9 D0 B5 04 A9 3C IF 7EHC:0fl 33 00 lid 03 03 .!■! rJ9 C220:53 C2 39 42 02 01 2E 31 B6
7C4C:85 05 A2 0B 60 A9 18 19 40 7EF4:03 30 33 33 30 33 00 00 Fl C22B:A9 63 3D 9B 84 A9 06 BB 2B
7C54:65 02 35 02 90 32 E6 03 AE 7EF~:00 03 00 00 30 00 03 03 F9 C230:9C 84 58 A5 31 8D 9A 09 87
7C5C:A9 28 18 65 34 85 34 93 5C 7F04:O3 33 00 00 03 00 00 33 03 C238:A9 35 85 01 A9 00 3D 17 20
7C64:32 E6 35 60 01 2B 87 40 B6 7F0C:30 00 00 3fl 30 03 03 00 0B C240:D0 AD IE D0 AD 9A 09 85 D9
7C6C:00 FF 03 3B 10 20 8F. 7C B0 7F14:30 03 30 00 00 00 30 30 13 C248:01 A9 91 85 02 A9 37 85 BD
7C74:12 02 40 A7 7C 12 07 40 F3 7F1C:00 00 03 03 aa 00 00 33 LU C250JB3 A9 01 20 51 CI A9 5D 26
7C7C:AF 7C 12 11 43 BF 7C 12 ca 7F24:00 30 30 00 33 00 30 00 23 C258:85 02 A9 37 35 03 23 5A 99
7C84.-14 40 C7 7C 12 0C 40 B7 51 7F2C:00 33 33 00 00 00 03 33 20 C260:C1 60 4C A5 3C C9 IS BB AC
7C8C:7C 00 18 53 45 4C 45 43 25 C26B:03 4C EE 08 A5 3C C9 81 14
7C94: 54
7C 9C: 52
20
20
53
44
52
45
49
45
4E
53
54
49
45
54
60
4A
Bug-Swatter C273:93 03
C278:33 4C
4C
EE
EE
08
08
A5
A5
3A
3B
C9
F0
33
B5
□2
7CA4:59 3A 00 28 7D 00 00 03 4A C280:B3 03 4C EE BB 4C CB 03 A8
7CAC:10
See instructions in irticte on page
CF 7C 59 7D 03 33 03 B5 C288:E5 03 88 30 30 00 00 30 03
7CB4:10 K8 7C 3A 7D 00 03 93 17 62 before typing hi. CZ90:30 00 00 31 00 E5 03 88 4C
7CBC:10 EB 7C BB 7d 00 00 33 F2 C29H:00 30 00 30 60 00 00 00 21
7CC4:10 0C 70 EC 7D 00 30 32 35
Skeet — Corrected Version C2A3:01 30 E5 03 33 00 00 33 D7
7CCC: 10 07 7l) A9 43 80 31 79 2E C330:BF FF FF FE 83 10 02 80 1A C2A8:O0 80 30 30 00 01 00 F.5 38
7CD4:A9 IB au BB 7B A9 2A 80 313 Cf!0 8:7C 03 ai 93 33 82 10 83 B7 C2BO:03 83 30 00 00 03 60 03 9A
7CDC:BC 7B A9 05 80 BD 7B A9 9C C010:84 00 43 34 10 43 88 10 33 C2i38:00 03 01 00 E5 03 8B 00 AA
7CE4:01 8D C0 7S 4C BF C2 A9 22 C018:23 88 00 23 9E D6 F3 88 40 C2C3:00 00 00 C9 00 30 30 01 D3
7CRC:4H 8D H 7:5 A9 IB 8D 138 ilB C023:00 23 88 10 23 84 10 43 0H C2C8:30 E5 S3 88 30 30 00 33 B3
7CF4:7B A9 2A 3D BC 7B A9 07 62 C02B:84 33 43 82 10 83 81 93 AI C2D0:94 00 28 00 31 00 E5 03 7C
7CFC:Bo BD 7B A9 02 30 CO 7B 79 C030:33 80 7C S3 30 10 03 83 DD C2DB:88 10 3B 00 35 69 00 72 68
7nH4:4C BF C2 A9 00 81) 33 79 IE C338:33 03 FF FF FF 3F FF FF 77 C2E0:O0 01 10 E5 03 88 08 03 51
7l)0C:A9 It) 81) SB 7B A9 2A an 74 C343:83 05 00 FC 04 AA 12 FC 80 C2E3:03 5B 5E 08 2a 03 01 MH DC

80 COMPUTE'S Gazette July 1988


C2F0:E5 03 88 51 00 00 0E FB 68 C598:00 41 36 42 6C 41 00 60 32 C840: EE 9E 09 4C 2B OA AD Al 55
C2FB:29 65 00 01 51 E5 03 88 2D C5A0:18 65 3D 85 3D 90 02 E6 AB C848: 09 FB 12 A9 05 85 08 A9 6F
C300IE6 C0 00 IE 96 DD 5B 84 74 C5AB:3E 28 6C 3D A9 01 8D A2 CD C859: D7 35 0A A9 19 85 0B 20 D7
C308:01 E6 E5 03 88 AB 40 04 2E C5B9:09 4C B9 09 A9 00 8D A2 A6 C858: C6 Cl 4C 6C BC A9 05 85 A4
C310:DF EF FE AA 82 ai AB E5 63 C5B8:09 AD AS 09 F0 95 CE A3 BB C860: 08 A9 97 85 9A A9 0F 85 46
C318:03 BB D4 BE 42 AB B4 59 4A C 5C 0: 0 9 F0 03 EE AS 09 A9 05 IE C86B: 0B 20 C6 Cl At) A8 09 D0 6F
C320:CD 6B 01 D4 E5 03 83 3B 5E C5C8:85 06 A9 9B 85 0A A9 0E BD C870: 0C EE 9F 99 EE 9F 09 EE 3F
C328:7F B3 5F 5B 4E D7 D4 01 6E C5D0:85 0B 20 C6 Cl AD AB 09 71 C878: AB 09 4C B6 0C CE 9F 09 72
C330:3B E5 03 88 EB DF 67 BD 23 C5D8:D0 14 A9 50 85 0A 8D 9F IB C880: CE 9F 09 EE A0 09 EE 9E 17
C338:E9 EF 7E 59 01 EB E5 03 9C C5E0:09 A9 68 85 0C 8D A0 09 Al C883: B9 AD 9F 99 85 0A AD. AO DE
C340:88 BF FF BD 7F F7 FF 2F E2 C5E8:20 CF Cl 4C FF 09 A9 CE BB C890: 09 85 0C A9 00 B5 OB 20 70
C343:BA 01 BF E5 03 88 DF FE BC C5F0:85 0A 3D 9F 09 A9 68 85 B2 CB93: CF Cl 4C 2B OA AD 05 85 55
C350:FF 4A DF FF E7 7F 01 DF 85 C5F8:0C 3D A0 09 20 CF Cl A9 FF C8A0: 19 01 60 AO 99 09 F0 01 35
C358:00 00 00 00 00 06 98 00 29 C600:00 8D 9E 09 8D 99 09 8D C7 CBA3: 60 A5 01 BD 9A 09 A9 35 4E
C360:4B 4B 09 ID 8B 02 IS 5E 9C C608:Al 09 A9 64 3D 9C 09 A9 BE C8B0: as Bl AD IE D0 8D 9B B9 D9
C368:0B 11 09 08 8B 02 0B B6 OB C610:46 80 9D 09 CE 9C 09 D0 34 cena: AD IE DO AO 9A 09 85 Bl A2
C370:08 28 09 08 ID 02 11 AC 67 C61B:FB A9 64 8D 9C 09 CE 9D B7 C8C0: AD 9B 09 F0 03 EE Al 09 60
C37B:09 28 09 08 63 02 11 134 52 C620:09 DB Fl A9 18 8D 9D 09 7ft cacB: EE 99 09 A9 88 85 06 A9 04
C3a0:09 28 09 ID ID 02 11 AC 49 C628i20 D2 Cl CE 9C 09 00 FB 46 CBDO: 98 85 07 A9 00 as 09 85 39
68 11 C630:A9 64 8D 9C 99 CE 9D 09 EE C8DB: 9B A9 58 85 08 A9 7E 85 27
C388:09 28 09 ID 02 B4 B3
C633:D0 Fl A9 20 8D 9D 09 A5 7C C8E0: 9A 2B 2A Cl 29 2A Cl AD BB
C390:B9 09 17 09 00 Bl 91 01 66
C64B:39 30 14 20 9D 0C A5 01 64 C8E8: 9E B9 8D A3 09 60 AD A2 BF
C398:D4 07 80 9D 07 09 42 02 19
C64 8:8D 9A 09 A9 35 85 01 AD 6E CBF0: 09 F0 0A AD A3 09 C9 05 39
C3AO:01 2E 01 84 cc 07 89 DC FC
C65B:1E D0 AD 9A 09 85 01 AD 8E C8F8: B0 0D 4C 08 0D AD A3 09 9F
C3A8:07 B8 07 09 6C 08 BE 07 CA
D9 C658:9E 09 C9 05 B0 03 4C 02 FD C900: C9 19 90 03 4C 08 00 69 FD
C3BO:00 7B 08 C6 07 00 8A 08
C66O:0A C9 BA B0 03 4C 31 OB 68 C998: 20 AE Cl 82 00 48 47 52 B9
C3B8:66 61 73 74 00 00 6D 65 Cl
6C C66B:C9 12 BB 03 4C 90 9B C9 2A C910: 45 41 54 20 S3 48 4F 54 Dl
C3C0:64 69 75 6D 2A B0 73 FE
C67O:1B B0 B3 4C EF 0B C9 1C B6 C918: 21 00 A9 FF 8D 9C 09 BD EF
C3CB:6F 77 00 00 70 69 67 65 43
C3DB:6F 6E 73 00 6F 70 74 69 A9 C67B:B0 03 4C 46 BC A9 OS 85 A3 C920: 9D 09 CE 9D B9 DO FB A9 A5
C680:B8 20 D5 Cl AD Al 09 F0 E7 C928: ca ao 9D 09 CE 9C 09 D0 93
C3D8:6F 6E 73 00 09 42 02 01 78
C3E0:2E 01 84 F7 07 09 9B BB 20 C688:07 20 EE 0C 18 EE A4 09 BF C930 Fl 29 A8 Cl 05 00 01 58 78
C3E8:FB 07 00 IF 08 FF 07 00 70 C690:18 EE A6 09 20 40 0D EE 56 C938: 00 40 03 D0 90 5A B0 60 13

C3F0:36 08 03 00 4D 03 31 EC C698:A9 09 AD A9 09 C9 14 B0 D5 C940: 20 A8 Cl 05 00 01 -7D 00 95


C6A9:01 60 20 8D 0D A9 01 8D 42 C94B: 89 03 97 00 97 01 CO 00 96
C3F8:30 00 00 32 30 2A 00 35 IB
09 F6 C6A8:5D 07 A9 5D B5 02 A9 07 40 C950: 89 03 DF 00 97 00 AD A4 22
C400I30 00 00 31 30 30 00
C6B0:85 03 20 5A Cl A9 88 8D BE C9S8: 09 85 02 AD A5 09 85 03 4C
C40B:AD A6 09 C9 0A B0 0D 20 ID
C6B8:B8 84 A9 97 BD B9 84 A9 73 C960 A9 93 85 05 A9 18
81 85 25
C410:A7 08 A9 2A 8D F9 07 A9 53
08 98 C6Cfl:00 8D BD 84 3D BB B4 A9 BF C968! A9 00 85 19 A9 C0 20 84 28
C41B:0A BD 9E 0A 4C 5A AD
C6C8:E8 BD BA B4 A3 F7 80 BC D2 C970 Cl AD A6 09 85 02 AD A7 EC
C420:A6 09 C9 14 B0 00 20 A7 5B
C6D0:84 60 AD Al 09 F0 14 A9 66 C978: 09 85 03 A9 93 85 05 A9 53
C428;08 A9 2A 3D FD 07 A9 14 Bl
C6DB:05 85 0B A9 D7 85 0A A9 78 C980 C4 85 18 A9 00 85 19 A9 67
C430:8D 9E 0A 4C 5A 08 AD A6 23
C6E0:0F 85 0B 20 C6 Cl A0 00 39 C98 8 C0 20 84 Cl 60 20 Cl OD 45
C438:09 C9 32 B0 BD 20 A7 08 4A
C6E8:4C FC 0A A9 05 85 08 A9 AF C990 A9 00 85 B2 A9 0E 85 03 5D
U440:A9 2A