Sei sulla pagina 1di 9

Energy Efficient Ships, 4th November 2015, Rotterdam, The Netherlands

SUPPORTING THE ENERGY EFFICIENT SHIP DESIGN PROCESS WITH ENERGY FLOW
SIMULATIONS: CASE EFFICIENT COOLING WATER SYSTEM
M Elg,Deltamarin Ltd. and VTT Ltd., Finland
M Kuosa, K Tammi, Aalto University, Finland
P Mkipeska,Deltamarin Ltd., Finland
A Kinnunen and P Rahkola, VTT Ltd., Finland

SUMMARY

The ship energy flow simulator, developed originally by Deltamarin, ABB and VTT, was utilized for evaluating the
potential in the cargo ship fresh cooling water system, considering the individual requirements from the various components
in the cooling system. With the tool, the main topology for an efficient cooling water system could be demonstrated. The
system consists of a balanced ring network with an optimal set-up of pumps and heat exchangers that were dimensioned for
both minimizing the building cost and performing best at the average operation conditions, instead of the extreme design
conditions. The cooling system is controlled by varying both flow rate to components and return temperature to the central
cooler according to the operation profile. This new design method can efficiently support the ship design work already at the
crucial concept development phase, where the main decisions regarding ship energy efficiency are made.

This document is formatted in the convention required for all conference papers

NOMENCLATURE Improving hydrodynamic performance is, naturally, still


one of the most important areas of development for ships.
[Symbol] [Definition] [(Unit)] Nevertheless, the current and future environmental
AC Air conditioning regulations regarding ship emissions and relatively high
AE Auxiliary engine fuel prices have increased the importance of solutions and
CAC Charge air cooler design methods for efficient machinery.
CC Central cooler In cargo ships, slow speed two-stroke diesel engines are
GT Gross tonnage the most common prime movers. Even though these
HT-water High temperature cooling water engines are currently very fuel efficient and the amount
LO Lubrication oil and thermodynamic quality of the engine waste heat is
LT-waterLow temperature cooling water relatively low, various waste heat recovery (WHR)
P Pressure (bar) methodologies and improvements have been studied,
P Power (kW) lately, that can be applied to two-stroke marine engines
SW Sea water also. For instance, various heat exchanger designs were
WHR Waste heat recovery reviewed in [2] for increasing the diesel exhaust waste heat
recovery. Furthermore, [3]summarized the main aspects
1. INTRODUCTION regarding efficient WHR from two-stroke engines and
presented methodology and a case study for a feasibility
The traditional cargo ship types, such as bulk carriers, analysis of the installation of a WHR system on a
tankers and container ships cover over 80% of the total vessel.The results suggested that 5% - 15% fuel savings
gross tonnage (GT) and over 60% of the total installed can be gained, realistically, with an efficient WHR system
power in the world wide ship fleet, considering ships in design. Also, studies regarding container ship WHR
size over 100 GT [1]. Therefore, if we want to make an solutions in [4] and [5] show similar results.
impact in energy efficiency of shipping, these ship types Commercially the waste heat recovery solutions are best
should be studied carefully. available and economically feasible for the larger vessels,
Regarding ship design methods, the challenge is to not such as ships where the main engine installed power is
only recognize the potential targets for development but above 20MW, but also new small scale solutions are
also to model the solutions up to a level where the increasingly developed and introduced to markets.
principal solution can be demonstrated and thereby Nevertheless, in ship machinery there are also other
verified. For majority of energy efficient solutions, this interesting targets for development that would seem to
modelling should be done already in the conceptual and have a large potential for improvement and that could be
ship project development phase, prior to signing the ship applied to a wide range of ships.In [6] the main auxiliary
contract including the ship specification. Considering these machinery for cooling the engines was studied, and this
items in the ship specification ensures that all parties in the area was recognized as one of the most potential saving
ship development after this (ship designer, builder and targts in a cargo ship, after the optimized hull form and
owner) are committed in developing the solution further in machinery concept. The key components in this system are
the detail design phase. the low temperature (LT) water circulating pumps, the

2015: The Royal Institution of Naval Architects


Energy Efficient Ships, 4th November 2015, Rotterdam, The Netherlands

central cooler heat exchanger and the sea water cooling 2.1 INPUT DATA
pumps. Sea water cools down the LT-water that is
circulated through various heat exchangers in the ship A bulk carrier vessel, B.Delta 37 was used as a case shipin
machinery and other systems. In the current systems there this study. The machinery of the case ship consists of one
is a temperature-controlled by-pass line on the LT-side so slow speed diesel main engine, sized 6050kW, for
that a part of the water can be circulated past the central producing the necessary propulsion power for the ship with
cooler. The LT-water is also utilized for cooling down the directly coupled fixed speed propeller. The electricity for
high temperature (HT) water in the main engine. Figure 1 the ship auxiliaries and other processes is produced by
below illustrates the main components in a cargo ship three medium speed diesel auxiliary generator engines,
cooling water circuit. 740kW each.
The energy balance calculation for the case ship [6] was
utilized for the study as initial data. This data consists of
the average estimated operational profile of this ship type,
the propulsion power requirements for the various load
conditions, as well as the average electricity and heat
requirements for the ship processes and the ship machinery
parameters. Furthermore, this data together with the engine
operational data from the engine manufacturer [8,9] was
used as an input to the calculation in the ship energy flow
simulation environment.
For simplicity, the calculations and the case study were
made in ISO ambient reference operational conditions
[10]. In practice this was considered for the engine
Figure 1: The main components in a cargo ship cooling parameters, such as the charge air coolant temperature and
water system. turbocharger air intake temperature of 25C.Table 1
presents the main operational values used in the study for
The energy saving possibilities in this system emerge from the ship cooling water system, where each row describes
the possibility to control the flow with variable-speed an operational situation or dimensioning conditions. The
pumps in both LT- and sea watercircuits for minimizing the first column shows the operation hours at the various
flow through the central cooler by-pass line and for operational modes, and the following columns include the
maximizing the fluid temperature differences over the average heat power from each main component in the
central cooler.This general saving potential can be cooling system that is studied. The last column summarizes
demonstrated with simple energy balance calculations. the total amount of heat from the cooling system that is
Assuming that the temperature differences over the central cooled by sea water at the central cooler. The first row
cooler on both sides can be increased, the preliminary describes the dimensioning, thus, tropical conditions that
estimations for the theoretical saving potential resulted in are the basis for dimensioning the equipment in the cooling
over 4% yearly fuel saving in ISO conditions on an circuit and the second row shows, for reference, the
average route [6]. Practically, however, evaluating the true cooling system values for full load on main engine. The
energy saving potential in this system is difficult, as the main engine load has, thus, a large impact to the entire
LT-water cooling system affects strongly in many of the cooling system.
key components in the ship machinery. According to the operational profile, the main engine load
This topic was studied briefly by Elg et al. with a ship varies between 40% and 75% at sea. In port, only the
energy flow simulation tool [7]. One of the interesting auxiliary engines are utilized.
findings was that once the main engine efficiency was The sea water and LT-water pump capacities were based on
enhanced by lowering the temperature of the LT-water, the reference design values of the case ship, and the
possibilities for lowering the speed of the sea water (SW) dimensioning is based on the design conditions with
cooling pump are restricted. This phenomenon is, almost 100% load on all equipment, adding still some
therefore, important to be included in the models for fouling margin on top of this.
studying the improvement potential in the ship cooling
water systems.
The purpose of this study was to create a simplified model
containing the main characteristics of the cooling water
system, for presenting solutions that improve the ship
energy efficiency. Therefore, the ship energy flow
simulation platform that was earlier created for
B.Deltabulk carrier vessel [7] was extended further for the
purpose.

2. CASE DESCRIPTION

2015: The Royal Institution of Naval Architects


Energy Efficient Ships, 4th November 2015, Rotterdam, The Netherlands

Table 1: The main operational values of the case ship


cooling system, including the yearly operation hours and
the amount of cooling power required by the cooling
system components, in kW

F
igure 2: The principal topology of the low temperature
cooling water system

The main dimensions for the LT-cooling system pipes are


presented in Table 2 below. These dimensions were based
on ship reference material but they are not exact, since the
model is a simplification of the full-scale system.The first
column connects the pipe number to the piping presented
in Figure 2, and the second and third columns present the
pipe diameter both as DN-units and also in SI-units. Pipe
thickness is required for calculating the cross sectional area
in each pipe. Even though the actual arrangement of the
2.2 MODEL CONFIGURATION pipes is even more complex, the system main
characteristics could be studied with this limited model.
2.2 (a) Model topology and initial values
Table 2: Initial values for the LT-cooling water system
The existing platform for the simulation model input data pipes
was used [7], but some additional information related to
the LT-cooling system piping was added, as well as the
piping model was built in Simscape, using mostly the
Thermal liquid domain. Since the sea water cooling pump
has only one connection point to the fresh water cooling
system, there was not a clear requirement for modelling the
piping in the sea water system as a part of this conceptual
study. However, due to the various components with
individual requirements for the flow quality, the fresh
water cooling circuit model required a more detailed model
that would cover the piping also. The LT-water piping was
modelled by choosing certain main pipe lines and heat
producers in the study. Figure 2illustrates the main
topology of the LT cooling water circuit, including the pipe
numbers, as it was modelled in Simscape. The pipes
included in the model were the common return pipe, the
bypass pipe and the common pipe after the pump, 2.2 (b) Case calculation setup and limitations
dimensioned for the total LT-water flow. The individual
pipes for each main heat producer, illustrated in the Figure By utilizing the main dimensions of the LT-cooling system
2 were considered to be located completely parallel to each pipes, presented in Table 2, the cooling water system was
other. modelled in Simscape. A design flow for each consumer
For being able to adjust the flow correctly for each was specified in the reference design data of the ship, and
component, throttle valves were included in front of each the flow for each branch in the simulation model was
component in the cooling system. calibrated with throttling valve components for full LT-
water flow.As a difference from real operation, it was
assumed that the central cooler by-pass line could be
controlled so that the flow through it could be close to
zero. In reality, the flow through this line might be at
minimum 10% of the total LT-flow.
The current recommendation from engine manufacturer is
that the LT-circuit temperature should be kept as low as
possible, although above 10C,which results in better fuel

2015: The Royal Institution of Naval Architects


Energy Efficient Ships, 4th November 2015, Rotterdam, The Netherlands

efficiency for main engine [11].Therefore, for maximizing


the global efficiency, the temperature of the LT-water after
the central cooler, the setpoint temperature, was set to be
only 4C above sea water temperature, as recommended by
the engine manufacturer [11]. This was the main parameter
for the central cooler, regarding heat exchange efficiency.
For this study, the sea water temperature was assumed to
Figure 3: LT pump pressure
be in an average temperature of 21C.
As one purpose of the study was also to look at the
Table 3: Average pressure differences over LT-system
component dimensioning on a rough level, the pump
components (bar)
configuration for the LT and sea water pumps was
considered in a way that a minimum flow limit for a single
pump was set to 50% of the nominal flow. Since these
main pumps always have stand by units, in case of
malfunction in single pump, the minimum configuration of
these pumps would be two sea water pumps and two LT-
water pumps, dimensioned for maximum flow.
The pumping power required for the pumps was estimated
by using a generic equation (1):

m
p
P= (1)

where is the density of the fluid and 0 < < 1 denotes
the efficiency of the pump. In this study, a constant value
of 0.6 was assumed for both LT-water and sea water
cooling pumps for describing the total efficiency of the Table 3 shows that in the current modelthe cooling water
pump, including motor losses. p is the pressure difference system pipes and thethrottling valves create often the
required for the pump, and this value depends on the total largest pressure differences.
system design. For the preliminary calculations in the
study, the reference values from the case vessel design 2.3 SAVING CASE
material were used to describe the pressure loss in the LT-
water and sea water pumps. The design pressure loss for 2.3 (a) Pump control principles and possible piping
the LT-water pump was 3bar and for the sea water pump configurations
2,5bar, and they are mainly based on the requirements for
the main engine. Energy saving possibilities in the ship cooling water
Further limitations for the parameters in the model were a system, after considering the global effects of LT-water
maximum temperature of46C for the sea water after settings, are related to minimizing the pump electricity
central cooler. Following this limit, the maximum consumption. This can be affected by aiming for a
temperature of the LT-water was set to 50C. These balanced piping solution that includes minimal pressure
limitations are based on recommendations from heat losses in the system and lowering the cooling pump speed
exchanger manufacturer regarding the sea water and where possible with frequency converters. On the sea
reference design data for the processes. water side, aiming for maximizing the temperature
difference of the sea water over the central cooler results to
2.2 (c) Initial results and findings lowered speed of the pumps. In the traditional cooling
system designs, the temperature of the LT-water is kept
The pressure in the LT-water system was set to 4bar and constant at all operational conditions, and this set up
the pressure lift of the LT-pump varied mostly between allows altering the sea water pump speed quite freely
2,2-3 bar, as a function of the utilization of the central outside the dimensioning, namely tropical conditions, and
cooler by-pass line. Figure 3 presents the pressure of the the savings are considerable in cooler operational
LT-water both at the inlet and outlet of the LT-pump.Table conditions, since there is always a relatively large
3 presents the average drop in pressure over the cooling temperature difference between sea water and LT-water.
system heat exchangers. However, if the temperature difference between sea water
and LT-water is very small constantly for maximizing
engine performance, as described in section 2.1 Input data,
the possibilities for lowering sea water pump rpm are
restricted. In this case,and with full speed of the pump on
the LT-water side, the possibilities to lower rpm on the sea
water pump are mainly related to minimizing the flow
through LT-water by-pass line over the central cooler.

2015: The Royal Institution of Naval Architects


Energy Efficient Ships, 4th November 2015, Rotterdam, The Netherlands

For further savings, also the LT-pump should be controlled.


The actual control can be based on certain temperature
settings or the control can be based on maintaining the
desired pressure in the system and isolating a part of the
system components with automatic or manual on/off
control valves. Also, the flow through components can be
minimized by allowing larger temperature lift over the
components.
Regarding the piping, it is clear that the current topology of
the LT-water system pipes requires throttling of the flow
for the system components that are closest to the LT-
pump. This creates unnecessary pressure losses in the
system, resulting in higher pumping costs, eventually. Figure 5: Possible concept of a cooling circuit where both
In land-based district heating systems similar challenges constant flow and variable flow control is applied
are faced, since the topology of the local district heating
networks, consisting of several different sized buildings, is 2.3 (b) Simulated cases
very similar to the LT-cooling circuit arrangement,
presented in Figure 2. A new topology for the district First, the concept of ring network was considered in the
heating system piping, based on a ring network concept, piping. In practice this could be considered in the model in
and control method to the pump, based on controlling both a way that the total pipe length would be changed to be
the temperatures and flow rates was presented in [12]. similar for all pairs of pipes, presented in Figure 2,
The concept of ring network connection could also be according to the longest distance. However, since some of
applied to the LT-water circuit in a ship, and Figure 4 the LT-system components require full flow at all
below illustrates this principle. The major difference in situations, as described earlier, the ring network was not
Figure 2 and Figure 4 is mainly that the length of the pipes applied to the total system. Further, the alternative
from the LT-pump and the central cooler are equal for each arrangement of the LT-system was modelled as Figure 5
component. This way the piping network is naturally presents. Based on the recommendations from the engine
balanced and, theoretically, the throttle valves would not manufacturer, also the Lube oil cooler and HT-water cooler
be required, or their role would be considerably smaller. In were placed parallel in the new system, instead of the
reality, without individual control of flow to the cooling original set up of them being placed in series. This results
system components, the throttling valves are still required, in increased maximum flow of the LT-water but, on the
although the amount of throttling required is smaller than other hand, the flow of LT-water can be controlled in this
in the current system. This is due to different sizes in the system.
pipes and variating pressure losses over the components. For evaluating the most efficient solutions, following
simulations were made as listed below:
1. Base line: This case included the model of the
original system, as presented in Figure 2 for
determining the sea water and LT-water pump
consumption in the case of no flow control, with
the original piping.
2. SW pump control: Original piping was
assumed and full flow was included in the LT-
system, but the sea water pump speed was
controlled based on maintaining the desired LT-
water setpointtemperature and minimizing the
Figure 4: Ringnet basic concept. utilization of theLT-by-pass line.
3. SW and LT-pump control: This model included
However, it should be considered that the flow through also LT-pump control by applying the partial
charge air cooler should be kept constant, and some other ringnet concept, presented in Figure 5, for the
equipment in the system requires full LT-water flow. consumers that can have variable flow through
Therefore, also combinations of the traditional system and and constant flow through certain consumers.
ring net could be created. In this case, the number of Further, the third case was divided into two
pumps is increased in the system. A possible set-up of this different simulations for evaluating the suitable
is presented in Figure 5. There all size and set up of the pumps. The requirements
for system redundancy result in always adding
one stand-by pump for each set of pumps, which
should be considered in the feasibility analysis of
the system.
o 3.a: minimum flow of 25% was assumed
for the controlled LT-pump, which would

2015: The Royal Institution of Naval Architects


Energy Efficient Ships, 4th November 2015, Rotterdam, The Netherlands

require from the actual system set consumption this would be over 200t/a, if producing the
upthree pumps that could each be ship electricity with auxiliary engines.
dimensioned according to 50% of the
total flow required in the partial LT- Table 4: Results of simulation. The description min. flow
cooling system. For the sea water pump a referes to the lowest limit where the flow can be reduced in
calculational minimum flow of 10% was the pump in question. The results are presented as energy
assumed, for exploring the possibilities consumption for the individual pumps, in kWh and the fuel
to reduce flow in the case study consumption due to the pumping is evaluated in the last
conditions. Also this would require column, in t/a.
several pump units in the actual
instalment. Regarding the LT-pump that
was named as constant speed pump in
Figure 5, also this pump set up was
assumed to be realized as a configuration
that could actually consist of two larger
pumps for operation at sea and one
harbour pump. This enables smaller flow
in the system when main engine is not
operated.
o 3.b: This case was otherwise similar to
3.a, but the minimum flow limit for the
speed controlled LT-water and SW-
pumps were, respectively, 50% for the
LT-pump and 25% for the SW-pump.
This set up would enable lower number
of installed pumps.

Even though the simulation results included, in addition to


the water flow through system components, also the
change in pressure in the system, the pump saving
calculations were realized based on the affinity laws [13].
According to affinity laws, the pressure difference (or
pump head) is proportional to the square of the flow rate
and the pumping power is proportional to the cube of the
mass flow rate,

2 Once the ring network principles were applied to the


p m

=
p0 m ( )
0
3
(2) partial ring network concept, illustrated in Figure 5, the
piping length addition was approximately 20% of the total
P m
piping length.
=
P0 m ( )
0 (3) The pressure lift of the LT-pump is presented in Table 4.
This number is not used in the calculation of pump power,
but the dimensioning values, presented in section 2.2 (b)
where subscripts 0 refer to design point. Case calculation setup and limitations were used,
In cases 3.a and 3.b it was assumed that the pump total for simplicity. Nevertheless, the results indicate that the
efficiency is lower than in the original system, since there pressure losses in the new system are considerably lower,
would be a larger number of units, and usually the even if no exact calculations should be done based of them,
efficiency is lower for smaller pumps, compared to the since the piping model that was used in the study is not
existing system. covering the entire system.
For estimating the fuel saving, a constant number for ship Figure 6 illustrates the temperatures of the water flows in
auxiliary engine specific fuel oil consumption was utilized and out of the central cooler with case 3.b. Also the mass
in the calculations. flow for all of the pumps is presented in Figure 6. We can
see that actually the flow of the LT-pump that has rpm
3. RESULTS OF MODELLING control is constantly at the lowest limit. Further, the
constant speed LT-pump has variation in flow that is
Table 4 presents the results of simulation according to the caused by the fact that the flow is divided for harbour
cases 1 - 3 presented in the section 2.3 (b) Simulated pump and a larger pump serving also the main engine,
cases.In the original set up of constant flow pumps the once the main engine is running. This function is still
yearly electricity consumption of the SW and LT-pumps modelled as one pump in the simulation platform.
together was over 500MWh/a. In terms of fuel

2015: The Royal Institution of Naval Architects


Energy Efficient Ships, 4th November 2015, Rotterdam, The Netherlands

alternative, 3.b could be recommended as a preliminary


solution that could be introduced in the ship design
material in the current case.
The results of this study and the models created could be
easily extended to various targets. For instance,measured
data from ship automation system can be used as input for
the ship energy flow simulator and the dynamic behaviour
of the components could be studiedin real operational
situations. Also, the generated models and methods could
be applied for existing ships and the retrofit potential of
flow control to the existing system could be
evaluated.Since the input to the model is complicated, the
created simulation model is useful for visualizing, studying
and understanding the phenomenon. Other interesting
extensions to this study could be performing a detailed
techno-economic evaluation of the LT-system components
with the old and new set ups.
Figure 6: Temperatures over central cooler and mass flow Additional aspect is also that the results of the saving
of the sea water and both LT pumps in case 3b calculations of this study are very preliminary. The savings
could be also larger with a more exact model of the piping
4. DISCUSSION and including the pressure losses from the model in the
pump consumption figures. Furthermore, the actual control
For creating a good conceptual design of a ship that aims of the pumps should be designed, including the internal
for producing the necessary material for a ship contract, hierarchy of the units. Another detail study related to the
the parameters that have relatively big impact on ship further possibilities of the simulation model development
efficiency or price should be mentioned in the ship would be to study the sensitivities between the control of
specification. The developed tools and methods described the LT-pump and sea water pump and also to study the
in the paper aim for supporting this ship design phase. optimal set point temperature for LT-water in various
The results in the previous chapter show that by controlling environmental conditions.
only the sea water pump, the saving possibilities are
limited in the system, but once LT-water flow is controlled, 5. CONCLUSIONS
the total pump consumption can be minimized.
Regarding system costs, the number of pumps required This study presented a method for evaluating the saving
would be smallest in the Base line case 1. in Table 4 with potential of a new, efficient cooling water system in a bulk
the current set up consisting of two sea water pumps and carrier, consisting of the sea water cooling circuit and fresh
three LT-water pumps. Case 2 would not necessarily water cooling circuit. The result was a concept that
increase the number of pumps but would require the combined the main characteristics of a balanced ring
control of the sea water pump. Cases 3.1 and 3.b would network for the fresh water system piping to flow control
require both changes to the piping and additional pumps on both sides of the central cooler
with the related control systems. If the LT-pumps in both The studied case was limited to ISO conditions, but
cases 3.a and 3.b could share a common LT-stand by unit, various other operational profiles could be studied with the
the minimum number for pumps in case 3.a would be 7-9 used methodology in a quick manner.
pieces in total. In case 3.b the total number of pumps The study revealed, for instance, that with a low setpoint
would be 6-7. temperature for the LT-water, the possibilities for lowering
Even if the goal of piping design is always to aim for the sea water pump speed are limited. Furthermore,
minimum pressure losses in the system, the current LT- reducing LT-water flow can also enhance the possibility to
water system requires heavy throttling of flow in majority lower the speed on the sea water pump.
of the most important pipes. Piping system design is a part LT-pump control requires careful design of piping for
of the ship basic or detail design phase, and with the enabling the flow reductions. On the other hand, some
simplified piping model used in this study, the exact consumers will require full flow, so the system should be
benefits of the ring network concept utilization cannot be separated into constant flow and variable flow systems, if
proven. Nevertheless, the partial ring network application, the full potential of lowering LT-pump speed based on
together with LT-flow control enabled lowering the amount larger temperature difference over the central cooler.
of throttling in the system and this could be an interesting Regarding the ring network principles, the conclusions
concept to be studied further with full-scale model of the based on this study are that the balanced network
piping. principles would seem to result in lower pressure losses
Even though the exact costs of the systems are not and could be considered in the LT-piping as a partial
evaluated in this study, enabling minimum flow for the solution, for the system parts that require flow control.
pumps with the set up 3.a does not seem to result in However, the system should be dimensioned and modelled
considerably larger fuel savings. Therefore, the last

2015: The Royal Institution of Naval Architects


Energy Efficient Ships, 4th November 2015, Rotterdam, The Netherlands

at detail level for being able to evaluate the full potential of 11. MAN DIESEL & TURBO, Service Letter
the system. SL2014-589/MTS, (2014)

6. ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS 12. KUOSA, M., KONTU, K., MKIL, T.,


LAMPINEN, M., LAHDELMA, R., Static study
This study was made as a part of the project SET (Ship of traditional and ring networks and the use of
Energy Efficiency Technologies) funded by the Tekes (the mass flow control in district heating applications,
Finnish Funding Agency for Technology and Innovation) Applied thermal Engineering, 2013.
Arctic Seas programme. Tekes, as well as all the parties
involved in the SET project are gratefully acknowledged. 13. SECHI MENON, E., Pipeline planning and
construction field manual, Oxford, UK, 2011
7. REFERENCES Elsevier

1. IHS,Maritime & TradeWorld Shipping


Encyclopaedia, Version 12.02, October 2015 8. AUTHORS BIOGRAPHY

2. HATAMI, M., GANJI, D., GORJI-BANDPY, M., Mia Elg holds the current position of Development
A review of different heat exchangers for Manager, regarding energy and environmental efficiency at
increasing the diesel exhaust waste heat recovery, Deltamarin. She is also a part-time research scientist at
Renewable and Sustainable Energy Reviews,2014. VTT and commits her PhD-studies at the Aalto University.
During the past years, her main tasks at Deltamarin have
3. BALDI, F., GABRIELII, C. A feasibility analysis included, for instance, various energy balance analysis,
of waste heat recovery systems for marine feasibility and R&D studies for adapting new energy
applications, Energy, 2015 saving or emission reduction technologies in ships and
offshore vessels. She has also conducted audits and
4. KAKALIS, N., DIMOPOULOS, G., -trainings, related to fuel saving, energy efficiency or ship
STEFANATOS, I., A Novel Framework for process optimization for different ship owners. Mia's
Dynamic Modelling of integrated Machinery current work both at Deltamarin and VTT is mainly related
Systems, COMPIT 2014 conferenceproductions to a joint development project together with other
companies and research institutes for improving ship
5. ZOU, G., KINNUNEN, A., TERVO, K., energy efficiency, for example with simulation assisted
ORIVUORI, J., VNSK, K., TAMMI, K., ship design.
Evaluate Ship Energy Saving Scenarios Using
Multi-Domain Energy Flow Simulation, COMPIT Maunu Kuosaholds the current position of project
2014 conferenceproductions researcher at Aalto University. He is responsible for
research projects and teaching. His previous experience
6. ELG, M., KUOSA, M., LAMPINEN, M., includes, for example,heat transfer and district heating.
LAHDELMA, R., MKIPESKA, P., RAITA, J.,
ZOU, G., TAMMI, K., Advanced auxiliary Kari Tammiworks as an Assoc. Prof. in design of
cooling system for energy efficient ships, mechatronic machines at the Aalto University, Finland. His
EEMODS 2015 conferenceproductions research interests include powertrain, power transmission,
and energy efficiency research. The applications vary from
7. ELG, M., QUACH, S.,ZOU, G., KINNUNEN, A., electrical motor, electrical vehicles to ship power systems.
TAMMI, K., Improvements in Machinery Design He has earlier worked for VTT Technical Research
of a Bulk Carrier by utilizing Multi-Domain Centre of Finland, North Carolina State University, USA,
Energy Flow Simulation, COMPIT 2014 and CERN European Laboratory for Particle Physics,
conferenceproductions Switzerland.

8. MAN DIESEL & TURBO, Main Engine Room Panu Mkipeskahas the current position of Senior
Data calculations for 5S50ME-B9.3-TII, (2014) Machinery Engineer at Deltamarin Concept Department,
responsible for ship concepts machinery specifications and
9. MAN DIESEL & TURBO, L23/30H Project development in machinery sector. His major previous
Guide Marine Four-stroke GenSet compliant experience is from different positions at Finnish shipyards
with IMO Tier II, (2014) during 23 years + 9 years at Deltamarin Concept
Department.
10. MAN DIESEL & TURBO, Influence of Ambient
Temperature Conditions, Main engine operation Aki Kinnunenworks as a Senior Scientist at VTT
of MAN B&W two-stroke engines, (2014) Technical Research Centre of Finland Ltd.He is
responsible for full scale measurements, system simulation
and marine propulsion ice load simulation at VTT. His

2015: The Royal Institution of Naval Architects


Energy Efficient Ships, 4th November 2015, Rotterdam, The Netherlands

previous experience includes working in shipyard and in responsible for modelling and simulation of dynamic
pulp&paper industry. machine systems. His previous experience includes
dynamic energy system simulations of ships and vehicles.
Pekka Rahkolaworks as a Senior Scientist at VTT
Technical Research Centre of Finland Ltd.He is

2015: The Royal Institution of Naval Architects