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Manual FAGUS-7, programa de análisis de secciones de la empresa CUBUS-AG

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606 visualizzazioni

Manual FAGUS-7, programa de análisis de secciones de la empresa CUBUS-AG

© All Rights Reserved

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Sei sulla pagina 1di 157

Manual

since version 1.00

Copyright Cubus AG, Zurich

Table of Contents

A 1 Overview . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . A-1

A 1.1 What is FAGUS ? . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . A-1

The Basic Module . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . A-1

The Analysis Module . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . A-1

A 1.2 Program Input . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . A-2

Material management . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . A-2

Cross section management / Cross section elements . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . A-2

Analysis parameters . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . A-2

A 1.3 Analysis Modules . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . A-4

A 1.3.1 Bending with axial force . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . A-4

A 1.3.2 Shear force and torsion for reinforced concrete . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . A-6

A 1.3.3 Elastic shear flow analysis . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . A-7

A 1.3.4 Limitations of beam theory and cross section considerations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . A-7

A 1.4 Checks to be performed by User . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . A-7

A 1.5 Limited Guarantee (excerpt from Cubus Licence Agreement) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . A-8

A 1.6 Codes . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . A-8

A 2.1 Starting the Program . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . A-9

CubusExplorer . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . A-9

A 2.2 Brief Description of the Most Important Points . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . A-9

B 1 Overview and Management of Cross Section Data . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . B-1

B 1.1 The Program Window of FAGUS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . B-1

B 1.2 The Menu List of FAGUS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . B-2

B 1.2.1 The menu 'File' . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . B-2

B 1.2.2 The menu 'Options' . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . B-3

B 1.2.3 The menu 'Display' . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . B-3

B 1.2.4 The menu 'Window' . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . B-4

B 1.2.5 The menu 'Help' . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . B-4

B 1.3 Management of Cross Sections . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . B-4

Dialogue 'Cross Section Management' . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . B-4

B 1.4 The Layer Buttons . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . B-6

FAGUS7 i

Table of Contents

B 2.1 The Tab sheet 'Geometry' . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . B-7

B 2.1.1 General information on the input of cross section elements . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . B-7

B 2.1.2 Drawn partial cross sections . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . B-8

B 2.1.3 Openings . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . B-8

B 2.1.4 Thin-walled partial cross sections . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . B-9

B 2.1.5 Parametrised cross sections . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . B-9

B 2.1.6 Standard rolled-steel sections . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . B-11

B 2.1.7 Introduction of existing cross sections . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . B-12

B 2.1.8 Axial points and handles . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . B-12

B 2.1.9 PT constraint lines . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . B-12

B 2.1.10 Result points . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . B-13

Standard result points (only in layer button): . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . B-13

B 2.1.11 Result combinations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . B-14

B 2.1.12 Cross section results . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . B-15

B 2.1.13 Checking the cross section input . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . B-15

B 2.1.14 Legends . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . B-15

B 2.2 The Tab sheet 'VT-Model' . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . B-16

B 2.2.1 Shear walls . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . B-16

Input of shear wall . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . B-17

Calculation of shear wall forces . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . B-18

Graphical description of shear wall forces . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . B-19

Simplified shear wall input . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . B-19

Torsion values from basic cross section . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . B-19

Weight factors for wall groups . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . B-19

Additional remarks . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . B-20

Additional input help for compact cross sections . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . B-20

Stirrups . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . B-20

B 2.3 The Tab sheet 'Reinforcement' . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . B-22

B 2.3.1 Reinforcement groups . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . B-22

B 2.3.2 Auxiliary points to graphically construct the reinforcement . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . B-22

B 2.3.3 Point, line and circular reinforcement . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . B-22

B 2.3.4 Tendons / Strips . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . B-25

Initial strain . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . B-25

Bonding . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . B-26

Slope of tendons . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . B-27

Long-term losses . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . B-27

B 2.4 The Tab sheet 'Variants' . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . B-30

B 2.4.1 Properties of the variant . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . B-30

Tab sheet 'Properties': . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . B-30

Tab sheet 'Member' . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . B-31

Tab sheet 'VT Model' . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . B-32

Tab sheet 'Cross Section Values' . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . B-33

ii FAGUS7

Table of Contents

B 3.1 Loading of Cross Section, Section Force Reference System . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . B-34

B 3.2 The Tab sheet 'Reinforcement Design' . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . B-36

Automatic adjustment of the required reinforcement areas . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . B-37

Interactive selection of diameter and adjustment of the layer . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . B-37

Numerical legend . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . B-37

B 3.2.1 General remarks on the dimensioning of the axial reinforcement . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . B-38

B 3.2.2 General remarks on shear force and torsional dimensioning . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . B-38

Check the loading of the concrete . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . B-39

Axial reinforcement due to force in shear wall . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . B-40

B 3.3 The Tab sheet 'Analyses' . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . B-42

B 3.3.1 Ultimate load/ Efficiency . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . B-42

B 3.3.2 Stress analysis with forces . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . B-43

Crack width verification . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . B-44

B 3.3.3 Stress analysis with strains . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . B-45

B 3.3.4 Elastic shear flow . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . B-46

B 3.3.5 M-N interaction diagram . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . B-47

B 3.3.6 General interaction diagram . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . B-48

B 3.3.7 Moment-curvature diagram . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . B-49

B 3.3.8 Moment-stiffness diagram . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . B-50

B 3.3.9 Analysis of second order effects with axial load . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . B-51

B 3.4 Batch Analyses . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . B-53

B 3.4.1 Management of batch analyses . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . B-54

B 3.4.2 Batch analysis/create task list . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . B-54

C 1 Coordinate System and Sign Conventions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . C-1

C 2 Section properties . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . C-2

C 2.1 Introduction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . C-2

C 2.1.1 Area, moments of inertia . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . C-2

Reference material . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . C-3

C 2.1.2 Torsional Constant . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . C-3

C 2.1.3 Torsionskonstante Ix mittels FE-Analyse . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . C-5

C 3 Analyses with Thin-Walled Elements . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . C-6

C 3.1 Shear Stresses due to Shear Force . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . C-6

C 3.2 Torsion . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . C-9

C 3.2.1 Open Cross Sections . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . C-9

Shear Stresses . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . C-9

Torsional Constant . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . C-9

Warping Constant . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . C-10

C 3.2.2 Closed Cross Sections . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . C-10

C 4 Shear and Torsion for Reinforced Concrete . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . C-11

C 4.1 National Codes . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . C-11

C 4.1.1 EN 1992-1-1:2004 Eurocode 2 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . C-11

C 4.1.2 SIA 262 Swisscode . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . C-13

C 4.1.3 EHE-08 Spanish Code: Instruccin de Hormign Estructural . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . C-13

C 4.2 Older Codes . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . C-14

C 4.2.1 Design according to SIA 162 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . C-14

C 4.2.2 Design according to DIN 1045 (07/1988) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . C-14

C 4.3 Design for torsion . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . C-15

C 4.3.1 berlagerung Querkraft und Torsion . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . C-15

C 4.3.2 berlagerung Querkraft und Torsion . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . C-16

C 4.4 Combination of Shear Wall Results . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . C-17

FAGUS7 iii

Table of Contents

D 1 Introduction and Overview . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . D-1

D 2 Remarks for the analysis . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . D-1

D 2.1 Material Specifics . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . D-1

D 3 Analysis . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . D-2

D 3.1 Stress Analysis . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . D-2

D 3.2 Efficiency, Capacity Check . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . D-2

D 3.2.1 Bending and axial normal force . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . D-2

D 3.2.2 Shear and torsion . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . D-4

D 4 Composite Cross Sections . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . D-4

D 5 Calculations directly from STATIK . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . D-4

E 1 Introduction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . E-1

E 1.1 Presentation Conventions for the Examples . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . E-1

E 1.1.1 Load Examples . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . E-1

E 1.2 Starting FAGUS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . E-2

E 1.3 Opening a Cross Section Library . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . E-2

E 1.4 Example 1: Cross Section with Simple Outline . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . E-4

E 1.4.1 Task . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . E-4

E 1.4.2 The program window of FAGUS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . E-5

E 1.4.3 Units . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . E-5

E 1.4.4 Input of the cross section . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . E-6

E 1.4.5 Inputting the opening . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . E-7

E 1.4.6 Input of the reinforcement . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . E-8

E 1.4.7 Tab sheet Variants . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . E-11

E 1.4.8 Documentation of the cross section . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . E-12

Dimensioning the cross section . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . E-12

Select content of figures with the layer buttons . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . E-13

Enter figure in the print list . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . E-13

Creation of a text legend with print entry . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . E-13

Print preview and printing with the CubusViewer . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . E-14

E 1.5 Example 2: Composite Cross Section with Variants . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . E-16

E 1.5.1 Task . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . E-16

E 1.5.2 Definition of the required materials . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . E-16

E 1.5.3 Input of the concrete slab . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . E-17

E 1.5.4 Input of the rolled steel section . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . E-17

E 1.5.5 Definition of the variants . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . E-18

E 1.5.6 Input of the axis point . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . E-19

E 1.5.7 Anchor points . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . E-19

E 1.5.8 Introduction of result points . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . E-20

iv FAGUS7

Table of Contents

E 2.1 Datei: 'S1' . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . E-21

E 2.1.1 Trger, Bewehrungsbemessung . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . E-21

E 2.1.2 Trger R2, Grenzwerte . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . E-21

E 2.1.3 I-Trger, Bemessung fr kombinierte Beanspruchung . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . E-22

E 2.1.4 Kreissttze . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . E-22

E 2.1.5 Sttzenquerschnitt, Steifigkeitsdiagramme . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . E-22

E 2.1.6 Spannungsnachweise vorgespannter Trger, Schiefe Biegung . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . E-22

E 2.1.7 Interaktionsdiagramme fr einbetoniertes Walzprofil . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . E-23

E 2.1.8 Spannungsanalyse fr vorgespannten Brckentrger . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . E-23

E 2.1.9 Brckentrger mit inaktiven Querschnittsteilen . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . E-23

E 2.1.10 Dnnwandige Querschnitte . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . E-24

E 2.2 Datei 'S2': Verbundquerschnitt mit Belastungsstufen . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . E-25

E 2.3 Datei 'S3': Verbundquerschnitt unter Langzeitbelastung . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . E-26

F 1 Thermal Analysis . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . F-1

F 1.1 Theoretic Basics . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . F-1

F 1.2 Register 'Thermal Analysis' . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . F-3

F 1.2.1 Material Properties . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . F-3

Thermal values for concrete . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . F-4

Thermal values for steel . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . F-4

Special (User-defined) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . F-4

F 1.2.2 Temperature-time curves . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . F-4

F 1.2.3 Thermal bounds . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . F-6

Tab sheet 'Thermal action' . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . F-6

Tab sheet 'Encasement' . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . F-7

Visibility and graphic representation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . F-7

F 1.2.4 Analysis Options . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . F-7

Time . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . F-8

FE-Mesh . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . F-8

F 1.2.5 Run thermal analysis . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . F-9

Check Input . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . F-9

Run thermal analysis . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . F-9

Reset thermal analysis . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . F-9

F 1.2.6 Result Output . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . F-9

F 1.3 Validationexamples . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . F-11

F 1.3.1 DIN EN 1991-1-2/NA:2010:12 Appendix CC . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . F-11

F 1.3.2 EN 1992-1-2 Appendix A . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . F-11

Reinforced concrete column 30 x 30 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . F-11

Slab cross-section . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . F-11

F 2 Mechanical Analysis . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . F-13

F 2.1 Influence of temperature on material behaviour . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . F-13

F 2.1.1 Strain/Stress relations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . F-13

F 2.1.2 Thermal strain . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . F-15

F 2.2 Analysis . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . F-16

F 2.2.1 Basics of the solution process . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . F-16

F 2.2.2 Using the program . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . F-16

F 2.3 Utilisation / Capacity / Failure time . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . F-17

F 2.4 Stress analysis with given forces . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . F-17

F 2.5 Stress analysis with given strain . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . F-17

F 2.6 Moment-curvature-diagram . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . F-18

F 2.7 Checklist . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . F-18

FAGUS7 v

Table of Contents

G 1 Baustoffe . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . G-1

G 1.1 Baustoff-Dialoge . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . G-1

G 1.2 Eindimensionale Spannungs-Dehnungsbeziehungen . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . G-2

G 1.2.1 Beton-Druckspannungen . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . G-2

G 1.2.2 Beton-Zugspannungen . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . G-3

G 1.2.3 Mitwirkung des Betons zwischen den Rissen mittels Verbundbeiwert . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . G-4

G 1.2.4 Betonstahl, Baustahl und Spannstahl . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . G-4

G 2 Analyseparameter . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . G-6

G 2.1 Der Analyseparameter-Dialog . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . G-6

G 2.1.1 Registerblatt Grenzdehnungen und Grenzspannungen . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . G-6

G 2.1.2 Registerblatt Widerstandsbeiwerte / Teilsicherheitsbeiwerte: . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . G-8

G 2.1.3 Registerblatt Beton-Diagramm . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . G-8

G 2.1.4 Registerblatt Vorspannung: . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . G-8

G 2.1.5 Registerblatt Bewehrung . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . G-8

G 2.1.6 Weitere Werte . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . G-9

G 2.1.7 Zustzliche Parameter . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . G-9

G 2.1.8 Echoprint . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . G-9

vi FAGUS7

A 1 Overview

Vol. A Introduction

FAGUS7

A 1 Overview

FAGUS is a program for analysing the properties of cross sections, which can be used

either alone or together with other Cubus programs. This chapter provides a general over

view of its capabilities, the concept underlying its use and the way it works in conjunction

with the other Cubus programs. In Part B an in-depth description is given of each program

component.

Parts A and B together with the Introductory Example should be sufficient to allow one to

use the program. The other sections deal with some specific aspects. These chapters can

be consulted at any time using the program's Help System. They are available as PDF files

and thus, if necessary, they can be printed individually.

EAx EJy

The Basic Module is part of the STATIK packet and serves to analyse arbitrarily-shaped cross

section geometries and calculate the cross section properties (Ax, Iy, Iz etc.). Simpler cross

sections can be analysed directly in the corresponding structural member (beam) dialogue

as so-called parametrised cross sections by supplying their dimensions. A simplified input

s is also possible for rolled steel sections. For the analysis of cross sections of arbitrary geo

metry the object-oriented Graphics Editor, which should be well known from the other

E Cubus programs, is used. The cross sections may then have an arbitrary shape described

by polygonal or circular boundary.

All similar types of cross sections are stored in a so-called Cross Section Library. A cross

section library is in fact a Windows folder containing FAGUS cross sections. It may be an

analysis folder, which is created directly by FAGUS (or in the CubusExplorer for FAGUS), or

a project folder from another Cubus program, e.g. STATIK, which also works with FAGUS

cross sections. The cross sections stored in various libraries can be imported and exported.

The Analysis Module, which has to be purchased as an additional option, includes the

S Interactive analysis and dimensioning of reinforced and prestressed concrete cross sec

tions (for bending about one or two axes, together with axial and shear forces and tor

sional moments).

S Dimensioning and verification of whole frame structures (= post-processing with an au

tomatic import of section forces from STATIK)

S Dimensioning and verification of timber cross sections

The computational core of FAGUS is also used in other Cubus programs (STATIK, CEDRUS,

LARIX, PYRUS). Therefore, with the aid of interactive FAGUS the corresponding cross sec

tion results can be reproduced in detail interactively.

FAGUS7 A-1

Vol. A Introduction

cross section analysis With the help of figure A-1 it will be attempted to explain graphically some technical terms

and concepts.

M

N

Material management

sc Corresponding to the two abovementioned program modules the material management

consists of two parts. If only cross section properties (and possibly masses) have to be calcu

lated, it is sufficient if the parameters on the left side are defined. If the cross section is ana

lysed using FAGUS additional material parameters have to be known. This is achieved by

assignment to a Material Class.

The modulus of elasticity therefore is defined twice. The value on the left side determines

the corresponding section forces or deformation analysis of the associated FE program

(STATIK, CEDRUS) and can be changed at any time for special analyses without affecting the

cross section analysis.

For a valid cross section that can be used in STATIK at least one complete boundary or a

so-called thin-walled section has to be input. Parametrised cross sections or steel sections

provide simplified input aids, by extending these elements, if necessary. If reinforced con

crete analyses have to be carried out, the reinforcement also has to be known. A cross sec

tion can be dimensioned if a minimum of one reinforcement layer (line or point) is present

on the tension side. In order to be able to switch quickly between different reinforcement

layouts, it is best to group together the individual reinforcement elements to form Rein

forcement Groups.

Besides bending with axial force, with FAGUS the effect of shear force and torsion can also

be investigated. For an elastic consideration of shear flow the cross section must consist of

thin-walled elements. In the case of reinforced concrete analyses, as structural modelling

elements so-called shear walls are used, which have to be input in addition to the existing

cross section boundary.

Cross section variants are needed for STATIK construction states. If the cross section

changes during construction, this can be achieved with the aid of cross section variants by

activating/deactivating individual cross section elements. A new cross section always has

the variant "Standard".

Each cross sectional element is input graphically as a point, line, polygon, etc., and is as

signed additional attributes (e.g. material for point reinforcement). Properties, which apply

to the whole cross section, are called variant properties.

Analysis parameters

All other settings that cannot be included in the cross sectional or material properties are

contained in the analysis parameters. These, e.g., are code provisions such as limiting

strains, minimum reinforcement contents, etc.

In all Cubus programs there is an identical program module for the management of the ma

terials and analysis parameters. The description can be found in a separate document.

A-2 FAGUS7

A 1 Overview

FAGUS

Basic Module Analysis Module

Material management

ID Type Component E G Material class fcd Ecm fctm

CC concrete columns 38 13 2.5

R reinf. steel general 210 80 8.0

The lists can be extended by the user.

Predefined lists for different codes

Partial cross sections

circumscribed: polygon steel section Name Partial factors

ss,adm max gc gs gp

ULS 20 o/oo 1.5 1.15

Input

SLS 150Nmm 2

thin-walled:

The list can be extended by the user.

untensioned or

prestressed

cross section variants

(arbitrary combinations of partial cross sections M

N

and reinforcement of a cross section)

reinforcement design

static cross section properties ultimate load analyses

Analysis / Output

interaction diagrams

moment/curvature diagrams

moment/stiffness diagrams

shear flow distributions

FAGUS7 A-3

Vol. A Introduction

The figure A-2 shows various possibilities of the Analysis Module:

Top left is the simplest type of analysis, the stress analysis for a given strain plane, shown

schematically. If the strain plane is known, a cross section integration suffices (summation

of all stresses) to obtain the section forces. The assumptions made there also apply to all

subsequent analyses listed below:

S Cross sections remain plane (Bernoulli hypothesis), i.e. linear strain distribution over the

cross section (the strain plane).

S Fully effective bonding between concrete and reinforcing steel.

Exception: prestressed elements can be introduced with the option 'without bonding'.

S Zero concrete tensile strength, i.e. cracked concrete tensile zone (= State II). (For special

analyses a small amount of concrete tensile strength can be taken into account.)

Regarding computational effort, the executed stress analysis for given forces top right re

quires some extra computational effort. The associated strain plane, corresponding to the

given section forces, can only be determined after many iterations. The procedure is as fol

lows:

S Assumption of a strain plane

S Determination of the internal forces and moments (integration over cross section)

S Comparison of external and internal forces. If the out-of-balance loads are too great, the

iteration is repeated with an improved strain plane.

In the determination of the ultimate load or the strength utilisation (efficiency) of the

given section, forces are increased continuously until a specified limit state is reached, i.e.

until the edge strains defined by the analysis parameters are reached. The analysis is carried

out as a repeated stress analysis and is therefore more time-consuming. The program per

mits, among other things, simply increasing individual section force components.

In reinforcement design the area of reinforcement is determined such that a particular

loading can just be resisted. The dimensioning is based on the ultimate load analysis. For

the existing reinforcement an efficiency factor is determined. If this is insufficient the area

of reinforcement is increased until the required value is reached. In the case of beam cross

sections, primarily the tension side is dimensioned, whereas in the case of column cross

sections the complete reinforcement. Individual reinforcement layers can be defined as

"constant". In this case their area remains unchanged during the dimensioning process.

The diagrams shown in the lower part represent the graphical evaluations of the analyses

described above:

In the case of the simple My-N interaction diagrams all section forces are displayed graph

ically for a number of strain planes corresponding to a limit state. This analysis is performed

for the reinforcement already present in the cross section or for specific reinforcement con

tents. Each point in the diagram can also be reproduced with the analyses carried out

above.

The general section force-interaction diagram is determined using a number of ultimate

load/efficiency analyses. Of the three components, one component must be chosen to be

constant, so that the corresponding (2-dimensional) diagram can be constructed. How

ever, several curves can be displayed simultaneously in the same diagram (e.g. for N=-100

kN, -200 kN, etc.).

The last two diagrams represent graphical evaluations of stress analyses. For a particular ax

ial force the bending moment is increased continuously and the result (stiffness or curva

ture) is displayed graphically.

A-4 FAGUS7

A 1 Overview

Stress analysis for given strain plane Stress analysis for given force

(y,z) (y,z) (y,z) (y,z)

? x

x M M ?

N N

Method of solution:

Method of solution: Iteration: variation of the strains until internal section forces =

Integration of the stresses over the cross section given external section forces

..u

?

N M .N .M Nd Md ?

As=?

Section forces varied until the limit state is reached As varied until efficiency =1

(repeated stress analysis)

N One value from N, My, Mz M

z

kept constant e.g.

N=constant

(given value)

M y

M y

Section forces determined for all possible limit states Repeated ultimate load analysis (with 3rd component constant)

EI My

y

My xy

Repeated stress analysis with N=constant Repeated stress analysis with N=constant

FAGUS7 A-5

Vol. A Introduction

For the analysis and dimensioning in the case of shear force and torsion, the polygonal

boundary is not enough to automatically generate from it a suitable reinforced concrete

model. The user therefore also has to define a so-called shear wall model, as shown in the

figure below.

Here it is assumed that a shear wall can only resist forces in the direction of the plane of the

wall. The sum of all in-plane forces must be in equilibrium with the external loads. Thus, at

least three shear walls are needed that do not intersect at a point to be able to resist an arbit

rary combination of shear force and torsion.

If one has more than three shear walls the problem is statically indeterminate and the distri

bution is carried out on the basis of the existing stiffnesses. In the literature on earthquake

design for buildings it is, e.g., proposed to distribute the forces according to the moment

of inertia of each wall. Such an analysis can also be carried out using FAGUS .

Vz Centre of stiffness:

S(I iyyi)

ys +

T SI iy

Vy S(I izz i)

zs +

SI iz

If the in-plane forces are known, the required reinforcement content can be determined

from the corresponding provisions of the code.

compression

In FAGUS z is defined by the diagonal strut

flange

shear wall geometry (= user V

input), i.e. there is no auto

z M

matic import from the ben

ding analysis! N

tension

flange shear reinforcement

A sl2 A sl2

S Ch. B 2.2 : Tabsheet 'Shear Walls'

General description of shear wall input

S Ch. B 2.4 : Tabsheet 'Variants' > 'V-T Models'

Control possibilities open / closed cross sections, etc)

S Ch. C 4 : Further explanations on determining shear wall forces.

Dimensioning requirements of different codes.

A-6 FAGUS7

A 1 Overview

A quite different approach is available for cross sections that are made up of thin-walled el

ements. An elastic shear flow analysis is sometimes needed for the analysis of steel cross

sections, but can also be used for comparison purposes for the type of wall loading de

V scribed above. In addition to the flow diagram shown on the left, summed shear stresses

can be output for each wall. These in-plane forces can then, in special cases, be compared

with the reinforced concrete shear wall forces.

A 1.3.4 Limitations of beam theory and cross section considerations

In principle, it should be mentioned that for a cross section analysis it is required that the

assumptions of the beam theory apply. However, a pure consideration of the cross section,

strictly speaking, is only permissible in the B regions (Bending, Beam, Bernoulli) shown be

low with the following conditions:

S uniformly distributed loading

S uniformly or gradually changing thickness

S cross sections remain plane

In the other regions (nodes, geometrical Discontinuities, etc.), often additional considera

tions (truss models, stress fields) are often necessary.

D B

D B

D

B beam with opening

gantry crane - corbel

B D B

Fig. A6 Comparison of Beam and Discontinuity regions

the results and to obtain an overview by varying the model parameters. Not all analysis

quantities have the same influence on the final result! Besides questions of modelling,

there are a number of error sources, beginning with the data input, followed by numerical

problems. Finally, there may be programming errors, which despite taking every care in the

development work can never be completely excluded. The user is responsible for the inter

pretation and application of the results. It is required that the results are randomly checked

using a simple calculation by hand together with plausibility considerations.

FAGUS7 A-7

Vol. A Introduction

Limited Guarantee - Cubus guarantees for a period of six months from the first date of de

livery that the software basically works according to the accompanying computer manual

and that the hardware module distributed with the software is free from material and work

manship defects.

Satisfying customer demands - the complete liability of Cubus is covered by the choice

of either (a) refunding the whole of the payment price or (b) the repair or replacement of

the software or hardware, which does not fulfil the Cubus guarantee, provided they are re

turned to Cubus. This limited guarantee does not apply if the malfunctioning of the soft

ware or hardware is due to an accident, misuse or inappropriate application.

No other guarantee - Cubus excludes every additional guarantee regarding the software,

the accompanying manuals and the hardware module supplied.

No liability (without restriction) regarding consequential damage - neither Cubus nor

its suppliers are liable to pay compensation for any damage (including damage due to a loss

of profit, business interruption, loss of business information or data or any other financial

loss), arising from the use of the Cubus product or the inability to use this product. In any

case the liability of Cubus is limited to the purchase price the user actually paid for the prod

uct.

A 1.6 Codes

In accordance with the standard verifications carried out today, various limit states (ulti

mate load/serviceability) have to be investigated. FAGUS is appropriate for determining

the cross section behaviour, i.e. the section forces have to be known!

In the interactive mode of operation the section forces have to be input manually (design

level!) and each analysis has to be performed individually. Thus this mode mainly serves

preliminary dimensioning or the verification of certain results in other programs. If FAGUS

is started from CEDRUS, STATIK or LARIX they produce the envelopes of all combinations

that have to be investigated and the safety factors are automatically set correctly according

to the particular verifications that are required.

For some codes, both materials properties and analysis parameters are tabulated. Under

the term 'analysis parameters' all values are included that influence the analysis in one way

or another, e.g. limiting strains, partial safety factors, etc. Of course, not all codes can be

modelled on a reference code simply by means of parameter selection. Especially for shear

force and torsion each country has its own code provisions.

Standardisation within Europe has been achieved through Eurocode EC2 (Edition:2004).

Within the framework of code selection it is shown whether the selected code is based on

an "original" implementation or uses a reference code that can be simulated by means of

parameter adjustment. It may be that the selected code only carries out the analyses for

bending and normal force.

Although many technical terms were unified in the new Eurocodes, even in German speak

ing countries certain differences exist, e.g.

SIA262 : g s = Widerstandsbeiwert fr Betonstahl und Spannstahl

(Resistance factor for ordinary reinforcing steel and prestressing steel)

EC2,DIN 1045-1 : g s = Teilsicherheitsbeiwert fr Betonstahl

(Partial safety factor for ordinary reinforcing steel)

As a basis for the program development, among others the following documents were

used

S EN 1992-1-1: Planung von Stahlbeton- und Spannbetontragwerken (Eurocode EN

1992-1-1: Design of Concrete Structures)

S SIA Normen 260,261,262, ...: Schweiz. Ingenieur- und Architekten-Verein (Swiss Codes

SIA260 -SIA267,etc.)

S DIN-Norm 1045-1: Tragwerke aus Beton- und Stahlbeton (German Code DIN 1045-1)

A-8 FAGUS7

A 2 Starting the Program - Brief Description

S By direct execution of the program file FAGUS7.EXE, e.g. using the Windows Start Menu

(with the standard installation: [Start] > Programs > Cubus > FAGUS-7) FAGUS-7 is dis

played with an empty window and the following menu bar:

This method of starting is recommended above all if one wants to continue with one of

the recently modified cross section libraries (these are listed in the File menu).

S Using the CubusExplorer: The CubusExplorer is an independent program for managing

the analyses of the different Cubus programs and is also called using the Windows Start

Menu

(with the standard installation: [Start] > Programs > Cubus > CubusExplorer)

CubusExplorer

Jede Installation von Cubus-Programmen beinhaltet den CubusExplorer. Es ist das zentrale

Modul bei der Verwendung der Programme und dient folgenden Zwecken:

S Start der einzelnen Programme

S Verwaltung der Berechnungsdaten

S Verwaltung der Installation ber den CubusManager, der vom CubusExplorer aus auf

gerufen wird

Start CubusManager

zur Verwaltung der

Installation

Start der

Anwendungspro Verwaltung

gramme der aktu der Berech

ellen Generation nungsdaten

grammen frherer

Generationen

In Windows one generally works with the left mouse button. Clicking on or selecting a

symbol on the screen involves moving the mouse pointer over the symbol and then pres

sing for a short time on the left mouse button. The right mouse button is only for displaying

a context menu on the screen in a particular situation.

FAGUS7 A-9

Vol. A Introduction

Online Help:

Many of the dialogue windows that appear during input have a Help button. The corres

ponding link brings the user directly to the corresponding page in the PDF manual. (De

pending on the zoom factor the page may have to be moved up or down a little. )

By pressing the <F1> key, while the mouse pointer is situated over a button, the FAGUS

manual is opened (<F1> during the input of a graphics element opens the manual of the

Graphics Editor.)

For the first input of a cross section one proceeds as follows:

S Select button for new cross section; input desired name

1) New cross section S Work through the Control tabsheet sequentially from left to right (geometry, shear

walls, reinforcement)

2) Tabsheet selection

S Select desired cross section elements. The input sequence is basically free. However it

is recommended to work through the tabsheets and the buttons sequentially from left

to right.

S As soon as the corresponding button is clicked with the left mouse button, the

properties dialogue is opened and all numerical attributes can be input. At the same

time all currently permissible drawing tools are activated on the left side of the screen.

5a) 'Create'

A-10 FAGUS7

A 2 Starting the Program - Brief Description

S The geometrical input procedure is now started using the button 'Create' or using the

corresponding input symbol on the left side of the screen.

The button 'Create' starts the polygon input.

5b) Graphics Editor Alternative tools of the Graphics Editor are available on the left side of the screen, whe

Tools reby instead of the button 'Create' one of the symbols is selected. Then the individual

coordinate pairs of the bounding line are input either with the keyboard or with the

mouse (the hint on the mouse pointer indicates what the program now expects and

how the input is closed). At the end of the manual there is an example with a complete

cross section input ("key by key"). A complete description of all possibilities of the

Graphics Editor is available with the Help function (grabbing, grid points, relative,

orthogonal input ...)

6) Input boundary A cross section boundary may consist of individual lines, of a closed polygon or of diffe

rent polygon sections. With [OK] the dialogue Modify cross section is closed and from

y 5, z 5 y 4, z 4

the input the program tries to form a single closed polygon.

Each tabsheet has a Check function with which the input thus far can be checked.

y 7, z 7 y 2, z 2

Subsequent changes / object-oriented procedure

y 3, z 3

Existing input can be modified by clicking on the corresponding object and then the con

text menu is activated using the right mouse button. If, e.g., parameters are to be verified

or changed, the properties dialogue must be called. After the selected input fields have

y 1, z 1 been modified, the changes are made effective by using the button 'Apply'. (Apply is only

y 8, z 8 active if something was actually modified). The number of affected objects is shown in

brackets.

Input of shear walls

If a reinforced concrete cross section is subjected to shear forces or torsional action, shear

walls have to be input. The tabsheet Shear Walls is available for this purpose. A single

shear wall is input geometrically as a line. For complicated (non-contiguous) cross sections

there is the Help function Generate shear walls automatically, which attempts to analyse

an existing outline geometry and suggest the most feasible solution. Possibly, this sugges

tion still has to be modified manually.

Input of reinforcement

Reinforced concrete cross sections should contain at least two reinforcement layers (with

an initial reinforcement content), to allow them to be analysed or dimensioned. The geo

metrical positioning is performed very quickly and accurately, if beforehand stirrups have

been input. Here too there is a function, which, based on the existing shear walls and the

cross section geometry, makes a fairly reasonable suggestion. Afterwards the cross section

is ready for dimensioning or analysis. These are described in Part B of this manual

FAGUS7 A-11

Vol. A Introduction

A-12 FAGUS7

B 1 Overview and Management of Cross Section Data

FAGUS7

Each purchased license of FAGUS can only run on one computer at a time, but several cross

section libraries (analysis windows) can be open at the same time. After opening a cross

section library, the FAGUS window looks as follows:

Menu

Management of

cross sections

Graphics Editor

functions and tools:

Drawing

tools Control Tab

sheet

Drawing area

Selection

Part of drawing

(Zoom...)

Undo/Redo

Layer switches

Input options

input fields scale

In general, the first time a cross section is input the individual Tab sheets should be worked

through from left to right.

As mentioned previously, the computational core FGx.DLL is also used by other Cubus

programs. In this way it is ensured that the cross section analysis can be carried out with all

these programs. The interactive program FAGUS serves to create cross sections and to ana

lyse them manually.

FAGUS7 B-1

Vol. B Working with FAGUS

CubusExplorer: The CubusExplorer is a program for managing the analysis data. It looks

like the normal Windows Explorer, but only Cubus Folders are shown. The CubusExplorer

program contains its own Help menu with a detailed description.

New: With this command a new FAGUS cross section library is created. The command starts

the CubusExplorer in the limited functionality of creating a new analysis folder (for details

see there).

Save: The current state of the active cross section library is saved under the current analysis

name. There is an automatic save when starting an analysis or exiting the program (possi

bly after a request for confirmation).

Save as ..: The current state of the active cross section library is saved under a new name.

Close: The current state of the active cross section library is closed. However, FAGUS itself

is not exited.

Documents: In the dialogue 'Documents' additional documents together with the analysis

data can be saved. The insertion (pasting) of ones own documents (PDF, Word) is carried

out using Drag&Drop in the shown dialogue area. Some of the documentation of the ex

amples supplied with the program by Cubus are also saved in this area.

Print: Calls the submenu on the left which offers the following possibilities:

Print immediately: Direct print of the current working area. A dialogue window appears

for setting certain parameters or defining any desired part of a figure.

Print entry: The content of the current working area is entered in an output list to be prin

ted later. A dialogue window appears for setting certain parameters or to select any desired

part of a figure. The print preview program is called CubusViewer and is described in a sep

arate document.

Print preview: Starts the CubusViewer to view and print the documents entered in the list.

. These print functions may also be activated using the buttons shown on the left

Import: With this function, depending on the source, the geometry or cross section data

from external files can be imported. The submenu shown on the left appears.

S FAGUS-x..y: With this command data from older FAGUS analyses can be imported. (If

with this project STATIK data has also be saved, the import should be carried out using

STATIK , so that both STATIK data and cross section data can be imported)

S DXF: Serves to import geometrical data from a DXF file.

Export: Serves to export the graphics in the drawing area in different graphics formats. (It

can also be called directly using the right mouse button)

Recovery: This function serves to reconstruct partially damaged data structures.

. Parallel to the binary data, the input data can also be saved in a text file. With the Recovery

command the input from this Backup can be read in. Additional information such as

labelling and dimensioning, however, are not included. If necessary, all cross sections in a

cross section library can be recovered immediately using the command Recovery > Cross

Section Library as with the method described above.

. The exchange of binary data created by the various program versions basically proceeds

only upwards", i.e. a new program can read old data but not vice versa !

1 .. 2 .. (Lists with the last cross section libraries to be used): As usual in Windows pro

grams , the File menu provides a list to select the most recently used cross section libraries.

This is the quickest way to continue working with the cross section libraries just used.

B-2 FAGUS7

B 1 Overview and Management of Cross Section Data

End: Closes all analyses that may still be open and then closes FAGUS.

General: Starts the dialogue 'General Settings', which among other things manages the

parameters:

S Code

S Descriptions of objects and parts of structures, authors, any commentary, etc.

Reinforcement/Checks:

S Reinforcement: Serves to manage the reinforcement diameters suggested by the pro

gram.

S Checks: Before allowing a cross section to be analysed, several checks are carried out.

Certain tolerances and checks to be performed can be changed or omitted here for spe

cial requirements

Dialogue settings:

This function serves to manage the default dialogue values. On closing a dialogue window,

the values used by the user are saved as default values for the next session. This only ap

plies, however, to the current cross section library. In the case of new analyses an installa

tion default value applies, which can be overwritten as follows (for each user, identified by

Login Name):

S Save as default value (with a corresponding open dialogue) or using the key combina

tion <Ctrl><F9>.

S If the current dialogue needs to be overwritten by the user settings previously saved,

this can be achieved by Inputting default value or using the key combination

<Ctrl><F10> .

The above two commands are confirmed in the confirmation dialogue.

Materials: The dialogue 'Materials' manages all materials used in an analysis. Each of these

materials has a specific name for the analysis, which can be assigned to the individual ele

ments of a cross section.

In the case of a bridge, e.g., with two types of concrete and one type of reinforcing steel,

these three materials are defined at the start of an input using provisional input data. Later,

e.g., a concrete class can be changed and all elements with this reference are adjusted auto

matically, i.e. no modifications are necessary for the individual cross sections.

Analysis parameters: The analysis parameters include all additional analysis parameters

required for the FAGUS analysis. For the analysis parameters and materials there is a de

scription that is valid for each application.

Minimise dialogues: Dialogues often cover a large part of the screen and hamper the in

troduction of new objects. If this menu option is activated the dialogues are reduced to

their headings when introducing new objects and after completing the action they are dis

played once more in full size. If one moves over the heading with the mouse, the whole dia

logue is also shown.

Automatic save: Using this function the time interval for an automatic save can be set.

Language: Serves to change the program language. For a complete re-creation of all dia

logues it is best to exit the program and make a restart. Existing print entries remain in their

original language.

Units/Number of decimal places: This command opens a dialogue window for the selec

tion of units and the number of decimal places. The settings made here are saved user-spe

cific (not analysis-specific).

FAGUS7 B-3

Vol. B Working with FAGUS

Colours/ Line types: Line thicknesses, line types, colours and fill can be set in this dialogue

separately for the screen, black and white and coloured printers. The settings made here

are saved user-specific.

Font size: This allows the font size to be changed in the graphics input. This setting, how

ever, has no influence on the font size in the printed output. For this we have the setting in

the Print Entry dialogue or in the CubusViewer.

This menu is only important if several cross sections (=windows) are currently in use. It al

lows arranging the windows according to various criteria.

This provides access to the various Help documents of FAGUS. In addition, the dialogue

window 'About FAGUS' can be called, which gives information on current program ver

sions, etc. Several other examples can also be found under the menu item 'Help'.

At the top of the program window there are various aids for managing a cross section lib

rary.

The list field serves to select the cross section to be modified.

New cross sections can be created by clicking on the the button on the left. The name of

the new cross section can be input in a separate dialogue window.

Cross sections can also be duplicated. The button on the left opens a window in which the

name of the duplicate can be input.

The name of a cross section can be changed by clicking on this button.

By clicking on this button existing cross sections can be deleted. It should be noted that

cross sections deleted in this way are no longer available.

. If FAGUS is started from another program, it is not possible to delete or rename cross sec

tions, materials or analysis parameters. This has to be done in the original program.

The button on the left opens the dialogue 'Cross Section Management', which can be used

to copy cross sections between different cross section libraries. This cross section manage

ment can be started both in STATIK and in FAGUS.

B-4 FAGUS7

B 1 Overview and Management of Cross Section Data

The dialogue consists of a window with two halves. On the left side the cross section library

of STATIK or FAGUS that is currently in use can be displayed. At first the right side is empty.

By clicking on this button the CubusExplorer is started and the user can then select any

other cross section library, whose contents are shown on the right side.

With this button you can delete one or more selected cross sections.

With this button you can copy individual cross sections selected on the right side into the

current project.

With this button all cross sections can be copied from the right side to the left side.

If a cross section with the same name already exists, the cross section to be copied is re

named in the process.

FAGUS7 B-5

Vol. B Working with FAGUS

On the right of the Application window layer buttons are grouped individually. Normally

the same symbol is used for the mouse pointer as in the corresponding Control Tab sheet.

The hint given by the mouse pointer indicates which elements are to be found in this layer.

The first group of layer buttons contains the graphics objects input in the Tab sheet 'Geo

metry'. In the following, two special layer buttons are discussed:

Direction of drawing the polygons: In the case of tapered members (e.g. haunched

beams) the cross sections lying within the member have to be interpolated from the mem

ber's end cross sections. This is only possible if the two cross sections actually match each

other. Thus it is sometimes necessary to specify the drawing direction and especially the

starting point of the polygon. The first polygon side is marked on this layer using an arrow

(Change: 1: Select polygon, 2. <RMB> 3. From context menu select 'First polygon side').

Standard result points: FAGUS generates for each cross section a number of standard res

ult points which can be used in STATIK to determine cross section results. These points de

noted by A, TA, BA (for plane frames) and also AR, AL, TR, TL, BR and BR (for space frames)

can be displayed with this layer button. It should be noted that these points are only dis

played if the cross section has been checked successfully. If necessary, the button 'Check'

must be activated to show these points again.

Reinforcement layer: For each input reinforcement group in the Tab sheet 'Reinforce

ment' this group contains a button.

The group Output contains four buttons for dimensioning lines, labelling the cross section

elements, details regarding the labelling and a button for scaled text display. Scaled text

signifies that the text size parallel to the screen excerpt/zoom factor is changed. (For gen

eral information on text size see menu > 'Display' > 'Font Size')

Shear walls: Top left this group has a button to display the shear walls and the stirrups.

Moreover, there are three Help buttons that can be used to display individual active com

ponents (Vy, Vz, T) (corresponding to the input shear wall attributes).

Showing the centre of gravity and the centre of shear: The group on the left contains the

centre of gravity(S), the principal axes and, if present, the centre of shear (M) of the cross

section.

In the Tab sheets 'Variant', 'Reinforcement' and 'Analysis' the graph is shown dependently

of the cross section variant. In the other cases (and if no variant is selected) the values of the

basic cross section are shown.

Results: With the first four buttons the result for bending with normal force can be influ

enced: strain plane, stress diagram, inner lever arm

The second four buttons are for management of the shear wall results: group button, shear

forces, shear reinforcement, stress in stirrup

User: In the layer group 'User' one can draw freely, i.e. the inputs made here have no influ

ence on the analysis. Normally, the User layer is used to include dimensioning lines and ad

ditional labelling.

For the corresponding tools to be available on the left side this layer has first to be 'activ

ated'. (Click on User layer with left mouse button> activate). If necessary, new layers can

also be created or layers no longer needed can be deleted.

B-6 FAGUS7

B 2 Input of Cross Section Data

In this Tab sheet drawn (polygon input) or thin walled partial sections are defined, as also

result points :

Legend

Openings

Check

Handle (point)

Result combinations

Parametrised cross sections

PT Constraint lines

Axis point

Result points

Drawn partial sections

Rolled Steel sections

Selectable objects

B 2.1.1 General information on the input of cross section elements

A cross section element consists of the geometry, material and possibly some other attrib

utes. After selecting the corresponding button a Properties dialogue opens and at the same

time all relevant drawing tools of the Graphics Editor are activated. First the desired proper

ties must be selected and then the geometry can be input with the aid of the Graphics Ed

itor.

The dialogues for the different cross section elements are very similar and thus we only

need to describe them once in the case of the drawn partial section:

Identifier: In the first Tab sheet there is always an input field for the name of the cross sec

tion element. The identifier is automatically suggested by the program. For each cross sec

tion a selected name may only be used once.

Material: Most cross section elements contain a list field for assigning the desired material.

If this is already in the list, then use of the button on the left leads directly to the material

management.

Active/Inactive: Only statically active elements can resist stresses. An inactive element,

however, still counts in regard to the self-weight of the cross section.

FAGUS7 B-7

Vol. B Working with FAGUS

Options: Depending on the cross section element it has various settings, including

Checks: For a correct analysis the individual cross section elements should not overlap. If

necessary, this check can be switched off using the corresponding buttons for the current

cross section.

Example of reinforcement check (default values set for the whole project: Menu > 'Options'

> 'Reinforcement/Checks'):

Using this button partial cross sections enclosed by a polygon can be input.

Active/Inactive: For the determination of cross section values and for the analyses only the

active cross section parts are used. For each partial section this can be set in the corres

ponding Tab sheet using the option 'Active/Inactive'.

In the case of the bridge beam shown below the circumference described by the formwork

plan may be used for determining the self-weight. All other calculations, however, have to

be carried out taking into account the contributing widths and other code provisions.

Statically effective ?

Contributing widths:

FAGUS does not have any rules regarding contributing widths! All statically active cross

section elements are taken into account in the determination of the cross section values

and in the cross section analyses. In the case of complicated cross sections there is some

times the need to be able to switch in a simple way between different models. This can be

done with the help of additionally introduced cross section elements as follows:

inactive partial cross section placed over the original cross section

Fig. B2 Modelling contributing widths with the help of inactive cross section elements

If an inactive cross section element is placed over an active cross section element with the

same material properties, then these (doubly defined) zones are considered as openings,

both for the determination of the cross section values and for the reinforced concrete ana

lyses. The only exception to this rule is the determination of torsion constants, which is car

ried out using the original cross section !

B 2.1.3 Openings

Openings are input using the button on the left. Openings are also of arbitrary polygonal

shape, but with no material. They have to be completely within an existing circumference.

B-8 FAGUS7

B 2 Input of Cross Section Data

With this button a thin-walled cross section element can be input. If the cross section only

consists of thin-walled elements, which are also connected at the nodal points, the follow

ing cross section values and graphics may be required:

Centre of shear

Warping constant (open cross sections)

Shear flow diagram due to Vy, Vz and T

A thin-walled cross section element is defined by its axis and the corresponding width,

whereby the width should be much smaller than the length, for the corresponding condi

tions to apply.

admissible inadmissible

For typical analyses (ultimate load, stress verification) thin-walled cross section elements

are considered as linear reinforcement. When determining the cross section resistance

(with nonlinear material behaviour) a possible buckling of individual cross sections at high

loading is not taken into account by the program !

With this button the dialogue to define a parametrised (i.e. typical) cross section is opened.

Instead of polygonal cross section circumferences, here one can specify directly the desired

cross section dimensions and the program generates from them a complete cross section.

FAGUS7 B-9

Vol. B Working with FAGUS

The default values for the different parametrised cross sections are contained in several Tab

sheets:

S concrete (= unreinforced cross sections )

S reinforced concrete (including V-T model to check program's default values)

S steel (standard steel sections)

S timber (various common timber cross sections)

S thin-walled sections (in addition to the standard steel sections)

S user (= folder with user-defined cross sections)

S old (= needed for compatibility reasons for old projects)

The selected cross section is displayed in the right upper half of the dialogue, whereby the

display can be still changed using settings.

Drawing:

S Scale: The cross section is shown to scale taking into account the specified parameters.

S Schematically: The cross section is shown schematically, on the basis of the program's

default values (not taking into account the selected parameters). The use of this type of

display is necessary if different labellings overlap and thus some values can no longer

be read.

Dimensioning:

S Identifier: The dimensioning lines are labelled with the variable identifier. (Thereby the

text of the underlying input fields is visible)

S Numerically: The dimensioning lines are labelled with the numerical input values.

The Tab sheet Reinforcement Input contains a table with 4 columns, whereby each time

two values can be edited and the other two are given by these values. (For the columns f

and s max to be active, firstly n u 0 must be set)

After 'introducing' the cross section, individual parameters can subsequently be changed

as follows:

S Double click on Dimension Line/Reinforcement directly in the normal FAGUS interface

(or with Dimension Line select, <RMB>, 'Properties').

S The button 'Parametrised Cross Sections' in the Control Tab sheet brings you back to the

Input dialogue.

Convert the parametrised cross section into general FAGUS cross sections:

Parametrised cross sections cannot be extended with partial cross sections or reinforce

ment. They can, however, be changed into the normal standard cross sections and then

modified as desired

If the button on the left is active (Tab sheet 'Geometry'), it is shown whether it is a case of

a parametrised cross section or not. Using 'Convert' it is no longer parametrised. Note, a

converted cross section cannot be reconverted back into a parametrised cross section !

B-10 FAGUS7

B 2 Input of Cross Section Data

Standard rolled-steel sections can be selected in STATIK directly by name and do not have

to be available as a FAGUS cross section. If a steel section is part of a composite cross sec

tion, then if it has to be modified or analysed using FAGUS, a FAGUS cross section has to

be created:

This button starts the corresponding input. After the desired steel section has been selec

ted from the list provided, it still has to be placed in the drawing area by inputting its co

ordinates.

The point of insertion is shown in the drawing area by means of the colour red. It can be

placed at any one of the 9 given locations. After insertion, the steel section can be changed

using all the tools of the Graphics Editor (rotate, creating mirror image, duplicate);

Some steel sections can be rotated in the dialogue (0,90,180.20) or duplicated, as illus

trated in the case of the metal section shown below.

Modifying:

Sometimes the steel sections are not used in their original shape, but are changed by cut

ting, as required. For this purpose, in this Tab sheet the following modification steps can be

carried out.

No modification: The rolled-steel profile is introduced as a complete unit and retains its

tabulated cross section values.

Converted to drawn cross section: Instead of the steel section, a drawn partial section of

approximately the same geometry is introduced. The cross section values determined from

such a partial section may differ slightly from the tabulated cross section values, since now

only the polygonal circumference is known.

Cut horizontally: In addition to Converting to a drawn cross section" the steel section is

cut into two partial sections with the parameters Cut position dz" und Cut loss". The cut

position gives the distance of the axis of the cut from the axis of symmetry of the steel sec

tion. This may involve a possible loss of section (width of the section centred on the cut pos

ition).

Generate additional concrete: Depends on type of cross section (see drawing). Alterna

tive: Input with two partial cross sections (rolled steel profile plus concrete quadrilateral).

FAGUS7 B-11

Vol. B Working with FAGUS

With the button on the left an existing cross section from the current library can be intro

duced into the cross section under consideration (analogous to the steel section).

Placing: In the preview shown below the red 'insertion point' may be placed at one of the

given 9 locations.

Both axial points and handles may be necessary, above all within STATIK applications. De

tailed descriptions may be found in the manual of STATIK.

With the aid of an axial point, a reference point for the loading can be specified. If there is

no axial point (=standard case), then the cross section is loaded at the centre of gravity

with the given section forces (see also Ch. B 3.1).

With the aid of a handle the cross section can be positioned relative to the STATIK member's

axis. For purely FAGUS applications the handle is of no significance.

PT constraint lines are an aid for positioning tendons in connection with the Prestressing

Module of STATIK. (The y-eccentricity of the prestressing member's point in the vertical

section is defined by the horizontal projection of the corresponding auxiliary line)

ez

ey Prestressing member

Auxiliary line

B-12 FAGUS7

B 2 Input of Cross Section Data

The echoprint of each FAGUS analysis contains a series of standard results. If additional res

ults are required, e.g. stress at a particular point, then a result point must be input.

The values at the result points appear both during interactive work with FAGUS and within

the post-processing program for STATIK. Thus a result point also serves to control the

amount of output:

S FAGUS interactive: For additional labelling of the cross section or for the tabular out

puts.

S FAGUS as post-processing program: In the corresponding tables and as graphics di

rectly on the STATIK structure.

A result point consists basically of two types (strain, stress, reinforcement area, etc.), posi

tion and a reference element.

The Properties dialogue looks as follows:

ID: Identification: name of result point

Reference element: partial section, which

provides the value of the result.

Results type: strain, stress, area

(depends on reference element)

Visibility: For which analyses the value

should be presented

The results point takes the desired value from its reference element (e.g. area of reinforce

ment of a point reinforcement). When a result point is first introduced, it can be placed

straightaway on the desired element and the program then automatically takes the under

lying element as the reference element. Both the given results type and the assignment of

the reference element are independent of the Tab sheet that was used for the input

('Geometry', 'VT-Model', 'Reinforcement').

For stress and strain results it is checked whether the coordinates of the reference point lie

within the corresponding reference element. If this is not the case an error message is given.

This check can be switched off in the Tab sheet Options.

Kontrolle der Eingabe:

Die gemachten Eingaben sind in der Querschnitts-Legende im Register 'Varianten' aufge

fhrt. In der Tabelle 'Resultatpunkte' wird jeder vom Benutzer eingegebene Resultatpunkt

in der folgenden Art und Weise ausgewiesen:

s(R1( 3.,4,2.5)) Lngsspanungen in der Bewehrung "R1" an der Stelle ( 3..4,2.5)

QS2

QS1

RP . ID: In connection with a STATIK reinforced concrete analysis it is recommended to use for

RP

a particular result the same ID in all cross sections. (In the results tables the individual co

lumns are labelled with the results IDs of the first cross section. Subsequent cross sections

provide results in the corresponding column with the same ID)

With the button on the left the Snap Mode is activated in the Graphics Editor . By clicking

on a partial cross section (e.g. the circumference or reinforcement) the reference cross sec

tion for the result point can be redefined (in the initial input this button is not yet active).

In order to provide (linear-elastic) edge stresses immediately in STATIK, the following auto

matically introduced standard result points can be made visible by means of the button on

the left.

FAGUS7 B-13

Vol. B Working with FAGUS

TL TA TR

AL A AR

BL BA BR

The point (A) corresponds to the elastic centre of gravity of the cross section or (if defined)

the axis point. The other points are given by the rectangle enclosing the cross section and

the axis intersection points going out from (A).

With the help of Result Combinations" values can be defined from different result points

or values from cross section results using a formula. The following example should provide

some explanations:

Under result combination "ASW1" on the parametrised cross section "RR" the following for

mula can be found:

With this formula the results in the three shear walls SWZ, SWY and SWT, which are inde

pendent of one another, can be combined in the following way:

Min. stirrups area (SWZ)

ALTERNATIV

Asw (SWZ) ODER Asw (SWY)

PLUS

Asw (SWT)

B-14 FAGUS7

B 2 Input of Cross Section Data

Hint: The terms Alternativ, Plus, Oder (in the formula abbreviated to the characters ':', '+',

und '\') are taken from the determination of the limit state in STATIK and have the same

meaning. (Corresponding description in STATIK, Dimensioning Limit State Values).

Take care: The program permits the combining of result points with different physical

meanings, for example one can combine stresses and strains. This possibility is hardly likely

to lead to meaningful results.

The present program version currently still uses a very simple Parser" (breakdown of the

formula into individual terms), which is used above all for internal purposes. It is planned

to extend both the description and the functionality in future versions. In addition to the

functions treated below there are for example the following possibilities:

RES(...): 'Request of information from another result point, cross section results or result

combination

. The list of result combinations is evaluated in alphabetical order. This has to be kept in mind

when using another result combination in the expression of a result combination (no recur

sion).

QRT (...): square root of the expression given in parenthesis

SQR(...): square of the expression given in parenthesis

The desired formulas can either be input directly using text or using input aids. With the

help of the shown selectability button one can switch between these modes.

The input aids located at the bottom of the dialogue insert the corresponding expressions

directly into the formula:

[ASW] (stirrup reinforcement): After grabbing the desired shear wall the expression

ASW(Shear Wall Name)" is inserted.

[ASWmin] (minimum stirrup reinforcement): After grabbing the desired shear wall the ex

pression ASWmin(Shear Wall Name)" is inserted.

[ASL] (axial reinforcement):Permits areas of several reinforcement elements to be added

together (e.g. upper chord, lower chord, etc.). After grabbing the desired reinforcement the

expression ASL(Reinforcement Name)" is inserted

[oder] : inserts the character \" for an Oder (=or) combination.

[plus] : inserts the character +" for a Plus combination.

[alt.] : inserts the character :" for an Alternative combination.

The expressions are inserted from left to right. With the button on the left the whole of the

formula or the previously selected text can be deleted.

With the aid of cross section results the output values listed below can be defined and

placed in the graphics. In contrast to the result points, which are dependent on position,

the cross section results refer to the whole cross section.

The current input is checked using the button shown on the left. If an input error is found,

a dialogue appears with a description of the error and the faulty cross section element

blinks in the Graphics area. It is normally not really necessary to use the button, since this

is carried out by the program automatically before an analysis.

B 2.1.14 Legends

Each Tab sheet has a 'Legend' button as shown on the left. The number and size of tables

depends on the current open Tab sheet (e.g. only reinforcement output in output Tab

sheet, etc.). A complete cross section output is obtained with this button in the Tab sheet

'Variant'.

FAGUS7 B-15

Vol. B Working with FAGUS

Legend

Checks

Shear walls

Stirrups input

the objects

Selectability of

Result points

A static model for shear force and torsion loading is defined with the aid of shear walls. A

shear wall is input as a line in the Graphics area , whereby the start and end points denote

the centre of action of the forces in the chords and the shear wall width as well as other

properties are assigned as attributes.

Type A: Wall forces only in wall-directions Type B: Solid (compact) cross sections

centre of

com

pression

chord

z Shear wall

Shear wall polygonal Vz

circumfe bw

rence centre of

tension

chord

polygonal circumference

Fig. B5 FAGUS cross section and torsion model

In Fig B-5 three typical cross sections are shown. In Model Type A in response to shear force

and torsion a shear wall can only resist forces acting in the direction of the shear wall. For

the other two cross sections model Type B is available.

S Type A: Wall forces only in the direction of the walls

For each cross section numerous shear walls can be defined, whereby in general at least

three shear walls must be input, which in addition may not intersect at any point, so that

torsional forces can also be resisted. All shear walls act completely independently of

each other, i.e. there is no compatibility at the edges of two touching shear walls. There

fore the shear walls of open cross sections do not need to be connected to each other.

S Type B: Solid cross sections

In order to reduce the input work somewhat, one can stipulate that for solid cross sec

tions in each shear wall four small internal shear walls are used to resist the torsion in

ternally.

S Type Automatic (program default):

Depending on the cross section input the program selects Type A or B and supplements

the input if necessary. For torsion one can request that the calculation is performed with

values taken from the basic cross section (polygonal circumference). (see also Torsion

values from basic cross section page B-19). The cross section legend then shows the

selected type. In the case shown above the program would react as follows:

Bridge girder cross section: Type A is chosen. However, the closed cross section is de

tected as such.

Circular cross section: Type B. The shear force resistance is represented with the

two shear walls. For the torsion the basic circular cross sections is responsible.

Girder: Type B: The program inserts a small shear wall in the horizontal direction and

for torsion calculations the basic cross section values are used. This kind of input should

only be applied if the vertical direction is the dominant action.

B-16 FAGUS7

B 2 Input of Cross Section Data

The VT-Modell type can be selected under Tab sheet Variants, icon Properties (see also

chap. B 2.3). For a bending analysis a cross section does not need a VT-Modell.

The in-plane forces in the individual shear walls are determined, based on the model de

fined by the user. Then the section area of stirrups (and all other quantities to be verified)

can be determined from the corresponding code provisions. These are usually based on a

strut model, as illustrated below.

diagonal strut

compression

chord V

z M

N

tension

chord shear reinforcement

. If only bending with normal force has to be investigated the cross section does not require

any shear walls.

The dialogue for the input of individual shear walls looks as shown below:

quent part is assumed to be the group name. Shear

walls with the same group Id belong together and thus

have a greater weighting

(E.g.: S1@G1 = shear wall 'S1' in group 'G1')

Options

Automatic generation of shear walls

S Shear wall width(s): Even if this is different at the start and end of the member, the

computational model assumes a constant width. However, the automatically gene

rated stirrup reinforcement may be adjusted for a tapering form of cross section.

S Length of inner lever arm:

Normally this value is taken from the shear wall length. It can also, however, be input

explicitly.

S Assignment of stirrups to shear walls:

This assignment is not absolutely necessary for dimensioning purposes. Without the in

put of stirrups, dimensioning is carried out with the standard material and the required

stirrup area is given in the units of mm2/m. If the assignment command is present, how

ever, the stirrup cross section can be adjusted at the end of the dimensioning process.

If, e.g., an ultimate load analysis has to be carried out for shear force and torsion the ex

isting stirrup cross section must be known.

FAGUS7 B-17

Vol. B Working with FAGUS

S Weight factors for Type A:

For each shear wall an individual weight factor can be given

S Type B: Active components / weight factors:

Each component can have its own factor.

With the standard setting the program automatically specifies how the shear force

components have to be distributed between the individual shear walls. The individual

fields in the dialogue shown on the right are made invisible and the weight factor for each

shear wall is proportional to the moment of inertia.

These initial settings, however, can be changed in the program using the Tab sheet: Vari

ants > Properties > V-T Model > Shear and Torsion Model

The determination of the individual shear wall forces is based on purely equilibrium

considerations and the calculation is carried out according to the deformation method. In

the general case, compared to the three action quantities (Vy,Vz, and T) there are n un

Vy

T known internal forces.

s + Weightfactor bh

3

12

Spring with stiffness s

Result check: The existing forces in the shear walls must be in equilibrium with the external

forces.

Si

V y + SSi @ sin di

di T

V z + SSi @ cos di

di T + SS i @ d i

Vy

Vz

S i = Section force of ith shear wall

Sign in text output and results: A positive shear wall force points from the

start point in the direction of the end point of the shear wall.

d i = Inclination of ith shear wall (with respect to zaxis or yaxis)

d i = distance of ith shear wall from reference point

B-18 FAGUS7

B 2 Input of Cross Section Data

For positiv input values Vy, Vz und T the shear wall forces are displayed as follows (The layer

can be set on/off in lower part of the layer list on the right hand side of the screen):

z

y

T Vz Vy T

Vy x

Vz

Sometimes and in simple cases only the results in the main direction are needed. In the CE

DRUS building module there are lots of rectangular cross sections with main acting forces

in local z-direction. To ensure equilibrium for the other two compents the program intro

duces automatically a wall in the orthogonal direction if this component is active.

Shear wall activ for Vz Vy T

Vy, Vz, T Main action Secondary actions

With the input shown above it is clear that the three internal shears wall are belonging to

gether and therefore can be combined as shown in the table below (Extreme value out of

Vy+T" or Vz+T").

The torsion values are calculated from the basic (polygonal) cross section in the following

case:

S Tab sheet 'VT-Model' > 'Typ Auto:'

S One or two (crossing) shear walls have been defined

The legend of the shear wall data shows following message:

Torsional model Typ B: Ak.. uk.. tef.. values from entire cross section

Pilar cross sections from CEDRUS-6 act as a group. In this case the weight factor is calculated

with the moment of inertia of the whole group. To achieve the same effect in FAGUS the

name of shear wall has to end with the name of the group, separated with '@' e.g.

<shearwall name @ groupname>

.

FAGUS7 B-19

Vol. B Working with FAGUS

S4 S1@G1

S5

S2@G1

S6 S3@G1

Additional remarks

. An elastic shear flow analysis also delivers resulting wall forces and could be used to com

pare the FAGUS shear wall solution with the elastic solution. (Requirement for an elastic

analysis: All elements have to be connected)

. Further, it is necessary to point out the classical problem of the shear connection of the

Fd flange to the web as shown on the left: For a vertical shear force Vz FAGUS only gives values

S for the vertical web stirrups. The horizontal web stirrups area could be obtained, e.g., as fol

lows:

F d ) DF d Express method:

Knowing that the shear flow is uniformly transferred to both sides, a further analysis is dis

pensed with and half the web stirrups reinforcement is simply used for both flanges (= stan

dard method for simple cases)

Vz

Exact investigation:

Firstly, F is determined by comparing the axial forces in the flanges (known from bending

analysis) and then a design of the splices is carried out by means of a truss model.

The individual shear walls can either be input individually or generated automatically us

ing the function shown on the left for the whole cross section. Based on the current poly

gonal circumference it is attempted to suggest a suitable model including stirrups. This can

subsequently be adjusted selectively.

Above all, for compact cross sections the input of the shear wall model can be relatively

time-consuming. Besides the two shear force directions a ring must also be defined to resist

the torsion.

Therefore in the Tab sheet 'Variants' > Properties > V-T Model there is the possibility of se

lecting the torsion model of type B, which introduces an appropriate model with four inner

shear walls for each shear wall with an existing torsion attribute.

As a last variant, the program still provides the possibility of importing the geometric data

for the torsion analysis directly from the cross section circumference. For this purpose one

proceeds as follows:

S Select Tab sheet 'V-T Model' > 'Type Auto: automatic'

S Input one or two intersecting shear walls

Advantage: If the basic cross section is circular or ring-shaped, the values Ak, u, tef can be

calculated in accordance with the code and accurately. In the case of a general convex cir

cumference this corresponds to a good approximation.

Stirrups

As mentioned above, for the cross section dimensioning it suffices to have a valid shear wall

to work with. The input of stirrups increases the quality of the analysis in that, e.g., the axial

reinforcement is more accurately positioned and the output can be documented more

clearly. FAGUS, therefore, permits the input of stirrups as graphics elements.

B-20 FAGUS7

B 2 Input of Cross Section Data

If there is a distribution between shear wall and stirrups, the stirrups areas and materials are

taken from the corresponding stirrups attributes.

The stirrup geometry is not input directly, but a polygon has to be input which then serves

as a reference for the stirrup. The stirrup can be generated with the aid of the geometry pa

rameters shown below. If the polygon is closed (start point=end point), the stirrup is also

closed. Subsequent changes are also carried out using this reference polygon.

for the stirrup: if this is given in the

anti-clockwise direction, the direc

tion should be set to 'inside'.

As with the shear walls this dialogue also provides the possibility of an automatic genera

tion of stirrups.

FAGUS7 B-21

Vol. B Working with FAGUS

This Tab sheet serves to input untensioned and prestressed axial reinforcement.

Point reinforcement

Circular reinforcement

reinforcement

Line reinforcement

New reinforcement group

Delete group

Properties of group

ment

Auxiliary points to show

ary points for reinforce

Result points

Tendons

Check

Selectability

List field to select the

reinforcement group

In order to be able to manage many layers of reinforcement more easily, several layers can

be grouped together to form a reinforcement group. Example: beam cross section with two

renforcement layouts (sections within span and at column support). When listing cross sec

tion variants and in the case of analyses taken directly from the program STATIK the desired

group can then be selected. The above shown section of the Reinforcement Tab sheet con

tains different ways of managing reinforcement groups.

In the input of reinforcement one normally does it with reference to the edge of the cross

section. With this button auxiliary points can be generated, which can then be referenced

('grabbed') in the input process. These auxiliary points are not of course part of the rein

forcement input !

In the input field shown on the left the desired distances of the auxiliary points to the rein

forcement diagram can be input. By clicking on the arrow the input can be moved upwards

or downwards in steps. If necessary, it is also possible to make a numerical input directly in

the corresponding numerical input field.

FAGUS cross sections may have have as many reinforcement elements as desired. The nu

merical properties for the three types of reinforcement are similar.

point S Point reinforcement is defined by inputting a material, an area and a pair of coordinates

y,z. For the analysis, the given reinforcement area is concentrated in the given point, i.e.

the element does not have a moment of inertia).

line circular S Line and circular reinforcement are infinitesimally thin. Regarding distribution along

the length for the line and circular (i.e ring-shaped) reinforcement there are the fol

lowing possibilities:

B-22 FAGUS7

B 2 Input of Cross Section Data

along the given line

Single members: In the cross section integration the reinforcment area along the line is

concentrated in the given line. In some circumstances this can have a considerable influ

ence on the result (e.g. in the case of PYRUS analyses with circular cross sections or square

supports with skew reinforcement. In the dimensioning, the area in the individual points

is increased uniformly and continuously; as result a diameter may be obtained with a num

ber of places after the decimal point.

Below the Properties dialogue is shown for line reinforcement. In the Tab sheet 'Attributes'

all the settings may be found which are used for the analyses. The Tab sheet 'Dimensioning'

contains the information for controlling the dimensioning. If the cross section is dimen

sioned (adjusting the reinforcement according to Ch. B 3.2), then the reinforcement areas

defined in the Tab sheet 'Attributes' (or the number and diaimeter) are automatically adjus

ted, i.e. the user input is overwritten!

Line

Single members

with end members

without end members

forcement:

Input of total area using

- diameter

- distance

- number

For every automatically generated rence to the stirrup (see below)

stirrup two layers of axial re

inforcement are generated

The re-positioning is carried out either by explicitly clicking on the button on the left or au

tomatically after dimensioning with interactive selection of the axial reinforcement (see Ch.

B 3.2).

The three possibilities provided above have the following significance:

S none: the geometrical position of this reinforcement layer is not changed

S to the stirrup: the nearest stirrup is sought and the position is moved towards and nor

mal to the stirrup (path A)

S to the corner of the stirrup: the input reinforcement is lengthened, so that the end bar

lies in the corner (path B)

A

B

FAGUS7 B-23

Vol. B Working with FAGUS

S Constant area: The area of this reinforcement layer is not changed during the

dimensioning.

S Dimension reinforcement for tension and compression: The reinforcement in the

layers is increased proportional to its starting value, irrespective of whether it is under

tension or compression.

S Dimension reinforcement in tension zone only

This option is meaningful above all for beam cross sections. The tension and com

pression zones within the cross section are determined on the basis of the current loa

ding before the actual dimensioning iterations on the homogeneous cross section.

If additional compression reinforcement is needed to achieve the required cross sectio

nal resistance, then for this purpose all existing layers in the compression zone are used

(Exception: Layers with the attribute Area remains constant).

S Default dimensioning according to cross section type

This option serves as a default value for new projects. The dimensioning rule is thereby

modified depending on the cross section type.

Starting value of the reinforcement area:

In the case of beam cross sections the default reinforcement starting value is considered to

be the minimum reinforcement. The area given by the program is therefore never smaller

than the area already input. In the case of column cross sections, the starting values for the

reinforcement areas to be dimensioned are scaled corresponding to the given minimum

reinforcement content. In the analysis of the reinforcement content, the layers declared to

have a constant area are also taken into account.

If several layers are dimensioned at the same time, for each layer to be dimensioned the re

inforcement area is increased proportional to the starting value. Thus at the same time with

this area a proportionality factor is defined.

1 cm2 8 cm2

2 cm2 16 cm2

. If the reinforcement should also be taken into account in the analysis of the static cross sec

tion values, this has to be specified explicitly. (Tab sheet 'Variants' > Properties> Models).

B-24 FAGUS7

B 2 Input of Cross Section Data

Tendons are represented by point reinforcement and can either be input as corresponding

reinforcement elements in the cross section (if one only works with FAGUS) or more con

veniently with the Prestressing Module of STATIK, which places them in the reinforced

concrete analyses automatically in the correct place in the cross section.

In FAGUS this input of a tendon corresponds practically to the input of a point reinforce

ment. Additionally, however, it is still necessary to specify a value for the initial strain and

information on the bonding action with the surrounding concrete. In order to be able to

input adhesive strip reinforcement with initial strain, this dialogue is also used for the input

of strips (lamella). The selected prestressing system (strands, wires, rods) is of no import

ance in the following considerations.

Below an excerpt from the corresponding dialogue is shown:

by inputting the values dz and dy

Initial strain p

As a starting value for the analysis, FAGUS requires the initial strain in the tendon p on the

s strain-free cross section (x, y, z = 0). For beams constructed using the pretensioning

method this value can be input immediately:

sp

p + with s p = steel stress, E p = elastic modulus of prestressing steel

Ep

sp

In all other cases the initial strain has to be determined from the steel stress or from the

forces measured at the prestressing jacks and depends on the friction and anchor losses,

p

as well as on the prestressing conditions (elastic shortening).

In EC2 there is the following formula:

FAGUS7 B-25

Vol. B Working with FAGUS

P + P o * DP c * DP m * DP sl

DP sl = prestress loss due to slipping (pull-in) of wedges at anchorage

p + o ) D

where o is the existing strain in the prestressing steel in section x after prestressing and

D corresponds to the strains in the neighbouring concrete fibres due to elastic deforma

tion during prestressing.

Po * DPm * DPsl

o +

D A p @ Ep

* sc

D +

Ec

P

s c = concrete stress at the height of the tendon under consideration

E c = modulus of elasticity of the concrete

The contribution of D is usually small. Thus in many cases one can dispense with a very

exact analysis or otherwise other related factors like rebound of the formwork", sequence

of stressing the different tendons" have to be clarified in detail.

For the direct input of prestressed cross section elements in FAGUS two separate input

fields for o and D are provided.

. Sign (algebraic) of D:

If the concrete is in compression, D has a positive sign. Prestressing steel strains increase

due to loss of compression".

If the tendons are defined using STATIK, the concrete stress is calculated there with the

loading given there under G1 at the corresponding height of each tendon. The correspond

ing input field is to be found in the dialogue 'Reinforced Concrete Analyses' and often for

this purpose simply the self-weight and the effect of the prestressing are used, i.e. it is as

sumed that during prestressing the beam separates (i.e. lifts up) from the formwork. A mod

ification can be effected using the parameter PREFAC" (see below and in the STATIK man

ual)

Starting from the forces measurable at the ends the procedure is illustrated by means of the

following comparison:

Bonding

It has to be shown, whether the tendon is effectively bonded to the surrounding concrete.

Since for all analyses for the cross section it is assumed that plane sections remain plane",

with bonding the additional strains in the prestressing steel due to external loading of the

cross section are the same size as the strains in the neighbouring concrete fibres, i.e. in the

failure state this leads to a considerable increase in stress in the prestressing steel. By con

trast, the unbonded tendons retain their initial strain input by the user (and thus the pre

stressing force) independent of the current strain plane.

B-26 FAGUS7

B 2 Input of Cross Section Data

Pre-tensioning" Post-tensioning"

Before cutting the wires the cross section is Measured force at jack: P o

unstrained !

Po

p +

Po o +

ApE p A pE p

when cutting the wires (the cross sec Beam shortening due to prest

tion is now strained: ressing:

* Po

* Po D +

D + A cEc

A cEc

o + p ) D, p + o * D,

(tension positive) sections, resp.

sheath

Po Po Po Po

Fig. B10 Definition of the initial strain in two simple cases

Slope of tendons

In the case of sloping tendons, P is split into individual components, e.g. longitudinal com

ponent:

{ dx, dy, dz } = unit directional vectors of tendon in the tendon coordinate system

The vertical component P z has a role in dimensioning the stirrups and is taken into account

in the determination of the in-plane forces. With a favourable action of P z in general only

the forces at time t + Rneed be used, which however is only possible when also using

STATIK (see below)

P z(d) + P(d) @ dz

Long-term losses

Interactive analysis in FAGUS

Only taking into account the cross section the losses cannot be calculated by the program.

But with a user-specified global loss factor P ooPo certain effects can be estimated.

Whether the analysis should be carried out at time t + 0 or time t + Rcan be specified

in the analaysis parameters. This higher-level control also applies to the analyses described

below.

FAGUS7 B-27

Vol. B Working with FAGUS

For verifications at time t + R the prestress losses due to creep, shrinkage and relaxation

are considered as follows:

P R + P * DP(t)

R + o * cs * cc * sr

cc = creep strain at height of considered tendon

sc(g ) p)

cc +

Ec

= creep coefficient

s c = concrete stress at height of considered tendon due to permanent

loads (in STATIK defined by G1 and G2) and prestressing

Creep and shrinkage: In FAGUS the losses due to creep and shrinkage are calculated using

a formula proposed by CEB/FIP, which is also to be found in a similar form in EC2:

s c(g)p)

csR ) Ec

cs ) cc + s c(p) Ep

= k @ ( csR ) cc)

1* Ec @ sp @ (1 ) 2 )

csR = final rate of creep (input by user)

= creep coefficient (input by user)

s c(g ) p) = concrete stress at height of tendon due to G1 and G2

s c(p) = initial concrete stress at height of tendon due to prestressing

E c, Ep = elastic modulus of concrete, elastic modulus of prestressing steel

k = correction factor": given specially by program for manual checking

(see below)

Relaxation: The relaxation of the prestressing steel depends on the prestressing system

used and from the level of prestressing. In the various codes, the curves are usually presen

ted graphically, e.g. for the time period up to 1000 [h]. FAGUS uses the curves shown below

from SIA 262, which can be modified using the commands given at the end of this section.

[o/o] Ds Po

s Po A

12

10

8 B

6

C

4 4.5

2 2.5

1.0

s Po

60 70 80 [o/o] f pk

Fig. B11 Relaxation losses after 1000 [h]

For checking purposes the loss values are presented in a table for each section:

B-28 FAGUS7

B 2 Input of Cross Section Data

Simple example ('STATIK' > 'Help' > 'Examples', Materials acc. to SIA262 )

Po Po

Concrete cross section: A c + 0.16m2, C20/25, E c + 30.4kNm2, + 2

Prestress: A p + 400mm2, Y1860, f pk + 1860Nmm2 , E p + 195kNm2 ,

Concrete stress: s(P o) + * 3.49Nmm 2

Shortening: D + * s cE c + 0.114ooo

Correction factor: k + 0.969

Shrinkage : k @ cs o + 0.969 @ 0.27.15 2.7oo

Creep : k @ cc o + 0.969 @ 2 @ 0.1147.15 3.09oo

Relaxation : k @ Ds Pos Po + 0.969 @ 0.105 10.2oo

Parameters used (final values): creep =2 , shrinkage cs=0.2 [] , relaxation (0.75 fpk) = 10.5 [%]

Member Elem Distance Id Initial strains Longterm losses

o k Shrinkage Creep Relaxation Total

[m] [] [] [] [%] [%] [%] [%]

SL_1_0 1 0 SG1 7.2 0.1 0.97 2.7 3.1 10.2 16.0

. With which initial strains an analysis is carried out depends on the corresponding settings

in the dialogue 'Analysis Parameters' > 'Prestressing':

Under the section 'STATIK Reinforced Concrete Analysis with Prestressing' the options field

'Prestressing with long-term losses' may be found, which determines whether an analysis

is carried out at time t=0 or at t + R.

k@ k@ k@

Shrinkage: cs @ 100, Creep: cc @ 100, Relaxation: sr @ 100

o o o

The default values set by the program can be changed following the instructions given be

low. In the STATIK manual under Reinforced Concrete Analyses", additional parameters"

are given.

The parameters currently possible relate to (the values given below are the program's de

fault values):

S SHRINK=0.2

Final value for cs in [o/oo]

S CREEP=2

Final creep coefficient for the analysis of prestressing losses. For the actual FAGUS

analysis, however, the value defined in the Analysis parameters is used !

S RELAX=4.5

Relaxation loss in [o/o] after1000h under a stress of 0.8 @ f tk. The curve C in B-11 is scaled.

S RCLASS=C

Input of a relaxation class ('A','B','C') corresponding to B-11.

If the relaxation value is input directly (with RELAX=xx) , this command has no effect !

S PREFAC=1

Multiplicator for the shortening part D:

When using this command the calculated values D are multiplied with this factor and

as confirmation the corresponding output column is labelled fD . Further information

may be found in the STATIK manual.

FAGUS7 B-29

Vol. B Working with FAGUS

A member ,e.g. , can be built up in a particular construction stage of the cross section variant

"A" and in another stage of the variant "B". If one speaks of a cross section , in reality a par

ticular cross section variant is meant. The (standard) variant contains all input cross section

elements. Variants derived from them are obtained by de-activation of certain partial sec

tions (for more details see Tab sheet "Attributes")

Legend

Check interpolated

Check variants

cross sections

Delete new variant

Properties

List field to choose

variant

Check the variant: Manual checking of the whole cross section is automatically carried out

when switching to another cross section or on leaving the program. Any objects with errors

in them are shown with a blinking animation.

Legend with all cross section data: Using the button on the left the legend of the whole

cross section variant is created. The corresponding function in the previous Tab sheet only

creates a reduced output (with the cross section elements, that were input in the corres

ponding Tab sheet)

Checking interpolated cross sections: With STATIK structures having varying cross sec

tions (tapering) both sections must be 'affine' to each other (same number of cross section

elements, same number of circumference points for each partial section, etc.) This is best

achieved by duplicating and changing the coordinates of a particular cross section.

The corresponding button opens a new dialogue, with which two arbitrary cross sections

can be checked visually (two list fields at the top of the dialogue). A slider is located on the

right of it , with which the desired position of the interpolated cross section can be set.

. In this dialogue it is allowed to combine arbitrary cross sections from the available library.

An error message is shown at the top of the dialogue if the two cross sections do not match..

This button opens a Properties dialogue with the following Tab sheets:

Identifier: serves to change the name of the variant

Cross section elements:

All cross section elements (and reinforcement groups) are listed here and using the button

can be set to active or inactive.

B-30 FAGUS7

B 2 Input of Cross Section Data

Cross section type:

The input of a cross section type is important above all for dimensioning. One the one hand,

this affects the way in which the reinforcement area should be increased in a dimensioning

iteration, and, on the other, depending on the code to take into account minimum rein

forcement rules (axial and stirrup reinforcement).

S Beams

In the case of a beam cross section, firstly the reinforcement on the tension side is incre

ased. Only if the compression side is governing, is it necessary (possibly) to increase the

reinforcement area on the compression side.

S Columns

The reinforcement of column cross sections is uniformly changed in the dimensioning.

The dimensioning begins with a user-defined or code-defined minimum reinforcement

content (can be set in Analysis Parameters).

S Wall

For dimensioning purposes a wall is treated like a column, but no stirrup reinforcement

is considered.

S Platte

Fr Plattenquerschnitte (bestehend aus einem rechteckigen Stahlbetonquerschnitt

und beliebig vielen Bewehrungen) wird ein Querkraftnachweis durchgefhrt, auch

wenn kein Stahlbetonschubwandmodell vorliegt. Bei den parametrisierten Qu

erschnitten wird dazu ein entsprechender Querschnitt angeboten.

Slope of haunching:

Normally in FAGUS it is assumed that the cross section plane is normal to the axis of the

member (the axial stresses act normal to the considered cross section ) and that the mem

ber is prismatic. Above all, in connection with the input of the section forces from STATIK

it is sometimes required in the case of members with different end sections, to consider the

influence of sloping flange forces. In a post-processing analysis the angle y shown below

is taken into accounft as an approximation of the geometry of the participating cross sec

tions. For individual analyses these can also be input directly as a cross section attribute.

The cross section analysis is then influenced as follows:

S Bending with axial force

The area of the axial reinforcement A s is reduced in the analysis according to the angle

y of the reinforcement rod as follows:

A sred + As cos y

y is calculated for each reinforcement layer from the corresponding distance to the

edge.

S Shear force Vz

The modification of the shear force in the local z-direction due to haunching may be

clearly seen in the following figure.

Fc yo

DV

z N

zu

1

yu

Ft

Fig. B12 Section forces on haunched cross section

M 1 + M * Nz u

M

DV + z 1 (tan Yu ) tan Yo) ) N tan Yo

FAGUS7 B-31

Vol. B Working with FAGUS

. Hint:

- In the current version only haunching in the z-direction is taken into acccount.

- In the case of large slope angles the results have to be compared with other analysis me

thods (e.g. truss models).

In this Tab sheet the analysis model for shear force and torsion can be controlled.

Slope of stirrups:

In the current program version the same stirrup slope applies to all shear walls of the cross

section.

Shear and torsion model:

Type Auto: Automatic Distribution

The program itself tries to find a meaningful model. Depending on the number of input

shear walls, internally the program switches to one of the models given below:

S Open/plate-shaped cross sections: If at least three shear walls have been input and

these do not intersect at a point, it is assumed that we are dealing with a cross section

of type A . The weighting factors are specified to be proportional to the moments of in

ertia of the individual walls.

S Compact cross sections (one or two shear walls)

If only one shear wall was input, automatically a second wall is introduced orthogonal

to it in order to deal with the secondary direction (= simplified input for simple cases).

Additional information on this may be found in Ch. C 4.2.

A kut ef

If only one shear wall was input or the two shear walls for Vy and Vz intersect, the values

for torsion are taken from the basic cross section. In the cross section legend a corre

sponding remark may be found. For circular cross sections, the verifications required by

the code can be carried out correctly. For elliptical or convex cross sections this is the

best approximation.

Falls mindestens drei Schubwnde eingegeben wurden, wird die Torsionbeanspruchung

durch Aufteilung in Scheibenkrfte behandelt. Sind alle eingegebenen Stahlbetonschub

wnde miteinander verbunden, so werden die Scheibenkrfte infolge V,T aus einer

elastischen Schubflussberechnung entnommen (gemss Kapitel C3: Dnnwandige

Elemente). In der Querschnittslegende wird dieses Modell wie folgt angezeigt:

dargestellt werden (gemss Kapitel LEERER MERKER).

Bei nicht zusammenhngen Strukturen wird der unten besprochene Typ A verwendet.

This is the standard model for open cross sections. In-plane forces can only be resisted in

the direction of the wall. The distribution of the in-plane forces is carried out on the basis

of equilibrium considerations together with any weighting factors.

If shear walls with the attribute Torsion form a closed ring, this is taken into account by

the program (constant shear flow). The requirement is that each shear wall is in perfect con

tact with the adjacent one (coordinate input using grabbing function) and only the shear

walls that form part of the ring exhibit the torsion attribute. In this case there results around

the circumference a constant shear flow due to torsion. The shear force S i in shear wall i due

to torsion (apart from any assigned weighting factors) is:

z

Si + T i

2Aef

. The current program version can only deal with a ring. In practical cases the shear walls of

the outermost ring should be set as active for torsion. More refined (elastic) estimates, ho

B-32 FAGUS7

B 2 Input of Cross Section Data

Fig. B13 Girder with 4 webs: Active shear walls specified for torsion

This is the standard model for simple (compact) cross sections. The shear force is resisted

in the given wall direction. For shear walls that can resist torsion internally the model shown

below is formed.

Input Torsion model Application

Standard weighting factors: If the cross section consists of several shear walls specified to

be active for torsion then the distribution of the torsional moment is normally based on the

areas.

Materials for shear dimensioning: These are either taken automatically from the basic

cross section or they can be explicitly overwritten here. The same materials are used for all

shear walls.

All functions discussed here are mainly important in relation to STATIK.

S Determination of the static cross section values / reinforcement taken into account:

Normally, in determining the cross section values it is recommended not to take the in

fluence of the reinforcement into account. The default program value can, if necessary,

be overwritten here (e.g. in the case of very high reinforcement contents).

S Check cross section and export it (special function seldom required):

If the corresponding check box is not activated, this cross section is not visible in the cor

responding list in STATIK.

S Reference material:

In the case of composite cross sections one can specify here, for which material the cross

section values should be output. If no information is provided this is the material with

the smallest modulus of elasticity E.

S Overwriting the cross section values: Since the values listed here GI x, GAy, GA z are

only approximately calculated in FAGUS, they can be overwritten by the user. STATIK

then uses this user-defined value.

S Additional masses: This value is input together with the cross section and is taken into

account in the determination of the self-weight of the member (= purely a convenience

function).

FAGUS7 B-33

Vol. B Working with FAGUS

Normally, the section forces act at the centre of gravity of the cross section, which is de

termined by the program. In the Graphics Area this can be shown using the layer button on

the right side or presented in numerical form in the table with the cross section values.

If an axis point is input, then in the interactive use of FAGUS for M,N loading one can switch

between the centre of gravity and the axis point. For shear force and torsion loading the

centre of shear is also available as a reference point.

Below the section force input table the following choice is available:

Cross section without axis point

M, N: centre of gravity

V,T : centre of gravity or centre of shear

M, N: axis point or centre of gravity

V,T : axis point or centre of shear

N

A

M

S

N

Before the actual analysis, firstly the section forces are transformed in the centre of gravity.

In the following circumstances a second modification is carried out:

S Haunching (see Fig. B-12)

S Prestressing (see slope of tendons, B 2.3.4)

S Consider shear force and torsion as internal axial force (Analysis Parameters)

B-34 FAGUS7

B 3 Design and Analysis

In the echo print of the input section forces then for each input line at most the following

three lines may be found:

S Input section forces (with respect to axis point, centre of shear)

S Statically-equivalent section forces with respect to centre of gravity

S Modified section forces (due to haunching, prestressing, internal axial forces)

Post-processing analyses

In the case of post-processing analyses directly from the STATIK program for M,N loading

the axis point is always used if one exists. The same applies for the V,T loading. If the coordi

nates of these two points are not the same the additional torsion must be taken into ac

count.

parameter. STATIK > Tab sheet 'analysis' > 'special analysis' > 'RC analysis' > edit field:

'additional parameter') > command SHEARCENTER=ACTIVE

Vz

T

Vy

S S

M

Fig. B17 Lcross section with centre of gravity S and centre of shear M

. In the building model, the axis of the member in the case shown above is introduced at the

centre of gravity S. If in this storey there is a sufficient number of walls, the vertical member

does not receive any large torsional forces from the frame analysis. By letting the shear

forces act directly at the centre of shear, due to the eccentricity S-M no additional torsional

moments result .

. If the structure is calculated as a plane frame model or if the member is taged with uniaxial

bending the eccentricity S-M is not considered either.

FAGUS7 B-35

Vol. B Working with FAGUS

With the Tab sheet 'Reinforcement Design' an individual cross section can be dimensioned

interactively for bending and axial force, as well as for shear force and torsion. In the case

of combined loading the following analyses are carried out:

S Determination of the additional axial reinforcement due to shear force and torsion

S Stirrup reinforcement

The result of the dimensioning is the required reinforcement areas presented in graphical

and in tabular form and the input reinforcement is adjusted.

Below the main operating elements are shown. One or more loadings can be input,

whereby the section forces are input at the dimensioning level. If several input lines are act

ive, the dimensioning is peformed successively for all loadings. The result of each dimen

sioning step is used as starting value for the next dimensioning step.

section variant member diameter

Loadings:

By selecting a particular line this

can be activated for the analysis

Start of dimensioning

Design

of the reinforcement reinforcement adjustment

areas

If stirrups present:

geometrical adjustment

new reinforcement configuration:

(error message for value > 1.02)

The adjustment of the reinforcement areas at the end of dimensiong is carried out accord

ing to the above scheme. The path shown on the left (black lightening button) correponds

to the procedure used in earlier FAGUS versions. The method shown in the middle with the

interactive selection of the diameter is described below.

B-36 FAGUS7

B 3 Design and Analysis

The dimensioning provides the required reinforcement area, which corresponds to an effi

ciency factor = 1. The efficiency depends among other things on the selected analysis para

meters and also, of course, on the given loading. At the end of the dimensioning the rein

forcement areas input by the user are adjusted. In the case of line reinforcement layers, the

output form depends on how the reinforcement layer was originally input:

S For distributed line reinforcement layers the result is output in the form (As = mm2).

S For point reinforcement, the required reinforcement area is converted into a (fictitious)

diameter,e.g. 4f12.34.

If, with the adjusted cross section, subsequently an ultimate load analysis is carried out with

the same section forces and analysis parameters, the cross section should have an effi

ciency factor of exactly1.

Firstly, the required reinforcemement areas are determined as described above. Then fol

lows an interactive selection of the desired axial reinforcement. In a special dialogue for

each reinforcement element various possible reinforcement diameters are shown (sorted

according to the divergence from the required result). If a valid VT model exists as well as

a shear wall stirrup assignment, stirrup diameters/spacings can be selected.

Now follows the automatic geometry adjustment: firstly, all stirrup diameters are adjusted

(concrete cover remains the same). Then for each axial reinforcement layer the critical stir

rup is sought and the reinforcement is adjusted according to the input attributes (Ch.

B 2.3.3).

Checking the new reinforcement configuration: After the final specifying, the program

carries out once again a dimensioning with the latest selected reinforcement configura

tion. For various reasons (larger diameters, second layer necessary) the inner lever arm may

have changed in comparison with the original dimensioning. If, with this selection, the ad

missible efficiency is exceeded, one is required to carry out the dimensioning again (the

new dimensioning now starts with the new geometry positions).

Numerical legend

With the button on the left the result of the dimensioning is displayed directly in tabular

form.

S Bending with normal force:

- the loading Mz is set to zero.

- the neutral axis is always horizontal. In the case of non-symmetrical cross sections the

internal forces are only in equilibrium with the external section forces about the y-axis!

S Shear force and torsion:

- T = 0, Vy = 0

- Vz is distributed to all existing (active in relation to Vz ) shear walls in accordance with

the given weighting. For a non-symmetrical arrangement of the shear walls (in relation

to the z-axis) the in-plane forces are only in equilibrium in the z-direction !

. In the case of reinforced concrete analyses directly from STATIK for plane systems all cross

sections are dimensioned automatically under "uniaxial bending".

FAGUS7 B-37

Vol. B Working with FAGUS

With the dimensioning of the axial reinforcement, all the reinforcement areas designated

by the user are changed until the required cross section resistance is attained for the given

loading.

Dimensioning can only be carried out if the cross section already possesses a (minimum)

reinforcement. This initial reinforcement serves, among other things, to define the geo

mety of each layer. For beam cross sections it is recommended to input at least one line re

inforcement at the top and the bottom. For column cross sections (or biaxial loading) there

should be reinforcement along all four sides.

Each reinforcement layer contains information regarding adjustment of the reinforcement

area (Ch. B 2.3).

In the case of beam cross sections, the given initial value of reinforcement is considered as

a minimum reinforcement. Thus the area provided by the program is never smaller than the

area already input. For column cross sections the initial values of the reinforcement area to

be dimensioned are scaled in proportion to the given minimum reinforcement content

(see Analysis Parameters). When calculating the reinforcement content, also the layers with

the areas declared to be constant are taken into account. If the total area is too large, then

the minimum reinforcement condition prescribed for the columns cannot be fulfilled.

S Circular line reinforcement is dimensioned for tension and compression.

S Prestressing reinforcement areas normally remain constant.

. General procedure:

To be able to interpret the dimensioning results more easily even in the case of complicated

cross sections, it pays to carry out the first dimensioning only with the above recom

mended second and fourth layers. (Additional reinforcement, if present, may be declared

as remaining constant)

Finally, one should decide upon a particular reinforcement layout and by means of analyses

(efficiency, crack widths) that the required verification can be achieved.

VT dimensioning is only carried out if a valid shear wall model exists.

As the result of dimensioning , among others the following quantities are available

S Shear wall forces (for details on analysis see C 4.1)

S In the graphical presentation a positive shear wall force points from the starting point

to the end point of the shear wall

S Efficiency of concrete compression diagonals (column with the heading eff c)

S Required stirrup area (column with the heading a sw )

Stirrup dimensioning for different codes is described in Ch. C.

S Required additional axial reinforcement for each shear wall side: (heading A sl2 )

In compliance with the common reinforced concrete codes, for the dimensioning of the

stirrups the classical truss model shown below is used (a, q from EC 2):

z(cota ) cot q)

Fc

z

Fw V + Si

Stirruptensionforce Concretecompressionforce

a q

Fs

Fig. B18 Truss geometry

B-38 FAGUS7

B 3 Design and Analysis

The corresponding descriptions in the codes are usually based on a single web, i.e. the crit

ical in-plane force in this case is the same as the corresponding shear force

S i + Vsd

Therefore, in order to be able to compare the following formulas with the notation used in

the codes, in this section the term V sd is used for the in-plane loading.

Assuming a freely selectable slope of the concrete compression diagonal and stirrups res

ults in the following tensile force to be resisted per unit length F w.

V sd

Fw +

z sin a(cotq ) cot a)

If this force has to be resisted by the stirrups alone, i.e. without the additional shear force

resistance of the concrete, we have (for vertical stirrups with a spacing of s w ), the usual for

mula:

Vsds w

A sw +

zfywd cot q

In the program the value a sw , which depends on the stirrups spacing, is output:

A V sd 2

a sw + s sw + (unit: mm or selected by user)

sw zf ywd cot q m

i.e. for a specific stirrup area the program output value has to be multiplied by the desired

stirrups spacing.

V sd dimensioning value of the in-plane force: is given by the FAGUS shear wall model

z inner lever arm defined by the length of the corresponding shear wall.

f ywd dimensioning value of the elastic limit of the stirrup reinforcing steel: from the assi

gned stirrups or fromthe standard default value: > Variant Properties > Models

q slope of the concrete compression diagonal: Analysis Parameters > Further Values.

a slope of the stirrups/Shear Force Reinforcement: > Variant Properties > Models

Minimum reinforcement

Besides the reinforcement required to satisfy the statics in the codes, there are quite differ

ent rules about minimum reinforcement contents. For details refer to Ch. C.

An upper limit for each loading is given by the maximum admissible concrete stress in the

compression diagonals. Usually this condition is given as the maximum admissible shear

force, e.g. in EC2 as V Rd,max:

V sd VRd2

The determination of V Rd2 depends on the code and is described in Part C. For practical rea

sons in FAGUS the efficiency factor is always output.

VRd,max

eff c + v 1.00

Vd

FAGUS7 B-39

Vol. B Working with FAGUS

. Basically, the shear force analysis is completely separate from the dimensioning for ben

ding. Regarding output two settings are possible in the Analysis Parameters:

S Standard Method

A sl2 is listed in the numerical output for each shear wall. It is the user's responsibility

to calculate this value for the corresponding axial reinforcement layers.

S V + T as internal axial forces

In this case the axial reinforcement includes the influence of V + T.

Standard method

The additional required axial reinforcement due to the force in the shear wall S i for each

flange is:

Si gsF s

F s + 0.5Si(cotq ) cot a) A sl2 +

fy

A sl2

This value is output in the shear wall table together with the required stirrup reinforcement.

In the case of the standard method, the axial reinforcment table only includes the reinforce

ment area due to M,N. The additionaly required value A sl2 has to be added manually.

If the corresponding check box in the analysis parameters is not ticked, then the influence

of shear force and torsion on the axial forces is integrated directly in the bending analysis

by introducing an additional internal" tensile axial force. The changed axial loading is de

termined as follows:

F si + Si(cotq ) cot a) (sum of all tensile axial forces in the shear wall)

N * + N ) SF si

M *y + M y ) SFsiDz si

M *z + M z ) SFsiDy si F si : normal force contribution of the i-th shear wall

Dy si, Dz si : distance from middle of shear wall to centre of gravity of cross section.

The individual shear wall forces are determined using the same rules that were described

in the previous sections. A prerequisite for this method is that for the V-T loading there is

a valid cross section input. Otherwise or if the cross section has no shear walls, the total

shear force is assumed to act at the centre of the cross section.

Tu ef

N(V y,Vz, T) + V 2)

y V z (cotq ) cot a) ) cot q

2

2A ef

. Since with this model all the reinforcement of the cross section is taken into account, it must

be ensured that the reinforcement lying outside the webs is correctly connected (key

word Shear Connection e.g. slab - web). This is already implied in this analysis model !

In the case of dimensioning directly from the program STATIK, an overview table with the

title Standard Results" is created together with some graphics, in which the sum of all re

quired reinforcement areas is presented.

B-40 FAGUS7

B 3 Design and Analysis

The curve A results from the analysis for bending with normal force. If there are several rein

forcement layers, the reinforcement areas for each half of the beam is summarized and writ

ten on the corresponding half. Curve B still contains the A sl2 portion of all shear walls

Dx z cot q

2

initial value determined in

point 1 and horizontally in

1 2 creased in arrow direction

Asw1 (stirrups) tensile flange forces:

to point 2.

contribution of shear force

1 2

support fans B

A shear force from bending

analysis (with normal force)

A

sections with fan attribute B

Curve A: As(M, N)

Curve B: As(M, N, V) + As(M, N) ) SA sl2

For column cross sections the total amount of reinforcement is output in a single column

and in the case of unsymmetrical conditions the greater value of A sl2 is used for the sum

mation (earthquake analyses, etc.).

As total(M, N, V) + As total(M, N) ) 2SA sl2

If a section member has the attribute fans, the results are adjusted in the way described

above (no additional axial reinforcement due to shear and torsion over the support cross

section).

. These adjustments are only made in the table Standard Results" and the corresponding

graphics.

Sometimes in simple cases one may also want some information on the amount of offset,

without having to define extra shear walls in the cross sections. If the cross section has no

shear walls F s is calculated directly from V z , i.e. F s + 0.5Vz(cotq ) cot a).

Comparison of the two methods

If one only considers the tension side of the cross section (reinforcement), then with the

aproach internal axial tensile force in general one obtains similar results to those of the

standard method. The advantage of this method, however, is that the influence of V+T can

also be included in the analysis types Ultimate Load and Stress Verification.

The resulting decrease of normal force on the compression side of the cross section due to

V and T have to be examined more closely (sometimes the shear force influence in the case

of column cross sections is deliberately neglected).

Depending on the setting in the check box, the first curve is determined using one of the

above methods and the second curve by addition or subtraction of the corresponding part

SA sl2.

curve determined using V+T as internal tensile axial stress (includes the offset)

FAGUS7 B-41

Vol. B Working with FAGUS

All cross section analyses are carried out in this Tab sheet.

moment-stiffness diagram

curvature diagram

Stress analysis (strain) and moment-

Efficiency and M-/N interaction

Stress analysis and

List field for selection of desired

cross section variant

If several section force lines were input, each line is analysed individually and the results are

the limit state values of all output analyses (e.g. stresses min/max). Each analysis is carried

out with a particular cross section variant and taking into account the specified analysis pa

rameters.

With the aid of this analysis the cross section efficiency can be determined, which is defined

as follows:

eff + S

Rd

eff = efficiency. ( In the Eurocode unfortunately at the moment there is still no official term

for this value)

S = input applied stress

R d = dimensioning value of strength

The required verification is deemed to be satisfactory if eff v 1.00. Depending on the se

lected analysis parameters (ULS, SLS) both the ultimate load and the serviceability are veri

fied.

In earlier versions of FAGUS an ultimate load factor l was determined. The relationship bet

ween eff and l is:

eff + 1

l

The advantage of an efficiency factor is that it is always in the range of 0 .. 1 if the verification

check is fulfilled. This is very convenient for showing the results in graphical diagrams. The

capacity factor can be very high for small action forces and the value is even infinite in a zero

point of a beam.

B-42 FAGUS7

B 3 Design and Analysis

Additional condition:

At the top of the table there is a line labelled 'constant' and alongside it above each column

additional condition

see dimensioning

there are corresponding check boxes. If some of these check boxes are ticked, in the resist

ance analysis only the 'free' section forces are increased. In the case shown below with two

components the component Y is left untouched ( remains at the input value) and only the

component X is increased.

The loading path for the resistance analyses may be seen in the diagram shown below.

Yd (lX d, Y d)

X

Xd

( N constant, M y and M z variable)

. Efficiency of shear force and torsion

If we have a valid shear wall model and there are corresponding stirrup cross sections, this

factor is also calculated for V+T. The influence on the axial reinforcement is considered

using the model Shear force and torsion as internal tensile axial force, i.e. the analysis pa

rameters are automatically adjusted. (For details see the chapter on dimensioning)

. Several actions

If several lines are activated at the same time the ultimate load factor and the correspon

ding results are output.

In the case of the stress analysis, the section forces input by the user are applied to the cross

section and the result is all the required force and strain quanties displayed graphically and

numerically. The input dialogue is similar to that for the ultimate load analysis. There is no

error message saying whether the calculated stresses fulfil certain conditions. The ob

tained result without further evaluation is output graphically and numerically. If the given

section forces are too large, a corresponding error message is given. In this case it is recom

mended to carry out first an ultimate load analysis.

If a valid shear wall model exists and the stirrup areas are known, the stresses in the stirrups

are also output (analysis with the same truss model as for the dimensioning).

Load steps:

If several lines are active and this check box is ticked, the given section forces are applied

in loading steps (summed!). Otherwise it is a question of independent analyses and the res

ult includes the Min/Max values, which, e.g., are required for fatigue verifications.

FAGUS7 B-43

Vol. B Working with FAGUS

. If, within the load steps, individual partial sections also have to be activated, this can only

be accomplished by means of a series of analyses.

As part of the stress verification the crack widths and crack spacings are calculated accord

ing to the codes nach DIN 1045-1 and EN1992-1-1:2004. For all other codes a verification

according to EN1992 is carried out (material values taken from the national codes, but the

procedure is as described below)

The crack width according to EN1992 is given by (the procedure is similar to DIN)

w k + s r,max( sm * cm)

where

fct,eff

ss * kt p,eff (1 ) a e p,eff) ss

( sm * cm) + 0.6

Es Es

ss = steel stress

k 1 + 0.4 (for long-term loading)

f ct,eff + fctm or smaller, if cracking is expected before 28 days

the corresponding reduction factor can be input in the Tab sheet Analysis Paramet

ers

Es

ae = ratio

E cm

k 1 + 0.8 for reinforcement bars with good bonding

k 2 + 0.5 (for pure bending)

k 2 + 1.0 (for pure tension, lies between k 2 + (1 ) 2)2 1

From the national appendix

k 3 + 3.4

k 4 + 0.425

Reinforcement:

The reinforcement considered in the analysis is defined by the hatched area in Fig. 7.1

(EN1992). In the case of sloping reinforcement in FAGUS a line parallel to the neutral axis

is assumed as the boundary of the zone at a distance h c,eff from the edge of the tension side.

According to the code the distance is:

h c,eff + Minimum[2.5(h * d); (h * x)3; h2]

If several different diameters are encountered, the following conversion is peformed to find

the equivalent diameter:

n 1f21 ) n 2f 22

f+

n 1f 1 ) n 2f 2

B-44 FAGUS7

B 3 Design and Analysis

If the cross section also contains prestressing layers, which act compositely with the rest of

the concrete cross section, then they may be included in the active" reinforcement:

As ) c 21A p

p,eff +

A c,eff

c 1 = modified ratio of the composite strength of prestressing steel and ordinary steel rein

forcement. The default value for c 1 can be overruled in the analysis parameter dialogue

(Tab sheet 'Additional values'). With a value c 1 = -1 the calculation is executed with fol

lowing assumptions:

ff

c1 + c

p

s

(7.5)

c = ratio of bond strength of prestressing and reinforcing steel, according to Table 6.2 in

6.8.2. (default value c=0.6)

f s = largest bar diameter of reinforcing steel

f p = equivalent diameter of tendon according to 6.8.2

for single 7 wire strands f p =1.75f wire

for single 3 wire strands: f p =1.2f wire (f wire = wire diameter)

With the stress analysis, with a given strain plane the three components x, y, z are given

and from these the corresponding section forces N, My, Mz, as well as other results required

by the user are determined (stresses at given positions in the cross section, cross section

stiffnesses, etc.)

For the program this is a simple task, since the required section forces can be directly de

termined by a single cross section integration. All other analysis types use the procedure

described here, but may require several iterations to find the required result.

The cross section integration comprises the following steps:

determination of (y,z) in the integration points of the cross section

(y, z) + x * z @ xy * y @ x z

determination of the corresponding stress using the material law selected by the

user

Nx + s(y, z)dA

M + s(y, z)zdA

y

M + s(y, z)ydA

z

The polygonal or circular circumference of the cross section can be integrated exactly by

means of numerical integration along the boundary of the cross section.

Together with other results the output of the secant stiffnesses can be requested. These

are defined as follows:

FAGUS7 B-45

Vol. B Working with FAGUS

My M

EA + N

x EI y + x EI z + x z

y z

For the determination of the secant stiffnesses, therefore, neither an E-modulus nor a static

cross section value is used, but they are always calculated from the existing loading actions

(N,M) and strains (, x). If individual components are equal to zero, instead of the secant

stiffness the corresponding tangent stiffness is output.

The following analysis parameters are taken into account in the analysis:

type of stress-strain diagram

creep coefficient

resistance factor (normally these are equal to 1)

All other parameters have no influence on this analysis. Consideration of the limiting

strains, for example, would be meaningless in this case, since the cross section deforma

tions are input by the user.

After the completion of an analysis the results are displayed on the screen with the aid of

the diagrams shown below. With a print entry the graphics and the numerical results can

be included in the print list and inspected there.

12.82 N/mm2

c=1

s=1

105.58 N/mm2

0.54 o/oo

10.56 kN

In the strain plane the maximum edge strains are labelled; in the stress figure the edge

stresses and the stresses in the extreme reinforcement layers.

In the diagram with the couple, the point of action of the tensile and compressive forces are

shown with an arrow, whereby the compressive force includes both the part due to the

concrete and the contribution of the compression reinforcement, if present. The diagrams

should be helpful when checking manually. Within FAGUS, however, the shown quantit

ies are never used in the analysis , i.e. at the end of the iterations for the manual calculation

the "inner lever arm" with the tensile and compressive forces is back-calculated. The cou

ple is always drawn in the direction of the neutral axis. However, in some circumstances (see

examples) the neutral axis is not parallel to the resulting moment vector ({My}+{Mz}). Thus,

in the case of an equilibrium check this has to be taken into account.

This analysis is available only if the cross sections meets one of the following conditions:

S A: Thin-walled cross section: Cross section consists solely of thin-walled elements

(building one well connected structure)

S B: Reinforced concrete cross section with well connected shear walls (as shown

below): Cross section consists of various (polygonally enclosed) partial cross sections

and a shear wall model which fullfills the same conditions as mentioned under point A

above. (VTmodel must be set on Automatic)

. For type B the properties of the variant have to be set to "Automatic" otherwise a message

like "The shear flow for the present cross section cannot be displayed" will appear.

The corresponding analysis is started with the button shown on the left and the result is dis

played graphically or tabularly. Normal- and shear stresses are available. In the analysis the

cross section is assumed to be homogenous (not cracked) and the normal stresses are cal

culated with the usual formula shown below (The shear flow theory is explained in chap.

C 3.):

B-46 FAGUS7

B 3 Design and Analysis

My M

s(y, z) + N ) z ) z y

A Iy Iz

If the cross section is defined according to type B the normal stresses are calculated with

the cross sectional values of the basic (polygonally enclosed) cross section. The graphic

diagram is done along the shear all axis

= Summation of distributed

shear stresses.

Shear stresses or shear flow

With the button shown on the left an equivalent stress s + f (s, t) is shown: If the cross sec

tion is made out of steel the von Mises criterion will be shown . For concrete cross sections

the results are evaluated according to the Rankine's formula. In the numerical table both

values can be found.

s ) s2 ) 4t 2

Rankine: s R +

2

Reference point for the section forces:

Depending on the state of the button for the cross section, the cross section is loaded either

at the centre of gravity or at the centre of shear. The second possibility should help above

all in working through examples from the text book.

Computed value:

One can select shear stresses (e.g. [N/mm2]) or shear flow ([kN/m]) for output.

Several loadings:

The dialogue allows the input of all six components but only one input line can be active.

Output settings: The program scales the graphical output automatically. If the scaling has

to be adjusted, this can be done with the button shown on the left or using the correspond

ing dialogue.

With the My-N interaction diagram, all possible limit states of My-N combinations for one

or more reinforcement contents can be displayed graphically. The limit state is defined in

the Tab sheet Analysis Parameters. Because these, as in all other analyses, can be defined

freely, it is, e.g., possible to create an interaction diagram to check for admissible tensile

steel stresses (serviceability).

FAGUS7 B-47

Vol. B Working with FAGUS

The program creates an interaction diagram by determining the section forces for a series

of limit states. For each point of the diagram the cross section has to be integrated once.

N In the case of non-symmetrical cross sections, with the strain planes for y0 and z=0 there

may be moments Mz not equal to zero. These are not shown in the diagram. Nevertheless,

the presented N-My interaction curve gives a correct polygonal line in the space N-My-Mz

diagram. An N-My diagram (with Mz = 0) can be obtain using the function "General Interac

tion Diagram".

In the creation of a diagram a reinforcement content can be input. The existing reinforce

M

ment area is then scaled accordingly, i.e. the reinforcement areas of different input rein

forcement are adjusted until the required reinforcement content is reached. Here the input

made in the Tab sheet 'Dimensioning' is taken into account in the reinforcement input. Ar

eas of reinforcement layers with the attribute "Reinforcement area remains constant" are

not changed.

If prestressing tendons are present, the user input "with/without bonding" is also taken into

account. If the cross section doesn't contain any reinforcement (e.g. steel sections), then an

interaction diagram is created with the existing cross section (independent of input rein

forcement).

If no reinforcement content is input (incomplete or empty input line), the diagram is cre

ated for the reinforcement already existing in the cross section. With several values (separ

ated by blanks), for each input value a curve is created.

The shown section force combinations are always with reference to the centre of gravity of

the cross section.

Reinforcement content :

For all required reinforcement contents a moment-normal force interaction diagram is

displayed. The individual values have to be separated by blanks, e.g. 0.1 0.3 0.5". If the in

put field is empty, a diagram with the reinforcement already existing in the cross section

is created.

With the general section force interaction diagram two components out of N, My and Mz

can be selected, for which the corresponding graphics will be created. The third compon

ent is constant, whereby a value not equal to zero can also be input. It is also possible to in

put several values (separated by blanks), and then in the same diagram the corresponding

curves are displayed

M The analyses are then carried out with the reinforcement already existing in the cross sec

z

N=konst. tion, i.e. it is not possible to specify the reinforcement content as in the case of the My-N

interaction diagram.

The program then determines the individual corner points of the diagram with the help

M

y each time of an ultimate load analysis. The numerical expenditure for the creation of the

diagram is thus considerably more than in the case of the My-N interaction diagram. The

user, however, can select the number of points to be calculated and thus influence the re

quired accuracy suited to his particular needs.

The input values for the component held constant must lie within admissible ranges, other

wise a diagram is not created. Admissible means that solutions are possible for the required

ultimate load analyses with a constant third component.

For specified values of the component :

Here one inputs which component is constant (out of N x, M y and M z) and the required val

ues are then input in the corresponding input field separated by blanks (e.g. -100 -200

-500").

Number of calculated points :

In order to save computational time the number of calculated points can be influenced us

ing the slider. For larger numbers the curves are more rounded, but the analysis takes

longer.

B-48 FAGUS7

B 3 Design and Analysis

To better visualize the deformation behaviour of the cross section the moment-curvature

diagram shown below can be created. It serves, for example, to evaluate the cross section

ductility needed for earthquake analyses.

The analyses are carried out with the reinforcement already existing in the cross section. As

parameter the required axial force is input, whereby several values can be input (separated

by blanks). For each value a curve is created.

My The program then determines the individual points of the curve with the aid of a stress veri

fication.

My [kNm]

&500.0

500

o

xy _

400

&200.0

o

_

300

o &100.0

_

200

100

o = Zugrand: 5.0 o/oo

= f ct = 0 N/mm

_ = + y = 2.19 o/oo

= y = 2.19 o/oo

0 2 4 6 8 10 12 14 16 18

[km1]

Fig. B24 Momentcurvature diagram

S reaching the concrete's tensile strength (if input)

S reaching the elastic limit in the extreme steel layers on the compression side

S reaching the elastic limit in the extreme steel layers on the tension side

S reaching the limiting compression strain" at the edge on the compression side defined

in the analysis parameters

S reaching the limiting strain in the steel at the edge on the tension side defined in the

analysis parameters

S reaching the last calculated steel strain at the edge on the tension side

Depending on the type of cross section and the input axial force it is possible that not all

of the points listed above are reached and the sequence is also not always the same.

Bending about :

Selection of axis. The analysis is carried out either for bending about the y axis or the z axis.

FAGUS7 B-49

Vol. B Working with FAGUS

Loading :

As many values for N x can be input as required. The individual values have to be separated

by blanks, e.g. -100 -200 -500".

For frame analyses , for which the assumed cross section stiffnesses have a big influence on

the result, among other things the diagram on the left is required. It shows the relationship

EI y between the moment My and the secant stiffness EI sec for one or more given normal/axial

forces.

EI sec + M

x

If the cross section contains tendons, in general the moment My already differs from zero

My for a curvature x=0 , i.e. the curve begins at EI sec + R. For cross sections with prestrained

tendons, therefore, no diagram is created. To deal with such cases it is recommended to in

clude the prestressing force in the analysis as an external loading and create a diagram with

a corresponding axial force (without prestrained reinforcement layers).

By means of symbols on the curve it is indicated when the extreme steel layer begins to

M

yield or when the limiting strains are reached.

To compare different cross sections, it may be useful to output directly an (ideal) secant

arc tan EI sec E-modulus. This is defined as follows:

E sec + M

x I@x

The program performs the analysis for a single point of the curve following the stress ana

lysis described above. Thus individual values can be verified manually", provided the same

analysis parameters are used.

The adopted concrete material law is very important for the stiffness of a cross section. Also

of importance are the input resistance factors and a concrete creep coefficient, if present.

Based on numerical values, the differences between the two most common stress-strain

curves for concrete are documented:

. Care is necessary in the case of unsymmetrical cross sections! The relationship between M

and x is plotted with reference to the elastically-calculated centre of gravity according to

S Ch. A 2 (without the reinforcement part, if this was specified in the variant properties). The

centre of gravity calculated using the nonlinear materials, does not necessarily have to be

identical with the first value.

. Axis points: In the diagrams no axis points are taken into account, i.e. the presented curve

represents the relationship to the centre of gravity S.

Bending about :

Selection of axis. The analysis is either performed for bending about the y or the z axis.

Loading :

Any number of values of N x can be input. The individual values must be separated by

blanks, e.g. -100 -200 -500".

Value of the ordinate : Both stiffnesses and the virtual elastic moduli" can be output.

B-50 FAGUS7

B 3 Design and Analysis

With this analysis it is possible to do a simple check of a column according to 2nd order

theory. As input following parameters have to be given:

e1 l k : Buckling length

Imperfection

e o : Eccentricity due to imperfection

e0 e 1 : Eccentricity due to an end moment (calculated with e 1 = M/N)

The procedure described below is suitable for isolated members with a constant normal

lk e2 force, with a constant cross section and a well defined buckling length l k as well.

Background / Theorie based on:

SIA 262: 2013 : 4.3.7 Druckglieder

EN 1992-1-1:2004 : 5.8.8 Method based on nominal curvature

Iteration with one degree of freedom: The maximum normal force is determined with an

iteration procedure where the maximum deflection e 2 is the only unknown.

previous chapters ("cracked" cross section assumption, concrete normally without

tension).

In the current version buckling around the y-axis is considered only. (positive moment,

tension side at the bottom of the cross section). One should use only symmetric cross sec

tions.

l2

e + e 0 ) e 1 ) e2 e 2 + x ck c + p2

The calculation of the curvature is carried out with the real M-N-combination and the app

y lied values can be checked and compared with a normal cross section stress analysis, provi

ded that the same analysis parameters are used.

This is more accurate than certain methods where simplified techniques are used to calcu

late the curvature.

Graphic results

The loading path until failure is shown in the standard M-N-diagram. There are two possible

failure situations:

1

Not very slender:

Cross section strain limit is reached

(last point on My-N-Curve)

1

2

Slender column:

= stability problem

2

Last point is inside the My-

N-diagram.

If a thermal analysis has been previously carried out and the corresponding check box has

FAGUS7 B-51

Vol. B Working with FAGUS

been activated, the loading paths for all intermediate points in time are shown.

(These points are defined in the thermal analysis of the cross section.

See Fig. F-7 / Output times).

Curvature Moment

Normalkraft

Moment

corresponding MyNDiagram for various output times

Numerical results

With this button all results are shown in a table. If a thermal analysis has been previously

carried out it is also possible to determine the failure time.

Comparison between FAGUS and PYRUS

Both programs use an iterative algorithm but in FAGUS there is only one unknown - the

deflection in the middle of the column. PYRUS is a general FE-program and uses several in

ternal members (with additional integration points) to represent the variable stiffness

more accurately. The static system has six degrees of freedom per node. In general FAGUS

results are a little bit more conservative than PYRUS results but a FAGUS analysis has the

advantage of its simplicity. In more complex situations (variable cross section, loads in dif

ferent directions etc.) only PYRUS can deliver the correct result.

. Remark regarding elevated temperatures: The FAGUS predication seems to be less accu

rate but not much experience is available at the time

e2 In FAGUS:

Assumption that the stiffness is

constant along the column

B-52 FAGUS7

B 3 Design and Analysis

The functions presented here should help if frequently repeated analyses with reduced in

put are carried out. Batch Analysis" refers to the stepwise, automatic working though of

analyses and cross section dimensionings. The following tasks can be solved:

S Automatic repeat of unaltered types of analysis on different cross sections.

S Investigation of construction states with active/inactive partial sections and with the ac

companying loading history.

S Creation of internal stress states.

S Activation and deactivating of partial cross sections.

A Batch Analysis is created in a special dialogue window, which is opened in the Tab sheet

'Analyses' using the button on the left.

Each Batch Analysis consists of a number of command lines, which are then executed step-

by-step.

With the excerpt from the corresponding dialogue shown below the following three steps

are executed:

In the first line the cross section 'QS' is loaded, i.e. made available for the subsequent ana

lyses. Then in the second line an ultimate load analysis with My=50 kNm is carried out and

with the command in the third line a print entry is made, so that the results can then be in

spected in the CubusViewer.

Print entry Active/Inactive, strains

Load cross section

Analyses

Manage

ment of

Batch

Analysis

List with

all tasks

New command lines are created with one of the buttons placed at the top right corner. If

in the input window a line is already selected, then the new command line is inserted dir

ectly after it. If no command line is selected, new lines are added to the end of the list.

Changes to existing entries can be modified with the help of the context menu (right mouse

button).

FAGUS7 B-53

Vol. B Working with FAGUS

Every dimensioning or analysis already carried out is plotted for each cross section. The

button shown on the left opens a dialogue window with a corresponding list. Activating a

single check box causes the corresponding analysis to be included in a Batch Analysis with

the name "autogenerated". These can then be used directly or duplicated and modified as

desired.

Parallel to the interactive creation of the task list, the program creates a text file [File name

= name of Batch Analysis + .macro.txt"], which can be modified using a Text Editor (e.g.

Notepad). The button on the left starts a Standard Editor with the current Batch Analysis:

is more or less self-explanatory. For a specific task it is best to create a small Test Task inter

actively and the subsequent modifications can then be carried out by Duplication/Mo

difying the corresponding lines.

Syntax check:

When read in, only the lines with a valid syntax are accepted, while the rest is assumed to

be comments.

In each cross section library as many different Batch Analyses can be defined and managed

with the functions shown on the left:

S Creation of a new Batch Analysis. The identifier is input in a separate dialogue

S Change the identifier of a Batch Analysis

S Delete a Batch Analysis

S Save

S Select an existing Batch Analysis

To check the analysis process and select various parameters the following (described) but

tons are available:

The sequence of the lines can be changed with the help of this button. The selected line

can be moved up or down. Likewise, individual lines can be moved with the mouse to the

desired position.

Creation of a print entry for the current state (text or graphics output).

Generally, the analysis parameters are selected by the program on the basis of the analysis

type, e.g.

Stress analyses, etc. -> !Serviceability

Dimensioning -> !Ultimate load

With this command the automatic selection can be overwritten. For all subsequent ana

lyses the last parameters to be input are used.

Creation of comment lines:

This possibility is only used for documenting the Batch Analysis (useful in creating long in

put lists with the aid of a Text Editor).

B-54 FAGUS7

B 3 Design and Analysis

The following command will no longer be carried out, which can be of help in setting up

large analysis processes.

For the actual analyses the same symbols and buttons are used as in the Tab sheets already

described for the normal interactive procedure.

With the functions available to the Batch Analysis it is possible to load just an andividual

part of the cross section, as well as to investigate temperature effects (possibly only on spe

cified parts of the cross section). This is normally carried out by specifying a "load history",

with which a cross section is initially loaded and then the desired cross section elements

are activated and loaded in sequence.

In addition to the command "Stress Analysis with Forces" the three buttons shown below

are needed. They serve to "set Active/Inactive" for the desired cross section elements

(upper row of buttons), as well as input initial strains (lower row of buttons). Within the load

history individual analysis parameters can also be modified (e.g. creep coefficient). The ma

jority of the existing parameters (e.g. limit strains, resistance factors) should not normally

be changed during a load history. Mixing with other analysis types (e.g ultimate load) is not

possible in the case of a stepwise loaded cross section.

In a special dialogue window the whole of the cross sction is shown and by clicking on the

corresponding check boxes or with graphical selection" of the desired cross section ele

ments it is communicated to the program which element should be activated.

Initial state: After loading" a new cross section all elements are active !

Deactivating of partial cross sections: (analogue to activating).

Definition of strains:

The selection of the desired cross section elements is carried out in the same way as when

activating partial sections. In addition, the desired strain state has to be defined that should

act in the designated cross section elements. This is done by inputting two arbitrary points

with the coordinates yi, zi and their corresponding strains i. These two points define the

dip" of the corresponding strain plane.

Hints:

1) By inputting a strain plane an equilibrium iteration is not carried out automatically ! If,

e.g., one wants to define a nonlinear temperature distribution over the cross section, sev

eral strain instructions (inputs) may be necessary and only then should the analysis be per

formed on the complete definition.

2) Stress analyses with zero section forces are admissible ! Even if no external section

quantities exist, by means of such an input line an equilibrium iteration is started, in which

the (by introducing strains possibly modified) internal equilibrium is then restored again.

3) With repeated use of the command "Stress Analysis with Forces" these are summed, i.e.

for each section the load increment has to be defined each time.

Beton (C25/30) An example is available under '> Help > Examples > Ex_A'

HEA300

FAGUS7 B-55

Vol. B Working with FAGUS

B-56 FAGUS7

C 1 Coordinate System and Sign Conventions

FAGUS7

The geometry of the cross section as well as the position of the reinforcement are described

in a right angled, right hand y q, z q coordinate system, which is designated the input co

ordinate system. For the sake of compatibility with the program STATIK the x-axis lies paral

lel to the member axis, i.e. normal to the cross section and points in the figure below to

wards the reader. The position of the cross section with respect to the input coordinate

system is arbitrary.

The principal axes system differs from the input coordinate system in the most general case

by displacements y s and z s, as well as rotation by an angle b (range of values:

* 45 b v 45 , signs according to the right hand rule, i.e. in the diagram below it rep

resents a positive" rotation about the x-axis). These values are calculated by the program

and output together with the other structural cross section values. Unless specifically

stated the member axis passes through the centroid of the cross section. If a so called 'axis

point' is defined, the member axis passes through this axis point and all quantities related

to the member (local member loads, section forces) act in the axis point.

zq

zh z

y q, z q Input coordinate system of the cross

section

(= coordinate system of the FAGUS-

Graphics Editor)

yh y, z Local coordinate system of the cross sec

tion

or of the member (section forces, strains,

zs S b loads)

y y h, z h Principal axes system of the cross sec

tion

(= internal reference system for all

ys yq STATIK- analyses)

S Centroid

. Remark: For an angle b 0 0 the STATIK analyses are carried out automatically internally in

the principal axes system. From the point of view of the user however only the coordinate

system y, z is of interest (in the centroid or in the axis point, if one is defined).

start of Mz

member

My Vy y

S N tension positive

T

Vz x

FAGUS7 C-1

Vol. C Special Topics

C 2 Section properties

C 2.1 Introduction

In the case of frame analysis one assumes the classical assumptions of beam theory. Elastic

material behaviour is presupposed so that one can obtain a linear relationship between the

individual reference quantities. In the plane of the cross section the well known relation

ships between the kinematic quantities and the section forces are as follows:

du + N , d 2w + M y , d 2v + * M z , dr x

+ T

dx EA x dx 2 EIy dx 2 EI z dx GIx

rx : rotation about the member's axis

N, M, T : axial/normal force, bending and torsional moments

E, G : Young's (or E-)modulus, shear modulus

(for composite construction: E E ref , G G ref)

Ax : area of cross section

I y,Iz : moment of inertia (second moment of area) about the corresponding

axes

If the influence of shear on the deformations is also considered, there are in addition the

following two relationships:

Vy Vz

gy + , gz +

GAy GA z

g y , gz : shear strains

V y , Vz : shear forces

A y,A z : reduced cross section areas: A y + ayA x , A z + azA x (see also C 3.1)

FAGUS assumes for arbitrary cross sections: a y + az + 1

The two material parameters E and G are defined in FAGUS by the selection of a particular

material. For analyses with STATIK, FAGUS produces directly the stiffness values listed in

the denominator (EA x, EI y etc.), which can be overwritten there for each member or even

individually.

When determining I x, as well as A y and A z , certain assumptions have to be made. The pro

gram therefore allows the overwriting of these three values directly as part of the cross sec

tion/variant properties.

The area and the moments of inertia are calculated by evaluating the integral given below

with respect to the centroid and they are then output. In the case of cross sections with dif

ferent materials (composite sections) these represent ideal values, related to a reference

material (concrete), which is independently selected by the program for each cross section.

Each cross section then contributes its contribution according to the weighting factor wi.

In FAGUS this is calculated from the input elastic moduli E of the Materials.

For the subsection i:

Ei

Weighting: wi +

Eref

Area: dA

A xi + w i

yi i

2

C-2 FAGUS7

C 2 Section properties

I zi + w i 2

ydA zdA

Centroid: y + , z +

dA dA

si si

Area: A x + SA xi

Moment of inertia: I y + SIyi , I z + SIzi

Sy siA xi Sz siA xi

Centroid: ys + , zs +

Ax Ax

To calculate the stiffnesses of the cross section these (ideal) cross section values are then

multiplied by E ref.

Point and line reinforcement can be considered, if desired. In the normal case however it

is recommendable to omit this contribution, so that the centroid and the cross section val

ues do not change with changes in the reinforcement.

(changes in: Tabsheet > 'Variants' > 'Properties of variant' > 'Cross section values'

Documentation: The moments of inertia are output by the program with respect to the

principle axes system y h,z h of the cross section (cf. Fig. 1). For cross sections with b 0 0 in

an extra column entitled ... rel. to input coordinates the values Iy *, Iz *, Iyz * are output

with respect to the local coordinate system y, z of the cross section.

Reference material

By default FAGUS selects the material with the lowest weighting factor as reference. Da

durch sind die Gewichte der Teilquerschntte immer 1 v w i . Fr einen Stahl-Beton-Ver

bundtrger wird der Beton damit standardmssig zum Referenzbaustoff. In einigen

Tabellenwerken finden sich aber Querschnittswerte mit Stahl als Referenzbaustoff. This

can be changed in: Tabsheet > 'Variants' > 'Properties of variant'> 'Cross section values'

Biegesteifigkeit : EJ y + Eref @ Iy(E ref)

Dazu ist In Bezug auf die Schubsteifigkeiten folgendes zu vermerken:

A z variiert zwar linear mit E ref, der verwendete Schubmodul ndert sich aber nicht im glei

chen Mass, da die Querdehnungszahlen (insbesondere von Beton und Stahl) der beteilig

ten Baustoff unterschiedlich sind.

Schubsteifigkeit allgemein : GA z + G ref @ Az(E ref)

Schubsteifigkeit im Speziellen : G Beton @ A z(EBeton) 0 G Stahl @ A z(E Stahl)

1 The relationship between torsional moment and the derivation of the member rotation

about its axis is described by the following relationship:

dr x

2 + T

dx GIx

Here I x denotes the torsional constant, torsional resistance or warping resistance. Small re

inforced concrete cross sections are usually compact" and the torsional constant is calcu

lated on the basis of St. Venant's theory (membrane analogy). For arbitrary compact cross

sections, in general the exact value can only be found by solving the differential equation

(or using an FE program). FAGUS uses at present an approximation, in which use is made

of well known formulas for many common cross section shapes.

FAGUS7 C-3

Vol. C Special Topics

Ix Model No. Type of cross section Torsional constant for STATIK

1 rectangle Ix=1/3bh3 (10.63h/b+0.052 ....)

2 circle Ix=0.5r4

3 thin-walled (t < 0.1 l) Ix=1/3 l t3 approximation!!

4 compact Ix=0.5r4 approximation!!

5 steel section Ix=from steelwork tables

For polygonal subsections with a large perimeter (in comparison to area) l and t can be es

timated by the program from these two values. If however we are dealing with a thin-walled

section, it is better to work with the corresponding input elements (see below).

4

Remarks on Ix Model No. 4:

The radius r is obtained for a circle of equal area

For arbitrary polygonal cross sections and without further information the program auto

matically assigns each subsection to one of the above cases, whereby the dimensions of the

5 cross section needed in the above formulas are estimated partly from the area and the

length of the outline. The value of Ix determined by FAGUS has to be checked and if neces

sary replaced by an improved value supplied by the user, especially if the size of the tor

sional constant greatly influences the rest of the analysis.

For a cross section consisting of several subsections, the parts of the indivial subsections

are determined separately and added together. Only outlined" cross section parts contrib

ute to Ix (i.e. no reinforcement)

6 For cross sections with large openings, the torsional constant is calculated using Bredt's for

mula:

A 2o A2

I xBredt + 4 4 uo

7

ds t

t

u = circumference, t = (assumed constant) wall thickness of the equivalent box section

Cross Section with one or more Openings:

Ix Model No. Cross section type Torsional constant for STATIK

6 Axopeni ng < 30 % Axtotal Ix = Ixtotal Ixopening approximation

7 Axopeni ng > 30 % Axtotal Ix = IxBredt approximation

The parameters Ao , u, t are estimated by the program from the individual polygonal areas

and the length of the outline.

The model number used is given in the tabular output of the cross section values of the indi

vidual subsections (1..7).

8 Thin-walled cross sections

St. Venant's torsional constant for open, thin-walled cross sections is given by the summa

tion of all wall elements. If the wall elements form a box section with one or more openings,

the torsional constant is obtained basically from Bredt's formula for the external" circum

9 ference. More on this can be found in Ch. C 3. In summarising it can be said that a cross sec

tion built up of thin-walled wall elements gives correct values for Ix! If therefore the tor

sional constant of a multiple cell bridge beam has to be known exactly, it is recommended

to model it as a cross section variant with wall elements.

Thin-walled cross sections:

C-4 FAGUS7

C 2 Section properties

8 open cross section Ix = IxSaintVenant (see Ch. C 3)

9 box section Ix = IxBredt + ( IxSaintVenant ) (see Ch. C 3)

In the tabular output of the cross section values of the individual subsections the model

number used is given (1..9).

Bei Querschnitten, die aus einem zusammenhngenden polygonal umrandeten Teil

querschnitt (mit optionalen Aussparungen) bestehen, kann die Torsionskonstante nach St.

Venant aus einer FE-Analyse bestimmt werden. Die entsprechende Schaltflche befindet

sich im Register 'Varianten' > 'Varianteneigenschaften'.

Die numerische Berechnung basiert auf folgender Theorie:

Mit der Einfhrung einer Spannungsfunktion f wird das elastische Torsionsverhalten eines

homogenen Gebietes mit folgender Gleichung beschrieben:

2f 2f

) 2 ) 2Gq + 0

y 2 z

G = Schubmodul

wobei folgende Randbedingungen gelten:

Aussenrand: f+0

Aussparungen: f +konstant entlang einer bestimmten Aussparung

Mit Hilfe der Spannungsfunktion f knnen die Schubspannungskomponenten in einem

beliebigen Punkt angegeben werden:

f f

t xy + t xz + *

z y

Die Schiebung ist

t xy

g xy +

G

Das Torsionsmoment ergibt sich aus der Integration ber die gesamte Querschnittsfl

che A:

T+2 fdA

A

q + T fr q = G = 1 Ix + T

GI x

FAGUS7 C-5

Vol. C Special Topics

Bei einem dnnwandigen Querschnitt ist die Dicke jedes Elementes im Vergleich zur Lnge

klein und die Variation der Normalspannungen ber die Dicke des Elementes ist deshalb

vernachlssigbar.

Basic Theory

Shear stresses are determined on the basis of equilibrium considerations in an infinitesimal

element and depend on the normal stress changes along the axis of the beam x. With the

conventional assumptions structural theory provides for a rectangular cross section the fol

lowing relation ("Bisquit" formula):

VS(z)

t(z) + V = shear force, S= stat. moment, I= moment of inertia

bI

s

s ) ds

z

z

x y

dx b

Fig. 3 Shear stresses due to shear force

For the cross section shown above one can assume that the shear stresses are parallel to the

shear force and uniformly distributed over the width of the section b.

Insert: Reduced area of cross section when considering deformation due to shear

For some statical analyses one wishes to take into account the influence of shear force in

the analysis of the strain energy. Analogous to Hooke's law the shear strain g(z) in in a par

ticular section (see above) is:

t(z)

g(z) + , G = shear modulus

G

For the whole cross section one assumes an average shear strain g m. The corresponding

term in the work equation (virtual work per unit length of member dx) is:

VV = g V where gm + V

m

GA * GA *

g m depends on G, V and the reduced area of cross section A *. With the help of the above

formulas one can then find for A * the following definition:

m

GI

Sb dA

2

2

2

1 +1

A* I2

Sb dA

2

2

For space frame structures two shear force directions have to be considered. In STATIK/FA

GUS the corresponding reduced section areas are designated by A y and A z.

C-6 FAGUS7

C 3 Analyses with Thin-Walled Elements

In the case of general thin-walled cross sections one proceeds in a similar fashion: It is as

sumed that the shear stresses are uniformly distributed over the width of the wall and that

their magnitude is also obtained from the difference between the normal stresses on the

cut" section. For non-symmetrical cross sections there is in addition the new definition of

the shear centre with the following properties:

M S

S Each load passing through the shear centre stresses the beam according to classical

V V bending theory with bending without rotation.

S If the load does not pass through the shear centre, it can be split up into two partial

eM

loads: a) a load V through the shear centre, for which one can perform a stress analysis

according to classical bending theory and b) a torsional moment T + Ve M (e M = dis

tance between shear centre and centroid), which stresses the section shown on the left

for bending in the flanges.

For a member or section only loaded by a shear force, therefore, the location of the shear

centre has to be known in order to be able to calculate the resulting shear stresses. The pro

cedure is explained by means of the following numerical example:

Firstly, we assume a distribution of normal stresses according to classical bending theory

(1) and calculate from them the corresponding shear stresses (2). The position of the shear

centre is given by the condition that the moment of the forces S 1 and S 2 about this point

vanish. Then we introduce a torsional moment Ve M , which also produces shear stresses

(3) (for analysis see next chapter). The resulting shear stresses are then given by the sum of

these two parts (2+3).

. In the interactive FAGUS mode one can choose which of distributions (2) or (4) should be

presented. Amongst other things this should help to check more simply the text book ex

amples.

Geometry (1) (2) (3) (4)

S1

S1

+

S1

=

es S2

M S h S2

V T V

eM

S1

b

S1

S1

Height: h + 1.00 V + 1.00 T + * 0.23 V + 1.00

S 1 + 0.14117 S 1 + 0.23 S 1 + 0.0889

Centroid: e S + 0.0889

S 2 + 1.00 S 2 + 0.00 S 2 + 1.00

Distance M-S: e M + * 0.23

Fig. 4 Numerical example for Usection, shear flow and section forces

FAGUS7 C-7

Vol. C Special Topics

By integrating the shear flow one obtains for each wall element a resulting force in the sec

tion. The following check shows that the internal section forces (4) are in equilibrium with

the given external forces.

V + S 2 = 1.00 (O.K.)

T + hS 1 * e sS2 + 1.000.0889 * 0.08891.00 + 0.00 (O.K.)

Only with open cross sections can the shear stresses be directly determined using the

Vz Bisquit" formula. Closed cross sections have to be imagined to be cut and by introducing

appropriate forces the compatibility at the boundaries can be restored, as shown below.

The output is automatically carried out by the program and the user does not need to

bother about it (For checking the graphical input see Ch. C 3.2.2).

Vy

a t

a

d

1.0 S + Gt d

S S l

C-8 FAGUS7

C 3 Analyses with Thin-Walled Elements

C 3.2 Torsion

Shear Stresses

For the shear stresses of open thin-walled cross sections FAGUS automatically assumes a

distribution corresponding to warping torsion theory. By comparing the next two models

their most important features are described:

t

Ts

s t

S2

Tw

Resultant flange

forces

s S1

t

Conditions:

N=0: sdA + 0

My=0: szdA + 0

Mz=0: sydA + 0

Fig. 7 Normal and and shear stresses for warping torsion

Depending on the geometry and statics in reality a mixture of the two models will be taken.

Only on the basis of the cross section geometry alone, however, nothing can be said about

the ratio of T s (St. Venant) toT w (warping torsion):

If all thin-walled wall elements intersect in a point, the cross section is free of warping and

only St. Venant's torsion exists.

Torsional Constant

The well-known torsional constant used for statical analyses is based on St.Venant's torsion

and as usual is calculated using the following formula:

3

FAGUS7 C-9

Vol. C Special Topics

Warping Constant

For all open cross sections, besides the shear centre also the warping constant (warping re

sistance) is output:

(s)

w dA (s)ds

s+l

Iw + w(s) +

2

s For more on this see, e.g.:

S Chwalla, E.: "Einfhrung in die Baustatik", Stahlbau-Verlag

s+0

S Sattler, K.: "Lehrbuch der Statik", Springer Verlag, 1969

For closed cross sections it is characteristic that under torsional loading for every hollow

cell a constant shear flow is obtained.

The torsional constant of a single hollow cell is calculated using Bredt's formula:

A 2o

I xBredt + 4

ds

t

For multiple cell sub-sections the torsional constant and shear flow are given by the com

T patibility and equilibrium conditions. This is performed by FAGUS automatically by solving

the corresponding system of equations.

For the corresponding statical section property I x of the total cross section the default

value is the sum of the following two parts:

I x + IxSt.Venant ) IxBredt

In the case of thin-walled cross sections the first term, however, can usually be neglected

(for definition see open cross sections). The Bredt part determined by the program de

pends on whether in fact in the cross section input one or more closed hollow cells are de

fined (connection produced by snapping" the end points!). The topology recognised by

the program can be checked in the numerical output. For the cross section shown below,

in the legend of the table with the cross section geometry, e.g., there should be the follow

ing remark:

Otherwise it can be seen straightaway which node is leaking" from the shear flow diagram

of a test analysis.

0.6

29.40

0.6

ample (from K. Sattler Vol. I/8, units [cm])

C-10 FAGUS7

C 4 Shear and Torsion for Reinforced Concrete

The stirrup area per unit length is (6.13)

z

A sw V sd

a q s w + fywdz(cotq ) cot a) sin a

sw = spacing of stirrups

a = inclination of stirrups (a= 90_ = vertical stirrups)

q = inclination of concrete compression strut

f ywd = design value of strength of shear reinforcement at elastic limit

fy

f ywd + g

s

z = inner lever arm (= 0.9 d in simple cases)

. 6.2.3 says: "z should correspond to the bending moment in the element under conside

ration" meaning that for a simple beam z should be taken at midspan for the shear force

checks at both supports. Therefore in FAGUS z cannot be directly taken from a flexure re

sistance. z has to be given by the user either with the shear wall height or with an explict

value.

As a check on possible failure of the concrete compression strut Eq. 6.14 is used, i.e. the

shear stresses have to fulfil the following condition:

S Recommended value: n 1 = n

f ck

n from National Annex or n + 0.6 * ( f ck in N/mm2 )

250

S If the design stress of the shear reinforcement is below 80% of the characteristic yield

stress f yk, n 1 may be taken as:

f

n 1 + 0.9 * ck w 0.5 for f ck w 60Nmm2 (6.10bN)

200

a cw = is a coefficient taking account of the state of the stress in the compression chord

FAGUS7 C-11

Vol. C Special Topics

a cw = 1.0

Prestressed structures:

s cp

a cw = (1 ) ) for 0 t s cp v 0.25fcd

f cd

(6.11aN)

a cw = 1.25 for 0.25f cd t scp v 0.5f cd

(6.11bN)

s cp

a cw = 2.5(1 * ) for 0.5f cd t scp t 1.00f cd

f cd

(6.11cN)

. The values n 1 and a cw can be found in the legend and can be overwritten.

The value of w,min for beams may be found in the National Annex. The recommended value

is given as

w,min + 0.08 fck f yk

(9.5N)

Summary of input parameters:

Analysis parameters (> 'Options' > 'Analysis parameters')

: in tabsheet > 'Miscellaneous' > ...

w,min : in tabsheet > 'Reinforcement' > ...

: In tabsheet 'Variants' > 'Properties' > 'VT-Modell' > 'Inclination ..'

z, b w : Given as shear wall attributes

f ywd : Given through selected material class:

(1) Default values in 'Variants' > 'Properties' > 'VT-Modell' > ..

(2) As stirrup attributes

Der Durchstanzwiderstand ohne Schubbewehrung betrgt:

13

(6.2.a)

Minimum

V Rd,c + [v min ) k1 @ scp]b w @ d

C Rd,c + 0.18 gc

k + 1 ) 200d v 2.0

A sl

l + v 0.02

bwd

n min + 0.035 @ k 32 @ f 12

ck

f ck : charakteristische Zylinderdruckfestigkeit

C-12 FAGUS7

C 4 Shear and Torsion for Reinforced Concrete

Stirrup

z

The stirrup area per unit length is:

b a

A sw VRd,s

s w + fsdz sin b(cotb ) cot a) (262.38)

VSd

eff c +

VRd,c

Minimum reinforcement

a sw,min + 0.2%bw , b w v 40cm

z

0.5 cot q 2.0

a q

Check of concrete stresses: see Eurocode

V u2 + Vcu ) Vsu

V cu = Contribution of concrete

ment (e.g. dependent on , c and d).

- V cu is set to zero (This option is on the safe side and used in most European countries)

- V cu is calculated according the old EH-91-code

- V cu has to be calculated manually and given explicitely for each shear wall

In the current program version, only option 2 is available, which can be can be used in a

predesign phase. Option 1 und 3 will be available in future versions.

A sw V sd * V cu

s w + fywdz(cotq ) cot a) sin a

FAGUS7 C-13

Vol. C Special Topics

Design of stirrup reinforcement

z The stirrups area per unit length is determined using:

b a

A sw is only output if the stresses in the concrete compression diagonals

fulfil the following condition:

t R + fc,red(cos a ) cot b sin a) sin a ( f c,red after 3 24 211)

t

t Rd + gR

VSd

t Sd + t Rd

bwz

Minimum reinforcement

Explicit information is missing in SIA 162, i.e. a numerical verification does not have to be

given. Following current practice, however, adequate stirrups reinforcement is provided

for constructional reasons.

The inclination of the compression diagonals following Section 17.5.4 is generally ussumed

z to be 45 degrees, i.e. the default program value should not be changed. Depending on the

level of loading the design value of shear force (or shear stress ) may not be reduced.

b + 45

One distinguishes between:

Shear Region 1 (region with minimum reinforcement: t t 012)

The design value of the action is:

t nom + 0.4t o

This value corresponds to a minimum shear reinforcement of

0.4t fy

m+ s o (s s = permissible steel stress = , = reinforcement content)

s 1.75

Normally, the minimum reinforcement is determined by the program for the material qual

ity used. For special analyses this value can be overwritten by the user.

Shear Region 2 (reduced shear cover: t 012 t t 02)

0.4t

t+ s o

s

t2

t + t o w 0.4t 0

02

V + tb wz

Shear Region 3 (full shear cover: t 02 t t 03 )

C-14 FAGUS7

C 4 Shear and Torsion for Reinforced Concrete

In this region the whole shear force has to be resisted by the shear reinforcement alone.

A sw V

s w + zss sin b(cot ) cot b) (V = Q = shear force at service level)

Apart from Shear Region 3 no reinforcement areas are output. The limits of the above shear

regions can be found in Table 13 of the code.

85t 1b 0

a sw,min + ss

Torsion models Type A

V In the case of open cross sections as well as with (automatically recognised) closed hollow

boxes the given torsional force corresponding to the method described at the beginning

of this chapter is distributed to the individual shear walls. A single shear wall no longer

knows", where its internal force comes from. The design of the shear reinforcement, there

fore, proceeds according to the rules discussed in the previous section.

T

If the shear walls have to be designed for torsion as full sections" (enclosed shear

flow),then the additional axial reinforcement due to a torsional moment T is determined

using the following formula:

Tu ef

A sl + cot a

2A eff yd

t ef u ef = circumference of co-acting cross section area with torsion

t ef A ef = co-acting cross section area with torsion (= width height of shear wall)

a = slope of concrete compression diagonal (a = 45 according to DIN 1045)

A ef f yd = design value of strength at the yield limit of axial reinforcement

The shear stress due to torsion is:

t+ T

A *sw 2A eft ef

t ef = co-acting (equivalent) wall thickness with torsion

do

according to SIA : t ef + , d o + min(b, h)

8

according to DIN: t ef only indirectly specified, in FAGUS limited to d o6

according to EC2: t ef + A

u=

A

2(b ) h)

The required stirrups area is

A *sw + T tan a

2Aeff ywd

f ywd = design value of strength at the elastic limit of stirrups reinforcement

A sl2 To be able to output these values together with the shear force results in the same column,

two values are output (applies only to compact cross sections!):

A sw

A sl2 A sw + 2A *sw : total area of stirrups element (both top and bottom sides of beam)

Die Betonausnutzung wird fr alle Normen mit folgender Formel nachgewiesen:

FAGUS7 C-15

Vol. C Special Topics

T ed VEd

) v 1.0 EN 1992-1-1 (6.29)

T Rd,max V Rd,max

Nach DIN 1045-1 drfen die beiden Terme fr kompakte Querschnitte noch quadriert

werden. Es ist ein entsprechende Hinweis in der Legende der entsprechenden Tabelle zu

finden und als Betonausnutzung wird das Maximum aus folgenden drei Termen gebildet:

T V T ed V Ed

effc = Maximum { ed 2 ) Ed 2 , , )

T Rd,max VRd,max T Rd,max V Rd,max

Die Betonausnutzung wird fr alle Normen mit folgender Formel nachgewiesen:

T ed V

) Ed v 1.0 EN 1992-1-1 (6.29)

T Rd,max V Rd,max

Nach DIN 1045-1 drfen die beiden Terme fr kompakte Querschnitte noch quadriert

werden. Es ist ein entsprechende Hinweis in der Legende der entsprechenden Tabelle zu

finden und als Betonausnutzung wird das Maximum aus folgenden drei Termen gebildet:

T V T ed V Ed

effc = Maximum { ed 2 ) Ed 2 , , )

T Rd,max VRd,max T Rd,max V Rd,max

C-16 FAGUS7

C 4 Shear and Torsion for Reinforced Concrete

With compac cross sections, e.g. also for the circular section shown below, several shear

walls are necessary in order to obtain a complete model for resisting a combined action (Vy,

Vz, T). In this case each shear wall provides its special result, but the cross section, however,

may contain only one stirrup, i.e. for the final stirrups area we have to be able to combine

different results (also considering minimum reinforcement rules). This is done by means of

results combinations. A general description of the results combinations can be found in the

program's help system in the corresponding dialogue window.

Below are some examples for the calculation of Asw1 (=total stirrups reinforcement per

web):

Formulas used for the Cross section Distribution of load among the shear walls

calculation of Asw1

Asw1:=

Vy Vz T

Torsion model:

AswMin(SWZ)

OR

Asw(SWZ)+Asw(SWT)

Z

SW

Asw1

OR SWY SW

Asw(SWY)+Asw(SWT) T

SWY

SWY

AswMin(SWZ)

SWZ

OR

SWZ

Asw1

Asw(SWZ[Vz])+Asw(SWZ[T])

B

SWY2

SWY2

AswMin(SWZ)

SWZ

SWZ

OR

Asw1

Asw(SWZ[Vz])+Asw(SWZ[T])

SWY1

SWY1

B

SWT1 .. SWT8

Asw(SWY[Vy])+2*Asw(SWT1[T])

SWZ

OR Asw1

SW

Asw(SWZ[Vz])+2*Asw(SWT1[T]) Y

A

Conventions:

AswMin(SWY) = minimum reinforcement of corresponding shear wall SWY

Asw(SWY[Vy]) = statically required stirrup reinforcement in the shear wall SWY shear wall model for Vy

Fig. 9 Combination of different shear walls for some simple cross sections

FAGUS7 C-17

Vol. C Special Topics

As previously mentioned with the help of parametrised cross sections a complete cross

section input can be quickly generated. A further advantage of this input method is that dif

ferent cross section attributes, based on the types given below, can be automatically set by

the program correctly".

In a first group of PCS the solid" cross sections given in Fig. 10 are summarised. They are

unreinforced and can be of any material.

S-R S-RV S-T S-TV S-TV2 S-I S-IV S-O S-OH

S-L S-Z S-U S-UV S-RH S-RH2 S-C

A second group contains a series of thin-walled PCS. They are also unreinforced and may

be of any arbitrary material.

T-T T-T2 T-I T-I2 T-I3 T-I4 T-HO T-C T-C2 T-Z

The parametricised cross sections shown in Fig. 12 contain axial reinforcement, a complete

shear wall model, as well as a results combination Asw1 (for explanation see Part B), which

represents the required main stirrup reinforcement according to the diagram shown be

low. This simplification is necessary, above all for tabular output in connection with STATIK/

FAGUS analyses, so that uniform tables for the complete structure can be output. In the de

tailed output in a FAGUS manual operation details are given on each cross section element.

Asw Asw Asw Asw

Asw

Asw

1 1 1 1 1 1

G-R G-T G-TV G-I G-IV G-RH

Asw Asw Asw Asw

G-U

1

G-UV

1

G-B1

1

G-B2

1

The cross sections shown above are dimensioned for all six section quantities

(N,My,Mz,Vy,Vz,Tx). It is assumed however that the main loading direction is in the local z

direction (cf. reinforcement layout) and if the shear centre is not at the centroid, no conver

sion for the horizontal loading Vy is carried out.

As column and wall cross sections the following parametricised cross sections are avail

able:

C-18 FAGUS7

C 5 Overview of Parametrised Cross Sections

C-RP C-RL C-O C-RH C-OH

W-R W-L W-Z W-U

To be able also to design circular column cross sections for (as a rule small) shear force and

torsion, (to meet the wish of a user) a conservative shear wall model was defined. In the case

of large shear forces however the assumptions made have to be checked in each case with

the recommendations in the technical iterature.

SLAB

auch bei parametrisierten Querschnitten zwischen 'linienfrmig verteilter Bewehrung' und

'Einzelstben' umgeschaltet werden. Um eine Kollision" in den Bewehrungseckpunkten

zu vermeiden (z.B. C-RH), werden die vertikalen Linien in diesem Fall ohne Endstbe gene

riert. Dies fhrt aber bei den oben dargestellten Wandelementen selten zum gewnschten

Resultat. Falls man tatschlich das Modell 'Einzelstbe' verwenden mchte, sollten solche

Querschnitte mit Vorteil in normale FAGUS-Querschnitte umgewandelt werden.

. Damit die Sttzenkreisquerschnitte ebenfalls auf (in der Regel kleine) Querkraft und Tor

sionsbeanspruchungen bemessen werden knnen, wurde hierfr entsprechend einem

Benutzerwunsch ein konservatives Schubwandmodell definiert. Bei grossen Querkraftbe

anspruchungen sind die getroffenen Annahmen aber in jedem Fall mit den Empfehlungen

der Fachliteratur zu berprfen.

FAGUS7 C-19

Vol. C Special Topics

C-20 FAGUS7

D 1 Introduction and Overview

FAGUS7

If a cross section is built up solely by different types of wood FAGUS uses a special proce

dure according to the requirements of this material.

Only three analysis types are available in this case

S Stress analysis

S Ultimate load / Efficiency / Capacity check

S General interaction diagram

and the following steps are needed:

1. Check material list and select desired timber material classes (Menu: Options > Materials)

2. Define the cross section geometry

S with a parametrised cross section (tabsheet Timber")

S with one or more polygonal enclosed partial cross section

3. Select tabsheet 'Analysis' and define action forces and optionally buckling lengths

4. Create results:

The flash button starts the calculation and shows a graph with the results. The efficency

factor should be below 1.00 to fullfill the safety requirements.

s

For this type of analysis a linear-elastic relationship is assumed. Timber is an orthotropic

material and the national codes require different allowable stresses due to bending and

f ..k

axial forces.

f ..d

Example C24 (Coniferous tree") acc. SIA 265: char. value f m,k + 24Nmm2

Perpendicular to the grain: f c,90,d + * 1.8Nmm 2 , f t,90,d + 0.1Nmm2

In a timber cross section the stress in each grain has to be checked.

The conversion in an arbitray direction is done in a similar way described below for the mo

dulus of elasticity.

In contrast to the (concrete) analysis methodes descriped in the previous chapters, for tim

ber cross sections design values for stresses are used to define a limit state instead of limit

strains.

Conversion between characteristic and design values

Each national annex has its specific characteristics:

The design values according SIA 265 (1) are defined as follows:

h Mh th w

Rd + gM R k

In table 6 (solid timber) and table 7 (glued laminated timber) design values are given for the

most frequent cases (Duration of load: h t + 1 ; moisture class h w + 1 = 1). In other cases

the term h th w can directly be given in Menu 'Options' > 'Analysis parameters'

FAGUS7 D-1

Vol. D Timber Cross Sections

kmodf m,k

f m,d + gM

In the German Code DIN 1052 characteristic values are pre-defined. The partial factor g M

is given by g M + 1.3.

k mod is a factor taking into account the effect of the duration of load and moisture. The pro

gram assumption have to be checked by the user and eventually adapted!

Grain direction

Each partial cross section can have its own fibre direction a. The modulus of elasticity E

(and the cross sectional properties) is calculated with

E 0E90

Ea +

E0 sin 2 a ) E 90 cos 2 a

For E 0 and E 90 mean values are used: E 0 E0,mean , E 90 E90,mean (SIA 265, 2.3.1.1)

D 3 Analysis

In the case of a stress analysis, the section forces input by the user are applied to the cross

section and the result is all the required force and strain quanties displayed graphically and

numerically.

M

The results are also shown if the action is too big. The material is assumed to behave elasti

cally unconditionally but in the table Max. strains and stresses there is a message indica

ting this fact. Additional stresses at any point in the cross section are available by means of

'Results points'.

The action forces given by user are augmented until an allowable stress is reached some

where in the cross section.

The general rules defined in the national codes require a distinction between stresses s t

due to an axial normal forces and stresses s m due to bending moments.

st s

) mv1

f t,d f m,d

Combined bending and axial tension

s t,0,d s m,y,d s m,z,d

SIA 265 ) ) v1

f t,0,d f m,y,d f m,z,d

D-2 FAGUS7

D 3 Analysis

) ) k m v1 EC5 (6.16)

f t,0,d f m,y,d fm,z,d

) k m ) v1 EC5 (6.17)

f t,0,d fm,y,d fm,z,d

For solid timber, glued laminated timber and laminated veneer lumber:

- for rectangular sections : k m = 0,7

- for other cross-sections : k m = 1,0

For other wood based structural products:

- for all cross sections : k m = 1,0

s c,0,d 2 sm,y,d sm,z,d

SIA 265 ( ) ) ) v1

f c,0,d fm,y,d fm,z,d

DIN 1052, EC5

s c,0,d 2 sm,y,d s m,z,d

( ) ) ) km v1 EC5 (6.18)

f c,0,d fm,y,d f m,z,d

s c,0,d 2 s m,y,d s m,z,d

( ) ) km ) v1 EC5 (6.19)

f c,0,d f m,y,d f m,z,d

Stability

The stability verfication is performed in an similar way. The allowable stresses are redu

ced by the two factors k c and k crit . The following formulas are used in SIA, DIN and EC5. (k c

stands for k c,y and k c,z , k crit = k m in SIA)

kc + 1 EC5 (6.25)

k ) k 2 * l 2rel

k crit

k crit + 1 for l rel,m v 0.75 EC5 (6.32)

k crit + 1.56 * 0.75l rel,m for 0.75 t l rel,m v 1.4

k crit + 1l2rel,m for 1.4 t l rel,m

In the case where only a moment My exists about the strong axis y, the stresses should sat

isfy the following expression:

s m,d v kcritf m,d

In the case where a combination of moment My about the strong axis y and compressive

force N c exists, the stresses should satisfy the following expression :

sm,y 2 sc

( ) ) v1 EC5 (6.33)

k critfm,d k c,ztf c,0,d

s c,0,d sm,y,d

) v1

k c,yfc,0,d kmf m,y,d

Example for combined bending and axial compression according SIA 265:

Geometry: 25cmx25cm, C24 (SIA265), l ky + l kz + l D + 400cm

Action forces: N + * 200kN, My + 15kNm, Mz + 7.6kNm

Result from FAGUS analysis: 1.00

FAGUS7 D-3

Vol. D Timber Cross Sections

ah 40025

l rel,m + 0.07 + 0.07 + 0.28 km + 1

b 25

i+ Jy

A

= 7.22 l + 400 + 55.42 lrel + 0.98 kc + 0.704

7.22

* 200kN

s c,d + + * 3.2Nmm 2

625cm 2

sc,0,d

Compression: + 3.2 + 0.378

kcf c,0,d 0.70412

My M

Bending stresses: s m,y,d + + 5.76Nmm 2, s m,z,d + z + 2.918Nmm 2

Wy Wz

s m,y,d s m,z,d

Bending check: ) + 5.76 ) 2.918 + 0.6198

f m,y,d f m,z,d 14 14

s c,0,d s m,y,d s m,z,d

Combination: ) ) +1

f c,0,d f m,y,d f m,z,d

In the actual version this analysis is for rectangular cross sections available only.

s The explanations of the previous chapter are related to pure timber cross sections.

Basically FAGUS allows to build up a cross section with various material types. In this case

f c..k FAGUS assumes an ideal interconnection between the different types of material (ass

umption of a strain plain).

f c..d

Load factor / Efficiency / Limit state:

cu If the cross section contains a second material other than timber, the usual stress-/strain

limits defined in analysis parameters and the nonlinear material behaviour of these materi

f t..d als are also taken into account.

But as the stresses can no longer be divided into stress due to axial force and stress due to

bending a second rule is introduced:

The allowable stresses are established in a pre-evaluation of the cross section.

If the cross section is stressed under pure bending: f d :+ fm,d

For pure axial tension and compression the following values are used:

f d :+ ft,d (tension) and f d :+ fc,d compresssion

. It should be emphasized that this approach cannot be found in any national code but the

developers feel that it could serve as a calculation tool under some circumstances.

For an automatic execution directly from STATIK the same input procedure as for steel

members is required (see manual of STATIK). The results (efficiency factors) can be viewed

in numerical or graphical from.

The required steps in STATIK are:

S Define geometry of timber structure and loadings as usual

Check given buckling lengths and distances between lateral buckling supports

(member attributes > last tabsheet)

S Ask for the desired analysis: Tabsheet 'Calculation' > 'Special analysis' > 'Timber ..'

S View desired results in the tabsheet 'Results'

D-4 FAGUS7

D 5 Calculations directly from STATIK

On the left hand side the results for bending and axial force can be found. Shear and Torsion

is in the middle of the page (if the cross section allows such results) and the overall results

(M,N,V,T) are on the right hand side of the chart.

FAGUS7 D-5

Vol. D Timber Cross Sections

D-6 FAGUS7

Vol. E Introductory examples

FAGUS7

E 1 Introduction

Two short sections dealing with starting the program and opening a new cross section lib

rary are followed by some examples, which will help you to become familiar with important

aspects of the program. The examples are ordered according to increasing specialisation.

It is essential to work through these introductory examples yourself, before you attemp real

cases. You will then be acquainted with the program's logic and for further details of pro

gram operation you can consult FAGUS's Help System, whose intensive use will be well

repaid. It can be started in different ways:

S By clicking on the menu Help in the program's menu bar. A list of all available Help doc

uments is given, which you can enter immediately.

S By pressing the key <F1> you obtain specific help on the action you are about to carry

out (e.g. when inputting a point) or on the input element that the mouse is currently

pointing to.

S Many of the dialogue windows, which appear during input, have their own Help button

for information on the corresponding dialogue.

A prerequisite is that one has some basic knowledge of the use of the Windows Operating

System. This includes the manipulation of windows (moving, increasing and decreasing

their size, etc.), of the Start menu, the Task bar, the Clipboard and of the Windows Explorer.

. As in Windows in general one always works with the left mouse button. To click or select

a symbol on the screen means: move the mouse pointer onto the symbol and then press

briefly on the left mouse button. The right mouse button is only used to bring up a context

menu (see later) in a particular situation on the screen.

For all examples of application the following presentation conventions apply:

S All actions to be carried out are indented and marked as follows:

" Description of action

S Everything in bold print in the description of an action has to be typed in exactly as given

except for the following exceptions.

S Special keys are denoted by <..> (e.g. <Enter>=<o>, <Esc>, <F1>, etc.)

S The mouse buttons are abbreviated to <LMB> and <RMB> (left and right)

S Buttons on the screen are shown in square brackets (e.g. [Cancel])

S Words printed in italics Click, Select, ... are previously clearly defined user actions

S An entry to be made in a menu is given in inverted commas, separated in the case of

multiple selection by > (e.g. >Options>Language>English>)

. The texts printed in this way within this chapter represent insertions with useful additional

information on the current topic. They do not imply any executed actions in connection

with the examples.

The examples described are stored in your program installation and can be fetched using

the Help System in order to view and modify them. This also applies especially to examples

which are not developed from the beginning, but serve as a starting point for modifications

and further developing them.

FAGUS7 E-1

Vol. E Introductory examples

When working with a downloaded example not the original, but an automatically created

copy is modified in the TEMP folder of Windows. Thus the original data cannot be lost and

one can load an example as often as one desires.

Downloading an example is carried out as follows:

" Start FAGUS directly, as described in Example 1 and from the menu bar of the program se

lect: >Help>Load Examples> Name of an Example>

FAGUS can be started in two ways:

1) By direct execution of the program file FAGUS.EXE, e.g. using the Start menu of Win

dows

(for a standard installation: [Start] > Programs > Cubus > FAGUS)

This way of entering the program is recommended above all if you want to continue

working with one of the recently modified cross section libraries (these are listed in the

file Menu).

2) Using the CubusExplorer: the CubusExplorer is an independent program for the man

agement of analyses with the different Cubus programs and is also opened using the

Start menu of Windows

(for the standard installation: [Start] > Programs > Cubus > CubusExplorer)

By cross section library is meant a folder, in which FAGUS cross sections are kept. This may

be an analysis folder, which has been created directly by FAGUS (or in CubusExplorer for

FAGUS) or an analysis folder of other Cubus programs, e.g. STATIK, which also works with

FAGUS cross sections.

Specific FAGUS analysis folders are used to carry out independent cross section analyses

with other programs. They may however be built up as a genuine library, since copying

cross sections from one library to another (e.g. in a STATIK analysis) is simple and possible

at any time.

We now want to create a FAGUS cross section library. To do this start the CubusExplorer us

ing the Windows Start menu, as described in the previous chapter.

If this is the first time for you to do this, then it may appear as in the following graphic shown

on the left. Click on the + beside My Computer and you will obtain the presentation on

the right.

The CubusExplorer is very similar to the Windows Explorer. The difference is above all that

in the left window only those directories are shown that you want and these are normally

those that contain analysis data from Cubus programs. For a detailed description of the

CubusExplorer see its Help menu.

For our example we want to create a folder called FGDataon a harddisk (here D:), in which

we then want to create our first cross section library. Basically you are completely free when

creating a folder structure to manage your projects. You can also at any time reorganize and

rename or move folders.

E-2 FAGUS7

First click on the symbol of the desired harddisk and then on the symbol shown to create

or make folders visible.

The window that then appears shows the folder structure on the chosen harddisk. You can

now select one of the folders or subfolders shown and [Select] with the button in the Cubu

sExplorer to display them.

We want however to create a new folder and first select the object (harddisk or folder),

where the new folder should be placed in our case therefore the harddisk symbol D:. To

create a new folder click on the adjacent button.

This causes a new folder to appear at the desired level, which we rename as FGData and

introduce with the button [Select] in CubusExplorer.

Back in CubusExplorer you should check that in the display filter shown below the button

for FAGUS cross section libraries has been activated (only the analysis folders for the activ

ated programs are shown in the filter).

Now select the newly created folder and click on the buttonshown on the left to create a

new cross section library. Directly below the button there appears a row of buttons for all

the installed Cubus programs. Select the symbol for FAGUS cross section libraries, and then

in the middle part of the CubusExplorer a new entry with the standard name Fagus Cross

Sections appears. Since the name of the new cross section library has already been chosen

(i.e. highlighted), you can rename it by typing directly Example 1.

Thus you have created the desired cross section library and you can start FAGUS with the

button [Modify] bottom right in the CubusExplorer. We do not want to do this here but in

the first example and therefore we now exit the CubusExplorer.

FAGUS7 E-3

Vol. E Introductory examples

E 1.4.1 Task

180

Measurements

in cm

72 Materials:

6 concrete and

reinforcing steel

as specified

6

33

27

As = 26 cm2

zq

36

57

8

27

8

yq

5 * 22

12 30

120

Aim: To become acquainted with the most important functions of the basic module

by inputting and documenting a simple cross section

(with reinforcement optional)

" Start the CubusExplorer and select a cross section library (as created in Ch. E 1.3)

If FAGUS is started with a cross section library that is still empty, then a first cross section

is started immediately. If this is not the case then do it manually:

" Click on this button, if the dialogue 'New Cross Section' is still displayed, to create a new

cross section

The following dialogue appears to input the cross section name:

Ex1

and select [OK]

E-4 FAGUS7

E 1.4.2 The program window of FAGUS

The FAGUS window, which you now have before you, responds with a program window

that looks as follows:

Menu

Management of

cross sections

Graphics Editor

functions and tools:

Drawing

tools Control tabsheet

Drawing area

Selection

Part of drawing

(Zoom...)

Undo/Redo

Layer switches

Input options

input fields scale

A cross section library consists in general of several cross sections, which are created, de

leted, copied, etc. using the cross section management (<F1> on the button of the cross

section management explains their function). At any time one cross section of the library

is always active. It is shown in the list field of the cross section management ('Ex1') and des

ignated as the current cross section.

The Control tabsheet is a kind of menu for editing the active cross section. Its tabsheets

are activated by clicking on the tab. The Control tabsheets 'Reinforcement design' and

'Analyses' are only available in the licensed Analysis Module.

E 1.4.3 Units

The units of mass for cross section input and output quantities can be freely selected at any

time within the framework of existing choices. To each quantity that can be set the number

of decimal places for the presentation of the numerical results can be elected.

FAGUS7 E-5

Vol. E Introductory examples

" Call the Settings dialogue using the menu 'Presentation' > 'Units/Decimal Places' and make

the settings as desired.

The cross section input is done in the 'Geometry' tabsheet:

Legend

Openings

Check

Handle (point)

Result combinations

Drawn partial sections

Steel sections

Insert existing cross sections

PT Constraint lines

Thin walled partial sections

Axis point

Result points

Selectable objects

Usually in reinforced concrete practice one will work with rectangular, T and circular cross

sections. FAGUS offers a quick input of these and a series of other section shapes with para

metricised cross sections, some of which are provided with reinforcement and shear

walls. The Structure tabsheet has a button for inputting parametricised cross sections (see

above).

Cross sections, for which there is no parametricised type, have to be constructed. They can

be built up of one or more subsections with their own materials, whereby a particular sub

section can be defined by

S the input of the polygonal outline, which can contain one or more openings that have

to lie completely within the corresponding subsection.

S taking a section from the existing rolled steel section library

S the input of a thin-walled subsection (line or polygon with details of wall thickness)

Our example is constructed by inputting an outline polygon with one opening:

" Click on this button in the Geometry tabsheet to create a new subsection outline

The dialogue shown appears, in which you can name the subsection and select the desired

material.

" Select in the list field under Material the existing material Concrete

The list field for Materials contains all currently defined materials. With the button to the

right of the list field the existing materials can be modified and also redefined. We will deal

with this point in the example 'Composite Cross Section'.

Now the geometry of the output has to be input. The tools for this purpose are available on

the left side of the FAGUS window. These are lines, rectangles, polygons and circles. You can

click on the appropriate tool and with [Introduce] in the dialogue you can automatically

start the polygon tool.

E-6 FAGUS7

" Select this button to start the polygon tool.

With this (or any other drawing tool) you enter the mode to edit the geometry, which is con

firmed by the appearance of the dialogue 'Edit Geometry' on the left.

As long as this dialogue is shown, one is still in the edit mode for an outline or an opening

and with the drawing tools supplied in the Graphics Editor you can draw an arbitrary out

line shape.

On exiting the edit mode with [OK] the program tries to find a valid cross section outline

from the drawing elements, which encloses a contiguous area without holes. This is pos

sible in the following cases:

1) The only drawing element is a closed polygon.

2) There are several lines and/or polygon segments connected together, such that visually

they represent a single valid outline.

3) As drawing elements only quadrilaterals and a closed polygon were used; with several

such elements they have to enclose a contiguous area without holes. They may inter

sect.

With [Introduce] we start the polygon tool and input the outline as a closed polygon. This

is done by inputting its corner point coordinates. The starting point and direction (clock

wise or anticlockwise) of the polygon are not prescribed by the program.

" Type in

-60 <o> 0 <o>

60 <o> 0 <o>

<R> 30 <o> 57 <o> An <R> before an input coordinate pair

stands for relative input, i.e. the coordi

<R> 0 <o> 33 <o> nates refer to the point last input, the

<R> -180 <o> 0 <o> relative point

<R> 0 <o> -33 <o>

Point Input by Grabbing (= Select) is done as follows: bring the mouse pointer as close as

possible to the point to be grabbed, until at the top of the mouse pointer a small circle is shown,

which on clicking on the point nearest to the cross-hairs grabs it.

. As well as typing in the absolute and relative coordinates there are also other methods of

point input. Consult for this action as also for the polygon input and modification the Help

System in the Graphics Editor.

You can modify the outline later, by selecting it (=clicking) and then with the <RMB> call

its Context menu and select 'Edit Geometry' there. You are once again in the above men

tioned Edit mode.

" Click on this button in the dialogue 'Edit Geometry', to finish the editing of this part of the

cross section

" Click on the button shown (Graphics Editor tool on left side of screen), in order to centre

the drawing on the screen

FAGUS7 E-7

Vol. E Introductory examples

An opening is the same as creating the outline of a part of a cross section, except that it does

not have any material attribute. It is also input in the same way. As an alternative to the

above, where we started the polygon input using [Introduce], we now want to use the Rect

angle tool of the Graphics Editor.

" Click on the Rectangle tool (variants of the rectangle input are shown by clicking on the

small arrow lower right on the button)

Now the two corner points of the opening have to be input.

" Type in

-36 <o> 27 <o>

<R> 72 <o> 36 <o>

" Click on this button in the dialogue 'Edit Geometry',to end the input of the opening

The input of the cross section is now complete.

" Click on this button to check the cross section

The cross section is now shown correctly, and we want to input the required reinforcement.

Pass over this section, if you think you will never have to work with RC cross sections.

. Normally reinforcement has no influence on the cross section values and therefore doesn't

need to be input, if no analyses are planned. If, however, you want to take into account its

influence, you have to do this with the property settings of the variants (see later in the ex

ample).

" Change to the tabsheet 'Reinforcement'

Point reinforcement

Circular reinforcement

reinforcement

Line reinforcement

New reinforcement group

Delete group

Properties of group

ment

Auxiliary points to show

ary points for reinforce

Result points

Tendons

Check

Selectability

List field to select the

reinforcement group

First we introduce point reinforcement. The bars have a spacing to the boundary in all direc

tions of 80 mm, so it is easier to use an auxiliary polygon:

" Click on the button for Auxiliary lines, to activate this function

" Set to 80mm. You can now see a polygon at a distance of 8cm from the boundary and the

opening, whose corner points can be grabbed.

. The input of the desired 5 bottom bars could also - and more quickly - be input as line rein

forcement. But firstly it would not be possible to modify the bars individually afterwards,

and secondly we want here to work with both kinds.

" Click on the button for Point reinforcement

E-8 FAGUS7

" Select in the dialogue 'Point Reinforcement' that appears the given material for reinforce

ment (if already set)

and in the corresponding list field a diameter of 22

" Click on [Create] and with the <LMB>grab the lower left corner point of the auxiliary poly

gon.

" Press the <RMB> and select from the context menu 'Duplicate'

" Set the dialogue as shown. (At the start point of the line (='duplication ruler'), along which

one has to fill, we already have an object, which is why the control field 'Duplication at start

point' is inactive)

1) the reference point of the objects to be duplicated, i.e. the point reinforcement to be

duplicated here. (The reference point is the point of the object / objects, which has to be

placed along the subsequently to be defined duplication ruler)

2) the start point of the duplication ruler, i.e. here the same point.

3) the end point of the duplication ruler, i.e. the lower right point of the auxiliary polygon

1), 2) 3)

" Shows in the preview ([Preview] button is active) the desired duplications, and so select

[OK]

The duplication just performed is a typical example of object-oriented working. The Graph

ics Editor of FAGUS functions without exception according to this principle, which is gener

ally formulated in the following insertion.

FAGUS7 E-9

Vol. E Introductory examples

You select one or more desired objects, then press the right mouse button and a context menu will appear with the

functions, which are possible with all the selected objects.

. If you do not see a function in the context menu, it may be that you have

also selected objects which do not work with these functions!

The selection of objects therefore plays an important rle. Besides clicking with the mouse or using a window there

are a number of other very useful selection methods, or information on selection, which are essential to know. Therefore

please read also chapter The Graphics Editor.

" Selektieren Sie die fnf Punktbewehrungen, indem Sie ein Fenster ber diese aufziehen.

E-10 FAGUS7

" Holen Sie mit der <RMT> das Kontextmenu zu den selektierten Objekten und whlen Sie

daraus 'Eigenschaften' . Diese Menuzeile ist nur aktiv, wenn Sie ausschliesslich gleichartige

Objekte selektiert haben! Sie knnten jetzt beliebige Attribute verndern und diese an

schliessend den selektieren Objekten zuweisen.

. Die Schaltflche [Anwenden] ist allerdings nur aktiv, wenn Objekte selektiert sind und et

was in den Dialogeinstellungen verndert wurde. In Klammern hinter 'Anwenden' steht

immer die Anzahl der selektierten Objekte, auf welche sich das Anwenden der genderten

Eigenschaften auswirken wird.

The line reinforcement is still missing:

" Set the auxiliary polygon spacing to 60mm.

" Select in the dialogue that appears the given material for the reinforcement (should al

ready be set)

" Select the option 'Area given' and define the desired value As = 26 cm2

" Select as Start point of the line the upper left corner point of the auxiliary polygon and as

End point the upper right corner point

" This button enables you to check the cross section

Legend

Check interpolated

Check variants

cross sections

Delete new variant

Properties

variant

tion with a variant section:

A cross section can have several variants, which can differ with respect to the choice of sub

Two input subsec

sections and reinforcement as well as in other properties. Usually, as also in our example,

one does not work with several variants. Thus a variant 'Standard' is always pre-defined,

which always includes all input subsections and reinforcement.

tions =

variant 'Standard' However, what is always of interest in this tabsheet are the variant's properties - including

those of the standard variant - and the button to provide a tabular documentation of the

cross section.

Variant 'Trough'

" Click on it to show the Properties dialogue of the current variant 'Standard'.

The first tabsheet of the dialogue serves to define the subsections and reinforcement that

belong to a variant. Since the standard variant always includes all these elements, nothing

can be changed here. However, a further tabsheet includes the settings for cross section

values exported to STATIK and should be considered:

FAGUS7 E-11

Vol. E Introductory examples

cement on the cross section values

is considered.

Be careful: may change the position

of centroid!

cannot always be calculated

correctly by the program and so they

can be overwritten.

forces, which act on the cross sec

tion masses. The self-weight is also

input in this way.

Thus an additional mass can be

input, which does not come from an

input subsection (can also be

negative).

The other tabsheets in the dialogue are only of interest in connection with cross section

analyses and are described later.

For our example we want here to carry out the following steps in the documentation of the

cross section:

S Adding dimensioning to the cross section as in the current task

S Set the desired figure content with the help of the layer button

S Enter a figure of the structure in the print list

S Create a text legend with all cross section data and cross section values and enter it in

the print list

S Call the CubusViewer to preview, to set possible presentation parameters and print

To document a cross section one changes to the Variants tabsheet and selects the variant

to be documented, if more than one exists.

On the right side of the FAGUS window is the Layer bar. In layers, graphics objects of the

same type are placed, as in CAD systems. By clicking on the layer buttons you can blend in

or blend out the corresponding layers. Details on this are given below.

If you want to add to figures to be printed information like dimensioning lines or extra la

bels, this is done using the layer group User", in which the button for a first user layer is al

ready given. You can also distribute these additions to the figures in different layers, by cre

ating as many other user layers as desired, using the context menu of the group header

User".

It may sometimes happen that points which one wants to input have to be constructed

with the aid of auxiliary points and auxiliary lines. Such constructions are likewise carried

out in user layers. Points constructed here can be grabbed in the input of cross section ob

jects.

To be able to draw in a user layer, this first has to be made the active layer (not to be con

fused with making it visible):

" Press <RMB> on the button of the existing user layer and then in the context menu on the

line 'Active'

Now all drawing tools of the Graphics Editor have been activated.

E-12 FAGUS7

" Click on the dimensioning tool

" Specify the direction of the dimensioning line using Select, e.g. of the left cross section

edge (1)

(5)

" Click on a position through which the dimensioning line should pass (2)

(1)

" Click now sequentially on the points that should be included on this dimensioning line

(2) (4)

(3),(4),(5)

(3) " Proceed in the same way for the dimensioning lines in the example.

Also try out here the other drawing tools and delete the corresponding 'creations' again

with [Undo] (see following insertion).

Insertion: Undo/Redo

If you have made an incorrect input or even more than one in succession, this is not a problem:

With the Undo function (on the left side of the window) as many changes to graphics objects as you like (provided

the button is active) can be reversed stepwise. Key combination: <Ctrl>+<Z>

With the Redo function changes, which were made using the Undo function, can be reversed stepwise. Key com

bination: <Ctrl>+<Y>

. Creating other user layers is done in the context menu for the group button 'User'

As mentioned above, the contents of figures can be activated or deactivated using the cor

responding layer button as desired. Try out the settings...

" Whlen Sie zum Schluss die Einstellungen, wie nebenan abgebildet.

The content of the graphics area can be sent directly to the printer at any time (left button)

or, with the right button, to the output list for printing later. If you click on one of these but

tons a dialogue appears, which among other things gives you the choice, whether a figure

should be created with the complete contents of the graphics area or only with a part of it.

For details on the dialogue for print entry use its help button.

Here we want to enter a figure of the whole structure:

" Click on the button for a print entry and then on [OK] in the unchanged print entry dialogue

" Click on the button to create a text legend (top right in the Variants tabsheet)

FAGUS7 E-13

Vol. E Introductory examples

This, as all text output, is created in a separate window, which looks as follows:

Presentation of the

numerical output with a

pressed preview key

The presentation of

individual tables can

be activated or

deactivated (applies

also to the print entry)

" Close the text window ([x] button top right corner)

Up to now we have created two print entries, one with a figure of the cross section and one

with the text legend, and now we want to call the CubusViewer, in order to see how printing

is prepared and how one prints.

The CubusViewer appears in a separate window and should look as in the following figure,

in which you can also see its most important functions. A detailed description of the Cubus

Viewer can be found in its help menu.

Editing the entries in the window with the list is done using the menu 'Print Entries' on the

menu bar or using the context menu for the print entries shown below.

" Select the entry for the figure and change the scale to 1 : 20

" Print the two entries and then close the CubusViewer

E-14 FAGUS7

In the menu 'File' you can

among other things select the

printer

(Presentation and Printing)

header, ...)

For quick editing of a long entries (supports moving

list of entries, or of large lines with <LMB> (drag &

files: drop)

- deactivate filling

- deactivate preview

- present picture with less

content

Preview window

FAGUS7 E-15

Vol. E Introductory examples

E 1.5.1 Task

150 Measurements

zq in cm

Concrete

8

yq

4

slab

IPE240 S275

R.S. Formed plate in

section transverse direction

(statically ineffective

for this cross sec

-Materials: Id Class EModulus tion)

C (concrete) C25/30 32.0 kN/mm2

C2 (concrete longterm) C25/30 12.0 kN/mm2

S (structural steel) S275 210 kN/mm2

construction state rolled steel section

long-term R.S.section, slab (concrete long-term)

-centroid at (0,0)

-what is an anchor point?

-result points:

PLMU

PRMO

- editing the (project) materials

- several subsections with different materials

- introduce subsections from the cross section library

- cross section variants

- input of centroid, anchor point and result points

To each part of a FAGUS cross section a material chosen from a material list maintained by

the user is assigned. Such a material has a freely selectable name, possibly a material class

and parameters, which e.g. are required for the determination of the cross section stiff

nesses. In this way all required properties of a material are summarised under a name.

In the case of the other material properties, which are not defined by means of the material

classes in the codes, it is a question of

- the E and G moduli, which are used by STATIK for the determination of the required

cross section stiffnesses; the E moduli can, for subsections with different materials, also

have an influence of the position of the centroid of the cross section

- the specific mass required by STATIK (e.g. for self-weight)

The material management is called from the main menu of FAGUS.

" Select from the menu: 'Options' > 'Materials'

The corresponding dialogue shows a list of already defined or given materials, which can

be modified at will and extended. Below the buttons of the dialogue are explained:

E-16 FAGUS7

Definition of new materials

In this list we now want to give the existing material the required properties and define the

additionally required concrete with a reduced E-modulus.

" Click on the button of the properties dialogue for the selected material:

. When creating a new material the dialogue is initialised with the properties of the previ

ously selected material

" Select the same class, but change the Young's modulus to E = 12 kN/mm2

" Ensure that a material with the name 'Structural Steel' needed for the current task exists; if

necessary create one

" Input as subsection 'Slab' the rectangular section of the slab with the material Concrete for

the given task

" Click on the adjacent button in the Geometry tabsheet, to introduce a rolled steel section

as subsection

FAGUS7 E-17

Vol. E Introductory examples

The chosen section is now shown, together with the possible insertion points, which you

can use to place the section. Here the most suitable point is at the top in the middle.

" Click on the insertion point top middle (becomes red)

Depending on the type, sections can be introduced in a rotated position. The correspond

ing rotation angles are shown in the dialogue as buttons, and the section is presented ac

cording to the selected rotation.

" Ensure that the rotation is set to [0].

" Click on [Create]

" Input the point where the selected insertion point of the section should be:

0 <o> 0 <o>

and close the rolled steel section dialogue

Besides the standard variant, which includes all input subsections with the assigned mater

ials, for the given task we need two additional variants of the cross section:

- the steel section by itself

- the steel section and slab, the latter however with the material 'Concrete long-term'

" Change to the tabsheet 'Variants'

" Create a new variant and set the dialogue as shown:

E-18 FAGUS7

" Create a second variant and activate both Slab and Steel section, then press [OK]

" Select the subsection 'Slab' and call its properties dialogue using the context menu

(<RMB>)

" Change the material to 'Concrete long-term' and then select [Apply (1)]

This setting applies only to the currently set variant 'Long-term', i.e. the material of a sub

section can vary in the variants.

If an axis point is input, it applies to all variants. The input of an axis point is only necessary

in special cases. Its existence has the following consequences:

- STATIK: not the centroid of the cross section or the cross section variant, but the axis

point lies on the axis of the member (see STATIK Manual). Since in STATIK the position

of a member axis cannot be changed in a construction state, only the input axis point

can guarantee that each cross section variant lies in the correct position with respect to

the member axis.

The use of cross sections with axis points is possible in STATIK only for the licensed op

tion 'Specialities'.

- FAGUS: The loading of the cross section required in the Analysis module refers not to

the centroid but to the axis point.

In our example an axis point is to be input at (0,0).

" Change again to the Geometry tabsheet and click on this button to introduce an axis point

0 <o> 0 <o>

Anchor points are only meaningful in connection with STATIK and serve there to be able to

place cross sections easily with respect to input member lines (see STATIK manual).

There can be pre-defined anchor points, which are defined at the same time as the given

result points (see nect section).

Alternatively, in FAGUS with the adjacent button an anchor point can be defined anywhere.

FAGUS7 E-19

Vol. E Introductory examples

Result points are intended for use in STATIK. STATIK offers the possibility, in a homogen

eous cross section, to output calculated stresses (e.g. stresses at the boundaries) and

strains in certain cross section points, the so-called results points. These results points have

an identifier (ID), with which the results in STATIK are called.

FAGUS supplies pre-defined result points according to the following scheme, so that these

do not have to be defined in the standard case:

Lines through centroid or axis

points parallel to the input axes

TL AT TR

AL AA AR

input axes

BL BA BR

Centroid or axis

point, respectively

PLMU

PRMO For our example we want to introduce the two result points as shown:

" Click on this button in the Geometry tabsheet in order to introduce a result point and set

the dialogue as shown:

the outline of the

subsection, to which

the result point

should belong.

. Da es Flle gibt, bei denen es nicht eindeutig klar ist, zu welchem Querschnittsteil ein

Resultatpunkt gehrt (z.B. auf der Grenze zwischen zwei Teilquerschnitten), muss der zum

Resultatpunkt gehrende Querschnittsteil grundstzlich eingegeben werden.

" Fhren Sie den Resultatpunkt durch Tippen seiner Koordinaten ein:

0 <o> 4 <o>

" Geben Sie den zweiten, zum Profil gehrenden Resultatpunkt auf die gleiche Weise ein

E-20 FAGUS7

E 2 Beispiele Analysemodul

E 2 Beispiele Analysemodul

Die folgenden Programmbeispiele sind unter der Funktion 'Serienrechnung' in der Bei

spielsammlung mit folgenden Schritten verfgbar:

1) Neue Berechnung starten (mit CubusExplorer oder mit FAGUS)

2) Beispielsammlung laden (Menu 'Hilfe' > 'Beispiele laden' > 'Bsp Analysemodul')

3) Gewnschte Norm whlen (Menu 'Einstellungen' > 'Norm')

4) Funktion 'Serienrechnung' im Register 'Analyse' whlen

5) Aus 'Datei' die gewnschte Serie ('S1' .. 'S3') whlen und Berechnung starten

6) Dokumentation mit CubusViewer betrachten und auf Wunsch ausdrucken

wobei die unten dargestellte Angaben als bersicht dienen sollen. Die genauen geome

trischen Daten und gewhlten Baustoffklassen (normabhngig) sind direkt aus der (mit

dem CubusViewer zu druckenden) Dokumentation zu entnehmen.

Myd = 75 kNm

Vyd = 84 kN

T = 10 kNm

40.00

32.00

Gesucht:

Lngsbewehrung: As1 = ?

Bgelbewehrung: Asw (Vy) = ?

Asw (T) = ?, Asw(Vy+T) = ?

30.00

N My

kN kNm

-0. 193.

-0. -198.

0.170 -18.

135.00

123.00

-0.222 178.

-0.643 -205.

0.279 -17.

-0.127 214.

FAGUS7 E-21

Vol. E Introductory examples

N My Mz Vy Vz T

-100.0 80.0 10.0 100.0 100.0 80.0

0.0 100.0 0.0 200.0 130.0 90.0

-200.0 -300.0 -40.0 90.0 85.0 50.0

Gesucht:

erforderliche Lngs- und Bgelbewehrungen

E 2.1.4 Kreissttze

N My Mz Vy Vz T

-7200.0 2000.0 0.0 0.0 200.0 200.0

Gesucht:

erforderliche Lngs- und Bgelbewehrungen

Querschnitt S1" Momenten-Steifigkeitsdiagramm:

0.75 0.60 0.30 0.60 0.75

0.10

0.50

1.00

My [kNm]

0.50

Querschnitt T1" Schnittkrfte:

My = 120.0 kNm

Mz =-12.0 kNm

Gesucht:

Randspannungen, Neutralachse, Grafik

E-22 FAGUS7

E 2 Beispiele Analysemodul

Querschnitt W1" N-My-Diagramm, N-My-Mz-Diagramm:

Mz [kNm]

200

2000.00

3000.00

4000.00

100

5000.00

39.00

HEA300

0 100

200

My [kNm]

40.00 400 200 0 200 400

Querschnitt B1" Beanspruchung: My = -80 MNm

1575.00

200.00

E 2.1.9 Brckentrger mit inaktiven Querschnittsteilen

Querschnitt B2" Beanspruchung: My = -80 MNm

1575.000

200.00

Die Konsolen sind statisch inaktiv -> gleiche Resultate wie Querschnitt B1" oben

FAGUS7 E-23

Vol. E Introductory examples

M M

S

S

Drei Beispiele aus: Gruttman, F. Wagner W.: Ein Weggrssenverfahren zur Berechnung von Querschnittsschub

spannungen in dnnwandigen Querschnitten", Der Bauingenieur, Okt. 2001

S

M

M S

ETH Zrich

M

S

Zwei Beispiele aus Aus Sattler K..: Lehrbuch der Statik", Springer Verlag, Band I/B, 1969

E-24 FAGUS7

E 2 Beispiele Analysemodul

Der links dargestellte Verbundtrger (Walzprofil HEA300, Betonplatte 100 x 15 cm) wird in

Betonplatte CS1 folgenden drei Schritten belastet:

A Stahltrger allein M y1 + 150kNm

B Stahltrger + Betonplatte M y2 + 150kNm (zustzlich)

C Stahltrger + Betonplatte x + * 0.2ooo (Betonplatte CS1 allein)

Untenstehend ist die unter 'S2' verfgbare Belastungsgeschichte abgebildet. Da nach dem

Laden" standardmssig alle Teilquerschnitte einer Querschnittsvariante aktiv sind, muss

in Schritt Nr. 1 zuerst die Betonplatte inaktiv gesetzt werden.

Nr. Aufgabe,Analyseparameter N My Mz

[kN] [kNm] [kNm]

0 Querschnitt laden V1

1 Inaktiv setzen CS1

2 A:Gebrauchstauglichkeit 0 150.0 0

3 Aktiv setzen CS1

4 A:Gebrauchstauglichkeit 0 150.0 0

5 Dehnungen (1)

6 A:Gebrauchstauglichkeit 0 0 0

(1): yq1 = 0 cm zq1 = 20.00 cm 1 = 0.2 o/oo yq2 = 0 cm zq2 = 20.00 cm 2 = 0.2 o/oo > CS1

In der entsprechenden Eingabe wurde nach jedem Belastungsschritt ein Druckbefehl ein

gefgt, sodass in den Druckeintrgen auch die Zwischenstadien erscheinen.

Fr die Norm Swisscode SIA 262" mit den Baustoffklassen C25/30" und S275" sollten

folgende Spannungsbilder ersichtlich sein:

-5.7 -6.1

Falls einzelne Querschnittselemente, die von Null verschiedene Spannungen aufweisen,

inaktiv gesetzt werden sollen, so muss im Anschluss an diesen Schritt eine Spannungs

analyse (evtl. ohne Krfte) durchgefhrt werden, damit das interne Querschnittsgleichge

wicht wieder hergestellt wird.

FAGUS7 E-25

Vol. E Introductory examples

Lasten, f + 2) mit anschliessender Kurzzeitbelastung (Verkehrslasten, f + 0) analysiert

werden.

0 Querschnitt V1 laden"

1 Wahl Analyseparameter Phi=2"

2 Spannungsanalyse M y + 50kNm

3 Wahl Analyseparameter Phi=0"

4 Spannungsanalyse M y + 50kNm (zustzlich)

Fr die Norm SIA 262" mit den Baustoffklassen C25/30" und S275" ist am Schluss der Be

rechnung folgendes Spannungs-Dehnungsbild ersichtlich (Mit Betondiagramm Typ 4)

[ooo] s[Nmm 2]

-0.1 -3.3

0.2 51.7

Zum Vergleich:

Dehnungen und Spannungen mit konstanter Kriechzahl fr beide Schritte:

f+0 f+2

-0.1 -4.0 -0.1 -2.7

spannungserzeugenden Dehnungen (Sprung bei Unterkante Platte fr f 0 0 ).

Natrlich knnten die beiden Berechnungen von 'S2' und 'S3' auch aneinandergehngt

werden. Bei einer umfangreichen Berechnung mit mehreren Schritten muss vom Benutzer

sichergestellt sein, dass die Schnittkrfte auch tatschlich aufgebracht werden knnen,

andernfalls meldet sich das Programm mit Kein Gleichgewicht gefunden".

E-26 FAGUS7

F 1 Thermal Analysis

FAGUS7

F 1 Thermal Analysis

In this chapter the transient thermal analysis will get explained more closely. The mechani

cal cross-section analysis under elevated temperature will get examined in chapter F2.

A transient thermal analysis can be done for all FAGUS cross sections. Limitations exist only

in reinforcement input: As temperature in each reinforcement point has to be set, only

point reinforcements are allowed.

The transient thermal flow through a solid body can be described by Fourier's law of

thermal conduction as follows:

t c p c p x 2

q + l Dq + l 2q ) 2q

y 2

with

q Temperature [ C]

l Heat conductivity [WmK]

Density [kgm 3]

cp Specific heat capacity [JkgK]

t Time [s]

D Laplace-operator -

Prerequisites for the validity of this description are:

1. The material properties l, , c p are only dependent on temperature

2. Isotropic material behaviour is assumed

3. There is no heat source or heat sink inside the solid body

Gi

20 C

Ga

Fig. F1 Integration region W with a thermal influence at the outer bound G a and an opening

with the bound G i

Fourier's law of thermal conduction is a so called initial-boundary value problem in the form

of a parabolic (partial) differential equation. Fig. F-1 shows a two-dimensional integration

region W with an outer bound G a and the inner bound G i of an opening.

FAGUS7 F-1

Vol. F Fire Analyses

The initial condition is the initial temperature state of W at the time t + 0. The boundary

conditions result from the thermal influences at the bounds G a and G i and are mathemati

.

cally depicted as the net heat flux h net normal to G. The heat transfer occurs here through

. .

two parts, one part h net,c through convection and one part h net,r through radiation:

. . .

h net + h net,c ) h net,r

+ a c (q g * q m) ) F mfs[(q r ) 273)4 * (q m ) 273)4]

with

ac Heat transfer coefficient [Wm 2]

qg Gas-temperature around the element [ C]

qm Surface-temperature of the element [ C]

qr Effective radiation temperature of the fire [ C]

F Configuration factor -

m Emissivity of the element -

f Emissivity of the fire -

s Stephan-Boltzmann-Constant (+ 5.68 @ 10 *8) [Wm 2K4]

For simplification these assumptions are taken:

1. The configuration factor is F + 1 by default.

2. The effective radiation temperature q r of the fire equates the gas temperature q g.

3. The progress of the gas temperature q g is given by a temperature time curve.

4. The emissivity of the fire is f + 1.

5. The heat transfer due to inner radiation inside of openings in W is neglected, so that

at the bounds G i adiabiatic boundary conditions (No heat transfer with the envi

ronment) should be chosen.

. The configuration factor F describes the radiation exchange between two surfaces. The

mathematical definition of F can be found in appendix G of EN 1991-1-2. F is defined as

part of the radiated heat from a surface, that is caught by another surface. The geometric

position of the origin of fire in relation to the element as well as shadow effects of the cross

section have an influence on the size of F. The condition applies F v 1 and with the ass

umption F + 1 one remains on the safe side.

For the numeric solution of the initial-boundary value problem the Backward-Euler me

thod as well as the Method of Finite Elements is used. The differential equation is turned

into a weak formulation with the Galerkin method and the region W is discretised with tri

angular elements. The interpolation of the temperature field inside the elements is quadra

tic.

. The chosen element formulation is achieving the adiabatic boundary condition appro

ximately, i.e. if along a bound G no boundary condition is set, no transfer of heat is taking

place.

F-2 FAGUS7

F 1 Thermal Analysis

The complete input, calculation and output is done in the tab sheet 'Thermal Analysis':

Check

Analysis Options Input Run thermal analysis

Temperature-time curves Legend Temperature along pri

ciple axis

Material Properties

Thermal bounds

Reset thermal analysis

Temperature at result points

Output Settings

To enable a thermal temperature calculation, the type 'Transient' in the first selection list

has to be chosen first. After that the other buttons in the register are active.

. Each input in this register is either valid globally for the entire project or for the current cross

section.

The specific material properties concerning thermal analysis are added in this window. The

data given here applies for the entire project. Should differing thermal properties be nee

ded for the same material (e.g. for comparisons), then a new material has to be added.

able.

lues for calculating the heat conductivity,

density and specific heat capacity according

to E 1.1

temperature additional specifications may be

required for some material types (Example

Concrete: Type of aggregate: siliceous, cal

careous). The expression 'Automatic' means

that the type is chosen by the program.

. A numeric summary of the thermal material properties can be found in the legend (F 1.2.6)

FAGUS7 F-3

Vol. F Fire Analyses

For the description of its thermal behaviour concrete is seen as homogenous. The tempera

ture-sensitive values l c, c and c p are calculated according to EN 1992-1-2. The moisture

content u as well as density c,20 Care to be defined under normal conditions. EN 1992-1-2

gives a lower limit l c,u and a upper limit l c,o for heat conductivity. With the input of a inter

polation factor f l a linear interpolation between these two values is possible:

The energy consumption for evaporation is taken into consideration. Depending on the

moisture content u the specific heat capacity c p between 100 C and 200 C is adjusted ac

cordingly.

The thermal material types for mechanical analysis under elevated temperatures are:

S Siliceous aggregates,

S Calcareous aggregates,

S High strength Class 1,

S High strength Class 2,

S High strength Class 3

. If 'Automatic' is selected the most suitable class for high strength concrete is chosen. For

standard concrete the least suitable type is chosen.

The thermal properties l a, r a and c a for construction steel, reinforcement steel and prest

ressing steel are temperature dependent according to EN 1992-1-2.

Types for rebars:

S Hot rolled reinforcing steel,

S Cold worked reinforcing steel

Prestressing steel:

S Class A (Wires and strands),

S Class B (Wires and strands)

S Tempered prestressing steel

Special (User-defined)

For user-defined materials the program uses type 'X' . In this case only constant values for

l x, r x and c x can be assigned. Nichtlineare, temperaturabhngige Beziehungen wie oben

beschrieben knnen nicht definiert werden.

The button 'Temperature-time curves' opens a dialog for editing temperature-time curves

(Fig. F-4). Die Temperaturzeitkurven sind Bestandteil der Einwirkungsspezifikation an den

thermischen Rndern.

F-4 FAGUS7

F 1 Thermal Analysis

Four standard temperature-time curves are already defined, which correspond with the EN

1991-1-2 normcurves, by default:

1. Standard temperature time

This curve corresponds to the standard ISO 834 description. It is mainly used for fire

resistance classifications and for structural design. The mathematical representation of

this curve is

2. Normal conditions 20 C

At all bounds which are not under fire exposure, a normal gas temperature of 20 C can

be defined with this condition.

This curve corresponds to a lowered unit temperature-time curve and is used for ex

amining elements outside of the fire compartment, for example balustrades. The mat

hematical representation of this curve is

4. Hydrocarbon curve

A hydrocarbon fire reaches a noticeably higher temperature in a shorter time than a

standard temperature-time fire. In standard buildings it is not used very often but if

required the evolution of the gas temperature can be described with this curve.

To ensure standard testing methods in a laboratory, the four temperature-time curves

above show a constant increase in temperature. In natural fire scenarios the gas curve has

development phases as well as cooling phases. For describing the natural fire curve there

are several approaches, for example the parameterized temperature-time curve according

to EN 1991-1-2.

With this button a new temperature-time curve is generated, which has a constant tempe

rature of 20 C.

Copies the selected temperature-time curve.

Deletes the selected temperature-time curve.

. The button 'delete curve' is only active if the temperature-time curve is not being used, this

means it is not assigned to a thermal boundary. The standard time curves can not be dele

ted.

With the button 'New curve from clipboard' a new temperature-time curve is created and

it takes the numerical values from the clipboard. Per row two numbers have to be entered,

separated by a tabulator.

t1 <TAB> q1

until

tn <TAB> qn

FAGUS7 F-5

Vol. F Fire Analyses

t i w 0[min] with a corresponding temperature q i[ C] in the two fields in the upper part

of the dialog and pressing 'Add/update time-temperature value'. The new time-tempera

ture value is added into the sorted list and the graphic diagram is updated accordingly.

Existing number pairs can be edited by clicking on the table on the left hand side of the dia

log. The program moves the selected values t i and q i in the input fields.

A selected row can be deleted with this button.

. The temperature value of the temperature-time curve TZK_<Nr> for t w t n is constant

q n.

The effect of a fire situation is achieved through the input of thermal boundaries. A thermal

boundary is a line object, which optionally can also include a (thin) insulation.

If a cross section is heated up uniformly from all sides, the desired properties can be given

to the whole cross section with the button shown to the left. Should a cross section consist

of several independent part-cross sections or recesses, one point of the desired boundary

has to be selected.

With this button different thermal boundaries can be introduced on some parts of the cross

section only. The input is created with a single thermal boundary line (holding attributes

and start- and endpoint).

The requested temperature-time curve, the heat transfer coefficient a c and the emissivity

of the element m can be defined in the tab sheet 'Thermal action' .

If no temperature-time curve has been chosen (represented with '---') then at this boundary

no heat transfer happens and adiabatic boundary conditions are assumed.

The heat transfer coefficient is normally a c + 25WmK for bounds facing the fire and

a c + 4WmK for bounds facing away from the fire. More information can be found in EN

1991-1-2.

F-6 FAGUS7

F 1 Thermal Analysis

According to EN 1992-1-2 m + 0.7. ( m + 0.8 could also be used, given that no other in

formation concerning the material properties have been made)

. The emissivity of the fire f and the configuration factor f are both assumed as 1.0 (F 1.1).

Other values could be taken into account by giving the product of f mf. instead of m .

In this tab sheet a cross section encasement with the thickness d p can be defined. The coa

ting can consist either of standard FAGUS material (e.g. steel casing) or a fire protection ma

terial. All the materials from Steeldoc 02/06 are available. In addition the thermal values l p,

p and c p can be entered manually.

. Box casings can not be generated this way. They have to be created manually through in

serting several cross section parts.

The visibility of thermal bounds is managed through the layers 'Elevated Temperature'.

Bounds without encasements are orange, while bounds with encasements are brown and

slightly thicker. (Fig. F-6)

In Fig. F-7 the dialog 'Analysis options' is shown

FAGUS7 F-7

Vol. F Fire Analyses

With the standard value of 20C no thermal expan

sions occur.

If the ultimate limit is beyond this point a new

thermal analysis with a higer value has to be done.

available only at certain time steps. The field 'addi

tional' times allows to complement this definition.

For all times defined here a mechanical analysis

can be made

Time

The time step parameters can either be set automatically (Default) or set with constant time

steps Dt. The automatic time step parameters are set by the program to keep calculation

time as short as possible.

. A calculation with a constant time step is an alternative if the standard calculation was not

successful. (In this respect time steps should not be too big)

. To obtain the temperature in a certain point of the cross section a result point of type 'longi

tudinal stress' has to be introduced in the tab sheet 'Geometry'.

FE-Mesh

The mesh width h of the FE-mesh has an influence on the precision of the calculated results

of the cross section temperatures and the same FE-mesh is used for the mechanical analysis

(s. F 2.2.1). A very narrow FE-mesh entails longer calculation times.

If the mesh width h is not manually restricted with the maximal value h max an optimised

mesh width is chosen in respect to calculation time and precision. In the areas of bigger

temperature gradients a narrower mash should be used. An option 'Refine mesh at bounds'

exists to generate a narrower FE-mesh at the thermal bounds.

If the cross section has rebars with large diameters the option 'Mesh point reinf.' should be

activated. The rebars are then taken into mesh consideration and the thermal properties

of reinforcement steel are taken into account for the numerical calculation.

If the cross section consists of several sub-sections, it is important that the adjoining

boundaries fit together well. Therefore the check described in Chap. B 2.1.1 (checking over

lapping elements) may not be switched off.

F-8 FAGUS7

F 1 Thermal Analysis

Check Input

Once all the input has been entered for the calculation, the cross section is examined for the

calculation. The geometric input as well as the definition of the thermal bounds are con

trolled here.

Should the cross section have several variants, the cross section bounds of the current vari

ant is used for examining the geometric position of the thermal bounds. If the examination

is successful the FE-mesh will be generated.

The visibility of the FE-Mesh can be controlled with the layer button 'FE-Mesh' in the

layergroup 'Temperature'. The encasement mesh at the thermal bounds is not shown.

After a successful examination of the input the calculation can be started with the button

to the left. If an examination has not been done yet, it is done automatically.

If the calculation was successful numerical and graphical results are ready and the cross

section is now ready for a mechanical analysis.

The thermal calculations can be reset with the button shown on the left. This erases all sa

ved calculation results.

The button 'Legend thermal analysis' creates a tabular summary of all inputs as well as the

calculated temperature values in the result points.

This button shows a graphic with a timeline of the temperature at the result points. For con

trol purposes the defined temperature time curves of the bounds are also shown.

For the Iso-line representation a certain time has to be chosen. This is done by the drop

down menu shown to the left. (The different layers are controlled by the layer menu 'ele

vated temperture'.)

Window 'Output Settings'

(Normally these are a lot of values that over

lap, this means that one should work in a

highly zoomed in mode )

FAGUS7 F-9

Vol. F Fire Analyses

The colour density of the isoarea-depiction is controlled with the field 'Scaling'. The colour

scaling always runs from blue to red. If the setting 'Automatic scaling' is active the colour

blue is always the lowest and the colour red is the highest temperature. Should the automa

tic scaling not be active, then the colours red and blue are assigned according to the inputs

Min and Max for all times. This makes comparing isoline representations easier.

This button shows the temperature profile along the main axis graphically.

F-10 FAGUS7

F 1 Thermal Analysis

F 1.3 Validationexamples

The national appendix CC of DIN EN 1991-1-2/NA:2010-12 includes several examples for

validating and checking a computer program. The documentation and calculations are

available in FAGUS under > Help > Load Examples > Elevated Temperatures ...

Two additional reference examples can be found in EN 1992-1-2 Appendix A with these

thermal properties:

Heat transfer coefficient a + 25Wm 2K

Moisture content u + 1.5%

Emission factor + 0.7

Heat conductivity f l + 0 (lower bound)

Exposure ETK

. The calculations are included in FAGUS as an introductory example.

Fig. A.13 in EN 1992-1-2 appendix A shows the temperature profile of a column exposed

to fire on all four sides with a quadratic cross-section of 30 30cm. In the FAGUS intro

ductory example the cross-section QS_STUETZE has the suitable input.

Due to double symmetry only is modeled. Fig. F-9 shows, that the isolines calculated by

FAGUS are almost identical with the ones provided by the reference document.

Dpc.13

Slab cross-section

Fig. A.2 in EN 1992-1-2 appendix A shows the temperture profile of a slab cross section with

a thickness of h + 20cm exposed to fire on one side. The properties are provided in the

cross section QS_Platte. The comparison in intervals of x + 5cm and x + 10cm proves

a good accordance with the reference document. (s. Fig. F-10 and F-11).

FAGUS7 F-11

Vol. F Fire Analyses

Fig. F11 Temperature curve in panel crosssection with x=5 cm and x=10 cm

F-12 FAGUS7

F 2 Mechanical Analysis

F 2 Mechanical Analysis

down below for different concrete classes. This curve shows the reduction of compressive

strength in relation to temperature:

k(q) + f c,qfck(20 )

k

1 Normal concrete

K = calcareous

Q = siliceous

2

Q K

1 = C55/67 ..

2 = C70/85 ..

3 = C90/105

The automatic classification for high performance concrete is done according to section 6.1

(5) of the EN norm:

S Class 3: ab C90/105

For user-defined materials and 'Automatic' classification the program uses the given ma

terial strength to determine an appropriate class.

The compressive strength reduction from class 2 to class 3 can be quite large under certain

circumstances and has to be taken into consideration when comparing results from diffe

rent concrete classes. (A high-grade concrete can give worse results under certain con

ditions)

FAGUS7 F-13

Vol. F Fire Analyses

For a quick check a table with the minimal and maximal values for concrete and steel can

be found in the standard-results of FAGUS. Additional results at certain points in the cross

sections are accessible through result points.

The implementions are based on the Norm EN 1992-1-2: 2004. For concrete the strain-

stress-relation in Fig.3.1. provides a graphical and analytical description. The two essential

input parameters, the compressive strength reduction and the strain at the peak of the

curve can be found in table 3.1. In case of tension the concrete is assumed to cracked.

Tension in N/mm2

Elongation [o/oo]

The steel diagrams are described in the EN Norm in Fig.3.3. or table 3.2 (Reinforcing steel,

structural steel) and table 3.3. (Prestressed steel).

F-14 FAGUS7

F 2 Mechanical Analysis

Tension in N/mm2

0..400

500

Temperature in Celsius

600

700

Elongation[o/oo]

The thermal expansions are temperature dependent and are calculated according to sec

tions 3.3.1 (concrete) and 3.4 (steel) of the EN norm.

Fig. F15 Thermal expansion according to EN 199211 for concrete and steel (right side)

For illustrative purposes the strain distribution of a centrally loaded cross section with fire

exposure on all four sides is shown below.

FAGUS7 F-15

Vol. F Fire Analyses

The total strains tot consist of the thermal expansion Q and the elastic strains s as follows:

tot + Q ) s

The stress can then be calculated with the before mentioned s * *diagramms .

s + f (s)

F 2.2 Analysis

At elevated temperatures the mechanical behaviour at each point of the cross-section is

different. The cross section integration is done via a finite element discretisation. The same

mesh size as in the thermal analysis is used. Depending on the degree of discretisation the

results of the FE-modeled cross section at time t=0 can differ from normal FAGUS results.

A cold cross section can be integrated exactly whereas the hot FE-approach implies a

certain approximation.

The numerical effort naturally grows with a growing number of FE-elements. The calcu

lated temperature in the rebars is crucial for the mechanical results. Because the tempera

ture gradient close to the edge of the cross section is big, a correct placement plays a de

cisive role. As mentioned before all rebars have to be entered as point reinforcements.

After a thermal analysis has been done, the tab sheet 'Analysis' displays a check button 'Fire

exposure' which allows the following analysis under elevated temperatures:

S Utilization / Load capacity / Failure time

S Stress analysis with given forces

S Stress analysis with given strain

S Moment curvature diagram

S Analysis of second order effect under axial load

For analysis under elevated temperatures the analysis parameter are given by the pro

gramm and cannot be changed.

F-16 FAGUS7

F 2 Mechanical Analysis

With this analysis the utilisation or load factor is determined for each result time and re

presented in a table. In the last row of this table the failure time is shown should it be within

the specified calculation time. Result time as well as calculation time can be specified dur

ing the thermal analysis (see Chapter E.1.2.4 Calculation options).

Depending on the amount of result steps and number of FE-elements the numerical effort

can be significant.

For a given time and for given section forces this analysis shows:

S A contour plot (iso-lines) of strain and stresses (The classic images with the strain and

stress diagrams, the graph of the inner lever arm are not significant for such an analysis

and are not shown.)

S Numerical results in the result points

S Cross section stiffness

S Maximum strain and stresses

With this analysis the elongations x, y, and z are entered directly. It is the only calculation

type, whose results do not have to be determined by iterations and will presumably only

be used in special cases (For example for the verification of a cross section integration).

FAGUS7 F-17

Vol. F Fire Analyses

F 2.6 Moment-curvature-diagram

The moment-curvature-diagram gives a graphical depiction. Depending on amount of

points in time and FE-elements the calculation time can be considerable.

In the input field for the normal force only the first value is used (For analysis under normal

temperature several normal forces can be input divided by a space character). On demand

curves for all result times are created.

F 2.7 Checklist

To determine the failure time of a cross-section the following steps are necessary:

S Enter cross section as usual. The reinforcement should be defined as a point reinforce

ment.

S Switch to tab sheet 'Thermal analysis'

S Choose calculation type 'transient'

S Adjust calculation time and result time points if needed in the dialog 'Calculation-

options'

S Define thermal bounds

S Check cross section. Following the check the FE-mesh is shown. In general a dis

cretization with around 400 elements should be enough

S Carry out thermal analysis

S Switch to the tab sheet 'Analysis'

S Activate check box

S Choose desired analysis, enter forces and carry out calculation

F-18 FAGUS7

F 2 Mechanical Analysis

Several examples can be found in the menu 'Help' (For example validation examples ac

cording to EN) and under 'File' > 'Documents' the related explanations can be found.

FAGUS7 F-19

Vol. F Fire Analyses

F-20 FAGUS7

G 1 Baustoffe

rameter

FAGUS6

G 1 Baustoffe

G 1.1 Baustoff-Dialoge

Zu Beginn einer neuen Berechnung sollten alle Baustoffe und ihre fr die Berechnung rele

vanten Eigenschaften definiert werden (Menu > Einstellungen > Baustoffe). Der Umfang

der Baustofftabelle ist einen allen Cubus-Programmen identisch. Je nach Anwendung wer

den nicht alle Werte fr die Berechnung bentigt::

wehrung) findet ber die ID statt. Wird z.B. in der oben dargestellten ersten Zeile die Be

tonklassse gewechselt, so passen sich alle Elemente mit der Referenz C automatisch der

neuen Definition an. Die Bezeichnung ist bewusst sehr kurz gehalten, damit die nu

merischen Ausgaben nicht mit langen Texten belastet werden. Der Benutzer kann eigene

Baustoffe-ID's erzeugen, allerdings nur durch Zusatz einer einstelligen Zahl (Index). Der er

ste Buchstabe wird verwendet um den Baustofftyp festzulegen.

S Beton C (Concrete)

S Betonstahl R (Reinforcment)

S Spannstahl P (Posttensioning)

S Baustahl S (Steel)

S Holz W (Wood)

S Aluminium U

S Faserverbund F (FRP)

S Mauerwerk M (Masonry)

S Spezial X

Typ: Der Baustofftyp bestimmt u.a. das eindimensionale Materialverhalten (Kap. G 1.2) und

kann nur bei der erstmaligen Eingabe gewhlt frei gewhlt werden. (Gewisse Strukturele

mente lassen nur bestimmte Baustofftypen zu. Eine Bewehrung kann z.B. nicht vom Typ

'Beton' sein)

Bauteil: Frei whlbare Bezeichnung

E: Fr Schnittkraft- und Durchbiegungsberechnungen (CEDRUS, STATIK) wird der in dieser

Kolonne aufgefhrte Wert verwendet. Bei der Initialisierung wird E vom Vorgabewert aus

der Baustoffklasse bernommen und kann dann vom Benutzer verndert werden.

FAGUS6 G-1

Vol. G Baustoffe, Analyseparameter

lassen sich diese noch durch Einfhrung eines entsprechenden Faktors zustzlich an

passen z.B. CEDRUS-6 pro Zone: E + f EE0

G: Schubmodul: In STATIK-6 fr die die Steifigkeiten GIx, verwendet.

: Fr die Bestimmung von Massen und Eigengewicht-Lastfllen verwendet.

a: Temperaturausdehnungskoeffizient

n: Querdehnungszahl (CEDRUS)

Klassen:

Die Werte der vom Programm vorgegebenen Klassen knnen nicht verndert werden, aber

die Tabelle kann mit eigenen Baustoffklassen ergnzt werden. Die Klasseninformationen

sind vor allem im Zusammenhang mit der Querschnittsanalyse und Bemessung relevant.

Umfang und Bezeichnungen sind normabhngig. Normalerweise sind charakteristische

Werte einzutragen.:

Der Bemessungswert X d einer einzelnen Baustoffeigenschaft ergibt sich aus

x x k = charakteristische Baustofffestigkeit

Xd + g k

M g M = Teilsicherheitsbeiwert

f ck, fyk, f pk Charakt. Werte der Beton-, Betonstahl- und Spannstahlfestigkeiten

und fr g M

g c, gs, g p, ga Teilsicherheitsbeiwerte fr Beton, Bewehrungs-, Spann- u. Baustahl.

Dieser Teilsicherheitsbeiwerte sind bei den Analyseparametern definiert. Beim Baustoff

'Beton' kommt in der Regel noch ein Abminderungsbeiwert a fr die Bercksichtigung der

Dauerstandsfestigkeit hinzu.

a@f

f cd + g c ck

Fr die SIA262 wird in dieser Tabelle direkt der Wert fr h fc @ f ck eingegeben (a + 1).

h fc @ fck

f cd + gc

Spannungs-Dehnungsbeziehungen beschrieben.

Die Form der s * -Diagramme oft berechnungsabhngig kann deshalb via Analysepa

rameter gesteutert werden.

G 1.2.1 Beton-Druckspannungen

Punkt des Querschnittes durch eines der untenstehend abgebildeten Diagramme

beschrieben.

Fr die Berechnung des Querschnittswiderstandes und fr Bemessungsaufgaben wird von

den meisten Normen das Diagramm Nr. 2 vorgeschlagen, wobei fr den ersten Kurvenab

schnitt eine quadratische Parabel verwendet wird, welche durch die beiden Parameter

2.0 + * 2.00ooo und f c definiert wird. Der tangentielle E-Modul bei Belastungsbeginn

betrgt somit E co + 1000fc .

G-2 FAGUS6

G 1 Baustoffe

s s s s

fc fc fc fc

0.4f c E cm

Ec E co

Ec

cu 2.0ooo cu c1 c1u c1d c2d

Fr nichtlineare Berechnungen wird in EC2 und DIN1045-1 das Diagramm Typ 3 verlangt,

welches durch untenstehende Gleichung beschrieben wird:

k h * h 2

s c + fc @

1 ) (k * 2)h

wobei:

h = ec /ec1 (beide e negativ einsetzen)

ec1 = - 0.0022 (Stauchung beim Erreichen des Hchstwertes der Betondruckspan-

nung f c)

k = 1.1 . Ec,nom . ec1 /fc ( f c negativ)

Ec,nom = entweder Mittelwert Ecm (Tabelle 3.2 EC2) oder entsprechender Bemessungs

wert Ecd des Elastizittsmodules

Die Norm SIA 262 bentzt fr den aufsteigenden Ast einen hnlichen Ansatz

sc k s z * z 2 Ecd

+ mit k s + und z + c

f cd 1 ) (k s * 2)z 400fcd c1d

wobei nach dem Erreichen von f cd ein konstantes Plateau bis zum Bruch verwendet wird

und die Bruchstauchung auf c2d + 3[ooo] beschrnkt wird.

. Hinweis Vorzeichen:

Analog zu den Stablngskrften sind die Zugspannungen in FAGUS-6 auch positiv. Die

oben und im Programm gewhlte Darstellung des Spannungsdehnungsdiagrammes fr

Beton entspricht den blichen Konventionen.

G 1.2.2 Beton-Zugspannungen

Im Normalfall wird der Beton unter Zug als gerissen angenommen (Zustand II), d.h. er

bernimmt keine Zugspannungen. Fr spezielle Untersuchungen, z.B. wenn die Steifigkeit

des Querschnittes eine wesentliche Rolle spielt, kann aber auch ein Diagramm Nr. 1.. 3

gewhlt werden:

s s s s

f ct f ct f ct f ct

s ct + f (r, f ct)

0 1 2 3

FAGUS6 G-3

Vol. G Baustoffe, Analyseparameter

Whrend der Beton beim Diagramm Nr. 1 nach dem Erreichen von fct keine Spannungen

mehr bernimmt, bleiben diese beim Diagramm Nr. 3 auf dem Niveau s = fct konstant. fct

kann als Parameter bei der Materialeingabe eingegeben bzw. verndert werden. Der Ver

lauf der Kurven entspricht jeweils dem fr die Druckspannungen gewhlten Typ (Punkt

spiegelung bezglich Nullpunkt). Ein etwas wirklichkeitsgetreueres Materialverhalten

wird mit Nr. 2 realisiert, indem die Grsse der Betonspannung abhngig gemacht wird von

der aktuellen Randzugdehnung.

Fr Diagramm Nr. 2 wurde folgender Ansatz gewhlt:

r 2

0 v s c + fct @ (1 * ( ))

0.2%

wobei:

sct : Betonzugspannung

fct : eingegebene Betonzugfestigkeit

er : aktuelle Randdehnung auf der Zugseite des Querschnittes

0.2 % Dehnung bei der Streckgrenze eines blichen Betonstahles (S500)

Mit diesem Modell betrgt die Betonzugfestigkeit zu Beginn der Belastung s = fct und

nimmt mit gesteigerten Krmmungen quadratisch ab. Ab dem Erreichen der Fliessspan

nung am Zugrand (bzw. bei r + * 0.2%) ist keine Betonzugfestigkeit mehr vorhanden.

A In den Querschnittsanalysen wird im Normalfall der gerissene Querschnitt (Schnitt A) be

trachtet. Gewisse Korrekturmglichkeiten wurden im vorangegangenen Abschnitt be

sprochen. Ein anderer Ansatz fr die Bercksichtigung der Mitwirkung des Betons zwis

chen den Rissen wird in der Norm SIA E 166 Klebebewehrungen" beschrieben.

Vorgehen: Fr die Ermittlung der Dehnungsebene werden mittlere Dehnungen () ver

wendet, fr die Gleichgewichtsbeziehungen wird aber der Schnitt im Riss betrachtet. Das

Verhltnis zwischen mittleren und maximalen Werten (") wird durch den Verbundbeiwert

beschrieben.

+

Falls das entsprechende Kontrollfeld ("Verbundbeiwert bercksichtigen") bei den Analy

separametern aktiviert ist, so wird die Querschnitts-Analyse mit Bercksichtigung dieses

als konstant angenommenen Faktors durchgefhrt.

Im Allgemeinen ist abhngig davon, ob das Grundmaterial gerissen ist (Beton) und ob es

sich um eine innere Stabbewehrung oder eine ussere Klebebewehrung handelt. Struk

turen aus Metallen oder Holz sind im Allgemeinen ungerissen und man nimmt an, dass hier

die Klebebewehrung an jeder Stelle die gleiche Dehnung wie das Grundmaterial aufweist.

In der gegenwrtigen Programmversion werden folgende nicht vernderbare Werte ver

wendet:

Verbundbeiwert der inneren Stabbewehrung : s = 0.7

Verbundbeiwert der usseren Klebebewehrung: l = 0.9

Fr Bewehrungs- und Vorspannstahl wird s verwendet. Fr Faserverbundwerkstoffe und

Baustahl, welche als Spannglied/Lamellen" eingegeben wurden, wird l eingesetzt. Das

entsprechende Querschnittselement muss zudem unter Zugbeanspruchung sein, damit

bercksichtigt wird. Bei linienfrmigen Bewehrungen gilt dies nur fr den entsprechenden

Abschnitt.

Fr Betonstahl, Baustahl und Spannstahl werden die unten dargestellten Diagramme ver

wendet.

G-4 FAGUS6

G 1 Baustoffe

s s

f pk

fy f p0.1k

ET

Es Es

uk

s SIA162 Falls eigene Baustoffklassen definiert werden, so ist darauf zu achten, dass Kennwerte

eingegeben werden. Diese werden dann entsprechend den in den Analyseparametern

f ..k definierten Widerstandsbeiwerten/Teilsicherheitsfaktoren reduziert. Die Reduktion er

f ..d folgt normabhngig entsprechend der nebenstehenden Figur. Ob mit oder ohne Verfesti

gung gerechnet werden soll, kann ebenfalls bei den Analyseparametern eingegeben wer

den.

Bei den meisten Normen ist fr die Zug- und Druckfestigkeit der gleiche Wert anzunehmen.

s Neue Normen Fr spezielle Untersuchungen (z.B. British Standard BS5400) knnen aber auch unter

schiedliche Werte gewhlt werden.

f ..k

f ..d Falls zugleich fy < ftk gewhlt wurde, so wird ET auf Zug und Druck gleich gross gewhlt

mit:

f tk * f y

ET + *

uk y

In den Materialtabellen von FAGUS-6 werden auch fr den Spannstahl fr alle Normen

gewisse Vorschlge gemacht. Bei der Wahl eines Spannstahles ist aber unbedingt darauf

zu achten, dass die vom Programm vorgegebenen Werte mit den Herstellerangaben

bereinstimmen, d.h. in der Regel sind diese anzupassen.

Die initiale Vorspannkraft wird durch Eingabe einer Vordehnung angegeben. Weitere Erk

lrungen dazu sind z.B. im Handbuch von FAGUS zu finden.

FAGUS6 G-5

Vol. G Baustoffe, Analyseparameter

G 2 Analyseparameter

Als Analyseparameter werden alle Parameter bezeichnet. welche das Verhalten einer Quer

schnittsanalyse beeinflussen (und nicht bereits in der Querschnittsgeometrie oder den

Baustoffparametern enthalten sind).

Es knnen mehrere Stze von Analyseparametern unterhalten werden, wobei standard

mssig je eine Definitionen fr den GZG (Gebrauchstauglichkeit) und fr den GZT

(Tragsicherheit) zur Verfgung stehen. Der Dialog ist in mehrere Registerbltter aufgeteilt:

brauchstauglichkeit wie auch fr den Grenzzustand der Tragsicherheit" erzeugt werden,

indem der entsprechende Analyseparametername gewhlt wird.

Vorgabewerte: Standardmssig werden fr die verschiedenen Analysen folgende Zuord

nungen verwendet:

AP Analysetyp

GZG Spannungsanalyse, Momenten-Krmmungsdiagramme

GZT Traglastanalyse, Bemessung, Interaktionsdiagramme

Der Benutzer kann die bestehenden Programmvorgaben verndern sowie eigene Defini

tionen hinzufgen.

Die Grenztragfhigkeit eines Querschnittes gilt als erreicht, wenn die Dehnung der ussers

ten Querschnittsfaser auf der Druckseite oder der ussersten Bewehrungslage auf der Zug

seite einen bestimmten Grenzwert erreicht hat. Fr zentrischen Druck und fr Biegung sind

die Grenzdehnungen unterschiedlich, wie dies in untenstehender Figur dargestellt wird:

. Fr die Parameter cu.c, cu.b, su fehlen einheitliche Bezeichnungen. Es wurde deshalb eine

Definition gewhlt, welche fr alle untersttzten Normen einigermassen akzeptabel sein

sollte. Dabei steht der erste Index c fr concrete" bzw. s fr Stahl", u fr ultimate (grenz-)

Bedingung und der Buchstabe nach dem Punkt fr c=zentrisch bzw b=Biegung.

Die fnf Dehnungsbereiche werden mit folgenden Begriffen charakterisiert:

Bereich 1: Mittiger Zug und Zugkraft mit kleiner Ausmitte

Bereich 2: Biegung (mit Lngskraft) unter Ausnutzung der Bewehrung

Bereich 3: Biegung (mit L.-Kraft) unter Ausnutzung der Bewehrung und des Betons

Bereich 4: Biegung (mit Lngskraft) unter Ausnutzung des Betons

Bereich 5: Lngskraft innerhalb Kernbereich des Querschnittes, zentrischer Druck

G-6 FAGUS6

G 2 Analyseparameter

cu.c cu.b

3 d

2 h

1

4

5

su sy Zug Druck

sy = Stahlstreckgrenze

geschlossener Figur:

2 + DehnungenamoberenRand

Biegung Zug

1

1 + cu.b

1 + DehnungenamunterenRand

Druck h

Biegung

1 + su.c

d

5 2

3,4

1 + 2 + cu.c

h

2 + cu.b 1 + ( su.c * cu.b) ) cu.b

d

Der Querschnittswiderstand wird somit nie rein statisch aus den Rechenwerten der

Baustofffestigkeiten ermittelt, sondern es wird immer ein Verzerrungszustand gesucht, bei

dem die Dehnungen mindestens an einem Ort des Querschnittes gerade den zulssigen

Grenzwert erreichen. Fr eine exakte Bestimmung des plastischen Momentes (mit voll

stndiger Plastifizierung des Querschnittes) mssten unendlich grosse Randdehnungen

vorgegeben werden knnen.

Folgende Tabelle gibt Auskunft ber die FAGUS-6 Voreinstellungen fr einige Normen:

mittiger Druck Biegung Stahlgrenzdehnung (Zug)

SIA 262 2.0 o/oo (bzw. 3.0) 3.0 o/oo 5.0 o/oo

DIN10451 2.0 o/oo 3.5 o/oo 5.0 o/oo

EC2 2.0 o/oo 3.5 o/oo (*) 20 o/oo (falls fy=ftk, sonst 10 o/oo)

OeNorm B4200 2.0 o/oo 2.0 o/oo 4 o/oo

OeNorm B4700 2.0 o/oo 3.5 o/oo 10 o/oo

(*) abhngig von Betonqualitt

Bei einer Berechnung mit schiefer Biegung werden diese Bedingungen entsprechend der

aktuellen Lage der Neutralachse kontrolliert.

Querschnitt ohne Bewehrung: Falls auf der Zugseite keine schlaffe Bewehrung angetroffen

wird, gilt der eingegebene maximale Wert su (bzw. die eingegeben maximale Stahlspan

nung) am Querschnittsrand.

FAGUS6 G-7

Vol. G Baustoffe, Analyseparameter

Fr die Gebrauchstauglichkeit sind oft Rissweiten (*) oder maximale Stahlspannungen in

Abhngigkeit vom Durchmesser und Abstand nachzuweisen. Anstelle von Grenzdehnun

gen knnen auch zulssige Stahlspannungen eingegeben werden.

Von gewissen Anwendungen (CEDRUS-6) wird dieser Wert aber von aussen entsprechen

den den vorgefundenen Eingabedaten gesetzt.

(*) Rissweiten sind als Teil von Spannungsnachweisen verfgbar.

Die Baustoffkennwerte (Festigkeiten, etc.) werden durch die Angabe einer Baustoffklasse

im Rahmen der Querschnittseingabe jedem Querschnittselement fix zugewiesen. Das zu

verwendende s * - Diagramm und die Teilsicherheitsbeiwerte ( g c, gs, .. ) knnen je

doch fr jede Analyse unterschiedlich festgelegt werden.

Hier kann die gewnschte s * -Beziehung sowohl im Druckbereich sowie fr allfllig zu

bercksichtigende Zugspannungen gewhlt werden. Eine Beschreibung dazu befindet

sich in Kap. G 1.2.

Bei der Vorspannung kann zwischen zwei s * -Beziehungen umgeschaltet werden. Ein

weiterer Punkt betrifft die Bercksichtigung von Langzeitverlusten, wobei diese Eingabe

nur im Zusammenhang mit dem Vorspann-Modul von STATIK-6 verwendet wird.

In diesem Register werden verschiedene Bewehrungsgehalte fr die Bemessung der

Lngs- und Bgelbewehrung vorgegeben:

Fr Sttzenquerschnitte existieren in allen Normen Vorschriften ber minimale Be

wehrungsgehalte. Bei der Bemessung werden die eingegebenen Bewehrungen so skaliert,

dass der Minimalwert auch fr geringe Beanspruchungen nicht unterschritten wird.

Dient als Abbruchkriterium (und somit als Schutz gegen zu lange Rechenzeiten) im Rah

men der Bemessungsiterationen.

- Minimaler Bgelbewehrungsgehalt

Im Rahmen der Bgelbemessung wird eine statisch erforderliche Bewehrung bestimmt

(Kap. LEERER MERKER). Mit Hilfe von Resultatkombinationen kann dieser Wert an

schliessend mit dem vom Benutzer gegebenen bzw. nach Norm erforderlichen Minimalw

ert verglichen werden (vgl. Kap. C 4.4)

G-8 FAGUS6

G 2 Analyseparameter

In diesem Register sind alle brigen Einstellungen zu finden u.a.

- Kriechzahl

Falls die hier angegebene Kriechzahl grsser als Null ist, so wird die Analyse unter Bercks

ichtigung des Betonkriechens durchgefhrt

Der hier eingegebene Wert entspricht dem Winkel a in B-18

- Bgel-Grenzspannung

Falls eine Bemessung auf zulssige Spannungen erfolgen soll, kann hier ein Wert (der

kleiner als die Fliessspannung sein sollte) eingegeben werden.

Falls dieses Kontrollfeld eingeschaltet wird, findet eine Analyse mit Bercksichtigung des

Verbundes zwischen Beton und Betonstahl, bzw. allflligen Klebebewehrungen statt.

Die hier dargestellten Werte sind in Form einer Tabelle abgebildet und das Ganze ist pro

grammtechnisch so realisiert, dass die Liste jederzeit relativ einfach erweitert werden kann,

z.B. fr kurzfristige benutzerdefinierte Anpassungen.

Zur Zeit sind hier Werte zur Rissberechnung fr einige Normen zu finden.

G 2.1.8 Echoprint

Zu jeder Analyse wird eine Tabelle ausgegeben, in der die verwendeten Analyseparameter

in der unten dargestellten Kurzform ausgewiesen werden.

Die Nummer des s * -Diagramms in Abschnitt c (Beton) bezieht sich auf den Typ fr das

Betondruck und Zugverhalten ( 0=kein Zug).

a=Baustahl) sind in G-3 zu finden

FAGUS6 G-9

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