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aN heme aera ‘TRENDS iB ree La Vocabulary General Vocabulary Revison Phrasal Verbs Sutfixes and Prefixes Gerunds and infiritives Growing Up Education Sulfixes Commen words: free Technology in Schools page 23 Social issues Soiving Social Problems Verb Collacations ‘Cemmion Wards: Indefinite Pronauns Vocsbutary Suilder: Compound Nouns Extra. SLIL TheMigram Experiment page 37 g cetng Around Travel Arrangements Noun Collocations Common Words: wander / wonder BD isioms B vocabulary sulteer: Binomiels Extrem, LITERATURE Two horns pagest The Environment Environmental isues Prefixes Common Words: about Vocabulary Bilder: Linking Verks with Adjacives TRENDS TODAY fnvironmental issues page 65 Animale Man and Aniemals Adjectives and Prepositions (Common words: go vecopetary suttcer: wore Fumes Exbres: CULTURE Mnimal Symbols of the UK page 78 Work Qualifications Phrasal Verbs Suffixes rand ec Common words. Just Resume / CV Vocabulary Builder: Collocations with work LITERATURE The Standard of living page 93 i i - Exam Preparation Reading Welcome to Renford Sixth Form College Tiger Parenting Identifying Fact and Opinion ‘To Help or Not to Help? Understanding the Author's Purpose Lost and Found Understanding Reference ‘The Meat you Eat Identfying the Main Idea of a Paragraph Nature Cheats Guessing Meaning from Context Scrappers Scanning for Infomation , epee t (eee See Aiiat stars} Pronunciation Practice nage 133 Pairwork Appendix page 137 Glossary page 140 Phrasal Verbs page 152 Present Tenses Past Tenses, PETES senses | AComessaion Talking about he Summer Holidays Furr Tenses oe cussing Fame ici maple Peter Terese Short Monologues seks i Riots ae ara contest Asking for information oa Sept Atos, peer Dkcusing Soda ese An Opinion Essay cee EO taping prion omer of Cane Se ra ronunetat fon: 3) //% ord Resa fay sentence sircure A Discussion Moking Pans ANaratve | Meds ‘ACorversaion Cormaring cures Connector of Sequence Media evfecs Comparing tres Pronunciation: Coracted ome; | ad Timebapressions randy lima ee cesing Envronmental bes Conettinals Apes fexchrg an Agreement summary wish Causes Ae ecment | Pronunciation: Faraphresing WHI “arisleeua: Talking atout Animals ‘A Biography ‘he Fase Aen Taking about ature Connectors of Purpose The Causatve A ces renin Ponape eas Quetations E | Discussing Jobs Rela Cases A Discussion ob ents Formal Email Ferra and fra 1 comareston Promanetatie \Wring Skits Retw Sites | Ajo interven Phan Verba Sess Formal Language wor sess Appendices Grammar Rules and Basic Practice page 124 Prepositions page 153 Irregular Verbs page 154 Reading Strategies page 156 Answering Techniques page 157 Weiting Guide page 159 iaiay tli ted ie ea es te ects formin ne different from the last two years of school in your country? Answer the questions. 1. What is the purpose of the webpage? Which two aspects of sixth form make it difficult? Where can students relax or do schoolwork? Why is the National Space Centre menitioned in the School Trips section? Which two activities might help you keep fit? Complete the sentences. 1. Some students might feel that a one-month holiday is not 2. You should choose subjects you enjoy because you'll 3. When they aren’tin lessons, students can meet with friends, ... o 4, There's a trip to Paris for students Jewellery Making is an example of he PP all era ache 3 RENFORD So, the summer holiday is over and you're back at school ‘One month's holiday may seem short but | hope you're ready to work hard, because the next one or hwo years may be the most important years of yoursschoo! life. Por The sixth form presents lots of new challenge sixth-form students at Renford go on to university and youlll probably want to start thinking of what you want to study there. In the sixth form, you must choose three or four subjects that you'll be studying intensi your final exams— A-levels. These exams are much hardet than any exams you've had before. You'll also have a lot ‘more homework and tasks, All this may sound difficult, but don't let it scare you. The school is great, the subjects are interesting, and the teachers are always willing to help, Your university plans will probably influence your choice ‘of subjects, but try t0 select subjects you enjoy. Students who are interested in what they study are more motivated to lea. Remember, your achievements in the sixth form will help you get into the university of your choice. Loo For a start, at Renford, sith formers don't have to wear school uniform, This doesn't mean you can cometo school in a swimming costume ~ but itis great to wear your own dlothes, Next, sixth-form students have got a common room. This is probably the best invention ever! [t's a special room just for sixth formers with comfortable chairs, tables and even table football. Its also got computers that you can use for projects, essays or research. Finally, you're going to have fice time almost every day. This is a great time for reading doing homework or just hanging out with your friends in the common room YEARS 12 AND 13 EG ens Renfoid offers its students exciting lcaraing experiences outside the classeoom. For example, this year the physics students will be visiting the National Space Ceatre in May. Ifyou study French, you can go on the trip to Paris we" organised over half-term break. Take a look here for all the rest. CT Whatever you're interested in, Renford has got something for you to do after school Here are just some of the clubs you can join: = Rock Climbing + Building a Computer + Japanese for Reginners +Dance “Tevcellery Making For the complete list of greatafter- school activities ele N= ele NA Categorise the words inte four groups: money, celebrations, newspapers and crime. fireworks © bargain thiof # cheque + scoop # guest * tho press # witnoss afford * weilding * tabloid earn * parade * publish + robbery * suspect Which word in each group doesn’t belong? Explain your answer. 1. stubborn * selfish * brave * slim 2. mountainous ® steep « wild ¢ widespread 3. incapable + innovative * impossible * unhealthy 4. cast * custom * plot ® costumes 5. use a landline phone ® go online ® upload photos * do a search Make word pairs of elther synonyms or antonyms. Some words are used twice. dull * toring + rude * lend * out of shape * gadget * borrow ® trade device + dangerous # impolite * excharge * fit # risky « entertaining Choose TWO words that can follow each word in bold to create phrases. 1.go trail trekking « date e viral 2.take part arisk © abelief * goals 3. keep power « strength alive ® fit 4, mews achievement * evidence © bulletin * source 5. make aresenation * messages * money * an account 6. post your way ® an update * a comment a refund Use words from A and B to make as many phrases as you can, A B front body seeing dish ‘traditional window sriendly language searct seriously page engine live burglar injured broadcast nosth user display alarm Complete the sentences with phrases you made in Exercise 5. 1. Did you read that article on the ... of the school newspaper? 2. That TV programme about 1 Sth-century education is, 3, Sometimes you can understand more from a person's... than from what he says. 4, The new computer program is .. and easy to understand. 5. Kevin was ... in a motorbike accident. 6. We watched a... of the football game with our coach. The sentences below are incorrect. Correct them by changing the words in bold. Pay attention to the words in italics. With fair skin lice yours, you shouldn't spend much time in the house. We coulcn’t stop crying while she was telling us her hilarious story. . IF something gives you a thrill i's boring. |. When you have an open mind, you aren't interested in new ideas. IF you buy something at half price, you pay 30% less. . A safe is used to keep food. . A challenge is something that's easy to do. . ve run out of milk. There's some in the fridge. ‘As people grow up, they get younger. Something that improves gets worse Answer the questions. Use a word or phrase from the list below in each of your answers. Make any necessary changes. There may be more than one correct answer. put on weight « outgoing’ box office hit © cash + masked breathtaking © tell the truth © get away fs she very shy? 5. Do you think he's lina? ‘No, she isn’t. She's ouigoing. 6. Was that film very popular? 2. Can | pay by credit card? 7. Is Mark stil very skiciny? 3. Was the scenery nice? 8. Did the police catch the thief? 4. Did you see the suspect's face? ‘Complete the phrasal verbs in the sentences with the particles below. Some particles are used more than once. out * by * on ® after into ® back * down They look .. their younger sister. My car broke... last night. I's dark, Please turn ... the light. What time did you get .. last night? Has he paid ... the money you lent hie? ‘The robber broke ... the house. Where can | try... these jeans? She picked ... a red shirt for me to wear at the party. He can get ... on very little. 10. We're going to try ... that new restaurant. ID Complete the sentences by adding a suffix or prefix to each word in brackets. “Then decide which statements express how you feel. 1. 'm ... about passing all my final exams. (worry) 2 I'm... to complete my last year of schoal. (patient) Everything at school is always so ... . (predict) lam ... about doing well at schoo! this year. (hope) |. of teachers who are too friendly with students. (approve) | expect the last year of schiool to be ... . (challenge) "m to spend more than two hours a day on homework. (willing) . I'm a... person and | can express this at school. (create) Complete the sentences with the words below. Use the gerund or infinitive form. text © publish © wait © take part ® pay out * watch + feed + buy }. ("ll be a biclate, Do you mind ... for me? 2. We stopped ... some fresh fruit from a stall by the side of the road. 3. Are you incerasted in ... in the school play? 4... while driving Is very dangerous. 5. Please remember .. the dog in the evening, 6. He hopes... his book next year. 7.1 enioy ... action-packed films. 8. | can’tafford .. this much money. GRAMMAR Present Tenses 1. Look at the verbs in bold in the paragraph below. Identify the tense of each verb. Actevel French lessons take place on Monday, Wednesday ‘ond Friday. The swdy programme always includes «four-day trip 10 Paris in Year 12. Right now, the sixth form students are having their first French lesson this year. Tomorrow, the students are getting together with their French teacher to discuss this year's trip. 2. Which verb above describes ... ? 1. a general truth 2. an action that happens regularly 3. an action happening now 4. a definite plan for the near future 3. Why is the Present Continuous not used in the sentence below? I don't understand this article I Read the sentence in colour. Write new sentences by replacing a word or phrase from the previous sentence with the words provided. Use the Present Simple and Present Continuous. Make any necessary changes. Alice is studying French now. 1, every day | L, 2. Alice and her brother Ty 3. speak 1,4. now L, 5. Alice’s mother G6. ...often...? yz. alice and her mother...” Ly 8. atthe moment? 1. Alice studies French every day. 2 Write questions with the words below. Use the Past Simple or Past Continuous. 1. you and your family / g9 on holiday / last summer what / you /do / at 7 / this morning the sun / shine / when / you / wake up what time / you / leave / for school how / you / get / to schoo! what / you / think about / while / you / g0 / to school Answer the questions in Exercise 2 so that they are true for you. Past Tenses 4. Look at the verbs in bold in the paragraph below, Identify the tense of each verb. At five o'clock, the students were discussing the trip with the French teacher, Mr Martin, He gave thern the Mtinerary for the trip. While they were talking, the headteacher came in. 5. Which verb above describes ...? 1. completed action in the past 2. an action in progress interrupted by another action 3. an action in progress at a specific time in the past CSR SrrsE Tarra) Complete the dialogue with the verbs in brackets. Use present and past tenses. A: Hey, Thomas. Are you busy? |. (ty) to do my history project and I~... (need) help. B: 1... (not do) anything important. What * (have) trouble with? A: Well, the truth is that 1... (not listen) during the lesson. 1©-..(call) to ask you about it last night, but there was no answer. What time *.. you .. (call)? ‘Around 11 pm... you always that early? 1... (not sleep). 1... (not / usually / fall asleep) before midnight. | suppose I" (not hear) the phone. About the history project ~ why don't we do it together at the weekend? ‘A; Great! Thanks. you m (go) to bed Complete the sentence in several ways, using the words below. Use prasent and past tenses. Add any necessary words. My brother went to schol eariy this morning ). although / he / usually / leave / much later 2. and /he / arrive / before all his friends 3. while / we / have breakfast and / now /he / study / for his biology exam but /1 / notsee / him leave 6. but/he / not come / home until 7 o'clock in the evening paragraph ‘of each verb. ‘had returned from ‘they met with Mr Martin to discuss their trip. ‘T've been a French teacher for eight years and I've travelled to Paris with students before,” Mr Martin said. “But this trip was special and you all spoke French so well You must have an excellent teacher!” Which verb above describes...” 1. an action that took place at an unspecified time in the past and is relevant co the present 2. an action that started in the past and Continues to the present 3, an action that took place before a ‘specific moment in the past Complete the sentences with the verbs ‘below. Use the Present Perfect Simple or Past Perfect Simple. solve * not have * nat complete ® check choose * rat lean 1. Because it's my first day at this school, 1...-all my classmates’ names yet. 2. When the teacher asked for the project, I ityet 3. We felt great after we problems. 4... YOU ... all your courses yet? 5. Myra... time to meet me since she started sixth form, 6... You ... your messaces before you left for schoo? all the maths Match A to B Then complete the sentences in B with the verbs in brackets. Use the Future Simple or be aoing to. A 1. Owen is coming for dinner tonight. 2.1 don’t know whether or not to go on the school trip, Did you get Helen’s message? It's hot in the classroom. Don't buy any milk - there's enougt The school building is very ofd, isn't it? B Yes, She ... (meet) us after school. OK. 1... (not buy) any. What should I get? c. Yes, itis. 1... @urnion) the air conditioner. |. Really? What . Yes, its, They You should. tt you ... (cook)? (rebuild) it next year. (bel great! |_-many years to come, Future Tenses 3. Look at the verbs in bold in the dialogue below. Match each verb to its use below. ‘A: What are we going to do for cur French project? Look at Mr Martin's quidelines - it isn’t going to be easy! B: [haven't thought about it yet. "fl eall you on Saturday morning and we can meet to discuss it. TM have thought of something by then. ACI be waiting for your call 'm sure you'l think of something brilliant. 1. a spontaneous decision 2, a future plan 3. an action completed by a specific time in the future 4. a prediction based on present evidence 5. an action in progress at a specific time in the future 6. a prediction Ee Write semences with the words below. Use the Future Continuous or Future Perfect Simple, 1. by 2050, / books / disappear / from the classroom / 2. you / wait / in the library / at 4.00 /? 3. I can't meet at 6.00. 1/ not finish / my homework / by then /. 4. within the next few years, / computer games / become / part of every lesson / 5. more and more students / study / online / uring the coming years /. Complete the text with the correct form of the verbs in brackets. Then listen and check your answers. ‘The promt is biy dance for | secondary school students. it & started in the US. Incredibly, ten yeats ago, mast students in Britain"... (not know) what a prom was. But over the rast few years, American TV programmes like Glee *:. (introduce) the ides of the prom to British youth. As a result, today more than 85% of British schools (hold) proms for students in their final year ‘This year, fal year students * .. (spend) more then ever on expensive and fashionable clothes for ther prom, Not all the parents are happy with this situction, “When we *... {go] to sotocl, we dida't have money for such things!” said one father after he. (see) the bl fr his daughter's dress. However, the students feel differently, I car’t wait” one student said. “Linnow | ./ have) a fantastic time at the arom.” Although their parents might not be thrilled about it, it saoms that students in Britain.» (enjoy) proms for us = back at school discussing the summer holidays. st part of the conversation and complete the sentences. <==) “ 1. Kelly went to Ireland to visit her dac’s °° 2. In order to get to Ireland, they travelled on a 3. Kelly and her family stayed in Ireland for 2» 4, Kelly became friendly with someone she met at a { nda 2 Listen to the second part and choose the correct answer. (7) 1, Max is saving money to 2. Max wants to go to a surfing camp a. take surfing lessons later in the summer a. because he’s never surfed before b. pay for university b. to improve his surfing skills gc on holiday before Year 13 . to work teaching other people to surf Visit family who live in Australia d. because it will gve him a chance to travel 3 Listen to both parts of the conversation. Decide if the following statements are true or false. (> 1. Kelly and Max haven't been in touch all summer. /¥2. Max has been to ireland before 3 Kelly was bored while she was in Ireland. ~°4, Max really enjoyed his summer holiday. ‘5. Kelly asks about Max's university plans. 16. The surfing camp Max wants to go to is expensive. 173 Max has never surfed in England before. lowing expressions. Which do you use ..? 1. when greeting someone 2. when discussing the summer holidays 3. when saying goodbye . And what about you - how was your summer? _{, How've you been? b. Did you do anything exciting over the summer? g. I've got to run ‘c. See you later. h. I haven't seen you for ages. d. How long were you there for? i. How are you doing? @. Did you have a good time? J How was it? ‘There may be more than one correct answer. | Compe dle nine xeon: eric Phil: Hey, Alice... You're looking great. Alice: Thanks, Phil. * Phil: OK, | guess. But I'm sorry the summer is over. * Alice: Yeah. We went o London Phi * Alice: About two weeks. was amazing & Phil: We stayed at home but | went to the beach almost every day. Alice: * Phik Absolutely. | met a great gid and we're dating now. Alig: one ge mest Fe Ws, & Work with a partner. Greet each other and discuss your summer holidays. Use the expressions in Exercise 4 above. 1 gp) teak at he ctres below. Bo you know anything about the people in the pictures? Do you know how the people in each group are connected? PU ome TOPIC VOCABULARY Growing 2 Match the sentences to the people in the pictures on page 10. Pay attention to the words in colour. O1. She inhiérited her singing talent from her father, but never formally studied mu: £2. His grandparents brought him up and he went to high school in Hawaii where they lived. 13. They are determiried to work hard and live up to the expectations of their royal family. (4. They share a passion for sport and always support each other 5. His family is very proud of his accomplishments, which include going to «© Hatvard Law School and becoming a president. F 6. Het father feels that he hasn't always been the best role model for his daughter. © 7. They started competing in'1997, but they've always made an effort to continue their studies. > Answers, page 136 3. Read the pairs of sentences below and in which palrs the sentences EY Prone: have the same meaning, Pay attention to the words in colour. fad Pronunciation 1. a, Her parents alloy’ her to stay out late on a school night. b. Her parents permit her to stay out ate on a schoo! night. ey 20/ SpOil // 2... The students must not disobey the teacher, > Practice, page 133 b. The students must not do what the teacher tells them to do 3. a, They spol their son. b. They give their con everything he asks for. tor \ 4. a. can alvvays depend on my brother to help me with my homework. b. 1 can always trust my brather to help me wich my homework, 5. a. In our school, teachers rarely punish students. b. In our school, teachers rarely give students prizes, 6.Ja. My father’s a maths teacher and | take after him, 'm really good at maths. Re ae their ciléren and want ». My father’s a maths teacher and | am like him. (™m really good at maths. pkawunee el ne 72 a. They look up to their teachers. and what they are doing b. They admire their teachers, Picea a paler te smarephone apps that tell them where thelr children (ad STINT! are a all times. enagers discussing their families), following statements are tue or false.6™"> 11. Gemma’ parents allow her to do what she wants after school. \2. Gemma's parents sometimes punish her $B. Gemma take’ fier her sister. 4, Jo's brother sees Joas a role model. 15, Gemma thinks Jo is a good role model. 5 can you remember which of Jo's qualities Gemma mentions? rote any : pase ‘They're always telling ee Se ee as alin They donee an Use as many of the words in colour in Exercises 2 ‘once in awhile Bea erin 1. Who do you take after most in your family? berets Sy oy pew and then 2 What alens de pou tank yo nvterted Ron Your paki 3. Who do you look up to most in your family? 4, Do your parents punish you when you disobey them? 5. Is it hard to live up to your parents’ expectations? READING Do parents control their teenage children ‘too much? Not enough? Explain. IDENTIFYING FACT AND OPINION Read these two sentences from the text and decide whether the writer is expressing a fact or an opinion in each. What helped you decide? > Reading Srateges, page 156 O, 1. However, she believes parenting styles are ‘often influenced by culture. 2. They came first in recent academic achievement exams, taken by over 500,000 teenagers in 65 countries. TRUE // FALSE QUESTIONS Now read the whole text. Decide if the following sentences are true ‘or false. Find evidence in the text to justify your > Answering Techniques, page 157 1. Like many Chinese parents, Amy Chua expected her children to work hard and do well [Amy Chua is not satisfied if her daughters get less than 100 In exams, ‘Amy Chua’s experience with Lulu taught her something very important. 4, Lulu Chua enjoyed playing a musical instrument. 5. Children of Chinese parents find it difficult {0 get into British universities. 6. Chang T believes her parents have taught her skills she'll need as an adult When Sophia and Louisa (Lulu) Chia were young, their mother Amy was in charge of every aspect of their lives. After school, they had to play the piano or violin, practising several hours » every day. Any free tme was spent studying and doing homework. Here are some things that their maother did not allow them to do: + go out with friends # vaich TV or play computer games + choose theit own free-time activities + gotany grade less than an A. Amy Chuaiis a Professor of Law at Yale University, USA. The daughter of Chinese immigrants, Ms Chua brought up her daughters in a traditional 1». Chinese way. She was strict with them and never accepted anything less than their best effort. She calls this method of parenting the “Tiger Mother” way and she wrote a hook about it. Inher book, Battie Hyman of the Tiger Mother, Ms Chua emphasises that not all Chinese use Tiger parenting methods. On the other hand, there are parents from other cultures who do. However, she believes parenting styles are often influenced by culture. “I think Westerners give up too quickly,” she says in an interview. “Their kids say, ‘I hate math’, and their parents say, ‘don't worry. Go AMY CHUA BROUGHT UP TET ES) OO ES a7 try something else’. When my daughters come home with a 96, I say ‘great job, but let’s take 2 look at those missing four points.” ® Although the Tiger Mother system had worked well for Sophia, Lulu did not take after her sister and often disobeyed her mother. Mother and daughter had been arguing for years before Amy Chua learned a valuable lesson: sometimes even a determined Tiger Mother ® must compromise. She finally jet Lui siop playing, music and siart playing tennis ~a sport she excels at, her mother says, Still, looking at their accomplishments, the Chinese certainly have been doing something right. They came © first in. secent academic achlevement exams, taken by over 500,000 teenagers in 65 countries. Moreover, in the UK and in-the USA, children of Chinese parents often get the highest marks and get into the best universities. Could Tiger parenting be the key? LUT Arabella L = testers Those kids have had a childhood without any independence. Children learn more when they're free to make their own decisions. Chang T + 7 mines ago © T'm glad I had Tiger parents. By the time I grew up, I had had lots of practice at working nard to achieve my Parents (ine 22) means padres not pavientes, which means relativesin English ‘compromise (ine 35) means tronsigir rot comprometerse, which means comic oneself | mn English 4. Choose the corectanswer. 1. Amy Chua believes that a. only Asian mothers use Tiger parenting methods b. parents from Western countries cannot be Tiger Mothers . its possible for parents of different cultures to be Tiger Mothers 4. your cuiture will aways determine your parenting style 2. Amy Chua's daughters a. had to learn to compromise b. reacted differently to the Tiger Mother system | . both believed in their mother's way of | bringing them up d. both argued with their mother a lot 5 Complete the sentences according to the text. |_|. [ntheir free time, Sophia and Lulu had to | 2. Amy Chua probably brought up her daughters: | in the same way as | 3. Chinese students got the best marks in an | exam given to | 4. According to Arabella Lif children are more Independent, | find words or expressions in the tx that meas | 1. controlled (lines 1-11) | 2 makes clear, insets (ines 19-29) ] 3. sop aying dines 19-25) 1 4, does extremely well in (lines 30-37) 5. are accepted by (lines 38-44) 6. napay (ines 45:52) q Common Words ‘The word free has ot different meanings. | Read the sentences below. Choose the | correct meaning of the word free. | 1. Children learn more when they're free to | make their own decisions | 2. The tickeis were free for children under 10. 3: Ay fee ime was spent tying and doing 4. not costing money b. not controlled by anyone or anything © not busy doing anything 7 (G) wouta you tice to have Tiger parents? Way? / Why noe? More and more educators today believe that schools should teach character education. ‘This means teaching students things like how to deal with success and fellure and how to team from chellenge and stress. Do you believe that students should Team these things in scheol ar are these things earned at home? TOPIC VOCABULARY Education Choose the correct answer to show you understand the words in colour. |. A British person who sibdies abroad might go to university in the US / England. 2. People who fai aii éxam often feel delighted / upset. 3. When semeone encBufades you, they ty to make you feel helpless / confident. 4. To get a deares, you must complete university / secondary school. 5. When sameone chea's in an exam, they are doing something dishonest / thoughtful. 6. An Argentinian who's learning a foresgt linguayjé may be learning Spanish / Chinese 7. Many researchsis work in laboratories / department stores. 8. When you graduate, you often get an award / a diploma. 2 Gees the course information with the words Below. INTRODUCTION TO COMPUTER SCIENCE Course Information: © Completion of Year 11 is a basic ©... for this course. © Students must * .. the course by 28th September. + Weekly *... for the online course are on YouTube. * You must *... all essays and ether projects on time. + Students will receive marks as well 25°... on any ‘work or exams. + Students have online meetings to ® ... before exams. * To... an exam, you must get 60% or more. ©... must he paid by 15th October. tablet * headteacher * library commuictin techncegy (IC) «lntop« stafeom School Subjects | Equipment | Flaces at School | Teachers Suffixes Recognising Suffixes can help you identify the different parts of speech. Nouns ofien end with suffixes such as ness, -ship, -ment, -hood, -ity,-tion /-sion, -ance J-ence. childhood — independence ‘Adjectives often end with suffixes such as ~al,-uble /-ible,-ous -ive, ing, -edy-fuland ess ising valuable > Grammar Appendix, Werkbuok ouge 85 4. Which ofthe folowing words are nouns and which are adjectives? Pay attention w the suffixes, Make sure you know what the words mean. t x " , finaneial © weabhess « hardshin + impresftve * assign erates various # worthledd sensitive © suitablé attendance! 5 Add cuffixes to the following words to make as many nouns and adjectives as you can. Pay attention to spelling, Use your dictionary to help you. Shey fl ealieats + comand » apply © concern assess doubt.» excel « neighbour Nt demand rag rf) . ay (©) complete the sentences about school with the correct form of the words from Exere'se 5. Then write who said each sentence, P (parent, T (eacher) or (student. This course i very... hope | pass. 2. advise my students to stucy abroad because Ithink it's an... experience 3. You got a very good ... for your work. We're proud of you! 4. it's you'll do well in the exam unless you stop watching Al Wand star studying, 5. 'éike to inform you that we will be giving prizes for. this year. 6. va bean studying with kids from this... since primary school Fm... about how hard tc wil be for my children to finda job when they finish school. 8. For homework! want you to dovnload a university. form ‘rom the Internet and complete 7 You are going to hear about learning with technology, What ‘technology de you use in your lessons? Is ic helpful? How? B Liston to three speakers talking about learning with technology. What is each speaker talking about? Match each speaker (1,2 and 3) to a topic below. Theres one extra topic that you do not need to use. a. online learning bb. mobile phones in lessons & YouTube in the classroom G. learning computer code 9 Listen to speaker I again. Choose the correct answer. 1. The speaker was impressed by a. her daughter's school b.a website called Scratch . her daughter's skills 4d. the computer code 2. The speaker says that a. the program is fun to use b. she has learned how to code © the course will be useful . Scratch was created for adults ID Listen to Speaker 2 again. Decide if the following statements are true or false, 7) 1. The speaker has decided what courses to take at university 2. EdX is a website where you can learn many different things. 3..On edX, you can listen to lectures by well-known people. 4. All of the courses cost money. 5, Ihe speaker is interested in a course called Advanced Statistics. Il Listen to Speaker 3 again, Complete the sentences with a Suitable word or phrase. 7" 1. The students give their teacher .. feedback about using mobile phones in lessons, 2. The first student to texta correct answer is given a 3. In a group quiz, all the people in the group decide on 4. The students learn from ... when they do a group quiz. GRAMMAR Prosent Perfect Simple have/ has + past participle Present Perfect Continuous fave / has+ been + verb + ing Past Perfect Simple had + past participle Past Perfect Continuous had ~ been + verb+-ing Read the advert and answer the questions. Which verbs in bold refor to an action that .? 1 took place at an unspecified time in the past and is relevant to the present Have you been having difficulties with your English? 2, started in the past and is still going on at See ote enn a Rat ene oes the present moment 3. took place before another action or event Laura 8: | hadn’t studied English before |tried English in the past Oniine. In ust five months I've learned enough to travel 4. continued for some time up to another alone in Engiand. past action juan &:"¢ been failing my English tests at schoo! until | started this course. Now I'm one of the best students in the class. cen Pablo 0: Ive been doing the cous fortwo weeks and my EE English has already improved. Complete the sentences with the verbs in 2 Complete the jalogues with the verbs in brackets. Use the Present Perfect Simple or brackets. Use the Present Perfect Continuous or Past Perfect Simple. Then choose the correct Past Perfect Continuous. ‘As Why were you so tired last night? Because | ... (work) on my project for hours before | finally finished it. FACTS ABOUT ‘A: Do you speak Spanish? answers. 1 Not realy ake) an oiine courte for afew EDUCATION IN THE UK tres now but only eno a fer words 1. The Romans ... (establish) schools in England How long ... you ... (wait) for the school bus i before it finally arrived? | by the Ast / 10th cemtury AD. ee Tae ‘The Church ... (take care) of educating Way has Betty failed the course? children until the government took charge at B She's failed because she ... (not come) to the end of the 15th / 19th century lessons regularly 3. Secondary education ... (be) free for all How many years ... Mara... (Study) English? students for over 70 / 150 years. Benenglisn k excel ert . Until they changed the cules in 1920/1960, Bess ot i elec ng ar ee Oxford University .. (not permit) womento : .. MrSaville. teach) English for many years graduate with degrees | toate: 5, Since 1986 / 1886, schools ...(not allow) fe since 2003, I think. teachers to use corporal punishment. Use the words below to complete the sentences. > Answers. ge AGCRBERE Use the Present Perfect Continuous or Past Perfect Continuous. Sie revise / all afternoon + read / articles cbout the topie Unieniey ‘ play violin / jor five years practise it / every day iny / for ten minutes Juliais doing project on the history of pop music, soshe te got an English éxam tomorrow, so | The teacner finally succeeded in opening the classroom door after she . . Since Alex stucied yoga in India, he 5, Before he gave his first concert, Jake . Complete the following sentences from news articles with the correct form of the verbs in brackets. Use the perfect tenses. Then choose a suitable headline below for each article. versity Scandal | Oldest Student | E-Books for University Students Teens Wake Up Later | Young Genius | Biggest School | Recently in the country of Myanmar, two universities .. (open) libraries with no books - only digital texts. . Bertie Gladwin ... (not finish) secondary school, but he got his third university degree at the age of 91 More than 45,000 students ... register) at the City Montessori School in Lucknow, Incia this year. Xavier Gordon-Brown ... (Solve) maths problems since he was four. He started a maths degree at university when he was 12! 5. This year, two local secondary schools finally changed their starting time from 7.15 to 8.40 after students. (complain) for years 6. Sixty Harvard students had to leave the university for a year because they ... (cheat) in an exam. 5 Are the verbs in bold in the correct tense? Correct them if they are wrong. 1. Ms Lewis is an experienced teacher. She teaches since 1995. 2. | have been doing ceramics for two years. | really enjoy it 3. He was studying for five years before he graduated. 4. | Started a creative writing course last month. So far, | have been writing two stones. 5. After the lecture had ended, some students asked questions. 6. lam studying in this school for two years. 5 Complete the text with the verbs in brackets. Use the perfect tenses. Then listen and check your answers. (> People '... (¢reate) apps for mobile phones for years now, but the Tees for Cars HOWMAIBSS :zeenaisccacapticrc cata een nacapeteone eee 2011, Leo”... (have) a good job and a home. But then Leo's boss cold him there pi ‘was no more work. Leo couldn't find a new job and soon he had no money. He> Berson (lve) on the streets Of New York for quite a while when one day Patrick MeConlogue stopped in front of him. Patrick, a successful software engineer, made Leo an offer Gets A] tess ou sio0octeangre you pop and ch ou compu cocing— ‘you choose” After Patrick‘... (explain) to Leo a little about computer coding, Leo Filucation decided to accept the offer of lessons in coding. For months, Patrick taught Leo how to write computer programs. Although Leo > .. (not know) anything about compater coding before, he learned quickly. He ® ... already ... (use) this knowledge to design his own mobile phone app — one that helps people and the environment. So far, Leo "... {not find) 2 job and he is still homeless, but he hopes his app will help him make some money. Whatever happens in the future, however, Leo and Patrick are happy they met because they*... (become) good friends, Patrick MeCoulegue anticoGrnd Grammar Challenge ‘Complete the second sentence so that it has ‘a similar meaning to the first. 1, This is my first online course. I've never 2. First, Alice had dinner and then, she ravised for her test, After Alice 3. I began secondary school two years ago. Wve 4. When did the teacher start talking? How long ...? 5. Jack fell asleep and | arrived an hour later. COMMUNICATION Asking for Information An Online Learning Website Look at a webpage from tre fa an online learning website and answer the questions. 2 a Today, many universities offer courses |. What does itcost to register at WebAcademy? antne, Fo example, the famous Bish 2. Where can you find the requirements for each course? “unwversities at Oxford and Cambriege 3. When can you watch the week's lecture? have a variety of online courses available. 4, Where can you mest other students? 5. How many courses are available? Poe cee OR atantages and, ‘sadvantages of entine leaming?” Hundrode of courses - from computer science to art ristory. Your Timetable ceed We're flexible ~ you can waten each week's lecture when it suits you. Tequrerients ad The number of assignments students have to complete eae fo ch Sates le aver tm Coes terreno eacton o Meet New Friends eal: Use online chat rooms and student forums to connect Slee Ay pots oe REGISTER: Just dick sign up now” and iorern copon your WabAcademy Account. Ie feo! aL ey Sone Janet calls the WebAcademy Support Forum to ask for information. listen to the conversation and answer the questions. (7 What course is she interested in doing? - How long dees the course last? - How many essays will Janet have to write? What's one advantage of taking an online course? What's one disadvantage of studying online? Can you remember how to sign up for the course? Good morning. | wonder if you can help me. 2. 'm interested in the course Introduction to German. Can you give me some xgeneral information about the course? Could you tell me when the course begins and how long it lasts? - What can you tell me about the course requirements? | see. And would you mind celling re how much the course costs? 9. | have one last question. Perhaps you could explain some of the advantages and disadvantages of doing an online course. It sounds perfect. How do I sign up? 8. Thank you so much. You've been very helpful. 2. Not ata t's £180. b. The first lecture is on 8th November and the course is twoterms long. & ll certainly try. What information do you need? 4d. You'll have to complete eight assignments and that will take you about three hours a week. ¢. The course is for beginners and you'll learn basic German for informal use. GY speaking se {. All you have to do is access our website and open an Smee asi When we ak for Iorauon, g- Well, it's much more flexible than a university course but we often say Do you kriow ... ? students have to be quite disciplined when they're studying. or Could you tell me ... ?When on their own, we do this, the question that as felsic tic woes cero (75 Repti the words in bold in Exercise 4 wih ine words below. Getic you tell me where the lecture takes place? NOT Could you tell me where does the lecture take place? less expensive * Italian Chef Course * prepare four Italian meals seven hours ® 15th January ¢ be able to study independently traditional Italian cooking * five weeks © £50 p rronciation EN Silent Letters Practice, page 133 Find two examples of this type of polite question in Exercise 4. roleplay with your partner, Use the yressions in colour and the dialogue in ise 4 to help you. Student A: You are a student and you call WebAcademy to ask for information about the Inireduction to Computer Science Course. ASk ‘questions to complete the chart on page 137. ‘Student B: You work at WebAcademy, Use the Computer Science Course information on page 138 to answer Student A’s questions, ba a Mle oe When writing a for and against essay, it's important to state both sides of the argument clearly. Read the model essay below and find the paragraph which contains: 1. the writer's opinion 2. an introduction to the issue 3. arguments presenting the disadvantages of studying abroad 4. arguments presenting the advantages of studying cbroad It ig quite common for students in my country to go to foreign universities (o study. These students feel that they can get a better education abroad than at a local university. However, is this really true? On the one hand, many people believe that when you study abroad, you get more than just an academic experience. Firstly, you learn to understand another culture and might also leam to speak a foreign language. You will also meet people from all over the world. In addition, some foreign universities have got subjects that are different from local universities. Sec CIaes’ foreign university. Fora start, it may cost more. Foreign universities may be expensive and it isn’t always cheap to live abroad. Moreover, you could feel isolated and lonely as you are not near your family and friends. Resides, it's not always easy for foreign students to get used to a different way of life. This could affect how well you do at university. On the other hand, there are many difficulties when you study at a i hse Lat | TE In short, although there are edvantages to studying abroad, in my opinion you can get a great education at local universities. What is ore, it will probably be cheaper and you will be close to home! See 2 Inwhich paragraph of the model could the writer have written the following sentences? 1. In addition, students may have difficulties studying in a foreign language. 2. Some people believe that studying abroad gives students many advantages, but not everyone agrees. 3. Sometimes, getting into a foreign university is easier than getting into university in your own country 4. In conclusion, | believe that studying close to home is preferable, 5. Furthermore, most students find it exciting to live abroad, 3 What tenses or other grammatical structures are usually used in for and against essays? Give examples from the model. of Addition and Contrast Connectors Connectors of addition connect similar ideas. Fxamples of connectors of addition are: also, in addition, moreover, furthermore, besides and as well as Connectors of contrast connect opposing ideas, Examples of connectors of contrast are: on the one hand, on the other hand, but, however, although, even though, despite, in spite of, nevertheless and while. > Weng Guide, page 162 41 Find five connectors of addition and four connectors of contrast in the model. What similar / opposing ideas do they connect? Despite In Spite of Attouph, Even tooosh BQ Despite and in spite of are followed by anoun phrase or a gerund (verb + ing). Although and even though are followed by a nee ee Complete the sentences with despite, in spite of, although or even though. There may be more than one correct answer. 1... they may be more expensive, some students prefer foreign wiversities 2. Universities abroad attract sudents... the expense, Choose the best continuation. 1. The university offered many online courses although &, there were no courses in computer science b. there were various courses in computer science 2. f'm going to study in Italy because my Italian is fluent. Moreover, ..« a. | am nervous about living in a foreign country '. I ved in Italy when Iwas a child 3. Jake sent his application in on time. Nevertheless, a several weeks later they had still not replied b. they replied almost immediately 4, The teacher gave John a high mark for his essay in spite of a. his creative ideas b. the spelling mistakes 5. The student completed all his assignments. In addition, a. itwas difficult for him he helped his classmates with their work Choose the correct answer. 1. Besides { While / Aiso some online courses cost money, others are completely free. 2.Even though / In spite of / But itis not cheap to get a degree, with a university education it may be easier tofind work. 3. Whea taking an online course, students have to work independently. Moreover /On the other hand / Even though, dey can chat with each other online when necessary. 4. One advantage of a local college is that you may know many of the students. In addition / Nevertheless / However, you can live at home and save money. 5. Online courses are interesting furthermore / as well as / despite challenging. ‘Complete these sentences in a logical manner. 1. twas difficult for me to study alone. Furthermore, 2. Although some courses cost money, others 3. In addition to being too long, some of the lectures were 4. Idacicad to take the online course in spite of "A For and Against Essay 3" Write a for and against essay on the advantages and disadvantages of studying online. Write 100-150 words. The model in Exercise I, the steps in Getting Organised and the Useful Expressions will help you. getting organised 1 Brainstorm the topic. Look at the statements: ‘below. Which present reasons for online learning? Which present reasons against? 1. There is a lack of student-teacher interaction. - Online leaming is cheaper. - Online learning allows greater flexibility. . There are no face-to-face discussions. No physical attendance is required. . Students don’t interact or socialise. 2 Add your own ideas to the list. Decide what your opinion is and which ideas to include in your essay. 3) Organise your ideas into paragraphs according to the model in Exercise 1 on page 20. 4 Use connectors of addition and contrast to help you present your argument clearly. 5) Check your work for mistakes: Y spelling ¥ punctuation YY gearmmar ¥ word order ¥ use of connectors Useful Expressions tis quite common for It is becoming very popular for However, is this really true? is Firstly, / First ofall, Ast see it, For this reason, .. For example, In short, Tosum up,... In my opinion, I believe to > Wiring Guide, page 164 THINK BACK VOCABULARY Choose two words to complete each sentence. 1. Ifyou ... your parents, they will ... you. a.spol —b. punish —_c. disobey 2. Ella was ... by her father and has... her ‘musical talent from him. a.inherted b.eamed ——_c. brought up want to... from a foreign university, so !am going to... a. take part b. getadegree c. study abroad 4. Jake may ... the test unless he begins to soon. arevise b. publish c.fail She ... all her exams and finally ... from university. a. ran out b. graduated c. passed Complete the phrasal verbs with the verbs below. looked © get ® hand © sign * take * try Students ... byon very ttle money. We have to ... inthe assignments on Friday. Since Iwas avery young child, "ve... up to my grandfather. Both Clara and I... after our mother. Pll.» Out a few courses before | decide which to take, 6. Sean is going to ... up for an online dearee course. Decide if the following statements are tue or false. Correct the false statements without changing the word in bold. |. IT you keep fit, you will be healthier. 2. IF you cheat in_an exam, you are doing something wrong. 3. If your parents allow you to do something, you mustn't do it. 4. Ifyou depend on someone, you rely on them. 5. If something Is Innovative, it's old-fashioned. Complete the sentences with the words in brackets. Use suitable suffixes. 1. Asking for help is not a sign of (weal) 2. The necklace had been expensive, 501 wes upset to leam it was ... (worth). 3. Students must send in their... (assign) before 10th December. 1'e been living in this ... (neighbour) since 1 was born. 5. I've checked ... (attend) and everyone's here. Peon 4 GRAMMAR Complete the sentences with the correct form of the verbs in brackets. 1. Lily... (study) French since she was five years, ld and she still... (Go) to lessons twice a week. 2. While |... (drive) to work yesterday, | had an accident. |... (talk) on my mobile phone and (not notice) the red light! . The train .. {not arrive) when | got to the station, but it (come) a few minutes later. |. How long ... Jean ... live) in London before she... (find) a flat last monch? ‘Max... (do) his homework at the moment or... he already .. (Finish) 0? 1... (Complete) all my exams by the end of next ‘month. After that, |. (travel) for a while. Complete the text with the correct form of the verbs in brackets. There may be more than one correct answer. ‘A DIFFERENT WAY TO APPLY TO UNIVERSITY Traditionally, students * .. (complete) an application form and wrote an essay zbout themselves to get into university. But not all students were good at writing. so recently. some universities *... (come up with) new ways for students to express themselves. For example, for years now, Tufts University in Boston, USA, (give) students the option of sending in one-minute videos about themselves. Lee Coffin, who deals with student admissions, had the idea while he “... (watch) a video that someone * (send) him. The video *... (impress) Coffin so much that he decided to offer it as an option in student applications. Since his decision, almost a ‘thousand students every year ”... (send in) their videos. Coffin was surprised to learn that some of them "... (get) lots of views on YouTube! WRITING SKILLS Complete the sentences with the connectors below. despite * furthermore * as well as ® also however © although - Don't study Italian, .. it’s a useful lanauage, the grammar is very difficult. Walking to school is cheaper than driving. .. 10'S good exercise! We decided to play football .. the rain. Max wanted to go to the beach on Saturday. he had too much homework. My father stucied maths ... physics. We had to do a test and ... hand in an assignment. tN ==)" / Nae eimialololoN alia} Since the beginning of the last century, technological developments have played an increasingly important role in education. With new technologies being introduced all the time, who knows what the future of this trend will be. Look at the information about technology and education below and answer the questions. 1. What was the earliest technological tool used in the classroom? 2, What was created as a result of the invention of the CD-ROM? 3. What was the.problem with the Internet in the 1990s? 4. In which decace were two popular search engines created? 5, How does social media affect learning? 6, How will learning material be different in the future classroom? 7. Between which years was there the most change in the number of stuclents per computer in the UK? 1920s-1970s EARLY TECHNOLOGY Beginning with radios and television, and later audio and video cassettes, a variety of technological tools become popular in the classroom. 1980s THE COMPUTER ARRIVES IBM invents the first personal computer in 1981. The first computers reach schools, but the ratio of students to computers is very high. The CD-ROM is invented in the mid-1980s and soon, interesting educational programmes are eveloped for use in schools an¢ at home. 1990s THE INTERNET GETS A START. ‘The Internet gradually finds its way into schools in the early 1gg0s, By the end of the decade, 83% of secondary schools have Internet access, but it’s slow and many schools haven't got enough computers. Search Engines like Yahoo and Google are created and develop into useful research tools. 20C0-TODAY INTERNET GOES MOBILE In the first decade of the 21st century, high-speed Internet and new wireless technology make Internet a valuable resource for educatars and students. Social media and online courses give students the opportunity to leam from each other anywhere, anytime. Over 85% of UK teenagers have smartphones and bring them to lessons, but few teachers include use of smartphones in the lesson. THE FUTURE WHERE TO FROM HERE? Technology will be more and more significant in schools. Computers will help each student achieve his or her individual learning goals. More and mare online material will be used. Students will havea wider choice of subjects ta study. Mobile devices like smartphones and tablets will be en integral part of the lesson. Prepare a presentation about one of the technological devices in the timeline. 1. Do research to find out about the device. 2. Create a timeline showing the development of the device. Include visuals. 3. Prepare a presertation and share itwith vour class, TECHN OPTION Prepare slideshow, Forhelp, see: @EEMGEENaN a =— y e | = © a - = r : 2 Match the sentences below to the cartoons on page 24 to understand their ‘messages. There may be more than one correct answer. Pay attention to the ‘words in colour. | Their living conditions seem to have something in common, but in fact, they don’t. 1 2. These people think somebody else should get involved and offer assistance, 3. There is incquality between the sexes. « 4. For some people, poverty and hunger are a daily reality. (1), -\ 5. They are not aware of the fact that other people have problerns.d > 6. These people have a very different standard of living... 6. = 7. These people seem to feel empathy for the homeless, but do they? © 3) Match the questions to the answers, Pay attention to the words in colour. 1. Did he behave well? 2. Are you a British citizen? 3. Do they pay taxes? 4. Is it mandatory to vote? 5.15 it fair for very young children to work? 6. Why do people follow rules? 7. Is this a slum? 8. How Important is freedom of speech? > Practice, page 133 Sa. Of course. It's illegal not to. + b. I'm afraid so. It's the poorest area of our city. Uc. No. You can choose whether to do it or not. Sd. Certainly not. k's simply not right. Je. Very. People must be allowed to express their opinions. 24. Yes. Iwas bern here, 4g. No. He was very rude. Gh, I'm not sure. Maybe because someone will punish them if they don't. ) SSS an iscussing what kind of country they'd like to live in. three statements each one believes is most important. 1. everyone has a high standard of living * 2. people behave with consideration towards each other 3. no one suffers from poverty or hunger 4. people pay their taxes and understand their seclal responsibilities 5. citizens are willing to get involved and help in their community — a4 "6. everyone follows society's rules and laws Personally, I think 5 can you remember which statement was important to Dan's dad? Sin Exercise 4 again, Rank them in order of iss your answers with your partner. Personelly, 1d hate to five in a country where | people didn't behave with consideration cowards | one onothes ~s0 that’s my number one. According to arecent survey, Toronto, Bein and New York are the world's best cities for yourg adults ~ aged 5-29. The ranking was made using issues that young people worldwide The way Isee it, people behave well when they foliow society’ rules and laws, so T chase that statement as the most importent. = ee felt were important. These included civic partlcipation, Stancard of ving personal safety, jab epportunities as well as education, entertainment and culture READING Would you help a person in danger | even if i meant taking a risk? Why or why not? UNDERSTANDING THE AUTHOR'S PURPOSE Read the article. What is the author's purpose? 7 > Reading Svategis, page 156 a. To persuade readers to behave differently in certain situations. . To entertain readers with stories about how people behave. . To explain to readers why people behave in certain ways, 4d, To describe an experiment. Choose the correct answer. 1. Innes 1-8, the writer gives an example a. how people help each other in an emergency b. how people usually behave in an emergency . how to save someone's life in an ‘emergency d. how te avoid getting hurt in an emergency We'd probably help someone if we . felt we could make a difference . were with a group of strangers . knew the victim d, felt there was a real danger Decide if the following sentences are true or false. Find evidence in the text to justify your answers. 1. In the experiment, there is a fire in the roam where the participant is. 2. People might not act because they think ‘other people know better. Dr Levine believes that people inherit the ability to be heroic. We can sometimes overcome the bystander effect when we want ta impress people. Our tendency to empathise with the victim usually overcomes the bystander effect. ‘Complete the sentences. 1. Researchers began studying the bystander effect 2, Most participants in the experiment don’t report the probiem when they 3, People might not act because they think that everyone else To Help or Not to Help? Youre at a train station, Suddenly, a child falls onto the train tracks. Everyone there is aware of what has happened — but no one moves. What do you do? ‘A, Risk your life to save a stranger » B. Do what everyone else is doing, C. Call the emergency services For most of us the answer will be B. When we see that no one is doing anything, we will do nothing This phenomenon is called the bystander affect and +» researchers have been studying it for years. In a famous experiment, researchers observe a participant in a room which begins to fill with smote. It looks like thare is a fre somewhere. When the participants are alone, 78% laave the room to report the smoke. The experimant is also 1» done wien several other people are with the participant However, researchers have told the other people to ignore the smoke. In the second experiment, only 10% of tho participants report the problem. One explanation for the bystander effect is our beliet «that the whole group shares responsiblity. We think, “It doesn't make sense to be the only person to get involved.” in addition, most of us follow the rules of what is socially acceptable. So, when other people do nothing, we think they must understand 2s the situation and have @ good reason not to react. Amaringly, there ate people who isk their lives to save others and when this happens we usually hear about it in the news. Dr Merk Levine, an expert in social psychology, was asked wiat made people behave lke heroes. He replied that no one had ever discovered a heroic gene. Levine explained atit was all about how connected to other people wo fel. example. our empathy for the victim can make a difference. If we know them, or can just imagine how they feel, we are more inclined to offer assistance. Another luence is our relationship to the group. When we are with friends or rlatives, our desire to make a good impression is very strong and can overcome our tendency to do nothing, Unfortunately, the influence of the bystandor effect is often tronger than cur ability to feel empathy. That's why some countries have taken steps obliging people to be more Socially responsible, In France and Brazil, for instance, there are Good Samaritan laws that make it mandatory to help Someone in danget, Of course, you needn't risk your fife to do this, Helping can be as easy as dialling emergency services a stranger (ine 4) means extra, cesconacida nat extianjer, which means foreignerin English ‘Answer the questions. 1. What was the purpose of the ‘experiment described in lines 9-187 2, According to the article, is heroic behaviour common? Copy the sentence that proves your answer. 3. What are Good Samaritan laws? Why were they passed? 7 Find words or expressions in the text that mean: |. someone you don’t know (ines 1-8) 2. observer (lines 9-18) 3. entire (lines 19-26) 4. attached (lines 27-33) 5. wish (lines 34-39) 6. calling (linas 40-47) a We can use indefinite pronouns such as anything, something, everyone and no one ‘0 refer to things or people without saying ‘exactly what or who they are. Everyone there is aware of what has happened ~ but no one moves Find some more examples of indefinite Pronouns in the article. 8 @) OPINION QUESTIONS Do you think itis right to punish people for not offering assistance to someone in danger? Explain. > Answering Techniques, page 157 Securty cameras are meant to stap neaple committing crimes. However, 2 Dutch esearch team has recently shown thet these cemeres May have enather effet. in ther experiment, several paricpants saw someme stealing ‘money. When the patttipants knew securty ‘camera was fling them, chey were mare likely ‘help the viet, (65) MRE in esau anes ‘changed the participants’ behavicur? TOT ON TT TORIC VOCABULARY Solving Social Problems ‘The words in colour are in the wrong sentences. Move the words to the correct sentences. Which statements do you agree with? 1. Freedom of speech is a basic human charity-+' 91 People should be allowed to'baii ther government. << Large citias should have at least one clenionstration where homeless people can sleep. I \' \ . All secondary-school students should refuse some time for community service. =." . Schools should criticise the use of mobile phones during lessons. Taking part ina rigit isa Valid and useful way to protest. ce wan People who vluvice) to pay taxes should go to prison. yo = Giving money to sheliés shows that you care about other people. ©!“ Choose the answer that best reflects the meaning of the first sentence. Pay attention to the words in colour. 1. The parliament pai6és Taw, 6. Forty thousand people sianed the petition. & The parliament creates new laws. 1 They wanted to change things in a violent way. ». The pariamert must obey new laws. ». They wanted ro change things without violence, Please support our catises” 7. I think we should ISwer the voting age. a.)Please help us achievé our goal. 1, We should allow younger people to vote. bs. Please help us celebrate our achievernents. b. We should allow all people to vore. . The students want to have'a' say about schoo! rules. 2. They want to talk about the rules ‘b. They want to influence the rules. 4. Never be afraid to stand for your friends. ai You should defend them. ». You should ceoperate with them - We raise tony to build a new community centre, a, We spent money. 'b) We collected money. 3 write the words in the correct category. Then add as many words as you can to each category. © break the law * neighbourhood * multicultural homeless * robbery ® healthy lifestyle * earn money “[_ wellbolanced diet + graduate # make money (“living Conditions | Health Crime 4 tention to the words in colour. Verb Collocations Mach A 8 Pay atention fo she words nce Some verbs commonly appear 1. The demonstration is getting violent. The police should take ther with other words See. Spe aie "The government is staring to mace ‘Gu canaisudly Aad she tearing. You'll hear the president on the radio. He's going to make ofthese callocticin by looking There will be ots of people at the demonstration. It would make in a dictionary under the verb, I wish you would take my Gurempaiieictie vitncar The residents of these flats should take make difference Tonight's meeting is Important, The students should all make ‘Some counsries have when sieps 8 ‘Ga Gihe people be rmore sacally 2a, arrangements for the national elections next year. responsible. “b. advice and find a flat in a better neighbourhood ee een action to improve ther living conditions. Hiapieneset evil {34 speech about the new health programme. achieve something €. sense to get there early. ‘fg. charge of things before someone gets hurt. @. an effort to come. 5 Match the collocations in colour in Exercise 4 to their meanings below. 1. plan and organise We 5 heart contralling | cme ror of . 2. do something rane ©. do what someone recommends t=0h Go mcoste soe 3. uy hard we 7. speak in public bac. 5 4. be practical and logical 5 Give an example of each of the following. Then compare your answers with a partner. 1. Something that makes sense to do every day. 2. Someone whose advice you might take before making an important decision. 3. Something that's worth making an effort to achieve. 4. Something you would like to make a speech about, 7 You are going to hear a talk about a young girl who fought for her right to education, Clobally, 65 million girls are not in school. What do you think are some of the reasons for this? B Listen to the first part ofthe talk and answer the questions. Z ae / qT 1. What do the stucents talk about every week? They will not 2. Where did Malala live? stop me. | will 3, Why did the Taliban close girls' schools? my education t 4. Why were most girls unwilling to protest? in home, school 1 Listen to the second part of the talk. Complete the sentences, (77 or any place J. Malala started writing her blog when she was ~ Malala Yousatza’ 2. In heer blog, Malala wrote about the Taliban's ban cn 3. The Taliban didn't like the fact that Malala was 1D Listen to the third part of the talk. Decide if the following . Statements are true or false, (a7 =e 1. The two men knew what Malala looked like. . 2 Malla was seriously injured \\r 3. Malala 's now continuing her education in Pakistan. \ 4. She will continua to fight for the rights of all children to get an education. S 5. Time magazine published an article about her. 6. She won the Nobel Peace Prize. oo THE STUDENT VOICE Yesterday a group of students demonstrated in Read the conversation and the newspaper extract. support of the universal right to education. A. othe arsvees the ques policeman told thesn that they eoutda’t have a demonstration there. He then ordered them to Policeman: You can't have a demonstration here. go home, One of the demonstrators asked why Please go home right away. they needed to leave and explained that the "Student: Why do we need to leave? We are students were standing up for an important i ‘standing up for an important cause. cause, The policeman suggested trying again the following day but warned them to make ‘Policeman: You should try again tomorrow but arparcemeniegin Ine saber fe make arrangements with the police first. 1 . neui> 1. Look at the verbs in bold. How do the verb Ere forms change in reported speech ina....? op |. statement 3. order sa. WYEHOx 2. question 4, suggestion 2. Look at the words here and tomorrow in the conversation. How do they change in Feported speech? 3. What reporting verbs are used in the report? choose TWO reporting verbs for eae sentence 1. The residents complained / thought / reminded 3 eee that there weren't enough parks, GU sing thought as a Reporting vero 2. Jake requested / wondered / wanted to know wharf cule doo help i aro repecr nec 3. The policemen demanded / warned / ordered usnotto go neste demons 4. Two students recommended / offered / tggested making posts, 5. He admitted / claimed / informed that he hadn't wanted to get involved. “Community service will be mandatory next yea,” he thought, He thought that community service would bbe mandatory the following year 2 Twenty students answered a survey about doing community service, Report the questions the survey asked. COMMUNITY SERVICE SURVEY Have you had any experience in community service? Did you volunteer for the community service programme lest Ler? Are you doing eny other work after school this year? Cen you volunteer for at least six hours every week? Will you be able to volunteer during your summer holiday? Should community service be mandatory for all secondary-school students next year? The survey asked students whether they had had any experience in community service. Complete the sentences below in reported speech according to the survey in Exercise 2. 1, Sixteen students claimed that 4. Seven students offered 2. Fifteen students reported... . 5. Eleven students thought 3. Eight students said .... 6. Only three students recommended JOHN: What time will the concert start tomorrow? 4 Read the messages that Thomas got about a charity concert. Then complete the sentences in reported speech. 1. John asked 2. Max wanted to know .... He explained that he 3. Andrew suggested ... . He also wamed Taomas 4. Lea asked ... and she offered 5. Jessie said that 6. Thomas’ mother mentioned ... . She advised him .... ‘MAX: Thomas, did you call me? I heard the phone ring while I was having a shower, ANDREW: Let's meet at the train station. Don't be late. 5 Complete the text with the correct form of the verbs in brackets. Then listen and check your answers. "> SINGING FOR CIIARITY — Vie icicles JESSIE: According to this moming’s trews, the potice are going to close UK organisation that works with homeless the streets around the park people, recently held a charity event in Kensington Palace, London, England's Prince William, who attended the event, ecaciamiciail Md 's that he * (6 ars. Amo! bikers of Stunleataiere amin: the sas eaettipcm unre cere Masriae oo acre te the cancers eave ea Bon Jovi and Taylor Swift, who were there to entertain. While Bon Jovi was performing, he asked the prince... (sing) with ed that tly and LEA: Should we drive to the station? T can collect you. the audience loved it! Later, reporters wanted to know whether Bon Jovi... (feel) intimidated meeting the prince. The rock star, who is in his fifties, explained that he ®... (already / meet) the prince’s father and grandfather. Young Taylor Swift was more impressed Before singing, she told reporters that she * (never / perform) in a palace before and she was sure it... (be) a wonderful experience. At the end of the evening, Prince William reminded the participants thal despite the fun evening, the purpose of the event ®... (be) lo help those who very often... (not know) where their nex! meal was coming from. In fact, the evening was a great success and raised more than £1 mill Taylor Swit 5 Asi your partner the following questions. Write his / her answers in reported speech. 1. Have you ever asked somebody to help you with something? What did you ask them to do? What was their repiy? 2. Has someone ever asked you to do something for them? What did they ask you to do? What was your reply? Cee eareate the words in brackets. Do not change the original meaning. “I took part in a demonstration here a year ago,” she said to me. 2. “Iwill noc volunteer next year,” the student said. (following) 3. How much does a ticket for this charity dinner cost?" the lady asked. (that) 4. ‘Don't get involved in this argument," my sister advised me. (to) 5. Would you sign the petition?" Rachel asked. (me) ole) ean cena COMMUNICATION” Expressing Opinions A Charity Website Look at the website for Westside Homeless Centre and answer the questions below. What does Westside Homeless Centre do? ‘What link would you follow to learn background about Westside Homeless Centre? In arezont study, 82% of the participants agreed chat socal information mmecia was the most effective What four things can you do to help Westside Homeless Centre? eas . Why are celebrities mentioned on the website? = Aa Lg Pere ets Pe) Rens eT Pere cue ons pee) Breau © aboutus Ronee ara pieces Pee koe ra © donate ty oo news, Ce eau © events service to hear more pte cae ee pacha) @)i of socal issues: Twitte?? Facebaa®? Instagram? Explain. ener a & WESTSIDE HOMELESS centre ving homeless young people 2 future Bote CO ata Seen Ree een Peo Dear See ee ceo erry Listen to two students discussing a way of raising money for Westside Homeless Centre. Complete the sentences. 1. The students discuss raising money by having ¢ To raise money this way, they'll need to make arrangements with All the students will probably help to They are going to use Facebook to ‘The event will probably take place on the Can you remember why having the event on Saturday isn't a good idea? (SPEAKING) 4 Look at the expressions in colour. Choose a heading below for each group of expressions. Asking for an Opinion ¢ Expressing an Opinion * Expressing Some Doubt Personally, I like the idea of ... { 1 suppose it could work. { What do you think? Tf you ask mo, . I guess «.. Do you think that ... 2 Fm sure I'm nat so sure. How do you feel about ...? I don’t think that Jim not convinced that .. Tknow .. 5 Add one word or expression to cach group. Complete the dialogue with the expressions from Exercise 4. There may be more than one correct answer. Then practise the dialogue with a partner. ‘A; Well now - how can we raise money for victims of the earthquake in Pakistan? ‘a charity concert. 2 5B: >... 1S such a good idea, “... a concert is cifficult to organise and bands cost money. A: .. that we can find bands who will play for free. And I'll organise i B >... But we'll need to find bands that support our cause. ‘Ac Thai won't be difficult. OX then, *.. nolding the concert a Inthe schoo gym? the headteacher ox the coach wll mind. AW Speaking strategy B: | agree and ®.... we'll be able to sell tickets through the er school website. Certain expressions, such as 50, Good, Alright then, can help the speaker introduce a suggestion a new one. Look at the dialogue Rhythm in Exercise 6 again and find two > Practice, page 123 expressions that can introduce a suggestion. task ‘You and your friend decide you want to do something to help a local charity. Look at the Photographs showing different ways to raise money. Choose three different methods and discuss how effective each is. Use the expressions in colour in Exercise 4 ta help you, Cee) ES c ere) eT aay Cer Coad = ote WRITING An Opinion Essay When writing an opinion essay, i's important to convince the reader that your viewpoint Is justified. Your arguments must be dear and logical. Read the modal essay below and find the paragraph/s which contan/s: 1. reasons, facts and/or examples to support the writer’s opinion 2. the first statement of the writer's opinion 3. a restatement of the writer's opinion 4, aa introduction to the issue i Community Service in Secondary Schools SSE NE 7 im some secondary schools, students are encouraged ‘to volunteer for community service. However, the \ . government naw wants to make community service SQ mandatory for all secondary-school students. In my S cpinion this would bea mistake (Gp rasta, students wl nave tod the community server maddtion schol hours. This may be very difficult for many students. Quite a few students work because they need to earn money. For example, a recent study showed that about 30m of secondary-school students worked for up to 20 hours a week, In addition, = News there is daily homework. As a result, students have very few free hours to do ‘commaunity service. Sport secondly, some educators believe that by doing community service, students learn the value of volunteer work. The fact is that studies do not show this. Mandatory fe Student Life community service i secondary school does not cause people to volunteer 28 adults. Since students are given no choice about doing community service, they night feel resentment. For this reason, some charities have actually said that they bane preferred workers who volunteered. te Calcmaial In short, although Tunderstand the importance of getting involved in your community, Ido not believe it should be something that is mandatory. In my ‘opinion, community service should be an option for those who want to do it. 2 Read the sentences below. Which are facts and which are opinions? In which section of the model could the writer have written them? 1. Around half of students in Years 8-13 spent more than an hour every day on homework. 2. To conclude, it seems to me that the idea of mandatory community service is very problematic. 3 The same studies showed that most students did community service only because they hac to, and not for any altruistic reasons. 4. To my mind, this would be a wise decision 3 What tenses or other grammatical structures are usually used in an opinion essay? Give examples from the model. Connectors of Cause and Result ‘Connectors of cause and result connect the reason why something happens with the result. Connectors of cause (because of), duet, as st, aasatresitof are followed by the part of thesentence that describes the reason. Connectors of result (0, therefore, consequent Jor this reacon, os « result) ate followed by the consequence of an action or event. > wating Gude, page 162 4 Find two connectors of cause and two connectors of result in the model in Exercise |. Sentence Structure 8 Most connectors of cause and result are followed by a subject + verb. However, due (0 and as a result of are followed by a ncun phrase or verb + -ing. Which ather connector is. followed by 2 noun phrase or verb + -ing? 5 Choose the TWO correct answers. 1... 1 pay taxes, | should be allowed to vote. a. As BLAS a result of . Because 2. Sixteen year olds do not really understand politcal issues. ..., in my opinion, they are 100 young to vote a. Due to b. Therefore ©. For this reason 3... the petition, the government changed the law. a. Because of b. 50 As a rasult of 4. This country is nota democracy... do not have the right to vote. a Asa result b. Consequently Since s the citizens 5 Match Atos. A 1. He worked very hard. For this reason, 2. They cancelled the demonstration due to 3. Malala nearly died as a result of 4, Because his parents were immigrants, 5, She behaved badly. Therefore, B a. her injuries. b. he helped them learn the language c she was punished. d. the snowstarm, . they gave him a promotion. Complete the sentences with the connectors below: ‘There may be more than one correct answer. because of * s0 * consequently ® since * as a result |, Many sixteen year alds work after school. have very little free time. 2. ... their work, they are learning to be socially responsible, 3. The demonstration was violent, arrested several demonstrators. 4, .. leenagers are old enough to work, they are centainly adult enough to vote, 5. There were very few jobs in the city. people left. they the police many Write an essay expressing your opinion on the following: Should sixteen year olds vote in national elections? Write 100-150 words. The model in Exercise 1, the steps in Getting Organised and the Useful Expressions will help you. 1 Brainstorm the topic by thinking about the questions below. 1. What is your opinion on this topic? 2. What reasons have you got to explain ‘your opinion? 3. What facts and examples can support your reasons! 2 Organise your ideas into paragraphs according to the model in Exercise 1 on page 34. 3- Use connectors of cause and result to show the relationship between your ideas. 4 Check your work for mistakes: Y spelling ¥ punctuation ¥ grammar Y word order use of connectors Forastart, . Secondly, As | see it, this would be a wise decision, In my opinion, this would be a mistake. I believe / think that There's no doubt that The fact is that For example, To sum up, Im conclusion, In short, >iwrding Guide. page 15 THINK BACK 1 = VOCABULARY ‘Choose TWO correct answers, 1. The teachers should punish / criticise / stand up for bad behaviour. 2. There is a lot of crime in this neighbourhood / shelter / slum. 3. ‘The parliament can pay taxes / pass laws / lower the voting age. 4, The teacher Gives us a vieekly assessment / accomplishment / assignment. 5. Manyy people in this area suffer from poverty / charity / hunger. Join the verbs and nouns to make expressions. ‘Some verbs are used more than once. Verbs: have ® take * make * follow Nouns: the rules + «speech a say charge * action Use expressions from Exercise 2 to complete the sentences below. 1. The students will... of planning the charity event. 2. We heard Malala.. atthe UN, Her story was amazing! 3, Don't cheat! You have to ... of the game or you can’t play! 4. Id like to... in how the government spends my. ax money. 5, To change the situation, you have to ..~ talking isn't enough. Complete the text with the words below. hardships * make a big difference * get involved researchers * sensitive * impressive * behaved amare of © generesity Teaching Kindness Scientists did an experiment to see if people can be Laught to be more... to others. In the experiment, one group of participants teamed an ancient meditation techniqe that makes you more «... other people's problems. The second group didn't learn this technique. Then, all participants played a game where they had an opportunity to help someone by giving them money. The results of the experiment were *... . Participants with meditation training were mote likely to“... . They showed ... and gave their money to help. The group that hadn't learned the meditation technique © less altruistically. Another person's”... did not interest them. According to the *... it would be worth teaching this technique at schools. If chiléxen grew up to he more empathetic and kinder, it would”... to the world we live int [Trends (@ INTERACTIVE IGA urlingronbooks es/vendszinteracive GRAMMAR Complete the sentences with the correct form of the verb. 1. Centrepoint... (help) young homeless people since it began in 1969, 2. The politician .. (not speak) for long when everyone started to leave 3. How long... he .. travel] before he became ilP 4, The reporter wanted to know how many people .. (take part) in the demonstration at that moment 5. That actress is very good in this film... she «(2c for many years? 6. The teacher warned us... (not hand in) our projects late. 7. Carlo claimed thar it... (fake) me two years to learn italian, but it’s taking much longer. 8.1. (not work) on this assignment for very Jeng, so I'm not finished yet. 9. The teacher suggested that we ... (do) volunteer work at the shelter. Complete the sentences with the correct form of the verbs below. not sign up * ile * not cycle * behave * follow drive * do ® volunteer 1. The guide advised us ... the rules. 2. Dana told us that she. at the hospital twice aweek. 3. My Boyfriend asked what I... that afternoon. 4, Amelia's face is red because she ... in the sun all afternoon. 5. Jamie said that he ...for any new courses the. following term. 6. How long... he... before he had the accident? 7. They ... for long, so their legs weren't tired yet 8. ... she ... badly for a long time or is this something recent?” WRITING SKILLS Choose the correct answer. 1. In spite of / However the rain, we decided to play football in the park. 2. In addition to / Also completing cur assignment, we had to study for final exams. 3. Although / But we were tired, we went to the lecture 4, As a result / Due to the size of the demonsvation, there were a lot of police. 5. Many celebrities attended the event. Consequently / Since, they raised a lot of money. 6, Please be quiet as / so | want to hear the president's speech. eae 1 Read the text. Then do the exercises below.) 15 VOLTS The year is 1963. You ate participating in an experiment ata laboratory at Yale University, USA. A man is tied to a chal, with electrades on his arm. The ran has been Given a learning tast involving memory. YWhen the leerner » completes the tesk successfully, you de nothing. IF ne makes a mistake, however, you have been ordered to give hiimi an electric shock. You waten the man while he is getting the shock His whole body shakes and he sereams. This hortfic scene wes taken from a real ysychological experiment that is studied today by every student of psychology. However, in the real experiivent the participants cid nat know that the learner was an actor and the electrie shosks were not real. Tha study was conducted by Professor Stanley Milgram. ‘The participants were told that they were erticinating in a study atout the effect of punishment on leerning However, it was really about abedience. Milgram ivas investigating how people reacted to orders fiom = someone in authority. Fact of the 40 oarticipants chought he wes helsing someone lam and remember werds, Every time the earner made 2 misteke, the participant had to give him an electrio shock. The electric shocks scarted at 15 ® volis and went up tc 450 volts, which is a shock strong ‘enough te kil you. The particioants were told to increase 2 Decide if the following statements are true or false. Find evidence in the text to justify your answers, Parts of the experiment were simulated, ‘The purpose of the experiment was (0 investigate connection between punishment and learning. The person in the white coat gave instructions. ‘Milgram’s predictions about the results of the experiment were correct. obey authority, Discuss the following the questions. 1. In which situations do people obey orders? |. The participants were not aware of the effect of their actions. ‘The electric shocks got stronger with every mistake ‘The experiment proves ordinary people will usually Tha | “ TR The Milgram Experiment . the shock level each time the learner made a mistake. ‘uring the experiment. when participants expressed coneern abaut what they were doing, an authority figuie = 11 a white coat would talk to them. He would say things like: Plesse Continue,” “The exseriment requires thavycu continue,” “It is absolutely essential that you continue,” and "You have no other choice, you must.go on.” ‘What were the restite? Milgram had predicted thet only % T9eof the participants would acree to give shocks of 450 volts. However, in fact oll the participants continued to Give shocks up to 320 vals. What is more, 65% of the farticipants continued all the way up to 450 volis. Even though some ot these sarticinants became extremely © Upsot and angry atthe personin authority, they continued 19 folow orders all the way to the end, How can we explain the Behaviour of the participants in the exceriment? According to Milgcam, we cre taught {0 obey authority throughout our lives. We learn it ina - variety of Stvations, for example in the family, school aad workplace, For this ‘eason, most geople follow orders from others # they recognise ther authority a3 moraly oregelly naht. Thisis true even when the orders are immoral the 2. In which situations might it be necessary to disobey orders? 3. What historical events in the first half of the 20th century ‘might have influenced Milgram to study obedience? 1 =) Look at the pictures. What city is this? Which pictures helped you decide? “J What do you know about this city? ra - a ae TOPIC VOCABULARY jetting Around 2 Match the photos on page 38 tothe travel wordsin colour, seme Yen ity Mititore suatdbthiuudas 4, Rent a bicycle and ride araund Central Park, It's the best way ta see all the sights, 2. Visit the Empire State Building on a sunny day. When you reech Lhe Lop, youll get-a great view of the city and its surroundings. 8. To avoid the queues for MoMA (Museum of Madern Art), make sura to buy your tickets online 4. The Statue of Liberty is New York's most famous landmark ‘There are free guided tours all day — they last 40 minutes and are in English 5. Nighttime is the best time to wander around New York's Times ‘Square area, i's full of peopie and the atmosphere Is fantastic, below. Pay attention to the 3 Choose the correct answer to show you understand the words in colour. 1. When you try to locate something, you want to know what / where its. 2. Most people use a finger / toe to point to things. 3. When someone leads a group of people, he will usually be in front of / behind them. 4. When you get closer to something, you are farther from / nearer to it. 5. When you end up in a place, you finally arrive there / leave it. 6. When you come across something, you expect / don't expect to find it what to show avstorin Ri de Janeiro, eee saeianscee aes B 1..Go upamouniain a. to enjoy the special atmosphere. 2. Take a guided tour b. to see an extraordinary place. 3.Wander around at night —_—_c. to see the city's famous lancmarks. 4 Go out of the city d.to see a view ofthe city, ©. to enjoy the local food. f. to see the countryside 5 Can you remember why the weekend isn't a good time to go to Sugar Loaf Mountain? 1 abroad is Coming to visit you. With a partner, plan ‘with your friend. Use the words and expressions in 2 and 3 to help you i Should we take a guided tour of | Absolutly. 1 would be @ the city’s famous landmarks? great way to see the sights. ‘According co recent researc, young people today are traveling more, Tavellers aged 18-30 take an average of 47 trips a year, which fs more than any other age gioup. The city most young tavellars want to visti Bia de Janairo. Other popular cites are Totyo, Sydney, Buenos Aires and San Francisco, GY comes oras Words such as wander / wonder are similar in spelling ane ‘can sometimes be confusing. Wander means to walk around and wonder means to think about something, * You're right. | Absolutely. It would bea great way to I think we should We could. How about ... ? | thought we might .. Let's go... pita dined @ Have you ever lost something that was very. important to you? What did you do to try to find it? UNDERSTANDING REFERENCE Read the text and look at the words in colour. What does each word refer to? => > Reading rateces, page 156 3 Choose the correct answer. 1. Sarao’s brother disappeared a, two hours after they got off the train 'b, while Saroo was steeping in the train station . after Saroo had got onto another train . after they had got on the train near their village ‘What memory helped Saroo decide where to look for his family? ‘a, He knew the time it had taken the train to reach Kolkata. bb. He knew the speed at which the train was travelling He knew the direction the train had travelled, He knew what the train station near his home looked like. Most people use Google Earth to locate an address or house. However. Saroo Brierleu, an Indian-born Australian, used Google Earth to find something much more meaningful 4 Decide if the following sentences are true or false. evidence in the text to justify your answers. . Sarco ended up in Kolkata because he was, searching for his brother. 2. Many children in india are homeless. _ Sarco was unhappy with his family in Australia. 4, During all his years in Australia, Saroo thought about India ‘After he'd located Khandwa, Sarco was sure he’d know how to get back to his village. Answer the questions. 1. Why were Saroo and his brother on the train? 2. How was Saroo more fortunate than many other children in India? 3. What was unusual about Saroo’s use of Googie Earth? 4. Why would it be particularly difficult for Saroo to find his family in India? 5. Which three landmarks did Saroo recoanise in Khandwa? ‘When he was five, Saroo lived in a small village in India with his mother, brothers and sisters. Desperately poor, the children helped take care of the family in any way they could. Early one evening, Saroo and his older brother got on a train near their village, looking for coins on the floor. Two hours later, the boys got off the train, Exhausted, Saroo found somewhere to lic down at the station and quickly fell asleep. When Saroo woke up, his brother had vanished. Confused and frightened, the five year old wandered onto a waiting train, hoping to find his brother. After travelling for hours, Saroo found himselfalone in the huge city of Kolkata. He couldn't read or write, didn’t know his last name or even the name of his village. He had no way of getting back to his family. Until this moment, Saroo’s story was tragic but not remarkable in any way. He could have become one ofthe hundreds of thousands of Indian children who live on the streets in India, But Saroo was hacky. Somehow, he ended up in en orphanage and wes adopted by a couple from Australia, Growing up in Australia with loving parents and a wonderful home must have been idyllic. After college, Seroo even got a job with his father. However, Saroo never stopped wondering about his past. Then, one day, while he was using Google Earth, he had an idea, Maybe this web tool could help him find his lost family. As India is the world’s seventh-largest country with over 1.2 billion people, this would be like finding a needle in a haystack. So Saroo started with a memory the train ride to Kolkata had lasted about 12 hours. Saroo worked out that his village must be about 960 kilometres from Kolkata. As he had no idea in which direction, he drew a circle with Kolkata in the centre and started searching. Every night, Saroo spent time at the computer, using Google Earth to fly over villages near the perimeter of his circle. “It was just like being Superman,” says Saroo. His search took years, train station after train station, village after village. Eventually, one night, Saroo noticed some familiar landmarks in a village ~ a river and a waterfall. Slowly, using Google Strect View, Saroo wandered through the virtual streets ~a left here, right there. Suddenly he came across fountain —and his heart skipped a beat. He knew that fountain. This was the village of Khandwa and his village ‘was nearby. But would he be able to find his way home? And what | college ine 19) means facuead, about his family? Were they alive? 1 escuela unversitaria nat colegio, which ‘means school in English Friends eventually (Une 28) means finalmente, TO emcee means cccasiorally in English 5 FINDING SYNONYMS AND ANTONYMS Find the 7 Now listen to the end of this story and answer following words or expressions in the text: the questions. (7 1. a synonym for significant (lines 1-6) 1. Why was Saroo worried? 2. the opposite of appeared (lines 7-14) 2. Why was Saroo disappointed when he 3. the opposite of ordinary (lines | 5-17) reached the first house? 4. a synonym for calculated (lines 22-27) 3. Did Saroo's story have a happy ending? 5. the opposite of strange (lines 23-34) Explain, 6. the opposite of far away (lines 28-34) Wiiairlo so Google Eat) Uiatother > Answering Techniques. page 157 e tools changed our lives? Idioms can be used to describe feelings or situations. Read the sentences below and ‘choose the correct answer. 1. Finding his family in india would be like finding a needle in a haystack. Tt would be very easy / difficult. 2, When he sav the familiar landrmaris hhis heart skipped a beat. He was excited / disappointed bt a=) Today, using Google Earth or Google Street View, you cen walk around city ora sceet and fee. as if you are actually there, inl ad Nm lone a NASH Choose TWO correct answers to show you understand the words in colour. Then think of additional correct answers. 1. You can find seats .. ona plane b. ina field ina theatre 2. Your luggage might include ... aabag bia suitcase ¢ a passport 3. You can hire agar bea bicycle ¢ a hotel room 4. You can check in a. at a restaurant b. ata hotel ¢ fora flight 5, You can go for a ride on a.abus b. a ship catran 6. You might go sightseaing to learn about a. historical landmarks b.a foreign city anew film ‘Match the questions to their answers. Pay attention to the words in colour. A . Have you found 2 place to stay in Paris? . Can you give me a discount? |. Do you think we'll be able to find a hetel when we arrive? - Where can | find out about arrivals and departures? What's the cheapest place to stay? 5. How much is a train ticket to London? "How frequent are buses into town? - What time must we leave the hotel? 8 Probably a youth hostel . They run every half hour. ‘There’s a sign there with the times flights take off and land, | The fare is £20. No, we haven't found accommodation yet. Vm sorry but we have fixed prices here | We ask our guests to check out before 12.00. It might he best to book in advance. 3.3 Fixed priceis an example of an adjectivenoun Make as many adjective-noun pairs as you can with the words below. ADJECTIVES: awesome * mountainous * steep wile © unforgettable * shaliow * narrow NOUNS: cliffs © experience * scenery * trail stream * region ® forests * road Noun Collocations ‘Some nouns commonly appear together with other words or expressions to form Collocations. These collocations cannot always be translated word for word into other Tanguages. There are many collocations with thenouns way and time. Would he be able to find his way home? Every night, Saroo spent time at the computer Choose the correct answer. Pay attention to the words in colour. 1. Islept all the way. I slept the whole time / part of the time we were travelling. 2. One way oF another, Iwill visit the Galapagos Islands. Nothing / Something will prevent it | got a sendwich on my way to the theatre, There was / wasn't a shop nearby. That village is out of the way. It's close to/ far from other villages on aur route. ‘Complete the sentences with the expressions below. Jor the time heing * in ro time at all ‘on time * made goed time The trains here never leave .... They're always late 2. We «. We left late but arrived early. Well be there .. W's Just another fevr lelometres, .'m going to buy a cor soon, but... 'm traveling by bus. Complete the sentences to show you understand the collocations in bold 1. We got to the concert on time although 2.1 see ... on my way to school 3.1 usually spend time 4, They couldn't find their way because 5. The lake was out of the way, 50 we. 6. They made good time in spite of Qi 7 This isa photograph of abus in Guatemala, Central America Does it look anything like the buses in your country? How are they sinilar or cfforent? Listen to the first part of a conversation about travelling in Guatemala. Complete the sentences. 7» ‘Ona chicken bus, you might sit near 2. Although there are only 70 seats on the bus, there could be over 3. The bus driver crives as ifhe weal were driving ina 9 Listen to the second part of the conversation. 4. While the bus is moving, the Choose the correct answer. (> helper goes ... to get people's ae =_ |. Why did Sophie's parents take a helicopter? a. To reach an ancient Mayan city b. To get to Guatemala, c. To travel around Central America. d. To visit different places in the jungle. 2. How did Richard get to El Mirador? a, He went by bus. bb, He went on horseback, c. He walked. d. He travelled by helicopter. 3. How long did it take Richard to reach El Mirador? a. Four days. Six hours. b. Two days. 4d. Four hours, 10 Listen to the whole conversation again. Answer the questions, = 1. What do the local vilagers often use the chicken buses for? 2. Why is the chicken bus called “the moving cemetery”? 3. Who takes the money for tickets on the bus? 4, How many years ago did the Mayans build £1 Mirador? 5, How much did Richard pay for the trek to El Mirador? 6. What do the Mayan temples look ike? fo PIVN CI Modals / Modal Perfeas Read the man's thoughts and answer the questions. 1 Look at the words in bold. Which are modals and ‘which are modal perfects? What form oF the verb is used in each?” 2. Match the modals to their functions below. Some modals have more than one function can * reed t0* ought 10 * must be able to should * have to* might * mustn't © could may * needn't + don't have to a. ability €. possibility b. advice 4. certainty ‘c. necessity / obligation 9. permission d. prohibition h. lack of obligation 3. Look at the modal perfects in the thought bubble. Which refers to a ..? a. atticism or regret about a past event b. certainty that something happened . possibilty that something was vue certainty that something wasn't true Rewrite the sentences by replacing the words in. bold with the correct form of the modals from ‘the list. Make any necessary changes. can't * might * ought to * can © must don't have to In Rome people drive dangerously, so it's important to be very careful when you cross astreet. I's not possible to see Rome in one day. People are expected to dress modestly in churches. In many churches beautiful art for free. It’s not necessary to take a guided tour. Perhaps you will come across an outdoor market where you can buy some fruit 's possible to see Write one sentence for each rule below, using as many different modals as possible. There may bbe more than one correct answer. YOUTH HOSTEL RULES 1, No smoking in the hostel. 2, W’s.a good idea to book in advance. 3, We provide kitchen utensils It’s not necessary ‘to bring your own. 4 Please don’t make noise between 1.00 pm and 6.00 pu. 5, It’s possible to put valuable things in our safe. me My passport isn't here. Oh, no. I might have left itat home. T should have looked before leeving the house! Now IU have to drive home and I could miss my flight! Wart. I couldn't have lef it at home. T remember putting it in my bog. Te must hhave fallen out of my vag. Read the pairs of sentences below and decide in which pairs the sentences have a similar meaning. 1. a. You could have bought the tickets online. b. Although It was possible, you didn’t buy the tickets online. . You needn't have brought me a souvenir. Itwasn't necessary to bring me a souvenir. I would have hired a boat. . | needed a boat, so | hired one. We ought to have left an hour ago. We wanted to leave an hour ago but decided not to. . You may have lost your passport. It’s possible that you lost your passport. ‘What would you say in each ofthese situations? Use the modal perfects below and the verbs in brackets. shouldn't have * must have * would Wave couldn't have « might have Thad planned to go to Sweden but | got il. (go) I would have gone to Sweden but | got ill wasn't sure where my parents were but they weren't in their hotel room. (check out) . She was at the airport and her car was at home. (drive) . Why did you mention the trip to Jane? Itwas a surprise! (tall [left all my money in the hotel safe and now it’s gone. (teal) 5 Complete the excerpts with the modals or modal perfects listed. There is one extra for each. Which excerptis an advert? Which is a travel biog? A. shouldn't * ought to * must not have * may not have One of the first places you "... visit in Istanbul is the magnificent Hagia Sophia, a church which ‘was builtin the 6th century. Fit, wander around on your own. But alter that, you >. leave. Instead, find a local guide to gwve you a tour. These guides will show you things you > noticed when you were walking around alone B. can * must * should have * might have You *.... visited Berlin before, but have you taken one of our Beriin Nightclub Tours? (On our dub tours, you... hear the best music and meet local people. You... be 18 or over to enjoy this night out! 6 Complete the sentences with modals or modal perfects using the modals and verbs below. Then circle the correct answer. must / be * can / go * not able to / wander must / visit # would / hire * ought to / buy 1. You... Vatican City / Trafalgar Square when you were in Rome. Everyone goes there! 2. We ... agondola in Venice / Athens but it was 00 expensive 3. Lreally want to go to the top of the Empire State Building. The view of New York / London from there.“ great 4. They .. on a boat ride on the Thames / Seine when they are in England 5. There was a long queue for tickets to the Louvre. We ... tickets hefore we went to Berlin / Paris, 6.1... around the Parthenon / Colosseum in Athens because I'¢ broken my foot. > Ansivers, page 135 7 Complete the text with the correct form of the words in brackets. Use modals or modal perfects. Then listen and check your answers. (=) Twins Find Lack Other Samantha Futerman was born in South Korea, but she was alopted! and grew up in America, Some parents think they"... (Ghoul nox / tell) chi that they are adopted, but Samantha’s parents couldnt keep her adoption a secret because she didn: took like anyone inthe family. Samantha (anus. / feel) sirange growing up ina family and looking so iflerene. She even made a YouTube video about what it was like. She never dreamed! that her video * (might /change) her life one day, but itl. When Samantha was 25 an living in Los Angeles, she gota Facebook message from -Amais Bordier, a young Brench fashion designer {n London, Anats had seen Samantha YouTube video. She“... {must /be) shocked, hecause Samantha looked exactly like hee! Anais knew she {have to / fine out) miore about this American itl... they... Could /be) twins? The two excited gic started communicating and socn realised that they wanted to meet, The distance between them’... (ould /be) an obstacie, but Samantha and Anais didnt let that stop them. So far, they've met in Londan, Los Angeles ancl New York. What's more, after taking DNA tests, Anais and Samantha ™ are identical twins. (be able t0 / prove) that they Contracted Forms >eracece, page 154 Rewrite the sentences with the words in brackets. Do net change the original meaning. 11s it possible to leave my luggage at the hotel? (could) 2. fUwas wrong of me to leave so late. (shouldn't) 3. I suggest you take a guided tour. (ought) 4. Could you locate the place? (able) 5, I'S not possible that the trip took only an hour. (couldn't) COMMUNICATION Comparing Pictures A Travel Blog Read a blog by someone who is using different modes of transport while travelling. Match the sentences below to the photos in the blog. An expensive way to travel but what an incredible view! A quick way to get through city traffic, but not sure | like the idea of a person pulling me. ‘Anew Internet game called Geoguesser ‘combines meps and entertainment. I ‘tops you somewhere on Earth with a 360° Google Map steet vw of the area. You What a wonderful, relaxing way to travel, Perfect for Fan iages ahi vou ne eee water lovers! signs, geographical features, achivoccure 4.Ascary creature at first, Dut you get used to it! Bee EOh eR bee It was cold and noisy but lots of fun! . 6.1 couldn't believe how fast you can go with some wheels. ‘Which of the photos below have clues: bn youresl 8 shathlp dent wer they were ‘A queue of rickshaw pullers in Kolkata, India D. Housebost trip on canals in the UK Rolle biading through Central Park, New York | F. Acamel caravan in Egypt eel connie aasnantae Listen 10 someone comparing two pictures from Exercise 1. Complete the sentences. oth pictures show modes of transport that use Both modes of transport are powered by... ‘One picture shows people in a... , while the other shows people in a ‘According to the speaker, the people in one picture seem ..., but in the other they seem w. The speaker says that the blogger succeeded in “The speaker Is comparing pictures .. and .. ‘Can you remember why the speaker likes the photos in the blog? NII Beane 4. Read the sentences below. Which sentences refer to similarities and which to differences? Which two pictures in Exercise | are being compared? I can see some differences in the pictures too. b. The pictures have got some things in coramon ©. The pictures are also alike because the people are in the countryside and not the city. d. Secondly, in bath pictures there are a lot of trees. e. In this picrure you can see it’s winter, while in this one it’s probably autumn. For a start, in both we can see some kind of transport with a motor. g. Anather thing | noticed is that this picture shows travel on land but the other shows travel on water. 5 Organise the sentences in Exercise 4 in logical order. Pay attention to connectors of sequence a and addition. When you ate speaking, connectors of sequence and addition, such as to begin wid alse and finally can help you present your Ideas more clearly. Look at the sentences in ee Exercise 4, Which connectors of sequence Winter /shol and addition are used? you / city > Pract task In pairs, compare and contrast photographs A and B. Use the expressions im colour in Exercise 4 to help you. When writing a narrative, itis important to say when and where the actions are taking place, to clearly show the sequence of events and to explain how the story ends. Read the model narrative below and find. 1. the paragraphs which give the details of the story 2. the paragraph which sets the scene or gives background 3, the paragraph which describes what finally happened, Atitlan or Amatitlan? Last year, | went to Guatemala for my summer holiday. The day before | had to leave, the sun was shining but there was cool wind blowing, so it wasn’t too hot. As it was such a beautiful day, | decided to get a bus to a famous Volcanic lake called Atitlan. It was a three-hour trip, but | had the time so! didn't mind. First, | had to find the right bus. It wasn’t easy. | don’t speck a word of Spanish and | couldn't find anyone who spoke English. Stil, | managed to get to the bus station, where people were very helpful. They smiled and pointed te the bus I should take, Once my bags were on the roof and | was inside, | sat down to enjoy the ride. | must have been very tired because in no time at all, | fell asleep. The next thing | knew, someone was shaking me. We had reached our destination. | looked at my watch. This couldn’t be right - only 45 minutes had gone by! We had arrived at Lake Amatitlan - not Lake Atitian. The names sounded the same, $0 | had taken a bus to the wrong lake! This could have ruined my day, but | was on holiday and Iwas determined to have a good time. | walked around the pretty village near the lake and eventually found some stalls with delicious local food. A few hours later, with 2 full stomach and a smile on my face, | got the bus back. Allin all, it was a {reat day. I'll just have to visit Lake Attlan the next time | go to Guatemala 2. Find the answer toeach question In the narrauve, There and when id the nara take Place? GY cm: 2. What did the writer expect to happen? eras 3, What really happened? narrative when something 4. Was the writer upset by what happened? Explain. happens that changes the direction of the story. What We often use different past tenses to write a narrative, is the climax in the model Which past tenses are used in the model? narrative? Connectors of Sequence and Time Expressions Connectors of sequence and time expressions help you to organise your writingby making the order ‘of events clear In addition o typical connectors of sequence such as first before, next then a finaly ie expressions suchas once, when, as soon as, the next thing and duringcan be used > yierig Gude, page 162 4 Find at least five examples of connectors of sequence and / or time expressions in the model. 5 Choose the correct answer. 1. At first / All of a sudden, it was difficult to find ‘seat on the train, 2. Later, / When the flight attendant asked, “Are you feeling alright?" 3. Finally / To begin with, we landed and everyone got off the plane. 4. Until / Once the train was in the station, we were able to relax. 5. Last year, / Itall began when my father suggested we go to Hawaii, 6. During / While the flight, we watched an excellent film, Arrange the following events in logical order. Then write the sentences as a paragraph using suitable connectors of sequence or time expressions. a. Itgot so dark thatwe stopped ata petrol station to ask for directions b. Itwasn't 2 great beginning, but we had an absolutely fantastic holiday My father got lost on the mountain roads and we drove around for hours. d. My whole family was really excited about going camping in italy. 2. The patrol station owner laughed and pointed to.a big sign right in front of us, “Bella Camping”. f. We landed in Milan in the afternoon, hired a car and set off to find the campsite, ANarrative Write a narrative about an interesting travel experience you have had, have heard of or have read about. Write 100+ 150 words. The model in Exercise |, the steps in Getting Organised and the Useful Expressions will help you. PE me euler) 1 Brainstorm the topic by thinking about the uestions below. 1. What travel experience are you going to write about? 2. When did it take place? 3. Where dic it happen’? 4. Who was involved? 5. What happened first? 6, What happened next? 7. What happened in the end? 2 Organise your ideas into paragraphs according to the model in Exercise 1 on page 48. 3 > Use connectors of sequence and time expressions to help you present the information clearly. 4 Check your work for mistakes: Y spelling | Y punctuation ¥ grammar i Y word order i} ¥ use of connectors It all began when .. One afternoon / day, Last week / year, Two years ago, Last summer, Before | knew it That's when All of a sudden, all, itwas a THINK BACK 1 2 VOCABULARY Write the words or phrases in the correct categories. A word or phrase may fit into more than one category. ‘youth hestal « graduate ® guided tour standard of living * inequality * foreign language living conditions ® tuition fees * book in advance luggage Travel _| Socialtssues | Education Choose TWO answers to complete each sentence. 1. After walking for hours, we ended up in / looked up to / came across a small village. . Did you enjoy the queues / lecture / sights? What time do we have to check off / out / in? His parents encouraged / banned / allowed him to go to France alone, The fare / accommodation / feedback was expensive. . Did you go to the demonstration / atmosphere / shelter yesterday? Match A to B to form expressions. The verbs are used more than once. a B make sense adegree steps take closer involved get advice goed time Complete the text with the words below. went sightseeing * wandering * various * view out of the way @ landmark * make an effort reach * impressive Famous Landmarks - Different Locations Wormally, we associate a certain *... with a pacticular place. But if you are travelling around the world, you may be surprised by where you see some of the most famous structures. For example, when I ©... im Tokyo, Japan, someane suggested I go to see the Statue of Liberty. Believe it or not, there is an +... replica of the statue in Odaiba, a beach area of Tokyo. What is more, there are“... replicas of other famous structures in different places around the world, If you are... around the countryside outside of Chicago, USA, you may come across the Leaning Tower of Pisa. Sadly, it’s a bit disappointing because you can't climb to the top to see the * ‘There's also a life-sized replica of the ancient Greek Parthenon in Nashville, Tennessee. Finally, if you ever /... China, ®... to go to Guangdong Province. It may be“... , but it’s worth it. In Guangdorg, the Chinese have made the first ever replica of a whole village ~ the village of Halstatt, Austria, GRAMMAR Complete the sentences with the correct form of the verb. 1 Jessica told me thar she ... (not be) interested in travelling abroad. 2. Blake asked whether we (have) dinner yet. 3. The guide warned us ... (not astive) late for our morning tour. 4, We ... (wander) around Italy for several days before we got to Pisa. 5. He ... (not drive) for long, so he isn’t very tired. 6. The flight to Madrid ... Gust / take off). There’s another flight in an hour. 7. ... you already -.. (Jet on) the train when the accident happened? 8. At this time next week, |... (travel) in Ecuador. Complete the sentences with the phrases below. Use modals or modal perfects. have to / check cut * need to / leave could / not / go * would / take * might / and hot able to / buy * must / not / park should / not / cheat You ... the car there. It's illegal. What time ... you ... of the hotel yesterday? You... . twas wrong, we... early because of the traffic? What do you think? Their flight ... already passengers from London Wendy ... on the tip last weekend. She wasn't well / We arrived on time but we tickets. We ... the train to Edinburgh but it was too expensive. lean see some WRITING SKILLS Complete the sentences with the phrases below. ‘There are more phrases than you need. later * because of * all of a sudden during * as soon as ® for this reason ‘on the ether hand » besides visiting the Sistine Chapel, we toured St Peter's Basilica We understood everything he said ... his excellent Spanish. There had been an accident on the motorway. 1 the bus was very late. we heard a loud crash. ‘We wanted to go back to the hotel... the tour was over. the bus ride, our guide told us about the history of the area. PET a ana vw durinctonbocks es/trendsainteracive > 40-7 Meee 78 % ic Read the poems and answer the questions below each one. £7" THE ROAD GOES STOPPING BY WOODS EVER ON AND ON ON A SNOWY EVENING by LRA. Tolkien by Robert Frost The Road goes ever on and on, ‘Whose woods these are | think I know. Down from the door where it began. His house is in the village though; Now far ahead the Road has gone, He will not see me stopping here And I must follow, if I can, To watch his woods fill up with snow. Pursuing it with eager feet, My little horse must think it queer Until It joins some larger way To stop without a farmhouse near Where many paths and exrands meet. Between the woods and frozen lake And whither then? I cannot say. ‘The carkest evening of the year. 1. Where is the narrator? He gives his harness bells a shake 2 How does he expect the road to change? Ty ask if there is some mistake, | The only other sound’s the sweep | Of easy wind and downy flake. The woods are lovely, dark and deep, | But | have promises to keep, | | ‘And miles to go before I sleep, And miles to go before I sleep. 3. Where does the narrator stop? Why? 4, How does the narrator's horse react to his stopping? 2 Each poem involves a decision. What is it? 3 Symbolism is the use of a concrete object (symbol) to reprasent an abstract Idea. The two poems describe journeys. In the pooms, the journey is a symbol of one’s life. a. Look at the poem The Road Goes Ever On and On. What do you think the following items symbolise? ‘the door ‘+ many paths b. Look at the poem Stopping by Woods on a Snowy Evening. What do you think sleep symbolises? GETTING STARTED a aa ee ae sewn problems and which show possible solutions? sa TOPIC VOCABULARY The Environment 2 Match the headlines below to five of the photographs on age 52. Pay attention to the words in colour. Which words im colour can you use to talk about the extra photograph? [1] Rising Sea Lovels Cause Damage In Venice [E] Environmentally Friendly Architecture Uses Renewable Energy [5] Study Shows: Pesticides For Crops Pollute Soil New Law Fines People For Littering [EJ Deforestation Contributes To Global Warming 3° Match the questions to the answers. Pay attention to the words in colour. There is one extra answer. What Is one reason for cutting down trees? How do cars increase global warming? i 2 3. Where can you get rid of old batteries safely? 4 5 How can we decrease pollution in cities? What harm ean air pollution cause? 1. Most supermarkets have special bins for them. e. They produce carbon dioxide. ‘Asnniitak avis eet f. To make paper. (0 1007 people aged 18-84, concemed about the following es environmental issues: Listen toa jon on environmental issues and their solutions. T gobal waster lanece re is one extra item in 8. Gm change nee (aaa Ste) a 2 future energy sources 1. Emma needs to think of problems related to the environment 3 decrease in natural sources | 2, Emma thinks that genetically modified food could cause damage to the environment | Emma and her dad are worried about the eifect of genetically medified food . According to Emme and her dad, possible solutions might include buying environmentally friendly products. aw as well as fining people who cause soil and water pollution, as well as increasing research on soil pollution, |. as well as solutions. as well as to our bodies, pangs 5 Can you remember another solution that Emma's dad suggests? B tsuellas te use of peste | i | H'm most wortied about... is what concerns me ‘the most. | |. In your opinion, what is the most significant environmental issue roday? _-—-Thereare other issues, ike. 2. Why do you think this issue is important? _ Fora start, we can 3. What do you suggest can be done to help? Itwould be a good idea to What oye inks hemor) Tm ns wooo | Finportart enrivormental sve globe arming, Te ai the moment? causes rising Sea levels. | & @z you think the type of food we eat will & P73 change in the future? How? 2 IDENTIFYING THE MAIN IDEA OF A PARAGRAPH “The article discusses producing meat in @ lab. Read the first sentence of each paragraph. Which paragraphs discuss the following topics? > Reading Statecies, page 156 the reasons for producing meat in a lab . the problems of producing meat in a lab . the advantages of producing meat in a lab predictions for the future of lab-grown. hamburcers . the price of a hamburger produced in a lab Now read the text and see if you were right. (27> 3 Complete the sentences according to the text. 1. AL first the writer didn’t understand the reason for .. , Dut then he realised that ... 2. The writer explains the connection between water and soil pollution and Although it may be possible to overcome the difficulties of producing in-vitro meat, people Post feels optimistic about the future of lab- grown meat despite The writer emphasised that fewer animals would die if we 4 choose the correct answer. 1. What was shocking about the in-vitro burger, according to the writer? a Itwas created in a laboratory. b. Itwas extremely expensive. c, It was made over a long period of time. d. Itwas grown from a number of cow cells, - Post fee's that the lab-grown meat a. could be ready to go to shops soon . could make a big difference to people's lives . is preferable because fewer animals will die will become popular very quickly If you had paid for the unusual 142-crem hamburger served in London recently. youl have been shocked! Last time | went out for a burger and chips, it cost about £3.00. But this unusual hamburger, which was eaten by two volunteers, cost £250,000 without the chips! That's because it was an in-vitro burger. The meat was grown from a few cow cells in a laboratory and took years to produce. Initially. | wondered why anyone would go to such 2 lot of trouble for e hamburger, but the answer soon became obvious. The meat industry is not environmentally friendly. We ci down thousands of forests to create land for the animals to live on and this adds to gobal warming. Moreover, we use millions of litres of pesticides on the crops we grow for animals to cat. This pollutes natural resources lke soil and water. Firally, we use a larger area to cultivate food for animals than for people. So, although thousands of people are hungry, we have animals which are fed wel Mark Post, the Dutch scientist who created the meat for the in-vitro burger, believes that it could solve some of these environmental problems. In OPEN QUESTIONS Answer the questions. > Answering Teennsques, page 157 1. How does growing food for animals affect world hunger? 2. What is the advantage of producing lab- grown meat? - What comparison does the writer make in line 32? Why does he make this comparison? What might prevent seople from wanting to cat lab-grown meat? Who is the vegetarian referred t0 in the last paragraph? arn ie) 7 THE MEAT INDUSTRY IS NOT YOU M E, ‘fi r ENVIRONMENTALLY FRIENDLY fact, if you used just a few cow cells in a lab, you could make wy much more meat than you could froma whale cow. This would cause less damage to the environment and might even help prevent world hunger! However, if you examine the process of producing meat in a lab, you will soon realise that there are some verybig obstacles, Firstly, meat cells are rather like babies. You have to keep them in @ warm environment, where they will be well fed and safe from contamination. Next, a5 the number of cells increases, they develop into muscle and need regular exercise. Special equipment is used for this ~ workout machines for meat! Now imagine the cost and technical challenge of producing the several hundred million tonnes of meat we consume every year. What is more, after all this effort, there's no ouarantee people wil eat it. Many people will be reluctant to eat lab- grown meat because they might think it's unnatural. Clearly, youre not about to find in-vitro burgers on your | supermarket shelf any time soon. Yet, while he doesn't underestimate the problems, Post is optimistic. “I feel strangly ‘hat this could have a major impact on society... And that’s a big motivator,” he said. Now, as a vegetarian, | wish people would stop eating meat altogether, but at least with lab-grown meat, fewer animals would die. So, watch this space "ll be posting regular updates. will realise (ine 3 means ce Alors arta eo ot reazars, 5 Find words or expressions inthe text that mean: which means wil mate, wil ‘achieve in Engish 1. the stnallest parts of an animal or plant (lines 1-9) : 2. extra work (lines 10-22) ieee non ae “importante not mayor, whch | 3. certainly (lines 23-29) ‘means biager in English 4, maintain (ines 30-41) 5. unwilling (lines 30-41) 6. without question (ines 42-46) ee ‘The word about has got different meanings. Read the sentences Spain consumes more meat than aty below. Choose the correct meaning of the word about. tthe com nFnope Hite | 1. Last time I went out fora burger and chips, i cost about £3.00. een Spe ? today than they did a decade apo. | 2 Youle nc about fd in-virobugerson your supermarket Neeeiws teyen ataeectt | shelf any time soon. 8 hos fester person et 5 hae ar ry repli bi about ares enya age, ey re 4. going to happea very soon eating is kios. b.in the area Coosa, (Gites say ano D your familys meat-eacing nabs? I 7 (2) woute you bo witing to cat meat grown ina lab? Explain, TOPIC VOCABULARY Environmental Iss Compiete the sentences with the expressions in colour. bad Pronunciation Which green fact did you find the most surprising? Why? urban farms * limited supply * green features + wind turtins feattls />/ recycling plants * ecological balance * carbon footprint >ractee page 164 41. About 1.25 million tonnes of plastic are gent to ... in the UK every year ®. People in ancient Egypt used to grow some of their food in... . One ... can produce enough electricity for 1,500 homes far one year. . Using private cars contributes to about 55% of a fernily’s . - G. By the yeer 2025, 1.8 billion people will be living in countries with a .. of water, G. Juct a 2°C rise in temperatures will have a dramatic effect: on the planet's .. 7. Many London buses have got ..., ike engines that burn cooking ail instead of petrol © 2 Decide if the following sentences are true or false. Pay attention to the words in colour. Correct the false statomonts without changing the words in colour. 1. Sustainable energy sources cause a lot of damage to the environment. 2. Pollution has a variety of long-term effects on the environment 3. A landfill is a place where people plant trees. 4, Changes in the Earth's atmosphere can disturb the planet's ecological balance. 5, Electric cars have already replaced all petrol-burning cars. 6. You can collect organic waste at home and make compost with it 7. We are using up the Earth's natural resources, like oil and gas. 8. People should dump their rubbish in the street. 3 Match the words to their descriptions below. Some descriptions have more than one answer, LYS destroy = protect © recycle * pollute + reuse * clean up * save * factory * rubbish » reeyeling bin 1. Things people do to help the environment. 4, What we call things that we get rid of. 2. Things people do that harm the environment. 5. Where products are made, 3. Where we should put empty plastic bottles. Prefixes Recognising prefixes can help you understand the meaning of unfamiliar words. Prefixes such as un-,dis-,im-, in l- and non- have got negative meanings. ‘They might tink lab-grown meat is wrmatural. Prefixes such as re- inter, extra-, over., under-and mis- have got specific meanings. Past doesn't underestimate the problems. under = not enough > Grammar Append, Worktook page 32 cmpmmmamsnannic2s = 4 Write the opposites of the words below using negative prefixes, Use a dictionary 10 help you. Then complete the sentences with the words you formed. practical » appear * legal * renewable * necessary * complete 1. The new environmental vilage fs stil... They should finish it next year. 2. This rainforest might... if people don’t stop cutting down trees. 3. Ibis... to dump industrial waste in the river. 4, I: would be ... 10 ride to schoo! on a bicycle when it rains. 5. Try to avoid ... use of electricity - it wastes energy. 6. We should try to find alternatives to ... sources of energy, lke oil and natural gas. Make as many new words as you can by adding prefixes. Then complete the mini-dialogues with the words you formed, ary ® cily * chargeable ® paid * understoo opulated 1. A: Does he earn a good salary? 4A: There are 100 many people in this city, B: No, I'm afraid he's .... B: You're right. It's very 2.A: Are hybrid buses used from York to Bristol? 5. A: The green features in that building are B: No. Our ... buses aren't hybrid. incredible. B: | agree, Some of them are really 3. A: Have you got any batteries? B: Would you like ordinary ones or the... kind? 6. A: You said | should throw these batteries in the nubbish bin. B: You .... |meant the recycting bin, iste? Look at the photograph showing an environmentally friendly building, How is it different from ordinary buildings? eS ieee seme em 11. Today, there are more than ... people in the world. 2. By the year _., about 70% of the world’s population will be living in cities. 3. People living in cities produce approximately ... of the world’s carbon footprint, 4. ABelgian architect has designed an ervironmentally friendly building called the Dragonfiy, which is... high. (GUS wade onc ove.om §— (EURen ai ranion : Desde we Ohoueg ocean |. When describing the Dragonfly, Dr Evans explains ... . re true or false.) 8. what the homes wil look ike b. what you might see in the urban farms 1. Today, about 50% of the world's chow many lifts there will be population lives in cities. d, where the parks will be located. 2. Cities cause most of our global carbon footprint, | 2, The Dragonfly has got an efficient | MoE ee 3. An office building in Belgium was method of a. growing plants b. producing oxygen & reusing CO, d. cleaning water 3. For many years, Callebaut's designs were not considered a. scientific b. sustainable «. practical d. innovative inspired by Callebaut’s ideas 4. The Dragonfly will have homes but not offices. 5. The Dragonily's plants will reduce global warming. You can see the Dragonfly in several cities. Zero Conditional: —_If/ Unless / When + Present Simple + Present Simple First Conditional: (f/ Unless + Present Simple + will | modal + verb imperative Second Conditional if/ Unless + Past Simple + would / modal + verb Third Conditional: if + Past Perfect Simple + would have / modal perfect + past participle Read the advert and the dialogue. Then answer the questions. " Jade: Look at this. Ifthe fight didn’t cost so much, fly to Ecuad! eae | ace Look ar his. fhe Ra 3 so mi ly to Ecuador ia ihe Max: Jade, if you're interested in environmental work, don't miss this “opportunity. 1 went last year. In eight weeks we did so much. | Would have stayed even longer iF had known we'd be so helpful Jade: You're right. 'm going to contact them to find out more. Which of the sentences refers 10 ...? 1. afuture possibility first conditional) 2. an imaginary or hypothetical situation (second conditional) 3. an impossible or unfulfilled situation in the past (third concitiona) 4, a general truth or fact (zero conditional) 5. advice or suggestion in the form of a command (first conditional) Match A to B. Then complete the sentences 2 Complete the questions with the verbs in brackets. with the verbs in brackets. Use conditionals. Use conditionals and time clauses. Then answer tie A questions. 1. if more people used energy-efficient light 1. fa jacket didn't ftyou any more, ... you .. (take) bulbs, it toa charity shop? Ifa recycling plant... (recycle) one tonne 2. you... teach) your children about the of paper, anvironment when you have a farily? If we hadn't thrown so much rubbish into 3. you ... (buy) organic fruit and vegerables if you the ocean, could get them near your home? You ... probably .. (share) this planet with 4.1f your school... (offer) a course in Environmental another 28 billion people Awareness, would you have taken 1 {not send) your plastic bottles to the 5. will you buy lab-grown meat as soon as it jandiill (reach) your local supermarket? 8 . if you lve to the end of this century millions of sea creatures .. (not die). sf you can recycle them. they .. (consume) much less energy. we save 17 trees. Use the words below to write sentences. Use conditionals and time clauses, Can you guess which fact is incorrect? 1. Europeans / use / 80% fewer piastic bags / in the future /if / the EU / decide /to ban them 2. Unless / we / do / something about water pollution / soon / in 10 years / many people / riot have / enough drinking water 3.1f/ you / collec all the waste in the UK / for one a — year / it/fil / Trafalgar Square to the top of SE eraser _ Nelson's Column Tn time clauses we use words such as when, 4. When / you / use energy-efficient light bulbs / {5 scon es, as long as, until, before and you 7 save / about £30 a year on electricity after. These words are usually followed by 5. In 2010, 118 million mobile phones were thrown the Present Simple, even though we are ut in the US. IF/ we / recycle / these phones / talking about a future action. we / save / about 4,600 kilograms of gold We will discuss the problem as soon as Jim 6. Paris / remain / one of the most polluted cities in arrives. the world / until /it / begin / banning cars from the city centre > amines, age 36 Wish Clauses wish / fonly + Past Simple J wish / Ifonly + Past Perfect Simple I wish / Ifonly + could | would + base form Read the sentences. Then answer the questions. 2. | wish / If only more people were aware of the problems! b. only had gone to Ecuador with Max. He said 1 was great. Iwish | could goto Ecuador, but | can’t stay for two months. 4, | wish more people would volunteer for this programme. it's very important. Which of the wishes refers to a situation that the speaker... ? | 1. hopes will happen in the future | 2.1s unhappy about in the present 3. regrets about the past ST Look at the veris in bold. What form of the verb is used in each situation? 41 Complete these wishes with the verbs & Complete the text with the verbs in brackets. Use the iebrackets, correct conditional, time clause or wish clause. y “Then listen and check your 1. only we .. (study) environmental answers. (o> ‘issues in secondary school. | don’t know why we don't. LOVE FOOD 2.1 wish |... (participate) in “Clean Up Day”. | heard that it was great. hate waste ’ Did you know that last yeer we threw out over 7 million tonnes 3.1 wish we ... (go) on a dass trip of food and drink in Britoin® Those of us who work with to a recycling plant. It would be LoveFoodHateWaste wish people ' [stop] wasting food. “iE really interesting. orly people ? .. (be) more careful with food,” we say. | WHY DO PEOPLE WASTE FOOD? One reason is that wa prepare tee much. How cfien have you | heard someone say things ke, “I wish |... (not make) so ‘much food yesterday!” or ‘I... not throw out) all that food it I had made less. Tho tuth is, if we 5. (plan) our moals more carly, we could avoid this woste. Another reason for food woste is that we buy more food than we need. So, when you ©. [shop], you should buy enough food and no more. Don't 5. | wish |... (ride) my bike to forget - when you buy too much, it”... (go) into the bin at the school but it’s too fer. end of the week. The fact is that food waste costs the overoge British family about £40 @ month. IF yeu throw out lose food, you ©. fseve} money, You'll obo help the environment. 4. | really wanted the job with Greenpeace. If only |... (get) it. ‘The work sounded so interesting. 6.L wish my parents ... (afford) @ IF you vent fo moke o difference, .. (nat wail! Leorn what hybrid car but theyre not cheap. to de on our website at www lovefoodhatewaste.com 53 You would like to live ina more environmentally friendly world. Choose at least two catagories below and describe how you wish that things were different. Use J wish or if only. |.my neighbourhood fer ET aa TET Yt Complete the second sentence so that it has a similar meaning to the first. 2. my school 1. The situation will improve if we do something. Unless 3. my city 2. rw somry didn't visit the urban farm. | wish 4. my country 3. Take my advice and recycle more. If 5, the world 4, Sam couldn't volunteer for the job because he wasn't 18, If only there were more green areas ifSam . ing city. 5. Lwould love to live in the countrysice but | can't! only... Fete EN etal etalon int ein eS UII 1 Eeo-Tours Read the information about ecotours in London in the brochure and complete the sentences. You can learn about 1. growing vegetables in the city when you 2. plants that grow in other countries if you go to 3. what is done with things we throw away if you visit 4, plants on top of buildings if you go on Onan eco-tour, people visit places ta leam about local nature, culture and environment. These tours focus on respect and awereriess ofthe environment. Tocay, people are more environmentally aware and an increasing number of tourists ‘choase ta ge on eco-tours, 5, how buildings can be more environmentally friendly if YOUTEME ens o Are eco-tours popular in your aunty? Which area nyour country Would be goo fer ece-tous? eed ee GREEN TOURS OF = LONDON Learn how London is trying to become a more | sustainable city. Choose from our many tours of London's environmentally friendly features. TOUR OF LONDON’S ROOFTOPS Discover the hidden Kensington Roof Gardens and other rooftop gardens and farms in the city. Learn how they help reduce our carbon footprint. KEW GARDENS TROPICAL HOUSE Visit the famous botanical gardens and learn about the rainforest and how it contributes to the worlds ecological balance. VISIT A LONDON RECYCLING PLANT Learn how 875 million plastic bottles a year can be kept out of lendfils. Listen to two students making plans for a class trip on Environmental Awareness Day. ‘Answer the questions. «7™ |. Which place from the brochure in Exercise 1 does Mia want to visit? What reason does she give to support her choice? - Which place from the brochure does Greg want to visit? What reason does he give to support iis choice? What place do they decide to visit? 3 Canyou remember the numberof recycled bottles mertioned by Gres? Two students are discussing possible class trips. Match A and B to create a dialogue. Then practise the dialogue with a partner. A oF 1. Amy: Have you looked at the ideas for the class trip? , 2. Amy: Which co you think is better? | j 3. Amy: Are you sure? At Kew Gardens, we'd learn all about the importance of plants in our environment and how they help put oxygen back into our atmosphere. | 4. Amy: 50, that's our firal decision? & 2. Lea: | see your point. Kew Gardens might be more ineeresting. i 'b. Leo: Yes, | agree we should go with a trip to Kew Gardens. © Leo: Yeah, "ve sean them. think we car nettow own to | the trip to Kew Gardens and che Green Architecture tout 4. Leo: I'd prefer the Green Architecture tour hecausa students | will enjoy learning about environmentally friendly features in London's buildings. ho speaking Strateay seit When tying to reach an agreement, reasons for your opinion. Try to convince YOUr partner to agree with you What reasons Ze used in the dialogue n Seerese #9 ‘TOUR OF LONDON's GREEN ARCHITECTURE See two of London’s iconic buildings ‘and learn about green features like energy conservation, 5 Replace the expressions in colour in Exercise 4 with the expressions below. Make any necessary changes. Then practise the dialogue again, 1. 1 see what you mean, 2. Id rather... because 3. Idon't know about that 4. Which would you rather do? 5. [think it’s between ... and 8. Good so we've decided. 7. Yes, lagree ...is the best choice. GROWING COMMUNITIES Visit one of Lonéon’s successful urban forms. Learn how ocal residents make money by growing and selling organic food brochure /// Givice 1/7 >Pracie, ge a task With a partner, discuss three of the tours in the brochure in Exercise 1 and decide which one ‘you both agree would be the most interesting for aclass trip. Use the expressions in colour in Exercises 4 and 5 to help you. A) nn cei isin ‘A summary inchades only the main ideas of a text without providing unnecessary details and examples: iaeyrltar’s own ideas or opinions are also not included. Read the text about wind turbines. Which of the ideas below would you include in a summary of the text? 1. problems with electricity from fuel 5, the main advantages of using wind turbines F Hetalls about early examples of wind power 6. how much elactricity wind farms can produce 3, the defirition of a wind turbine 7. what percentage of electricity is supplied by turbines 4, when the first wind turbines were built & the future of wind turbines ata Ta Vie rel) an clectricity for Wrtng Guide, page 167 THINK BACK VOCABULARY Match the words to their meanings. 1. locate a bacome less 2. childhood —b. find 3. decrease —_c. pay to use something 4, landmark — d. the time when you are young. S landfill e. throw away 6 get ridof — f, a famous building or structure 7. reach g. arrive at 8 hire h. applace where rubbish is sent Complete the phrases in the sentences with the words below. rising + standard « fixed * freedem {friendly + recycling * carbon # global urban ® hving 1. Our... of living has changed over the last century. 2. Nothing in this market has got a ... price. 3. That restaurant buys its vegetables from an... farm. 4. Wa must improve the ... conditions of poor people in our country. 5. Hybrid cars are more environmentally .. than most other cars. 6. ... of speech is a basic right in most democracies. 7. Pollution is one of the causes of ... warining. 8. How can |reduce my ... footprint? 9, Which cities will be affected by... sez levels? 10. The bottles will be taken to the ... plant. 3 Add one of the prefixes or suffixes to each word below. Make any necessary changes. under- * -al © dis- ¢ -ed * -able * un- * in. 1, sustain 6. obey 2. finance 7. complete 3. necessary 8. estimate 4, natural 9. equality 5. value 10. determine ‘Complete the sentences using words you made in Exercise 3. 1. You shouldn't ... the rules. 2. She's not working and is having some . problems at the moment. 3. Don't... your ability. I'm sure you'll succeed. 4, IFyou're ... to succeed, you'll do well. 5. That's a good idea. Your dad always gives you advice. 6. This work is .... Please finish it. GRAMMAR Complete the sentences with the correct form of the verbs in brackets or suitable modals. 1. You should have told me about your problem. | (help) you if... (know). 2. The teacher told us .. (not use) our mobile phone! while we ... (do) the exam, 3. You ... walk to school. It's good exercise 4, ('m leaving right now. |. (call you as soon as | (arrive) at the hotel, 5. Alex ... (study) Chinese with the same teacher for six years before she ... (return) to China. 6. Atthree o'clock tomorrow, |... (take part) ina demonstration. ... you ... (want) to come too? 7. Our neighbours ... (play) loud music all evening. wish they ... (top) making so much noise. 8. Do you see that sign? It says that you ... dump rupbish here. 5 Complete the text with the correct form of the verbs in brackets. VENICE UNDER WATER Today, global warming *... (cause) rising see levels. Tknow most people ®... (aot think) about this very nuch, However, if you *... (Live) near the sea, you woul worry about it. Over the last 100 years, the sea ‘., (rise) as much as 17 centimetres. Ifthe experts (be) correct, the level will have increased by abo one metie by 2100. Tf this happens, it ®... (bring) floods to many coastal cities all over the world, This really ®... (scare) me because I live in Venice. I wish people ®... (usten) to what the experts are saying. If people dox't take action soon. my city *... (disappear) under the ocean! Imagine, tourists of the future may come to Italy and say, “Tf only 1" (see) Venice before the floods destroyed it!” WRITING SKILLS Complete the sentences with the words below. even though © during » besides © as o result of since * obviously * moreover * unfortunately 1. The in-vitro meat tasted quite good. .... it was very expensive to produce. 2. ... it was winter, the temperatures were still warm 3, .. the lecture, we leamed about global warming, 4, No one was in the office building. ... , everyone had gone home. __ the pollution, many people had trouble breathing. 6. a beautiful swimming pool, the hotel had a spa and Several restaurants. 7. {e's important to travel by public transport . this helps reduce pollution. 8. The students had regular discussions on social issues. ..., most of them volunteered in the community at least once a week. PBT ar ay www curingtonocoks.es/trendsZinterectve EXTRA TRENDS TODAY Environmental | Throughout Europe, counties are making efforts to improve the environment. This infographic, which is based on recent studies, gives some information about environmental issues in Europe. Which four main topics does it deal with? Wasie and Recycling Oko Recycled per Country: eee) area reg De heer Brera ay, CO td | coe cere Ries eRe a) Co ee tes Ee ee ee ed Cee nee ees nee eg Cees er ete a eee eects el renee Cec eee @ What Are eon eee People Doing? 63% siticser alia 2 Leck atthe fas above and completa the emma | | ad Cee semenscs Been Prepare an infographic about environmental 1. recycles the least municipal waste and izeee In your coareiy: | recycles the most. 2. A higher percentage of .. products are recyded than plastic or .. products. 1. Do research to find atleast two facts about each of | the four topics presente inthe infographic above. 5 Nicevossenrtos'ebrenavdle Sho |. 2. Find icons, graphs or chars that might help relerisg to are ean | ilustrate your facts. | | a |. 3 Create en infographic using the facts and images | ‘om often ats anders tewere; | © Spach er Ga 5. Energy is saved by people using... in their TECHNO OPTION Prepare an online infographic ‘homes. Forhelp, see: | i Do you know anything about the creatures in the photogs Do you know if any of these creatures live in your country’ Ba ot holo N= ees Ae alien =I} Match the sentonces below to pictures on page 66.Pay attention to the words in colour. 1. This creature consists of one single cell 2. These animals have stings that are poisonous 3. These reptiles lay eogs but do not raise their young. 4. They deceive their predators and their prey by using camouflage to disguise themselves 3 Match A to Bto form sentences. Pay attention to the words in colour. A Some animals turn white in winter to blend in This creature’s tiny offspring leave - Many animals use their sense of smell . The female rhea’s behaviour is unusual because B .- she lets her mate look after her babies. . to datect intruders. . better with their surroundings, |. the nest right after they're born. (alSistSNiN=) 4 Read the questions below. Then listen to two students answering questions ima quiz. Which three questions below do they discuss? What are the two examples they give for each question? é==> BUNS aoge Can you think of ..? 1. a mammal that catches its prey underwater 2. a reptile that lays its eggs ina nest 3. different ways animals carry their offspring 4. a creature with a poisonous sting 5. an animal with an excellent sense of smell 6, 7. 8 a creature that deceives predators by using camouflage an animal that is seen by most people as an unwelcome intruder an organism that is a single cel 5 Can you remember where the ant’s sense of smell is located? anna Choose four questions that have not been answered in Exercise 4 and UseruU EXSreReioiis discuss them with your partner. Use as many of the words in colour in ‘One example Exercises 2 and 3.as you can. ‘would be... ‘Another example is. Can you think of an animal with a poisonous sting? I'm not sure —— 1m pretty sure es. A scompion’s sting is realy painful pe faces Lemecneery i forename Let me think. What about ..? ‘Bo you think it can kil? wa ‘Today, an increasing numberof designers, scientists nd engineers are studying the complex structures found in nature to create greene: and more efficient procucts. This metnod of design ts called “biomimicry” fom Greek wards meaning “lif” (bios) ang “imitate” (mimesis, (pa) Re nhc hott dons ‘the item created by man mine nature? Why do peopie cheat? Do you think animals also cheat? 2 GUESSING MEANING FROM CONTEXT Read the article. Then look at the words in colour. Read the entire sentence and the sentence before and after. Then try to {guess the meaning of each word. (7 > Reading Suategies, nage 16 OL Choose the correct answer. |. The cuckoo finch lays her eggs fa. in a nest where there already are some eggs. b. in a nest that is similar to the nest of another bird . Ina nest that hasn't got any e995 d. in the nest of one particular species of bird Why do the foster parent's chicks often die? a. The cuckoo finch offspring attack and kill them. bb. They can’t survive because they don't get enough food. . They hatch too soon and are not strong enough to survive. “The cuckoo finch returns and throws them ut of the nest. Ifyou think cheating is something that was inventod by the human mind, think again, Cheating has been practised for centuries by croatures like the cuckoo finch. Actually, this bird 1s famous for its con, which + ig much more sophisticated than anything humans have come up with, Cuckoo finches don't bring up their chieks on their own. They manage to get them ralsed by other birds. How does the deception work? First, a foster parent 10 must be found ~ someone who will take care of the cuckoo fineh’s eggs. This role is usually played by two species of birds that lay gorgeously coloured egs. ‘Once the cuckoo finch has found her foster parent, she places a few of her own eggs in its nest together «= with the ones the foster parent has laid. Amazingly, the colour and design of tho cuckoo finch's eggs will always be very similar to the eggs of the foster parent. ‘That's not all. In order to make sure their chicks survive, foster parents may change the colour of ss their own eggs so they can tell them apact from the intruder’s eggs. But some cuckoo finches adapt to this strategy, Ifthe foster parents’ egg changes from blue to red, then the cuckoo finch’s egg will go red too. 4. SENTENCE COMPLETIONS Complete the sentences according to the information in the text > Answering Techniques oage 158 Q 1. For centuries, the cuckoo finch has . 2. Sometimes, fester parants will try to make sure their offspring survive by 3. The foster parent thinks the cuckoo finch’s, chicks In addition to birds and insects, brood parasitism can also It's easier to produce offspring if you get someone else to What is more, the cuckoo firch lays her eggs inthe camo » nest over and over again. For this reason, many foster mothers begin to think it's normal to have chicks that look a little different to their own! This is why most of them don’t throw the intruders out of thenest. Moreover, the cuckoo finch's eggs hatch before the other exes. By Se) > the time the real chicks are born, the foster mother 1s aeeres being kept very busy feeding the little cuckoo finches. ea lary Her own chicks sometimes starve to death! Believe it or not, this kind of behaviour isn’t unique. It's called brood parasitism and you can see it in many species of birds, insects, as well as some fish. Take the cuckoo cattish, for example. This parasite manages to get its eggs into the mouth of another species of fish. ‘The fraudulent eggs hatch first, and then eat all the other babies! «Tt still isn't completely understood how these animals create such clever cons. But one thing is clear - the reason animals behave this way. It’s because brood parasitism is a brilliant survival skill! Any parent ‘will tell you that bringing up children requires lots of «effort, However, if you can have your babies raised by someone else ... well, then you can spend all your time and energy on producing more offspring. Heals ae See Renan (chitears tere eka Ai el ba eerertcrae toe ae ecg Oba peer unten oreo eles wach meas appoints nErgioh 1. The bind will go from one nest to another. 2. The cuckoo finch’s egg will go red. 3. Where do these bags of dog food go? 5 Answer the questions. 2. become different 1. What is special about the cuckoo finch? b. belong 2. What happens when the colour of the foster & move parents’ eqgs changes? 3. Why isn’t the foster parent disturbed by the fact that the cuckoo finch chicks are different? ‘4. Why are the cuckoo catfish offspring able to 7 @ Why might it help an animal species eat the foster parent's babies? to produce lots of offspring? 5. What don’t scientists understand about brood parasitism? What do they understand? 1. by themselves (lines 1-8) rsa pa oo tare Seb ay sr aralicae St | 2. beautifully (lines 9-17) survival. Tay, many organisations are working to protect | 3. differentiate them (lines 18-23) seine Sees Oi te aay tate | roar teres, sapeatechy (ines 24°32) conservation programmes dedicated to the protection of nish wildlife. Some of the protected animals include the t 6. needs (lines 40-47) x aa oan Why do you thiok wildlfe conservation is imporant2 TORIC VOCABULARY Man snd Animals Decide if the following sentences are true or false. Pay attention to the words in colour. 1. Circus animals are always treated well 2. Elephants died out millions of years ago. El rrcnrciotion 3. Many medicines have been developed through animal testing. lara 4, When an animal isin distress, itis very happy. treat /1d 5, People track animals in order to leamn about their behaviour. dig /a, 6, Scientists usually tag birds by putting a band or bracelet around their feet. trapped /1y 7. if an animal has got a disease, iis healthy. > Practice, page 135 8. Some animals are traaped for their fur and meat. Correct the false statements in Exercise | without changing the words in colour. Use the words below. itl dinosaurs * mirerable seldom Read these sentences about tigers. Match the words in colour to their meaning below. were dangerous to * destroyed * reduction in numbers # almast extinct nature reserves * destruction of their natural environment | Over the last century, people have almost completely wiped out the world’s entite tiger population. 2, Tigers were often killed if they threatened local inhabitants. 3. In addition, many of them died because of loss of habitat. 4. However, nthe 1970s, a project was intiated to top te decline nthe tiger population. 5. thas taken many years, but slowly the tiger population in the wild and in waldlife sanctuaries i increasing. 6. If this trend continues, tigers may no longer be an endangered species. Look at the verbs in the chart below. Decide which relate to animals, people or both. Then write sentences using the words in the chart. There are different po: for food when they're threatened ‘their offspring their pets endangered animals Adjectives and Prepo: Many adjectives arc followed by prepositions. Some adjectives can take only one preposition. “The cuckoo finch is famous for its dever deception. The cuckoo finch’ eggs will always be very similar to the eggs of the foster parent. Other adjectives can be followed by several prepositions, but this changes their meaning, She’s good at training animals This soil is good jor growing crops. > Grammar Appel Werkbook page 34 A REEREAATTSNANT 5 Match A to 8 to form sentences. Pay attention to the words in colour. A 5 1. The fur industry is responsible a. about the effect of pollution on animals. 2. The marks on one tiger are diferent b. from the marks on another. 3. Inthe UK, you can fine someone who is guilty _. in trying to rescue animals in distress 4, The male rhea is devoted <¢. of mistreating a pet. 5. Environmentalist are concerned «wits offspring, 6. Animal rights activists are involved £. for the deaths of millions of animals every year 6 complete the sentences with the adjectives and prepositions below. pleased with * pleased for * good for good at * tired from * tired of 1. My sister Is... her Job as a secretary, She wants to study (© be a vet, 2. He's ... repairing things. 3. Is this medicine ... a cough? 4, They will be very .. the results of the experiment. 5. The animals were ... their long journey. 6. Iwas ... Amber when she got the job she wanted at the animal shelter Give an example of - 1. something you are tired of doing 2. a person you are devoted to 3, something you are good at 4, a person or issue you are concerned about 5. something you are involved in at the moment Pcs Like plants and animals, bacteria are living organisms with many different species. What do you know about bacteria? J Listen to the first part of a lesson about bacteria. Complete the sentences. 1. Bacteria have been on Earth for a longer time than 2. Bacteria reproduce by dividing into 3. One bacterial cell can grow into a billion cells in 4, Bacteria can exist in freezing conditions and in temperatures of, 5, Each person has got ... bacterial cells for every one human cell Listen to the second part of the lesson. Answer the questions. 1. How many different species of bacteria live on humans? 2. What do the bacteria in our intestines do? 3. How do the bacteria of a species communicate with each other? Listen to the whole lesson again. Decide if the following statements are true oF false. 2 1. Bacterla first appeared on Earth about four million years ago. 2. Bacteria have nothing in common with other living creatures. 3. A bacterial cell can reproduce every 20 seconds. 4, Bacteria can live almost everywhere, 5. Most bacteria cause disease 6. Different kinds of bacteria are responsible for different things in our body. Bacteria of the same species behave in the same way. All animals rf Therassive_ be past pani have feel 5 The Causative have / get + object + past participle to P ae 1. Look at the verbs in bald. Which passive tenses are used? Es different in your language? on PETA was established in 1980. This organisation defends the rights of animals all over the world. ‘They uy to help animals that are being hurt by people. ‘They work to get laws passed to prevent animal abuse. PETA believes many animals can be saved if the public is made more aware of the issues. To increase public awareness, celebrities are often iavited to help with theit publicity campaigns. The stars are usually happy to help out! ‘One word is missing in each sentence. Write the word in its correct place. Which sentences have got agents? 1, Moby Dick was written Herrnan Meiville. 2. The animals at our shelter always treated well, 3. Those birds are going to tracked by satelite 4, Many racehorses died while they being ridcen by famous jockeys. 5 6. 7. [Animals that not been raised in captivity may be more frightened of people. . You wouldn't have stung by the scorpion if you hadn't moved that rock! ‘The wolf been caught before tt killed any sheep. ‘Complete the questions with the correct active or passive form of the verbs in brackets. Then do the trivia qulz. ‘What colour ... mosquitoes .. In which direction ... bats always Who ... the book On the Origin (atiract) to the most? Wh so» (ly) when they leave a cave? af Species ... (write) by? a. yellow a. right &. a. Charles Darwin b. orange * tb. straight b. Jack London’ © blue & * 2 ke p c. Herman Melville ‘What living organism... ‘Which bird ... (not see) Where ... animals still .. {ourvive) on this planet since the 17th century? (can use) for testing cosmetic longer than any other? a the ded products? gs fs £5 b. the giant penguin j/}> a. the USA b. bacteria the Labrador duck Some Us . plants, . Spain > Answers, page 136 ‘3 Write sentences with the words below. Use the passive. Leave out the agent where possible. animals / should not kill / by people / for their fur / ‘the animals / already / feed / by the 2ookeepers / today / . that picture of a bird / paint / by Leonardo da Vinci /? the dogs / train / by professionals / al afternoon yesterday / many animal species /wipe out / by climate change / in the future / at the moment, / the wildlife sanctuary / manage / by a local woman / the litle girl / must bite / by a rat / Write TWO passive forms of the sentences below. Saiteacesiauiinas omrecie a 1. A friend has lent her a Book on horses. oe 2. We are sending them two baby crocodiles. When a sentence has got two objects, 3. The dog's owner should have paid the vet £20. there are tue poseiole tonne in the 4, My mother did not give me this black cat. ene 5. When will they show us the new animals? The vet gave the rabbits injections, (active) 5 Read the first sentence. Complete the second The rabbits were given injections by the ‘Sentence using the causative form. ‘et (more common} 1. Myra didn’t build the nest box herself. Eajectione were given f0 the rabbis by She had / got it built (by a carpenter). pee ese conrion) 2. We don’t clean the animal cages. We Other verbs that take two objects 3.1 didn’t cut the dog’s hair myself. | are tell, show, send, lend and pay. 4. The director won't train the animals himself. He 5. The professor isn't doing the experiment herself. She... 6. My brother isn’t going to walk the dog himself. He & Complete the sentences with the verbs in brackets. Use the causative form. ‘Then decide which person below said each sentence. a vet * an animal rights activist « a film producer * ¢ pet owner * a seientict 1.1... my dog... (nor vaccinate) last week. 2.1... the clinic ... (not clean) since Friday. 3. We .. this medicine ... (must / test) on animals before people use it. 4... you ... the animals... (train) before we shoot the scene? 5. want to ... animal testing ... (ban) all over the world! 7 Complete the text with the verbs in brackets. Use an active, passive or causative form. Then listen and check your answers. 7) Libs ditt WANG iene UWS Le) Not long ago, 2 large group of shoppers gathered outside the window display of a wel-known London cosmetics shop, Earher, 8 woman ': _.. (bring) into the window with 2 rope atound fie neck The bystanders #... (take) photographs and watching while ‘the woman in the window * .._ (torture) by a ‘Tan in @ white lzboretory coat. The woman’ *,... (treat) like an anime! in a laboratory and ‘she was obviously suffering. However, there Pree ee ae demonstration, the woman*... (allow) to. go homme. When animels * _ (exoeriment| cn, ‘they also”. {suffei) terribly, However, atthe 1 end of the experiments. they are killed. The demonstration wes a protest against anirial testing. In the UK, animal testing for cosmetic products... (bar) since 1998. However, itis legal in other parts of the world and some of ‘those products * ... {can / sell) in the UK! The demonstration had bees organised in order '... @ petition against animal testing ... (sign) by the bystanders. Rewrite the sentences using the words in brackets. Do not change the original meaning, 1. They hadn't sent us an invitation. (we) 2. Did many people sian the petition? (was) 3. Her dog's hair has been washed. (had) 4. PETA protects the rights of many animals. (by) 5, Will those photos be printed tomorrow? (get) COMMUNICATION Talking about = Pictur [A Website Look at the website for an animal rights organisation, Complete the sentences below. 1. The organisation would like people to help animals by These creatures are ... when they/re still babies. People who train the dancing bears often ...« Despite the condition of the horses, many people think ...- ‘Toe use of wid animals in traveling Injured animals are often ... in this sport. SBE Die ee ET Both pictures show examples of animals which & Bayou thine banning the use of ‘wild animals in ruses is a gond idea? Why? There are still some dancing bearsin India. Petey They are taken from PTs their mothers when they are young. Many are mistreated and often not given the food they need. More > fellas Some peoples think horse racing is glamorous. Perhaps they Pens don't know about the Peres distress caused by the pee conditions the recehorses endangered arekept in. What's more, species and they are probably unaware of how many horses are shot after being injured ina race Beene Breas Deeg penetra Praag Listen to a conversation between Emily and Stan. Answer the questions below. (= |. What website is Emily looking at? 4, What might happen to the injured horses’ 2. What photo is she showing Stan? 5. How are some of the spectators reacting? 3, What is the race known for? ‘Can you remember where the race takes place? | Match Ato Bt form a dialogue about the other picture on page 74. Pay | attention to the words in colour. Then practise the dialogue with a partner. A 1. Have you seen this photo of the bears? 2. How cruel! You can tell that they're in distress. 3. Yes, they do, But look how young those boys are, especially that one in the background. Maybe they're really poor and the bears help them make a little money, 4. But | can’t believe animals are still being treated this way, can you? B a. No, | can't. That's why I'm glad that animal rights organisations are trying to stap it . Do you mean the dancing bears? Yeah. Look at that bear on the left hand side. It looks like there’s a ring in his nose. | agree. i's probably terrible for them. But their trainers India: fen'e there look happy, don't they? i coh tao . . Frc another tag question in d-nsureyoure ight Thee a tof ovey ind in es abet aa aenion there i asking for another person's response, we often Use tag questions. There is a lot of poverty in 5 Replace the expressions in colour inthe dialogue in Exercise 4 ___ with suitable expressions below. There may be more than one possible answer. in the midate * on the left / right at the back * in the front * 1 suppose Iquess * I bet * Perhaps + It must be IE seems like * it obviously Pronunciation ech Jay > Practice, page 15 task Choose picture 1 or2 and talk aboutit with "your partner. Use the expressions in colour n Exercises 4 and 5 to help you. = Describe what you see. * Speculate about what the people are doing, how they feel and what will happen. * Say how you feel about the issues shown in the photographs. When weiting a biography, we usually give important and interesting information about « petson’s life, presented in chronological order. Read the model biography below and find the paragraph which contains: 1 information about the person's adult life and career 2.a summary of the person's achievements and mention of future plans if relevant 3. an introduction to the person and why he / she is famous or special 4. information about the person's eariy life Steve Irwin was e famous wildlife conservationistand, television personality, His goal in life was to educate the public about wildlife so that people around the World could share his knowledge and love for animals. Irwin was born in Melbourne, Australia, on 22nd February, 1962. He learned his love for animals from, his parents, who owned a wildlife park, Steve was fascinated by the creatures at the park. During his ‘childhood, he helped take care of them and learned all about their natural habitats and behaviour. By the time he grew up, Irwin had decided that he would work to protect endangered species and their habitats. To help him achieve this goal, he and his wile, Terri, started working on television. They presented an international wildlife documentary 'V series called The Crocodile Hunter, Eventually, the show was so popular that it was watched by around In which paragraph of the mode! could the ‘writer have written the following sentences? 1, Steve Irwin will be remembered for his many 500 million peoplein 130 countries. Tragically, Irwin died on 4th September, 2006, He was stung in the heart by a stingray. Atthe time, he wes scuba diving off the coast of Australia in order to film some of the area’ dangerous sea creature Tewin once said, “I believe that education is all abou being excited about something... Ifwe can get people ‘excited about animals .. it makes ita heck of a lot casier to save them.” In the end, through his passion for animals, Steve raised conservation awareness around the world. Today; his family still Keeps the wildlife park soas to continue Steve's work. Fy wo include something relevant that the person said or wrote. It makes your biography more interesting. Find a quotation in the model in Exercise 1. Contributions to animal conservation and wildlife education. 2. Before he was nine, he was rescuing crocodiles, snakes and ther wild creatures: 3. On the series, Steve managed to communicate his love and enthusiasm for crocodiles and other dangerous predators. What tenses are usually used in a biography? Find examples in the mode! im Exercise 1. ere Connectors of Purpose Connectors of purpose introduce the reason for an action. The connectors fn order (not) 19nd 04s (not) tp ate usually followed by the base form ofthe verb. The connector s0 thats followed by a noun or pronoun + will/ wouddora modal verb. > Wining Guide, page 162 _ Ue auRa RENO ReSINRR ere 4 Find four connectors of purpose in the model biography in Exercise 1. 5 Choose the correctanswer. 1. He studied chemistry solution to the problem 2. She used to stay out all night so as to / so that she could watch the stars. 3. So as not to / So that disappoint his parents, he studied medicine. 4. So that / To save money, he worked hard and rarely went out. 5. She studied day and night in order not to / not to fail her exams. order to / so that find a & Below are some sentences from a biography about Jane Goodall, a world expert on chimpanzees. Complete the sentences with connectors of purpose. ‘There may be more than one correct answer. 1. During her childhood, Jane Goodall was fascinated by animals and watched their behaviour closely she could learn more about them. see the wild animals there, 3..As a young woman, Jane worked hard... make ‘money and support herself 4, Eventually, Goodall spent a lot of time in Africa she could observe and study wild chimpanzees in their natural habitat, 5. Today, Goodall spends her time teaching. She believes a person can use his or her life... make the world a better place for humans and animals. 7 Match ato B, A 1. He spent months with the wolves in order to 2. They were very quiet so as not to 3. He tagged the animal so that 4, The wildlife sanctuary was built to 8 a. frighten the animals, b. he could follow its movements. . protect the country’s endangered species. . observe their behaviour in the wild. 2. When she grew up, she dreamed of going to Africa “ABiography | Write a biography of a famous person you admire. Write 100-150 words. The model in Exercise 1, the steps in Getting Organised and the Useful Expressions will help you. | getting organised | 1 Find information to answer the questions below and decide what information you want to include in your biography. 1. What famous person do you want to write about? 2. Why is this person interesting? What contribution has he / she made to the world? 3. Where was he / she born? 4. What was his / her childhood like? 5. What career or professional choices did he / she make? 6. What did he / she achieve as an adult?” 7. What can you say about his / her future plans? 2. Find a quotation to make your biography 3 > Organise your ideas into paragraphs according to the model in Exercise 1 on age 76. 4 Use connectors of purpose to tnelp you present the information leary. | 5. check your work for mistakes: Y spaliing Y word order ¥ punctuation ¥ use of connectors | Y orammar Useful Expressions He / She was born in . During his / her childhood, At the age of By the time he / she was ++ grew Up to be once said, .. “s > Wing Guide, page 158 Bena =oi3d VOCABULARY Decide if the following statements are true or false, Correct the false statements without changing the words in bold. 1. You can use a rechargeable battery more than. one time, 2. In the UK, citizens have no rights. 3. When you lead people, they tell you what to do. 4. The wind is a source of renewable energy. 5. An armchair is an example of a seat. 5, Most animals will attack their offspring. 7. Scientists often tag animals in order to kill them, 8. Predators help their prey. ‘Choose the TWO possible answers. 1. We hoped that after the demonstration, people would support our cause / book in advance / sign the petition. Deforestation has an effect on animal ‘testing / global warming / the ecological balance. | felt very upset after | found out that he had. deceived / cheated / spoiled me. ‘Various species of animals are endangered / cut down / wiped out due to loss of their habitat ‘The flight landed / blended in / took off at 5.00 pm. Complete the text with the words below. raised * tock ... advice * famous for * various crops diseases * encouraged * hardships environmentally friendly © concerned Jack London Jack London, one of the most successful American writers in the early 20th century, is... his books about nature, He wrote beautiful stories about men {and animals who survived despite terrible * London was... by his mother and stepfather. When he was 17, he left home to join 2 seal-hunting ship. After he retumed, his mother *... him to write about his adventures and send the story to a competition, London *... his mother’s ... and won the contest. During his life, Lendon wrote ®... books, such as The Call of the Wild and white Fang. Some of them were based on his personal experiences. But London as not only a writer. In 1905, he bought a farm in California. He vas"... about environmental issues and spent the next ten years trying meny exciting and innovative ideas for growing *... and raising animals. Today, we would call his farming methods ».. . Sadly, London suffered from various... and died when he was only 40 years old, GRAMMAR Complete the sentences with the correct form of the verbs in brackets. 1.We ... (not wake up) if our dog hadn't barked. 2. Jake ~. (volunteer) at the animal shelter since he was 16. 3... they .. (have to / clean) the cages every day? 4, We ... the new sofa... (not deliver) last week. Its coming tomorow. 5. Next summer, all the animals in the 209 (move) to.a wildlife sanctuary 6. Jake wishes he ... (not buy) 2 horse because hhe never has time to go riding. 7. There's a new law banning animal testing. When .. it. (pass)? 8, The crocodiles... (not feed) yet. 'm feeding them in an hour. ‘Complete the sentences with the correct form of ‘the verbs below. behave * search * see * go * revise © locate take after © not bring up Romulus and Remus .. by their parents. They were raised by wolves, While you were sleeping, the children .. very badly. IF only |... to Australia. 'é love to see kangaroos in the wil. She ... the internet for hours before she found the Information she needed. My dog hasn't been well | should ... him by the vet. Who... you ... - your mother or your father? _ Our teacher told us ... for the test dung the weekend. 8. The missing boy just. by the police. WRITING SKILLS Choose the correct answer. 1. After years of travelling, she finally / later decided to buy a home in London. 2. Despite / Although he had studied chemistry, he was more interested in zoology. 3. They could not take the dog to the park because / due to the terrible weather. 4. In order to / So that rescue certain species of animals, we must protect their habitat. 5. While / During the aftemoon, you can take a bus te Cambridge. 6. The animals had been trained by an expert 50 that / so as tozhey would be well behaved. 7. First / At first, she would bring the lost animals to the shelter. Then, she would find their owners. EXTRA CULTURE [Read the text. Then do the exercises below. (077) ANIMAL SYMBOLS OF THE UK Many countries choose an animal chat is pare of their caltuse asa symbol of their nation, Here are the animal symbols of the four countries thac make up the United Kingdom: England, Scotland, Wales and Northern Ireland, THE LION OF ENGLAND Lions, which are a symbol of courage, ace everywhere in England, There are four bronze lions at che foot of Nelson's Column in Trafalgar Square in London and aay English foocbal fan will recognise the three lion symbol of the English Football Association. The fact is that the lion's connection with England goes back to the 11th century, when it became symbol of che Nerman rulers. Abour one hundred years later, Richard 1, King of England, was known as Richard the Lionhearc because of his bravery. Richards symbol was three golden lions, a symbol which represents royalty to this day. THE UNICORN OF SCOTLAND An ancient Celtic Scottish mythology, the unicorn was considered ro be a creature with a pure and fice spirit whose narure could also be wild and dangerous, particularly when hunted or captured. In carly illustrations of the unicorn, we see a gold chain around its body, showing thar people would not be safe if this creature escaped. Considering that so much of Scottish history was invalved in a batde to be independent from the English, the unicorn isa particularly good symbol for these courageous and independent people, From the 15th century on, the unicorn appears in royal documents as a symbol of the Scottish nation. THE RED DRAGON OF WALES Like the English word dragov, the Welsh word draig co from the Greek. drakon. But in Welsh, draig also means leader or great fighter. In many ways, that is how the Welsh sex the dragon, which is their national symbol. For them, | 2 good leader nceds the strength and power of a dragon, as well 2s its destructive force. Roman soldiers, who used the dragon as 2 symbol, might have been the firse people to bring images of this dangerous creacure to Wales. However, very quickly the dragon found its way into Welsh culture and literaru red dragon of Wales can he wen standing proud on the Welsh ag, Today, the THE WOLFHOUND OF IRELAND ‘The lish Wolfhound, which is the largest breed of dog in the world. has got origins that go back ro ezely Trish history. The name it was given in che old Gaelic langage of ireland was Cus which means hunting dog or wolf dog. These dogs excelled both in bunting and in battle, and were described as “beautiful and majestic ... being the greatest of the dog kind ro be seen in the world”. We know from ancient Gaelic ligeracure that many ancient Irish hetoes put the syllable Cu before their names. Even today, many Lrish names, like Conan, begin with the lewers Co, often a derivative of Cu. 2 Complete the semences. 1. The three golden lions, which are the symbol of English royalty today, were also 2. The unicorn was considered to be dangerous, so early artists 3. In Welsh, the word draig means both .. and 4. Irish heroes put the syllable Cu before their names to show 3 Answer the questions. 1, What is common to the four animals which are used as symbols in the UK? 2. What do the symbols of Scotland and Wales have in common? 3. Which three texts refer to a modem use of an ancient symbol? 7 ea ie took at the photos below. What situations ? do you think they show? (ams eer =) = EA eS RN TOPIC VOCABULARY Match the speech bubbles to the pictures on page £0. Pay attention to the ‘words in colour. There may be more than one correct answer. 3 Choose the correct answer to show you understand the words i 1.Who might charge less money for their work? a. a lawyer b. a babysitter 2. How many hours a day is usually considarad full time? 4.6.5 D8 3. How might you apply for a position? a. byemail b. by text message 4, How might you make a profit? a. by selling something —_b. by buying something 5. What does a trainee do? a. teaches new skills b. learns new skills 6. What does an employee do? a. pay people to work for him / her ’b, work for people who pay him / her 7. What kind of job do you get when you are promoted? a. a better job b. a worse job '& Which might you expect if you work in a supportive environment? a. tobe criticised b. to be encouraged 1. receiving on-the-job training 2. working part time 3. running your own business 4. working full time 5. having opportunities for being promoted 6. working in a place with a supportive environment 5 Can you remember why Lily wants to save up some money? What's your idea of « cream job? ‘My dream would be to run my own company. 1. ve got a part-time job that 2. Tim happy my boss is giving doesrit interfere with my studios. ‘me on-the-job training. 3. There must be easier ways 4, Lhope the empleyer is to moke a living. impressed with my Cv 5, Tim taking a course to leam 6. When you run e company, you ‘bout being se'f-employed. may have fo work long hours. =| GU serices cr ons-co | The suffix-eris used | to label the person whe does the action. The suffix ee is used to label the person affected by the action. So, for example, an ‘employer pays an employee to work for hirm or her. Find another example of a word with the suffix ee in Exercise 3. ‘Today, more and more hotels ate employing a Teen Concierge Thisisa teenager whose jobit isto offer travel tips and advice for teenagers staying at the hotel with their families. | suppose I'm looking for I'd prefer. My dream would beto I guess I'll try to find I?m aot sure, but I think .. eaed cd @) Scrappers are people that collect ©) metal rubbish from the streets. ‘Why do you think they do this? SCANNING FOR INFORMATION Scan the text to find the information below. the name of the series the amount of waste metal that is recycled every year how long ago Michael's scrap metal company was set Up the names of two expensive brands ‘mentioned in connection with Michael 5. the number of metal thefts that were registered with the British police in one year > teading Strategies. page 156 A, MULTIPLE-CHOICE QUESTIONS Read the text. “Then choose the correct answer. |. What do all the people mentioned in the text have in common? a. They all make a lot of money from serap metal b. They all run a family business. . Thoy all search the streets of London for scrap metal. dd. They all deal in scrap metal that ends up being recycled. What do we learn about metal theft? a, Metal theft has increased in recent years. b. Over £770 million are spent yearly on prevention, c. The new laws will protect businesses that deal in scrap metal There are more illegal scrap businesses than legal ones. srswering Techniques, page 158, crappers Scrappers is the first documentary in the two-part TV programme called Getting Rich in the Recession. The series looks into some UK businesses that are managing to do well in difficult times. Outdated CD players and TVs, chairs and lamps. broken washing machines, microwave ovens and even unwanted cars —we throw most of these things away without thinking. Yet the moment our metal rubbish is on the street, somecne will be there to takeit. Scrap-metal businesses usually auy the meta ‘that poople collect from the street. Then they sell for a profit to laige recycling plants. Approximate! 19 milion tonnes of metal are recycled every yea in the UK. The job may not be gamorous, but Britain's serap-metal industry has realy picked up — today it’s a £10-bilion-a-year industry. In Scrappers, youl get to know some of the fascinating characters that are involved in a successful scrap-metal business. Meet the Boss and the Workers Michael, who's in his thirties, runs @ scrap-metal company that his grandparents sat up about years ago. Michae) buys most of the metal from sel employed men and women who search the London streets for treasures Uiat other people have thrown ‘away. Working independently, these “scrappers”, as they are caled, sell the metal to Michael, who than sells it to 2 metal recyciing centre, Wrile other usinesses are having a difficult time surviving, Michael wears @ Rolex and drives around in @ Mercedes. Ex-corwvict Adam couldn't find a job when he got out of prison, He needed to mate a living, so he set up his own business, collecting and sallng scrap metal = to Michgel's company. Adam is up early, driving his small lorry through the streets, so he be the fist to find the metal waste people have

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