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Variable Speed Drives (VSDs), also known as adjustable speed drives, are large industrial electric motors whose speed can be adjusted by means of an external controller. They are used in process control and help saving energy in plants that use many powerful electric motors.

The use of adjustable speed in process control matches the motor speed to the required tasks and may compensate for changes in the process's variables. The use of adjustable speed for saving energy is exemplified by the adjusting the speed of a colling fan motor to match the temperature of the machinery parts it is cooling.

VSDs are effective in energy savers in pump and fan applications; "they enhance process operations, particularly where flow control is involved. VSDs provide soft-start capabilities, which decrease electrical stresses and line voltage sags associated with full voltage motor start-ups, especially when driving high-inertia loads." (S.S. Turkel, see on-line reference below)

Adjustable frequency drives are a specific type of VSDs; they are controlling the rotational speed of an alternating current (AC) electric motor by controlling the frequency of the electrical power supplied to the motor.

Variable-frequency types

There are three common types of VFDs. Current source inversion (CSI) has been

successfully used in signal processing and industrial power applications. CSI VFDs are the only type that has regenerative power capability. In other words, they can absorb

electric component of choice to generate the voltage pulse is the insulated gate bipolar transistor (IGBT), although silicon-controlled rectifiers (SCRs) can work as well. In the near

power flow back from the motor into the power future, injection-enhanced gate transistors

supply. CSI VFDs give a very clean current waveform but require large, expensive inductors in their construction and cause cogging (pulsating movement during rotation) below 6 Hz.

(IEGTs) will be used to perform this task. Much more long term, memristors will probably become the component of choice for this task.

Memristors are the fourth passive circuit

element, linking electric charge and magnetic Voltage source inversion (VSI) drives have poor flux. Memristors have been hypothesized to

power factor, can cause motor cogging below 6 Hz, and are non-regenerative. Consequently, CSI and VSI drives have not been widely used.

Pulse-width modulation (PWM) VFDs are most commonly used in industry because of excellent input power factor due to fixed DC bus voltage, no motor cogging, higher efficiencies, and lower cost. A PWM VFD uses a series of voltage pulses of different lengths to simulate a sinusoidal wave (Fig. 1 ). Ideally, the pulses are timed so that the time average integral of the drive yields a perfect sinusoid. The current method of choice to produce this waveform runs a triangle wave and sine wave through a comparator, and outputs a voltage pulse whenever the sine wave's value is greater than the triangle wave. The current

exist for more than 30 years, but were not fabricated until April 2008 by Hewlett Packard Labs. Hewlett Packard hopes to use these devices as a passive transistor, reducing their heat generation compared to other types of memory. Regardless of the component used to form the sine wave, the switching action causes problems.

WHAT IS THE DIFFERENCE BETWEEN A VFD be a VSD however a VSD will not necessarily

WHAT IS THE DIFFERENCE BETWEEN A VFD

be a VSD however a VSD will not necessarily

be a VFD. A VSD that uses a DC motor will vary

the speed and torque

of

the

motor

by

controlling the voltage and current.

In many situations, installing a variable speed

drive to reduce your overall power usage for

the same overall level of output makes really

good sense. If you would like to find out more

in terms of how you can reduce your energy

costs and potentially increase the life of your

equipment then contact Zener today on 1300

4 ZENER (1300 4 93637).

Variable Speed Drives

VSDs, also known as adjustable speed drives,

frequency of the electric motor. This type of

drive is beneficial because it allows machinery

to run at lower than full speed. This provides

cost efficiency and reduces energy

consumption. Additionally, using a VFD may

help to improve the quality and lifetime of the

equipment and can decrease production costs.

As you can see, there are some differences

between a VSD and a VFD, but there are also

many similarities.

At

times,

a

variable

frequency drive varies the speed of the

equipment

that

it

is

operating,

 

so

it

can

actually be

referred to

as

a

variable speed

drive as well. Not all variable frequency drives

work this way.

 

AND A VSD?

The terms variable frequency drive and

variable speed drive are quite regularly used to

describe the same piece of equipment. There

is however a fundamental differences between

the two.

A VFD which could also be called an adjustable

frequency drive, an AC-drive or an inverter

drive can only be utilised on AC motors. A

works at different speeds to help control the

What's the difference between a variable

speed of the machinery that it is controlling.

The ability to change speeds helps when

frequency drive (VFD) and a variable speed

working on assembly lines, for example, drive (VSD)?

because various parts of the line may need to

operate at different speeds. Additionally, not

o

all mechanical equipment is going to work at

the same speed so a variable speed drive can

help. VSD types of drives can be mechanical,

hydraulic, electromechanical, or electronic.

A Variable Frequency Drive (VFD): is a

drive that works on changing the frequency

of an AC motor, it always refers and can be

used with AC drives only.

Variable frequency drive will be used within

electro mechanical drive systems utilising AC It is also important to note that there may be a

o

A Variable Speed Drive (VSD): is a drive

motors and will control the speed and torque of difference between a variable speed drive and

that works on changing the speed of a motor

the motor by adjusting the voltage and input an adjustable speed drive. The adjustable

frequency.

 

The

term

VSD,

variable

speed

drive

or

adjustable speed drive can be used in respect

speed drive works within a preset range, but

the operating speed on a variable speed drive

can be adjusted outside of those limits.

by varying the voltage supplied to it

regardless of its type, it always refers to

either AC Drives or DC Drives.

Variable Frequency Drive or VFD

of drive systems that utilise AC or DC motors

and occasionally even completely mechanical

methods of speed control. As such, a VFD will

Variable Frequency Drives

VFDs operate equipment at different speeds as

well, but it by varying the voltage and/or

It is interesting to know that the first A.C.

drive (400 HP) based on thyratron

cycloconverter-fed WRIM was installed in 1932

by F.E. Alexanderson of General Electric in the

A full-wave power diode based solid-state

rectifier converts three-phase 50 Hz power

frequency (V/Hz). It consists of an electronic

circuit which receives feedback information

Logan Power Station of Pacific Gas and Electric from a standard 220, 440 or higher utility

from the driven motor and adjusts the output

Company. From then industrial drives have

supply to either fixed or adjustable DC voltage. voltage or frequency to the desired values.

evolved rapidly by dedicated effort of many

The system may include transformers for high

Control system may be based on SPWM (Sine

scientists and engineers all over the world

voltage system.

Wave PWM), SVPWM (Space Vector modulated

resulting in development of advanced drive

PWM) or some soft computing based

technology such as Variable Frequency

Inverter Stage

algorithm.

Drive(VFD).VFD is a power electronics based

device which converts a basic fixed frequency,

Power electronic switches such as IGBT, GTO

Induction Motor Characteristic under Variable

fixed voltage sine wave power (line power) to

a variable frequency, variable output voltage

or SCR switch the DC power from rectifier on

and off to produce a current or voltage

Frequency Drive

used to control speed of induction motor(s). It

regulates the speed of a three phase induction

waveform at the required new frequency.

o

Presently most of the voltage source inverters

motor by controlling the frequency and voltage (VSI) use pulse width modulation (PWM)

of the power supplied to the motor. Since the

because the current and voltage waveform at

number of pole is constant the speed N s can be output in this scheme is approximately a sine

varied by continuously changing frequency.

wave. Power Electronic switches such as IGBT;

GTO etc. switch DC voltage at high speed,

cycloconverter-fed WRIM was installed in 1932 by F.E. Alexanderson of General Electric in the A full-wavediode based solid-state rectifier converts three-phase 50 Hz power frequency (V/Hz). It consists of an electronic circuit which receives feedback information Logan Power Station of Pacific Gas and Electric from a standard 220, 440 or higher utility from the driven motor and adjusts the output Company. From then industrial drives have supply to either fixed or adjustable DC voltage. voltage or frequency to the desired values. evolved rapidly by dedicated effort of many The system may include transformers for high Control system may be based on SPWM (Sine scientists and engineers all over the world voltage system. Wave PWM), SVPWM (Space Vector modulated resulting in development of advanced drive PWM) or some soft computing based technology such as Variable Frequency Inverter Stage algorithm. Drive ( VFD ). VFD is a power electronics based device which converts a basic fixed frequency, Power electronic switches such as IGBT, GTO Induction Motor Characteristic under Variable fixed voltage sine wave power (line power) to a variable frequency, variable output voltage or SCR switch the DC power from rectifier on and off to produce a current or voltage Frequency Drive used to control speed of induction motor(s). It regulates the speed of a three phase induction waveform at the required new frequency. o Presently most of the voltage source inverters motor by controlling the frequency and voltage (VSI) use pulse width modulation (PWM) of the power supplied to the motor. Since the because the current and voltage waveform at number of pole is constant the speed N can be output in this scheme is approximately a sine varied by continuously changing frequency. wave. Power Electronic switches such as IGBT; GTO etc. switch DC voltage at high speed, producing a series of short-width pulses of constant amplitude. Output voltage is varied by varying the gain of the inverter. Output frequency is adjusted by changing the number of pulses per half cycle or by varying the period for each time cycle. The resulting current in an induction motor simulates a sine wave of the desired output frequency. The high speed switching action of a PWM inverter results in less waveform distortion and hence decreases harmonic In an induction motor induced in stator, E is proportional to the product of the slip frequency and the air gap flux. The terminal voltage can be considered proportional to the product of the slip frequency and flux , if stator drop is neglected. Any reduction in the supply frequency without a change in the terminal voltage causes an increase in the air gap flux which will cause magnetic saturation of motor. Also the torque capability of motor is decreased. Hence while controlling a motor with the help of VFD or Variable Frequency Drive we always keep the V/f ratio constant. Now define variable ‘K’ as, Working of Variable Frequency Drive Any Variable Frequency Drive or VFD incorporates following three stages for controlling a three phase induction motor. Rectifier Stage losses. Control System Its function is to control output voltage i.e. voltage vector of inverter being fed to motor and maintain a constant ratio of voltage to For operation below K < 1 i.e. below rated frequency we have constant flux operation. For this we maintain constant magnetization " id="pdf-obj-2-117" src="pdf-obj-2-117.jpg">

producing a series of short-width pulses of

constant amplitude. Output voltage is varied

by varying the gain of the inverter. Output

frequency is adjusted by changing the number

of pulses per half cycle or by varying the

period for each time cycle.

The resulting current in an induction motor

simulates a sine wave of the desired output

frequency. The high speed switching action of

a PWM inverter results in less waveform

distortion and hence decreases harmonic

In an induction motor induced in stator,

E is proportional to the product of the slip

frequency and the air gap flux. The terminal

voltage can be considered proportional to

the product of the slip frequency and flux, if

stator drop is neglected. Any reduction in

the supply frequency without a change in

the terminal voltage causes an increase in

the air gap flux which will cause magnetic

saturation of motor. Also the torque

capability of motor is decreased. Hence

while controlling a motor with the help of

VFD or Variable Frequency Drive we always

keep the V/f ratio constant. Now define

variable ‘K’ as,

Working of Variable Frequency Drive

Any Variable Frequency Drive or VFD

incorporates following three stages for

controlling a three phase induction motor.

Rectifier Stage

losses.

Control System

Its function is to control output voltage i.e.

voltage vector of inverter being fed to motor

and maintain a constant ratio of voltage to

cycloconverter-fed WRIM was installed in 1932 by F.E. Alexanderson of General Electric in the A full-wavediode based solid-state rectifier converts three-phase 50 Hz power frequency (V/Hz). It consists of an electronic circuit which receives feedback information Logan Power Station of Pacific Gas and Electric from a standard 220, 440 or higher utility from the driven motor and adjusts the output Company. From then industrial drives have supply to either fixed or adjustable DC voltage. voltage or frequency to the desired values. evolved rapidly by dedicated effort of many The system may include transformers for high Control system may be based on SPWM (Sine scientists and engineers all over the world voltage system. Wave PWM), SVPWM (Space Vector modulated resulting in development of advanced drive PWM) or some soft computing based technology such as Variable Frequency Inverter Stage algorithm. Drive ( VFD ). VFD is a power electronics based device which converts a basic fixed frequency, Power electronic switches such as IGBT, GTO Induction Motor Characteristic under Variable fixed voltage sine wave power (line power) to a variable frequency, variable output voltage or SCR switch the DC power from rectifier on and off to produce a current or voltage Frequency Drive used to control speed of induction motor(s). It regulates the speed of a three phase induction waveform at the required new frequency. o Presently most of the voltage source inverters motor by controlling the frequency and voltage (VSI) use pulse width modulation (PWM) of the power supplied to the motor. Since the because the current and voltage waveform at number of pole is constant the speed N can be output in this scheme is approximately a sine varied by continuously changing frequency. wave. Power Electronic switches such as IGBT; GTO etc. switch DC voltage at high speed, producing a series of short-width pulses of constant amplitude. Output voltage is varied by varying the gain of the inverter. Output frequency is adjusted by changing the number of pulses per half cycle or by varying the period for each time cycle. The resulting current in an induction motor simulates a sine wave of the desired output frequency. The high speed switching action of a PWM inverter results in less waveform distortion and hence decreases harmonic In an induction motor induced in stator, E is proportional to the product of the slip frequency and the air gap flux. The terminal voltage can be considered proportional to the product of the slip frequency and flux , if stator drop is neglected. Any reduction in the supply frequency without a change in the terminal voltage causes an increase in the air gap flux which will cause magnetic saturation of motor. Also the torque capability of motor is decreased. Hence while controlling a motor with the help of VFD or Variable Frequency Drive we always keep the V/f ratio constant. Now define variable ‘K’ as, Working of Variable Frequency Drive Any Variable Frequency Drive or VFD incorporates following three stages for controlling a three phase induction motor. Rectifier Stage losses. Control System Its function is to control output voltage i.e. voltage vector of inverter being fed to motor and maintain a constant ratio of voltage to For operation below K < 1 i.e. below rated frequency we have constant flux operation. For this we maintain constant magnetization " id="pdf-obj-2-196" src="pdf-obj-2-196.jpg">

For operation below K < 1 i.e. below rated

frequency we have constant flux operation.

For this we maintain constant magnetization

current I m for all operating points. For K > 1

i.e. above rated frequency we maintain

terminal voltage Vrated constant. In this

field is weakened in the inverse ratio of per

cost savings becomes more pronounced in

variable-torque ID fan and pump applications,

where the load’s torque and power is directly

proportional to the square and cube of the

speed respectively.

Extended Machine Life and Less

Maintenance

The VFD’s greatly reduce wear to the motor,

increase life of the equipment and decrease

maintenance costs. Due to optimal voltage and

unit frequency ‘K’. For values of K = 1 we

have constant torque operation and above

that we have constant power application.

Increased Reliability

Adjustable speed motor-drive systems are

more reliable than traditional mechanical

approaches such as using valves, gears,

louvers or turbines to control speed and flow.

current I for all operating points. For K > 1 i.e. above rated frequency we maintaing es builds magnetic field s or charges capacitor is called reactive power and is measured in kVAR. The vector sum of the kW and the kVAR is the Apparent Power and is measured in KVA. Power factor is the ratio of kW/KVA. Typical AC motors may have a full load power factor ranging from 0.7 to 0.8. As the motor load is reduced, the power factor becomes low. The advantage of using VFD’s is that it includes capacitors in the DC Bus itself which maintains high power factor on the line side of the Merits of using Variable Frequency Drives Energy Saving Primary function of VFD in industry is to provide smooth control along with energy savings. The variable speed motor drive system is more efficient than all other flow control methods including valves, turbines, Soft Starting Variable Frequency Drive. This eliminates the need of additional expensive capacitor banks. When Variable Frequency Drives start large motors, the drawbacks associated with large inrush current i.e. starting current (winding stress, winding overheating and voltage dip on connected bus) is eliminated. This reduces chances of insulation or winding damage and provides extended motor life. Slip Power Recovery The fundamental power given to rotor by stator is called air gap power P . The mechanical power developed is given by hydraulic transmissions, dampers, etc. Energy " id="pdf-obj-3-48" src="pdf-obj-3-48.jpg">

Unlike mechanical control system they don’t

have any moving parts hence they are highly

reliable.

Speed Variations

Beyond energy saving, applications such as

crushers, conveyors and grinding mills can use

the motor and VFD’s packages to provide

optimal speed variations. In some crucial

applications, the operating speed range can be

wide, which a motor supplied with a constant

frequency power source cannot provide. In the

case of conveyors and mills, a VFD and motor

system can even provide a “crawl” speed foe

maintenance purposes eliminating the need for

additional drives.

frequency control it offers better protection to

the motor from issues such as electro thermal

overloads, phase faults, over voltage, under

voltage etc. When we start a motor (on load)

with help of a VFD, the motor is not subjected

to “instant shock” hence there is less wear and

tear of belt, gear and pulley system.

High Power Factor

Power converted to rotation, heat, sound, etc.

is called active power and is measured in

kilowatts (kW). Power that charges builds

magnetic fields or charges capacitor is called

reactive power and is measured in kVAR. The

vector sum of the kW and the kVAR is the

Apparent Power and is measured in KVA.

Power factor is the ratio of kW/KVA. Typical AC

motors may have a full load power factor

ranging from 0.7 to 0.8. As the motor load is

reduced, the power factor becomes low. The

advantage of using VFD’s is that it includes

capacitors in the DC Bus itself which maintains

high power factor on the line side of the

Merits of using Variable Frequency Drives

Energy Saving

Primary function of VFD in industry is to

provide smooth control along with energy

savings. The variable speed motor drive

system is more efficient than all other flow

control methods including valves, turbines,

Soft Starting

Variable Frequency Drive. This eliminates the

need of additional expensive capacitor banks.

When Variable Frequency Drives start large

motors, the drawbacks associated with large

inrush current i.e. starting current (winding

stress, winding overheating and voltage dip on

connected bus) is eliminated. This reduces

chances of insulation or winding damage and

provides extended motor life.

Slip Power Recovery

The fundamental power given to rotor by

stator is called air gap power P g . The

mechanical power developed is given by

current I for all operating points. For K > 1 i.e. above rated frequency we maintaing es builds magnetic field s or charges capacitor is called reactive power and is measured in kVAR. The vector sum of the kW and the kVAR is the Apparent Power and is measured in KVA. Power factor is the ratio of kW/KVA. Typical AC motors may have a full load power factor ranging from 0.7 to 0.8. As the motor load is reduced, the power factor becomes low. The advantage of using VFD’s is that it includes capacitors in the DC Bus itself which maintains high power factor on the line side of the Merits of using Variable Frequency Drives Energy Saving Primary function of VFD in industry is to provide smooth control along with energy savings. The variable speed motor drive system is more efficient than all other flow control methods including valves, turbines, Soft Starting Variable Frequency Drive. This eliminates the need of additional expensive capacitor banks. When Variable Frequency Drives start large motors, the drawbacks associated with large inrush current i.e. starting current (winding stress, winding overheating and voltage dip on connected bus) is eliminated. This reduces chances of insulation or winding damage and provides extended motor life. Slip Power Recovery The fundamental power given to rotor by stator is called air gap power P . The mechanical power developed is given by hydraulic transmissions, dampers, etc. Energy " id="pdf-obj-3-175" src="pdf-obj-3-175.jpg">

hydraulic transmissions, dampers, etc. Energy

The term 'sP' is called slip power.

  • 3. They are also used in modern lifts,

escalators and pumping systems.

  • 4. Nowadays they are being also used in

The term 'sP' is called slip power. 3. They are also used in modern lifts, escalatorsinduction motor (dealing with variable load) whose power rating ranges from few kW to few MW. 2. Variable Frequency Drive is used in traction system. In India it is being used by Delhi Metro Rail Corporation. works at different speeds to help control the speed of the machinery that it is controlling. The ability to change speeds helps when working on assembly lines, for example, because various parts of the line may need to operate at different speeds. Additionally, not all mechanical equipment is going to work at the same speed so a variable speed drive can " id="pdf-obj-4-10" src="pdf-obj-4-10.jpg">

energy efficient refrigerators, AC’s and

Outside-air Economizers.

Purchasing the right equipment for your

business is essential, especially if you operate

an assembly line or any other machinery that

requires operation at specific speeds. There

are many options available as far as drives are

concerned. Some people get confused about

the types of drives on the market; especially

when you start talking about variable speed

drives

(VSD) and variable frequency

drives (VFD). Is there a difference between

these two drives?

If you do some online research, you may come

across some articles arguing that VSDs and

VFDs are essentially the same types of device.

If the slip is very large i.e. speed is low then

there is ample waste of power, a common

example is kiln drives of cement industry. This

power can be saved through slip recovery

scheme.In this scheme slip power is first

collected through brushes of WRIM. This slip

power recovered is then rectified and inverted

back to line frequency and is injected into

supply through coupling transformer.The

scheme is shown in figure below.

Thinking that these two devices are

interchangeable is wrong. Understanding the

real difference between a variable speed drive

and a variable frequency drive can help you to

make the proper decision as to which is going

to work best for your business.

Variable Speed Drives

VSDs, also known as adjustable speed drives,

help. VSD types of drives can be mechanical,

hydraulic, electromechanical, or electronic.

It is also important to note that there may be

a difference between a variable speed drive

and an adjustable speed drive. The adjustable

speed drive works within a preset range, but

the operating speed on a variable speed drive

can be adjusted outside of those limits.

Variable Frequency Drives

VFDs operate equipment at different speeds as

well, but it by varying the voltage and/or

frequency of the electric motor. This type of

drive is beneficial because it allows machinery

to run at lower than full speed. This provides

cost efficiency and reduces energy

consumption. Additionally, using a VFD may

help to improve the quality and lifetime of the

equipment and can decrease production costs.

As

you can

see,

there are some differences

between a VSD and a VFD, but there are also

many

similarities.

At

times,

a

variable

frequency drive varies the speed of the

equipment

that

it

is

operating,

so

it

can

actually

be

referred to

as

a variable

speed

drive as well. Not all variable frequency drives

work this way.

 

Applications of Variable Frequency Drive

  • 1. They are mostly used in industries for

large induction motor (dealing with variable

load) whose power rating ranges from few

kW to few MW.

  • 2. Variable Frequency Drive is used in

traction system. In India it is being used by

Delhi Metro Rail Corporation.

works at different speeds to help control the

speed of the machinery that it is controlling.

The ability to change speeds helps when

working on assembly lines, for example,

because various parts of the line may need to

operate at different speeds. Additionally, not

all mechanical equipment is going to work at

the same speed so a variable speed drive can

http://www.slideshare.net/nsihag/variable- frequency-drives-17950985

http://www.slideshare.net/nsihag/variable-

frequency-drives-17950985

http://www.slideshare.net/nsihag/variable- frequency-drives-17950985