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# Abstract

This section of my notes seeks to fill in the theoretical concepts related to my thesis research. This will
focus on review of vocabulary from real analysis, and some specifics regarding Sobolev spaces

## Notation: Br (p) - {x Rn : ||x p|| < r}

Notation: Q - is the unit ball.
Notation: Q0 - represents {(x1 , . . . , xn ) Q|xn = 0}
Notation: Q+ - represents {(x1 , . . . , xn ) Q|xn > 0}
Notation: Ball (open or closed) - First, the comparatively simple Euclidean ball. An ball about point p is the set
of points within the radius r from p.

In general metric spaces a ball is simply defined as the set of points within the the metric distance d(p, x) < r.
Notationally this would be described as the ball noted earlier with the norm replaced with the metric value.

The ball becomes open or closed based on whether we include or do not include the boundary r respectively.
Notation: Open - In context to metric spaces, a set will be open when the points contained within the set
each have an open ball about them.
Definition 0.1. A Lipschitz domain is a domain in Euclidean space whose boundary is locally the graph
of a Lipschitz continuous domain. A more formal definition is as follows:
Say that we have n N with domain and open subset of Rn with boundary of . Then has a
Lipschitz domain if {p , radius r > 0 with map of hp : Br (p) Q} such that hp meets the following
qualities:
1. hp is a bijective function.
2. hp , h1
p are Lipschitz continuous functions.
3. hp ( Br (p) = Q0
4. hp ( Br (p) = Q0
What is the significance of Lipschitz domain? It essentially means that the domain that we are working
on for a function will behave normally - there wont be any sudden jumps at the boundaries.