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The Multi-Universe Cosmos

A New Cosmological Theory on the Birth of the Cosmos, our Universe and It’s Fate
A. Karel Velan
Montreal, Canada


The present leading cosmological theory of the classical Big Bang with its various refinements, as well as the prevailing theory of
chaotic inflation, do not provide any explanation on the creation of the Singularity, matter and energy, the nature of the Nothingness
or the environment in which the Singularity appeared as well as the explosion process of the Singularity or an acceptable explanation
for the creation of cosmic structures (galaxies).
The most striking recent development in cosmology has come from explosion studies of supernovae which seemingly reveal that
the expansion speed of the universe changes with time and presently the Universe accelerates, having a negative pressure to
counterbalance the energy density.
Here I present a few comments on the difficulties and issues published by the world’s leading cosmologists.


S. HAWKING (1995) (2)

"According to the general relativity, there should be a singularity in our past. At this singularity, the field equations could not be
defined. This, classical general relative brings about its own downfall: it predicts that it can’t predict the universe. The only way to
have a scientific theory is if the laws of physics hold everywhere, including at the beginning of the universe. One can regard that as
a triumph for the principles of democracy. Why should the beginning of the universe be exempt from the laws that apply to other
points? If all points are equal, one can’t allow some to be more equal than others".
"The universe was created quite literally out of nothing, not just out of vacuum but of absolutely nothing at all, because there is
nothing outside the universe."

A. GUTH (1997) (3)

"How did it start? The Big Bang theory does not really address this question as it describes the universe from immediately after its
creation onward."
"Given the present understanding of conservation laws, is there any hope for a scientific description of the creation of the universe?
If conservation laws imply that "nothing can be created from nothing" as Lucretius put it, then how could the universe have come
into being? If the creation of the universe is to be described by physical laws that embody the conservation of energy, then the
universe must have the same energy as whatever it was created from."
"The Big Bang theory does not really address the origin as it describes the universe from immediately after its creation onwards."


P.J.E. PEEBLES (1995) (9)

"Roughly 15 billion years ago, all matter and energy we can observe was concentrated in a region smaller than a dime."

JOSEPH SILK (1997) (7)

"The very early universe might have been empty and contained only an intense gravitational field which itself created matter and
radiation out of a vacuum of space-time."


P.J.E. PEEBLES (1995) (9)

"The expansion has had little influence on the size of galaxies or even clusters of galaxies bound by gravity; space is simply opening
up between them. In this sense, the expansion is similar to a rising loaf of raisin bread, or a balloon."

HUBERT REEVES (1994) (9)

In Dernières Nouvelles du Cosmos (1994), "...Do galaxies themselves have a movement or are they simply carried along by the
expansion of space? A priori, both statements are possible..."



"The "standard" big bang model has a serious setback: it has difficulty explaining the existence of a multitude of material objects
which populate the universe - the galaxies.
What is the origin of this dilemma? If we consider a volume of space-time containing a mass of particles equal to a cluster of
galaxies, (1015 solar masses) this region could collapse gravitationally only if its small density variations were unstable and grew
with time. Galaxies appeared after the recombination era - after hydrogen and helium atoms formed - and when the photons which
we observe today as the microwave background radiation (400 photons/cm3) decoupled from matter and were free to propagate.
The temperature had cooled to 3,000K and objects were 1,000 times closer together than they are today. Consequently, the ratio of
density variations is 1,000 times greater now than it was back then.
If Ω=1 as current theories predict, the ratio of density variations during the decoupling era should have been 1/1000 (10-3) what it
is today. But this is where the standard big bang theory runs into difficulty. The temperature/density variations found by COBE, in
the cosmic microwave background radiation, were less than 1 part in 100,000 (10-5) - which is 100 times (10-2) too small to
precipitate gravitational collapse and galaxy formation."


JOSEPH SILK (1992) (9)

"The very early universe might have been empty and contained only an intense gravitational field which itself created matter and
radiation out of a vacuum of space-time."

J.D. BARROW (1993) (9)

"All mass in the universe was compressed into a state of infinite density."

P.J.E. PEEBLES (1994) (9)

"Roughly 15 billion years ago, all matter and energy we can observe was concentrated in a region smaller than a dime."

S. HAWKING (1995) (9)

"The very early universe was created quite literally out of nothing, not just out of the vacuum but out of absolutely nothing at all,
because there is nothing outside the universe."


A.H. GUTH (1997) (3)

"Conceivably, everything can be created from nothing. And "everything" might include a lot more than we can see. In the context
of inflationary cosmology, it is fair to say that the universe is the ultimate free lunch."
If inflation is correct, then the inflationary mechanism is responsible for the creation of essentially all the matter and energy in the
universe. The theory also implies that the observed universe is only a minute fraction of the entire universe, and it strongly suggests
that there are perhaps an infinite number of other universes that are completely disconnected from our own."

ANDREI LINDE (1998) (9)

"Inflationary cosmology is still in the process of active development. It changes in parallel with the rapid development of the theory
of elementary particles. There exist some particle theories where inflation cannot apply.
It may happen also that some models will be in conflict with future astronomical observational data which may show, for example,
that the universe is not flat but open, or the Hubble constant happens to be very large.
Many cosmologists believe that inflation or something very similar should be a necessary ingredient of any internally consistent
cosmological theory."



JOSEPH SILK (1997) (7)

"The density fluctuations responsible for cosmic structure existed before radiation decoupled - but where did they come from
originally? Without the magic of inflation, any physical origin for fluctuations fails dramatically."

ANDREI LINDE (1994) (9)

"Density perturbations produced during inflation affected the distribution of matter in the universe by leaving their imprint on the
microwave background radiation. This imprint was detected by the COBE satellite in 1992.
As the universe expanded, early quantum fluctuations in the scalar field were stretched out until they were smooth; however, later
fluctuations were "frozen" on top of the older ones.
These later disturbances caused the density perturbations that are crucial for the subsequent formation of galaxies. In this way,
inflation can simultaneously explain why the universe is so homogenous and still have the ripples in space discovered by COBE."

ALAN GUTH (1997) (3)

"In the standard big bang cosmology without inflation, an entire spectrum of density perturbations had to be included arbitrarily in
the hypothesized initial conditions, or else galaxies would never form. The mere fact that inflation provides a context in which
density perturbations can be calculated, rather than assumed, is itself a big step forward."


“So far, the data gathered by the Supernova Cosmology Project, based on observations of more than 72 type Ia supernovae, points
to neither a flat universe as depicted by inflation theories or a universe that is closed depicted by the Velan theory. Instead, the data
imply an open, accelerating universe with a positive cosmological constant (Λ>0). Though these results are truly revolutionary, at
present they are still being tested and remain highly speculative.”

by A. Karel Velan, P. Eng.

I propose an entirely new approach to the origin of our universe, one of many in a Multi-Universe Cosmos. The new
model eliminated the mysterious singularity at time 0, the origin of which and its explosion no one can explain.
It is the first cosmological theory (1) which goes beyond the creation of our own Universe, (2) introduces many
innovations to explain the present mysteries: a) what was created first? The Cosmic Space-Time with all the prevailing
laws of physics; b) the Cosmic Space-Time contains a primordial radiation field which, together with "virtual particles"
plays a major role in creation of matter and energy, resulting in the birth of universes in the Cosmos, (3) it is the first
cosmological theory where "the laws of physics hold everywhere, including at the beginning of the universe and at the
same time embody the conservation of energy" (as demanded by Stephen Hawking).
Then approximately 18 billion years ago, our Universe emerged from a superhot, dense fireball of matter and radiation
created in the 4-dimensional cosmic space-time vacuum. A massive appearance of virtual particle pairs due to quantum
fluctuations in the cosmic space-time (Quantum Field Theory) was followed by interaction with a powerful primordial
cosmic radiation field, the missing link to any viable theory of creation, which provided the virtual particle pairs their
rest mass (new hypothesis), creating a large cloud of matter and radiation.
Gravitational implosion of the just created cloud led to the formation of a fireball with a much hotter and denser core.
During the implosion, more elementary particles were created, now directly from radiation at temperatures far exceeding
their threshold creation levels.
Finally, the enormous pressure created by the large thermal energy of the trapped superheated radiation and matter
overpowered the gravitational forces, causing a gigantic explosion of the entire fireball which initiated the expansion and
evolution of our universe. As the universe expanded and cooled, it spawned galaxies, stars, planets and life as we observe
on earth. While the Big Bang theory, despite its successes, cannot explain satisfactorily the origin of density ripples leading
to the formation of large structures, the new theory provides a unique and complete solution to this important issue.

Figure 1. Our Universe, one of many in the multi-universe cosmos.


In this paper I explore dramatically new ideas on the origin of The consequences of the ensuing explosion of the fireball on
the Cosmos and our Universe as one of many, a unique current observational discoveries are discussed in Section 4,
cosmological model free of an initial singularity, yet including the formation of large structures. Section 5 concludes
compatible with the large-scale features of the Universe which with the description of the fate of the Universe.
we observe today. All relevant sections contain the mathematical calculations of
Section 1 outlines the concept of the 4-dimensional Cosmic thermal and gravitational energies in the imploding and
Space-Time continuum with the same features as found in our exploding fireball, the expansion speeds and the parameters
Universe but containing a primordial radiation field. related to the fate of the universe. Using well established laws
The particle creation process and the birth of our Universe as a of physics and formulas and respecting the laws of conservation
large fireball is developed in Section 2. Section 3 covers the of energy that "nothing can be created from nothing", except the
physics of the gravitational implosion leading to the gigantic initial Cosmic Primordial Space-Time.
explosion and expansion of the fireball.


First there was Nothingness.

To ask what conditions prevailed
is meaningless as there was no
space, no matter, no energy, no
time - only Nothingness - a deep
mystery beyond human
Then, by an unknown process or
Divine Power, a secret of nature
that may remain forever a
mystery to intelligent beings, the PRIMORDIAL
Nothingness was transformed RADIATION
into the 4-dimensional Cosmic FIELD
Space-Time Continuum, together
with all the laws of physics and
nature known to us, and maybe PARTICLE
others, to self-govern all PAIRS
subsequent events in the Cosmos,
including the creation of
universes. Time started to click.
To designate the Cosmic Space-
Time as 4-dimensional is another
way of saying that the Cosmos
became a world of events, not
just points in space, and it
required 4 numbers to designate
each event: 3 dimensions for Figure 2. THE 4-DIMENSIONAL COSMIC SPACE-TIME
Quantum fluctuations of space are depicted graphically on top and the primordial
space (x, y, z) and 1 for time (t). radiation field (vertical waves) is shown together with virtual particle pairs (+, –)
appearing spontaneously, interacting and annihilating.

The Cosmos at this stage was in profound darkness with no The lifetime of virtual particles (∆t) can be calculated from
matter but it contained 3 basic characteristics designed to create Heisenberg’s equation of quantum uncertainty, which relates
large clouds of matter and radiation which, by gravity, were time and energy in the following way: ∆t = h/∆E,- where h- is
transformed into fire balls, or baby universes: Planck’s constant and ∆t and ∆E are the uncertainties of time
1. Tiny space cells of 10-33 cm undergo dynamic fluctuations and energy. For the smallest particle pair of an electron-positron
in their topology. They vibrate, expand and collapse in a most and a mass of 0.00102 GeV, the lifetime is 10-10 second. (3) (8)
active way just as in our own vacuum of space-time in 3. The cosmic primordial energy field (Figure 2)
compliance with General Relativity. (Figure 2) a major hypothesis introduced in the new theory, is a
2. Virtual particles (Figure 2) emerge from the vacuum, which powerful electromagnetic field with an energy density of
has a very small but non-zero energy, appearing spontaneously 1012 - 1014 GeV/cm3 which permeates the inter-universe
as particle-antiparticle pairs such as electrons and positrons. cosmic space-time and provides the missing link to any theory
Their lifetime is extremely short, 10-23 to 10-10 second before of creation that is consistent with energy conservation. Virtual
disappearing back into the vacuum. Such virtual particle pairs, particle pairs are transformed into real matter - antimatter
however, can be brought into permanent existence by the particle pairs when the primordial radiation field interacts.
application of an energy input equal to the rest mass of the Direct detection of the primordial radiation field in our universe
particles, in accordance with the equivalence equation of is difficult because it is shielded by a curved region of space-
Einstein: E = Mc2. (3) time outside our universe, created by the tremendous amount of
The density of virtual particles in cosmic space-time, equal to mass-energy contained within. However, as I first predicted in
the space-time in our universe in accordance with the Quantum 1985, the primordial gamma radiation can occasionally enter
Field Theory of 1094 g/cm3 is enormous. Theoretically, less our universe from the cosmic space-time by penetrating the
than 1 cm3 of cosmic space-time has the potential to create the surrounding space-time shell and in my view accounts for the
total mass of our universe of 5.7×1056 g in presence of an super energetic γ rays and cosmic radiation observable bursts
equivalent energy providing the virtual particles their rest mass. detected by space probes. (7)
As the energy equivalent of 1 gram of matter is 5.6×1023 GeV,
it would require an energy of 5.7×1056×5.6×1023 or 32×1079
GeV to create our universe from 1cm3 of cosmic space-time.
(3) (8)


Over the eons, primordial space-time transformed itself into They expand, evolve and collapse - some becoming black
a vast cosmos containing millions of universes – each with holes and others beginning a new cycle of expansion. If one
its own initial configuration, and each in various stages of could stand 20 billion light-years away, in the gravitationally
development. Some illuminate the profound darkness of the
"inter-universe" space-time continuum, appearing like curved space-time surrounding our universe, it would look
flashes of light or shining like mighty galaxies; others are like a sphere covered with galaxies (Figure 3). However, this
opaque or invisible. view would be obscured by a sphere of radiation, located
Created at different times, each universe is filled with matter and ahead of the expanding universe, which escaped at the speed
radiation, some similar in structure to our own. Some are still of light during the radiation decoupling era, some 815,000
young and active, full of galaxies and stars: all are guided years after the initial explosion.
from birth by the same universal physical laws.

Each of these universes are self-contained

units and do not influence one another
(Figure 4). Space-time is gravitationally
curved around each one, and each has a
horizon – or maximum spherical space – in
which it can expand. The radius (R) of the
shell can be calculated from the equation:
R = GM/c2 where G is the gravitational
constant, M is the total mass and c is the
speed of light.
In 1950, Einstein said:
"It is imaginable that the proof will
be given that the world is spherical
if its density (dc) is 2 (1)
( ____0
greater than critical dc= 8πG ) ;
it is hardly imaginable
that one could prove it is

H0 = Hubble constant,
G = gravitational constant

Figure 3. Our universe in the Multi-Universe Cosmos. Figure 4. Curved space sphere
around universes.


About 18 billion years ago, an area of the cosmic space-time

vacuum underwent sudden dynamic quantum fluctuations of
extreme intensity. Small space-time cells of 10-33 cm
vibrated, expanded, attained maximum size, collapsed and
exploded most actively.
Suddenly, whether by pure chance or determined by divine
power, a secret of nature that may remain forever a mystery
to intelligent beings, the particle creation process was
triggered following established laws of nature.
The powerful topological distortions were passed on from one
area to another like tidal waves. This wave effect caused the
simultaneous, widespread appearance of virtual particle pairs
of electrons, electron-neutrinos, up & down quarks (u, d) and
their anti-particles. These were all swept up by the primordial
radiation field, and a great transformation of virtual particles
to real particles ensued. (Figure 5)
Many other types of particles and anti-particles appeared but
were quickly annihilated, due to their very short lifetimes into
The powerful cosmic radiation field provided the virtual
particles with their rest mass necessary to release them into
the real world following the equivalent formula of Einstein
M = E/c2. (4) Meanwhile, a sea of photons originated from
the primordial radiation and from the annihilation of particle-
antiparticle pairs. In seconds, a vast dense cloud of radiation
and elementary particles had formed. (Figure 2, 5)
The photons, electrons, electron-neutrinos, and quarks (which
were later confined in protons and neutrons) became the
building blocks of our universe.
As there was no other justification established, so far, for the
presence of virtual particles in the cosmic space-time, it is
logical to conclude that their high density presence together
with the cosmic primordial radiation field was assigned a
major role in the creation process of universes. Space-time in
our Universe is an extension of the cosmic space-time. FIGURE 5. THE PARTICLE CREATION PROCESS
A cloud of elementary particle pairs is being borne from
The required energy for transformation can be calculated virtual particles (+, –) acquiring their rest mass from the
using Einstein’s formula E = mc2. In case of an electron- primordial radiation field (vertical waves).
positron pair, it is 1 million electron volts. The heavier quarks
(3 quarks to 1 proton or neutron) have a mass of ~.313 GeV. Total mass produced in GeV
Quark-antiquark pairs are produced at an energy level above MT GeV = VSP × Ed = 4.18 × 10 66 × 10 13
~.616 GeV. = 4.18 × 10 79 GeV
As the energy density of the primordial radiation field was Total mass produced in grams
Ed = 1012-1014 GeV/cm3, the cosmic space-time involved in MT 4.18 × 10 79 ~ 1056 g
M = –––––––––
Tg = ––––––––––
the process was equivalent to a ball with a radius R = 1022 cm. 5.6 × 1023 5.6 × 1023
As the energy equivalent to 1g of mass is 5.6×1023 GeV we
can calculate the created mass of particles as follows: The remaining mass of the new universe was created in the
imploding fireball directly from photons at threshold
Volume of the sphere active in the creation process: temperatures (see page 9).
VSP= –43 π R3 = –43 π (1022)3= 4.18 × 10 66 cm3


Figure 6. The embryonic universe, a cloud of matter and radiation turned into a sphere created by gravity.

The just created, massive and dense cloud of particles and 1. BIG BANG.
radiation turned into a sphere subjected to rapid implosion E. Tryon 1973
under gravitational forces created by the mass density of “The universe was created from a virtual particle.”
matter and radiation. The pressure of the radiation which is
R. Brout 1978
proportionate to the 4th power of temperature was too weak to
“A fluctuation in space-time created a superparticle with
1019 GeV mass which triggered more and more
At the early stage, particles and antiparticles annihilated each superparticles and finally a fireball which exploded.”
other into γ photons while other particle pairs from virtual A. Vilenkin 1982
particles were created, maintaining a balance, the number of “The universe appeared from literally nothing by quantum
photons being about the same as the number of particles. tunneling to a non-empty space.”
The kinetic energy (Mv2 /2) of the infalling particles towards S. Hawkings 1995
the centre at increasing velocities, as well as the powerful “The universe was created out of nothing, because there is
collisions between particles and scattering of photons by nothing outside the universe”.
electrons and quarks were all turning into thermal energy, A. Guth 1997 “The Big bang theory does not address the
substantially increasing the temperature. origin as it describes the universe only after its creation.
The entire creation process in this new theory of creation 2. CHAOTIC INFLATION – A. Linde 1994
complies with the laws of physics which hold everywhere and “Vacuum of space-time has a scalar field called ‘inflaton’.
all field equations can be defined. As the scalar field evolves it produces many inflationary
domains. Some will sprout inflationary bubbles. When
inflation stops, its energy disintegrates into elementary
particles of matter and another big bang follows.”

What was a primordial ball in the beginning soon turned into

a superheated fireball with the implosion continuing at a rapid
pace. Photons moving at speed of light, unable to escape,
were scattered at collisions with electrons and quarks,
contributing to the ever-increasing temperature and pressure
of the fireball, their energy increasing with the fourth power
of temperature (E = aT4). Due to the intensive gravitational
forces, a much denser and hotter core was developing.


With the considerable increase of temperature in the fireball,
the energy of photons reached levels where particles of matter
can be produced by collisions of photons without interaction
with virtual particles. All elementary particles have what is
called the threshold or creation temperature which can be
calculated from the equation:

(1) T = —— [6]
where T = Temperature, Mc2 = rest mass in MeV and
k = Boltzmann constant = 0.00008617 eV/K Figure 7. The superheated fireball with a denser
and hotter core.
_ ? 1 eV ?
ELECTRON e- 0.511 5.93 × 109
POSITRON e+ 0.511 5.93 × 109
QUARK u, d ~ 312.75 3,692 × 1012
ANTIQUARK –u, –d ~ 312.75 3,692 × 1012

When the temperature of the cosmic fireball reached and 1076 photons for a total mass of 1.6×1056 g with
12×109 K, more electron-positron pairs were produced, approximately 25% of it in the core. There were less photons
directly from radiation and at 7×1012 K, heavy pairs of quarks in my theory than in the standard Big Bang model due to the
and antiquarks. Under these enormously high temperature hot particle creation process in the fireball consuming
and density levels, the number of particles was controlled by photons. The moment of a gigantic explosion of the fireball
the thermal equilibrium between particles and radiation which was nearing.
prevailed in the imploding hot cosmic soup.
Soon the temperature of the fireball surpassed considerably RADIUS AND DENSITY OF THE FIREBALL
the threshold temperature of the heaviest elementary particles AT 1017 K AVERAGE TEMPERATURE
of matter and reached a thousand trillion K (1015 K) with an Volume Vq of 3 × 1080 quarks (largest particle)
energy level of 100 GeV per photon. The particles of matter with a quark radius of 0.5 × 10-13 cm
and radiation were squeezed into an enormous density of
3.34×1015 g/cm3 (compared to nuclear density of 1014 g/cm3). Vq = –43 π Rq3 × 3 × 10 80
The core was even much denser and hotter at 1019 K. = –43 π (0.5 × 10-13)3 × 3 × 10 80 = 1.57 × 10 41 cm3
The particle creation process reached its final stage and it is The radius RFB can be calculated from the volume.
assumed that the high prevailing energy allowed the 3
transformation of antimatter into matter. Positrons, antiquarks –43 πRFB3 = 1.57 × 10 41 RFB = √ 37.5 × 10 39 = 3.34 × 10 13 cm.
and antineutrinos turned into electrons, quarks and neutrinos. With a total mass of the fireball MFB = 5.7 × 1056 g
Nature must have had a preference for matter to allow
CP symmetry to be violated. How else could antiparticles 5.7 × 1056 = 3.6 × 1015 g/cm3
the density was dFB = ––––––––––
disappear? 1.57 × 1041

The superheated cosmic soup contained at this time Radius RFB = 3.34 × 1013 cm
approximately 3×1080 quarks, 1080 electrons, 1089 neutrinos Density dFB = 3.6 × 1015 g/cm3


The explosion of the fireball took place from the center, In the fireball, at temperature way above the threshold level
similar to supernova explosions of large stars. As the outer (1017 K) electrons and quarks behaved like photons.[5]
envelope of the fireball reached the quark-electron density As the volume of quarks surpassed the volume of radiation,
(3.6 ×1015 g/cm3), its core density was 1018 g/cm3 or more. particles of matter contributed decisively to the total thermal
All the electrons, quarks, neutrinos and photons in the core energy, while the mass density of the hot radiation contributed
merged to form a single gigantic nucleus. In this form, to gravitation. For comparison, the energy which set the
particles show a strong resistance to further compression. universe expanding was 10102 erg – about 1046 times greater
This, however, did not stop the particles in the outer layers of than the most powerful supernova detonation known.
the fireball from imploding further and squeezing the core
even more. While the size of the universe in the classical Big Bang theory
[5] was only 10-33 cm or smaller than an electron (10-17 cm)
At the surface of the hard core, the particles stopped suddenly, 10-45 seconds after the Big Bang, the fireball in our theory
but not fully. The compressibility of elementary particles is
before explosion had already a sizeable radius of
low at this density, but not zero. The momentum of the
3.34×1013 cm or 300 times larger than the sun.
particles, falling at very high speed, compressed the core to
about 10 times the equilibrium density (1018 g/cm3) - or what The mathematical computations which follow, using proven
can be called the point of "maximum squeeze". formulas for thermal and gravitational forces, arrive at
The outer layer of the core rebounded, like a hard rubber ball meaningful results and substantiate the described events.
that was compressed and released, setting off huge sound To my knowledge it is the only meaningful mathematical
shock waves and releasing gravitational energy. The outward computation ever presented to back up a theory of cosmology
pressure generated by the thermal energy of matter and using the same laws of physics applying to the universe,
radiation at the core was 2.9 ×10102 erg – 10 million times as well as to its birth.
greater than the gravitational energy (7 ×1095 erg); and about
10 billion times greater than the energy of the envelope THE INTERACTING FORCES DURING THE
(1092 erg) as calculated below. The shock waves and the over-
powering outward pressure triggered a titanic cosmic FIREBALL THE CORE
MASS 5.7 × 1056 g MASS .4 × 1056 g
explosion, setting the "baby universe" on an 18 billion year TEMPERATURE AV. 1017 K 10 K15
path of expansion and evolution. DENSITY 3.6 × 1015 g/cm3 DENSITY 4.1 × 1018 g/cm3
RADIUS 3.34 × 1013 cm RADIUS 8.4 × 1012 cm


1. Gravitation of matter 5.11 × 1092 7.9 × 1095
and radiation
2. Thermal energy of 1.18 × 1095 2.95 × 10102
matter and radiation

Figure 9. The interacting forces in the fireball.


Total Gravitational Energy
G × M 2T
(2) EGRAV = ––––––– ergs
where MT is total mass of particles of matter Mm and
radiation MRT , RFB = radius = 3.34 × 1013 cm,
and G the gravitational constant = 6.673 × 10-8 cm3/g sec2
MT = Mm + MRT g
Mass of particles of matter Mm = 1.6 × 1056 g
Radiation density
(3) dr = –––aT4 g/cm3 where a = 7.5647 × 10-15 erg/cm3 K4
T = 1017 K, c = 2.997 × 1010 cm/sec
aT 4 × V g
(4) Mass of radiation MRT = ––– PH
Figure 8. The explosion of the fireball. where VPH is the volume of all photons

(5) Number of photons in 1 cm3 = 20.3 × T 3 6.67 × 10-8 × (1058)2
EGRAV = –––––––––––––––– = 7.9 × 1095 ergs
Total number of photons NPH = 10 76 8.4 × 1012
NPH Total gravitational Energy = 7.9 × 1095 ergs
(6) Total volume of photons VPH = –––––––– cm 3
20.3 × T 3 Thermal Energy ERT = aT 4 × Vc ergs (T = 1019 )
7.5647 × 10-15 × T 4 1076
MRT = ––––––––––––––––– × –––––––––– g Vc = Volume of quarks
(2.997 × 1010 )2 20.3 × T 3
or = –43 π Rq3 × Nq
MRT = 4.1 × 10-37 × T × NPT g = –43 π(0.5 × 10 -13)3 × .75 × 10 80 = 3.9 × 1040 cm3
= 4.1 × 10-37 × 1017 × 1076 = 4.1 × 10 56 g
ERT = 7.56 × 10-15 × 1076 × 3.9 × 1040 = 2.95 × 10102 ergs
Total Mass MT = MP + MRT = 5.7 × 10 56 g
Thermal Energy was 107 or 10 million times larger
G × M T2 than Gravitation 2.95 × 10102 > 107 than 7.9 × 1095
Total gravitational energy = ––––––– = 5.11 × 1092 ergs
RFB and overpowered gravity
(7) Total Thermal Energy ERT = aT 4 ×Vq ergs Alternative with 10% of mass in the core:
Particles of matter at this high temperature behaved equal MP = .1 × 1.6 × 1056 g = 1.6 × 1055 g
to photons and the largest volume in the plasma was MCT = MP + MRT = 1.6 × 1055 + 1058 = 1058 g
occupied by quarks.
V = –4 π R 3 N = –4 π (.5×10-13)3 × .3 × 1080 = 1.6 × 1040
Volume Vq of 3 ×1080 quarks (largest particles) with a quark c 3 q q 3

radius of 0.5 ×10-13 cm: ERT = 7.56 × 10-15 × 1076 × 1.6 × 1040 = 1.4 × 10102 ergs
Vq = –43 π Rq3 × 3 ×1080 = –43 π(0.5 ×10-13) 3 × 3 ×1080 ERT = 1.4 × 10102 > EGRAV = 3.6 × 1095
= 1.57×1041 cm3
There are no significant differences in the overall results
ERT = 7.56×10-15 ×10 68 ×1.57 × 1041=1.18 ×1095 ergs with 10, 15, 20 or 25% of the total mass in the core.
The Thermal Energy was one thousand times larger than THE INITIAL VELOCITY OF THE EXPANDING
ERT = 1.18 × 1095 > EGRAV = 5.11 × 1092 ergs The initial speed of the expanding universe of particles of
matter and radiation, after the explosion, can be determined in
CONDITIONS IN THE CORE two ways. The first approach is to apply the formulas used in
The thermal energy of radiation and particles of matter was even supernova explosions of large stars 30-50 Mo [10].
more overwhelming in the core at temperature of T=1019 K The thermal energy of the core is “dumped” into the
with approximately 25% of the total mass. A calculation with “envelope” of the fireball and using relativistic equations for
10% of total mass does not change the principle of the model. kinetic energy the initial speed of the explosion is determined.
The second approach is to use the virial theorem which takes
GM 2CT into consideration the gravitational forces, acting in opposite
Gravitational Energy EGRAV = –––––
Rc direction.
where MCT is total mass of MP (particles) + MRT (radiation)
MP = 0.4 × 10 56 g (25%) aT 4 × V g
MRT = ———
c2 PH
The thermal energy 2.95×10102 ergs of the core turned into
kinetic energy “Wk” and propelled the particles of matter and
Number of photons in 1 cm 3 = 20.3 × T 3
radiation to the initial speed “u”. The relationship between a
Total of photons NPH = .25 × 1076 = 2.5 × 1075
moving mass “m” at relativistic velocities “u”, the rest mass
NP “Mo” and total energy “W” is:
VPH = –––––––
20.3 × T 3 Mo 1 Moc2 Mo2c6
aT 4 NPH u2 2 u2 √
M= –––– g, W= –– Mc2 = –––– erg, u = c2 - ––––
MRT = ––– × –––––––– = 4.1×10-37 × T × NPH g 1- –– 1- ––
c2 20.3 × T 3 = 4.1×10-37 ×1019 ×2.5×1075 = 1058 g √ c2 √ c2
or MCT = 10 58 g To comply with the law of energy conservation in relativistic
The contribution of radiation to the total mass was 102 larger dynamics we subtract the static energy “Moc2” of particles
than those of particles of matter from total energy and obtain the final equations for kinetic
Density of the core d = 4.1 × 1018 g/cm3 energy “Wk” and initial speed “u”.
2 1
Volume of core (8) KINETIC ENERGY Wk = Mo (
–––– -1 ergs )
MCT particles = ––––––––
Vc = ––––––––––– = 2.5 × 1039 cm3 √ 1- c—
density 4.1 × 1018
3 2- –––––––––– cm/sec
Radius Re = 3 V = 3 –––
––– 3 2.5 × 1039 = 8.4×1012 cm 2
√ 4π c √ 4π (Wk + Moc )2

The initial speeds in relation to the kinetic energy plotted on solving Eq. (16) for u yields
the diagram (Figure 10) for a mass of 2 ×1056 g clearly
indicate that there was sufficient thermal energy to propel the
newly created universe of particles of matter and radiation to
GMo2 c2
u = ——— •
4 ER2
-1+ [
G Mo2 c

√ G2 Mo4 c2 + 16 E 2 R4
a speed of 0.999 of light. with G = 6.67 × 10-8 cm3 /g sec2 R = 4.3 × 1013 cm
Mo = 2 × 1056 g c = 2.9973 × 1010 cm
The initial speeds in relation to the Energy Time Rate plotted
on the diagram (Figure 11) for the mass 2×1056 g clearly
0.8 indicate that there was sufficient thermal energy to propel the
mo2c4 newly created universe of particles of matter and radiation to a
0.75 u =
––– 1 - –––––––––
c √ (W k+moc )
2 2 speed of 0.999 of light.




1070 9.2 x 1076 1080 Wk [erg] 1090 10100 u/c

Figure 10. Initial speed scaled with the speed of light 0.4
u/c plotted against the kinetic energy Wk of the expanding
universe with mass 2 ×1056 g.


The virial theorem method can also be used to obtain the
1x1085 1x1086 1x1087 .1x10
88 1x1089 1x1090 1x1091
initial expansion velocity taking the effect of gravitational E [erg/sec]
energy. Its simplest equation formula is:
Figure 11. Initial speed scaled with the speed of light
(10) 2Wk = EGRAV = 3PV u/c plotted against the Energy Time Rate of the expanding
universe of mass 2 ×1056 g.
where “Wk” is total kinetic energy, “EGRAV is total
gravitational (potential) energy, “P” is pressure at boundary
and “V” is the volume. With “P” surface pressure equal to 0 VELOCITY IMPLICATION ON MASS OF MATTER
the gravitational or potential energy “EGRAV” is:
The close to speed of light velocity after explosion increased
(11) EGRAV = GM—— the original mass of the universe 22.4 times. Today’s
R expansion speed is still 200,000 km/s and the mass of the
equation (10) takes form universe 1.34 times the original rest mass. All this is in full
2 2
(12) Wk = GM—— or R =GM —— (radius) compliance with the Einstein theory of special relativity.
2R 2Wk
Equation (12) can be differentiated: 6
(13) ∂Wk GM2 ∂R
—— = —— ——
∂t 2R2 ∂t 5
where derivative of radius “R” with respect to “t” is the
expansion speed resulting from energy imbalance of the 4
system. Denoting velocity as “u” and •the time rate of thermal
Mass (kg)

energy propelling the expansion as “E” (power) we get from

equation (9). 3
• 2
(14) 2ER
u = ——2
GMo 2

Substituting for relativistic meaning of moving mass we obtain

2ER2 1- u— 2 1
(15) u = ——
GMo2 ( )

(16) • GMo2 u 100 000 200 000 300 000

E = ———— or PRESENT EXPLOSION (.999 c)
2R2 1- —
c2 ( ) Velocity (km/s)
Figure 12. Relationship between velocity and mass.


JUST AFTER THE EXPLOSION number +1) in the hot electron-quark soup for each electron
The temperature of the hot electron-quark-gluon plasma, just (-1), and so, during the transformation of quarks into protons
after explosion, was in the range of 1017 K and was rapidly and neutrons later, the baryon number was conserved.
cooling down, inversely proportional to the rate of expansion of
the universe, or radius R (T ~ 1/R ). In other words, when the Conservation of Lepton Number
universe was a billion times hotter than it is at present At the creation process, there were as many electrons (lepton
(3 K), it was a billion times smaller. Radiation dominated and number +1) as positrons (lepton number –1) and neutrinos
made the fireball nontransparent, foggy, and opaque. All (lepton number +1) as antineutrinos (lepton number –1), with
particles intensively collided with each other and scattered the the result of a 0 lepton number during the birth of the universe.
photons and neutrinos, preventing their escape. The photons Quarks and hadrons have a 0 lepton number.
moved with the speed of light between collisions with electrons
and quarks and scattered. Nevertheless, the radiation redshifted
with the expansion of the universe. Due to frequent collisions, EVENTS IN THE FAST-EXPANDING AND COOLING
all particles had the same temperature and the universe was in UNIVERSE
full thermal equilibrium. In order to determine the type of interactions and events that
The weak and electromagnetic forces acted as one unified force took place in the fast-expanding and cooling universe, we
while gravitation and the strong force were always acting.The must establish the relationship between temperature, density,
free quarks were very close to each other and the temperature and energy of the particles.
was too high for the gluons and the strong nuclear force to The predominant role in the hot, early universe was played by
contain them within protons and neutrons. the energy of radiation, which changes with the fourth power
of temperature (T 4 ) and was considerably greater than the
energy contained in the particles of matter, up to 3,000 K
when matter took over.
The major conservation laws were respected during the creation
The energy of particles of matter relates to the Einstein
process and in the expanding, hot universe now in full thermal
formula E = mc 2 and is expressed in the so-called rest mass:
0.938 GeV for protons, approximately 0.312 GeV for quarks
u and d, and 0.511×10-3 GeV for electrons.
Conservation of Energy
The total energy of all particles never changed, though Density and Temperature
collisions transferred energy from one particle to another.
The behavior of particles and forces in the hot plasma
The energy of the primordial cosmic radiation field has been
depended entirely on the prevailing density and temperature,
partially transformed into particles of matter. A portion of
and the temperature depended on the size of the universe
radiation was trapped and became an important part of the
(T ~ 1/R), directly related to the time elapsed from the
newly created universe. Today, it has cooled down to 3 K and
explosion, time t = 0.
lost its dominating role overtaken by matter when the universe
cooled down to 3,000 K. We have established that the energy of radiation Er is
Er = aT 4 erg/cm3
Conservation of Electrical Charge where a = 7.564 ×10-15 erg/cm3 K4.
Today, the universe is electrically neutral. There are as many
positively charged protons (+1) as negatively charged electrons Therefore, density in accordance with the Einstein equation
(-1). In the early universe, after the short annihilation period of E = mc 2 is
electron-positron and quark-antiquark pairs, there was a Er aT 4
(18) dr = –––– = –––– = 0.84×10-35T 4 g/cm3
balance between electrons (-1) and quarks u (+ –32) and d (- 13– ) to c2 c2
maintain the electrical neutrality of the young universe.
Equation 18 establishes the relationship between density and
1 e- to 2 u and 1 d temperature of radiation.
-1 + (2 × 23–) + (- 13– ) = 0
Time and Density
Conservation of Baryon Number We must now establish the relationship between the time
A baryon number of +1 is given to protons and neutrons while elapsed from the explosion and density, which will give us the
leptons and photons have a baryon number of 0. Antiprotons basis to interrelate time, temperature, density and
have a baryon number of -1. The significance of the baryon energy of particles.
number, which does not create an electrical, magnetic, or
similar charge, lies in the requirement to be conserved in We will be using already known formulas from the Hubble
interactions of particles. expansion laws and the standard Newton formulas of
The quarks u and d, which were contained in the early universe,
have a baryon number of + 13– . There were three quarks (baryon

As the time after explosion t is reciprocal to the

M 1 (PE) Hubble constant H, we can write

( )
t ≅ ––– = –––––
H 8πdG

We know that the density varies with the radius R or rate of

expansion and is inversely proportional to R 3 or ~ 1/R 3 for
R matter and inversely proportional to R 4 or ~ 1/R 4 for radiation.
We can say that density varies inversely with R
M ( )
d ≅ –––

where n = 3 for matter and n = 4 for radiation.

Taking Eq. (22) we finally arrive at the relationship between

expansion and density:

( )
t = –– –––––
n 8πGd

Figure 13. A sphere with mass M, radius R, and mass M1 For the radiation-dominated period of the expanding
at the perisphere universe up to a temperature of 3,000 K, the final equation is

TIME 1/2 1/2

We take a sphere (Figure 13) with radius R containing the 8
mass M. The mass can be determined from its volume and
density d 1: 3
( )3
t r = –12 –––––
8πGd ( )
= 0.067 –––

M = ––––– d 1 For the matter-dominated period of T < 3,000 K
According to Newton’s theory, the potential energy PE of the TIME 1/2 8 1/2
mass M1 on the rim of the sphere is:

M1MG M14πR 2d1G

( )
t m = –23 –––––
8πGd ( )
= 0.089 –––

PE = ––––––– = - –––––––––––
R 3
Energy of Photons and Particles of Matter
where G is the gravitational constant. In order to determine the energy Eph of a photon in electron
The velocity v of M1 according to Hubble’s law is volts at a given temperature T, we proceed as follows
v = HR Eph = aT 4 = 7.56 × 10-15 × T 4 erg/cm3
The kinetic energy KE of the motion of M1 is As 1 eV = 1.6 × 10-12 erg,
1 1
KE = –2 M1v 2 = –2 M1H 2R 2 -15
7.56 × 10
(26) Eph = ––––––––– × T 4 = 4.722 × 10 -3 × T 4 eV
The total energy ET of M1 is 1.6 × 10-12
The number of photons N is
(19) ET = -PE +KE = M1R2 –12 H 2 - 4–3 πdcG
( ) N = 20.3 × T 3 photons/cm3
If M1 eventually ceases to expand in a closed universe with
The energy of one photon is
slightly more than critical mass, ET must become 0.
Equation (19) therefore becomes Eph 4.722 × 10 -3 × T 4
(27) = ––– = –––––––––––––– = 0.232 × 10 -3 × T eV
1 4
N 20.3 × T 3
(20) –2 H 2 = –3 πdc G
The rest mass of energy E of particles
and we can calculate the critical density dc Proton 0.939 GeV
3H 2 = 4.5 ×10-30 g/cm3 u or d quark 0.313 GeV
dc = –––– Electron 0.511 × 10 -3 GeV
with H = 15 km/sec per 106 light-years. We have now established all of the required formulas to
calculate time, density, and energy of radiation and particles at
From Eq. (20) we can establish that
a given temperature and can proceed to describe the major
events that occurred in the early expanding universe after
( )
8πdG 1/2
H = –––––


Figure 14. The young universe after explosion of the fireball in the Velan cosmological model.
From the vast spaces of the cosmos, our universe at this stage

1. T =1015 K
would look like a non-transparent ball of fog. Photons are
Elapsed Time [ Eq.23] scattered by electrons (Figure 14).
8 1/2
t = 0.067
( )
––– = 7.3 × 10-10 sec

3. T =1012 K
Quarks combine to create protons and neutrons
Energy of 1 photon
E1ph = 0.232 × 10-3 × T = 0.232 × 1012 = 23.2 GeV Density d = 0.84 × 10-35 × 1048 = 0.84 × 1013 g/cm3
Elapsed Time [ Eq.23]
Energy of quark Eq = 0.313 GeV E1ph > Eq
8 1/2
The electromagnetic and weak force decoupled. Gravitation
and the strong force were always active. Plasma of quarks,
t = 0.067
( )
––– = 7.3 × 10-4 sec
electrons, neutrinos and photons. Energy of 1 photon
E1ph = 0.232 × 10-3 × T = 0.232 × 109 = 0.232 GeV

2. T =1013 K
Energy of proton Epr = 0.939 GeV E1ph < Epr
Density d = 0.84 × 10-35 × 1052 = 0.84 × 1017 g/cm3
Elapsed Time [ Eq.23] Energy of electron Ee = 0.00051 GeV E1ph > Ee
8 1/2
t = 0.067
( )
––– =7.3 × 10-6 sec
The free quarks u and d in the fireball did not enjoy their
asymtotic freedom for very long. They were free when their
Energy of 1 photon separation distances were less than 2 ×10-14 cm. Quarks as
color singlets with specific charges and gluons responsible
E1ph = 0.232 × 10-3 × T = 0.232 × 1010 = 2.32 GeV
for forces acting between them could act as free particles.
Energy of quark Eq = 0.313 GeV E1ph > Eq Now at temperatures of 1012 K, due to the rapid expansion,
quarks came within 10-13 cm and even if they passed each
All 4 forces active. Quarks too close to each other to be bound. other at close to the speed of light they could not escape
The universe is still in perfect thermal equilibrium filled with confinement. Interactions took place as fast as 10-23 sec
radiation and particles of matter in the form of electrons, a and the entire quark-gluon plasma turned into protons
quark-gluon plasma, photons and neutrinos. and neutrons.
Three quarks in three different color singlets became confined The universe still appeared as one unified cloud of matter and
into "white" colorless protons and neutrons. The strong radiation, nontransparent and opaque, though the energy of
nuclear force of confinement, effected by gluons, is very photons dropped below the energy of protons but surpassed
powerful. The force is approximately 15 tons strong in the rest mass of electrons (0.00051 GeV). Its dense fog
comparison to 10-11 ton for the electric force attracting an appearance was caused by scattering of photons by free
electron to a proton in a hydrogen atom. Imagine 15 tons electrons.
acting on a small pointlike particle such as a quark with a
radius of 13– ×10-13 cm. The universe was transformed suddenly When a free electron was hit by an impinging photon, it was
from a quark-gluon-electron-photon-neutrino plasma to a accelerated by the pulse of electromagnetic energy of the
universe of protons, neutrons, electrons, photons, and photon and gained momentum, as shown in Figure 17.
neutrinos. It is assumed that at this time, much less than 1 sec
after the explosion of the fireball, neutrons and protons
appeared in equal numbers. However, there was a continuous
transmutation of both nuclear particles into each other in weak
nuclear force reactions:
p + e-↔ n + ν or n → p + e- + ν–
e e

As free neutrons have a half-life of only 10.5 min., more and

more neutrons decayed into protons. There were basically (electron)
two different transmutations of neutrons:
(1) the classical, so-called beta radioactive decay where two
neighboring neutrons produce a proton, electron, and anti-
neutrino as shown in Figure 15, and

Figure 17. Scattering of photons by electrons.

n The photon lost some energy and momentum, resulting in a

change of direction in propagation of electromagnetic energy
or scattering of radiation. This process kept the entire universe
in thermal equilibrium. Radiation, which has more energy
than the electrons, dominates and could not escape.


4. T =1011 K
Neutrinos uncoupled.
Figure 15. Decay of neutrons in beta radiation process. Density d = 0.84 × 10-35 × 1044 = 0.84 × 109 g/cm3
Elapsed Time
(2) the neutrinoless transformation where the neutrino from 8 1/2
the first neutron is absorbed by the second neutron, as
shown in Figure 16.
t = 0.067
( )
––– = 7.3 × 10-2 sec
Energy of 1 photon
E1ph = 0.232 × 10-3 × T = 0.232 × 108 eV = 0.0232 GeV
Energy of electron Ee = 0.00051 GeV E1ph > Ee

At 1011 K, 7.3×10-2 sec after explosion when the radiation

n p density dropped to 0.84×109 g/cm3, neutrinos, which were in

full thermal equilibrium with matter and radiation until this
time, uncoupled and moved out at the speed of light.
There were and still are 109 neutrinos for every nuclear particle in
the universe. They have lost considerable energy during the
expansion of the universe and may now have an energy of only
n p 0.001 eV or an equivalent temperature of less than 1.5 K.
It is for this reason that they are very difficult to detect.
Though the neutrinos ceased to play an active role in particle
interactions, their energy continue to contribute to the overall
Figure 16. Neutrinoless decay of neutrons. gravitational field of the universe.


5. T =109 K helium nucleus and combine into carbon (24He + 4He → C)
and later into oxygen (C + 4He → O).
Nucleosynthesis creation of helium nuclei. Let us review in more detail the thermonuclear reactions that
Density d = 0.84 × 10-35 × 1036 = 8.4 g/cm3 took place during the nucleosynthesis. At temperatures of 109
K, the collisions between particles, this time between protons,
Elapsed Time neutrons, and electrons as well as scattering with photons,
8 1/2 continued though the energy of photons dropped below the
t = 0.067
( )
––– = 231 sec
level of electrons for the first time. When protons and neutrons
came within a distance of 10-13 cm, they were subjected to the
Energy of 1 photon enormously strong nuclear force. The same force responsible
E1ph = 0.232 × 10-3 × T = 0.232 × 10 6 eV = 0.00023 GeV for holding quarks firmly in protons and neutrons by the
massless gluons, extended its sphere of influence to hold a
Energy of electron Ee = 0.00051 GeV proton and neutron in a nucleus of heavy hydrogen called
deuterium. The nucleus of deuterium does not have a very
For the first time the energy of a photon dropped below the strong bond between the proton and neutron. The temperature
energy of an electron. of the plasma had to be exactly right to avoid blasting apart the
deuterium nucleus.
E1ph < Ee
At a temperature slightly lower than 109 K, the bond between
the proton and neutron in deuterium nuclei became strong and
At 109 K, dramatic events took place in the evolution of the the creation of heavier nuclei became possible. The nuclei of
universe. This period is called nucleosynthesis and starts to take deuterium readily capture neutrons. It is for this reason that
shape at 231 sec after explosion when free protons and heavy water or DHO (water enriched in deuterium) is used in
neutrons become bound into atomic nuclei of helium. At the nuclear reactors to absorb neutrons.
end of this period, lasting approximately 30 min., almost all
The deuterium nucleus colliding with other particles can
neutrons ended up in helium nuclei and the final makeup of the
capture a proton and create a nucleus of the light isotope of
massive clouds of matter and radiating energy consisted of
helium-3 (3He), which consists of two protons and one
75% protons or nuclei of hydrogen atoms and 24% nuclei of
neutron, or it can capture a neutron and create a nucleus of the
helium atoms, containing two protons and two neutrons, a total
heaviest isotope of hydrogen called tritium (3H), which
of about 87% of protons and 13% of neutrons.
consists of one proton and two neutrons.
The process of nucleosynthesis, which resembles the Finally, 3He collides with a neutron and creates the stable
thermonuclear reactions taking place in the cores of stars, helium-4 (4He), or a nucleus of 3H collides with a proton and
complies with two basic rules of nature that apply to the also creates 4He. Alternatively, a nucleus of 3He collides with
formation of atomic nuclei. An atomic nucleus can capture another nucleus of 3H, creating 4He and two protons. As well,
neutrons only one at a time and there cannot be a stable atom a nucleus of tritium can collide with another nucleus of tritium
with atomic mass 5 or 8. In other words, under normal and create 4He and two neutrons.The nucleosynthesis process
circumstances, a helium nucleus, which is one of the most is shown schematically in Figure 18.
stable cannot capture another proton, neutron, or helium
nucleus and form another stable element. Since helium core requires equal numbers of protons and
neutrons, the formation of helium stopped when all neutrons
By the time the atomic helium nucleus was created, the density were used up. The universe consisted of approximately 24%
and temperature of the plasma were not sufficiently high for an helium nuclei, 75% free protons, with traces of deuterium
alternative process where two helium nuclei capture another nuclei, electrons, photons and neutrinos.

Proton hits Neutron and creates + ALTERNATIVE REACTIONS

Deuteron and Photon (γ)
Helium-3 collides with Helium-3
creating Helium-4 (4He)
Proton hits Deuteron Neutron hits and 2 Protons
and creates Deuteron Deuteron and creates
Helium-3 and Tritium (3H)
Photon (γ) and Photon (γ)

Helium-3 Tritium (3H) Tritium captures

(3He) a proton Tritium collides
and creates with Tritium
Helium-3 captures Helium-4 (4He) creating
a Neutron and Photon (γ) Helium-4 (4He)
and creates and 2 Neutrons
Helium-4 (4He)
and Photon (γ) Helium-4 Helium-4
(4He) (4He)
Figure 18. The reactions of nucleosynthesis

There was obviously one electron present for each free or The universe became transparent and matter became
bound proton. The temperature was still much too high for dominant. Local mass concentrations became more
nuclei to capture electrons and form atoms. Fast-moving pronounced and the universe suddenly became a red super-
photons would knock out the electrons. Nuclei of heavier giant with a brilliant red light in every part of the sky.
elements were not created during the nucleosynthesis as the
universe was steadily expanding and cooling down. Every point of the universe at this time glowed with the
It remained a hot soup of matter and radiation, still in thermal brilliance of the sun. The decoupling of radiation radically
equilibrium. changed the behavior of matter. The small density
The universe continued to expand and nothing eventful took fluctuations in the early stages now become gravitationally
place for nearly 815,000 years, when the temperature dropped very important. The enormous masses of gravitating
to 3,000K. hydrogen and helium gas started to break up into individual
giant gas clouds, slowly drifting apart as the universe
continued its fast expansion.

6. T = 3 × 103 K
Decoupling of radiation, creation of hydrogen A contributing factor to the breakup of the single mass into
individual gas clouds was the sudden drop in pressure when
and helium gas
radiation decoupled and moved away with the speed of light.
Density d = 0.84 × 10-35 × 81 × 1012 = 6.8 × 10-22 g/cm3
Elapsed Time ■
7. T = 3 K
8 1/2
t = 0.067
( )
––– = 0.0257 × 1015 sec
Elapsed Time
t = ~ 1 billion years
1 year = 3.155 × 107 sec At this stage, individual gas clouds which formed earlier,
began to collapse gravitationally into protogalaxies and later
0.0257×1015 into galaxies and stars.
t = ––––––––––– = 815,000 years
3.155 × 107
The radiation temperature continued to drop as the universe
expanded and it is presently at 2.73 K. The universe expanded
Energy of 1 photon
at this time 1000-fold for the radiation temperature to fall
E1ph = 0.232 × 10-3 × T = 0.232 × 10-3 × 3 × 103 = 0.69 eV from 3,000 K to 2.73 K. Obviously, the wavelength of the
Energy of 1 electron Ee = 0.51 × 106 eV radiation also expanded by a factor of 1,000. Matter, after
decoupling of radiation, cooled much faster than radiation, as
Ee > E1ph the random motion of the atoms of hydrogen and helium
could no longer keep up with the expansion of the universe
and the larger and larger distances between the individual
At this stage, a significant event took place in the evolution of atoms.
the universe. The temperature dropped to a level that made the
particle-photon scattering process lose its effect and finally In accordance with the theory of relativity, the photons
electrons and nuclei could form stable atoms. Protons moving at the speed of light lost the acquired energy slower
captured electrons and bound them through the than did particles of matter, now atoms of hydrogen and
electrodynamic force, in compliance with quantum helium gas, which moved at a lower speed. Matter was
electrodynamics, into atoms of hydrogen and nuclei of rapidly losing its heat energy and had achieved the 3 K
helium-captured electrons, and created stable atoms of temperature, approximately 1 billion years after expansion
helium. Suddenly the entire universe was transformed into a and should, presently, theoretically have a temperature of less
ball of hydrogen (75%) and helium gas (24%) with traces of than 1 K. It is, however, possible that due to outside sources
deuterium. of heat and energy during the formation of galaxies and stars,
matter heated up slightly.
Radiation, which
became, much, Using contemporary theoretical physics, interpreting
much less energetic observational astronomical data, and contributing with my
than matter, thinning own vision expressed in this theory of creation, we were able
out with the fourth to go back in time and witness the actual birth of our universe
power of expansion in a cosmos containing other similar or perhaps different
and not being types of universes and returned to the time when simplicity
scattered by free and symmetry still prevailed in the universe with no
electrons, suddenly structures, only hydrogen and helium gas, photons, and
decoupled from neutrinos.
matter and escaped
with the speed of
light (Figure 19).
Figure 19. Atoms of hydrogen and
helium and radiation.

FORMATION OF PROTOGALAXIES, GALAXIES AND STEP 4: During the decoupling of radiation at 3,000 K with
PROTOSTARS - BASIC PRINCIPLE ONLY a density of 3 billion photons per cm3, the pressure dropped
A completely smooth and uniform Universe, when it started to considerably, moving the particles around once more and
expand, would remain so even after 18 billion years, cold and allowing gravity to complete the job. This obviously could not
dull with no galaxies and stars, no chemical elements, be “recorded” on the spectrum of the cosmic background
no people. radiation which decoupled.
Formation of structures as we observe them require ripples or
local variations in density created in the early Universe to
allow big enough gas clouds with slightly above average
density, expanding more slowly than average to condense out
because of the extra gravity.
Cosmologists, defendants of the standard Big Bang theory,
consider the primordial fluctuations of 10-5 discovered by
Cobe and corresponding to density fluctuations of matter,
sufficient for formation of galaxies.
Others think that the Big Bang theory failed completely to
explain the formation of large structures and “without the
magic of inflation, any physical origin for fluctuations fails
dramatically.” [7]

Figure 20. The explosion of the primordial fire ball.


In the Velan cosmological model, the creation of cosmic
structures such as galaxies and clusters can be easily
Figure 21. The “Hot Matter Top Down” scenario
STEP 1: The explosion of the primordial fireball took place of layer structure formation.
from the center, similar to supernova explosions of large stars.
Just before the explosion, the core after the “maximum
squeeze” bounced back like a hard rubber ball, setting off The Velan model favors the “HOT MATTER TOP DOWN”
gigantic shock waves which created the original density scenario for the formation of large structures.
irregularities in the electron-quark plasma. The formation process calls first for a large cloud typically of
STEP 2: The plasma expanded with near speed of light, 300×1018 light-years across to condense out, then collapsing
increasing the mass of particles by more than 22 times, soon to form a high density pancake with protogalaxies forming
dropping to 2 and now to 1.34 times. Variation in speed 500 million to 1 billion years after the explosion of the fireball
caused variation in mass, adding to the density irregularities. and finally evolving, after 2-3 billion years, into galaxies when
rotation balanced off gravity. The pancake then fragmented
STEP 3: When the electromagnetic force decoupled at and a cluster of galaxies was created. Later, clusters merge
1015 K, electrically charged electrons and quarks were moved into superclusters with up to 1,000 galaxies and 300×1018
around, further increasing the density irregularities. light-years across.

OBSERVATIONAL SUPPORT FOR THE VARIOUS isotropically distributed across the sky, they could be assumed
HYPOTHESIS OF THE NEW VELAN to be of cosmological origin. At the time, NASA team leader,
COSMOLOGICAL THEORY Dr. Gerald Fishman, declared that: “…this is a fundamentally
1. The expansion from an extremely hot and dense new aspect of the universe, because the discovery cannot be
beginning. explained by any existing theory.”
a) A.R. Penzias and R.W. Wilson’s discovery of the cosmic In addition, the “Fly’s Eye” observatory in Utah detected cosmic
background radiation, which decoupled at a temperature of rays in the upper atmosphere with an energy of 3×1011 GeV!
3,000 K, about 815,000 years after the explosion of the Several similar events have been detected by other cosmic ray
fireball. observatories around the world. Some astronomers suggest that
b) The relative abundance of light elements (Hydrogen 75% this powerful cosmic radiation bursts originate from colliding
and Helium 24%) formed by primordial nucleosynthesis. neutron stars. These collisions would have to occur, however,
consistently in many randomly located galaxies, to account for
c) There were 1,000 times more quasars and radio galaxies, their even distribution.
2 to 3 billion years after the explosion of the fireball, than
there are now. Perhaps a more reliable explanation might be that the observed
gamma ray bursts and cosmic ray events represent penetrations
d) Edwin Hubble’s discovery in 1930, that the universe of the primordial cosmic radiation into our universe. As the
is expanding. primordial radiation interacts with distant clumps of matter, it
releases great bursts of energy and the powerful cosmic rays of
2. Galaxies receding through static space-time. 3×1011 GeV could as well be the result of interaction with the
One hypothesis of this new cosmological model is that galaxies primordial radiation, resulting in the enormous level of energy.
recede through space, rather than being swept along by expand-
ing space-time as suggested in the big bang theory. In fact, there Unless another reliable explanation will be forthcoming for the
is substantial proof that galaxies do move through space. detected high energy gamma ray bursts and cosmic rays, it is
a) Hubert Reeves writes, in Dernières Nouvelles du Cosmos conceivable that we are observing penetrations of the
(1994), “…Do galaxies themselves have a movement or primordial, cosmic radiation into our universe.
are they simply carried along by the expansion of space?
A priori, both statements are possible…”
b) The Andromeda galaxy located 2.2 million light-years
away, and our own Milky Way, are approaching each other
at about 100 km/s on a collision course.
c) All the galaxies in our local cluster are moving at a speed
of 500 km/s, toward the Virgo Cluster as well together
including the Hydra-Centaurus supercluster are moving at a
speed of over 600 km/s toward an enormous concentration
of galaxies called the Great Attractor or Great Wall.
d) Recently astronomers Lauer and Postman observed a
billion light-year wide flow of galaxies moving against the
outward expansion of the universe. Figure 23. Virtual particles Figure 24. A high energy
in vacuum become real electron attracting virtual
particles when the electrical positrons from the vacuum
field of a capacitor provides of space-time.
their rest mass.
4. Do virtual particles & quarks exist?
The existence of virtual particles appearing out of the vacuum
of space-time has been proven in laboratory experiments using
electrically loaded capacitors.
a) Virtual electrons and positrons are separated by an electric
field of loaded capacitors in vacuum, which also provides the
virtual particles with mass. They then appear as particles of
real matter attracted to the two plates of opposite charge.
(Figure 23.)
b) Laboratory experiments also indicate that when two high
energy electrons come closer than 10-11 cm, their force of
repulsion is weaker than that calculated by Coulomb’s law.
Figure 22. Clusters of galaxies move towards the The explanation is that a high energy electron attracts
Great Wall. virtual positrons, shown schematically in Figure 24.
This causes the vacuum around the electron to become
3. The Primordial Cosmic Radiation Field polarized which results in a partially shielded charge.
(the major hypothesis in the Velan Theory) Such an electron is called "dressed" or physical, in contrast
NASA’s Compton Gamma Ray Observatory detected powerful to a "naked" electron, which has an ideal charge that
gamma ray bursts in 1992. Since these bursts of radiation were complies with Coulomb’s law.

c) In 1988, at CERN (Centre européen pour la recherche confinement in protons, neutrons and mesons. Colliding
nucléaire) a quark-gluon plasma was created by colliding nuclei of lead (208 protons and neutrons) at near speed of
relativistic sulfur ions against stationary ions of gold light with a thin stationary foil of lead has shown
(Figure 25, 26). The resulting "fireball" of quarks and (Figure 27) that more than 1,600 particles sprayed out
gluons was extremely dense and short-lived - lasting only from a single collision, carrying evidence of a quark-
6.5×10-23 second. Similar experiments have been repeated gluon plasma. The tremendous energy and pressure of the
in recent years (1993–1999 at CERN) confirming that at plasma caused it to explode outward. When temperature
extreme energy densities, quarks can exist freely without and density dropped, the quarks rapidly paired off again
into protons and neutrons.

5. The “Missing Mass” or “Dark Matter”?

After years of observation at optical, radio, microwave,
infrared, ultraviolet, x-ray and gamma ray wavelengths, it has
been determined that only 15% of the universe is detectable.
Since 95% of the mass is non-luminous, various exotic heavy
particles have been postulated to account for part of it. These
include axions, and super-symmetry particles – the “mirror”
counterparts of standard particles, like quarks and electrons,
but with much greater masses. So far none of these have been
detected and the theory is highly speculative.

Figure 25 Soup of quarks (dark grey) is set free from In recent years, however, large concentrations of previously
protons and neutrons (light grey) when they collided. unobserved ordinary matter have been found, thereby
reducing the need for “dark matter”. These discoveries
include supergiant galaxies that contain 100 trillion stars and
measure 40 times the diameter of the Milky Way; as well as
a new class of previously unseen, low surface brightness
galaxies which exist by the millions.
Until recently, the largest known galaxy was Markarion 348,
1.3 million light-years wide, or 13 times larger than our own
Milky Way and 100,000 light-years across. A newly
discovered galaxy in the cluster Abell 2029 is about 6 million
light-years in diameter and contains more than
100 trillion stars.
In addition, giant agglomerations of supergalaxies, at least
500 million light-years long and 15 million light-years wide,
called great walls or great attractors, have been observed and
Figure 26 Quark-gluon plasma at Cern, Geneva. are most probably evenly spread through the entire universe.
1988 Thirteen more great walls and the first cluster of great walls
have also been seen stretching out in a line of over 7 billion
light-years long. To these gigantic clusters of clusters of
galaxies we must add the enormous mass contained in
powerful quasars formed earlier in the universe, small dark
stars, brown dwarfs, billions of white dwarfs, remnant cores
of stars of less than 8 solar masses which lived fast and died
young, billions of large black holes, remnant cores of large
short-lived stars 6–50 solar masses, and 1089 neutrinos with a
small mass which fill the universe.
According to recent discoveries, the electron-neutrino has a
possible rest mass of 1 eV. If this could be confirmed,
the total mass contribution from 1089 neutrinos would be:
Mνe = 1 eV ×1089 = 1089 eV
since 1 eV = 1.72 ×10-33 g,
Mνe = 1.72 ×10-33 × 1089 = 1.72 ×1056 g

Even at 0.5 eV the mass of neutrinos would contribute

considerably to the missing mass.
We must also add the increased mass of matter moving at
relativistic velocities in the Velan theory 22.4 increase at
explosion time at a velocity of 0.999c and today 1.34 at speed
Figure 27 Quark-gluon plasma at Cern, Geneva. of 200,000 km/s.





ns ON
R = 3.34 x 1013 cm

10 1
ex NS





1.25 x 10 28 cm

nd iv ON
0 10

3 x 10 28 cm

ex ew LOS

s er
2 .5

pa un
Explosion 18 56 71.5 Billions of years
of the Time cycle
Figure 28. The fate of the universe.

In the new theory, the initial expansion speed of .999 c is (29)

decreasing continuously and the universe will eventually come
to a halt, reverse its movement under its own gravity and
1 –––
R2 ∂t ( ) - 8πGd
+ R
––2 = 0

collapse into a fireball. Soon after, an explosion will set up the where k for a closed universe is 1 and d is density. The R
universe on a new cycle of expansion and its glorious represents a radius of a spherical universe at any moment t.
evolution. For a closed universe the OMEGA (Ω) constant
By using the definition of the velocity in the form:
of density must be larger than 1 (>1).
(30) u = ∂R ––
d0 today’s density ∂t
Ω0 = –––– = –––––––––––––– > 1
dcrit critical density The equation (29) can be rewritten in the form:
With a Hubble constant of 58 km sec-1 Mpc-1 and an u2 = GM
(31) –– –– + constant
18 billion year universe, the complete cycle would amount to 2 R
71.5 billion years. When the universe will come to a standstill:
The maximum expansion radius of the universe Rmax and the (32) –– = 0
elapsed time since the explosion of the fireball tmax can be ∂t
calculated from two familiar equations describing the Taking a time derivative of Eq. (29) and substituting it into
expansion of a gaseous sphere. Eq. (28) yields the following relation:
2 2 (33) 2
∂–– ∂R
–– ∂R
1 –––
R2 ∂t ( ) 2
+ ––
R ( )
+ ––
k c2
=0 ( ) = ––AR - kc

Where A is the integration constant to be determined from Average deceleration over 56 billion years:
initial values. For our case of k = 1 the positive expansion 299,999
vanishes and is replaced by contraction at Rm, when Eq. (33) ––––––– = 5305 km/sec/1 billion years
takes zero value. In that case it can be rewritten as: 56
A Speed of recession after 18 billion years ∼ 200,000 km/sec
(34) Rm = ––
Average speed over 18 billion years 2.5 × 1010 cm/sec
To evaluate Eq. (34) we need to find the constant A.
By applying the present epoch values to Eq. (33) we find Present Radius
that: v 2.5 × 1010 × 1024
R0 = ––– = –––––––––––––– = 1.25 × 1028 cm
H0 20 × 105
(35) A = 2 q0 H02 R03
R0 = 1.25 × 1028 cm
Eq. (26) and (27) gives Today’s Density d0
(36) Rmax = –– 2 q H2R3 4πR03
c2 0 0 0 M = ––––– d0 g
By substituting Eq. (36) into Eq. (28) we finally obtain the where M is the mass of the universe
equation for maximum radius Rmax : Only particles of matter contribute now to the mass energy
of matter as the radiation mass energy at prevailing temper-
2q c
= –––– ature is relatively low. It nevertheless played a major role
√ (2 q
(37) Rmax –––––––––
H0 3 - 1)
0 when the universe was very hot (above 109 K).

In order to obtain Eq. (37), q0 was introduced and is called R0= 1.25 × 1028 cm
“decelarion parameter” defined as: M = 1.6 × 1056 g
1 ∂R 3 × 10 × 3
(38) q0 = - –––––– ––––0
d0 = ––––– =1.6
R0 H 2 4πR 3 4π 1.9 ×1084
d0 = 1.96 × 10-29 g/cm3
The deceleration parameter relates the deceleration of the
universe to it’s radius the same way as Hubble’s constant H d0 1.96 × 10 -29
Ω0 = –––– = –––––––––– = 2.45 > 1
relates the velocity of the universe and can be determined dcrit 8 × 10-30
from observations and expressed by formula: for Ω0 >1 the universe is closed.
(39) q0 = ––––––

Equation (39) was obtained by subtracting Eq. (28) from

Eq. (29) and substituting in Eq. (38).

Also, the time tmax elapsed before the maximum radius is

reached can be derived as shown in [3] from governing
equation Eq. (29) in the following form:
q0 -3/2
(40) tmax = π –––– 1-2 q0
With H = 20 × 10-19 sec-1, c = 3 × 1010 m/sec
k = 1 (for closed universe) and q0 = 1 we get
Eq. (37) evaluated as:
2 × 1 × 3 × 1010 13
Rmax = –––––––––––– = 3.37 × 1026 m

20 × 10 -19 (2 × 1-1)3

Rmax = 3.37 × 1028 cm Figure 2. A closed universe in the

Velan cosmological theory.
and Equation (40)
1 -3/2
tmax = 3.14 –––––––––  1-2 × 1 = 1.76 × 1018 sec Years from Today’s
20 × 10-19 explosion: 18 billion radius: 1.25 × 1028 cm
1 year = 3.155 × 107 seconds Years to Maximum
Standstill: 32 billion radius: 3 × 1028 cm
1.76 × 1018
tmax = –––––––––– = 0.56 × 1011 years
3.155 × 107 Average Average
speed up speed to
tmax = 56 × 109 or 56 billion years to now: 250,000 km/sec standstill: 125,000 km/sec


The theory introduced the following 5 new ideas/hypotheses:

1. Our Universe was created in a new environment, the cosmic 4-dimensional spacetime of the Multi-Universe Cosmos,
contrary to Nothingness, the environment in all other present and past cosmological theories.

2. The primordial cosmic radiation field or the missing link to any viable theory of creation, not violating the law of
conservation of energy.

3. The massive interaction of virtual particles contained in the cosmic space-time with the primordial cosmic radiation
field as a basis for creation of universes.

4. The hot particle creation process during the gravitational implosion of a baby universe before explosion

5. Galaxies recede through space-time rather than being swept along by the expanding space-time in all other
cosmological theories.



1. It eliminates the need for the mysterious primordial singularity, the origin of which was never explained.

2. The new model probes further into the past than anyone has previously ventured explaining
the origins of matter and radiation.

3. Its hypotheses are well within the framework of established physics.

4. It does not violate the conservation laws of mass and energy;

5. It accounts for the observed structure of the universe.

6. It provides clear and cogent mathematical explanations to substantiate scientific arguments.

7. The theory breaks through the theoretical constraints of the Big Bang Singularity Model
filling the gap in the understanding of the universe.

8. The new multi-universe theory postulates that the cosmic fireball was initially quite sizeable, with a radius of
2.17×1013 cm, or 300 times larger than the sun while in the big bang theory the initial size was only 10-33 cm (smaller
than an electron) 10-45 sec. after the explosion. While both theories account for the observed expansion of the universe,
the multi-universe theory does so by means of fairly well-understood physical principles.


1. The multi-universe theory makes a number of measurable predictions which can be put to the test as more sophisticated
technology becomes available. Perhaps the gravitational wave “observatories” of the future might even be able to “see”
the relic vibrations of space-time caused by the explosion of the fireball.

2. We need the reconciliation within a single framework of the following theories: Quantum Mechanics (duality of wave
particle), Special Relativity (space-time geometry, motion), Newtonian Mechanics (universal gravitation, acceleration),
Quantum Field Theory (Virtual Particles) and General Relativity (dynamic space time, equivalence principle).

3. While the parameters of the multi-universe model (such as mass, time, energy and velocity) may change as more precise
observational data emerge, the basic principles of the theory should remain unaffected.




What happened before Other Universes created in

the Big Bang ? ? cosmic space-time

A fireball of matter and radiation

Origin of the Universe Singularity ? created in cosmic space-time

Origin of the Singularity ? ? Singularity eliminated

Environment around Nothingness Nothingness The 4-dimensional

the Universe cosmic space-time

Contents of the singularity Not fully defined Mainly radiation energy Not applicable

The creation process of matter ? Radiation from nothing, From virtual particles & cosmic
and radiation matter later primordial radiation in
from radiation the cosmic space-time

Violation of conservation laws Yes Yes Full compliance

Who created nothingness? ? ? Not applicable

Who created the 4-dimensional

cosmic space-time? Not applicable Not applicable ? “The Creator” ?

Explanation for the Big Bang No explanation. What force Thermal forces overcame
explosion of the Singularity could overcome infinite gravity ? gravitation

What expands? Space-time carrying galaxies Space-time carrying galaxies The galaxies expand in space-time

Expansion speed at the Big Bang Up to 1026 times speed of light Up to 101012 times speed of light 0.999 of speed of light

Violation of Einstein theory? No. Space can expand>c No. Space can expand>c No. Expansion speed<c

Geometry of the Universe Not defined yet Flat Spherical shell

Does the Universe have an edge? No. No. Yes. Cosmic space-time

Yes. Stars and elements Yes. Stars and elements

Age problem older than the Universe older than the Universe No. 18 billion years old

Missing visual mass Yes Yes No

Explanation for formation of galaxies Difficulty to define Defined Fully defined

Existence of other Universes? No Yes Yes

Is the theory fully defined? No No Yes

Do same standard laws of physics No No Yes

apply to the beginning and now?

The Horizon Problem Yes No Not applicable


[1] Ferreira, P.G.: The Quintessence of Cosmology, Cern Courier, June 1999

[2] Hawking, S.W. and R. Penrose: The Nature of Space and Time, Princeton Press, New Jersey 1995

[3] Guth, A.H.: The Inflationary Universe, Addison-Wesley, Reading, Massachusetts 1997

[4] Einstein, A: The Meaning of Relativity, Methuen, London 1951

[5] Rees, M.: Before the Beginning, Addison-Wesley, Reading, Mass. 1997

[6] Weinberg, S.: The First Three Minutes, Basic Books Inc., New York 1988

[7] Silk, J.: The Big Bang, W.H. Frieman, New York 1997

[8] Velan, A.K.: The Multi-Universe Cosmos, Plenum, New York 1992

[9] Velan, A.K.: The Multi-Universe Cosmos, Velan Inc., Montreal 2001

[8] McMahon, A.J.: Astrophysics and Space Science, Prentice Hall, New York 1965