Sei sulla pagina 1di 17

Geotechnical Engineering-1

Course Code –CE-221

Credit Hours -3+1

Contact Hours -3+3

Dr Hassan Mujtaba

1

Some Typical Soil Names

• Clay: finest soil particle wise having grain diameter less than 0.002 mm. It is quite hard when dry and shrinks during the process of drying. It possess much cohesion and shrinks during the process of drying. It undergoes large settlement when wet. It feels smooth when touched with fingers.

• Silt: (particle size 0.002-0.075 mm) – It is partly plastic and partly cohesive. Silt are permeable to some extent and capillary action is high. It has little value of dry strength. When taken in hand it feels rough. It also exhibit dilatancy.

2

Some Typical Soil Names

• Sand: (particle size 4.75 mm – 0.075 mm)

– It has no plasticity and negligible cohesion (in dry state zero). It has marked value of internal friction between individual grains. When sand is present in a confined it can withstand great load. Fine sand have relatively high value of permeability and capillarity where as medium and coarse sand have high permeability and low capillarity. It feels gritty (rough) because of presence of individual sand grains

• Gravels: (particle size 4.75 mm - 75 mm)

– It is used in road construction, foundation work and concreting. Gravels when mixed with sand, silt and clay becomes a well graded mass and it is an excellent load bearing material. The capillary action in gravels is not very prominent. The rise in water table is not likely to decrease its strength. 3

Some Typical Soil Names

• Organic Matter:

– The main source of organic matter which is found in the top soil layer is animal or vegetable remains which are left in place where these organisms die. The organic matter has spongy structure (having large number of voids). These material undergo large volume change upon application of loads. It has large % of moisture content in it.

• Boulder: (particle size > 300 mm)

– They are rock fragment of any shape having size greater than 300 mm.

• Cobbles: (particle size 75 mm - 300 mm)

– They are rock fragment of any shape having size in the range of 75 mm to 300 mm

4

Some Typical Soil Names

• Gumbo:

– It is very fine clay deposit. The clay is dark in colour and when wet it is plastic, sticky and spongy

• Hard Pan:

– It is relatively hard densely cemented soil layer. It does not soften when wet. It consists of either clay or silt with sand or gravel in it. Hard pan offers great resistance to the penetration of drilling tools and is difficult to excavate.

• Humus:

– It is dark brown organic earth of top soil. It is unsuitable as a foundation or as a construction material because it continues to decay or shrinks.

5

Some Typical Soil Names

• Loess:

– It is uniform, cohesive, wind blown porous deposit of very fine material. The size of the particles ranges from 0.01 mm to 0.05 mm. these sizes corresponds to silty clays. Its colour is yellowish light brown.

• Muck:

is mixture of fine particle inorganic soils and black

decomposed organic matter. The material is either found in swamps or is deposited by over flowing rivers.

It

• Peat:

– It is organic soil formed by vegetable matter. Under conditions of excessive moisture it is very compressible and is therefore unsuitable for supporting even the lightest foundation

6

Some Typical Soil Names

• Loam: mixture of sand, silt and clay

• Mud: a pasty mixture of soil and organic matter

• Caliche: cemented clay, sand gravel mixture. The cementing material is clacium carbonate deposited through evaporation

• Marl: Clay with calcareous material

• Boulder clay: clays containing wide range of particle sizes varying from boulder to very fine

• Bentonite: clays with main mineral of montmorrilonite formed by chemical weathering of volcanic ash

• Black cotton soils: Highly expansive and compressible clays of dark to black color commonly found in India 7

Case Studies

• Minaret of a Mosque in Walled City was raised material. to a height of
• Minaret of a Mosque in
Walled City was raised
material.
to
a
height
of
200 ft
on
fill
• As a result walls cracked and settlement took place
• The
propose
height
was
about
105
ft
and
it
was
recommended that piles should be provided
Petrol Pump near Rawalpindi on Motor way The contractor erected the whole structure on the
Petrol Pump near Rawalpindi on Motor way
The contractor erected the whole structure on the
fill material without compaction in layer as a result
settlement took place and cracks appear in walls

Objectives of Geotechnical Engineering

To perform engineering soil survey

 

To

develop

soil

sampling

devices

and

sampling

methods. • To develop suitable soil testing devices and soil testing method

• To collect and classify information on soils and their

physical

knowledge

properties

of

soil

in

the

light

of

mechanics,

earth

fundamental

and

works

foundation engineering • To investigate physical properties of soil

Objectives of Geotechnical Engineering

• To evaluate and interpret soil test results and their application to the use of soil as foundation support or as construction material

• To understand physical processes which actually take place in soils, subjected to static and dynamic load, water and temperature.

Materials Encountered in Excavation • Top Soil- it contains organic matter Top Soil Hard Pan
Materials Encountered in Excavation
• Top Soil- it contains organic matter
Top Soil
Hard Pan (2”-4”)
called humus, which
decayable vegetable
is
highly
matter.
It
is
Water Table
generally very soft and spongy in
nature
and can
go down due
to
its
Bed Rock
spongy nature.
Hard Pan- it exists at the top of the sub-soil and is weathered
portion. In areas of excessive rainfalls the rain water forms
humic acid. This humic acid will be later on acted with iron and
aluminium salts thus leaching out various oxides. These oxides
are deposited as densely cemented soil layer called hard pan.
Sometimes, hard pan has hard rock like properties.

Materials Encountered in Excavation

• Sub Soil- it is soft geological deposit and can be excavated by hands or by employing hand tools.

• Water Table- it is the

top of

under ground water reservoir. Underneath ground water reservoir exists the bed rock. Bed rock has zero permeability.

TopSoil Hard Pan (2”-4”) WaterTable BedRock
TopSoil
Hard Pan (2”-4”)
WaterTable
BedRock