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Geotechnical Engineering-1

Course Code CE-221

Credit Hours -3+1

Contact Hours -3+3

Dr Hassan Mujtaba

System 2
OBE => Outcome Based Education
Outcome => Output => Result / Product =>
University Product => Performance of Graduates & Alumni

OBE is a process that involves

assessment and evaluation practices in
education to reflect the attainment of
expected learning and showing mastery in
the program area.

Program => Civil Engineering

Students => Learning in a program
Graduates => Just passed the program
Alumni => Ex-students, now working 3
Domains of Engineering Program

(1) Cognitive => Engineering Knowledge

(2) Psychomotor => Skills learnt by moving body parts
(3) Affective => Attitude / ethical values / manners

Cognitive Affective
(Knowledge K) (Skill S) (Attitude A)

Benefits of OBE

1. More directed & rational curriculum.

2. Graduates will be more relevant to the

industry / field.

3. Enhances public relations.

4. Improve avenues for internships and jobs.

5. After 2016, no OBE, no Accreditation.

6. Continuous Quality Improvement (CQI) is in

Objectives / Outcomes

PEOs => Program Educational Objectives

(Assessed from Alumni after 4-5 years of graduation)

PLOs => Program Learning Outcomes

(Assessed from graduates at the time of graduation)

CLOs => Course Learning Outcomes

(Assessed from students after each course)

Program Educational Objectives

1. The alumni have exhibited their proficiency of applying the

knowledge (mathematics, science, engineering) & skills
(modern tools) to solve at least one complex engineering
problem related to civil engineering.

2. The alumni are working as successful civil engineers for

socio-economic, environment-friendly development at
national and/or international level.

3. The alumni are able to lead and promote the team work to
tackle the complex engineering problems.

4. They exhibit good communication skills, high professional

ethics, and continuous urge to enhance their knowledge.

Program Learning Outcomes (PLOs)
At the time of graduation, the graduate must be able to
S. No PLOs

1 PLO 1 Engineering Knowledge

2 PLO 2 Problem Analysis

3 PLO 3 Design/Development of Solutions

4 PLO 4 Investigation

5 PLO 5 Modern Tools Usage

6 PLO 6 The Engineers and Society

7 PLO 7 Environment and Sustainability

8 PLO 8 Ethics

9 PLO 9 Individual and Team Work

10 PLO 10 Communication

11 PLO 11 Project Mangement

12 PLO 12 Life Long Learning

Note: Each student has to achieve passing score in each PLO
Course Learning Outcomes (CLOs)

After passing the course of Geotechnical Engineering, student will

be able to:

Sr. No. CLO (Engineering

1 To describe the common terminology used in the field of Geotechnical Engineering 100
2 To demonstrate the soil behavior under engineering loadings 100
3 To discuss the interaction between water and soil and the effects of static vs. flowing water on soil 100
4 To classify soils based on various soil properties ascertained from laboratory tests 100

What difference students feel with OBE?
1. Now in the first lecture, teacher tells us about the CLOs of the
each course.

2. Now Psychomotors are being assessed in the laboratories.

3. Now safety measures are being adopted in labs while performing


4. Now teacher tells us about the ethical values to be practiced in

the field.

5. Now there is considerable improvement in facilities and


6. Now after 4-5 years of the graduation, the performance of the

alumni is assessed and evaluated.

7. There is Continuous Quality Improvement (CQI) in education

system. 10
Reference Books
Introduction to Geotechnical Engineering
Holtz and Kovacs
Geotechnical Engineering Principals and
Donald. P. Coduto
Principal and Geotechnical Properties of Soil
Joseph E Bowles
Principal of Geotechnical Engineering
Braja M Das 11
Reference Books (contd)
Reference Books
Fundamental of Soil Mechanics
Siddique Qureshi and Aziz Akbar

Course Content
Significance: Soil, Rock and their types and
formation. Physical properties of soil and their
water content, void ratio, porosity, degree of
saturation, specific gravity, unit weight and
their determination, mass-volume relationship
Soil Classification: Importance of
classification tests, Atterbergs Limit, Grain
size distribution, Stokes law, Soil
Classification system
Course Content (contd)
Geotechnical Investigation:
Soil exploration, purpose and method of soil
explorations, Probing, test trenches and pits,
auger boring, wash boring, rotary drilling and
geophysical methods, soil samplers, disturbed
and undisturbed samples, Introduction to
geotechnical report writing

Course Content (contd)
Fundamentals, Moisture density relationship, compaction
standards, Factors affecting compaction, field control and
measurement of in-situ density, field compaction
Consolidation: Mechanics of consolidation, theory of
one dimensional consolidation, assumption and validity,
Oedometer test and graphical representation of data,
compression index, co-efficient of compressibility, time
factor, co-efficient of volume change and degree of
consolidation, primary and secondary consolidation,
Normal and pre-consolidated soils
Lecture Delivery Plan
Week 1 Soil, Rock, Difference between soil and rock, Significance of Geo- Week 9 Consolidation, Basic concept of consolidation of soils, Hydro-mechanical
technical Engineering, Use of soil in Civil Engineering, Typical model consolidation model
Geotechnical Aspects to be considered, Typical soil failures +
+ Liquid Limit, Plastic limit and Shrinkage Limit tests
Significance of Geotechnical Engineering, 3-Phase Diagram, Volume-
Volume relationships Week 10 One dimensional consolidation test, interpretation of consolidation
results and derivation of consolidation parameters
Week 2 Rock-soil cycle, Formation of soils, Physical and chemical weathering +
agents and their details Importance of Soil Classification system, British System, M.I.T system,
+ Unified Soil Classification System
Weight- Volume relationships, Weight-Weight relationship,
Week 11 Computation of consolidation settlement and related problems
Week 3 Various soil deposits with their physical properties and engineering use +
+ AASHTO soil classification system and numericals
Week 12 Soil exploration, significance of soil exploration, objectives of soil
explorations, factors affecting soil exploration, Cost of soil exploration,
Week 4 Soil texture, soil structure and their effect on engineering behaviour of Basic terms used in soil exploration
soils, types of soil structure, clay minerals, types and effect on +
engineering behaviour Comparison of USCS and AASHTO Soil Classification System, Hydraulic
+ Gradient, Significance of permeability, Factors affecting Permeability
Concept of unit phase diagram and numericals
Week 5 Compaction, Fundamentals and significance of compaction, difference
between compaction and consolidation, objectives/ advantages of
Week 13 Planning of soil exploration program, Desk study, Scope of soil
exploration program, Depth and spacing of boreholes, types of soil
samples, types of soil samplers, Laboratory testing program
Importance of Index Properties, Sieve Analysis
Week 6 Basic theory of compaction, effects of compactive efforts, soil type, dry Lab. Test for determining coefficient of permeability, field tests for
density and moisture content relationship, compaction curve, zero air determining coefficient of permeability, numericals
void curve, Laboratory compaction tests
+ Week 14 Quiz-2
Hydrometer Analysis
Week 7 Methods of field density determination, relative density and relative Week 15 Methods of soil exploration with their merits and demerits
compaction of soils, field compaction methods, related problems +
+ Concept of seepage forces (upward and downward), Concept of
Consistency limits, Activity, liquidity index and numericals, Group Index liquefaction, Flow nets
and numericals
Week 8 Quiz 1 + Mid Semester Exam Week 16 Exam Preparation

Week 1 Determination of moisture contents by various methods
Speedy Moisture Meter

Week 2 Determination of moisture contents by various methods

Speedy Moisture Meter

Week 3 Determination of specific gravity of the given soil sample

Week 4 Perform sieve analysis on given soil sample

Week 5 Perform Hydrometer analysis on given soil sample

Week 6 Determination of inplace density of soil by sand replacement method

Lab. Week 7 Determination of in-place soil density by core cutter method

Week 8 Quiz 1 + Mid Term Evaluation

Experim Week 9 Perform standard compaction test on soil sample

ents Week 10

Week 11
Perform Modified compaction test on soil sample

Perform constant head permeability test

Week 12 Perform Falling head permeability

Week 13 Perform consolidation test on given soil sample

Week 14 Calculation of consolidation test data

Week 15 End Term Evaluation

Week 16 Quiz 2

What is Geotechnical Engineering
Geotechnical Engineering deals with the
application of Civil Engineering Technology
to some aspects of earth.
Geotechnical Commission of Swedish State
Railways (1914-1922) was the first to use the
word geotechnical (Swedish word
It is combination of civil engineering
technology and geology.
What is Geotechnical Engineering
All topics of soil mechanics and foundation
engineering and many aspects of geological
engineering can be grouped under the term
Geotechnical Engineering.
It is a broader term as compared to soil
mechanics/ soil engineering.

What is Soil
The word 'soil' is derived from the Latin word
solium which, means the upper layer of the
earth that may be dug or plowed; specifically,
the loose surface material of the earth in which
plants grow. (In Agriculture)
In geology, earths crust is assumed to consist
of unconsolidated sediments which is called
The upper layer of mantle which can support
plants is called soil. 20
What is Soil (contd)
The term soil in Soil Engineering is defined
as an unconsolidated material, composed of
solid particles, produced by the disintegration
of rocks.
The void space between the particles may
contain air, water or both. The solid particles
may contain organic matter.

Nomenclature in Soil Engineering/ Geology

Soil Mechanics
According to Dr. Karl Terzaghi (Father of Soil
Soil mechanics is the application of the laws
of mechanics and hydraulics to engineering
problems dealing with sediments and other
unconsolidated accumulations of solid
particles produced by the mechanical and
chemical disintegration of rock, regardless
of whether or not they contain an admixture
of organic constituents. 23
Soil Mechanics
Branch of mechanics which deals with the
action of forces on soil and with the flow of
water in soil.
The soil consists of discrete solid particles
which are neither strongly bonded as in solids
nor they are as free as particles of fluids.
Consequently, the behavior of soil is
somewhat intermediate between that of a solid
and a fluid.
Scope of Soil Engineering
Retaining Structures
Stability of Slopes
Underground Structures
Pavement Design
Earthen Dam and Embankments
Miscellaneous Soil Problems

Scope of Soil Engineering

Uses of Soil
As supporting material to bear the load of
structures resting on earth.
Raw construction material for earthern
structures like dams, leeves, roads, airfields
Processed material in the form of burnt bricks
In Pottery industry china clay (kaolinite) is
used as raw material

Uses of Soil
Kaolinite is used in paper, paint and
pharmaceutical industry
Bentonite (clay) is used in drilling industry for
stabilization of boring and in slurry trench
construction for stabilizing foundation
In medicines (kaoline mixture)

Why soils are important for Civil Engineers

Soil is the most common, oldest but the

complex material.
Unlike other material like steel it is not
homogenous so its behaviour under load
cannot be predicted with reasonable accuracy.
For design of dams, highways, tower, retaining
walls we have to deal with the situations where
parameters are not well defined, hence no
single solution.
Why soils are important for Civil Engineers

In such situation one has to apply his judgement/

experience in addition to the knowledge of the
Settlement of a structure is predicted from the
behaviour of a small sample of soil subjected to
consolidation test.
But the question arises up to what extent these test
data are representative of the overall behaviour of
the actual soil stratum.
Why soils are important for Civil Engineers

Also other factors need to be considered are as

Up to what extent was the sample disturbed
during excavation/ extraction, preparation.
To what extent the physical characteristics
of the soil under consideration vary both in
horizontal/ vertical direction.

Historical Development of Soil Mechanics

Remnants of most notable structures built by

Roman, Egyptians, Chinese and other provide
evidence that some knowledge existed during
ancient civilization of interaction of super
structure with the supporting soil underneath
The great wall of China
The pyramids of Egypt
Many buildings and durable roads constructed
by Romans
Historical Development of Soil Mechanics

The mastery of Dam building displayed by

Leaning Tower of Pisa

Role of Geotechnical Engineering in various

Golden Gate Bridge in San

Sears Tower in Chicago (one of
the Tallest Building)
Role of Geotechnical Engineering in various

Oroville Dam, California (one of the largest earth 35

filled dam in world)
Role of Geotechnical Engineering to avoid failure

Niigata Earthquake in Japan (Liquefaction) 36

Role of Geotechnical Engineering to avoid failure

Teton Dam Failure House built near the top

of slope

Role of Geotechnical Engineering to avoid failure

Rocks are made from various types of
minerals. Minerals are substances of
crystalline form made up from a particular
chemical combination. The main minerals
found in rocks include quartz, feldspar, calcite
and mica.
Geologists classify all rocks into three basic
groups: igneous, sedimentary and
Igneous Rocks
These rocks have become solid from a melted
liquid state. Extrusive igneous rocks are those
that arrived on the surface of the Earth as
molten lava and cooled. Intrusive igneous
rocks are formed from magma (molten rock)
that forced itself through cracks into rock beds
below the surface and solidified there.
Examples of igneous rocks: granite, basalt,
Sedimentary Rocks

Weathering reduces the rock mass to fragmented

particles, which can be more easily transported
by wind, water and ice.
When dropped by the agents of weathering, they
are termed sediments. These sediments are
typically deposited in layers or beds called strata
and when compacted and cemented together
(lithification) they form sedimentary rocks.
Examples of sedimentary rocks: shale,
sandstone, chalk.
Metamorphic Rocks
Metamorphism through high temperatures and
pressures acting on sedimentary or igneous
rocks, produces metamorphic rocks.
The original rock undergoes both chemical and
physical alterations.
Examples of metamorphic rocks: slate,
quartzite, marble.


Soils and Rocks
Soil: Unconsolidated agglomerate of minerals
above solid Rock
Rock: Hard and durable material that can not
be excavated without blasting
Difference between Rock and Soil
Rocks are generally cemented; soils are rarely
Rocks usually have much lower porosity than
Difference between Soils and Rocks
Rocks are more susceptible to weathering than soils
Rocks are often discontinuous; soil masses usually
can be represented as continuous
Rocks have more complex and unknowable stress
history than soils
In Many rocks, minor principal stress is vertical but
in most soils, this is horizontal.
Stability of rock mass is controlled by the strength
of discontinuities while in soil the strength of soil
Geotech studies for soil & rocks
Geotechnical Investigation cover studies of
soils as well as rocks.
In civil engineering, construction, mostly more
emphasis on soil than rocks
Generally we construct more on soil than
rocks, also rocks have more bearing capacity.
For large projects like dams, rocks needs more
investigation as they are more complex.

Soil Formation
The rock and the minerals of the earths crust were
the parent materials from which soil originated.
Exposure to weathering agents, volcanic action and
stresses induced by ongoing deformation of the
earths crust were factors responsible for weathering
of rocks and minerals.
Soil is formed as a result of weathering of rocks.
Weathering: is a process whereby an intact rock mass
is decomposed or disintegrated by atmospheric agents
Physical or Mechanical weathering agents
Chemical weathering agents
Soil Formation
Characteristics of soil is related to its parent
The process of weathering is going on for
million of years.
During this period soil have continuously
being formed from rocks and then transported
by rivers, wind and ice.
These are eventually deposited in oceans
where they are transformed into rock again.
Rock-Soil Cycle
Weathering of all three
kinds of rock form soil
Pressure and cementation
of sediments (soil) forms
sedimentary rock
Pressure, heat and solution
of both igneous and
sedimentary rock forms
Metamorphic rocks
Melting of rocks forms
Magma. Cooling of
Magma forms igneous and
pyroclastic soils
Mechanical Weathering Agents
Temperature changes
Freezing and thawing (vol of freezed water
increases by 9%)
Erosion/abrasion by flowing water, wind and
Natural disasters, e.g. earthquakes, landslides
Activities by plants and animal including men
Mechanical Weathering Agents
Temperature changes
Different minerals of a rock have different coefficients of
thermal expansion. Unequal expansion and contraction of
these minerals occur due to temperature changes. When the
stresses induced due to such changes are repeated many
times, the particles get detached from the rocks and the
soils are formed.
Freezing and thawing (volume of frozen water increases by
Water in the pores and minute cracks of rocks gets frozen
in very cold climates. As the volume of ice formed is more
than that of water, expansion occurs. Rocks get broken into
pieces when large stresses develop in the cracks due to
wedging action of the ice formed. 51
Freeze and Thaw

Mechanical Weathering Agents
Erosion/abrasion by flowing water, wind and ice
As water, wind and glaciers move over the surface of rock,
abrasion and scouring takes place. It results in the
formation of soil.
Natural disasters, e.g. earthquakes, landslides etc.
Activities by plants and animal including men
As the roots of trees and shrubs grow in the cracks and
fissures of the rocks, forces act on the rock. The segments
of the rock are forced apart and disintegration of rocks
Soil formed by mechanical weathering retains the minerals and
material fiber of parent rock.
Coarse-grained soils such as gravels, sands and their mixtures.
Abrasion (wind)

Abrasion (water)

Abrasion (Ice)

Chemical Weathering Agents
Chemical weathering results from reactions of
rock minerals with oxygen, water, acids, salts
etc. The various chemical weathering
processes are
Chemical Weathering Agents
It occurs in the rock containing iron
Oxygen in the air reacts with them and
decomposes them.
The rock containing minerals iron, calcium,
magnesium, sodium, potassium etc can be
decomposed by carbonic acid formed by carbon
dioxide with water.
Chemical Weathering Agents
All igneous rock may be decomposed in this
Silica is not decomposed by carbonic acid and
quartz mineral is regarded as most stable mineral.
Granite is more resistant to weathering as
compared to basalt and gabbro.
Decay of rock caused by water combined with
some rock mineral. This process is more intensive
in humid than in arid climates. 59
Chemical Weathering Agents
Is a process whereby water soluble salts are
dissolved and washed out from the soil by rainfall,
percolating water, surface runoff or other water.
Some of the rock minerals form a solution with
water when they get dissolved in water. Chemical
reaction takes place in the solution and the soils
are formed.

Organic Weathering
A prominent rock is acted by bacteria which
induce chemical changes in their surrounding.
This contribute to the weathering of rocks

Soil Deposits
Residual soils
Soils formed by weathering of rocks in place
Transported soils
Alluvial or fluvial or Alluvium
Aeolian soil deposits
Glacial soil deposits
Colluvial or colluvium

Organic soils
Marine soils
Pyroclastic soils 62
Soil Deposits

Alluvial Deposits
Deposits from
braided stream
Are those with high
gradient, rapidly
flowing that are
highly erosive

A minor change in velocity will cause sediments to

deposit. They are complex in nature

Alluvial Deposits

Alluvial Deposits
Alluvial Terrace deposits
Relatively narrow, flat-surfaced, river flanking
remnant of flood plain deposit formed by
entrenchment of river
Alluvial fans
When a river channel widens significantly or its
slope decreases substantially, coarse soil particles
settle forming submerged, flat, triangular deposits
known as Alluvial Fans
Delta Deposit:
soil deposited at mouth of river or stream entering
a lake or reservoir. 66
Alluvial Deposits
Deposits made in lakes are called lacustrine
deposits. Such deposits are laminated or
varved in layers.
Marine deposits are formed when the flowing
water carries soils to ocean or sea.

Aeolian Deposits
Soils transported and deposited by wind action; two type of
soils are famous
Loess: is a soil consisting of silt and silt-size particles.
The grain size tends to be uniform. Cohesion is developed
by clay coating or by chemical leaching by rainwater.
Loess is quite stable under unsaturated condition. Its
collapsible upon saturation.
Sand Dune: Mounds ridges of uniform fine sand. They
are formed when the sand is blown over the crest of the
dune by wind action. Sand dunes have the properties:
Uniform in grain size
Relative density on windward side is more than leeward side
Aeolian Loess

Sand dune

Glacial Deposits
They are transported and deposited by the
movements of glaciers.
The general name is glacial till or Moraines.
Terminal moraine (Ablation till)
Ground Moraine or lodgments till (hard pan)
Lateral Moraine
Glaciofluvial deposit or out wash
Glacio-lacustrine deposit (varved clay)
Glacial Deposits
Terminal moraine (Ablation till)
At the terminus, a melting glacier drops the
material in the form of ridges, known as terminal

Glacial Deposits
Ground Moraine or lodgments till (hard pan)
The land which was once covered by glaciers and
on which till has been deposited after melting.
Lateral Moraine
Accumulation of material deposited underneath or
at the side
Glaciofluvial deposit or out wash
The soil carried by the melting water from the
front of a glacier
Glacial Deposits
Glacio-lacustrine deposit (varved clay)
Material deposited within lakes by melting water
from glaciers

Colluvial Deposits
Soils transported and deposited by the action of
Talus: formed by gradual accumulation of
unsorted rock fragments and debris at the base
of cliffs
Hill Wash: Fine colluvial consisting of clayey
sand, sand silt or clay washed from top hills
Landslide deposit:
Large mass of soil or rock which have stepped
down as a unit
Organic Soil Deposits
Formed by in-place growth and subsequent decay of animal
and plant life
Peat: A fibrous aggregate of decaying vegetation matter with
dark color and bad smell
Peat with advanced stage of decomposition
NMC may range 200 to 300%
Highly compressible
Likely to undergo secondary consolidation
Not suitable for engineering purposes. 75
Marine Deposits
Material transported and deposited by ocean
waves and currents in shore and offshore
Shore deposits: deposits of sand and/or gravel
by waves on the shoreline
Marine clays: Organic and inorganic deposit of
fine-grained soil at the bed of sea or lake.

Pyroclastic soil Deposits
Materials ejected from volcanoes and transported
by wind, air, gravity etc.
Volcanic ash:
Lava thrown in air and subsequent cooling
Pumice: is rock form by cooling of lava flow
on earth surface during volcanic eruption.
Very porous, light weight material