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569 visualizzazioni7 pagineEyelud Bearing stress calculation

Feb 16, 2017

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Eyelud Bearing stress calculation

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and a shackle pin ? I cannot seem to find any standards or literature on the subject which I

would have thought was quite important.

If you have a Lifting Lug with a hole diameter, 'D' and a shackle with a pin diameter,'d' then

the bearing stress between them will be dependent on the contact angle between pin and

hole which will be dependent on the ratio of d/D ? ie if d/D is small then you will get a very

small contact area and high bearing pressure or if d/D is very close to 1 then contact angle

will be approaching 180^ with a low/minimum bearing pressure. The problem I have is how

do you work out contact area for values of d/D between 0 & 1 ?

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prex (Structural) 21 Nov

01 3:05

This is an Hertzian contact problem.

The formula you are looking for is

sigma=0.418 * sqrt(P*E*(1/R1-1/R2)/l)

where:

P is the applied load

E is Young's modulus (the formula is calculated for Poisson=0.3)

R1 and R2 are the radii of cylinders (R2 is of course the hole)

l is the width of contact

0.418 is a dimensional, so use consistent units

sigma is the maximum contact pressure.

The allowable value for sigma is of course much higher than the normal allowable stress

and is determined by fatigue considerations: if you take 2 times the yield stress, you are

still on the safe side.

Please note also that this contact stress is normally not the limiting factor for the lug-shear

pin assembly, also because they are used only occasionally.

You will also see that of course this formula is not valid for R1=R2, as it gives zero. In that

case the average bearing pressure on an area l*D is used and normally limited to 2.5 times

the allowable stress in tension.

Spoonful (Mechanical) 29 Jan 09

5:53

Hi all,

the lifting lug will be made of SS316 flat bar, a hole will be drilled(dia D1)

a rod(dia D2) will fit in the hole to fiting the whole thing.

i rekon the weakest part on the lifting lug during lifting will be where the rod in contact of

the lifting lug.

assmue theres no offset angle between the contact face of the rod and the interal face of

the hole, the contact case can be treated as a cylinder inside of socket.

during lifting there will be deflaction of the lifting lug and the rod, so there will be a

rectangle shope contact face inbetween.

assume the lifting lug have a thickness of L. in order to know the contact area, the

question becomes what the width of the contact rectangle. in another word, how much

Page 1 of 7

deflection of each material?

i didnt plan to go into the combined stress or pricinple stress details, i think just based on

the normal stress will give me a reasonable Pmax can be applied to the lifting lug. am i

right on this?

Ron (Structural) 29 Jan 09

5:59

Shear stress parallel to the load application will control the thickness (t) of the

plate. Assuming the lug is welded to something else, shear stress in the welds will control

the amount of weld needed.

I don't mean to be unkind, but I hope your analysis is more careful than your spelling and

attention to details in you posting.

Spoonful (Mechanical) 29 Jan 09

6:07

thanks for the reply Ron,

i am not trying to see how much weld is need, i wanna to know at the contact point, within

the yield stress, what is the max load can be applied,

yeah, the spelling, blame the forum, theres no spelling check here, haha, just kidding.

GregLocock (Automotive) 29 Jan 09

6:12

Shifts key broken as well is it? Look up Hertzian contact stress.

Cheers

Greg Locock

SIG:Please see FAQ731-376: Eng-Tips.com Forum Policies for tips on how to make the best

use of Eng-Tips.

Ussuri (Civil/Environme) 29 Jan 09

8:07

I always design lifting points to have some offlead (out of plane line of force at an angle

thus generating minor bending on the lift point) on them. No offlead is the absolute best

you can achieve so I would suggest allowing for something should your load swing once

lifted.

Check at hole level: bearing contact stress, shear pull out, bending about hole due to

offlead force. If this causes problems you can add cheek plates.

Page 2 of 7

Check at base level: biaxial bending, tension, shear followed by checks on weld group

capacity

Check on structure attachment: check the structure you are lifting is strong enough to

transfer the load at the attachment point. No point designing a padeye for 50 tonnes and

then welding it to a 4mm plate.

rb1957 (Aerospace) 29 Jan 09

8:21

IMHO i think you're over-thinking this, worrying about the curvature of the bar in the lug ...

assuming that even if the bar fits well in the hole there will always be some clearance

(slding fit?). then "theoretically" the contact is a line (thru the thickness of the hole, where

the two circles contact). this'll lead to infinite hertzian stress, as the contact area is

zero. so the answer to your post is zero load (can be sustained without yielding).

but in reality local yielding on both parts will create a contact area, and i expect that this

will be of small scale so that when the load is removed both parts will return to their

original size (the small zone of permanent strain will be reacted by compressive stresses in

the surrounding material).

and, like Ron posts above, the welds are probably the critical loadpath ... so why so

interested in a non-critical component. assuming that you're got a reasonable clearance

between the pin and the hole, use Dbar*t as the contact area. btw, there are several other

ways for lugs to fail (bearing, shear tear-out, pin bending, ...)

and, btw, you're responsible for your spelling; it's a bit "Gen Y" to blame the forum.

I bumped into welding calculation problem when I was designing lifting lug which I

mentioned in my previous post. Suggested literature to be used is 'Design of Welded

Structure' by Omer Blodgett. Basically the whole book explain everything we need to

know about welding. It is very comprehensive, but what I like most about the book is

that the explanation presented in simple language. It is a big plus for a slow reader like

me =p.

Before actually go into welding size calculation, you have to at least know some basic

stuffs about welding. My suggestion is: read hehe. I had very little knowledge about

welding before, so I read some literature that explain the basic things about welding,

like:

Page 3 of 7

- There are 5 types of joint: butt, edge, corner, lap, and tee.

- There are 3 types of weld:

1. Groove, divided further into 2 types:

- Complete Joint Penetration (CJP)

- Partial Joint Penetration (PJP)

2. Fillet

3. Slot or Plug

- Part of weld joint we are most interested in: throat, = the weakest plan in the weld.

- weld material strength

- weld length

- weld throat

Since weld length normally depends on the geometry of the parts to be connected, it is

thus fixed. Weld material strength is also a constant, since obviously it depends on the

weld material chosen. Hence, the only parameter we need to find out is weld throat size.

Assume weld size, calculate stress distribution, iterate calculation to optimize weld size

Troublesome? Yes =p. That's why Mr. Blodgett introduces Line Method. In principle,

line method assumes welding area as a line (hence the name, 'line method'.. duh =p).

This assumption simplify the way calculation is done, especially when structure we're

interested in is subjected to more than one type of loadings ( i.e. tensile, compressive,

shear, bending, and twisting).

So how to determine weld size exactly? If you've managed to get hold of the

recommended book, go to section 7.4.

First of all, determine all types of load subjected to the structure we're interested in.

Page 4 of 7

Then assuming the weld is a line, calculate the stress created by the various loadings.

Since we assume weld as a line, and not an area, we will get the results in 'force per

length' (e.g. lbs/in or N/m).

For simple tensile, compressive, and shear loads, use table 4 to get the stress. For more

complicated bending and twisting loads, use table 5 to calculate weld properties

(sectional modulus and polar moment of inertia). These weld properties are then used

or combined to calculate applicable stress.

Next step is simply to divide the calculation result (force per length) by allowable stress

(force per area) from table 6, 7, 8, or 9. That's it, you'll find the required weld size.

Anyway if you dont understand the steps I described above, refer to section 7.4.8 titled

'Applying System to Any Welded Connection'. It describes step-by-step instruction on

how to determine weld size. Yeah, now you know that I copied it =p.

10:59 AM 0 CO MM EN TS

P O S T E D B Y P C I AT

LABELS: C A LCU LATIO N

F R I D A Y, J U L Y 2 7 , 2 0 0 7

If you are working in a manufacturing company, lifting lug is a very common thing that

you use in everyday basis. Common to to extent of being taken for granted. Few would

wonder how to design a proper sized lifting lug.

So when my boss asked me to design newer (aka higher) capacity range of lifting lug, I

have to turn to mr google to help me out =p.

It turned out there are very few literature available as a design base of lifting lug.

Actually there is only one publication solely explain it: 'Design and Construction of

Lifting Beams' by David T Ricker. Yeah I know it says lifting beams, not eye or pad or

lug, but it does explain lifting lug calculation.

Page 5 of 7

Basically the method offered by this publication is to design lifting lug by predicting

potential failure modes that may occur:

1. Tension failure at the sides of the hole

2. Crushing above the pin followed by tearing tension fracture at the plate edge

3. Shear failure in the lug plate as the pin attempts to plow its way toward the free edge

of the plate

4. Dishing (out of plane buckling) failure of relatively thin lug plates which laterally

unrestrained

Compare the results from 4 scenarios above, get the minimum, and you have the

allowable lifting capacity of the lug. As long as your load is below allowable capacity,

your lug (and your ass) is safe =p.

Since most of the time lifting lug is manufactured by welding few pieces of metal plate,

the tricky part is to determine welding size needed to withstand the load. In the

publication, the line method is briefly mentioned. I will explain this in my next post. I

still need to do my own work you see =p.

8:55 AM 1 CO MM EN TS

P O S T E D B Y P C I AT

LABELS: C A LCU LATIO N

T H U R S D A Y, J U L Y 2 6 , 2 0 0 7

Introduction

Despite the title 'Everyday Engineering', this blog is not meant to talk about engineering

matter per se. It's just that my current career is an engineer so I call it everyday

engineering to make it sounds cool huhuhu.

I'm very lazy u see, so if i dont have to do anything, i wouldnt do it. Simple thought,

seemingly harmless, but bad attitude for my future. By creating this blog, I will be able

to see what I have done, and more importantly what I need to do to further complement

my current knowledge.

Pls note that everything I write in this blog is based on my limited experience and a

Page 6 of 7

result of my thought (+ hours of daydreaming in my ..err.. cubicle). So you should read

it with a pinch of salt =p.

Question: How does COMPRESS determine the allowable stresses for lifting lugs?

AnswerThe allowable stresses are shown in the "Lift Lug Allowable Stress" dialog that is accessed by clicking the "Allowable Stress Values" button on the Lifting

: Lug dialog. The allowable stresses can be specified by the designer or the default values may be used. The default values are found as described

below.

The allowable stresses are found as a multiple of the material yield stress. The factors for each type of stress are taken from the American Institute of

Steel Construction's (AISC) Allowable Stress Design (ASD) Specification (9th Edition) as follows, where Sy is the shell material yield stress:

bending = 0.66 * Sy (0.66 for a 'compact' section AISC ASD 9th para. F1-1)

Page 7 of 7

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