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Stress and Deformation Tensor

Autor: Prof. Dr.-Ing. habil. Heinz Konietzky (TU Bergakademie Freiberg, Geotechnical In-
stitute)

1 Stress- and deformation tensor ........................................................................... 1


Introduction .................................................................................................... 1
Preliminary note to tensors ............................................................................ 1
Particular tensors........................................................................................... 2
Typical tensor operations .............................................................................. 3
Stress tensor ................................................................................................. 6
Deformation tensor ...................................................................................... 20
Compatibility condition................................................................................. 26
Equilibrium conditions.................................................................................. 27

Editor: Prof. Dr.-Ing. habil. Heinz Konietzky Layout: Angela Griebsch


TU Bergakademie Freiberg, Institut fr Geotechnik, Gustav-Zeuner-Strae 1, 09599 Freiberg sekr_fm@ifgt.tu-freiberg.de
Stress and Deformation Tensor
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1 Stress and Deformation Tensor


Introduction

Geomechanical calculations have to consider the following 3 fundamental relations:


Equilibrium conditions
Compatibility conditions
Constitutive laws
The coupling between the stresses and deformations is performed by the constitutive
laws (material laws) as indicated by Figure 1. Stresses and Deformations are given by
second-order tensors. The constitutive law is given by a fourth-oder tensor. The scheme
in Figure 1 illustrates the interaction of the individual components, which are explained in
more detail within the next chapters.

inner + outer Forces Displacements


FI, FA ui

Equilibrium Compatibility
conditions conditions

Stresses Constitutive laws Deformations


ij ij

Fig.1: Geomechanical calculation scheme

Preliminary note to tensors

In simplified terms tensors can be considered as special multi-dimensional matrices,


which have certain characteristics. For geomechanics the transformation characteristics
are of special importance (tensor algebra).

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For tensors (matrices), different forms of expressions exist, e.g.:

- by means of indices: phys. example


a scalar = zeroth-oder tensor 1 value density
ai vector = first-order tensor 3 values displacement
aij dyad = second-order tensor 9 values stress
aijk triad = third-order tensor 27 values -
aijkl = thourth-order tensor 81 values stiffness ma
trix

- by means of different paranthesis:


a scalar = zeroth-order tensor
{a} vector = first-order tensor

[a] dyad = second-order tensor

[ a ] = thourth-order tensor

- by means of dashs above the symbols:


a scalar = zeroth-order tensor
a vector = first-order tensor
a dyad = secondorder tensor

a = thourth-order tensor

Particular tensors

Several tensors often used, especially for transformations, are defined on an international
basis:

Unit tensor or Kronecker symbol

1 0 0

ij =0 1 0
0 0 1

1.1
with

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ij =1 for i=j
1.2
ij = 0 for ij
1.3
The unit tensor is completely symmetric.

Permutation symbol (epsilon tensor or Levi-Civita symbol)

1 if ijk even permutations of 1, 2, 3


ijk = -1 if ijk uneven permutations of 1, 2, 3
0 if at least 2 indices are equal (no permutation)


even permutation = composition of even number of two-part cycles
312
Example: 123 321 123 even permutation (2 cycles)
231

The -tensor is completely antisymmetric (skew-symmetric).

123 = 231 = 312 = -321 = -132 = -213 = 1


1.4
all other elements are zero !

Zero tensor

all elements are zero:

0 0 0

aij = 0 0 0
0 0 0

1.5

Typical tensor operations

1. Transformation of vectors
e.g.: xi' = aij x j x'i 1.6

(
aij = cos xi' , x j ) ij 1.7
xj

aij transformation matrix

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2. Constitutive laws
In case of solid mechanics: constitutive laws relate stresses and deformations, where Eijkl
is the stiffness matrix.

e.g.: ij= Eijkl kl


1.8
3. Transposed matrix
The transposed matrix is ceated by reflection over the main diagonal or with other words:
by writing raws as columns and vice versa.

e.g.: aijT = a ji
1
a11 a12 a13 a11 a21 a31

a21 a22 a23 = a12 a22 a32
a a33 a a33
31 a32 11 a23
1.9
4. Invertible matrix
The product of a matrix and the corresponding invertible matrix results in the unit matrix
(all diagonal elements = 1).

e.g.: aij aij1 = ij

1.10
5. Determinant of matrix
= 1 2 3 = 11 22 33 + 21 32 13 + 31 12 23 11 32 23 12 21 33
13 22 31
1.11
6. Vector product

The vector product aj x bk can be written as:

=
1.12

7. Replacement rule
e.g.: ai = ik ak ik = Kronecker symbol
change of indices: from k to i

or e.g: total
ij = ijeffektiv + ij p
1.13

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8. Derivations (differential quotient comma convention)


ui
e.g.: ui , j =
x j
1.14

9. Einsteins summation convention


(summation over equal indices)
e.g.: aii = a11 + a22 + a33
1.15

10. Addition rule Summation tensor


(only tensors of equal format can be added or subtracted)
e.g.: ai1 .. in + bi1 .. in = si1 ..in

1.16
e.g.: ai + bi = si
1.17
Product rule Product tensor

(all elements of the left factor of order m are multiplied under consideration of the se-
quence with all elements of the right factors of order n, that means the multiplication of a
tensors of order m with a tensor of order n results in a tensor of order (m + n).
Please note: the product of two tensors is as a general rule not commutative!

ai1 ...in b j1 ... jm = pi1 ...in j1 ... jm


e.g.
ai b j = pij
1.18
11. Contraction
Contraction occurs either when a pair of literal indices of the tensor are set equal to each
other and summed over or if during the multiplication of two tensors of order n 2 one
index of the left factor is equal to the right factor. In both cases the rank of the final tensor
is reduced by 2.
aij b j = ci
e.g. 1.19
aijk b jq = cikq

or aiik = bk 1.20

or by using the Kronecker symbol


ij aijk =
bK 1.21

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Stress tensor

Load is generated by outer forces FA (area force) or inner force FI (volume forces) ac-
cording to Fig. 1.1.

Fig. 1.1: Solid body with volume and area forces


For an arbitrary orientated cut a stress vector t is obtained, assumed that only forces and
no moments are transferred. A denotes the area, where the force vector is considered.
F
t = lim
A0 A

1.22

The stress state can be defined in a cartesian coordinate system as illustrated in Fig. 1.2.

Fig. 1.2: Stress components at a cube

Along the three faces of the cube three stress vectors t1, t2 and t3 can be obtained:
whereby {i1, i2, i3} represent the three stress components on the particular cube faces
(Fig. 1.2).

In detail the stress tensor can be described as follows:

11 12 13 xx xy xz

ij = [t1 , t2 , t3 ] = 21 22 23 = yx
T
yy yz
31 32 33 zx zy zz
1.23

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The first index specifies the normal of the particular face under consideration, the second
index the impact direction of the stress component. According to equation 1.21 the stress
tensor consists of 9 elements.
However, assumed that the sum of the moments is zero, pairwise identical shear stresses
are obtained. This feature is also called Boltzmann-Axiom and explained in more detail
in Fig. 1.3 and by equation 1.22 for the 2-dimensional case (the extension to 3D is
straightforward).

M xy = 0 = xy l 4l 2 yx l 4l 2 xy = yx

M xz = 0 = xz l 4l 2 zx l 4l 2 xz = zx

M yz = 0 = yz l 4l 2 zy l 4l 2 yz = zy
1.24

yy
yx
xy
l
xx xx
xy
yx
yy
Fig. 1.3: Equilibrium considerations for a volume element (2D, x-y-plane)

From (1.22) it follows, that the stress tensor is symmetric, that means:
T
ij = ji or =
1.25

Therefore, the number of stress values is reduced from 9 to 6 (three pairwise identical
shear stresses = no rotations).
The relationship between stress vector and stress tensor is obtained on the basis of the
equilibrium conditions in direction of the coordinates xi (Fig. 1.4):

(
ni = cos n, xi )
1.26
dAi = ni dA
1.27
ni = unit normal vector

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Fig. 1.4: Stress tensor and stress vector

t1 dA = 11 dA1 + 21 dA2 + 31 dA3


t2 dA = 12 dA1 + 22 dA2 + 32 dA3
t3 dA = 13 dA1 + 23 dA2 + 33 dA3
1.28
Using (1.24) and (1.25) equation 1.26 can be simplified:

t1 = 11n1 + 21n2 + 31n3


t2 = 12 n1 + 22 n2 + 32 n3
t3 = 13 n1 + 23 n2 + 33 n3
1.29
Equation 1.27 can be rewritten in tensor form as follows:

ti =
ji n j =
ij n j
T
=n= n
1.30

Equation 1.28 documents the equality of pairwise shear stresses. The so defined second-
order stress tensor is called Cauchy stress tensor or true stress tensor or Euler stress
tensor.
The Cauchy stress tensor ij relates the current force vector to the current (deformed)
area element.

dFi = ji dAj
1.31
Fi: current force vector
Aj: current area element dAj = njdA

Alternatively, the current force vector Fi can be related to the original area A (that means
before any deformation!). Such a stress tensor is called Nominal stress tensor, La-
grange stress tensor or First Piola-Kirchhoff tensor Tij:

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dFi = T ji dAj
1.32

The stress tensor can be decomposed into normal and shear components (n: normal
vector; m: tangential vector) as illustrated by Fig. 1.5:

n = ni ti = ni ij n j
1.33
or
n = mi ti = mi ij n j
1.34
In detail equations 1.31 and 1.32 can also be written as:

n = n1 11 n1 + n1 12 n2 + n1 13 n3
+ n2 21 n1 + n2 22 n2 + n2 23 n3
+ n3 31 n1 + n3 32 n2 + n3 33 n3
1.35

From equation 1.33 follows for instance:

1

n = 0 n =11
0

0

n = 0 n =33
1

For the shear stress follows:

n = m1 11 n1 + m1 12 n2 + m1 13 n3
+ m2 21 n1 + m2 22 n2 + m2 23 n3
+ m3 31 n1 + m3 32 n2 + m3 33 n3
1.36

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From equation 1.34 follows for instance:

1 0

n = 0; m = 1 n =21
0 0

0 0

n = 0; m = 1 n =23
1 0

If n = mi ji n j , than:
1 0

n = 0; m = 1 n =12
0 0

n
n
m .
m
Fig. 1.5: Decomposition of stress vector t into normal and shear stress component

Thereby, it always holds: ni ni = 1 and mi mi = 1

Now we consider specific directions, where only normal stresses exist, but no shear
stress . For such a constellation it holds:

ti = ij nj and ti = ij nj
1.37
Where nj characterizes the principal stress directions.

Equalization of both expressions in 1.35 yields:

ij nj = ij nj or (ij - ij ) nj = 0
1.38

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Equation 1.37 describes an eigenvalue problem with eigenvalues und nj. The non-trivial
solution is obtained if the coefficient determinant of equation 1.36 vanishes:

det (ij - ij) = 0


1.39
or

11 12 13
12 22 23 =0
13 23 33
1.40
The solution of equation 1.38 is a characteristic equation of third order:

3 I1 2 + I 2 I 3 =0
1.41
where the following holds:

I1 = KK = 11 + 22 + 33 = ij ij
1.42
11 12 11 13 22 23
I=
2
1
2
( )
ii jj ij ji = + +
21 22 31 33 32 33
= 1122 + 22 33 + 1133 12
2
23
2
31
2

1.43
11
I 3 det ( ij=
) 3
= ii jj KK + ij jK Ki ij ji KK
32 2
= 1122 33 1123
2
22 13
2
33 12
2
+ 212 23 31
1.44

The values I1, I2, I3 are called main invariants (I1: first main invariant, I2: second main
invariant, I3: third main invariant) of the stress tensor, that means that they are independ-
ent of the coordinate systems (independent of translations or rotations of the reference
system). Besides these main invariants there are the so called basic invariants, which
can be considered as a special subset of the main invariants. They are defined as follows:

J1 = kk =I1
1 1 2
J2 = ij ji = I1 I 2
2 2
1 1 3
J 3 = ij jk ki = I1 I1 I 2 + I 3
3 3
1.45

Besides the cartesian representation it is also possible to find a formulation in form of the
principal stresses:

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I1 = 1 + 2 + 3
1.46
I2 = 12 + 23 + 13
1.47
I3 = 123
1.48

An interesting decomposition of the stress tensor is possible, if a mean normal stress is


defined as follows:

1 1
0 = KK = ( 11 + 22 + 33 )
3 3
1.49
0 is also called hydrostatic stress state or mean stress or spherical stress.
Based on these definitions the stress tensor can be written as:

ij =0 ij + sij
1.50
In terms of matrix notation this means:

11 12 13 0 0 0 11 0 12 13
0 0 + 21
23
21 22 =
23 0 22 0
31 32 33 0 0 0 31 32 33 0

0 0 0 s11 s12 s13


= 0 0 0 + s21
s22 s23
0 0 0 s31 s32 s33
1.51
sij is referred as deviatoric stress part.

For the spherical tensor as well as for the stress deviator invariants can be defined. The
main invariants for the spherical tensor are given as follows:
3 2
I1 =30 I 2 = 0 I 3 =
30
2
1.52
The corresponding basic invariants are:

3 2
J1 =
30 J 2 = 0 J 3 =
30
2
1.53
For the deviatoric part the main invariants are:

I1D = skk = ( 11 0 ) + ( 22 0 ) + ( 33 0 ) = 0
1.54

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=I 2D
1
2
( sii s jj sij s ji )
= ( 11 0 )( 22 0 ) + ( 22 0 )( 33 0 ) + ( 11 0 )( 33 0 ) 12
2
23
2
31
2

1.55
I = det ( sij )
D
3

11 3
= sii s jj skk + sij s jk ski sij s ji skk
3 2 2
1.56
The basic invariants for the deviatoric part are:

J=
1
D
s=
kk 0

1.57
1 1
( 11 0 ) + ( 22 0 ) + ( 33 0 ) + 212 2
2 2 2
J=
D
sij s= 2
+ 223
2
+ 231
2
2
ji
2
1
( 11 22 ) + ( 22 33 ) + ( 33 11 ) + 12
2 2 2
= 2
+ 23
2
+ 31
2

6
1
( 1 2 ) + ( 2 3 ) + ( 3 1 )
2 2 2
=
6
1.58
1
J 3D = sij s jk ski = ( 1 0 ) ( 2 0 ) ( 3 0 )
3
1.59

Quite often stress components are defined, which are related to the octahedral plane.
The octahedral plane is equally inclined to the principal stress directions (hydrostatic
axis). The principal stresses act along the x1, x2 and x3 direction:

1 0 0

=
ij 0 2 0
0 0 3

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1
x1
1
= arc cos 54, 7
3 nj 3
t j =[ 1 , 2 , 3 ]
tj
2
x2
2
x 1
3 3
Fig. 1.6: Representation of octahedral stresses

The stress vector tj is defined by the three principal stress components 1, 2 and 3.
Regarding the normal on the octahedral plane the stress vector tj has the following carte-
sian components:

1
tiN = ij n j nj =
3

1.60

The projection and summation of the components on the vektor nj (hydrostatic axis) pro-
vides the octahedral normal stress:

1 1 2 3 1
OCT = + + = ( 1 + 2 + 3 ) = 0
3 3 3 3 3
1.61

The octahedral normal stress is equivalent to mean stress (Equation 1.48). The subtrac-
tion of the octahedral normal stresses from the principal stresses leads to the deviatoric
stresses:

s1 = 1 - 0
s2 = 2 - 0
s3 = 3 - 0
1.62

These deviatoric stresses can also be referred to the octahedral plane and given as car-
tesian components:

s1 s2 s3
=t1s = t2s = t3s
3 3 3
1.63

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The addition of vectors leads to the octahedral shear stresses:


(t ) + (t ) + (t )
2 2 2
OCT
= 1 2 3

s12 s22 s32


= + +
3 3 3

=
3
(
1 2
s1 + s22 + s32 )
2 D 1
= = J2 sij sij
3 3
1.64

Another very popular quantity is the so-called von-Mises equivalent stress F. This stress
value is based on a strength criterion, which relates the yield stress F to the stress devi-
ator:

=
0 3 J 2D 2F
1.65
This implies that:

3 1
( 1 2 ) + ( 2 3 ) + ( 1 3 )
2 2 2
=
F =
3 J 2D =
sij sij
2 2
1.66
2 2 2
and OCT = F = F
3 3
1.67

Principal stresses and principal stress directions:

The stress tensor as a symmetric linear operator has the characteristic, that it can be
diagonalised. That means, there are three orientations (directions) perpendicular to each
other in space, where the corresponding normal stresses reach extreme values (principal
stresses or principal normal stresses) and the shear stresses vanish. In this case, only
the trace of the tensors has non-vanishing values:

1 0 0

=
ij 0 2 0
0 0 3

1.68

The stress vectors on these specific surface areas coincide with the directions of the
normal vectors of these surface areas. Therefore, the stress vectors have only one non-
vanishing component. Thus, for the stress vector at the considered surface area it holds:

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t=
i ni

and

t1 = n1 1 = l 1
t2 = n2 2 = m 2
t3 = n3 3 = n 3
1.69

The uni vector ni = {l, m, n} describes the principal normal stress directions. For the unit
vector the following holds in general:

n
i =1
2
i =l 2 + m 2 + n 2 =1

1.70

Squaring equation 1.67 yields:

t12= l 2 12
t=
2
2 m 2 22
t=
2
3 n 2 32
1.71
and
t12
l2 =
12
t22
m2 =
22
t32
n = 22

3
1.72
The addition of the equations 1.70 under consideration of equation 1.68 gives:

t12 t22 t32


+ + =
1
12 22 32
1.73

Equation 1.71 describes an ellipsoid, that means the values 1, 2 and 3 represent the
half-axes of the ellipsoid (Fig. 1.7). The surface of the ellipsoid represents all possible
stress vectors. If two principal stresses are equal, a spheroid is coming up. If all principal
stresses are equal (isotropic stress state) a sphere is coming up.

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Fig. 1.7: Stress ellipsoid

In geomechanics, especially in soil mechanics, descriptions on the basis of the deviatoric


stress plane, see Fig. 1.8, are very common.

1+2+3 =const.
1 Deviatorebene

T (1, 2, 3)
3 hse
2=tische Ac
t s =
1 sta o
3
arccos = Hydr

3
h
3

2
Fig. 1.8: Decomposition of stress state into hydrostatic and deviatoric part

t = stress vector to stress point T

3 3
=
h ( 1 + 2 + =
3) 1
3 3
1.74
s= s +s +s =
2
1
2
2
2
3 2J D
2

1.75

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On the deviatoric plane it holds:

( 1 + 2 + 3 ) =const.
1.76

The deviatoric plane through the coordinate system is also called -plane.

1'

3'
2'
Fig. 1.9: Illsutration of Lode angle in the -plane

It holds:

J 3D
cos (3 ) =
3 3

(J )
3
2 D 2
2

1.77

3 3 J 3D
= arccos
1
3 2 3

(J D2 )
2

1.78

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Fig. 1.10: Illustration of Lode angle in the principal stress space

In geotechnical engineering the follwoing two modified invariants are often used:
Roscoe invariants p und q as well as Lode angle .

Thereby, it holds:

1
p= 1
3
1.79
q= 3J D
2

1.80

1 3 3 J 3D
= arccos
3 2 3


D 2
( J 2 )
1.81

For the conventional triaxial test teh following expressions can be deduced:

1
p= (1 + 2 3)
3
1.82
q = 1 3
1.83
1
= =
arccos ( 3 6 s1 s 32 ) 3 6 s1s2 s3
3
1.84

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Deformation tensor

For the coordinates of a point at the initial and final (deformed) state the following inverse
relations exist: xi = xi x j und x i = x i x j
o o o


The definition of the deformation tensor can be made in two systems:

1. in relation to the undeformed initial system


(= Lagrange approach), that means ui is a function of the initial coordinates

ui = ui x j

1.85
2. in relation to the deformed final system
(= Euler approach), that means ui is a function of the final coordinates.
~

ui = ui x j

1.86
x2
P
ui
Lagrange
P
x2
x1
x3
x3 x1
x2
P
ui
Euler
P x2
x1
x3
x3 x1
Fig. 1.11: Euler and Lagrange approaches in respect to deformations

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The general definition of the deformation tensor reads as follows:

L
x K x K
ij =
(Lagrange)
xi x j
1.87

E xK xK
ij = (Euler)
x i x j
1.88
ui ui
With the help of the gradient tensors (= displacement gradients) and , respec-

xj x j
tively, the deformation tensor can be defined as follows:

3. Lagrange: x=


x + ui xi

i i

xi ui

=ij +
xj xj
1.89
u
ij + u i
L
jK = ij + i
xj xK


u u j u u
= jK + K + + i i
xj xK x j xK
1.90

xi u ( x j )

2. Euler: x=
i

xi u
=ij i
x j x j
1.91
E u u u u
jK = jK i K + i i
xK x j x j uK
1.92

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Illustration of the fundamental distinction between Euler and Lagrange approaches using
numerical meshing:

a) Lagrange Same nodes, but different geographic coor-


dinates
B (2, 4)

B (2, 4)
A (2, 2)
A (2, 2)

Original Deformiert

b) Euler new nodes, but old geographic coordinates


B (2, 4)

A (2, 2) B (2, 2)
A (2, 1)

Original Deformiert

For the Lagrange approach the grid follows the deformations. For the Euler approach the
material flows through the stiff grid.

Besides the displacement gradient and the deformation tensor, the deformation gradient
Fij is of vitial importance:

xi xj
=
F L
= Fij or =
F E
= Fij( 1 )

xi
ij ij
xj
1.93

The deformation gradient is a second-rank tensor. He projects the line element vector dsi

(initial configuration) to line element vector ds (current configuration). Thereby, the same
material points are considered (Fig. 1.12).

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Bahnlinien ds
d s

x
Fig. 1.12: illustration of deformation gradient

It holds:

ds=
i Fij ds j

and

dsi Fij( 1 ) ds j
=
1.94

From the engineering point of view the deformation gradient can be defined according to
equation 1.88:

G 1 L
= i K jK
2
ij


1 u j uK u u
= + + i i
2 x
K x j x j xK
1.95

or according to equation 1.91:

A 1 E

jK= jK jK
2
1 u j uK ui ui
= +
2 uK x j x j xK

1.96

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Expression 1.93 is called Green deformation tensor, the expression 1.94 is called Al-
mansi deformation tensor. In the engineering praxis the Green deformation tensor is pre-
ferred. Moreover, most often the quadratic term is neglected (assumption, that
u i

<< 1). Thus, for small deformation, the distinction between Langrangian and Eulerian
xj
approaches disappears and the simplified deformation tensor is given:

1 ui u j
=
ij +
2 x
j xi
1.97
The deformation tensor according to equation 1.95 can be extended to include rotations:

ij =
1
2
(ui , j + u j , i ) + (ui , j u j , i )
1
2
= e + wij
ij
Deformations Rotations

1.98

Fig. 1.13: Illustration of rotation and deformation (2D)

It holds:

0 w12 w13 w12 = w21



wij = w21 0 w23 with w13 = w31
w 0 w23 = w32
31 w32
1.99
e11 e12 e13 e12 = e21

eij = e21 e22 e23 with e13 = e31
e e33 e23 = e32
31 e32
1.100

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Thus, the deformation tensor can be written as:

e11 e12 + w12 e13 + w13



=
ij e21 + w21 e22 e23 + w23
e + w e32 + w32 e33
31 31

1.101
with
eij=
1
( ij + ji ) and wij =
1
( ij ji ) for i j
2 2
1.102
eij is called deformation tensor, wij is called rotation tensor. It holds:

1
eij= ij for i j
2
1.103
ij are shear strain components,
e11, e22 and e33 are direct strain components (elongations or shortenings).

The volumetric strain v is given by the following expression:


dV
v = = KK = 11 + 22 + 33
dV
1.104

The mean direct strain (elongation or shortening) 0 is given by:


1 1
0 = KK = v
3 3
1.105

In most cases rotations are neglected and it holds:

e11 e12 e13 e12 = e21


e23 = e32
ij = e21 e22 e23 with
e e33 e13 = e31
31 e32
1.106

In complete analogy to the stress tensor invariants can be defined also for the deformation
tensor, e.g.:

I1 = e11 + e22 + e33


1.107
I 2 = e11 e22 + e22 e33 + e11 e33
1.108
I 3 = e11 e22 e33
1.109

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Compatibility condition

From expression 1.110 the strain components can be obtained in a unique manner. Oth-
erwise, the displacements can not be obtained in a unique manner based on given strains
only. The compatibility conditions (= conditions of integrability) are necessary additional
requirements to deduce displacements on the basis of given strain components by inte-
gration. The consideration of the compatibility conditions guarantees, that strains lead to
a correct displacement field and the continuum is not disturbed.
Starting point is the deformation tensor:

=
ij
1
2
( ui , j + u j ,i )
1.110

Second derivatives of expression 1.108 with corresponding index permutation gives the
following 4 expressions:

ij=
, kl
1
2
(u i , jkl + u j ,ikl )
kl=,ij
1
2
(u k ,lij + ul , kij )
ik=, jl
1
2
(u i , kjl + uk ,ijl )
jl=
,ik
1
2
(u j ,lik + ul , jik )
1.111

Due to the fact that sequence of differentation is arbitrary, through addition and subtrac-
tion of the expressions 1.109 the following expression is obtained:

ij , kl + kl ,ij ik , jl jl ,ik =0
1.112

From expression 1.110 the 6 compatibility conditions can be deduced under the condition
ij = ji for i j:

11, 22 + 22 ,11 212 ,12 =


0
22 , 33 + 33 , 22 2 23 , 23 =
0
33 ,11 + 11, 33 213 ,13 =
0
11, 23 + 23 ,11 13 , 21 12 , 31 =
0
22 , 31 + 31, 22 21, 32 23 ,12 =0
33 ,12 + 12 , 33 32 ,13 31, 23 =0
1.113

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First equation in 1.111 can, for example, also be written as:

2 xx yy 2 xy
2

+ =
2
y 2 x 2 x y
1.114

Under plane strain conditions all strain components and derivations in respect to the third
direction in space vanish, that means only equation 1.114 left over. Equation 1.114 indi-
cates, that the second derivations of the direct strains and the second derivations of the
angular distortions have to be in due proportion.

The above used term strain is the so-called technical strain or Cauchy strain in contrast
to the so-called logarithmic strain or Hencky strain. Only for small deformations both
expressions (Equations 1.115 and 1.116) provide nearly the same value:

Technical strain: =
1.115

Logarithmic strain: =
1.116

Equilibrium conditions

Fig. 1.14: Force equilibrium at volume element (Fi: volume forces)

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For any volume element inside a body the forces and moments have to be in equilibrium.
Usually it is assumed, that the body (solid) does not rotate and therefore the sum of the
moments is zero by default.

According to Fig. 1.14 the following yields:

F x =0:
yx
= x + x dx dy dz x dy dz + yx + dy dz dx
x y

yx dz dx + zx + zx dz dx dy
z
zx dx dy + Fx dx dy dz
1.117

F y =0:
y zy
= y + dy dx dz y dx dz + zy + dz dx dy
y z
xy
xy dz dy + xy + dx dy dz
x
zy dx dy + Fy dx dy dz
1.118
Fz = 0 :
zy
= z + z dz dx dy z dx dy + zy + dy dx dz
z y
y

zy dx dz + xz + xz dx dy dz
x
xz dy dz + Fz dx dy dz
1.119
Equations 1.115 to 1.117 can be simplified in the following way:

x yx zx
+ + + Fx =
0
x y z
1.120
xy y zy
+ + + Fy =
0
x y z
1.121
xz yz z
+ + + Fz =
0
x y z
1.122

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