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RISK MANAGEMENT OF WELL CEMENTING JOB

Contents

Contents .................................................................................................................1
Introduction ...........................................................................................................2
Background of study ..............................................................................................2
Reasons for Cementing ..........................................................................................3
Cement Grades ......................................................................................................4
Cementing Additives .............................................................................................5
Cementing Job ........................................................................................................5
Primary Cementing. 5
Secondary Cementing.. 5
Successful Cementation.. 6
Preparation for Cementing ....................................................................................7
Cementing Procedures ...........................................................................................7
Schlumberger Background .....................................................................................9
The Mean of Risk ..................................................................................................10
Risk Management ................................................................................................10
Pre Cementing Job Evaluation .............................................................................11
Cementing Job procedure Risks ...........................................................................16
Conclusion ............................................................................................................21
References ............................................................................................................22

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RISK MANAGEMENT OF WELL CEMENTING JOB

Introduction
Well cementing in its simplest form can be described as, the placement of a material
that sets to form a solid mass which has supporting and sealing properties. Well
cementing plays a very important role in the construction, completion and
abandonment of wells. The cement performs vital functions in supporting the casing
and wellhead equipment. The casing cannot perform the functions it is designed for,
described elsewhere, unless effectively cemented in place. The cement also forms
an impermeable barrier to the passage of gases and fluids and enables formations to
be isolated.
A poor cementation can significantly impact on subsequent well performance and
return on investment. In comparison to the initial expenditure, a poor cement job can
result in very high remedial costs. For example, failure to achieve good zonal
isolation in primary cementing (the initial cementing of casing) costs the Group
millions of dollars each year in well repairs and lost production.
To achieve a successful cementation the Well Engineer must have a working
knowledge of the following:
Cement Types
Cement Slurry Characteristics
Cement Hydration Process
The Effects of Pressure and Temperature on Cement Hydration
The Effect of Additives
Contaminants and Their Effects
Cement Testing Procedures and Terminology
Wellbore Fluid Displacement and Mud Cake Removal
Primary and Secondary Cementing Techniques
Evaluation Procedures

The general objective of this study is to find out how risk is managed during the
well cementing Job.

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RISK MANAGEMENT OF WELL CEMENTING JOB

Background of the study

In this study, there are main sections related to the cementing Job represented in:
introduction to cementing, the role & procedure of cementing job, schlumberger
company background, and the risks associated with cementing job procedure.

Reasons for Cementing


Cementing jobs are carried out in oil wells for a number of reasons, including:

Well tubular support: To provide axial support to the casing or liner strings to
prevent movement and permit further drilling.
To Prevent Well bore/tubular collapse: To resist plastic/brittle deformation of
the surrounding formation that may impact upon well tubular and cause their
collapse.
Zonal isolation: To provide a pressure (to invading formation gas) tight seal
between different zones (formation-formation or formation-surface). Includes
sealing perforations to control water production or prior to a workover.
Corrosion protection: To isolate metal tubular from corrosive gases and liquids
contained in the formations.
Kick-off plugs: To fill the hole with a material that is harder than the surrounding
formation to encourage the drill string to deviate from the original borehole
trajectory.
Lost circulation cures: A material that will permanently seal leakage paths into
the formation.
Well abandonment: To isolate all open hole sections from the surface.

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RISK MANAGEMENT OF WELL CEMENTING JOB

Cement Grades
The American Petroleum Institute (API) has designated eight classes of oil well
cement (reference API Standards 10 "Specification for Oil-Well Cements and
Cement Additives").
API Cement Classifications

API Class Purpose


0-2,000m General Purpose Considered to have Low Sulphate
A
Resistance Similar to ASTM C 150 Type 1
0-2,000m General Purpose Available in Moderate and High Sulphate
B
Resistant Grades Similar to ASTM C 150 Type 11
0-2,000m High Early Strength Available in Low, Moderate and High
C
Sulphate Resistance Grades Similar To ASTM C 150 Type 111
2,000 3,000m; 77 110oC Retarded Cement Available in Moderate
D
and High Sulphate Resistance Grades
3,000 5,000m; 110 145oC Retarded Cement Available in
E
Moderate and High Sulphate Resistance Grades
3,000 5,000m; 145 160oC Retarded Cement Available in
F
Moderate and High Sulphate Resistance Grades
0 2,500m General Purpose up to 195oC Available in Moderate and
G High Sulphate Resistance Grades Only permitted additives to the
clinker are calcium sulphate and water.
0 2,500m General Purpose up to 195oC Available in Moderate and
H High Sulphate Resistance Grades Same as Class G cement, but with
coarser grind

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RISK MANAGEMENT OF WELL CEMENTING JOB

Cementing Additives
Given the wide variation in well conditions that can be experienced, the properties
of neat Portland cement may not always be suitable for a specific job. For example
the well may be very hot, or have high pressure, or a longer or shorter thickening
time may be required. To ensure the cement slurry is competent for the expected
well conditions additives are used to modify the cement properties. They can be
categorized as:
Density Control
Dispersants or Friction Reducers
Accelerators
Retarders
Fluid Loss Control
Lost Circulation Control
Specialty Additives

Cementing Job
Complete zonal isolation is the main goal of a cement job. To ensure the
longevity of the well, a high quality cement job must be conducted. A good cement
job exhibits an extremely low matrix permeability, providing an excellent seal.
Primary Cementing
Primary cementing covers all the operations to fix a casing and/or liner string in a
newly drilled wellbore. The cement slurry is placed in the annulus between the pipe
and the wall of the open hole. In this placement the cement has to displace the
annular contents, usually drilling fluid, as completely as possible to permit adequate
bonding to pipe and formation as well as developing its sealing properties.

Secondary Cementation
Secondary cementation covers applications such as permanent abandonment of
non-productive and/or depleted zones or the whole well, plugs for sidetracking or to
cure lost circulation, repairs of casing leaks and occasionally the repair of an
unsuccessful primary cementation. Cement is either injected under pressure (squeeze
job) or placed into the required position (plug job).

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Successful Cementation
The key to successful primary and secondary cementations is proper 'up-front
engineering' in the design stage and close, involved and experienced supervision of
the execution phase. The programming process needs to focus on the main
requirements of maximum cement fill to the desired height in the annular space. This
can only be achieved when drilling fluid and mud cake are efficiently displaced by
the cement, cascading into a set of conditions and physical parameters to be applied.
Factors that can positively affect the success of a cementation include:
Cement slurry design appropriate to the well conditions
Adequate and timely testing of slurries using field sampled materials and water.
Proper blending of cement and additives.
High energy, recirculating mixing.
The use of centralizers and/or scratchers.
Use of correct casing running procedures
Reciprocation or rotation of the casing/liner string during displacement.
Proper drilling fluid properties.
Correct displacement rate.

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Preparation for Cementing


Cementing Proposal and Program
The preliminary stage of the cementing process begins before reaching casing
depth, when a cementing proposal is prepared. This proposal includes a hardware
configuration and tally as well as details of cement and auxiliary fluids to be pumped.
Programming for a primary casing/liner cementation requires the following data
input:
Size and depth of the hole.
A directional survey of the hole.
Estimates of the value of the formation strengths in the open hole and possible
loss zones encountered.
Hole contents and fluid properties (gradient, rheology and whether OBM or
an aqueous fluid).
Pressure regime in the well-bore.
Required top of cement.
Casing size and weight (and/or ID).

Cementing Procedures

After casing, or steel pipe, is run into the well, an L-shaped cementing head is fixed
to the top of the wellhead to receive the slurry from the pumps. Two wiper plugs, or
cementing plugs, that sweep the inside of the casing and prevent mixing: the bottom
plug and the top plug.

Keeping the drilling fluids from mixing with the cement slurry, the bottom plug is
introduced into the well, and cement slurry is pumped into the well behind it. The
bottom plug is then caught just above the bottom of the wellbore by the float collar,
which functions as a one-way valve allowing the cement slurry to enter the well.

Then the pressure on the cement being pumped into the well is increased until a
diaphragm is broken within the bottom plug, permitting the slurry to flow through
it and up the outside of the casing string. After the proper volume of cement is
pumped into the well, a top plug is pumped into the casing pushing the remaining

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slurry through the bottom plug. Once the top plug reaches the bottom plug, the
pumps are turned off, and the cement is allowed to set.

The amount of time it takes cement to harden is called thickening time or


pumpability time. For setting wells at deep depths, under high temperature or
pressure, as well as in corrosive environments, special cements can be employed.

Scheme of Well Cementing Job Operation

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Schlumberger background

Schlumberger is the world's leading provider of technology for reservoir


characterization, drilling, production, and processing to the oil and gas industry.
Working in more than 85 countries and employing approximately 113,000 people
who represent over 140 nationalities, Schlumberger supplies the industry's most
comprehensive range of products and services, from exploration through production
and integrated pore-to-pipeline solutions for hydrocarbon recovery that optimize
reservoir performance.
Schlumberger has principal offices in Paris, Houston, London and The Hague.
Revenue was $35.5 billion in 2015. Schlumberger stock is listed on the New York
Stock Exchange, ticker symbol SLB, on the Euronext Paris, Euronext Amsterdam,
London and the SIX Swiss stock exchanges.
Competitive Advantage
Schlumberger offers its clients four key advantages:
Deep domain knowledge of exploration and production operations gained through
more than 80 years of experience
The service industry's longest commitment to technology and innovation through
a network of 125 research and engineering technology centers
A global reach in more than 85 countries coupled to strong local experience and
the diversity in thought, background and knowledge that more than 140 nationalities
bring
A commitment to excellence in service delivery anytime, anywhere.
Schlumberger as a leader in oil well cementing application
Schlumberger offers a wide range of cementing technologies for zonal isolation
whatever drilling environment or however remote the location, SLB innovative
cementing technologies offering a range of cementing solutions to achieve zonal
isolation for the life of the wells.
SLB Use the right cementing equipment for the job with state-of-the-art
technology designed for the most challenging well environments.

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RISK MANAGEMENT OF WELL CEMENTING JOB

THE mean of Risk


The chance that an investment's actual return will be different than expected. Risk
includes the possibility of losing some or all of the original investment. Different
versions of risk are usually measured by calculating the standard deviation of
the historical returns or average returns of a specific investment. A high standard
deviation indicates a high degree of risk.

Many companies now allocate large amounts of money and time in


developing risk management strategies to help manage risks associated with their
business and investment dealings. A key component of the risk management
process is risk assessment, which involves the determination of the risks
surrounding a business or investment.

Risk is an uncertain event identified in advance that may or may not happen, and
may have a positive or negative impact on the project. Risks with negative
consequences are called threats, and risks with positive consequences are called
opportunities.

Risk Management
Risk management is the process for identifying, analyzing, and communicating
risk and accepting, avoiding, transferring, or controlling it to an acceptable level
considering associated costs and benefits of any actions taken.

Risk Management in cementation process


Each cementing job failure dramatically increases the cost of wells and can lead
to complications in completion. The key to preventing these cementing and zonal
isolation failures in the future is to identify why a job failed by identifying all risks
associated with cementing job and the best actions implementing to reduce high
Risks to the minimum.

Risk management helping to find out how risk is managed during the well
cementing Job, includes risk identification, measurement and assessment, and its
objective is to minimize negative effects of risks on the cementing Job process.

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Risk management steps


The key to successful primary cementations is to reach risk management goals by
considering these steps:

Identifying cementing Job Risks.

Analyze cementing job risk.

Evaluating the Risks.

Treat the Risks.

Lessons to learn.

Identify Risks Analyze Risks Evaluate Risks Treat Risks

Lessons to learn

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Pre Cementing Job Evaluating


One of The keys to successful primary cementations is a Pre Job evaluating, by
evaluating planning & design process in the first step followed by evaluating rig
set up and job execution needed to focus on the main requirements of all
equipment and procedure needed before job starting. This can only be achieved
when make sure of all factors related to the job are considered with high quality,
safely, and low risks.

Qualitative analysis of the risks:

Measure the likelihood and impact of risks, determine the likelihood of their
appearance, the estimated probability of impact risk, choosing the right tool.
Adoption of all the scientific and practical indicators.

Create a matrix 5x5 to determine the size of the risk, the degree of impact and
likelihood of each risk.

To carry out the risk assessment can be used the following equation:

R=IxL

Where

I: Impact of the risk

L: Likelihood of the risk

R: Rate of the Risk

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Risk Management Matrix of the pre Job evaluating process:

high medium low Very low

4 3 2 1 Light

8 6 4 2 Serious

12 9 6 3 Major

16 12 8 4 Catastrophic

20 15 10 5 Multi
catastrophic

11-20 Red HIGH

5-10 yellow MEDIUM

2-4 green LOW

1- blue INSIGNIFICANT

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NO Pre Job Planning & Design Answer Risks


1 Is there a job design/procedure available Y N yes Green
and approved by client & LM?
2 Is a CemCADE simulation available Y N yes Green
which uses final well data, if criteria in
KSQR is met?
3 Is this operation using New Technology Y N yes Green
and/or B-coded additives outside its
application?
4 Is this the first time application in this Y N yes Green
district for this slurry system/job
design?
5 Does the slurry design comply with the Y N yes Green
thickening time requirement?
6 Is lab testing completed as required in Y N yes Green
job process as KSQR?
7 Were cement volumes and additive Y N yes Green
calculations verified as per KSQR?
8 Does the job procedure/program include Y N yes Green
the minimum requirements as per
KSQR?
9 Has the JS and EOs performed the same Y N yes Green
or a similar type of jobs previously or
completed training and deemed
competent by management?
10 Is the equipment prepared & current on Y N yes Green
STEM (auxiliary equipment + cement
head), as per KSQR?
11 Has treating equipment been inspected Y N yes Green
and tested?
12 Is necessary equipment available to Y N yes Green
perform the job as designed, as per
KSQR application?
13 Do you comply with WS QHSE? (comply Y N yes Green
with the work flow when pumping New
Technology and/or B-coded additives
outside of Tech Memo application)

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NO Job rig up & Execution Answer Risks


1 Does the crew have the necessary Y N yes
equipment and products to perform the Green
job as per QHSE standards and as per
job design, as per KSQR?
2 Has the final job procedure been agreed Y N yes Green
with client representative as per KSQR?
3 Does rig up allow recording of critical Y N yes Green
job parameters, including pressure
during displacement?
4 Has the well been circulated with Y N yes Green
casing/drill pipe on bottom just prior to
job execution?
5 Are all drilling fluid compositions and Y N yes Green
parameters the same as in the design?
6 Are there full returns while circulating? Y N yes Green
7 Have all job procedure changes been Y N YES
communicated to LM and Management GREEN
of Change Process completed where
necessary?
8 Have samples been collected as per Y N YES GREEN
KSQR?

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Cementing Job procedure Risks


In each job procedure there are some risks associated with it, and the most of risks
related to the operational process which effects on Operators, environment,
Reputation, and Assets. These procedures including:

Pressure test cement lines.


Mixing chemicals in Batch Tanks and slug pit.
Transferring cement to Batch Tank.
Batch Mixing cement slurry.
Rig Pumping spacer from the pit.
Pumping slurry from Batch Tank to Cement Unit and to down hole.
Releasing the dart.
Displacement of cement and Bump Plug.
Setting Liner Hanger and POOH.
Washing up cement unit/ Batch tank.

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Risk Actions to reduce Actions to Residual


Activity RISK L S matrix Likelihood reduce Risk
steps Severity

Job procedure wear hard hat,


High pressure and Contingency coveralls,
2 4 8
Pressure equipment plan to be gloves & 4
test failure discussed and glasses
resulting in reviewed. Remove all
Injury to non-essential
personnel or Dont hammer personnel
damage to liner under from area of
equipment pressure. exposure

Prejob Safety
Meeting.
Mixing Slurry and Read MSDS Eye-wash
chemical Chemicals sheets prior to station/Bottles
in Batch Exposure of mixing / close to where
Tanks skin or eyes 3 3 9 preparation to chemicals are
resulting in identify to be used.
burns or associated Goggles and
irritation. hazards with the gloves
chemicals used. required when 2
Recipe and mixing
chemicals additives or
Incorrect cement.
recipe mixed. Quantities to be Mix chemicals
verified between as per Lab
all cementers and design.
client rep prior to
job.
Good
communication
Liner under cementing unit Use dust mask.
Transfer pressure 3 3 9 operators Vent line
2
cement to Verify vent valve checked and
Batch Plugged Line is open prior to flushed prior
Tank upload cement to to the job.
the tank

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Risk Actions to reduce Actions to Residual


Activity RISK L S matrix Likelihood reduce Risk
steps Severity

Equipment
failure causes Only begin
premature job Mix chemicals as mixing after
3 3 9
Batch termination. per Lab design. circulation and
Mixing Batch mixing to be when ready to
cement Cement done with pump. Agreed 6
slurry transfer hose experienced with Client
burst cementer present. Rep
Mix fluid
should not be
aged more
than one hour
Wrong valves Read MSDS Eye-wash
alignments sheets prior to station/Bottles
Rig between rig mixing / close to where
Pumping pump to the pit 3 3 9 preparation to chemicals are
spacer identify to be used.
from the Contamination associated Goggles and
pit due of hazards with the gloves
improper flush chemicals used. required when 2
of lines or Recipe and mixing
valves leak. chemicals additives or
cement.
Loss of spacer Quantities to be Mix chemicals
in the pit verified between as per Lab
all cementers and design.
client rep prior to
job.
Inspect all hoses, Prepare to use
Pumping Overpressure- connections prior second pump if
slurry pumping against to pump. first one fails.
from closed valves. 3 3 9 Hammer all
Batch Improper Verify line up of connections 2
Tank to alignment on high pressure lines tightly before
Cement valves lead to beginning
Unit and pump slurry Call rig floor prior
to overboard. to pumping Verify line-up to
Downhole Equipment down-hole prior
failure to pumping.

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Risk Actions to reduce Actions to Residual


Activity RISK L S matrix Likelihood reduce Risk
steps Severity

Dart not being Procedure to be


released reviewed with
properly. Halliburton field
representation Cementer/
Causes slurry prior to job. Client Rep. on
Releasing contamination the pump to
the dart and no positive 3 4 12 Client Rep. to be call the rig 8
indication of present on rig floor to release
the end of floor prior to the dart prior
displacement launch dart. to start.

Verify mechanism
is in place to
indicate
successful release
of the dart.

Unexpected Constantly monitor Displace as per


increase of pressure during program.
pressure. Displacement.
Geoservices to
Cement left in Ensure the rig has monitor
Displace- pipe. verified rig pump displacement
ment of efficiency prior to operations
cement Unable to bump 3 4 12 the job(if rig pump
and Bump being used) 3
plug due to rig Cement unit to
Plug pump efficiency monitor
Calculations to be pressure during
Incorrect verified between displacement by
displacement cementer and client rig pumps.
calculation rep prior to job.
One Cementer
to be on the drill
floor during rig
pumps
displacement.

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Risk Actions to reduce Actions to Residual


Activity Risk L S matrix Likelihood reduce Risk
steps Severity

Pumping Provide
against closed instructions prior
Setting valve to job and
2 4 8
Liner representative Rig to reverse 4
Hanger Unexpected during setting circulate 1.5x
and pressure procedure. drill pipe
POOH increase. volume after
Verify line-up setting.
Cement prior to pumping
potentially
around drill Set OPSD prior to
pipe. test
Pumping Experienced JS to OPSD
against closed operate pumps- operational
valve causes OPSD to be set at
over-pressure 1k psi PRV in line at
release or less than
treating iron Ensure valves working
failure lined up properly pressure of
treating 2
Washing Inadequate Close down hole equipment
up cleaning of 2 4 8 valves on cement
cement cement lines. line. Use of slicker
unit/ suits and
Batch Run triplexes in waterproof
tank high gear boots while
Inadequate washing up.
cleaning of Ensure the
cement unit. cement and vent Face shields or
line are flushed goggles whilst
Danger due to properly after the using high
use of high job. pressure hose
pressure hose
during wash Ensure deck is Opens pumps
up clean and dry and Tanks
after clean up drains caps
and check for
any cement
left.

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Conclusion
Risk management helping to find out how risk is managed during the well
cementing Job, includes risk identification, measurement and assessment,
and its objective is to minimize negative effects of risks on the cementing
Job process.

The most of risks associated with cementing job are operational risks which
effect on Operators, environment, Reputation, and Assets.

Pre job evaluation process helping to reduce cementing job risk.

The most of risks at medium level of the risks matrix, due to good managing
of all procedure and expected risks before process starting.

Different Actions implementing to reduce likelihood and severity resulting


in low risks level.

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References

E. B. Nelson, and P. Drecq, 1990, Special Cement Systems, (Ed.by: E. B.


Nelson), Schlumberger Education Services, 300 Schlumberger Sugar Land,
Texas 77478.

Halliburton, Cementing Technology Manual, 1996.

Schlumberger cementing procedures handbook.

Data collected from Schlumberger cementing section.

Dr.Saber El-Mabrouk, The University of Tripoli, lectures, 2016.

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