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KEY CONCEPTS

1. DEFINITION :

page 46 of 89
If f & g are functions of x such that g(x) = f(x) then the function g is called a PRIMITIVE OR
ANTIDERIVATIVE OR INTEGRAL of f(x) w.r.t. x and is written symbolically as
d
f(x) dx = g(x) + c
dx
{g(x) + c} = f(x), where c is called the constant of integration.
2. STANDARD RESULTS :

Teko Classes, Maths : Suhag R. Kariya (S. R. K. Sir), Bhopal Phone : 0 903 903 7779, 0 98930 58881.
ax bn 1 dx 1
(i) (ax + b)n dx =
a n 1
+ c n 1 (ii) ax b
= ln (ax + b) + c
a
1 ax+b 1 a pxq
(iii) eax+b dx =
a
e +c (iv) apx+q dx =
p n a
(a > 0) + c

1 1
(v) sin (ax + b) dx =
a
cos (ax + b) + c (vi) cos (ax + b) dx =
a
sin (ax + b) + c

1 1
(vii) tan(ax + b) dx = ln sec (ax + b) + c
a
(viii) cot(ax + b) dx =
a
ln sin(ax + b)+ c

1
(ix) sec (ax + b) dx =
tan(ax + b) + c (x) cosec(ax + b) dx = 1 cot(ax + b)+ c
a a
1
(xi) sec (ax + b) . tan (ax + b) dx = sec (ax + b) + c
a
(xii) cosec (ax + b) . cot (ax + b) dx = 1 cosec (ax + b) + c
a

## (xiii) secx dx = ln (secx + tanx) + c OR ln tan x + c

4 2
x
(xiv) cosec x dx = ln (cosecx cotx) + c OR ln tan
2
+ c OR ln (cosecx + cotx)

## (xviii) cosechx dx = coth x + c (xix) sech x . tanh x dx = sech x + c

dx x
(xx) cosech x . coth x dx = cosech x + c (xxi) = sin1
a
+c
a 2 x 2
dx 1 x dx 1 x
(xxii) 2
a x 2
= tan1 + c
a a
(xxiii) x x 2 a 2
=
a
sec1 + c
a
dx x
(xxiv) = ln x x 2 a 2 OR sinh1 +c
x a2 2 a
dx x
(xxv) = ln x x 2 a 2 OR cosh1 +c
x a 2 2 a
dx 1 ax dx 1 xa
(xxvi) 2
a x 2 =
2a
ln
a x
+c (xxvii) 2
x a 2
=
2a
ln
xa
+c

x a2 x
(xxviii) 2
a x dx = 2
2
a x2 2 +
2
sin1 + c
a
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x a2 x
(xxix) x 2 a 2 dx =
2
x 2 a 2 +
2
sinh1 + c
a
x a2 x
(xxx) x 2 a 2 dx = x 2 a 2 cosh1 + c

page 47 of 89
2 2 a
e ax
(xxxi) eax. sin bx dx =
a 2 b 2
(a sin bx b cos bx) + c

e ax
(xxxii) eax . cos bx dx =
a 2 b 2
(a cos bx + b sin bx) + c

Teko Classes, Maths : Suhag R. Kariya (S. R. K. Sir), Bhopal Phone : 0 903 903 7779, 0 98930 58881.
3. TECHNIQUES OF INTEGRATION :
(i) Substitution or change of independent variable .
Integral I = f(x) dx is changed to f( (t)) f (t) dt , by a suitable substitution
x = (t) provided the later integral is easier to integrate .
du
(ii) Integration by part : u.v dx = u v dx
dx . vdx dx where u & v are differentiable

function . Note : While using integration by parts, choose u & v such that
du
(a) v dx is simple & (b)
dx . vdx dx is simple to integrate.

This is generally obtained, by keeping the order of u & v as per the order of the letters in ILATE,
where ; I Inverse function, L Logarithmic function ,
A Algebraic function, T Trigonometric function & E Exponential function
(iii) Partial fraction , spiliting a bigger fraction into smaller fraction by known methods .
4. INTEGRALS OF THE TYPE :
f ( x )
(i) [ f(x)]n f (x) dx OR dx put f(x) = t & proceed .
f (x )n
dx dx
(ii) 2
, , ax 2 bx c dx
2
ax bx c ax bx c
Express ax2 + bx + c in the form of perfect square & then apply the standard results .
px q px q
(iii) 2 dx , dx .
ax bx c ax 2 bx c
Express px + q = A (differential co-efficient of denominator) + B .
(iv) ex [f(x) + f (x)] dx = ex . f(x) + c (v) [f(x) + xf (x)] dx = x f(x) + c
dx
(vi) nN Take xn common & put 1 + xn = t .
x( x n 1)
dx
(vii) ( n 1)
n N , take xn common & put 1+xn = tn
2

x x 1 n
n

dx
(viii) take xn common as x and put 1 + xn = t .
n 1/ n
n
x 1 x
dx dx dx
(ix) absin x 2 OR a bcos 2 x
OR asin x bsin x cosx ccos 2 x
2

r r
Multiply N. . & D. . by sec x & put tan x = t .

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dx dx dx
(x) absin x
OR abcos x
OR a bsin x ccosx
x
Hint :Convert sines & cosines into their respective tangents of half the angles , put tan =t

page 48 of 89
2
a.cosx b.sin x c d
(xi) .cosx m.sin x n
dx . Express Nr A(Dr) + B
dx
(Dr) + c & proceed .

x 2 1 x 2 1
(xii) x 4 K x 2 1
dx OR x 4 K x 2 1
dx where K is any constant .

## Hint : Divide Nr & Dr by x & proceed .

Teko Classes, Maths : Suhag R. Kariya (S. R. K. Sir), Bhopal Phone : 0 903 903 7779, 0 98930 58881.
dx dx
(xiii) & ; put px + q = t2 .
(ax b) px q ax 2
bx c px q

dx 1 dx 1
(xiv) , put ax + b = ; , put x =
t t
(ax b ) px 2 qx r ax 2
bx c px2 qx r

x
(xv) x
dx or x x ; put x = cos2 + sin2

x
x
dx or x x ; put x = sec2 tan2

dx
; put x = t2 or x = t2 .
x x
DEFINITE INTEGRAL
b

## 1. f(x) dx = F(b) F(a) where f(x) dx = F(x) + c

a
b

VERY IMPORTANT NOTE : If f(x) dx = 0 then the equation f(x) = 0 has atleast one
a
root lying in (a , b) provided f is a continuous function in (a , b) .
2. PROPERTIES OF DEFINITE INTEGRAL :
b b b a

## P1 f(x) dx = f(t) dt provided f is same P2 f(x) dx = f(x) dx

a a a b
b c b

P3 f(x) dx = f(x) dx + f(x) dx , where c may lie inside or outside the interval [a, b] . This property
a a c
to be used when f is piecewise continuous in (a, b) .
a

a

0
b b a a

## P5 f(x) dx = f(a + b x) dx , In particular f(x) dx = f(a x)dx

a a 0 0

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2a a a a

## P6 f(x) dx = f(x) dx + f(2a x) dx = 2 f(x) dx if f(2a x) = f(x)

0 0 0 0
=0 if f(2a x) = f(x)

page 49 of 89
na a

P7 f(x) dx = n f(x) dx ; whereais the period of the function i.e. f(a + x) = f(x)
0 0
b nT b
P8 f(x) dx = f(x) dx where f(x) is periodic with period T & n I .
a nT a

na a

Teko Classes, Maths : Suhag R. Kariya (S. R. K. Sir), Bhopal Phone : 0 903 903 7779, 0 98930 58881.
P9 f(x) dx = (n m) f(x) dx if f(x) is periodic with period 'a' .
ma 0
b b

## P10 If f(x) (x) for a x b then f(x) dx (x) dx

a a

b b

P11
a
f ( x )dx f(x)dx .
a

## P12 If f(x) 0 on the interval [a, b] , then f(x) dx 0.

a
3. WALLIS FORMULA :
/ 2

sinnx . cosmx dx =
(n1)(n3)( n5)....1or 2( m1)( m3)....1or 2 K
0 (mn )(mn2)( mn 4)....1or 2

Where K = if both m and n are even (m, n N) ;
2
= 1 otherwise
4. DERIVATIVE OF ANTIDERIVATIVE FUNCTION :
If h(x) & g(x) are differentiable functions of x then ,
h( x )
d
f(t) dt = f [h (x)] . h(x) f [g (x)] . g(x)
dx g( x )

## 5. DEFINITE INTEGRAL AS LIMIT OF A SUM :

b

f(x) dx = Limit
n h [f (a) + f (a + h) + f (a + 2h) + ..... + f a n 1 h ]
a
n 1
= Limit
h0 h f (a + rh) where b a = nh
r0

n 1 1
If a = 0 & b = 1 then , Limit
n h f (rh) = f(x) dx ; where nh = 1 OR
r0 0
1
Limit 1 n1 f r = f(x) dx .
n
n r1 n 0

## 6. ESTIMATION OF DEFINITE INTEGRAL :

b

(i) For a monotonic decreasing function in (a , b) ; f(b).(b a) < f(x) dx < f(a).(b a) &
a
b

(ii) For a monotonic increasing function in (a , b) ; f(a).(b a) < f(x) dx < f(b).(b a)
a
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7. SOME IMPORTANT EXPANSIONS :

1 1 1 1 1
1 1 1 2
(i) 1 .....ln2 (ii) .....
2 3 4 5 12 2 2 32 4 2 6

page 50 of 89
1 1 1 1 2 1 1 1 1 2
(iii) ..... (iv) .....
12 2 2 32 4 2 12 12 32 52 7 2 8
1 1 1 1 2
(v) .....
2 2 4 2 6 2 82 24

EXERCISE1

Teko Classes, Maths : Suhag R. Kariya (S. R. K. Sir), Bhopal Phone : 0 903 903 7779, 0 98930 58881.
tan 2 5 x 4 4 x5 cos 2 x
Q.1 d Q.2 2 dx Q.3 dx
cos 6 sin 6 x 5
x1 1 tan x
dx dx
Q.4 2
Q.5 Integrate by the substitution z = x + x 2 2x 1
x 4
1 2
x x 2x 1

x x e x
cossin
Q.6 e x nx dx
dx

Q.7 cos 2. ln cossin d Q.8 sin 2
x sin 2x

a 2 sin 2 x b 2 cos2 x dx
Q.9 a 4 sin 2 x b 4 cos 2 x
dx Q.10 2 Q.11 x x 2 2 dx
x x (1 x )
sin (x a ) dx cot xdx
Q.12 sin (x a )
Q.13 (sin x)11/3 (cos x)1/3dx Q.14 (1sin x )(secx1)

1 x dx x
Q.15 1 x
Q.16 sin1 a x
dx

Q.17

x 2 1 ln x 2 1 2ln x
dx
Q.18

ln(lnx ) (lnx )
1
2

dx Q.19
x 1
x1xe x 2 dx
x4

1
Q.20 Integrate f (x) w.r.t. x4 , where f (x) = tan 1x + ln 1 x ln 1 x
2

( x 1)dx dx x2 x
Q.21 Q.22 Q.23 x dx
x ( 3 x 1) sin x2 cos 3 x2 (e x 1) 2
cosec x cot x secx cosx sinx dx
.
Q.24 cos ec x cot x 1 2secx dx Q.25 79sin2x
dx Q.26 secx cos ecx
dx

dx dx
Q.27 sin x secx Q.28 tan x.tan 2x.tan 3x dx Q.29 sin x sin 2 x
x2 34sin x 2cosx
Q.30 ( x cos x sin x)(x sin x cos x ) dx Q.31 3 2sin x cosx
dx

Q.32

n cos x cos 2x dx
sin 2 x

sin x dx 3x 2 1
Q.35 2 dx
Q.33 sin x cos x
dx Q.34 sin x tan x ( x 1)3
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Q.36
e cos x ( x sin 3 x cos x )
dx
(ax 2 b) dx
e x 2x 2
sin 2 x
Q.37 2 2
x c x (ax b) 2 2 Q.38 (1x ) 1x 2
dx

x x lnx 1 x dx

page 51 of 89
Q.39 (7x 10 x )
2 3/2 dx Q.40 x 2 13 / 2 dx Q.41 3
1 x x

2 3x 1 x cot x tan x 4 x 5 7 x 4 8x 3 2 x 2 4 x 7
Q.42 dx Q.43 dx Q.44 dx
2 3x 1 x 1 3 sin 2 x x 2 ( x 2 1) 2
x 2 dx 2 x x2 dx
Q.45 x 2 3x 3 Q.46 dx Q.47 ( x )

Teko Classes, Maths : Suhag R. Kariya (S. R. K. Sir), Bhopal Phone : 0 903 903 7779, 0 98930 58881.
x1 2
x ( x )( x )
x dx cos2x (1 x 2 )dx
Q.48 x 4 4x 3 6x 2 4 x 1
Q.49 sin x
dx Q.50
1 2 x 2 cos x 4
(0, )

EXERCISE2

z
e
x dx 2
1 sin 2 x
Q.1
0
9 cos x sin 2 x
2 Q.2
1 sin 2 x
dx Q.3 Evaluate In = (lnn x) dx hence find I3.
0 1
/ 2 / 2 / 4
x dx
Q.4 sin2x arc tan(sinx) dx Q.5 cos4 3x . sin2 6x dx Q.6 cos x (cos x sin x)
0 0 0
d
Q.7 Let h (x) = (fog) (x) + K where K is any constant. If h ( x ) = sin
2
x
then compute the
dx cos (cos x )
f (x )
f (t )
value of j (0) where j (x) = dt , where f and g are trigonometric functions.
g( x)
g ( t )

Q.8 Find the value of the definite integral 2 sin x 2 cos x dx .
0
5
Q.9 Evaluate the integral : x 2 2 x 4 x 2 2 x 4 dx

3
2
x x dx dx
Q.10 If P = 1 x4 dx ; Q = 1 x4 and R = 1 x 4 then prove that
0 0 0

(a) Q = , (b) P = R, (c) P 2 Q + R =
4 2 2
eb g j
z
b x n 1 2
n 2 x ( n 1)( a b) x nab b n 1 a n 1
Q.11 Prove that dx
a
( x a ) 2 ( x b) 2 2(a b)
2
1
x 4 (1 x) 4 1
x 2.ln x x2 x
Q.12 0 1 x 2 dx Q.13 dx Q.14 Evaluate: dx
0 1x 2 2 x2 4
3 / 2 2
2x
1 asin x bcosx dx
Q.15 sin dx Q.16 dx Q.17
0 1 x2 0
sin 4 x 0 2 sin 2x
2 2
x x 2x 7 3x 6 10x 5 7x 3 12x 2 x1
Q.18 e cos 4 2 dx Q.19 dx
0 2 x 2 2
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1

Q.20 Let , be the distinct positive roots of the equation tan x = 2x then evaluate (sin x sin x ) dx ,
0
independent of and .

page 52 of 89
/ 4
cosx sin x (ax b)sec x tan x (2x 3) sin x
Q.21 dx Q.22 dx (a,b>0) Q.23 Evaluate: dx
0 10sin2x 0 4 tan 2 x (1 cos 2 x )
0
Q.24 If a1, a2 and a3 are the three values of a which satisfy the equation
1 1
3 4a
x cos x dx = 2
(sin x a cos x ) dx 2 0

Teko Classes, Maths : Suhag R. Kariya (S. R. K. Sir), Bhopal Phone : 0 903 903 7779, 0 98930 58881.
0

## then find the value of 1000( a12 a 22 a 32 ).

p q

Q.25 Show that | cos x| dx = 2q + sinp where q N & p
0
2 2
5 2/ 3
Q.26 Show that the sum of the two integrals e(x+5) dx + 3 e9(x 2/3) dx is zero.
4 1/ 3
1 1 / 2
sin x sin 2 x
1
1 x x3
Q.27 x 2 x 1 dx Q.28 a 2 sin 2 xb 2 cos 2 x
dx (a>0, b>0) Q.29 n
1x
dx
0 0 1 1 x2

a 2 b2
/ 2 2
1sin x 1sin x x.dx
Q.30 tan1 dx Q.31

0 1sin x 1sin x ( x a 2 ) (b 2 x 2 )
2
3a 2 b 2
2
1
Q.32 Comment upon the nature of roots of the quadratic equation x2 + 2x = k + | t k | dt depending on the
value of k + R. 0
2a 1
1 2a x dx dx
Q.33 x sin1 2 dx Q.34 Prove that (n > 1)
0 a
0 1 xn 0 1 xn
1/ n

x x
2 2 2
x sin2x.sin
2 .cosx
Q.35 Show that e
zx
e z dz e x 4
e
z 4
dz Q.36 2
dx
0 0 0 2x
1 5
1 2
1x dx x2 1 1
Q.37 (a) .
1x x x 2 x 3
, (b) 4
ln 1 x dx
2
0
1 x x 1 x

LM sin
if ( 0 , )

=M
1
dx dx
cos 1 M
Q.38 Show that =2 2 2
x 2x cos 1 x 2x

2 2
0
MN 0

2
if ( , 2 )
Q.39 x sin x sin
8 sin 2 x dx
0
4
x 2 (sin2xcos2x ) x
u
x

## Q.40 (1sin 2 x )cos2 x

dx Q.41 Prove that
0
f (t ) dt

du =
0
f (u).(x u) du.
0 0

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1 16
dx
Q.42 Q.43 Evaluate ln 1 x 1 x dx Q.44 tan 1 x 1 dx
0 (5 4 cos x)2 0 1

1n
a x ln x a x dx

page 53 of 89
2
Q.45 Lim n
n
(2006 sin x 2007 cos x ) | x | dx . Q.46 Show that
0
f ( ).
x a x
dx ln a . f ( ).
0 x a x
1 n

1
(2 x 332 x 998 4 x1668 sin x 691 )
Q.47 Evaluate the definite integral, dx
1 1 x 666
Q.48 Prove that

Teko Classes, Maths : Suhag R. Kariya (S. R. K. Sir), Bhopal Phone : 0 903 903 7779, 0 98930 58881.

2 x
(a)

( x )(x ) dx =
8
(b)
x
dx =
2

dx x.dx
(c)
x ( x )(x )
=

where , > 0 (d)

( x)(x )
= where <
2

4 cos 2 x 1 1 2

## Q.49 If f(x) = (cos x 1) 2 (cos x 1) 2 (cos x 1) 2 , find f (x )

dx
(cos x 1) 2 (cos x 1) 2 cos 2 x
2

1
ln tan 1 x
Q.50 Evaluate : e sin 1 (cos x ) dx .
0

EXERCISE3
cosx
Q.1 If the derivative of f(x) wrt x is then show that f(x) is a periodic function .
f (x )
1
sin x dt
Q.2 Find the range of the function, f(x) = .
1 1 2t cos x t 2
1 1
Q.3 A function f is defined in [1 , 1] as f(x) = 2 x sin cos ; x 0 ; f(0) = 0;
x x
f (1/) = 0. Discuss the continuity and derivability of f at x = 0.
x
1 if 2 x 0
Q.4 Let f(x) = [ x 1 if 0 x 2
and g(x) = f(t) dt. Define g (x) as a function of x and test the
2
continuity and differentiability of g(x) in (2, 2).
Q.5 Prove the inequalities:
1
dx 2 2
x 2 x
(a)
6
<
0 4x x2 3

8
(b) 2 e1/4 < e dx < 2e.
0

2 2
dx 1 dx 5
(c) a < b then find a & b. (d)
2
2 x2
6
0
10 3 cos x 0
1

## Q.6 Determine a positive integer n 5, such that ex (x 1)n dx = 16 6e.

0
Q.7 Using calculus

## (a) If x < 1 then find the sum of the series 1 2x 4x 3 8x 7

...... .
1 x 1 x 2 1 x 4 1 x8
1 2x 2 x 4x 3 4 x 3 8x 7 1 2x
(b) If x < 1 prove that 2
2 4
4 8
...... .
1 x x 1 x x 1 x x 1 x x2
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1 x 1 x 1 x 1 x
(c) Prove the identity f (x)= tanx + tan + 2 tan 2 + .... + n1 tan n1 = n1 cot n1 2cot 2x
2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2
x
Q.8 If (x) = cos x (x t) (t) dt. Then find the value of (x) + (x).

page 54 of 89
0
x
1 d2y
f ( t ) sin a ( x t ) dt a 2 y = f (x).
a 0
Q.9 If y = then prove that 2
dx
x
ln t dt dy
Q.10 If y = x 1 , find at x = e.
dx

Teko Classes, Maths : Suhag R. Kariya (S. R. K. Sir), Bhopal Phone : 0 903 903 7779, 0 98930 58881.
1
Q.11 If f(x) = x + [xy + xy] f(y) dy where x and y are independent variable. Find f(x).
0

dy
Q.12 A curve C1 is defined by: = ex cos x for x [0, 2] and passes through the origin. Prove that the
dx 3
roots of the function (other than zero) occurs in the ranges < x < and < x < 2.
2 2
x
f (x)
Q.13(a) Let g(x) = xc . e2x & let f(x) = e2t . (3 t2 + 1)1/2 dt . For a certain value of 'c', the limit of
0 g (x)
as x is finite and non zero. Determine the value of 'c' and the limit.
x
t2 d t
at
(b) Find the constants 'a' (a > 0) and 'b' such that, Lim 0
= 1.
x 0 b x sin x
3 x
d 3t 4 1
Q.14 Evaluate: Lim ( t 3)(t 2 3) dt
x dx 1
2 sin
x
d2Un
Q.15 Given that Un = {x(1 x)}n & n 2 prove that = n (n 1) Un2 2 n(2n 1)Un1,
dx 2
1
further if Vn = ex . Un dx, prove that when n 2, Vn + 2n (2n 1).Vn1 n (n 1) Vn2 = 0
0

n t n 2
Q.16 If 2 2
dt = (x > 0) then show that there can be two integral values of x satisfying this
0 x t 4
equation.
1 x if 0 x 1 x
Q.17 Let f(x) = 0 if 1 x 2 . Define the function F(x) = f(t) dt and show that F is
0
(2 x) 2 if 2 x 3
continuous in [0, 3] and differentiable in (0, 3).
Q.18 Let f be an injective function such that f(x) f(y) + 2 = f(x) + f(y) + f(xy) for all non negative real x &
y with f (0) = 0 & f (1) = 2 f(0) . Find f(x) & show that, 3 f(x) dx x (f(x) + 2) is a constant.
1/ n
1 22
1 3
2
.....1 n
2
Q.19 Evaluate: (a) Lim
n
1 2
n

1 2 n2 n2

;

n
1/ n
1 1 2 3n n!
(b) Lim
n n n 1

n2
..... ;
4 n
(c) Lim
n nn ;

1n
3n C n a
(d) Given Lim 2 n
= where a and b are relatively prime, find the value of (a + b).
n
Cn b
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sin 2 k x
Q.20 Prove that sin x + sin 3x + sin 5x + .... + sin (2k 1) x = , k N and hence
sinx
/ 2
sin 2 k x 1 1 1 1
prove that , sin x
dx = 1 ...... .
3 5 7 2k1

page 55 of 89
0
/ 2
sin 2 n x
Q.21 If Un= sin 2 x
dx , then show that U1 , U2 , U3 , ..... , Un constitute an AP .
0
Hence or otherwise find the value of Un.
Q.22 Solve the equation for y as a function of x, satisfying
x x

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x y( t ) dt ( x 1) t y( t ) dt , where x > 0, given y (1) = 1.
0 0
1
m!n!
Q.23 Prove that : (a) Im , n = xm . (1 x)n dx = ( mn 1)!
m , n N.
0
1
n!
(b) Im , n = xm . (ln x)n dx = (1)n (m1) n1
m , n N.
0

Q.24 Find a positive real valued continuously differentiable functions f on the real line such that for all x
x

## f 2(x) = f (t) f ' (t) dt + e

0
2 2 2

x [x ]
Q.25 Let f(x) be a continuously differentiable function then prove that, [t] f (t) dt = [x]. f(x) f (k )
1 k 1
where [. ] denotes the greatest integer function and x > 1.
Q.26 Let f be a function such that f(u) f(v) u v for all real u & v in an interval [a, b] . Then:
(i) Prove that f is continuous at each point of [a, b] .
b
( b a )2
(ii) Assume that f is integrable on [a, b]. Prove that, f (x) dx (b a ) f ( c) , where a c b
a
2
x 1
Q.27 Let F (x) = 4 t 2 dt and G (x) = 4 t 2 dt then compute the value of (FG)' (0) where dash
1 x
denotes the derivative.
Q.28 Show that for a continuously thrice differentiable function f(x)
f (0). x 2 1x 2
f(x) f(0) = xf(0) + + f ( t )(x t ) dt
2 2 0
n m
1 1
Q.29 Prove that ( 1)k nk = ( 1)k m
k0 k m 1 k 0 k k n1
Q.30 Let f and g be function that are differentiable for all real numbers x and that have the following
properties:
(i) f ' (x) = f (x) g (x) (ii) g ' (x) = g (x) f (x)
(iii) f (0) = 5 (iv) g (0) = 1
(a) Prove that f (x) + g (x) = 6 for all x. (b) Find f (x) and g (x).

EXERCISE4
1 1 1 1
Q.1 Find Limit
n Sn , if : Sn = .......... . [REE 97, 6]
2n
4n2 1 4n2 4 3n 2 2n 1
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x
4
Q.2 (a) If g (x) = cos t dt , then g (x + ) equals :
0
(A) g (x) + g () (B) g (x) g () (C) g (x) g () (D) [ g (x)/g () ]
2n
Limit 1 r

page 56 of 89
(b) n
n
equals :
r 1 n2 r 2
(A) 1 5 (B) 1 5 (C) 1 2 (D) 1 2
e 37
sin ( ln x)
(c) The value of dx is _______ .
1
x

Teko Classes, Maths : Suhag R. Kariya (S. R. K. Sir), Bhopal Phone : 0 903 903 7779, 0 98930 58881.
2
d e sin x 4
2 e sin x
(d) Let F (x) , x > 0 . If dx = F (k) F (1) then one of the possible
dx x 1
x
values of k is ______.

2 x (1 sin x)
(e) Determine the value of dx . [JEE 97, 2 + 2 + 2 + 2 + 5]
1 cos 2 x

x 1
Q.3 (a) If f (t ) dt x t f (t ) dt , then the value of f (1) is
0 x
(A) 1/ 2 (B) 0 (C) 1 (D) 1/ 2
1 1
1 1
(b) Prove that tan 2
dx 2 tan 1 x dx . Hence or otherwise, evaluate the integral
0 1 x x 0
1

tan
0
1
1 x x dx 2
[JEE98, 2 + 8]
1
1
Q.4 Evaluate (5 2x 2x 2 )(1 e (2 4x) ) dx [REE 98, 6 ]
0

Q.5 (a) If for al real number y, [y] is the greatest integer less than or equal to y, then the value of the
3 / 2
integral [2 sin x] dx is :
/ 2

(A) (B) 0 (C) (D)
2 2
3 / 4
(b) dx is equal to :
1 cos x
/4
1 1
(A) 2 (B) 2 (C) (D)
2 2
x3 3x 2
(c) Integrate : 2
dx

x 2 1 (x 1)
cos x
e
(d) Integrate: dx [JEE '99, 2 + 2 + 7 + 3 (out of 200)]
0 e cos x
e cos x
/ 6
3 cos 2x 1
Q.6 Evaluate the integral dx. [ REE '99, 6]
0 cos x
e2
loge x
Q.7 (a) The value of the integral d x is :
e 1
x
(A) 3/2 (B) 5/2 (C) 3 (D) 5

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x
& Learn by Video Tutorials on www.MathsBySuhag.com
1 1
(b) Let g (x) = f (t) d t , where f is such that f (t) 1 for t (0, 1] and 0 f (t)
0 2 2
for t (1, 2]. Then g (2) satisfies the inequality :
3 1 3 5

page 57 of 89
(A) g (2) < (B) 0 g (2) < 2 (C) < g (2) (D) 2 < g (2) < 4
2 2 2 2
e cos x . sin x for | x | 2 3
(c) If f (x) = {2 otherwise
. Then f (x)d x :
2
(A) 0 (B) 1 (C) 2 (D) 3
x
n t
(d) For x > 0, let f (x) = dt. Find the function f (x) + f (1/x) and show that,

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1 1 t
f (e) + f (1/e) = 1/2 . [JEE 2000, 1 + 1 + 1 + 5]
1 1 1
Q.8 (a) Sn = + + ........ + . Find Limit
n
Sn .
1 n 2 2n n n2
1
sin t
4
sin 2t
(b) Given d t = , find the value of d t in terms of .
0 1 t 4 2 42t
[ REE 2000, Mains, 3 + 3 out of 100]
2x 2
Q.9 Evaluate sin 1 dx .
4x 2 8x 13
/2
cos9 x xdx
Q.10 (a) Evaluate cos3 x sin 3 x
dx . (b) Evaluate 1 cos sin x
0 0
[ REE 2001, 3 + 5]
x

Q.11 (a) Let f(x) = 2 t 2 dt . Then the real roots of the equation x2 f (x) = 0 are
1

1 1
(A) +1 (B) + (D) 0 and 1 (C) +
2 2
(b) Let T > 0 be a fixed real number. Suppose f is a continuous function such that for all x R
T 3 3 T

## f (x + T) = f (x). If I = f(x) dx then the value of f(2x) dx is

0 3
3
(A) I (B) 2 I (C) 3 I (D) 6 I
2
1
2
1 x
(c) The integral [x] ln dx equals
1
1 x

2
1 1
(A) (B) 0 (C) 1 (D) 2ln
2 2
[JEE 2002(Scr.), 3+3+3]
(d) For any natural number m, evaluate

zc x 3m
x 2m
x m
h c2 x 2m
3x 6
2
m
h
1
m dx , where x > 0
4
[JEE 2002 (Mains),4]

Q.12 If f is an even function then prove that f (cos2x) cosx dx = 2 f (sin2x) cosx dx
0 0
[JEE 2003,(Mains) 2 out of 60]
1
1 x
Q.13 (a) dx =
0
1 x

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(A) 1 (B) 1 (C) (D) 1
2 2
t2 4
2 5
(b) If x f ( x) dx t , t > 0, then f =
25

page 58 of 89
0
5
2 5 2
(A) (B) (C) (D) 1
5 2 5
[JEE 2004, (Scr.)]
x2
cos x. cos dy
(c) If yx .d then find at x = . [JEE 2004 (Mains), 2]

Teko Classes, Maths : Suhag R. Kariya (S. R. K. Sir), Bhopal Phone : 0 903 903 7779, 0 98930 58881.
2 dx
2
/ 16
1 sin
/3
4x 3
(d) Evaluate dx . [JEE 2004 (Mains), 4]

/ 3 2 cos | x |

3
1
2 1
Q.14 (a) If t f (t ) dt = (1 sin x), then f is
3
[JEE 2005 (Scr.)]
sin x

## (A) 1/3 (B) 1 3 (C) 3 (D) 3

0

x
3
(b) 3x 2 3x 3 (x 1) cos(x 1) dx is equal to [JEE 2005 (Scr.)]
2
(A) 4 (B) 0 (C) 4 (D) 6

1 1
(c) Evaluate: e|cos x| 2 sin cos x 3 cos cos x sin x dx . [JEE 2005, Mains,2]
0 2 2

x 2 1
Q.15 x3 dx is equal to
2x 4 2x 2 1
2x 4 2 x 2 1 2x 4 2 x 2 1
(A) +C (B) +C
x2 x3
2x 4 2 x 2 1 2x 4 2 x 2 1
(C) +C (D) +C [JEE 2006, 3]
x 2x 2
Comprehension
b
ba
Q.16 Suppose we define the definite integral using the following formula f x dx f (a ) f (b) , for
a
2
ca bc ab
more accurate result for c (a, b) F(c) = f (a ) f (c) f (b) f (c) . When c = ,
2 2 2
b
ba
f x dx 4 (f (a ) f (b) 2f (c))
a
/2
(a) sin x dx is equal to
0

(A)
8
1 2 (B)
4
1 2 (C)
8 2
(D)
4 2
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t
t a
f ( x ) dx f ( t ) f (a )
2
(b) If f (x) is a polynomial and if Lim a 0 for all a then the degree of f(x) can
t a t a 3

page 59 of 89
atmost be
(A) 1 (B) 2 (C) 3 (D) 4
(c) If f ''(x) < 0, x (a, b) and c is a point such that a < c < b, and (c, f (c) ) is the point lying on the curve
for which F(c) is maximum, then f '(c) is equal to
f b f a 2f b f a 2f b f a
(A) (B) (C) (D) 0

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ba ba 2b a
[JEE 2006, 5 marks each]
1

5050 1 x 50
100
dx
0
Q.17 Find the value of 1 [JEE 2006, 6]
1 x
50 101
dx
0

EXERCISE1
1 1 3 cos 2 2 x1
Q.1 ln +C Q.2 5 +c
cos 2 x x1

1 x 1 3 x 3 x 1
Q.3 ln(cos x + sin x) + + (sin 2x + cos 2x) + c Q.4 tan1 x ln +c
4 2 8 8
4
4 x 1 16 x 1
x x
Q.5 2 tan1 x x 2 2x 1 + c Q.6 x e c
e x
1 cos sin 1 1 tan x
Q.7 (c) (sin 2 ) ln ln (sec 2 ) + c Q.8 ln +c
2 cos sin 2 2 tan x2

1 1
a 2 tan x t 1
Q.9 2 x tan b2 + c Q.10 2ln + + C when t = x +
a b 2 2t 1 2t 1 x2 x
1 3/ 2 2
Q.11 x x 2 2 1/ 2 + c
3 x x 2 2

Q.12 cos a . arc cos cos x sin a . ln sin x sin 2 x sin 2 a +c Q.13

3 14tan 2 x +c
8/3
cos a 8(tanx )
1 x 1 x x
Q.14 ln tan + sec + tan + c Q.15 x 1x 2 1x arccos x c
2 2 4 2 2

## Q.16 (a + x) arc tan

x

x 12
x 2 1 1
. 23ln1 2
ax + c Q.17 3
a 9x x
xe x
Q.18 xln (lnx)
x
+c Q.19 ln 1
ln x x 1 xe x + c
1 xe

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t4 t2 1 2 1
Q.20 ln (1 x4) + c Q.21 6 t ln (1 t ) tan t + C where t = x1/6
4 2 2
1 cos x2 1

page 60 of 89
4
Q.22 + 2 tan1 cos x2 ln +c Q.23 C ln(1 + (x + 1)ex)
cos x2 1 cos x2 1 (x 1)e x
1 x
Q24. sin1 sec2 + c
2 2
1 (43sin x 3cosx ) 1 1 x
Q.25 ln c Q.26 sinx cosx ln tan + c
2

Teko Classes, Maths : Suhag R. Kariya (S. R. K. Sir), Bhopal Phone : 0 903 903 7779, 0 98930 58881.
24 ( 43sin x 3cosx ) 2 2 8
1 3 sin x cosx 1 1
Q.27 ln arctan(sinx cosx )c Q.28 n (sec x) n (sec 2x) n (sec 3x) + c
2 3 3 sin x cosx 2 3

Q.29
1
sin
2
ln cot x cot cot x 2 cot cot x 1 + c Q.30 ln
x sin x cos x
x cos x sin x
x
Q.31 2x 3arctan tan 1c
2
Q.32
cos 2x
sin x
x cot x . ln e cos x cos 2x + c
1 1 t2 2 t 1 1
4
Q.33 ln (1 + t) ln (1 + t ) + ln 2 tan1 t2 + c where t = cot x
4 2 2 t 2t 1 2
1 x 1 x x
Q.34 lntan tan 2 c Q.35 c 2
2 2 4 2 ( x 1) 2

ax 2 b 1x 2(7x 20)
Q.36 c ecos x (x cosec x) Q.37 sin 1 k Q.38 ex 1x + c Q.39 c
cx 9 7x 10 x 2
ln x | u 2 1| 1 2u 2 1 x
Q.40 arcsecx c Q.41 n 3 tan 1 c where u 3
2
x 1
4
u u 12 3 1 x

8 1 1 5 t 1
Q.42 tan t
3 2 5
n
5 t 1

sin 1 x 1 x 2 + c where t = 1 x
1 x
2 sin 2 x 7 6x
Q.43 tan1 +c Q.44 4 ln x + + 6 tan1(x) + +C

sin x cos x x 1 x2

2 x 2 x x2 4 x 2 2 2 x x2
Q.45 arctan c Q.46
2
n sin 1 2x 1 + c
3 3( x1) x 4 x 3

2 x 1 1 1
2
Q.47 . c Q.48 ln x 2 x 2 12 + C

x 2 x x

1 2 t 1 1 t
Q.49 ln ln where t = cos and = cosec1(cotx)
2 2 t 2 1 t

2
1 x 1

Q.50
1
cos ec tan cos ec
2 2 2
2x

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EXERCISE2

2 5

Q.1 Q.2 ln 2 Q.3 6 2e Q.4 1 Q.5 Q.6 ln 2

page 61 of 89
6 2 64 8
4 22
Q.7 1 sec(1) Q.8 2 6 Q.9 2 2 +
3
3 32 2 Q.12
7
Q.13
8
(1 ln 4)

3 (a b) 2 3 2 2
Q.14 4 2 4 ln ( 2 1) Q.15 Q.16 Q.17 Q.18 (e 1)
3 2 2 3 5

Teko Classes, Maths : Suhag R. Kariya (S. R. K. Sir), Bhopal Phone : 0 903 903 7779, 0 98930 58881.
16 2 1 2 1
Q.19 Q.20 0 Q.21 arc tan arc tan
2 2 5 3 3 3

(a 2b) ( 3) 2
Q.22 Q.23 Q.24 5250 Q.27
3 3 2 6 3
5 2
Q.28 Q.29 Q.30 3 Q.31 Q.32 real & distinct k R
2a (ab) 3 16 12
2 8 2 2 2
Q.33 a Q.36 Q.37 (a) ; (b) ln 2 Q.39 ln 2 Q.40 ln2
4 3 8 3 16 4
5 1 16 4
Q.42 Q.43 ln 2 2 1 Q.44 2 3 Q.45 2007 Q.47
27 2 3 666
32 2 1
Q.49 2 Q.50 (1 ln 2)
15 8 4 2

EXERCISE3

Q.2 , Q.3 cont. & der. at x = 0
2 2
Q.4 g(x) is cont. in (2 , 2); g(x) is der. at x = 1 & not der. at x = 0 . Note that ;
(x 2) for 2 x 0
2 2 2
g(x) = 2 x x2 for 0 x 1 Q.5 (c) a = & b= Q.6 n = 3
x2 13 7
2 x 1 for 1 x 2

1 61 80
Q.7 (a) Q.8 cos x Q.10 1 + e Q.11 f(x) = x + x+ x
1x 119 119
3
Q.13 (a) c = 1 and Limit
x will be (b) a = 4 and b =1 Q.14 13.5
2
2
x x2 if 0x1
1 if 1x2
Q.16 x = 2 or 4 Q.17 F(x) = 2
x2 3 1
3
2 if 2x3
1 n
Q.18 f (x) = 1 + x2 Q.19 (a) 2 e(1/2) ( 4); (b) 3 ln 4; (c) ; (d) 43 Q.21 Un =
e 2
e 1 x
Q.22 y = e Q.24 f (x) = ex + 1 Q.27 0
x3
Q.30 f (x) = 3 + 2e2x; g (x) = 3 2e2x
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EXERCISE4

Q.1 /6 Q.2 (a) A (b) B (c) 2 (d) 16 (e) Q.3 (a) A (b) ln2

page 62 of 89
1 11 1
Q.4 n
2 11 11 1
3 1 1 x
Q.5 (a) C, (b) A ; (c) tan-1 x ln (1 + x) + ln (1 + x2) + 2 + c, (d)
2 2 4 1 x 2

Teko Classes, Maths : Suhag R. Kariya (S. R. K. Sir), Bhopal Phone : 0 903 903 7779, 0 98930 58881.
2 1 2
Q.6 2 tan1 2 Q.7 (a) B, (b) B, (c) C, (d) ln x
3 2
2(x 1) 3
Q.8 (a) 2 ln 2, (b) Q.9 (x + 1) tan1 n (4 x 2 8x 13) + C
3 4

1 5 1 sin if (0, )
Q.10 (a) , (b) I =
8 4 3
( 2) if (,2)
sin
m1
Q.11 (a) A, (b) C, (c) B, (d)
1
6 ( m 1)
d
2x3m 3x2 m 6x m i m C

4 1
Q.13 (a) B, (b) A, (c) 2, (d) tan 1
3 2
24 1 e 1
Q.14 (a) C, (b) C, (c) e cos sin 1
5 2 2 2
Q.15 D Q.16 (a) A, (b) A, (c) A Q.17 5051

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ELEMENTARY DEFINITE INTEGRAL
(SELF PRACTICE)

page 63 of 89
Evaluate the following definite integrals.
1 n 2 3 /4
sin 1 x x
sin x dx
Q.1 x (1 x)
dx Q.2 x e dx Q.3 1 cos2 x
0 0 0

/2 1 e
x dx 1 1

Teko Classes, Maths : Suhag R. Kariya (S. R. K. Sir), Bhopal Phone : 0 903 903 7779, 0 98930 58881.
Q 4. e2x . cos x dx Q 5. Q 6. 2 dx
0 1 5 4x 2 n x n x
/2 /4
/4
sin 2 x cos x dx sin 2 x . cos2 x
Q 7. dx Q 8. (1 sin x) (2 sin x)
Q 9. 2 dx
0 sin x cos4 x
4
0 0 sin 3
x cos3 x
2 3 3/ 4
dx dx
Q 10. ( x 1) (2 x) dx Q 11. Q 12.
1 2 ( x 1) (5 x ) 0 ( x 1) 1 x 2
/2 1
Q 13. sin cos a 2
sin 2 b 2 cos2 d ab Q14. 2
x . 4 x 2 dx
0 0

/4 /2 3
dx dx
Q 15. x cos x cos 3x dx Q16. Q17.
0 0 5 4 sin x 2 ( x 1) x 2 2 x
/2 3 3
dx x dx dx
Q 18. (0, ) Q 19. Q 20. 3/ 2
0 1 cos . cos x 0 x 1 5x 1 1 1 x 2

/ 2 /4 3
x
Q 21. 4
sin x dx Q 22. cos 2x 1 sin 2 x dx Q23. 3 x
dx
0 0 0
1/ 2 2 a
dx dx a2 x2
Q.24 Q 25. Q 26. x dx
0 1 2x 2
1 x2 1
x x4 1 0 a2 x2
1
/2 1
sin x cos x 2
sin 1 x
Q27. 2
cos x 2 cos x 2
dx Q 28. x (tan1 x)2 dx Q 29. 2 3/ 2
dx
0 0 0 1 x
1
dx x2
Q 30. 2 where << Q 31. dx
0 x 2 x cos 1 0 1 x 4
b 2 2 1
dx ee 1
e e 1 x 2
Q 32. where a = & b= Q33. 1 x 2 x 4
dx
a 1 x 2 2 2 0

1 /4
5 1 x 2 dx sin cos
Q 34. x dx Q 35. 3 2 sin x cos x
Q 36. d
0 1 x2 0 0 9 16 sin 2
/2 /2
1 2 cos x x sin x
Q 37. sin2 cos d Q 38. dx Q 39. dx
0 0 ( 2 cos x) 2 0 1 cos x
/2 1
1
2 x2 d 1
Q 40. cos x sin 3x dx Q 41.
0
3

0 (1 x) 1 x 2
dx Q 42.
1
dx 1 e 1/ x dx

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e
dx 1

## Q 43. ln( x x e x ) Q 44. x2 d (ln x)

0 1

page 64 of 89

Q 45. If f() = 2 & (f(x) + f (x)) sin x dx = 5, then find f(0)
0

b
|x|
2 3 x 11 x
Q.46 x dx Q.47 cos
8
cos 2
4 8
dx
4
a 0

Teko Classes, Maths : Suhag R. Kariya (S. R. K. Sir), Bhopal Phone : 0 903 903 7779, 0 98930 58881.
/2 1
sec x tan x cos ec x
Q.48 sec x tan x 1 2 cos ecx
dx Q.49 x f ' ' ( x) dx , where f (x) =cos(tan
1
x)
0
0

n 3
Q.50 f (x)dx, where f(x) = e x + 2 e 2x + 3 e 3x + ......
n 2

2
1 e e 2
Q 1. Q 2. n Q3. tan 1 1 Q 4.
4 2 2 4 2 5
1 2 4
Q 5. Q6. e Q 7. Q 8. ln
6 n 2 4 3
1 1 9 4 2
Q 9. Q 10. Q 11. Q 12. n
6 8 6 2 7
1 a 3 b3 3 3 2 1
Q 13. Q 14. Q 15. Q 16. tan1
3 a b2 2 3 4 16 3 3
14 3 2
Q 17. Q 18 sin Q 19. Q 20.
3 15 2
3 3 1
Q 21.
16
Q 22. 1
3
Q 23.
2
Q 24.
2
n 2 3
1 32 a2 1 5
Q 25. ln Q 26. ( 2) Q 27. tan1 2 + ln
4 17 4 4 2 2
1 1 1
Q 28. 1 n 2 Q 29. ln 2 Q 30. if 0 ; if 0
4 4 2 4 2 2 sin 2
1 3 8
Q 31. Q 32. 1 Q 33. ln 3 Q 34.
2 2 2 24
1 4 1
Q 35. Q 36. ln 3 Q 37. Q 38.
4 20 9 2
5 2
Q 39. Q 40. Q 41. Q 42.
2 12 2 1 e
e 2 e 2
Q 43. ln 2 Q 44. Q 45. 3 Q.46 | b | | a |
2
3 1
Q.47 2 Q.48 /3 Q.49 1 Q.50
2 2 2

Successful People Replace the words like; "wish", "try" & "should" with "I Will". Ineffective People don't.