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Introduction to Microbiology V. Navaratne Faculty of Medicine KDU 22/08/2016

Introduction

to

Microbiology

V. Navaratne Faculty of Medicine KDU

22/08/2016

Introduction to Microbiology V. Navaratne Faculty of Medicine KDU 22/08/2016

Overview

Outline

The Microbiology course Introduction to the subject

History of Microbiology

– Koch’s postulates

the microbes you will study

Sources of infection

Transmission of infections

Host parasite relationship

The time table

4 th and 5 th semesters.

3 hours of teaching learning activities (TLA)

per week per student

Lectures

Practical sessions

Tutorials

Lectures

Text Books

Medical Microbiology - 18 th edition By Greenwood

Mims’ Medical Microbiology - 4 th edition

Assessments

Continuous assessments (2 CA)

in the 4 th Semester (15% of marks)

• 20 MCQ’s

SEQs and a

Practical

in the 5 th Semester (5% of marks)

• 20 MCQ’s

Final examination - end of 5 th Semester

Theory (50%)

• Four SEQs (30%) + 20 MCQ’s (20%)

OSPE (objective structured practical examination) (20%)

Viva (10%)

20% from CA (4 th & 5 th semesters)

Introduction to Microbiology

Microbiology is the study of microscopic organisms.

The course deals with microorganisms

bacteria, viruses and fungi

that cause disease in humans those that have the potential to cause disease.

Introduction to Microbiology

Learning Microbiology should go hand in hand

with your clinical work in the wards.

Why do we study Microbiology in the Medical

course?

You should know how

infections are caused

they can be diagnosed & treated

they can be prevented

Because infections form a large disease burden in the tropics

Infections are a leading causes of morbidity and

death (in many low-income countries , 2002)

source - WHO

6.4

1.9 3.1 10.8 6
1.9
3.1
10.8
6

31.1

6.4 1.9 3.1 10.8 6 31.1 Coronary heart disease Infectious diseases Perinatal conditions Stroke and other

Coronary heart disease6.4 1.9 3.1 10.8 6 31.1 Infectious diseases Perinatal conditions Stroke and other cerebrovascular diseases Chronic

Infectious diseases6.4 1.9 3.1 10.8 6 31.1 Coronary heart disease Perinatal conditions Stroke and other cerebrovascular diseases

Perinatal conditions3.1 10.8 6 31.1 Coronary heart disease Infectious diseases Stroke and other cerebrovascular diseases Chronic

Stroke and otherheart disease Infectious diseases Perinatal conditions cerebrovascular diseases Chronic obstructive pulmonary

cerebrovascular

diseases

Chronic obstructivediseases Perinatal conditions Stroke and other cerebrovascular diseases pulmonary disease Road traffic accidents

pulmonary disease

Road traffic accidentsInfectious diseases Perinatal conditions Stroke and other cerebrovascular diseases Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease

History of Microbiology

Anton van

Leeuwenhoek (1632-

1723) is generally

credited with bringing the microscope to the

attention of biologist

animalcules” in infusions of hay

credited with bringing the microscope to the attention of biologist – “ animalcules ” in infusions

History of Microbiology contd

in 1667, British natural scientist

ROBERT HOOKE published a book called

"Micrographia

On microorganisms .

History of Microbiology contd

Some scientists believed

spontaneous generation” theory

Disproved by Louis Pasteur

Boiling destroyed animalcules concept of

sterilisation

Techniques for growing bacteria culture media

Robert Koch

considered to be the founder of modern bacteriology,

Identified the causative agents

of tuberculosis, cholera, and anthrax

created Koch’s postulates,

principles linking specific microorganisms to particular diseases.

Received the Nobel Prize in Physiology or

Medicine in 1905.

1877- Robert Koch postulates regarding infectious diseases

1.

Organism must be present in every case of

disease.

2.

Organism must be isolated from patient &

grown in pure culture.

 

3.

Disease is reproduced when culture is

introduced to a susceptible host.

4.

Organism must be recovered from experimentally infected host.

The organisms

5 kingdom classification

Eubacteria

Protista

Fungi

Plantae

Animalia

– Protista – Fungi – Plantae – Animalia • Binomial classification of living things – Eg.

Binomial classification of living things

Eg. Homo sapiens, Staphylococcus aureus

Micro-organisms

Bacteria- Bacteriology

Viruses - Virology

Fungi moulds & yeasts (Mycology)

Protozoa (Parasitology)

Bacteria are prokaryotes others are eukaryotes

“Prions” – smallest infectious particle

What are the essential differences between

prokaryotes and eukaryotes?

Prokaryotes: relatively

simple morphology and

lack true membrane delimited nucleus

Eukaryotes:

morphologically complex with a true membrane enclosed nucleus

and lack true membrane delimited nucleus Eukaryotes: morphologically complex with a true membrane enclosed nucleus

Bacterial structure

Bacterial structure

Viruses

Can replicate only in a host cell

Obligate intracellular parasites

Depend on host cell for replication

They carry genetic information on DNA or RNA

Lack enzymes for protein and nucleic acid synthesis

Outcome of infection

Chronic infections eg. Hepatitis B virus

Latent infectionHerpes viruses

Malignancies

eg. Hep B, Hep C, Papilloma virus

Fungi

(1) Identify by growth form Filamentous fungi

yeasts

Fungi (1) Identify by growth form Filamentous fungi yeasts (2) Identify by type of infection Superficial
Fungi (1) Identify by growth form Filamentous fungi yeasts (2) Identify by type of infection Superficial
Fungi (1) Identify by growth form Filamentous fungi yeasts (2) Identify by type of infection Superficial
Fungi (1) Identify by growth form Filamentous fungi yeasts (2) Identify by type of infection Superficial

(2) Identify by type of infection

Superficial infections- skin, hair & nails Subcutaneous Systemic or deep seated

Microorganisms & disease

A small % cause disease in humans

pathogens Rest free living in soil & water

Saprophytefeed on dead organic matter

Parasitelive on another living organism

Commensalnormal flora on skin, gut, mucous membranes etc.

The process of infection

HOST- PARASITE RELATIONSHIP

Dynamic, two way interactive process

Pathogenesis is the infective process

Source

Transmission to a new host

Entry of organism into the host

Adherence to host cells

Penetration

Multiplication and spread within host

Resolution / Exit

transmission

Sources of infection to man

Sources of infection to man Exogenous Endogenous • Patients • Carriers • Infected animals • Soil/environment

Exogenous

Sources of infection to man Exogenous Endogenous • Patients • Carriers • Infected animals • Soil/environment

Endogenous

Sources of infection to man Exogenous Endogenous • Patients • Carriers • Infected animals • Soil/environment

Patients

Carriers

Infected animals

Soil/environment

patients own flora, invade other sites

E. coli in gutUTI

S. aureus from hands

Soil/environment patients own flora, invade other sites E. coli in gut  UTI S. aureus from

wound infections

Modes of spread of infections

Contact

Direct contact

indirect

via fomites

Airborne

Small particles generated from sneezing, coughing

Dust borne dusting , sweeping

Droplet spray

sneezing, coughing

HOST- PARASITE RELATIONSHIP

Microorganisms (viruses, bacteria, fungi and protozoans) are closely associated with human hosts.

All host-microbe associations are not pathogenic

Many factors can influence this association

Virulence

Site

Immune status of host

Immunity

Immunity is a reaction to foreign substances

Foreign substances : microbes, macro-molecules like proteins and polysaccharides

Non-specific and Specific immunity

Acquisition of immunity

Natural

infection

Artificial

vaccination