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TEACHER’S RESOURCE PACK www.santillana.es

www.santillana.es

TEACHER’S RESOURCE PACK www.santillana.es

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The basis of life

OBJECTIVES

1. To identify the characteristics of living beings and differentiate them from inert matter.

2. To learn about cells and their components.

3. To differentiate between the two types of cell nutrition.

4. To understand how cells obtain matter and energy.

CONTENTS

5. To recognise the importance of photosynthesis.

6. To learn about cellular respiration and nutrition.

7. To learn about cellular division.

8. To study the effects of temperature on yeast cell division.

CONCEPTS

• Living beings: vital functions and chemical composition (Objective 1).

• Cell theory, structure and organelles (Objective 2).

• Autotrophic and heterotrophic nutrition (Objective 3).

• Cellular reproduction (Objective 7).

PROCEDURES & KEY SKILLS

• Analysing and interpreting diagrams of complex processes (Objectives 4, 5, 6 and 7).

• Describing processes with the help of diagrams (Objectives 4, 5, 6 and 7).

 

• Using flow charts to explain processes (Objectives 5 and 6).

• Conducting an experiment to study the effect of temperature on yeast cell division (Objective 8).

• Using a microscope to observe cells (Objective 8).

ATTITUDES

• Showing interest in learning about the vital functions which sustain life.

• Appreciating life in all its dimensions.

COMPETENCES

Competence in linguistic communication: understanding descriptions and definitions (sections 1-7, pp. 9-16); understanding instructions (Activities, p. 18); listening to the summary of the unit (Student’s CD, track 1).

Knowledge and interaction with the physical world: understanding diagrams, cross- sections and microphotographs (sections 1-7, pp. 9-16); researching biomolecules (Investigate, p. 19); researching the possibility of life on another planet (Web task 1, Student’s CD).

Competence in ‘learning to learn’: focusing on the About this book and Learning to learn sections (pp. 3-7) and Content objectives (p. 8); acquiring language skills (Key language p. 8); explaining a process with a flow chart (sections 5 and 6, pp. 14 and 15); formulating and testing a hypothesis (Hands on, p. 17).

20 ESSENTIAL NATURAL SCIENCE 2 PHOTOCOPIABLE MATERIAL © 2008 Richmond Publishing / Santillana Educación, S.L.

VALUES

Protection of the Environment

Sustainable development needs to be achieved at a local level, as well as at a global level. In 1987, the World Commission on Environment and Development defined sustainable development as the way in which the present generation could satisfy its needs without endangering the needs of future generations. It concluded that the economic model of the first world was incompatible with rational use of natural resources.

EVALUATION CRITERIA

The Earth Summit (Rio de Janeiro, Brazil, 1992) produced the Local Agenda 21 Agreement. This proposes the integration of local environmental, economic and social policies with sustainability criteria. In this way, all citizens are encouraged to participate actively in local affairs.

1. Can identify the characteristics of living beings and differentiate them from inert matter.

2. Can describe cells and their components.

3. Can differentiate between the two types of cell nutrition.

4. Can explain how cells obtain matter and energy.

INTERNET, BOOKS AND FILMS

5. Can recognise the importance of photosynthesis.

6. Can explain cellular respiration and nutrition.

7. Can describe some types of cellular division.

8. Can conduct an experiment to study the effect of temperature on yeast cell division.

Web links

Cells Alive

http://www.cellsalive.com

A classic webpage which contains all sorts

of information on cells, mainly in the form of images.

The Biology Project http://www.biology.arizona.edu

A University of Arizona project on general biology.

Virtual Cell http://www.life.uiuc.edu/cgi-bin/plantbio/cell/cell.cgi

A virtual interior of a plant cell. Interesting due to its

realistic approach. Manipulate the image to rotate, cut, and zoom the plant cell.

Bio Netbook http://www.pasteur.fr/recherche/BNB/bnb-en.html

Webpage belonging to the prestigious Pasteur Institute.

It contains more than seven thousand biology links.

La Recherche http://www.larecherche.fr/ Original French webpage of Scientific World Journal. Regularly publishes articles on cells, generally at a fairly basic level.

Books

Life: An unauthorised biography Richard Fortey. Publisher: Flamingo; New Ed edition (6 April 1998).

Aimed at non-specialised readers, this book tells the story of life on Earth from the first cells to Homo

Sapiens.

ESSENTIAL NATURAL SCIENCE 2 PHOTOCOPIABLE MATERIAL © 2008 Richmond Publishing / Santillana Educación, S.L.

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1

WORKSHEET 1

THE BASIS OF LIFE

NAME:

CLASS:

DATE:

Write out each abbreviation in full.

1. H 2 O =

2. O 2 =

3. RNA =

4. CO 2 =

5. DNA =

6. ER =

= 2. O 2 = 3. RNA = 4. CO 2 = 5. DNA = 6.

Use the clues to solve the puzzle and find the mystery word.

4 5 6 2 3 1 7
4
5
6
2
3
1
7

1. These organic compounds are

insoluble in water.

2. These compounds act as sexual hormones or as vitamin D.

3. It is the total set of genes.

4. The production of more complex organic substances from simple substances.

5. It carries the genetic information of living things.

6. It contains the organelles.

7. It is used to make bread and beer.

Mystery word:

Complete the sentences with words from the box. catabolism amino binary cells vital glucose 1.
Complete the sentences with words from the box.
catabolism
amino
binary
cells
vital
glucose
1.
The functions which support life are called
functions.
2.
The chains of molecules which make up macromolecules are called
acids.
3.
are the structural and functional units of all living things.
4.
Complex organic substances are degraded into simples substances by
.
5.
Oxygen and
are essential for cell respiration.
6.
fission produces two identical daughter cells of the same size.

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22 ESSENTIAL NATURAL SCIENCE 2 PHOTOCOPIABLE MATERIAL © 2008 Richmond Publishing / Santillana Educación, S.L.

1

WORKSHEET 2

THE BASIS OF LIFE

NAME:

CLASS:

DATE:

Use your Student’s Book to complete the chart about vital functions.1 WORKSHEET 2 THE BASIS OF LIFE NAME: CLASS: DATE:   NUTRITION   INTERACTION   REPRODUCTION

 

NUTRITION

 

INTERACTION

 

REPRODUCTION

Autotrophic:

 

Reception of stimuli:

 

8.

:

Using energy from the Sun:

Animals have both

This requires a male parent and

1.

4.

and

a 9.

 

Using energy from chemical

5.

 

parent.

reactions:

 

Plants do not have

 

Asexual:

 

2.

 

6.

 

This requires only

   

Using organic matter from other

but they respond to

 

10.

 

living beings:

 

7.

 

3.

 

Complete the sentences with the words from the box.  living beings:   7.   3.   lipids carbohydrates biomolecules anabolism

lipids

carbohydrates

biomolecules

anabolism

unicellular

yeast

water

polysaccharides

1.

are the building blocks of life.

 

2.

is needed to regulate body temperature.

3.

are organic compounds which are insoluble in water.

4.

Starches such as rice contain

5.

.

organisms such as bacteria reproduce asexually.

6.

is used to make different foods such as bread and wine.

7.

are responsible for storing and transporting energy.

8.

requires energy to produce complex organic substances.

8. requires energy to produce complex organic substances. ESSENTIAL NATURAL SCIENCE 2 PHOTOCOPIABLE MATERIAL ©
8. requires energy to produce complex organic substances. ESSENTIAL NATURAL SCIENCE 2 PHOTOCOPIABLE MATERIAL ©
8. requires energy to produce complex organic substances. ESSENTIAL NATURAL SCIENCE 2 PHOTOCOPIABLE MATERIAL ©

ESSENTIAL NATURAL SCIENCE 2 PHOTOCOPIABLE MATERIAL © 2008 Richmond Publishing / Santillana Educación, S.L.

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WORKSHEET 3

THE BASIS OF LIFE

NAME:

CLASS:

DATE:

Use your Student’s Book to complete the map with examples of organic biomolecules.1 WORKSHEET 3 THE BASIS OF LIFE NAME: CLASS: DATE: Polysaccharides Disaccharides Monosaccharides collagen 1. 2.

Polysaccharides Disaccharides
Polysaccharides
Disaccharides
Monosaccharides
Monosaccharides

collagen

1.

2.

4.

Disaccharides Monosaccharides collagen 1. 2. 4. glucose 3. 5. Amino acids Carbohydrates Proteins Organic

glucose

3.

5. Amino acids
5.
Amino acids
Carbohydrates Proteins Organic biomolecules Lipids Nucleic acids
Carbohydrates
Proteins
Organic biomolecules
Lipids
Nucleic acids
 

fats

9.

6.

10.

7.

8.

Choose and describe the function of some of the biomolecules.Nucleic acids   fats 9. 6. 10. 7. 8. E x a m p l e

Example: Polysaccharides are responsible for storing energy.

1.

2.

3.

4.

5.

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24 ESSENTIAL NATURAL SCIENCE 2 PHOTOCOPIABLE MATERIAL © 2008 Richmond Publishing / Santillana Educación, S.L.

1

WORKSHEET 4

THE BASIS OF LIFE

NAME:

CLASS:

DATE:

Work in pairs. Read and then put in order the autotrophic cell nutrition processes.

During this process, oxygen is released from the cell.

Using energy from catabolism and simple molecules, complex organic molecules are produced in the process called anabolism.

Using sunlight, organic matter is produced.

Part of the organic matter produced is used in the mitochondrion, where catabolism takes place.

As a result of catabolism, CO 2 is produced and released outside.

Using oxygen, energy and inorganic substances (H 2 O and CO 2 ) are produced.

The cell takes in water, CO 2 and mineral salts from the outside.

Draw a schematic diagram to explain autotrophic nutrition.takes in water, CO 2 and mineral salts from the outside. 3 1 Read and then

Draw a schematic diagram to explain autotrophic nutrition. 3 1 Read and then put in order
3 1
3
1

Read and then put in order the heterotrophic cell nutrition processes.

Part of this organic matter is used in the mitochondrion, where catabolism takes place.

As a result of catabolism, toxic CO 2 is produced and released outside.

The cell takes in organic matter made by other organisms.

Using energy from catabolism and simple organic molecules, complex organic molecules are produced in the process called anabolism.

Using oxygen, energy and inorganic substances are produced.

Draw a schematic diagram to explain heterotrophic nutrition.Using oxygen, energy and inorganic substances are produced. ESSENTIAL NATURAL SCIENCE 2 PHOTOCOPIABLE MATERIAL ©

Draw a schematic diagram to explain heterotrophic nutrition. ESSENTIAL NATURAL SCIENCE 2 PHOTOCOPIABLE MATERIAL ©

ESSENTIAL NATURAL SCIENCE 2 PHOTOCOPIABLE MATERIAL © 2008 Richmond Publishing / Santillana Educación, S.L.

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1

WORKSHEET 5

THE BASIS OF LIFE

NAME:

CLASS:

DATE:

The cold life of Emperor Penguins

They are similar in size to a human child. They are approximately 1.2 metres tall and weigh between 30 and 40 kilos. However, emperor penguins can reproduce when they are four years old. They manage to live up to 20 years in the coldest, most inhospitable climate on Earth: the Antarctic.

In May or June, mum lays one large egg. She immediately rolls the egg to the top of dad’s feet. He keeps it warm and incubated in the thick ‘blanket’ of skin and feathers of his belly. The dads survive the dreadful weather by standing in tight groups for up to nine weeks. During this time mum goes off looking for food. Dad doesn’t eat at all, and so loses up to half his body weight.

Once baby arrives, its dad’s turn to get some food. Now mum stays home for

a couple of months. When dad returns,

both parents look after their chick until

it is ready to start ‘nursery school’.

A few adults stay behind to look after the

toddlers while all the rest go fishing. By now, all the chicks have learnt to recognise their parents by a special call.

The chicks start losing their grey fluff or ‘down’, and by Christmas time, they have become adults.

by a special call. The chicks start losing their grey fluff or ‘down’, and by Christmas

True or False? Write T or F . T or F.

1. The parents go to find food while the chick stays behind with other adults.

2. The males incubate the eggs.

3. The chicks lose their down and become adults in spring.

4. Both parents look after the chick and teach it their special call.

5. The females lay several eggs.

6. The eggs hatch and the females look after the chicks.

Answer the questions.6. The eggs hatch and the females look after the chicks. 1. In what season do

1. In what season do the females lay their eggs?

2. How long can Emperor Penguins live?

3. How do the males survive the incubation period in the cold weather?

.

1

TEST 1

THE BASIS OF LIFE

NAME:

Circle the correct answer.1 TEST 1 THE BASIS OF LIFE NAME: CLASS: DATE: 1. Animals produce responses to stimuli

CLASS:

DATE:

1.

Animals produce responses to stimuli with the help of their (a) effectors (b) receptors (c) energy.

2.

Carbohydrates are also known as (a) waxes (b) steroids (c) saccharides.

3.

Starch contains molecules called (a) monosaccharides (b) disaccharides (c) polysaccharides.

4.

DNA is found in the (a) cytoplasm (b) nucleus (c) enzymes.

5.

Mineral salts are necessary to (a) transmit nervous impulses (b) regulate body temperature

(c)

transport nutrients.

6.

The cytoplasm of a cell contains (a) the organelles (b) the vesicles (c) DNA.

7.

The function of vacuoles is to (a) provide support (b) store substances or waste (c) transport substances.

8.

Cellular metabolism involves (a) effectors and receptors (b) anabolism and catabolism

(c)

multiplication and division.

9.

During the process of respiration, cells take in (a) phospholipids (b) steroids (c) glucose.

10.

Cellular division always involves (a) the nucleus (b) binary fission (c) photosynthesis.

Read the text and answer the questions.(a) the nucleus (b) binary fission (c) photosynthesis. Inorganic biomolecules Inorganic biomolecules include

Inorganic biomolecules

Inorganic biomolecules include water and mineral salts. Water is the most abundant substance in living beings. It is found in tissues, organs, blood and even teeth, and makes up about 65% of our body. It is needed to carry out chemical reactions, transport substances and regulate body temperature. Mineral salts form the solid structure of living beings, such as skeletons. They are also necessary for chemical reactions and for the transmission of nervous impulses.

1. What are the functions of water in living beings?

2. How much of our body is not water?

3. What part of living beings is formed by mineral salts?

4. What do mineral salts have in common with water?

ESSENTIAL NATURAL SCIENCE 2 PHOTOCOPIABLE MATERIAL © 2008 Richmond Publishing / Santillana Educación, S.L.

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