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New Mass Storage: Hard Disk Drives And RAM Expansion

COMPUTE'S
$3.00
May 1987 <g
Issue 47, Vol, 5, No. 5

02220 $4.25 Canada

FOR COMMODORE PERSONAL COMPUTER USERS

SpeedScript 3.2
A complete word processor for the Commodore 64. The latest
version of our most popular program ever. Plus three new support,
utilities: ScriptRead, SpeedSearch, and Date And Time Stamper

No-SYS
Loader
The easy way to run, load,
and save machine language
programs on the 64.

Powerball
An outstanding—and

■ ■imsc «i addictive—multifeatured
arcade-style game for the
Commodore 64.

Dazzlers
Your text screen never The Digital Also In This Issue:
looked like this. Fascinating
animated graphics for
£9O8*i IU SI
Voice: A Guide To Commodore
User Groups, Part 1
5t°i -h Recognition
Fast Boot For The 128
nosvr xu found Synthesis
J.Z9 S6HDU 2X2TT +><W0Z Hints & Tips: Time

08* IIS^-
-it how the latest Savers
make your 64 an And More
even more valuable tool.
"The Bard is Back!"
77
/""from impossible dungeons and split- The Best Ever
JL second snares, the Bard and his party Dungeon Role-Playing Game
emerge. The Sceptre, so long for
50% bigger than Bard's TaleT
gotten, gleams with power like an
An all-new story line.
exploding sun. Even Phenglci
Six cities and a huge overland
Kai, the ancient archmag
wilderness to explore.
bows his lu-ad in awe.
• Doient. of new spells -
79 spells in all.
"I smell serpents!" SlipfitijjL'r
• New real-time dungeon
squeals, stealing away like puzzles. You have to get
the thief he is. Two arch- through them before the
dragons slither out of the clock stops ticking.
ground, their eyes burn • Summon and name
ing with the relentless moniten IO become a per
fury of treasure losi. manent part of your party.
• Mure strategy in combat
Protected behind the flame encounters - the weapons
lizards, beyond the reach and spells you choose de
of normal weapons, a cack pend on the enemy's distance.
ling wizard begins the eerie A bank and casino.
chants of a death spell. A spell • A starter-dungeon for build
that can finish the Bard ing up your low-level characters.
and his party. • 6 guilds for easier game saving.
Optional use of Bard's Tale charac
The time has come to battle-test the ters. Bard's Tali' experience not required.
magic of the Destiny Wand -and reveal the • Cluebooks available for both Bard's
awesome powers of The Destiny Knight.™ Talc and Bard's Tale ll!"

E.iicf If ol iTeF ibhc*


i.rutil rrtin i; Klmr
ill-ones Off") . and E

You get 3 new clftSS of m:igkn user — the There are over 100 monsters, 25 scrolling ilungei'ii leVclii
Archmagc. With 8 powerful spells like like this Kner Drone. Many animated. All in color. All J-D. Including 7
Hual All, Fanskar's Night Lance, and the All dangerous. different Snares of Death, a new kind of
awesome Mingar's Mallot. real-time puzilc.

The Bard's Tale II


The Destiny Knight
from

ELECTRONIC ARTS'

HOW TO GET IT: Villt ^our reulkr, or call 8M-245-4525 (in CA call 800-562-1112) for VISA it Muumrd orders, To buv bv mail, hiu] j ckeck, money
order, or YlSAorMa-iercarJ miormsiiori 10 ElctironLt Aris. P.O. llov 7i!0. San Maieci.CAy44O1.Tli.' price i* Si9.9i forilic Commodore64 vtolon. Add »i Fur
ihtpphig And hdnJIinv: ($? CttltdUn). Allow L-4 u'ecks lor Ji'livtrv. The Bjrd\ TjIi- 11 and tk-cironk1 ArT- ;it? rcgbUrtd trademarks "f Hli-ctr^llir ArU, l.llima is j
rejinered irademark of Rjchinl Oirricm. Commodon It j rrtdenwrk ol Commodort Electronic Lid. For a copy of our complete union, ttni S0( ind j lumped,
Klf-addrcued envelope to Bleclrooic Ans Cai.iEoi;, IHZO Gateway Drive« S,u\ Mnta, L'A <J44i14r
COMMODORE OWNERS...
YOU ARE ABOUT TO BEGIN
A WONDERFUL NEW
LOVE AFFAIR!
Since the beginning of the computer boom,
folks have been saying what they would
really love is a program anyone can use to
perform everyday tasks.
PARTNER 64, a cartridge-based product with
eight convenient, memory-resident desktop
accessories, does just that.
Like Sidekick*, PARTNER automagically sus
pends the existing program in your computer
while you are using the PARTNER accessories.
When you are through, press a button and PARTNER
returns you to the point in your program where you left off.
• Auto Dialer: At your command, the computer will
ACCESSORIES AT YOUR COMMAND:
search through your list for the number you want, and
• Appointment Calendar and Date Book: Keep track automatically dial the number for you.*"
ol appointments and deadlines. At the press of a key,
• Screen Print: At the press of a key, the text (not
you'll be able to review your appointments for a day,
graphics) of your computer display will be duplicated
week, or month. Months may be viewed in their entirety
on your printer.
in a traditional calendar format, and then printed out.
• Memo Pad: Write yourself important notes. Print them OTHER FEATURES:
out on paper or save them onto disk. • SwiftDOS: Allows you to access Commodore disk
drive commands any time.
• Name, Address and Phone Books: Keep track of
important names, addresses, and phone numbers. • SwIftLock: Enter your secret code before you leave
Available instantly, any time you use your computer. your computer. The keyboard will be locked until you
re-enter your code.
• Calculator: A multi-function calculator with an optional
"paper tape" that prints out your calculations on your • Extended Printer Control: Allows you to send com
printer. mands directly to your printer at any time.

• Typewriter: Turns your computer and printer into a • SwIftLoad; Allows your Commo
traditional typewriter. dore 1541 disk drive to load as
fast as the Commodore 1571
• Envelope Addresser and Label Maker; Use this
disk drive.
feature and your name and address list to address
envelopes or create mailing labels - quickly, without
Also available for the
leaving the software you are working with.
Commodore 128 computer!
Suggested Retail Prices:
• C64 (64K, 40 Column). . $59.95
• C128 (128K, 80 Column) $69.95
Available at your favorite
Dealer, or call Timeworks
More power for your dollar
today!
Timeworks, Inc. 444 Lake Cook Road, Deerfield, II. 60015
312-948-9200 TO ORDER CALL:
■flag. Irademarks of Borland Int.: Commodore 1Z8 is 1-800-535-9497
b Irodomark anO Commodore 6419 d roorsforod trademark of Commodore Eleclromca, Lid.
"An aulo-Oial modom Is required 10 usb Ifw phono dialer lealure.
riBB5 Timewoiln. Inc. All Riflhis Reserved.
m

■ ■■ vl

mar

^«*

-it? I ^^^H

In a market full of helicopter simulations like Super Huey II, Gunship, and Infiltrator, it's nice
to find a product like ThunderChopper that flies high above the rest!

Colonel Jack Rosenow USAF (Ret.), Action-packed animated graphics


President of ActionSoft Corp., has the include real 3D scenery and airborne
experience to provide all of the Ihreals. The competition's graphics
helicopter action and slrategy you've just don't compare.
been looking for! ThunderChopper in
corporates (he most advanced A sophisticated instrumenl panel lets
graphics, flight systems, and game- you scan all vilal information at a
playing faclors to provide a sensational glance whether performing combat,
balance of strategy and lun: exploration or rescue operations.
ThunderChopper's advanced
instrumentation includes Forward-
hi Looking Infra red, CO2 laser radar,
-, ■: zoom television, and ECM. As Colonel Jack says:

B Armament includes TOW and


"ThunderChopper is the ultimate in

■ 1 Stinger missiles, a Hughes Chain


helicopter action and realism. Nothing
else even comes close. No other
Gun, and Zuni rockets.
simulation can boast this much fun!"

Better program and documentation


design gets you up flying exciting
combat missions in minutes.

7 .■■■.'-■ ;: : ■■■ ■

■.'■""-'■■--■■".■
■■■:^V

imulation ion an

■aphic tec. ies lici -"■-■■■

--ijr»

- ■-

-JmHr
Up Periscope! ■ ■ - $29.95 -
Better Engineering at a Better
The new stale of Ihe art in submarine
Price
simulation. The superior strategic play
action and 3D animated graphics of this
: 1906 ActionSoft Corporalion
simulation put it generations ahead of
3D Graemes and special affects courtesy
the pack.
SubLOGIC Corp.
Commodore 64 and Commodore 126 are
See Your Dealer... trademarks of Commodore Electronics Ltd.
Or write or call us for more information. Apple II is a trademark ol Apple Computer, Inc.
ThunderChopper and Up Periscope! IBM is a registered trademark ol International

are available on disk for the Commo Business Machines Corp

dore 64128. Apple II, and IBM PC line


of personal computers for the
I^SM^,-/.
suggested retail price of $29.95. For
direct orders please specify which
computer version you want. Include
S2.00 for shipping and Specify UPS or
GE NE BAT IONS AHEAD IN STRATEGY ACTION SOFTWARE
first class mail delivery. Visa, Master
Card, American Express, and Diners 122-4 S RACE ST URBANA , IL 61801
1217)367-1024
Club cards accepted.
WHICHEVER DOOR YOU CHOOSE,
THE PRIZE IS FUN AND EXCITEMENT
BEYOND YOUR WILDEST
FANTASIES!

tantalizing
game is over. You've found not one, peck at the fantastic adventures
bui three,..from SSI. "IIn1 pl.u and beyond, will it bo Door #1, Door #2,
feel of each game may differ, bui or Door #37 The best answer: Why,
in terms of fun, excitement and all three, of course!
PKAVTASIE II
challenge, all three are equally ex To gel started, you'll haw to
«EMSTONE H This role-playing game promises to
hilarating, intense, and absorbing.
Tills is the sequ
WIZARD'S CROWN"
Guide eight valiant adventurers on a braved the horrors of the Nether In PIIANTAS1E II. the Dark Lord If ihere are no convenient stores near
perilous quesi to recover the precious world and successfully recovered the fashioned an evil orb that his en iihi. VISA and MasterCard holders can
Ward's Crown that lies imprisoned magical Gemsione. To your dismay, slaved y>ur people. Command a band order by calling loll- free 800-443 -0100,
behind spell-woven walls in the ruins > e i l! discover that the Gem stone has of one to six travellers to brave the \335. To order by mail, wnd y»ur check
been damaged. Hence, you must Dark Lord's wrath, locate the orb lo: Sir.!:r,.u Simulations. Inc., 1046
of Arghan. Armed with different skills
return lo the Demons' lair, locate the S. Rengslorfl Ave., Moiinuin View, CA
and weapons, your characters must and find a way to destroy It. If you've
94043. Be sure to specify the computer

your heroes clash with the vile den Gemsione Warrior because everyone to this sequel. If you haven't, simply Add S2.00 lo your order for shipping
izens of Afghan, you can let the will enjoy GEMSTONE HEALEH's create new characters and embark and handling ADow.i-6 wvrts for delivery
computer resolve each battle quickly, fasi-paced. ardon-packed excitement, on a thrilling mission! In Hie Continental US. UPS. Blue service
or you can personally direct the action Ondiikniefor&4KApplt* On dbkertt for 4BK Applet C-W~ (falter shipping Ume) is available for St.OO.
with a multitude of combu options. ( hi ' <"!.<>;. ^m^^m^^^^^^^^^ Atari 8rt *39.95.
Apple, AOn Aun ST lad C-M ur tndtoiU nl \pp>
On diskette for 64K Applet Atari*
C-64~ $39.9 5.

STRATEGIC SIMULATIONS, INC.


WTL May 1987 Vol. 5, No. 5

features
New Commodore Storage Devices Selby Bateman 16
The Digital Voice: Speech Recognition and Sound Synthesis Kathy Yakal 24 *

Making the 64 Talk Todd Heimarck 32 *

SpeedScript 3.2 for the Commodore 64 Charles Brannon 54 64


A Guide to Commodore User Groups, Part 1 Caroline Hanlon 72 ■

reviews
Operation Terminal Scott Thomas 36 64
Thinking Cap Robin Minnick .... 38 64
Portal Neil Randall 39 64
Gunship George Miller 42 64

games
Unscramble Mark Tuttle 44 128/64/+ 4/16
Powerball William Chin 46 64

education/home applications
Cassette Sleeve Maker David Ito 52 128/64/+4/16
Computing for Families: Computers and Learning—
Which Future for You? Fred D'lgnazio 78 •

programming
SpeedSearch Tony St. Clair 75 64
SpeedScript Date and Time Stamper Sob Kodadek 76 64
ScrlptRead Buck Childress 77 64
BASIC for Beginners: The Power of the ON Command Larry Cotton 80 128/64/- 4/1G/V
Machine Language for Beginners: Building Trampolines Richard Mansfield 82 128/64
Power BASIC: Easy ML Line Drawing Paul Carlson 83 128
Hints & Tips: Time Savers 86 128/64/-4/16
No-SYS Loader Walter L. Smith, Jr. 87 64
Dazzlers Paul Carlson 88 64
Fast Boot Jim Allen 89 128
Gameports: Joystick, Paddle, and Mouse Jim Butterfieid 90 128/64

departments
The Editor's Notes Richard Mansfield . 6 *
Gazette Feedback Editors and Readers 10 *
Simple Answers to Common Questions Tom R. Halthill 79 •
Horizons: Alphabetizing Todd Heimarck 84 128/64/ I4/1G/V

Bug-Swatter: Modifications and Corrections 92 •

program listings
COMPUTEI's Gazette Author's Guide 125 *
How to Type In COMPUTEI's Gazette Programs 126 *
The Automatic Proofreader, 127 128/64/- 4/16/V
Mi X: Machine Language Entry Program for Commodore 64 128 64

Advertisers Index 132 *

•-General, V=VlC-20, 64=Commo0ore 64, +4=PIljs/4, 16=Commodore 16, 128=Commodore 128

COMPUTFI's GAZKTTEis published monthly hy COMPUTEI Publics lions. Int., B25 7th Avcnut. New York, NY 10019 USA. Phone! (211) 265-8360. Edilori.nl offices are locate at 324
West Wendover Avenue. Creensboiu, NC 2740S Dome.lk Subscriptions. 12 issues. S24 POSTMASTER: Send address changes la COMPUTSta GAZETTE. P.O. Bos 10«7. Des
Moines, IA 5034D Second class application pending a I Greensboro. NC 27103 and additional milling offices. Enure con [en c copyright Q1987by COMPUTB Publication*, Ire. All
rights reserved, I5SN 0737-3716.
COMPUTH Publications, Inc. r. parl of ABC Consumer Magazines, Inc., One of Ihe AHC Publishing Compinirs: ABC Publlthlng, Prnldenf, Robert G. Burton; 1330 Annul of IM
Americas, New Ymk New York 10019.
In this issue you'll find the latest than with the health of their com strongest startups in magazine pub
version of the most popular pro panies, Robert has always worked lishing history. We have gone on to
gram we've ever published: Speed- quietly behind the scenes. We can, publish a number of bestselling
Script, a fast, full-featured, yet easy- however, with this editorial, recog books and continue to feature some
to-use word processor. SpccdScript nize his contribution and thank him of the best programs, columns, and
3.2 includes many of the improve in a small way for his efforts. articles available on the subject of
ments that you, the readers, have He was in his early thirties home and recreational computing.
requested. when he had the idea of starting a It all began with a single idea,
Elsewhere in this issue, you'll magazine devoted to consumer Robert's vision of how best to en
find three very helpful support util computing. And in the past seven gage, entertain, and inform the
ities for SpeedScript, each of which years COMPUTE!, under Robert's reader about a powerful emerging
is designed either to save you time guidance, has grown into a highly technology that he saw would
or help better organize your Speed- successful publishing group—four eventually affect every aspect of
Script text files. magazines, over 150 books in print, our lives. But a single idea, however
If you enjoy games, we think and over 1,000,000 readers a accurate, rarely leads to the creation
you'll find "Powerbali" irresistible. month. COMPUTE! Publications of a major publishing house. Thou
While it takes some time to become has become a major contributor to sands of others also began to see
expert, this exciting game is novel, the ongoing introduction of com the importance of consumer com
varied, and challenging enough for puting into the homes, schools, and puting by the end of the 1970s, and
anyone to enjoy. Also, you'll want businesses of America and else hundreds of publications were in
to take a look at "Dazzlers," a series where in the world. troduced. By 1983 there were 150
of graphics programs for the 64 that He saw early on that computers computer magazines competing for
animate the standard text screen, would have an immense impact. the attention of the readin-g public.
with some surprising results. Starting in a storefront in Greens Today there are only a few. That
Readers who have been with boro, with a handful of employees, COMPUTE! Publications survived
us for some time are likely to agree he began working on the early is and flourished was largely due to
that the quality of the articles and sues of COMPUTE!. At that point, he Robert's strong leadership. The
programs in this issue does not come was personally involved in every as staff at COMPUTE!, and the read
as a surprise; rather it's part of a pect of his young magazine: He ers who enjoy our efforts, are fortu
tradition established by Robert pasted up galleys, called advertisers, nate that he will continue to play a
Lock, the founder of COMPUTE! contacted authors, and edited copy. vital role, contributing to the direc
Publications. As the years went by, he con tion of our publications as we grow.
This past December Robert tinued to directly supervise the In the coming years we will,
withdrew from the daily manage growing company in both its edito with his help, preserve the tradi
ment of the company and accepted rial and business activities. He has tions and values Robert established
the position of Editorial Consultant. an intuitive grasp of business and here. And we will expand, offering
He will continue to provide the finance combined with strong edit more comprehensive coverage as
company with guidance and will ing and writing skills. This combi well as maintaining the quality of
assist, in particular, in the develop nation of talents is as rare as it is programs, tutorials, and features
ment of new products and services. powerful. And perhaps even more you've come to expect from COM
This change in editorial man rare: He is an extremely clear think PUTE! Publications.
agement gives us our first opportu er. Those of us who work closely
nity to publicly acknowledge his with Robert have always been <-->.
contributions to the growth and aware that he is remarkably accu •/^fc^y^i
success of the company he founded rate in his assessments on a wide
and to the personal computing in range of topics. Richard Mansfield
dustry as a whole. We at COMPUTE! were not Editorial Director
In all these years he has never concerned during the notorious in
given an interview or in any fash dustry shakeout of 1984-85. We
ion moved his personality into pub knew we would be among the sur
lic view. While some other industry vivors. In fact, COMPUTED Gazette
leaders appeared more concerned was introduced in the face of the
at times with their personal image shakeout, and became one of the

6 COMPUTE!S GazarfS May 1987


ming,

diving,
gymnas
tics and
The follow A sport of ritual and tradition-
Gymnastics. A The Batata!.
graceful display of balance, One wrong mote and ill
ing programs shooting, poisv and mncentraiion. right tluicn the Othtt.

are )rbught to : just to name a few. I the hot dog aerials. And
'youbyanincredi- j There's its equally \ beg for mercy in tie
ble series of events.: acclaimed sequel, Sum- \ Biathlon. And coming

I
Over 30 \ mer Games IF1 Go for next summer,our/
of them, j the gold in rowing, cy newest Games
to be I cling, equestrian, fenc program. (Bet-(
1/ specific. I ing, the high jump, the ter get ready
They're triple jump, kayafang, to hit the
I the unfor- ; and more.
[/ gettable j
Finally,
i events of ; there's
| ourbest-sell-i the icy
■ ing Games \ challenges Cliff Dining. In Atafruko.
n riwtie fatk for it
series. j of Winter
First, World \ Games? Waifll you beach.)
"' Eight j careen the tube in a bob- Now, it
international I sled. Fly the ski jp jump. Or may seem like a
events rang choreograph lot to handle.
ing from an entire fig But don't let
Sumo wres ure skating world events
tling to cliff diving. routine. You'll get the best
Bull riding to weight- flip out over of you.
a burking fiu

lifting. Even skiing the


Chamonix slalom.
There's our enor
mously popular
Summer Garnet
Break records in
1 TiXfilintA Ami

track, m AMilr IIS nabnuhia.


AlanST,C64/12S.JWl
lI 7BS.Mnws
Appii'
•■ //^ compuli
I T" 8 flayers, ■
Apple II &• tompati-

swim-fi it n'mfuirr^/i'i. doming Mtt, Atari. C64HZR. bln.CtUll2X.IBM


Address all advertising malerials to:
COMPUTE! Publicationsjnc©
Ona ol tHo ABC PuWiihlng Companies ^^^
Kathleen Hanlon, COMPUTED GAZETTE
324 West Wendover Ave., Suite 200, Greensboro, NC 27408
Sales Offices
Northeast 212-315-1665
Mid-Atlantic 212-315-1665
Southeast 919-275-9809
Publisher James A. Casella Sales Offices, Jules E. Thompson, Inc.
Founder/Editorial Consultant Robert C. Lock
1290 Howard Avenue
Editorial Director Richard Mansfield
Suite 303
Managing Editor Kathleen Martinek Burlingame, CA 94010
Associate Publisher Selby Bat em an
Midwest 312-726-6047
Editor Unra Elko 713-731-2605
Texas
Assistant Editor Rheti Anderson Pacific Northwest 415-348-8222
Production Director Tony Roberts Northern CA 415-348-8222
Southern CA 415-348-8222
Editors
Arizona 415-348-8222
Tom R. Halfhill, Edilor, COMPUTEI's Alari ST Disk & Magazine;
Stephen Levy, Editor, COMPUTE! Books Division; Ottis R. New Mexico 415-348-8222
Colorado 303-595-9299
Cowper. Technical Editor
Assistant Editors
COMPUTE I Publications, Inc., publishes
Crcgg Keizer, John Shadlc (Books); George Miller, Dale McBane
COMPUTE! COMPUTEI Books COMPUTEI't GAZETTE
(Technical); Philip I. Nelson (COMPUTE! Magazine); Todd
Heimarck, (COMPUTEi's Atari ST Disk & Magazine); Kathy Yakal, COMPUTE!'* GAZETTE Disk Apple Applications
Assistant Features Editor; Tammie Taylor, Karen Uhlendorf, Karen COMPUTE!'* Atari ST Dltk 8. Magazine
Siepak, Copy Editors; Caroline Hanlon, Editorial Assistant; David Editorial Office:
Hen5ley. Submissions Reviewer 324 West Wendover Ave., Suite 200, Greensboro, NC 27408
Editorial Programmers
Corporate Offices!
Patrick Parrish (Supervisor), Tim Victor, Tim Midkiff, William Chin
825 7th Avenue, New York, NY 10019
Programming Assistants
Customer Service:
David Flora nee, Troy Tucker
P.O. Box 5038, FD.R. Station, New York, NY 10150
Administrative Staff
Executive Assistant, Debi Nash; Julia Fleming, Iris Brooks, Mary Telephone: (In NY) 212-887-8525;
Hunt, Sybil Agee (In U.S.) Toll free 1-800-346-6767
Office Hours: 8:30 AM to 4:30 PM Monday-Friday
Production
Irma Swain, Production Manager; Janice Fary, Art & Design Subscription Orders and Inquiries
Director; Lee Noel, Assistant Editor, Art & Design; De Potter, COMPUTERS GAZETTE
Mechanical Art Supervisor; Terry Cash, Carole Dunton, P.O. Box 10957, Des Moines, IA 50340
Typesetting
Artists TOLL FREE
Robin Case, Kim Potts (Publications); Harry Blair, Illustrator Subscription Order Line
Associate Editors 1-800-247-5470
In IA 1-800-532-1272
Jim Butterfield (Toronto), Fred D'lgnazio (Alabama)

Customer Service
COMPUTERS GAZETTE
Subscription Rates
Diane Longo, Customer Service Manager; Jose Cruz, Dealer Sales
Supervisor; Cassandra Green, Individual Order Supervisor (12 Issue Vear): US (one year) S24. Canada, Mexico and Foreign
Surface Mail $30. Foreign Air Mail $65.
Receptionist, Anita Armfield
The COMFOTBft GAZETTE subscriber lilt is made available to carefully
Warehouse Manager, John Williams screened organiza I ions with a producl or service which may be of interest lo
our readers. If you prefer not io receive such mailings, please send an exact
President James A. Casella copy of your subscription label to: COMPUTE!'* GAZETTE, P.O. Box 10958,
Vice President, Editorial Director Richard Mansfield Des Moines, IA 50950. Include a note indicating your preference lo receive
Vice President, Advertising Richard J. Marino only your subscription.

Vice President, Finance & Planning Christopher M. Savine Author? of manuscripts warrant that all materials submitted to COMPUTE1*
GAZETTE arc original materials with full ownership rights resident in said
11)137 Editorial Board authors. By submitting articles to COMPUTE!-* CAZETTi;. authors acknowledge
Richard Mansfield lhat such materials, upon acceptance /ot publication, become Ihe exclusive
Kathleen Martinek property of COMPUTEI Publications, Inc. No ponion of this magazine may
be reproduced in any form without written permission from Ihe publisher.
Selby Bateman Eniire contents copyright © 1987 COMPUTEI Publications, Inc. Rights to
Lance Elko programs developed and submitted by authors are explained in our author
Tom R. Halfhill contract. Unsolicited materials not accepted for publication will be returned
Stephen Levy if author provides a self-addressed, stamped envelope. Where programs are
included in an article submission, a tape or disk must accompany the sub
Robert Lock, Founder and Editorial Consultant mission. Printed listings are optional, but helpful. Articles should be fur
nished as typed copy (upper and lowercase, please) with double spacing.
Advertising Sales Each article paeesnould bear the title of ihe article, date, and name of the
Richard J, Marino, Vice President, Advertising Sales; Peter author. COMPUTEI Publications, Inc., assumes no liability for errors in arti
Jchnsmeyer, Director of Advertising Sales; Bernard J. Theobald, Jr., cles or advertisements. Opinions expressed bv authors are not necessarily
those of COMPUTEI Publications, Inc. COMPUTE) Publications assumes no
Associate Advertising Director; Kathleen Hanlon, Production
responsibility for damages, delays, or failure of shipment in connection with
Coordinator authors' offer to make tape or disk copies of programs published herein.
Sales Representatives PET, CBM, V1C-20, Commodore 64, Plus/4, 16, and 128 are trademarks of
Jerry Thompson 415-348-8222 Commodore Business Machines, Inc., and/or Commodore Electronics
Limited. Other than as an independent supplier of qualitv information and
Lucille Dennis 415-348-8222
services to owners and users of Commodore products, COMPUTEI Publica
Tom Link 212-315-1665 tions, Inc., is in no way associated with Commodore Business Machines,
Harry Blair 919-275-9B09 Inc., or any of its subsidiaries.
On the Road to Moscow...
As the German Wehrmacht approached
the open steppes around Smolensk, the
invasion of the Soviet Union was on
schedule. At this rate, the army would
capture Moscow and throw the Russians
out of the European continent by the time
the snows fell.
At the head of the Panzergruppe invading
central Russia was General Heinz Guderian,
the man who turned the potential of armor
into the reality of Blitzkrieg warfare.
Opposing him were masses of Soviet
infantry and armor determined to defend
their homeland, but untried in battle. With
Guderian's armor and motorized infantry
divisions approaching the ancient city, the
stage was set for another encounter with
the Nazi juggernaut.
Guderian simulates this critical campaign
of World War II, using the acclaimed
joystick-driven system from Gulf Strike. On
the full-color scrolling map of central
Russia, the German player must master
Blitzkrieg tactics to encircle and overrun
Soviet divisions and drive deep enough into
Russia to make the capture of Moscow
possible. At your command are infantry
divisions, panzer regiments, motorized German Panzers
infantry, panzergrenadiers, even the 1st overrun Russian
German Cavalry Division. defenses west of
The Soviet player must work to counte Smolensk.
the German threat, and make attacks
capable of cutting off supply to the forward
units. While your army is massive, it is also
complexity: Intermediate
untrained. Soviet units begin play with a
solitaire suitability: Very high
hidden strength revealed only at the
time scale: 2 days per turn
moment of combat. Uncertainty is always
present. The game becomes a tense
MAP SCALE: 10.5km J§|
unit SCALE: Regiments and divis
contest as German units blunder into
PLAYERS: One or two
■ Soviet strongpoints, while Russian attacks
can suddenly turn into a rout.
PLAYING TIME: 1 Vz to 3 hrS.

Guderian has a solitaire option allowing Guderian is ready to run on your


you to take command of either the German Atari® 8-bit, Apple II family or
or Soviet armies, as well as overrun attacks, Commodore® 64/128 home compu
supply rules, Soviet leaders, rail movement
and optional reinforcements. The rulebook
introduces new players to historical Available at better computer, softwar
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movement. Planning map included.
microcomputer gomes division
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Editors and Readers

Do you have a question or a problem? and carefully changing the frequency and What interested me was the PRINT
Have you discovered something that volume of the three voices of the SID chip, USING command. As you know, this
could help other Commodore users? the program creates a sound effect that command is not available on the 64.
We want to hear from you. Write to sounds like a voice. For more about speech Data formatting is such a chore,
Gazette feedback, COMPUTERS Gazette, synthesis and digitization, see the feature What do you think of this pro
P.O. Box 5406, Greensboro, NC 27403. articles elseiehere in this issue. gram? Is similar software available
We regret that due to the volume of through other manufacturers? Could
mail received, we cannot respond indi "MetaBASIC" be modified to add such
vidually to programming questions. Talking And Listening a command?
Gregory Skoutas
I don't seem to understand what down
Where, Why, And How?
load means, When you download a pro [/ you're a machine language program
I have a Commodore 128 and a 1571 gram, is it from your disk drive or from mer, there are many ways to modify
disk drive. I'm fascinated by graphics the other person's drive? 1 don't under 3ASIC to support a variety of new com
and sound. First of all, where did sprites stand uploading either. mands. BASIC programmers may find a
get their name? Why can only eight Also, can two computers upload or number of commercial programs that add
sprites appear on the screen at one download to each other with a modem new commands such as PRINT USING.
lime? Finally, how can voice synthesis and a terminal program? Some add-on programs are car
bi? produced without extra hardware? I Frederick ). Carleton tridges, while others are programs you
just got Epyx's Impossible Mission, load and run from disk. Most specialize in
which has voice synthesis, and 1 can't If you're sending the program, you're up
one area of programming, There are en
figure out where it's coming from. loading. If you're receiving it, you're
hancement packages that provide lots of
Sean Raburn downloading. The difference between up
commands for hi-res graphics, for ex
loading and downloading is like the dif
If you look in the 64 Programmer's ample. Others add routines to speed up
ference between talking and listening.
Reference Guide, you'll find thai the sec disk operations and give you new com
Whenever data is transferred between two
tion thai gives the technical specs for the mands for reading directories and doing
computers, one computer is uploading
VIC-ll chip calls sprites Movable Object other things with a disk. Still others give
and the other is downloading. A way to
Blocks (or MOBs for short). This term nev you new commands far program flow and
remember is to pretend the other com
er really caught on. Commodore's own 64 program control.
puter floats above your TV or monitor. To
documentation (user's manual and refer An unfortunate side effect of all this
send to the other machine, the program
ence guide) uses the term sprites. Two is that if you have a program that changes
has to flow up (upload). To receive a pro
computers that were available before the BASIC, the program you write won't run
gram, it flows down (download).
64 had sprites. On the Texas Instruments unless the enhancement is in memory.
If you have a modem and a terminal
Tl-99/4, sprites are called sprites. On the The PRINT USING command won't work
program, you can upload to and download
Atari 400/800, they're called player/ in standard 64 BASIC, and if you write a
from a bulletin board service (BBS), tele
missile graphics. program with PRINT USING, it won't
communications service, or a friend who
The VIC-ll chip which handles work on a friend's computer if your friend
also has a modem. To transfer files with a
graphics on the 64 is the reason for the doesn't also own the enhancement program.
friend, you should set one modem to origi
eight-sprite limit There could have been The idea behind "MetaBASIC" is
nate and the other to answer. There may
more if the chip had been designed to sup that it adds commands for debugging and
be an O/A switch on your modem or you
port more, but the designers chose to pro testing, but it doesn't add commands that
may have to send a command from the ter-
vide eight. There's a machine language work while the program is running. While
mlnal program. There are a number of
technique which does permit more than MetaBASIC is in memory, you can read a
transfer protocols—Kmodem or Punter,
eight sprites on the screen at the same directory or renumber a program, but
for example—that strive to eliminate er
time as long as no more than eight appear when you've finished the program, it will
rors in data transfers. However, you can
on the same raster line. (A raster line is work on a 64 or 128 that doesn't have Me
use these protocols only when the com
one of the thin horizontal tines that make taBASIC in memory. Adding a PRINT
puters on both ends of the connection
up a video display. A Commodore video USING command would be possible, but
have terminal software that supports the
display consists of 262 raster lines.) Using it would go against the concept of
same protocol. One of you—whoever is
a raster interrupt, you can draw eight MetaBASIC.
sending—then uploads while the other
sprites at the top of the screen, then person downloads. For more about this
change their locations to the bottom of the topic, see "The Fundamentals of Down
screen before the raster arrives there, ef loading" in our February issue. Wanted: Pascal For The 64
fectively producing 16 sprites. In school I'm studying Turbo Pascal on
The voice in Impossible Mission and the TRS-80. 1 was wondering if there
other such games was digitized, not syn New Commands, A Better BASIC was a Turbo Pascal operating system for
thesized. It was recorded and then turned A recent issue contained an advertise the 64? If there isn't, who sells a Pascal
into a series of numbers that represent the ment for a cartridge which supposedly operating system similar to Turbo?
sound, By reading through the numbers adds 42 extra commands to 64 BASIC. Chuck Wheeler
10 COMPUTEI's Gazotlo May 1987
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Turbo Pascal is an inexpensive and pop ers the two lines as only one line. Any sprite. Line 10 POKEs it into memory.
ular version of the Pascal language (it's PRINT with 40 or more characters will Line 20 sets the colors for multicolor
not, strictly speaking, an operating sys change the "map" of the screen that holds sprites. Line 30 turns on the sprite. Line
tem) made by a company called Borland the logical-line information. An empty 40 puts the sprite at sprite position
International for computers that use the PRINT statement always moves the cur 100,100 on the screen. Line 50 starts the
MS-DOS and CP/M operating systems. sor down by one logical line, whether that sprite moving.
Turbo Pascal is not available for the 64. logical line is equivalent to one physical
However, readers have repotted that the line or two.
128 in CP/M mode can run the CP/M Why does it happen? Consider what More About The 1520
version of Turbo Pascal. takes place when you type in a program Several months ago, reader Anthony
There's no shortage of Pascal pack line. A program line can occupy two Wajda requested information about chang
ages for the 64. We know of at least six: screen lines on the 64. If the computer ing the device number of the 1520 printer/
Super Pascal (Abacus Software), Zoom only could pay attention to one physical plotter. At that time, we did not have the
Pascal (King Microware), Kyan Pascal screen line at a time, fullscreen editing instructions for making the change. Now,
(Kyan Software), Oxford Pascal (Systems would be impossible—you could change thanks to several of our readers, we can an
Software /Oxford), WATCOM Pascal the part of the program line without the swer Mr. Wajda's question.
(WATCOM Publications), and KMMM line number and press RETURN, but the When it's shipped from the factory,
Pascal (Wilserv Industries). computer wouldn't be able to recognize the 1520 has a device number of 6. Com
For more about Commodore pro that line as a line of BASIC. modore chose device 6 so it could be used
gramming languages, see next month's Since the PRINT and INPUT rou with another printer which already had
GAZETTE. tines use the screen-editor routines, the the standard printer device number, 4.
difference between logical and physical Unfortunately, most programs expect the
Cursoring Around The Screen lines applies when running BASIC pro printer to be device number 4. To change
grams as well as when entering them. the device number of the 1520, you must
1 used to use this routine to move the
cursor to the proper line before open the case (which will void your war
printing: ranty, if it hasn't already expired). Be es
A Sprilely 128
pecially careful. Changing the device
10 PRINT CHR$<19);:FOR P-l TO I know how to calculate sprite DATA number involves soldering a trace on the
N:PRINT:NEXT
statements, but I don't know how to circuit board. One slip with a soldering
The problem with this method is display them with the 128rs sprite com iron could ruin your 1520. If you are inex
that 1 had to use trial and error to cor mands. Could you please explain how perienced in electronics, have a profes
rectly position the cursor—there was to do this? sional do the work for you.
no clear relationship between N and Roger Thinggaard First, unplug the printer from the
the line I wanted to print on. wall socket. Then remove the four screws
The 128 has an area of memory reserved
I've switched to using on the bottom of the printer case and re
for sprite definitions at 3584-4096
10 PRINT CHR$(19);:FOR P = l TO move the top of the case. Next, remove the
($0E00-$0FFF). The 128's built-in sprite
N:PRINT CHR$(17);:NEXT four screws holding the circuit board in
editor (which can be called by typing
SPRDEF from immediate mode) stores place and the two screws holding the heat
The cursor-down character works
sink. Separate the circuit board from the
perfectly. Why the difference? sprites in this location, and BASIC 7.0's
case and turn it over so that the green side
Robert M. Harvey sprite commands assume that the sprites
are defined in this area. There is enough is facing upward. Look for the largest IC
Type in this program and RUN it. room in this space for eight sprite defini chip on the board. It should be mounted
tions. If you use SPRDEF to create your on the lower left section of the board. Look
MG 10 PRINT'MCLRl";
at the bottom row of pins just to the right
BH 20 PRINT"01234567S901234567 sprites, you can begin using BASIC 7.0's
990123456789012345678'■; of center on the IC. You should see three
special sprite commands without any
GC 30 PRINT"lHOME]15 DOWKlCURS problems. Unfortunately, your sprites will "mushrooms" attached to three of the pins
OR CONTROLS" (pins 27, 28, and 29). You should also see
be lost when you turn off the computer's
RR 40 PRINT"iHOME]";:FOR P=l T two traces connecting the left and right
O 5:PRINT:NEXT P power. To save your sprites, use this line:
mushrooms to a thick common trace. The
BP 50 PRINT"PKINT STATEMENTS"
BSAVE "SPRITE",B0,F35B4,F4096 1520 is device number 6 because the trace
This program uses both strategies for Your program can load in the sprite between the middle mushroom and the
positioning the cursor. First it uses PRINT definitions with a program line that looks common trace has been cut. If only the left
statements to move down the screen, then like this: trace were cut, the 1520 would be device 5
cursor control characters. If you look care and if only the right trace were cut, it
10 BLOAD"SPRITE"
fully when the program runs, you'll see would be device 7.
that both procedures work equally well in If you prefer to use a different sprite To change the 1520 to device 4, you
this case—both messages are printed on editor, or if you translate your sprites to must connect the middle mushroom to the
the same screen line. DATA statements by hand, you can POKE common trace. The first step is to scrape
To see why the first method is some your sprites into memory beginning at lo the green coating from the mushroom
times unpredictable, add another charac cation 3584. Here's an example program: head and from the green area of.the com
ter to the long text string in line 10 of the mon bar (solder WOlt'l adhere to the coat
XR 10 FOR T=3584 TO 3584+20:RE
program. RUN the program again. The ing). Finally, place a drop of solder on the
AD A:POKE T,A:NEXT T
routine that uses PRINTS puts a message RP 20 SPRCOLOR 2,9 two scraped areas and bridge the gap be
down one line lower than Iht routine that CC 30 SPRITE 1,1,1,0,0,0,1 tween the two. Caution! Do not leave sol
uses cursor controls. This is because the CR 40 MOVSPR 1,100,100 der traces anywhere else on the circuit
PRINT uses all 40 columns of the screen. XX 50 MOVSPR 1,45#1
board; this could damage your printer.
AQ 1000 DATA 85,85,85,106,128,
When 40 or more characters are Put the printer back together and test
1,110,128,1,127,126,1,
printed, two physical screen lines are your changes. You should now have a
110,128,1,106,128,1,65
joined to create one logical screen line. ,0,65 printer/plotter that responds to com
You can't tell the difference by looking at mands sent to device 4.
the screen, but the computer now consiit- Line 1000 holds the data for one

12 COMPUTE! s Gazette May 19B7


YOU TOLD US WHAT THE
BEST COMPUTER BASEBALL GAME
WOULD HAVE...
"Greal graphics" "I want to play in the scries!"

"Relief pitchers
—and subs"

"I ".mi to he able Id throw


a lcil of different pilches."
"I like to slide
—even headfirst/'

"Let me see what's happening


on the whole field." "I'm me i i'.'Jii at (he plate
when I'm batting,"

HERE IT IS.
CHAMPIONSHIP BASEBALL
With 4 Divisions, 24 Teams, and the Championship Series

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• You control all the action on the
computer baseball games, and you field—pitching (8 different pitches),
want it all— graphics and features. BASEBALL hitting, catching, outfield relays, base
We've heard you, and Gamestar's running, even sliding under lugs.
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other product gives you the complete throughout the game.
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• Setting your starting lineup. complete baseball program available.
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• Each division is tougher than the last, Championship Baseball^ your ticket.
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I11M is a frademoik uflnienational Musine^
Aciiviiion nthc levered trndi: mark ufAcii vision Im.1 'j |">87, AtlLvLsion Inc
INPUT Doesn't Like Commas maturely terminate the string is a CTRL- you'll need to move the start of BASIC up
Why is it that whenever you type a : or; @, because it's interpreted as a out of the way. POKE 43,1: POKE44.16:
in an INPUT statement, the computer CHRSfO)—one of the other terminating POKE 4096,0:NEW will relocate the
characters. BASIC text area to 4097.
responds with ?EXTRA IGNORED, and
Starting the string with a quotation
then, when you print Ihe data in the
mark is easy enough to remember if you're
siring variable, it cuts off everything
the only person using the program. But if The Absent-Minded Professor
past the colon or semicolon? Is there
others might run your program, you can I'm having a problem accessing the
any way to prevent this?
force the quotation mark to print—on the RAM under Kcmal ROM from within a
Mark Jacobson
64—by putting POKE 631,34: POKE machine language program on my 64.
INPUT with semicolons works properly. 198,1 just before the INPUT statement. I've narrowed the problem down to the
You may have been thinking of the prob modification of memory location 1 from
lem with commas. If you enter the one- 55 ($37) to 53 (S35). Included is an ex
line program 10 INPUT AS: PRINT AS Locating Custom Characters ample. Do you have any idea what is
and run it, you'll see the following results. 1 want to use custom characters for the causing the lockup?
What you type is in the left column. The 64 at locations 2048-6143 and 1 need to Kenneth Taran
right column shows what prints out. know what each address is used for. My
Imagine an absent-minded professor who
ABC.DEF ABC memory map just says 2048-40959 are
conducts brilliant research in his labora
ABQDEF ABQDEF used for BASIC programs and vari
tory. He gets so wrapped up in the work,
ABQDEF ABC ables. I know that locations 2048-2056
he forgets to eat meals. Three times a day,
are the @ character, 2057-2065 are the
The 7EXTRA IGNORED error mes an alarm goes off in the kitchen down
letter A, 2066-2074 are B, and so on. 1
sage appears ivhen you use a comma, but stairs and an assistant prepares some food
see the pattern, but could you list the
not when you use a semicolon or colon. to bring up to the professor.
rest of the addresses for me?
This error is one of the rare ones that Within the 64, the chip that does
Tim Bankes
doesn't stop the program. After the mes most of the work is called the 6510—and
sage prints, the program continues to the In the back of the manual that came with it's an absent-minded professor. Sixty
next command. your 64 is an appendix that lists screen times a second (50 on European 64s), a
There's a good reason why commas codes. When you copy characters from second chip, the Complex Interface
cut off input. Within INPUT statements ROM to RAM. the characters appear in Adapter, has to nudge the 6510 and tell it
and DATA statements, commas are used exactly the same order. Since each charac to do some things like checking to see if a
to separate individual items. Change Ihe ter uses eight bytes, multiply the number key has been pressed and blinking the cur
example program to 10 INPUT AS.BS; of the screen code by eight and add it to sor. The CIA #1 alarm clock generates an
PRINT AS: PRINT B$ and then enter the address where you've put the custom interrupt request (IRQ) and the IRQ sends
ABC,DEF. As you can see, a single typed characters. The letter T is screen code 20, the 6510 to an IRQ-handler routine where
line can assign strings to two different so the data for its shape starts at an offset the keyboard is scanned and other chores
variables. Run the program a second time of 20 times 8, or 160, from the beginning of are taken care of.
and type just ABC al the ? prompt. The the character set. Add 2048 and 160—the When you POKE (or STA) a 53 to
program wants two variables, so it gives result (2208) is where the letter T begins. memory location I, the ROM at SE0OO-
you a second prompt (two question marks). The heart shape is screen code 83, so it SFFFF is turned off and the RAM under
What seems like a problem with com would start 664 bytes past 2048. neath is enabled. There's nothing wrong
mas is really a feature of the INPUT state Each character set contains 256 char with switching ROM to RAM, except that
ment, one that's valuable when you need acters. The first 128 are listed in the ap the vector to the IRQ-handler routine
to input several variables at once. The pendix of screen codes. The final 128 are (plus the handler itself) is located there.
comma doesn't act as a comma character, the reversed versions of the first 128 char Within 1/60 second, an interrupt occurs
it's a separator. acters. Because there are 256 characters and the 6510 tries to jump to the subrou
Colons also separate members of a and each shape uses eight bytes, a com tine that does the housekeeping chores.
list. The one-line programs above used co plete character set lakes up 2048 bytes. But the subroutine is gone, because ROM
lons to put more than one command in a A note about your math: Although a has been replaced with RAM, which con
program line. There's a machine language character takes eight bytes of memory, tains a scries of random bytes. In an at
routine called CHRGET built into the 64. that doesn't mean that the first one runs tempt to execute these instructions which
It's an all-purpose subroutine which gets from 2048-2056. It might look like eight aren't instructions, the computer locks up.
characters from direct-mode commands, numbers, but it's really nine. The first The solution is to disable IRQs with
from program lines, while a program is character uses the eight bytes from the machine language SE1 (SEt Interrupt
running, and during INPUT. The 2048-2055, the second runs from 2056- disable) instruction. You can reenable in
CHRGET routine flags colons, which 2063, and so forth. terrupts with Cil (dear Interrupt dis
mark the end of one part and the begin There are two important facts about able). Place the SEI just before you store a
ning of the next. Since colons indicate the memory management that you should 0 to bit 1 of location 1, When you're done
end of a section of a line, they also termi keep in mind if you plan to put the charac accessing memory under ROM, Store a I
nate an input from the user. ter set at 2048-4095. The first is that the to bit I and then CLl. Note that SEI (Set)
You may find situations where you V1C-II chip, which handles graphics on turns off the interrupt alarm clock and
want to include a comma aracolon within the 64, won't allow you to put characters CLI (Clear) turns it on again. _
a string. One solution is to use GET in between 4096-8191 or 36864-40959, be
stead of INPUT. Another is to start your cause it sees the shadow of the ROM char
string with a quotation mark, typing acter set there. You can't store video
"ABCDEF instead of ABC.DER By put information such as sprites or hi-res
ting the string inside quotation marks, screens in these areas, either. If you keep
you'll be able to include these two prob the custom characters at 2048, you're safe.
lem characters. The quotation marks The second thing to watch for is that
won't appear when the program prints the BASIC programs normally start at loca
string. The only character that will prc- tion 2049. To put characters at 2048,

14 COMPUTED Gazette May 1987


■-««■ i 'nm i 'Etorj'i: i

.\mi154 scrti'n

SO REAL IT HURTS
GFL Championship Football™
The way computer football should be.

Other football games put you in the grandstands, level on the playing field.
looking down on the action. Now see what it's like • ScroUingscreen animation moves you up and
from the player's perspective—looking out of your down the playing field.
helmet at an angry linebacker headed straight for • Realistic sound effects let you hear everything
you. and no blockers in sight. from the quarterback calling the signals to the
With GFL Championship Football,™ you've got sound of your own footsteps.
the first football simulation that actually takes you • Team selection screens allow you to set the play
down on the field, taking the hits and making the ing style of your team and that of your opponent.
plays. And it's more than just a pretty picture—
Whether you're taking on bone-crunching action
you really get the feel of playing football. against a friend, or going up against any of the 27
No other football simulation gives you so many computer-controlled teams in the GFL. this is the
features: one that puts you where the action is!
• In-the-helmei perspective puts you at ground

Available now for the Commodore 64/128.


Coming Soon for the IBM PC/PCjr and Tandy 1000, Apple II, Amiga, Atari ST and 100% compatible computers.

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rfjj<nijri LiI"|arhJ> OtpiTaEiun. At n flrnl ST jtc indcnuil'. ol Alan Lorpurjiiun Apple i^a tfjJcniJii «f Apple C»rnpuEcr. ActfrlilM iv »>c rcfivicral iniJcmaii. <»[ AnMskn Irn 1 I
>

New
Commodore
Storage
Devices
Selby Bateman, Features Editor

New data-storage devices for the Commodore 64 and


128 offer a variety of options beyond the 1541 and
1571 disk drives. Here's an overview of what's avail
able, along with some considerations about how and
why you may want to use them.

The Commodore 64 and 128 have already proven to be


among the most popular and successful personal
computers ever marketed.
The 64, five years old and going strong, has an in
stalled base of several million. And the new 64C, with its
GEOS operating system and applications, promises to con
tinue that success. Sales of the 128, a machine first
announced as recently as January 1985 and only widely
available a few months later, already number more than a
million.
One of the reasons for their continuing popularity is the
relatively inexpensive and dependable disk drives that have
helped to make the two computers more attractive.
Consider the 64's 1541. Despite criticisms about its lack
of speed (512 bytes per second) and its limited memory ca
pacity (160K), the 1541 was a remarkable bargain when in
troduced with the 64 in January 1982. Even at the original
retail price of $600, the 1541 offered 64 users a significant
storage device that far surpassed the popular Datassette tape
recorders used by many 64 and VIC-20 computer owners. Of
course, the price quickly dropped to half that, and today
1541 drives can be bought in some places for as little as $ 150.
The 128's 1571 drive is also a perfect fit, but for another
reason: It's versatile enough to work in three different modes
without the user having to make any physical modifications
to the drive. To really get the most out of a 128 computer,
you have to use the 1571.
The 1571 does its job at one of three different speeds:
1571 mode for the 128, 1541 mode for the 64 or 128, or
CP/M mode. With the 128's ability to work in serial fast
16 COMPUTE'S Gazette May 19B7
subsoil
Subscribe to COMPUTED Gazette today
through this special introductory money-savin^
offer, and you'll be getting a lot more than just
another computer magazine. That's because
each issue of COMPUTEI's Gazette comes
complete with up to 20 all-new, action-packed
programs.
Subscribe now and you can depend on a
steady supply of high quality, fun-filled
programs for your Commodore computer-
programs like Disk Editor, Mini-Filer, Arcade
Baseball, Budget Planner, Sound Designer,
SpeedScript. and hundreds of other educa
tional, home finance and game programs the
entire family can use all year long.
The superb programs you'll find in each
issue are worth much, much more than the
low subscription price.
And there's more to COMPUTEI's Gazette
than just exciting new programs. Month after
month, the superb articles in COMPUTERS Ga
zette deliver the latest inside word on every
thing from languages to interfaces...from
irogramming to disk drives.
Whether you're a novice or an expen
enced user, COMPUTEI's Gazette is the
magazine for you. So subscribe today. Return
the enclosed card or call 1-800-247-5470 (in
Iowa, 1-800-532-1272).
Do it now.

AHD
! Publications, Inc.
One ol the ABC Publishing Companies
IF YOU STILL
PLAY
FONTPACK1 $292'
A collection of 2i) more fonts for use with
GEOS applications! in various shapes and
sizes for more expressive and creative
documents.

Boalt

Durant mykonos
Harmon S|1|).|..

LeConte XLLd-en
Putnam. Bowditch

GEOS DESKPACK1 $342'


[■'our GEOS-compatible applications:
The Graphic Environment'
Graphics Grabber for importing ;irt from
System that opens up a whole universe of
Print Shop™ Newsroom1" and Print
new possibilities for Commodores. With
Master'" graphics; Calendar; Icon Editor
geoWrite, geoPaint, fast-loading and Blackjack Dealer.
disk'lurbo and support for all GEOS-
compatible applications.
■J-M-U? r4|
.. .■;! !;,-.■*

■-■[
1-
|CllLo 7,. nTlTr : )! I'J.I [^ ■.- ■8/86

inn 1 li.yiiite (

nidi' ,: : .-,.: lH | Cml. I ;

Uolvll ntntotn ■ h jf,j Helen -■ !■


......

InalcaaJb
OISUI HI
!■■
■ -"■*
T*Hrnv __i::
■ v id dm, |IU C»S] (!) I1-
rl.Tfli .

r>

GEOCALC $49?'
The GEOS-compatible, number
crunching spreadsheet for tracking and
analyzing numerical data Creak- your
own formulas, perform calculations for GEOFILE
anything from simple geometry to "what The GEOS-compatible database manager
if" cost projections. thai sorts, edits and prioritizes whatever
data you feed it. You fill out the "input
form!' specify your command, and geoFlle
takes it iiom there.
ARE TOYS,
WITH THESE.
SfHUn 1 p^W | Ih.<

■ ^ - tI-
i GEODEX $39;' GEOPRINT CABLE
,■ •HIM fluirir H'i - i The GEOS-compatibte directory that The abt-foot cable that speeds up
dkwB you in create lists by name.address, printing because ii's parallel^not aerial.
phone number, eic. Includes geoMerge to Connects easily to Commodores with
Hi Hhi^'i
customize form letters and invitations.

ICTillh Cfl(T£!Wi fewer wires and no interface box.


mtfirlvh.
<ut( (III

if.iT | rn

TO

WRITER'S
WORKSHOP $49?* 1bordercatll-800~443-Q100ext.234
Al! [he GEOS-compatible tools a writer J (California residents ndd 1'A salts tax.)
needs, including geoWrite l^.ll with $H.5O US'tfi.fjO i'oruifiii fur shipping and
headers, fimiers and features in justify, . Allow six weeks for delivery.
center, search and replace text, include:;
a Tfext Grabber (fur converting tfxt from
piujiraiiis like I'aper Clip''). HeuMerge
and LaserWriter printing capability.

Sooner or later, you're going to discover that there's more to


Commodores than fun and games.
You're going to discover power.
Not the kind of power that biasts aliens out of the galaxy. But
the kind that whips through boatloads of data in seconds. The
kind that crunches numbers and drafts documents like child's play.
The kind you find in GEOS.
Every GEOS application can take your Commodore from
"mastering the universe" to a university master's degree, with
all kinds of advanced capabilities that function at hyper-speeds
you never imagined possible.
So if you're^tired of toying with technology, try playing around
with GEOS. Once you feel its power, you'll know that for anyone
who still thinks Commodores are toys, the game's over.

n Softworks
Berkeley

The brightest minds are working at Berkeley.


mode as well as the slower 64 the most exciting possibilities. Thir screen graphics that could be used
mode, its owners get three different ty-two 8K hi-res screens can be in games, or the speed-up and pow
computers working with data stor stored in the 1764 cartridge. Dis er of some applications when used
age in three different manners. playing these pictures sequentially with a RAM disk. However, all of
Despite the successes of the allows 32 frames of high-quality that depends on the percentage of
1541 and the 1571, Commodore re animation. 64 owners who buy the RAM
cently introduced two new data Any data that uses a lot of expander.
storage and manipulation devices memory—-sound data, text, sprite Last year, Commodore intro
for the 64 and the 128. And a hand and character definitions—can be duced two RAM expander car
ful of third-party manufacturers stored in the expansion and moved tridges for the 128: the 1700, with
continue to sell their disk drives into the main RAM when needed. 128K; and the 1750, with 512K.
and quick-load programs. For top performance, ML program They're proving to be very popular,
mers may choose to bypass the and the new expansion module for
Expanding Memory RAM disk software and use the the 64 is also likely to attract a very
One of Commodore's two new de memory directly. BASIC program positive reaction among users. (For
vices is the 1764 RAM expander mers are likely to stick with the pro more on the 128 RAM expanders,
cartridge, which was announced at vided interface. see "RAM Expansion for the 128"
the Winter Consumer Electronics in the March issue.)
Show in January (see last month's Easier, Faster GEOS
issue). This long-awaited expansion As mentioned above, the new RAM Is The Future 3VM
module adds 256K of memory to expander also brings a much faster, Commodore also recently an
the 64, plugging into the expansion more efficient, and easier usage to nounced a 3'/2-inch disk drive for
port on the rear of the computer. Berkeley Softworks' GEOS operat the 64 and 128. The 1581 drive,
Priced at about $129, the RAM ex ing system and applications. Com priced at under $400, offers Com
pander offers 64 users four times modore has named GEOS the modore users not only more data
the available memory. The original official operating system for the 64. storage capacity, but significantly
designers of the 64 could scarcely If you're a beginning 64 or 128 user faster disk access for 64 users.
have envisioned such an add-on who's not yet familiar with GEOS, For example, the 1541 disk drive
back in 1981 when they were build you're likely to become aware of it is a single-sided, single-density
ing the computer. very soon. device that can store up to 160K of
For 64 owners, the RAM ex GEOS brings to the 64 the information on one disk. The 1571
pander offers several potential op icons, windows, and drop-down drive can be used in a double-sided
tions, each of which holds its own menus that are a part of such graph mode that contains up to 320K of
attraction, depending on the buy ics-oriented user interfaces as those information on a disk.
er's preferences. on the Macintosh, the Atari ST, and But the new 3Vi-inch drives are
For example, programmers in the Amiga. Beyond that, Berkeley is double-density, double-sided me
BASIC or machine language now making available a host of applica dia with a total capacity of 808K—
have a vastly expanded playground tions and utilities that transform the five times the storage of a 1541 disk
for their programs. Learning to use 64 into a very different machine. and 2lk times the storage of a 1571
the extra RAM efficiently and cre The only drawback to the double-sided disk. Obviously, a
atively will be challenging and—in GEOS system so far has been that Commodore 64 with a RAM expan
the long run—can result in even the 64's limited memory capacity sion module and a 1581 3Vi-inch
more sophisticated programs. required GEOS users to go through disk drive becomes a much more
Commodore provides two more disk access and manipulation powerful and versatile computer.
disks with their system. The first than many people found comfort But will software manufactur
sets up the extra memory as a RAM able. But with 256K of additional ers produce their programs for the
disk, an area of memory that serves memory, GEOS users can now cre 64 on a 3V2-inch-disk format? In or
as another disk drive as long as the ate a RAM disk—an area of memo der for that to happen, the software
computer is turned on. The second ry within the computer that acts developers must first see an in
disk provides RAM disk capability like an extremely fast disk drive. So, stalled base of 3'/2-inch disk drives
for the GEOS environment, as noted instead of having to load, save, and that's large enough to allow them
below. Treating the RAM as a disk reload data from the 1541 drive, to make a profit. Building a base of
allows easy and quick access of data GEOS users can have near-instanta 64 owners who use the new disk
for both BASIC and machine lan neous access through a RAM disk. drive will take time, of course, so
guage programmers. For example, Then, before turning off the com it's not likely that much 64 or 128
adventure games that have to access puter, users can store the contents software will emerge on 3Vi-inch
the disk drive at every turn could be of the RAM disk in the 1541. disks during the next few months.
rewritten to get the data from the ex In the long run, if the 1764 In the long run, however, that
pansion memory instead. RAM expander proves to be very could change. The new 3Va-inch
But the added RAM can help popular among 64 users, it's possi disks have become increasingly
programmers do more than just ble that software companies will popular. They offer faster speeds, a
speed up current programs—whole begin marketing some software more durable shell, and greater
new techniques are possible. Full packages that fully use the addi memory capacity. These small, rigid
screen realtime animation is one of tional 256K. Imagine the kinds of disks are used with the Amiga, the

20 COMPUTEfs Gaiene May 1987


W1HE11ME
SHE GETS TO "PHOENIX?
HE'LL BE SLEEPING.
Having thousands of facts is one Once your data is in, the real fancy, you can display your infor
thins. Finding the ones you need is fun begins. mation graphically with geoChart.
another. Which is why you should You want names of bus drivers? And geoFile does it all in
consider buying geoFile. The From Arizona? Under five foot six? seconds.
easy- to - use database manager for Between the ages of 33 and 35? With Now, with all that in mind, what
GEOS-equipped Commodores. incomes of $22,396 or more? Who are you going to do—spend a few
Whether they're sneezed inJune? bucks on geoFile?
receivables or reci Just click your Or spend all night wishing that
pes, once you have mouse and watch you had?
geoFile, you can fly §eoFile go to work.
through facts in sec earching. Sorting. To order call 1-800-443-0100 exi. 234
onds, clicking and Comparing and listing
geoFile $49.95
picking the ones you the data alphabetically.
(California residents add 6.5% Bates too)
want, just the way Or numerically. Or in $2.50US/$5.5(> Foreign for shipping and
you want them. whatever priority your handling. Allow six weeks for delivery.
It's as simple as fill form specifies.
ing out a form. You can put the data
The geoFile "form" organizes all into form letters and lists with geo-
kinds of information. Like names, Merge. Or into math functions, with GEOFILE
numbers, rates of objects' accelera geoCalc. Or if you really want to get
tion when dropped from two-story
buildings—you name it. As much as
you can fit on a printed page.
n Berkeley
Softworks
The brightest minds are working at Berkeley.
ST, the Macintosh, and with a host 410, Tampa, FL 33612), is an oper the DOS commands and wedge
of portable computers. Apple Com ating system enhancement that commands for both machines.
puter now offers a Unidisk 3V2-inch speeds up all disk functions. The They're GEOS-compatible and also
drive for the Apple He, lie, and IlGS manufacturer claims that the prod contain a built-in floppy drive. The
computers. And IBM will reportedly uct will load 39 blocks per second, metal housing can hold up to three
be using the 3'/2-inch drives in its compared to the normal 2 blocks haif-height hard disks, and is
next generation of computers. per second on a normal 1541 drive. expandable.
The DigiDos system also includes a JCT (P.O. Box 286, Grants
Quick-Loading The 1541 realtime monitor, a DOS wedge, a Pass, OR 97526) also has three hard
Long before Commodore intro variety of new utilities, and single- disk drives available for the 64 or
duced the latest data storage de keystroke commands. 128: the JCT-1000, a 3.7-meg sys
vices, other companies began It should be noted that both tem for $595; the JCT-1005, a 5-
providing alternative disk drives, Professional DOS and DigiDos re meg drive for $695; and the JCT-
including hard disks, as well as de quire hardware modifications that 1010, a 10-meg system for $795.
vices or software that speed up the may be beyond the technical abili JCT is also planning to have a 20-
access time between the 64 and the ties of some readers. These changes meg system available by midyear.
1541. also would likely invalidate any The drives use standard Commo
Among the most popular and warranties that apply to your 1541 dore commands, and include addi
least expensive ways of speeding drive or your 64. tional subdirectory commands.
up the 1541 are the quick-load car* Data transfer is via the serial bus,
tridges or programs available from The Real Powerhouses and is reportedly 1.7 to 2 times fast
several companies. These generally For those who consider themselves er than on a 1541. However, paral
work by increasing the transfer rate power computer users, the data lel transfer is also available with the
of data between the 64 and the 1541. storage device of choice is usually a drives for an additional $50, report
Included in this list are the the hard disk drive. Capable of storing edly speeding up the transfer rate
1541 Flash! hardware-based system megabytes (one megabyte equals from 10 to 20 times faster than that
($99.95) from Skyles Electric Works 1024K, or approximately one mil of a 1541 drive.
(23IE South Whisman Rd., Moun lion bytes) of information, hard Xetec (2804 Arnold Rd., Salina,
tain View, CA 94041), the MACH-5 drives offer both power and flexi KS 67401) offers a 20-megabyte
disk and cartridge-based system bility. A ten-megabyte hard drive drive, the Lt. Kernal, that's avail
($34.95) from Access Software can hold the equivalent of 60 1541 able for the 64 for $899 and for the
(2561 South 1560 West, Woods floppy disks. 128 for approximately $950. This
Cross, UT 84087), and the Fast-Load A hard disk functions some drive was originally to be released
cartridge ($39.95) from Epyx (P.O. what like a floppy, but operates at well over a year ago by Cardco, but
Box 8020, 600 Galveston Dr., Red much higher speeds. The hard disk because of financial problems at
wood City, CA 94063). In addition, itself is usually seated permanently Cardco during that period the sys
the July 1985 issue of GAZETTE of within a case, spinning much faster tem is now being marketed by Xe
fered two quick-load programs for than a floppy. Rather than having a tec. The Lt. Kemal has 42 additional
the 64, TurboTape and TurboDisk. read/write head that actually or enhanced system commands,
There are two recently released touches the disk, as in the 1541 or and a reported disk-access speed
speed-up systems for the 64, both 1571 drives, a hard drive's record more than 100 times faster than
of which require hardware modifi ing head floats just above the sur that of the 1541. There are also
cations to the 1541 drive, the 64, or face of the disk. Hard drives are built-in backup and restore facili
both: Professional 1541 DOS and much more sensitive to movement ties. Xetec also plans to offer an op
DigiDos. and to dust, but improvements over tional' four-computer multiplexer
Professional DOS is a hard the past several years have left that will allow a maximum of 15
ware/software combination that them much less prone to "head computers to operate together at
causes the 1541 drive to read entire crashes" that can destroy data. one time.
tracks at once rather than just one There are several manufactur Just a year ago, the one or two
sector of a track. Distributed in ers offering hard drives for the hard drives available for the 64 had
West Germany by Mikrotronic Sys Commodore 64 and 128 comput prices in the $1,500 range. Now,
tem, the system should have a U.S. ers. And, in general, the prices of with prices half that in some cases,
distributor by the time you read these units have dropped consider 64 and 128 owners are likely to be
this. The manufacturer claims that, ably in just the past two years. gin buying these systems in greater
depending on the file, the system InConTrol (103 Baughman's numbers.
should load between 35 and 50 Lane, Suite 301, Frederick, MD It would have been difficult to
times faster than a normal 1541 21701) offers three versions of its imagine several years ago just how
drive. Saving is supposed to be 10 Data Chief hard drive: the HFD-5, a many data-storage options are now
to 20 times faster, and there are re 5-megabyte hard disk selling for available for the 64 and 128. But as
portedly speed improvements in $695; the HFD-10, a 10-meg system new and experienced Commodore
scratch, verify, and fast formatting. costing $895; and the HFD-20, a owners continue to find out, their
DigiDos ($59.95, plus $3.50 20-meg hard drive that's available computers are among the most ver
shipping and handling), from Digi- for $995. All three work with either satile and useful machines on the
Tek (10415 N. Florida Ave.. Suite the,64 or the 128, and support all of market. •

22 COMPUTE'S Gazelle May 19B7


WE'RE SELLING
THE ONE THING
WE COUNTON
EVERY Ml
Running a software company There are investment
is no picnic. We have to do major functions. Averages. Even a
calculations every day. Things random number generator.
like payables and receivables. And writing your own
Taxes. Budgets. And lord only formulas is as easy as, umm...
knows how many quarterly one, two, three.
cost projections. With mouse in hand, you
That's why we developed can zip all over the huge
geoCalc. The spreadsheet spreadsheet, solving "what
program for GEOS-equipped if' questions with a few quick
Commodores. clicks. Questions like, "If
You see, we not only sell Sheila takes the waitress job,
software for Commodores, how much can we expect our
we actually use them in taxes to increase?" Or "How
our own offices. So when much faster will the Chevy go if
Lee needs to project in we rip out the muffler and the
ventory costs, or Brian back seat?"
wants to figure employee No matter what the problem,
bonuses, the first
thing they do is load
Sctfftr <S
if it has to do with numbers,
geoCalc can solve it. Fast.
up geoCalc. So if you notice a need to
The very same spread decimate digits, consider
sheet you can use at home for crunching them with geoCalc. We
figuring finances, mastering math rely on it for our business. In fact,
mysteries or personal production we couldn't manage without it.
predictions.
With geoCalc, you get 112 To order call 1-800443-0100 ext. 234
columns and 256 rows to fill with geoCalc $49.95
all kinds of text and numbers. (California residents add 6.5% sales tax. I
And formulas that range from $2.50 US/$5.5O Foreign for shipping and
simple addition to arctangents hiindlinjj. Allow six weeks forddivwy

and cosines that could knock any


physicist cold.

GEOCALC
Berkeley
Softworks
The brightest minds are working at Berkeley.
TH
DIGITA
VOIC
Speech Recognition
And Sound Synthesis
Kathy Yakal, Assistant Features Editor

Talking to your Commodore 64 and getting it to talk back may be easi


er than you think. Over the past five years, a number of companies
have marketed speech synthesis and voice recognition systems for the
64. And several of them are still very much involved with these prod
ucts. Not only is this voice technology a fascinating step forward for
computer users, it also has practical applications for people with spe
cial needs.

The concept of computers that can talk, listen, and respond has fascinated
people for years. Hundreds of science fiction stories and books and dozens of
movies and television programs have used the concept in many different
ways: the monotones of Robbie the Robot in the classic Forbidden Planet, the
soothing voice of the deadly HAL computer in 2001, the Thal-does-twl-compute
responses of the eccentric robot in TV's "Lost in Space," the verbal barrages be
tween R2D2 and C3PO in Star Wars, and even the female computer voice on the
U.S.S. Enterprise in "Star Trek."

24 COMPUTE'S Gazette May 1987


But in practical applications, and matching up the digital pattern
speech synthesis and voice recogni to previously digitized commands.
tion have only recently begun to
come into their own. The earliest An Old Product With
personal computers that could pro
New Features
duce sound were incapable of deliv
A number of companies have come
ering any noises more sophisticated
and gone in the area of voice digi
than the blips, beeps, and whistles
tizing products for the 64. The
that made up many of the first com
Genesis Computer Corporation
puter games. These computer games
produced several products, includ
were graphics-intensive but sound-
ing the ComVoice Voice System,
poor because of their limited memo
now marketed through Votrax In
ry and weak sound chips.
ternational. Tronix used to market a
The auditory portion of most
product called SAM (Software Auto
home computer software then con The COVOX Voice Master (shown here in matic Mouth), a disk-based speech
sisted primarily of little snippets of its new case) is a speech digitizer with
synthesizer. Commodore itself re
sound effects added for emphasis or many educational, productivity, and
leased the Magic Voice speech
of background music repeated over entertainment applications.
module, a voice synthesizer that
and over again. But during the past
added limited speech to the games
two or three years, a variety of new
Gorf and Wizard of War.
software programs for the 64 have Covox, a company that has
emerged that include sections of marketed voice recognition and
speech quite remarkable in its clar speech digitizing systems for sever
ity and complexity. For example, al years, continues to offer products
many Commodore users may be fa- in this field. What has been the se
miliar with the bloodcurdling cret to their longevity? "We have a
scream or the taunting "Stay good product at a fair price," says
awhile, stay forever!" from the Epyx company vice president Brad Stew
game Impossible Mission and with art. "And we continue to support
the weird laughter in both the ar customers and come out with en
cade game Gorf and Activision's hancements. The hardware has ev
Glwstbusters program. Speech Construction Set, when used in erything people need, and the
Software designers and pe conjunction with the Covox Voice
software just keeps getting better."
ripheral manufacturers realized Master, is a powerful speech-editing
The Covox Voice Master is a
tool.
early on that the Commodore 64 speech-digitization and -recogni
boasts one of the most impressive tion module that plugs into a joy
sound chips designed for any home stick port on the Commodore 64
computer, the SID (Sound Interface and sells for under $90. The accom
Device) chip. Consequently, they panying software gives it several
use either in commercial programs
began developing tools to maxi capabilities. You can speak into the
or by individuals for their own use
mize the SID chip's contribution to microphone, and the program will
through one of two processes: digi
the usefulness and entertainment tizing or synthesizing. Though digi digitize and record your voice, sav
value of the 64. tizing offers more realistic- ing it for later use. Up to 64 words
The power of sound has added or phrases can be recorded at once.
sounding speech, it also takes up
tremendous emotional impact to more memory. Digitizing requires Once recorded, words can be
many computer games on the Com external hardware to actually en played back through software alone
modore 64. Further, it has made the code the sound digitally, but can be (without plugging in the module).
64 a more valuable educational tool The program's editor can alter the
played back in software without
and has helped meet the specialized amplitude (breadth or range) of a
any hardware components. Speech
needs of handicapped computer word or phrase, which means you
synthesis usually requires external
owners. Though there are only a hardware and can produce an infi can actually improve on its original
handful of companies actively in quality. The Voice Master system is
nite number of words. (See "Mak
volved in the manufacture of speech also capable of word recognition;
ing the 64 Talk," accompanying
synthesizers, digitizers, and voice you can program it to understand
this article.)
recognition devices, they continue what you say and respond in kind.
A third area of speech technol
to upgrade their products to make
ogy is voice recognition, which is an Voice Harp, included with the
them both easier to use and compat
other form of digitizing. The user package, is a music composition
ible with a wider range of software.
talks into a microphone, and the program. Hum or whistle into the
computer seems to understand the Voice Master's microphone, and
Three Different Categories command spoken to it, performing musical notes matching the ones
Let's use three different categories some kind of preprogrammed func you're singing scroll by. Once
to divide the way the human voice tion in response. It doesn't really un you've composed a tune, you can go
is used in microcomputer pro derstand the command. What it's back and edit its harmony, tempo,
grams. Speech can be created for doing is digitizing the words spoken and pitch, then print out the score.

26 COMPUTEIs GazoltB May 1987


dtiliriir5§t i4fif*ri
GREAT PRICES
"We buy In volume and pass the savings onto you!!!"

■L.
"Over 90% ot all Items ordered are in stock and shipped within 24 hours."

"Software orders over $50.00 will be shipped Foderal


Express. You only pay TCP's standard shipping charge
; of $4.00 per order. This olfor also valid on peripherals
and accessories under B pounds. Orders arriving before
11:00 am our time Mill bo shipped out same day."

"We stock hundreds and hundreds ot products (or commodore


computers! Every week we add even more. We're the first to get In all the
hot new software releases. Just anolher reason why we should be your
first call!!"

President "I'm proud we deliver all of these. Response from tens of thousands of
tussey computes products satisfied customers can only mean we're doing mail order right!"

EDUCATIONAL
& CORPORATE
ACCOUNTS:
We offer a full line of services
catering to you. Including; quick
turn-around, personal service, and
the flexibility to serve your organi
zations needs. Credit Approval in 24
hrs for any organization with a good
D&B rating.

To reach our Educational and


Corporate Sales Department ZORKII. ZORK HI. STARCROS5.

directly, Call 1-800-533-1131 or ' DEADLINE, and SUSPENDED


Inside PA Call 814-234-2236 With any purchase over $50.00

OTHER CUSTOMERS As a thank you to our many valued customers we are giving away one of
these Intocom Adventure Games {your choice), with every order over
PLEASE CALL THE ; $50. This offer is good on any of the items on the next 2 pages, when
NUMBER LISTED BELOW i ordered before June 30,1987. If you've never ordered from TCP before,
this is a great opportunity to get acquainted.

TUSSEY COMPUTER PRODUCTS St%e%Il%e. pa iem


CALL TOLL FREE 1 '800"468'9044 QaU 8^4-234-2236
DOES
■J^ ■ I'

OPEN: 9am-8pm Mon-Frl, 10am-5pm Sat EAST COAST TIME INFORMATION AND
NEW HRS STARTING MAR 01: 9am-9pm M-Thur, 9am-6pm Fri, 10am-6pm Sat, Noon-Bpm Sun PA ORDERS 814-234-2236

PATT ■TTJV Educational Software too!


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venture Zork, the Hearsay 1000
Altering Your Prosody
would read a line to you, and you
Votrax, another company produc
would speak the command back
ing voice technology products for
rather than typing it in. Since no
the 64, developed its early reputa
speaker is necessary on the Com
tion primarily through high-end
modore 64 unit, you can just sit in
speech synthesizers manufactured
your chair and issue commands.
for the professional market.
A couple of years ago, Votrax
Helping The Handicapped
introduced its first consumer prod
A third use for voice recognition and
uct, the Votalker cartridge for the
synthesis is providing alternatives
Commodore 64. Selling for $99.95,
for handicapped individuals, says
the Votalker speech synthesizer fits
Veltri. Keyboard entry—including
into the expansion port and uses 8K
The Hearsay 1000 combines speech syn cursor control—can be done verbal
of the computer's memory. Since
thesis and voice recognition in one unit. ly instead of manually, making com
it's a voice synthesizer, you must
The Commodore version comes with puter use feasible for visually and
type in the words you want it to
SwiftLoad (for fast loading), and retails
say, sometimes altering the spelling physically disabled persons.
(or $79.95.
to avoid a mispronunciation. You For people with hearing disor

can choose from among nine vol ders who want visual feedback

ume settings and four pitches; you about their voice pitch (where and
can also vary the speed. This ability when it goes up and down), Covox's
to vary so many parameters makes new Speech Construction Set may be
it possible to alter the voice prosody, of help. This program does for voice

the personality of one's speech. (For what drawing and painting pro

a review of the Votalker, see the June grams do for creating pictures.

1986 issue of GAZETTE.) Using the software's split screens

At about the same time that the and high-resolution graphics, you

Votalker was introduced, a British can manipulate and track speech


company, Welwyn Currah, released patterns in a variety of ways. The
a speech synthesizer for the Com suggested retail price is $39.95.
Aqua's Circus is one of the first titles For more information about
modore 64 called the Voice Mes
in Hearsay's line of educational software how microcomputer technology is
senger. Realizing that there was a
developed to support the Hearsay 1000.
great deal of interest in programs being used to help the handi
Each program in the series retails for
that already incorporated speech, capped, contact Closing the Gap,
$29.95.
Currah teamed with another com P.O. Box 68, Henderson, MN
pany, Research in Speech Technol 56044. This group offers a monthly
ogy, which developed software newsletter, and the publishers also
compatible with the voice system. sponsor an annual conference.
For the last year, those products
have been marketed under the Hey, You!
name Hearsay, Inc., and the prod three titles in this Software for Chil If you've walked through a com
uct line continues to expand. dren line are Aqua's Circus, Rhyme puter game arcade recently, you've
Now called the Hearsay 1000, ami Reason, and Think Bank ($29.95 probably heard all kinds of ma
the voice hardware is a combina each). Using colorful graphics and chines challenging you to step up
tion speech synthesis/voice recog familiar characters, these programs and play. Like pitchmen at a carni
nition peripheral. The module help children learn verbal skills, co- val, today's computer games often
plugs into the Commodore 64's ex ginitive development, vocabulary, try to lure you into playing by ver
pansion slot and comes packaged and mathematical skills. bally taunting and teasing you.
with software that allows user- Beyond that, says Veltri, these Graphics and action may keep you
programmed speech. Suggested re voice-driven programs give chil interested in a game, but sound—
tail price is $79.95. dren an early sense of accomplish especially the latest electronic ver
Steve Veltri, president of Hear ment, one that normally isn't bal gymnastics—rope you in.
say, feels that voice synthesis and achieved until a child can actually The current developments in
recognition is relatively new to the read and write. the field of voice technology are in
consumer marketplace in terms of The Hearsay 1000 also works dicative of what's happening in the
real-life applications. Education, he with many third-party programs microcomputer industry at large.
believes, is one of the first and most from major software publishers like Voice creation technology is con
important applications. After all, Infocom, Epyx, CBS Interactive stantly being refined as consumer
before a child can use the keyboard, Learning, and Batteries Included. In need and acceptance are gauged,
he or she can talk and listen. fact, any text-based programs then incorporated into every level
For this reason, Hearsay has should be compatible, allowing you of consumer electronics technol
developed a line of educational to issue verbal commands instead ogy. Applications extend from the
software to be used in tandem with of keyboard entry. For example, if home to the workplace, including
the voice synthesizer. The first you were playing the all-text ad our biggest industries. Talking
30 COMPUTE'S Gazette May 19B7
F L I G H
From the sophisticated realism, detail, and intellectual

stimulation of Flight Simulator...

- ■ ■;' r. ■§

-.■

H ■
.to the brute-force fun, thrills and excitement of Jet.

.with new adventures in Scenery Disks

...SubLOGIC The State of the Art in Flight.

■>:-■■■■■■ .-vi. -.
See Your Dealer. For additional product ordering information

or the name of the dealer nearest you, call (800) 637- 4983.

Corporation
713 Edgebrook Drive
Champaign IL61B20
|2l7)3S9-8«!Telei:!MW5
ORDER LINE: (800) 637-49B3
Ji
-

(ftvcnpl in Illinois, Alaska and Hnwnn)


Open 7 AM to 9 PM Central Time
microwave ovens, dishwashers,
cars, and telephones are bringing
science fiction closer to science fact.
Home control is one area
where voice technology will almost

Making
certainly be accepted, and many
companies are developing products
toward that end. Covox will intro
duce James, The Electronic Butler, a
marriage of its own Voice Master
module and the X-10 Home Con

The 64 Talk
trol System which allows simple
voice-activated control of home
appliances.
Covox is also working in anoth
er area that is meeting with some ac
ceptance: low-cost talking software.
"The Commodore 64 is still the best
Todd Heimarck, Assistant Editor machine going for that kind of pro
gram," says Covox's Stewart. Using
colorful graphics within an interac
There ate two ways to make a com some of the quirks of English (tough tive format, these Covox education
puter speak: digitizing and syn and though are spelled similarly but al tools are expected to be available
thesizing. Each approach has pronounced in different ways, for by summer of 1987.
advantages and disadvantages. example). Talking Teacher is the first edu
A speech digitizer is like a tape cational product released by Fire
recorder. It has a microphone and Stay Awhile, Stay Forever bird Licensees, a U.S. distributor for
electronic circuits that transform When you hear a very realistic a line of British software that has
the continuous (analog) sounds into voice in a commercial game, what met with strong approval in its first
discrete (digital) numbers. If you you're hearing has almost certainly 18 months here. It also employs a
speak a word or phrase into the mi- been digitized by a service that spe graphics-intensive interactive en
CTOphone, the digitizer converts cializes in creating sounds for soft- vironment enhanced by speech
your voice into a series of numbers ware companies. They use digitizing.
that represent the frequencies and sophisticated computer systems to The speech for Talking Teacher
volume of your words. record and dissect the phrases for a was created for Firebird by Elec
The numbers are then stored in game. For Epyx's game Impossible tronic Speech Systems, a company
memory or saved to disk. To replay Mission, someone sat down with a that's done a great deal of speech
the digitized sounds, you use a microphone and spoke the words production work for many compa
driver program that reads through Stay awhile, stay forever. The words nies in the toy, automotive, and
the numbers and feeds the appro were then analyzed down to a se military fields. ESS has also been
priate values to the sound chip in ries of individual sounds that could known for several years in the
your computer. be played back through the 64's microcomputer game world. For ex
Speech synthesizers, on the SID chip. ample, it was ESS that put the digi
other hand, string together a series The most attractive feature of tized speech in Impossible Mission
of phonemes to form words. A pho digitizing is the high-quality and the eerie laughter in Ghostbus-
neme is the smallest meaningful speech. It sounds as if someone is ters, among other game titles.
sound in a language, in English, for really talking (or laughing or Just as you can create speech
example, bat and pat are considered screaming) because it's essentially a for your own computer programs
separate words, because the sounds recording of a real person's voice. using inexpensive tools at home,
represented by b and p are separate A second advantage is that commercial software publishers
phonemes. There's a loose connec once a sound has been digitized, it have the resources to do the same.
tion between spelling and sounds, can be played back without exter But the trend in software develop
but two letters such as th are pro nal hardware (although you do ment these days is to give over spe-
nounced as a single phoneme, and need a 64 with a working SID chip). cialized elements of program
the single letter x is two phonemes The voice can be generated entirely design to experts, like bringing in
(a k sound and an s). Speech syn through software. If you're writing professional artists to draw graph
thesizers don't use a microphone. games to be sold or distributed, this ics, musicians to compose music,
Instead, you usually type in the means you can add digitized voices and authorities in many fields to
words to be spoken, and the pro or sound effects to your product lend expertise on program content.
gram concatenates, or links togeth without requiring your customers ESS uses its own computers,
er, the individual sounds. Some to purchase any additional hard recording studio, and audio engi
speech synthesizers require pho ware. Of course, you need hard neers, resulting in better com
netic spellings; others understand ware to digitize the original sounds, pressed, more finely-tuned speech
for programs.

32 COMPUTED Gazefle May 1987


Make Any Exactly What You Want With McGraw-HUVs

porary

■m.

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eries Make no mistake. Almost all books and courses on "programming"
teach you only the final 5% of the total programming process-
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value if you don't know how to reach the point in the programming
process when you are ready to code.
With the Series, however, you'll learn to create your own programs
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From Writing Your Own Programs to
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Moiiifyiiji.! Existing Software, Here's the New,
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Easy, and Low Cost Way to Unlock the Secrets
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Whether you use computers (or business, for personal The simple programs you work with throughout the
applications, or for fun, off-1 he -si id f programs will never do Series are excellent learning tools. But they're more than
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were written by programmers to satisfy what they perceived disk, you'll have the start of your own personal software
as the needs of the greatest number of potential library. In addition to the programs you've written and
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specific needs.
of the most popular public domain and user-supported pro
"Dial's why McGraw-Hill's new Contemporary grams, such as data base manager, word processor, calen
Programming and Software Design Series teaches dar generator, appointments reminder and much,
you how to create your own software.. .either much more.
from scratch or by making key modifications to
existing programs. 15-Day No-Risk Trial
There is nothing magical ahoul it. You learn Ihe To order your lirst module without risk, send Ihe
process of building a computer program step-by- iwstage-paid aird today.
step with McGraw-Hill Concept Mtxlules sent to you one at a Examine the first module
lime, once a month. Each of the ten modules in the Series takes for 15 days and see how
you through an important step in the development of the the Series will help you
structure and detailed logic of a program, including testing, make your computer do
debugging, and docu mental ion. exactly what you want
it to do!
Unique Interactive Hands-On Instruction
Each module includes an easy-to-understand guide i'LUS a
5(4" floppy disk containing typical programs and Interactive
instruction that you can run on Commodore 6<1 and 128 computers, IBM
PCs and PC compatibles for hands-on experience.
In the first Module, for example, when your sample program (Declining
Interest Loans) appears on your screen, you'll find errors on certain pro
gram lines. You'll also see that the program is only three-quarters completed.
Now comes the fun part. You'll discover
how this program is built, and in the process
you'll learn how to identify and correct
errors. And by the end of Module 1,
you'll actually have completed this
program yourself.
But there's more. Special graphics
on your screen work in conjunc
tion with the accompanying guide
to amplify, illustrate, and deepen
your understanding of software
design principles.
If someone has beaten you to the card, write to us lor order
ing information about the Contemporary Programming and
Software Design Series.
The Crucial 95%—Learn the Foundation of Computer Programming
While the Series includes interactive disks that run on specific computers, everything
you lean) you can apply to any Ian guageormachine.Whyisthis possible? Because
McGraw-Hill
McGraw-Hill knows programming is far more than codiuga program into the computer Continuing Education Center
using a specific language. In the real world of computers, 95% oJ ihe programming pro 3939 Wisconsin Avenue
cess is carried out using design techniques that are independent of specific liinguage or Washington, DC 20016
machine. It is this crucial 95% that you thoroughly understand and master in the Series.
A Combination Of
but after they have been turned into 100 people pronouncing a variety of
numbers, the digitizing hardware is
Input Devices
words containing the v sound, then
Voice recognition is probably the
no longer needed. analyzed the characteristics of v
most familiar existing method of
A serious drawback of digi with an oscilloscope, you could sep
getting information into a com
tized speech is that you can play arate the individual components of
puter. We're all used to talking to
back only the sounds you recorded. the average v sound and thus repro
other people, having them hear and
Digitizing is like taping a song from duce the v sound with oscillators or
process what we say, then having
the radio. You can't, for example, a computer's sound chip. Repeat
them respond.
record a rock song and turn it into a this process for ail the sounds of the
But voice recognition may not
bluegrass melody. The Commo language and you'll end up with a
be the most appropriate method in
dore Magic Voice Module—which speech synthesizer. Each sound is
all settings. Using a Covox product
has been discontinued—used digi put together (synthesized) as it is
in conjunction with a word proces
tized speech. It had roughly 200 output. The phonemes act as build
sor like SpeedScript, it's possible to
words in ROM—that was it. If you ing blocks that can be combined to
avoid entering all of the formatting
wanted to hear one of the built-in make words and sentences.
commands, saving time and key
words, it would pronounce it. If you Most synthesizers for the 64,
strokes. That's fine when you're sit
wanted to hear anything else, you including the ones made by Votrax
ting in your own private office or
were out of luck. It only knew the and Currah, are sold as hardware
workroom at home. But imagine
words that were digitized. cartridges that plug into the back of
the chaos that it would create in an
A second problem with digitiz the 64. They may have a separate
open office—five or six different
ing is that it eats up memory. If speaker on the cartridge or may in
people each trying to have their
you've been in a record store lately, clude a cord that diverts the sound
commands heard over the com
you've probably seen one of the through the speaker of your TV or
mands being issued by the others.
new compact discs (CDs). All of the monitor. There once was a speech
Covox's Brad Stewart bc-lieves
music on the discs is recorded digi synthesizer for the 64 that worked
that we're heading toward a combi
tally, and each CD holds 550 mega in software {Software Automatic nation of input devices, each of
bytes, more than half a gigabyte. To Mouth, or SAM), but it's no longer which—whether mouse, joystick,
put it another way, the amount of available. keyboard, or light pen—is used
information that fits on one CD The most attractive feature of
where most appropriate. And voice
would require roughly 4000 disks speech synthesis is that it gives you
technology still has a long way to
formatted on a 1541. The memory an infinite number of words. With a
go. "Technology for speech recog
of a 64 would hold less than a sec limited number of phonemes—
nition is not at a point where you
ond's worth of music from a com usually 64—you can build any can rattle off a sentence and have
pact disc. word in the English language. Digi the computer figure it out," he says.
The music on a CD is originally tizers can play back only what
But voice technology has come
sampled 44,000 times per second. they've recorded, but synthesizers
a long way. "After all," says Stew
Speech digitizers have a sampling can say anything.
art, "Who would have imagined
rate that's much slower (which is Speech synthesizers have a
that today we'd have GEOS or voice
one way to save memory). But as second advantage: They don't re recognition or sophisticated speech
the sampling rate gets lower, the quire a lot of memory. For a digitiz
synthesis on the Commodore 64?"
quality begins to suffer. At a mini er to record someone saying the
mal acceptable level, you might be word phone might require thou
able to fit ten seconds or so into the sands of bytes. But all a speech syn For more information on any of (he
available memory of the 64. Unless thesizer needs to know is that it products mentioned here, contact:
you have large amounts of memo should pronounce the/sound, the
Covox
ry, digitized speech is a compro oh sound, and an n. Three sounds— 675-D Conger St.
mise between quality and quantity. three bytes of memory. Eugene, OR 97402
As you might have guessed,
Electronic Speech Systems
Speech Synthesizers speech synthesizers have some
3216 Scott Blvd.
There are two examples of synthe shortcomings. For example, the Santa Clara, CA 95054
sized speech you may be familiar quality of synthesized speech is not (For a telephone demonstration of the
with. One is in the movie War Games, as good as that of digitized speech. speech quality of ESS products, call
which included a brief role for a Synthesizers often sound unexpres- 415-644-3127.)

speech synthesizer which said sive and "computery" (think of the Firebird Licensees
"Shall. We. Play. A. Game?" The voice from War Games). Some syn P.O. Box 49
other you may have heard if you've thesized speech has a sort of Scan Ramsey, Nf 07446
visited a computer store recently, or dinavian accent.
Hearsay
know someone who owns an Amiga, And finally, if the synthesizer is
1825 74th St.
which has a software speech in hardware, you can add speech to Brooklyn, NY 11204
synthesizer. your own programs, but other peo
Votrax International
Here's how speech synthesiz ple can't use your program unless
1394 Rtmkin
ers are constructed: If vou recorded they also own a speech synthesizer.
Troy, Ml 48083

3A COMPUTE'S Gaiette May 1987


THE LEADING
C64 WORD PROCESSOR
JUST GOT BETTER!
No Brag. Just Fact. WORD WRITER 3
has more features, more power, and
is easier-to-use than any
other C64 word processor.

And now the facts! We've added: Word Writer 3


interfaces with
• An 85,000-Word Spell Checker - plus, unlimited
Timeworks1
sub-dictionaries.
other C64
• An Integrated Thesaurus with over 60,000 programs for
synonyms and alternatives. a complete
• An Integrated Outline Processor that quickly Productivity
organizes notes, facts, and ideas into a convenient System:
outline format.
• An 80-Column Print Preview Mode
• Highlighting: Prints out your text incorporating • DATA MANAGER 2 rHUi writer
underlining, boldface, italics, superscript, subscript, A highly flexible filing and recordkeeping system
and more. that stores, retrieves, sorts, evaluates, and updates
large amounts of information. Includes: Report
• Headers and Footers
Writing, Graphics, Statistics, and Label Making
• Automatic Program Set-Up: Configures WORD capabilities.
WRITER 3 to your choice of printer codes, screen
colors, and more. • SWIFTCALC Sideways
A powerful, surprisingly easy-to-use electronic
• SwiftKeys' access commands quickly, using a
spreadsheet for home and business use. Plus,
minimum of keystrokes.
with Sideways, prints all your columns on one,
• ... and much, much more!
continuous sheet - sideways!

You Get Free, Ongoing Technical Support • PARTNER 64


A cartridge-based product with eight instantly
Rest assured. When you show your support by
accessible desktop accessories. PARTNER oper
buying Timeworks software, we never stop show
ates "concurrently" with your other C64 software
ing ours. That's why our twelve Customer Support
programs.
Technicians have been giving our T.L.C. (Technical
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Available for Commodore 64/128 Computers
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(64K, 40 Column)

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WORD WRITER 3 $49.95
DATA MANAGER 2 $39.95
More power for your dollar SWIFTCALC $39.95
PARTNER 64 $59.95
Timeworks, Inc. 444 Lake Cook Road
Deerfield, Illinois 60015 312-948-9200 Now at your favorite dealer,
or contact Timeworks today.
" Details on every TtmewQifcs package.
' Registered (rgCemarks of Commocto'fl Electronics. Ltd. To Order Call
Timeworhs, tnc , Bflfkeloy Soflworhs, Inc.
c 1963 Tiiriewoffcs, Inc All Fbghts Reserved 1-800-535-9497
Operation Terminal
Operation Terminal by Dreamrider Soft tronic signal triggered when a door is
ware is a breakthrough in personal com opened. If you guess wrong and enter a
puter software. It's advertised as—and, booby-trapped room, the bomb will ex
as far as I can tell, is—the first commer plode and disable you for about 15 sec
cially available modem game with full onds, costing you valuable time and
graphics capabilities. While this Com depleting your strength.
modore 64 program can be played by To counteract the bombs, you have
one, it's designed to be played by two been equipped with a device that jams
users at remote locations over their tele the electronic signaling device. The de
phone lines. The program adds a new vice's power source is a battery that can
level of excitement to the booming be depleted, but is rechargeable in one Operation Terminal is a one- or two-
world of home telecommunications. of the complex's rooms known as the player modem game featuring color
The program casts its players as Battery Room. Conservation of that graphics.
spies from competing countries on a se power is important to your success,
cret mission to save the world. On an is however, since recharging takes time. merits in your search for the items you
land in an unknown location lies a must collect and, of course, by trigger
mysterious research facility known as ing bombs. If your strength gets too
the Antimatter Complex, built by an low, you cannot open the wall compart
unidentified scientific genius. The re ments. Once strength is tapped, you
search at the complex involves using Operation Terminal...adds a must find the First Aid Room (another
antimatter as the ultimate energy special room in the complex) and renew
source. However, antimatter is also the
new level of excitement to the your strength before you can proceed
most destructive explosive material booming world of home with the mission. Again, having to di
known to man. Obviously, your coun vert your attention to matters other
try is very concerned about who gets telecommunications. than collecting the required items will
hold of this research and to what use waste precious time. To compound the
it's applied. difficulty of your mission, an enemy
That's where your character comes agent (the other player) will be attempt
in. As one of the nation's top opera ing the identical operation at the same
tives, you must parachute onto the is The top half of the screen layout time. You must complete your mission
land, retrieve certain research provides you with a view of the hall and at the same time prevent the enemy
documents and pieces of antimatter, way or the room your character is pres agent from succeeding with his or hers.
and escape the island. All this must be ently in. When your character is in a The real strategy comes into play
accomplished within 30 minutes. The hallway, the view is from the ceiling with respect to your opponent. No mat
only means of escape from the island is down, and when in a room, a more con ter how successful you are with your
a device called the Particle Degenera- ventional side view is shown. The bot mission, the other player may be capa
tor, which will convert you into light tom half of the screen has a map of the ble of beating you. Enough items exist
waves and transmit you off the island. complex's room matrix and shows you in the rooms to allow both players to
Your mission has become even where your character is in the building. meet their requirements. Once one
more imperative since the scientific ge Several gauges showing time, battery player has collected his or her items and
nius who built the complex disap level, strength, and the number of items has escaped the island through the Par
peared under mysterious circumstances collected also appear at the bottom of ticle Degenerator, the other player's
just before turning over the results of the screen. While movement of the char mission timer drops to one minute. The
the antimatter research to your country. acter is by joystick {required for game remaining player then has only one
The complex is a series of rooms play), several keys control actions, such minute to both complete the mission
which form a matrix and are joined by as activating the jamming device. and leave the island.
hallways. Each room has a wall com To succeed at Operation Terminal, The program offers several tools to
partment that may contain a piece of you'll have to use simple but effective help you combat your opponent. One is
antimatter or one of the documents you strategy, as you must race against the radar mode, which allows you to spy on
are looking for. You do not know which clock to collect the needed items. You your opponent. While in radar mode,
rooms contain the items and, therefore, must guess which rooms are booby- your screen shows the location and vi
must conduct a search of each room un trapped to conserve battery power in tal information about your opponent.
til you find the required amount of anti- your jamming device, or you will use Further, you are armed with several
matter and documents. Beware, too much time recharging (or getting bombs (as is your opponent) that you
however, for there are booby-trapped disabled by bombs). Your strength can can place in any of the rooms to slow
rooms that set off bombs by an elec- be depleted by opening wall compart- your opponent down. The bombs also

36 COMPUTE'S Gazetto May 1987


COMPUibUGH
can be used to destroy the Battery
Room and prevent the recharging of the
jamming devices. However, destruction
of the Battery Room can backfire on
you, since neither player can recharge
their jamming device once the Battery
Room is destroyed.
As noted earlier, one player can use
Operation Terminal. In the one-player
version, your only enemy is the clock,
as you must complete your mission :,■;.:■■■■:
within 15 minutes. The one-player
game doesn't require a modem. How "If you think
ever, this version suffers from a lack of you know how to play
competitive strategy that the two-player Blackjack, meel me
version offers. This criticism is, of at The Casino."
course, true of any game offering one-
and two-player versions. Frankly, the
main utility of the one-player version is
that it provides practice for the two-
player mode.
■■*■*
The program works with all the
Commodore modems and with many
other popular brands. The terminal

t:;"**
program is incorporated within Opera
tion Terminal and is extremely easy to
use. in fact, al! the instructions you
need are displayed on the screen. Either
player may initiate the modem connec
tion. At any time during play, either
player may send a message to the other
and enter into a message mode until
one of the players breaks it off. While in
the message mode, the timer on the
game stops running.
Operation Terminal is a good game,
with a simple but interesting plot and
enough strategy to keep you involved
in the game. The reason to buy it, how
ever, will probably stem from your in
terest in playing against someone else
via the modem. If you have a modem
and a friend with one, and you are not
able to get together as often as you'd
like to play computer games, Operation
"I'm into world events and trivia.
Terminal may just be what you're look
And I can piny right here
ing for.
[The manufacturer reportedly of in the living mom!'
fers a bulletin board service that lists
the names and players of Operation Ter
minal in your area. —Ed.]
—Scott Thomas
Dreamrider Software
970 N. Main St.
Crete, IL 60417
$39.95
Safe stores a topic, subtopic, or entire would take you to center a title on a
Thinking Cap section of the outline. The Text Safe page with an ordinary typewriter. You
stores a block of text from a single topic need to know your pitch, your paper
Late last year, I read an article about a
or subtopic. Other features include width, your margins, and the number of
new outline processor: computer soft
Search-and-Replace and the ability to letters in the title. You need to calculate
ware that can assist you in creating out
delete entire phrases. where center is; what half the number of
lines for projects like school and work
Outlines or sections can be saved letters and spaces in the title is; and what
reports, books, and magazine articles.
to disk. Outlines saved separately can the center point, minus the latter num
My own outlines tend to be informal,
be merged onscreen and printed out to ber, is. Then you have to position your
and 1 don't always use them. But the
gether. Sections saved separately can paper there. (Or you can go to center,
idea of being able to brainstorm and jot
be formed into one coherent outline read off the letters and spaces in your
down notes at the computer tantalized
and resaved as such. A utilities section title, and backspace for every two.) With
me. Then I saw the price tag—$450. So
contains options to format a disk, view a word processor, you merely turn on
I put the article away and dreamed of
the directory, and delete or rename files. your centering option.
the day some creative individual would
The printing capability of Thinking In Thinking Cap, you concentrate
come up with an affordable variation
Cap is one of its best features. You can only on your ideas. The program takes
for the Commodore 64.
customize to your own preferences and care of the mechanics. In writing an
In December, I said to myself: / just
design, whether you're a speech maker, outline by hand, I get caught up in
have to get that book outlined! I'll never
scientist, scholar, or scribe. Two menus thoughts about the outline itself, and I
be able to submit it if 1 don't! The pros
handle most of the customizing. An op can't think clearly about my topic. I also
pect was daunting. Outlining a 20-
tion called Print Enhancements has nine find myself doodling in the margins.
chapter book is less than thrilling at
items which may be varied: such things Hut in the Brainstorm section of
best, and frightening when you know
as title and headline emphasis, type of Thinking Cap, I worry only about my
an editor's decision depends on how lu
outline (Roman, technical, prose, num ideas. I know I can go back and edit and
cidly you describe your plot. Then, just
bered), title positioning, and so on. move topics around after I have record
before Christmas, 1 received a copy of
ed all my thoughts. In Overview I can
Thinking Cap by Brederbund.
scan the outline to catch what changes
Thinking Cap is described as an out
need to be made. For printing, much
line processor, or idea processor. You
like a word processor, Thinking Cap al
begin in a section of the program called
Brainstorm, jotting down ideas as they
In Thinking Cap, you lows me to format the output to my Hie
ing—only here it formats in outline
come to you. You need only have a gen concentrate only on your ideas. form rather than manuscript. Basically,
eral idea of what topic areas belong to
Thinking Cap leaves my mind clear to
gether, because in Brainstorm you can The program takes care of the
work on the topic, then worry about the
change things around as you go along,
mechanics. niceties of presentation after the real
making corrections and rearranging
work is all done.
subtopics as the thoughts hit you.
There are more nice features in
You only need a title and your first
Thinking Cap. There is a clear and help
idea. Through the use of highlighting
ful manual. There is an option to cus
and windows, you create an outline of
tomize various areas (type of printer,
up to 16 topics and to a depth of seven Page Layout has eight page-
screen color combinations, and others),
levels. The title is level 1; the first major manipulation variables to work with,
so that when you load the disk, the pro
topic is level 2; the first subtopic under similar to the choices offered by most
gram defaults to certain choices. You
a major topic is level 3, and so on. You word processor page layouts. A third
can use a variety of printers, and adjust
can work in any order, because you can factor influencing printout is what you
for an unusual printer and for different
always open up a window to enter new display on the screen. When you're
interfaces as well. Finally, Thinking Cap
items under a topic. using the Hidden Text command, your
accomplishes all of its wizardry
When you've gone as far as your screen display will show only the first
through the use of windows. This dis
creativity will carry you, it's time to re line of each topic or subtopic, replacing
tinctive approach is a large part of what
view your work. This is done in the the remaining text with an ellipsis, it
makes the program so impressive.
Overview section. Here, you view your would be nice if this capability were
I haven't stopped using Thinking
outline in its entirely, to whatever depth also a part of the printing function, so
Cap since I got it. In two days I outlined
you choose, so that you can see how you you could see where the missing text
the half of my book that was already
are progressing. This means you may lay in your hardcopy. That, however, is
written, plus the next quarter, which
view as little as the title, or all of what my only criticism of the program.
was not. I completed the first version of
you've written, or anything in between. You can modify your printout by
the outline for this article, too. The pro
The editing feature is available in selecting different depths, thus elimi
gram is stimulating, versatile, easy to
Overview, too. This lets you modify nating the detail of subtopics. You can
learn, and easy to use. And the price is
your outline, fixing and rearranging text also suppress any numbering in the
reasonable—which means that Think
to meet your standards. There are outline. There are an impressive num
ing Cap is a good value. It does every
screen prompts to help with some of ber of options offered in these vari
thing described in the article I read
the more complex moves. A pop-up ables, although most users will
(about the $450 program) smoothly and
window lists the editing functions. This probably make two or three their favor
satisfactorily. And although this is the
window also keeps track of how much ites, depending on their needs.
first outline processor I've tried, I feel
memory you have left. What is all the excitement about?
no need to look further.
Two editing devices, the Section Why not just use a word processor and
—Robin Mintiick
Safe and Text Safe, are used to store create your own outline? It's a little diffi
portions of text that you cut away so cult to describe to someone who hasn't Brederbund Software
you can paste them in elsewhere, either used it, but it's rather like the difference I 7 Paul Dr.

to move them or to make copies of a between typing and having a word pro San Rafael, CA 94903-2101
section or block of text. The Section cessor. Think for a minute how long it $49.95

38 COMPU7EIS Gazelto May 1987


CompuCrazy
Portal
This product, for the Commodore 64, is
a computer novel different from any
other computer novel on the market.
Barely interactive and completely joy
stick-controlled, Portal is closer than any
software yet produced to the experience
of sitting back and reading a novel.
Portal places you in the twenty- "Ready for an adventurous challenge?
second century. As the five-page print We're a team. And Nellie ■
ed prologue explains, you are returning .--■
doesn't horse around."
to earth from a failed space mission, but
things at home are not quite right. To be
more specific, the planet has no people
on it. But there's been no nuclear holo
caust, and nowhere are there signs of
widespread disease. Instead, the hu
man race has simply disappeared.
Your only link to the past, and thus
your only chance of discovering what
happened, is a Worldnet computer ter
minal. Beside the terminal you have
found a set of operating instructions
(included in the package) with only
minimally helpful information. That's
it. Somehow, you must try to find out
where humanity has gone.
Portal's display is a series of 12 box
es, each with its own graphics design.
The boxes represent databases within
the Worldnet computer. These data
bases (or dataspaces, as they are called)
contain whatever information Worldnet
has on the events and characters within
the game. For example, the Psychology,

CompuServe
Life Support, Wasatch, and Edmod da
taspaces contain data about each charac
ter that appears in the story, while Ihe
Military, SciTech, PsiLink, Geography,
History, and MedlO dntaspaces store

Games
scientific, technological, social, and his
torical knowledge. The most important
of the dataspaces are Central Processing,
which offers vital information not found
in the other dataspaces, and Homer, the
story's narrator.
Homer is Worldnet's "storytelling
artificial intelligence." What this
means, from your point of view, is that bu never know
Homer is the dataspace that will re
count the tale of what has happened to who you'll be up against
the human race. As the story pro
when you go online
gresses, Homer requires information
from all the other dntaspaces, in order with CompuServe;
to construct the story of the Portal. Your
task in the game is to search through
the other 11 dataspaces to retrieve the
To buy ybur CompuServe Subscription Kit,
information for him.
see your nearest computer dealer.
To get this data, all you do is move
Suggested retail price $39.95. ,
from dataspace to dataspace (via joy
stick), entering each dataspace, and
To request our free brochure or order direct,
reading what has been stored there.
After doing so, you return to the Homer call or write: 800-848-8199
dataspace and read the files Homer has (In Ohio, call 614-457-0802)

CompuServe*
created as a result of your searching.
These files reveal Homer's story and,
just as importantly, his concerns as sto
ryteller. Throughout the story, Homer
interrupts the narration to reveal his
doubts about his storytelling abilities, the feature that sets Portal aside from all story towards its conclusion. In one
his concerns about humanity, and the other interactive fiction, is that we can way, such participation is satisfying,
nature of truth in fiction. see precisely how the story unfolds. because we are allowed to directly in
Portal is, in fact, as much about When done properly, interactive fluence the plot's outcome, but for
Homer as it is about Peter Devore, the fiction makes us feel as if we are con those who like reading books, the sheer
leader of humanity's Migration. tributing to the story. Unlike books, length of the adventure can be frustrat
Through a complex and often bizarre which contain a story that we simply ing. Portal solves this problem in two
plol, one that begins with a simple tech accept from one page to the next, inter ways. First, you are not part of the story
nological error, Peter Devore enters the active fiction demands that we partici of the Migration. Second, you don't
wrong dataspace and discovers things pate in the creation of the plot. Also really change the course of the plot.
he should never be allowed to know. unlike books, we never know when the In Portal, your only function is to
Among these is knowledge of the per story will end. In interactive fiction, get Homer the information he needs to
sonality of Wanda Sixlove, a passenger there is no last page. tell the story. Then, for the most part at
aboard a space ship light years from least, you sit back and read. As simple
earth. Through a series of mindlinks, as this sounds, though, your actions in
Peter and Wanda fall in love with each the game—going from dataspace to data-
other, and Peter spends the next several space—are the game itself. You are not
years trying to find a way to be with Extremely well-written, with an a character in the story, but instead you
her. Somehow, in a way you must dis are watching the process of the telling
cover, that search is bound up with the intriguing plot, Portal offers of the story. Each piece of information
disappearance of the human race. you dig up is necessary to Homer's nar
some of the first truly excellent rative; once you have found the infor
The story itself is very good. Ex
tremely well-written, with an intriguing fictional passages seen on a mation, you return to Homer and
plot, Portal offers some of the first truly discover how he has put it into the sto
excellent fictional passages seen on a computer to date. ry. In other words, you watch the story
computer to date. Reading Homer's write itself.
narrative is a pleasure: The characters Those expecting a graphics-and-
are fairly complex and highly believ text adventure along the lines of Toss
able, and the plots and sub-plots are Times in Tonetown will perhaps not ap
well-managed. Homer does not tell us To reach the conclusion of most preciate the lack of direct participation
everything—what he leaves out we adventure games, we must take the role in the plot, while those who want a
easily fill in for ourselves—but what he of a character in the story and, by wan graphics adventure such as Ultima IV
does tell is fascinating from start to fin dering around, talking to other charac will not enjoy the absence of role play
ish. And the most interesting part of all, ters, and solving puzzles, force the ing or the short duration of Portal. Por
tal can be completed in about the same
length of time it takes to read a fairly
long novel. Like all adventures, it is of
limited usefulness after its completion,
but unlike most, it can be reread with
enjoyment.
Still, I recommend Portal with
some reservation. If you want to see
what can be done with a computer sto
ry, by all means pick it up. If you want a
lengthy adventure with elements of
role play, however, don't. Portal's
strength is its realization that text ad
BACKUP PROTECTED * Includes fast loader, 12-second
ventures don't really take the place of a
format.
SOFTWARE FAST. godd novel. It bills itself as a computer
Requires a Commodore 64 or 128 novel, and that is precisely what it is.
From the team who brought you computer with one or two 1541 or
Copy II Plus (Apple), Copy II PC (IBM) Perhaps a little expensive for a novel,
1571 drives.
and Copy II Mac (Macintosh) comes Portal offers a reading experience that is
a revolutionary new copy program for Call 503/244-5782, M-F, 8-5 unique in computerized fiction.
the Commodore 64/128 computers. (West Coast time) with your 2E —Neil Randall
• Copies many protected in hand. Or send a check
for$39.95 U.S. plus$3 s/h, $8 Activision
programs—automatically. (We
2350 Bayshore Frontage Rd.
update Copy II64/128 regularly to overseas.

handle new protections; you as a Mountain View, CA 94043


$39.95 $39.95
registered owner may update at
any lime for S15 plus S3 s/h.} Central Point Software, Inc.
9700 S.W. Capitol Hwy. #100
• Copies even protected disks in Portland, OR 97219
under 2 minutes (single drive).
• Copies even protected disks in
under 1 minute (dual drive). Central Point
• Maximum of (our disk swaps on a Software
single drive.

Backup utilities also available lor the IBM, Apple II, Macintosh and Atari ST.
This product Is provided tor the purpose at enabling you to make archival copies only

40 COMPUTEI's Gazette May 1967


TEST DIVE ONE FOR YOURSELF.
In their day, they ruled TAKE OUR PREVIEW DISK FORA SPIN. Drop this uatpon in the And the contents of a
mail with your check or money order and well gladly send you to the
over three quarters of the South Pacific. In have it out with an enemy fleet.
vital target book,
earth's surface. Mail fa Sub Battle Preview. HO. Box 8020, Redwood City, CA 94063. among other things.
During WWII, they Your arsenal will in
Quantity Total
viciously brought Britain clude deck and anti
Apple II & compat. (128K) $1.50 fa.
to her aircraft guns. Torpedoes.
Cctmrxodm 641123 $1.50 ta.
knees. And mines.
IBM t*C & ampat. $1.50 ta.
And But even all that may
Atari ST SZ75ea.
Japan not be enough.
Macintosh S2.75 ea.
to the Because besides the
AppleIIGS - $2.75 ea.
ground. risk of bumping a depth
Total Disks Ordered Tiita! Enclosed ,
These were the silent Name I'hime t J_—
charge or facing a killer
killers: Tench. Gato. Destroyer, you'll still
A ddnxs Age
U-Boat. have to contend with the
City/Statr/Zip
And now, they return. Canadian inters please add 5OC for additional postage.
gunfire of enemy aircraft.
In this, the most realistic, I'leaie ttUiiw 4 to 6 iteefe for delivery. Offer expires H(3l)t87 and is wlid>mty in No simulation has
Ibi' amtwcnJal tLS. "Jtd Canada. W/id tcheir pivhibiftd v
all-encompassing simula ever had the degree of
tion ever created 60 missions. Or you'll en- authenticity, gut-wrenching
for the personal gage in the most difficult action or historical accuracy of
computer. task of all: To make it this one.
You will com through the entire war. The first release of our new
mand one of six Each vessel is com- Masters Collection. And j
types of Amer u pletely unique and a challenge of unbe
ican subs or German Kriegs- ft painstakingly authen- lievable
marine U-Boats, during any ,tic, so you'll have a lot depth. EPYX
year from 1939 to 1945. to learn: Navigation. /Ipfi/c // it tmntolibtn, Apple IKS,
A tari ST. C64/12S. HIM &
You'll perform one of over Weather. Radar. ivmpptiblr.*. Mufinhmh.

7'ArA'o It/altrrx Sea guard radar tlub. The 36(1" pmwofts. dependent itttitwtut Salt water tunic,.
The i*rpV keait. A'diaelengints liimming and aimptnsating.
The trrtted cuntrvl room.
— Your TO.

Waterpurification.

■-■,
Gunship in the area.
There are 29 optional settings for
Helicopters are playing an increasingly arming your weapons and flying the
important role in modern military tac gunship, and it's tough to remember
tics. The U.S. Army is beginning to fly which keys control them all. Fortunate
what may prove to be the most techno ly, Gunsliij! makes it a lot easier by pro
logically advanced aircraft to date—the viding a keyboard overlay with labels
Apache helicopter gunship, a flying ar for all the keyboard controls.
senal. Equipped with laser-guided Hell- As the simulation begins, you'll
fire missies, a 30mm cannon (which is need the manual, which is excellent and
controlled by helmet gunsights), clus provides much information for the nov
ters of unguided rockets, and even ice pilot. As an indirect form of copy
Sidewinder missiles for air-to-air com protection, you're shown a drawing of a
A view from the cockpit in Micro Prose's
bat, this awesome craft is more than a piece of military equipment on the
Gunship.
match for most situations. screen and are asked to identify it from
With Gunship, MicroProse Soft the manual. That's not difficult, but it
ware puts you at the controls of an AH- does take a minute or so to look it up.
Personally, 1 don't mind this form of these gauges before firing up. Once air
64 A Apache, America's most advanced
helicopter, and gives you the chance to copy protection. Just remember that you borne, things happen quickly. Check
fly any of a number of missions. Gun need the manual to run the program. your weapons display and notice how
ship, for the Commodore 64, is a very many of each type of armament you're
well-executed simulation, not just a carrying. Take note of the location of
game. Real pilots "fly" missions in so the Threat display in the lower left cor
ner of the screen.
phisticated simulators which utilize ex
tremely powerful computers with ...MicroProse...puts you at the The development of Gunship was a
long and complex project for Micro-
dazzling graphics and realistic sound.
controls of...America's most Prose. In fact, an earlier version of this
These simulators permit pilots to expe
helicopter simulation was reportedly
rience aerial emergencies and combat advanced helicopter, and gives
sent back to the drawing boards when
situations without real risk. Obviously,
the finished product didn't measure up
the graphics capabilities of your 64 are you the chance to fly any of a
to the expectations of company presi
no match for these simulators, but
you'll see much more than simple stick
number of missions. dent William Stealey and MicroProse
designer Sid Meier. After almost a year,
figures with Gunship, For example, the Gunship...is a very well- the present version was released.
three-dimensional graphics increase
Was the wait worth it? Very sim
the sense of motion as you fly. All in all, executed simulation, not just
ply, yes. In the tradition of Solo Flight,
the graphics are among the best I've
a game. F-15 Strike Eagle, Aerojet, and Siletil Ser
seen for any flight simulation on an
vice, MicroProse has another winner.
eight-bit computer.
—George Miller
As in real life, you should not ex
pect to jump into this Apache helicop Gunship: The Helicopter Flight
ter and fly off into combat without Simulation
some preparation. Read the manual After the copy protection check, MicroProse
carefully, then start out by taking flight you're shown a summary of the last llQLakefront Dr.
training. Become familiar with the con mission flown. Now is the time to Hunt Valley, Md. 21030
trols by flying a number of practice mis- change any statistics to make the up $34.95 a
sions. Then head into combat in coming flight easier or to increase its
Southeast Asia, Central America, the overall difficulty. The more dangerous
Middle East, or—the ultimate test for the mission, the greater the score you
any pilot—the USSR and its Warsaw can achieve. Flying difficult missions
Pact allies. also leads to faster promotion and more
Even flying training missions has
some risk. You'll make a lot of mistakes
honor, but it also increases your
chances to be listed as K1A (Killed In
All programs
Action) on the pilot roster.
listed in this
as you work to master the use of your
weapons systems and on-board avion You'll step through several screens,
ics. Take your time and learn well. selecting a difficulty level then finally
You'll need the training later. Soon receiving your preflight briefing. You'll magazine are
you'll be skimming the treetops at 200 probably want to check the map while
mph as you wait for your AGM-114A you're here. It's always a good idea to available on the
Hellfire missile to lock onto target. The know where any friends might be locat
effect of firing the 30mm cannon is so ed. After all, you don't want to hit them
by mistake. And if you're hit, you might
GAZETTE Disk.
realistic that you'll notice a slight loss in
speed as you fire, due to the recoil of
the weapon.
need a location near them for an emer
gency landing.
Details
Another realistic aspect of the simu
lation occurs when you trim the gunship
Finally, you're settled into your
chopper, gazing at the control panel elsewhere
to maintain a constant altitude as you display. Glancing at the bottom of the
fire. In fact, you'll have your hands full screen, you see fuel levels, warning in this issue.
just controlling the helicopter at first, not lights and gauges, a compass, and other
to mention dodging the surface-to-air pertinent items. It's best to become
missiles (SAM) and the enemy choppers somewhat familiar with the locations of

42 COMPUTEVs Gazette May 1987


The Great Communicator
THE Direct connect Hayes/Commodore® 1670
compatible 1200 Baud modem for ONLY $119.95
Now that you're able to do all those stand alone ap
plications with your Commodore, like word process
ing, spread sheet analysis, and many others, you are
probably thinking "It would sure be nice if I could ex
pand the amount of data I have access to." You are
quite right, everything from Electronic Mail {E-mail} lo
stock quotes and huge databases of every imag
inable type is now on line to the small computer
owner. You can even send and receive telexes
anywhere in the world. All you need is a telephone
and a modem which allows your computer to com
municate with others through these many services.
The nexl question is: "Which modem is best for
me?" Let me first say that almost al! modems (and
services) are set up to communicate in one of two
speeds; 300 and 1200 Baud. If you look around you
will find that there is a flood of 300 baud modems on Do you have more than one computer or do you plan
the market and sometimes at very low prices. The to get another computer? You can have your cake
reason Is simple, they are being dumped because and eat it too. Simply order our Universal RS-232 in
most computer users prefer 1200 Baud. (1200 Baud terface #5232 along with the standard Aprotek-1200
is about 4 times as fast which means you spend less which you can use with any computer that has a
time and money getting the data you want and more RS-232 serial port as well as your Commodore- The
time enjoying It.) Virtually everyone who has a 300 Universal RS-232 interface can also be used to con
would rather have a 1200. You will also notice a few nect your Commodore to any other RS-232 device.
very cheap 1200s on the market at "too good to be
NO RISK POLICY
true prices". They are. The reason is that they are
Try the Aprotek 1200 for two weeks and if you are
either not truly Hayes and/or Commodore compatible
not satisfied, send it back for a prompt refund.
therefore not usable in all situations and all services.
The Aprolek-1200C is bolh Hayes and Commodore The bottom line:
compatible and 1200 baud. Why not get a modem Aprotek 12Q0C (for Commodore)
that will satisfy your piesent AND future needs by go order #1200C S119.95
ing directly to an inexpensive Aprolek-1200C
Aprotek 1200 (for RS-232 with DB-25)
especially when we have it on sale?
order #1200 $119.95
What do you get for $119.95? Everything! You
don't need to worry about cables, compatibility or Aprotek USR-232 (Commodore-to-RS-232
anything else! We don't just sell hardware, we sell Interface order #5232 $ 39.95
solutions. The Aprotek 1200C plugs directly into Modem shipping - Cont. US $5.00, UPS Blue $10.00
your Commodore Vic-20, C-64, C-64C or C-126 user USR-232 shipping-Cont. US$3.00, UPS Blue $6.00

port, It is unique in that it has two separate (switch- ORDER INFORMATION California residents add 6% tax. All
able) emulation modes (Hayes and Commodore prices are cash prices—VISA and MC add 3% to total. We ship
the next business day on money orders, cashier's checks, and
1670) to make it compatible with all available soft
charge cards. A !4-day clearing period is required for chocks.
ware. The Aprotek 1200C is a full feature, 300 and Prices subject to change— CALL. Dealer inquiries invited.
1200 Baud modem with Auto Answer, Auto Dial. For information and in Calif, call 805/987-2454
Touch-Tone or rotary dialing, has the full comple TO ORDER CALL TOLL FREE
ment of 8 status LEDs on the front panel and has a 1 {800) 962-5800 - USA
built in speaker with volume control. Just plug it into rt (7-7 PST)
Or send order to:
your computer and standard phone jack with the sup
plied cables. Aiso included is a free trial offer
subscription to Quantum-Link, a very useful Com
modore user database with local access numbers DEPT. CG
and about every feature imaginable. 1071-A Avenids Acaso, Camarillo, CA 93010
Unscramble
Mark Tuttle

If you like word challenges, you'll like this tzvo-player game


where quick thinking and accurate guesses determine the winner.
For the Commodore 128, 64, Plus/4, and 16,

Computers are traditionally known the listing. Plus/4 and 16 users must
for their mathematical capabilities. substitute these lines for the corre
Only recently, with the advent of sponding lines of the 64 program:
word processors and spelling GB 10 COLOR0,2,4tCOLOR4,7,2:CO
checkers, have computers affected »-1024iSC=307 2:NDX=239

the way we deal with words. With XM 20 VOL7


BR 660 SOUND1,PAM5,UPS/10:RET
"Unscramble," you can use your URN
Commodore to challenge a friend In "Unscramble," two players race the
After typing the program, save clock to decipher each other's words.
to a word game traditionally played
it with a command of the form
as a board game or with pencil and
SAVE"UNSCRAMBLE",8
paper. has finished entering his words,
(Tape users should substitute a ,1 for the
Each player must guess five player 2 sits at the computer to un
,8.)
words which were entered by his scramble the words. Each scram
opponent and scrambled by the After saving a copy, load it
bled word is displayed at the top of
computer. It sounds easy, but there with the command
the screen. Player 2 must guess
is one obstacle—time. A timer runs LOAD"UNSCRAMBLE",8 each letter in the word from left to
while you think, and ten seconds are (Tape users should substitute a ,1 for the right. If he guesses a wrong letter, a
added to your score every time you ,8.)
penalty of ten seconds is added to
guess a wrong letter. The winner is Now, type RUN. Unscramble his score.
the player with the lowest score. asks for the names of the players. When player 2 has finished un
After you enter the names, player 1 scrambling the words, he enters
Typing It In types in five words while player 2 five words for player 1 to unscram
Unscramble is written entirely in looks away. (For a fair game, be ble. When player 1 has successfully
BASIC. If you use a 64, type in the sure that each player turns his head unscrambled the words entered by
program as it is listed in the back of while the other player types in the player 2, the winner is announced
the magazine; 128 users must make words.) Words can be no longer and the game ends.
the change indicated in line 10 of than 15 characters. When player 1 See program listing on page 94. <■
'COMPUTE
Blue Max
226 Lincoln Rood
Miami Beach. FL 33139
Songwriter
Phi Belo Filer
vice m Diamond Mine
New Yoik City/Air Support Castle Haslle
Zaxxon
Maslertype Fig. S Formulas */ Rack 'Em Up
177
Sales Edge
Zepplin
Management Edge
Zepplin S6" Triad Basic Coocfi
Neo.otln.tion Edge
Zorkl Computer Coach
Music olc t
Commjnicotion Edge "NO$
2ork II Keyboard Coach
Musicalc 2 Genefol Ledger Sli"EA
zoik in Speedreadmg Coach
Musicalc 3 Suspended Typing Cooch ALL 5 tor '59"
Template 1 (Alio/Lalin) Slaicross
177
Keyboard Deadline INFOCOM FOIJ ATARI ST
;"
Christmas Diskette . , , . Toll Text 2.6 hioois

Manager Toll Label 2.6


Super Eipander Time Manager 2.6 Your OolCH
Maolc Desk I
Simons Basic Research Assislanl 2.0
Easy Finance I EA
N9vada Cobol Toll Speller 36
Easy Finance II
Jupiier Lander
Easy Finance III M23 Toll Inlomoster . . . S3
Kickmcn
Seawoll Zortek Microchip
Jyruss
Speed Bingo Moth
Jomes Bond Easy Lesson/Quiz
Radaf Rat Race
Star Wars-Arcade Game Number Nabber/Shap Grab
Visible Solar S. Chopper Malh
QBeri
Blue Prlni
Popeye lype Write
Lazarian
Frogger Music Machine
Omega Race 77
Fiosger il ihieedeep . *O Music Composer
Wizard ol Wor
Gulpi!,rAirow Graphics
Le Mans
Comm Step By Step Frenzy/Flip Flop
Gorf Next teller of Num
Comm Step By Slep
Supertnasfi
Pic lure Blocks Ltr March More Less *4
Strapost
Piesctioot One
frog master
177 Reading What's Ditt.
Star Ranger Relro Ball
Vocobuiary Builder I Hes Man 64
Solans Hollow Bocabaiary Builder II Hes Wriler 64
177
Hulk Wo rdwise-Analogies 6502 Prol. Dev. Sys.
Avenoer Turtle Grophics II
Clowns Practicalc 64 Gndrunner 1077 Omnt Calc
Fish Me lie 64 Doclor
77
Benji Space Rescue . 8 Multiplan
Number Nabber Practice *I4
Pet Emulator (Dalooase Manager) Codewritei US Constllutlon
Pmboll Speclacular Adventure wriler Doalh in the Co/lbbean
Solar Fox Costle Wollensiein File writer
77 Helsi
loolh Invaders . . , Rescue Squad Dlologue Boulder Dash S9"
Beyond Caslle Wol[enstein Elf
Space Taxi Home Inlegratoi Easy Finance jf
Smart Star! (Utility) Thriller Series Word Name
New Super Text $14 77 Accounls Reneffa
S577 Adventure Wriler
Accounls PtWa
SPECIAL Slarcioss
Jet by Sublogte S147 19B6 Toxpayers Survival S7' Deadline
Suspended
■■I- Tax Planner

ORDERS ONLY

1-800-331-7054
CUSTOMER SERVICE OR IN FLORIDA (305) 538-136.1
FREE FREIGHT ON ALL ORDERS WITHIN CONTINENTAL U.S. OVER S100.00
Orders under SILrO.QO add S4 0D shipping and handling. CO.D orders add S4 00
Prices re'lOCI a 3% cash discounl A RO. F.P.O orders add 6% shipping & handling. Poslal orders shipped surface
ado sve lot a" shrpmeni And 3% (or ViSajmC Florida lesidenis aoa 5W sales ia« Personal cnec«s allow 2 wee«s lot D'
PncRs Subjecl id Charkge Withoul Notico

ORDERS RECEIVED BEFORE 12:00 PM WILL BE SHIPPED SAME DAY.


/

Blasting Bricks
Your main weapon against the
bricks is the bouncing ball. Use your
paddle to keep the ball in motion.

Powerball
You'll lose a paddle whenever a ball
gets past you to the bottom of the
screen. The game ends when all
paddles have been lost. When all
breakable bricks on the current level
-
William Chin have been eliminated, you advance
to the next level. When you lose all
your paddles, you are not automati
cally dumped back to the first level.
Instead, you can press the fire but
ton to start a new game at the cur
rent level. You can press SHIFT at
any time to pause the game. (Use
This outstanding arcade-style game's moving obstacles, special
SHIFT-LOCK for longer pauses.)
features, and different game screens will keep you thinking and
moving fast. For the Commodore 64. A joystick is required.
Lhiiimibubiiiiiiiiiimiiiimiimiii
Not your ordinary version of Break asked for the starting and ending MM*llir»IIUMUHUttMMR1ll Illd

out, "Powerball" is an addictive, addresses of the data you'll be en


muttifaceted arcade-style game tering. For Powerball, respond with
with new features such as capsules the following values:
and slivers—and ten different Starling Address: C00O
screens to master. Ending Address: CD67
Each Powerball screen is popu When you've finished typing
lated by its own configuration of in the data, save a copy to tape or PAHLtl A Kttt WMI1 NI01I IflStH
slivers, capsules, and bricks. After a disk before leaving MLX.
few games you'll begin to develop To play Powerball, enter Here's a scene from early in the game.
strategies for each of the screens. As LOAD"POWERBALL",8,1 (tape Only one brick has been knocked out of
in Breakout, the object of the game users should use LOAD'TOWER- the firs! wall. The three slivers are
is to destroy a series of walls brick visible just below the wall.
BALL",1,1). Substitute the name
by brick. In Powerball, this can be you used to save the file. Start the
done in two ways—you may use game with SYS 49152.
your paddle to bounce balls against When the game begins, you'll
the wall, and you may shoot the see a paddle in the center of the i
wall down after catching a fire cap screen near the bottom. Below the
sule. Unlike Breakout, you must paddle you'll see an indication of •

quickly observe the characteristics the number of paddles remaining,


of each type of screen object to earn

your current score, and the high ■

high scores. score of the current series of games. •

You begin each game with four


Typing It In paddles available (only one paddle L rMsm i ttttt mimi iim Mun
w
Powerball is written in machine can be active at any given time,
Here, the player is using two balls to
language, so you'll need to use however). Use a joystick in port 2 to chip away the wall. An L capsule is
"MLX," the machine language en move the paddle left and right. rolling down the screen. If the player
try program found elsewhere in this Press the fire button to release the can catch it, his paddle (the gray bar at
issue. When you run MLX, you'll be ball and begin play. the bottom) will double in width.

46 COMPUTEIS Gazette May 1987


Bricks come in three varieties: near the top of the screen, and then capsule, your paddle will capture
soft, hard, and solid. Soft bricks are descend vertically down the screen. the ball so that you can reposition
green and are destroyed by being Touching a capsule with your pad the paddle for an accurate shot.
shot or by being hit by a ball. Hard dle gives the paddle a special ability Press fire to release the ball. If you
bricks start out gray and change depending on the color of the cap wait too long (about three seconds),
color each time they are hit. They sule. (If you're using a monochrome the ball will be released automati
must be turned green before they display, each type of capsule also cally. The purple P capsule turns
can be destroyed. Solid bricks are has a distinguishing label.) Below is the balls into power balls, which
white. They can be destroyed only a list of the capsule types and their destroy all types of bricks. After
by a power ball. However, it's not corresponding powers: you capture a red F capsule, your
necessary to destroy all the white paddle has the power to fire darts at
Label Color Power
bricks to advance to the next round. the bricks as well as to deflect the
S yellow slows down all balls
ball. Press the fire button to shoot
green paddle catches ball
Slivers And Capsules L blue paddle becomes longer the darts. The light blue 3 capsule
Slivers and capsules are the special red paddle fires splits the ball into three individual
features that distingush Powerball P purple ball becomes power ball balls (but only once each time one
3 It. blue ball splits inio ihree balls
from most other games of its type. of these capsules is touched—you'll
gray extra paddle
Slivers are small flashing objects N orange go lo next screen
never get more than three balls).
that change color as they float The split balls behave the same as
around the screen. Balls bounce off A standard paddle with no the original ball, except that you
the slivers. This can be helpful at special powers is white. When a don't lose a paddle until all ihree of
times (to deflect a descending ball), capsule is touched, the paddle takes the split balls have slipped past to
but, in general, slivers do more dam on the color of the capsule to indi the bottom of the screen. The gray *
age than good, Touching a sliver cate its current power. A paddle can capsule adds an extra paddle to
with your paddle sends the sliver to have only one power at a time; the your total when touched. Touching
the top of the screen where it is previous power is lost each time a an orange N capsule takes you to
least dangerous. There is no way to new capsule is touched. The special the next level, regardless of how
permanently destroy a sliver. power is also canceled when the many bricks remain on the current
Capsules are the same shape as paddle is lost. level. The gray * and the orange N
your paddle. They appear at ran A few notes about the powers: capsules are rare.
dom times and at random locations When you've caught the green C See program listing an page 93. o

10 MBYTE DRIVE
ULTRABYTE
V3.0
Itom M>. ■■llBl!
DISK
rut

EI'AMDABLI
NIBBLER
I ' ijr'rll
TRANSPARENT
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CHAINED
PARTITIONS
20 Mbyte Modal HFD-20 Copies 99 of protected soitware in 2 min. or less
OMLT '995.00 includes parameters for 160 recent, hard-to-copy
□ EOS" COMPATIBLE
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( Above may be ordered separately [O' S14.95 plus S4.00
1 *Bif lull WH"B"1>
shipping. Foreign orders add S2.00 )
Tilc DATA CHI ft n paftutirof ioiiwjn1* md ri*rrj-.*rn iJavilopari
Dujmpii uinri jiudcniv n-i[] itriOUl compu[*i aipartmnniars m Mastercard, Visa, Check or M.O., Calll. add 6.5% (S 2.601 sales lai.
well aa irjp Bullinin boards n>d UAiq but »yninms Foreign order) /COD add S2.011 Pnymcnt must be In U.S. tunda
TO ORDER SEND CERTif it D CHECK OH MQNE* OHDER TO
UPDATES-Return your original Ullrabyte disk with S10.00 plui
rjaryia^a i«iiQBrni add SS **ibi !■■
$4.00 shipping. Foreign add S2.00
a...^,^,^,^,^,^,^,^,^,^ Foe more .JilOimalaO") C*H
{301)371-4000 To order, write or call 24 hr. order line. For Into, write.
AltOw*-6 weBkjrJfll.hory [US Onl^l
i-* -?
" C-64 & C-t3Har-i irjuJg-nflilH oi
ULTRABYTE (818) 796-0576
103 BAuG.IUOrJS LJNE Cori"'iTiodiDre EiecUonics. Ltd P.O. Box 789 LaCanada, CA 91011 USA
SUITE Ml " GEOS is a IraDflmark ot
FHEDEniCK MO 21101 Berkeley SoFtworki DEALERS & DISTRIBUTORS WANTED

COMPUTED Gazette May 1987 -17


Lyco Computer
Marketing & Consultants

Lyco Computer is one of the oldest and most established computer suppliers in
America. Because we are dedicated to satisfying every customer, we have
earned our reputation as the best in the business. And, our six years of
experience in mail-order computer sales is your assurance of
knowledgeable service and quality merchandise.
Complete
We fill 95% of all orders every month. Here's how: • lowest prices
anywhero • multimillion $ factory fresh inventory ■ courteous,
knowledgeable sales stall • 24-hour shipping on in-stock items.
COMMODORE
Plus: • free shipping in U.S. on prepaid cash orders • no deposit on
C.O.D. orders • no sales tax outside PA • full manufacturers'
warranties apply • air freight, UPS Blue: Red shipping available. ■ Commodore 1902 A monitor
Call Lyco Computer. See for yourself why so many customers • Commodore 1571 Disk Drive
keep coming back to Lyco for the best prices, the most ■ Commodore 128 Computer
complete inventory, and our fast and courteous service.

To order, call toll-lree:


1-800-233-B76U
InPenna.: 1-717-494-1030
Customer Service:
1-717-494-1670
j.i-i-i-j t'A'rxA it-i i.' c-cm
Or write:
Lyco Computer. Inc.
hf+
P.O. Box 5088
Jersey Shore, PA 17740

Complete
VISA'

COMMODORE S4: ■
• Commodore 64 C Cot-npuler
niik-FrM Policy: • pfieos snow 40* casti
•1541 C Drive (90-day Warranty]
discount, odd 4°* (Of ciedil euros • APO, FPO.
inter national, add £5 plus 3D- lor plenty mail SeikoshaSP-1000 VC Pinter (reg. $789)
• A-Yiooy clQEirnnce requrrad on personal • 2 joystickt,
checKs • compatibility no! guftfanleed
• return authorization required • wo
check lor credit card I heft

Price and availability


5ub|ect to change
/
without noiicfl

zsmw

Mini) .v;-;

t^, E8 Computer
1571 Dish Drive
. ..S375
$229
C-1700 12BKRAM
1750RAM
.S'09.95
S169.95
tCComputer. .$175 IndusGTC-64Drive .. , S179 ,
IMICrJishDrrvB $185 GEOS SCALL/
iSOEMoniior J3B5 C-1351 Mouse S39
1802CMorttor S1B9 1670Mod*m $99

1-800-233-8760
^H

NOW AVAILABLE

COMMODORE PC 10-1 COMMODORE/PC 10-2


A complete
ready-to-use
package of
computing
power and
versatile I
graphics at an i-. p

affordable price! Pni


Print
Scienc

Access
Leader Be
Macn5
M«h-tSfl.,
rame...

Executive Tourna
memory and display - PC10-1:512KRAM serial printer or modem FREE WITH Tournament 01 .
capabilities to run (expandable to 640 K) port (RS-232) PURCHASE OF Triple Pack
MS-DOS and any IBM and 5-1/4" drive Cenlronics por! lor COMMODORE PC; Acllvislon:
PC-compatible soft ■ PC10-2:640KRAM parallel printer "Sidekick", the award Aliens -
ware and two 5/1/4" drives five fuf! expansion slots winning desktop Champion Batkoiball

flexible "open architec • factory-installed ATI organizer software Hacker — $


fan-equipped power
ture" design for easy Graphics Solution from Borland. Hacker 2 ,$2C
supply with reserve
Laovrlnth ,. $22.7
installation ol variety of Adapler eliminates capacity for expansion Muse Studio $22.75
options, including hard need (or installation flexibility Portal S26 95 .
drive of special graphics Tass Times S22 75/
cards Titanic SNe™,
H
THE NEW Mlcroproae: Car

® BLUE CHIP
F-!5StrikeEagle.. Part)
Gunstvp SH95 .
Unlsoi
Kennedy Approach $19.95 ,
PERSONAL COMPUTER / 100% IBM PC/X !
An Gattui
■ parallel printer port Silent Serv.ce $22 95,
Pnni Mas!
compatible - • I20wattpowersupply Sola Flight S19.95
Top Gunner $19 95^ Balteries Im
GUARANTEED ■ IBM AT-styie keyboard
Paper C»p...
Mlcroleague:
or your money low profile, step-sculp Paper Clip II...
Mero League Baseball . S24.95 ,
tured, 84 software Consurtant W ...
back! General Manager $24.95
programmable keys StatDist. S17.95,
ConsuHanHSfl....
BLUE CHIP • S12KRAMonthe CalKit
■ one 5/14" 360KBfloppy BSToamDisk $14.95 ,
mother board diskdrive, capable of / Micro League Wrestling SNew ,
serial (RS232C) data Second disk drive or /SiraloBlc Simulations:
communications port harddriveexpansion /GomstoneHsaier si895
six full-size expansion high resolution mono- / Gettysburg sae 95
slots chromatic video card / Kampioruppe...
-720x348 dots! /Phantasielt
/ RinootZelfln $2495/ /
• M*te by Hyundai. /Hoaa Waf 2000 K, ^ i

One year warranty on /sham oispr.no.. . . 12495


SOFTWARE
parts and labor. /wnams crown $2495
WaHnihoS Pacilic. .S39 95 / *™"*;
WaroameConst. $2195 / TnptePa* S1495
Battlocrwser $36 95 / Activlslon: / Access
Gomstone Warrior. .$14 95 / Encnantei Tnlog« $49.75/ Leafier I
GameMaker $31.75 / Tourname
"Our Customer Service Department is one example of how
much Lyco Computer cares about your satisfaction. Everyday
we talk to people from all over the world, and our goal with
each person who calls is to be as helpful, efficient, and
courteous as possible. We're ready to find the answers -- from
questions about the status of an order, to warranties, to
product availability and price - or guide you to someone who
can. And we're always here to help you., .before, during, and
after your purchase."

Sublogle: / Leather GooOesses 525 75 /Actlviilon:


Baseball Sadium 31595 / Term Paper $3575 /Borrowed Time....
Flight Simulator II $31.95 / Champ Basketball.. . $26.95 /champ. Baskotoall S2695
JeL Simulator $31.95 / Championship Golf SNew/ Championship Golf $32.95 _
Nighi Mission Pintail.... $21.95 / Micoprow: Hacker 52695

/COMMODORE sl5-9s/crusadeinEuropo $24.95 , Hacker2 S29.95


SuWogic Baseball M*S / OacxmmDewn J2J95 /UltloPoopla... $29.95
SOFTWARE Sublogic Football -S26.95 /F.|5St-lkOEaglo 52295 / Ml"*«ad.ow.. ... $26 95
Brodcrbund:
Epy«: SiiemService S2295 / MuseSludR).. . ..$35 95,
BanKSi Writer 128K.. (5171 /.. / Tass Times .$26.95,
Destroym ... ■«*■«•/ Microleague;
Microleaguo: /
Carman San Diego. .. 522.75
Fasitoad... .. S21.75 / M|WB
Micro |Lean.
„.,„ Ra^hal|
Baseball... SSS.9S
.125.95 /SirategkElmulaiions:
Champ. Lode Runner... .$24.75
Computer Baseball $2495
General Manager $35 95
Graphic Library I. tl. Ill. .S15 75
Karare Champ... atDsk $1795
iruope 534.95
Larateka S1B.75
Movie Monster..
tt Shop $35.75 eamDisk $1495 p
lulliplan $24.75 imulalor II
Shop Companion .522.75 und-
Sub Battle $23.95 Jet Simulator SCALl./
;hop Paper $12.75
Winter Games $23.95
K>t 535.75 Anoenl Art ol War. . $25 75 / Epyi;
Super Cycle $23 95
Pnm Shop $29.75 / Apsbal Tnlony S22.95
Grapbcs Saapbooh $14.95
Print Shop Companion. S25 75 / Rogue $32.95
.. $2495/ St. Sports Basketball $23.95
33 95/ World's Great Baseball. $19 95 CanwiS Diego|USA| $28 75 / Winter Games
Summer Games II $24.75
OnBala™ 56275 /nnjbird:
Bank Sl Writer.. ..$4475 /Pawl S2695/ Rogue. ...$19.75
Vorpol Utility Krt $15.75
lent... SI3.95 524 75/ Straieglc Simulations: Statglidor 536.95 Wimar Games . . . .$24.75
World Games ...
513.95 Battlegruppe $38 95 WorTd Giimes . 524 75
Unison World:
Firebird:
. . 514.95 Colonial Conquest... $25 95 Print Masler 534 95/ Strategic Simulations:
ColossusW 531.95
EWs $19.95
Gettysburg S35.95 AnGaiiery it>2 $18.95 / Poaa War 2000 524.95
$24.75
FrankloGoflstolialy $19.95
Phantasie II $25.95 yip. / Komplgruppe $36 95
22.75
Pawn.. 528.95 ,
Shard ol Spring $25 95 VIP Pioiesaonal . .. $115 / Srurdol Spring 52495
175 Wuards Crown 525 95 Batllit ot Antetem .. . S38 75
Talking Taadwf J2B 95 . Mlcroprose:
Tracker $31.95 Subloglc: Computer Baseball $14 95
Sileni Snrvicb $34.95
.$24.95 / Fhghi Simulator II $32.95 GetrysburQ $36.75
Starg'ider. .
$24 95 / -let Simulator Knights m Desert $25.75

Hi Tech Eipress ons:


/ Nigh; Mission
/, _
Pmball ....$22.95
..... Subloglc.
r „„ / Sconory#1-« 56995 Jet Simulator $32 95
oart Warn 16.75 /
idayPapet $895 / EPV*: Scenery Japan $1595
Ware ,. ... $6 75 / Osstroyur. $24.95 Scenery San Fran $15 95
(Ya^ 5975/ KaraiaChamp $1995 SOFTWAIIC, S=enory*l-<<6 ..56995
,„ . / Mo»io Monster 524 95 , / Broderburtd: / Bo™
, f .^/w.nte,Games
Winter Games 524.95 / Pobt"el $20 95 /Prini
flrldBnl A" ol War S2B9E S .. .$6.99

1
1W2 JJiV World Games
World
$33.95/ W[
Games $24.95
$: / Po"al
95 / Champ. Basketball $26.95
Shop... . 537.75 / DSDD $7 50
uoed:
WrosHing
/„ ._ _,.
$2'
/ BaBytwo $25.75 Print Shop Companion .. S31 75 / SKC:
Firebird:
Enchanter Trilogy 549.75
Graphic Library I or II $21 75/SSDO $8.50
$26.95
Colossus IV Chess $25.95
Leairier Goddesses $25.75,
Karaieka E21.75 / DSDD $9.50
$44.95
Elite... . $22 95 Moonm.51 535,75 / To* Sh0° . ...$39 95 / DSHD.... $18.95
$24.95
SM.95
The Pawn S26 95
-usicSlucto .532.7S SS4 95 /verbatim:
Stargmpr . . S2B95
$14 95 Mlcroprose:
Unison World / SSOD 9.99
Unison World:
Conllid in Viotnum tW.95 / A"Ga"o<y2 $18 95 /DSDD. .. $12 99
Art Gallery 2,.,. . ,$19.95 News Mastof $55.75
Crusade in Europe .... 5J4.S5
Print Master . $25.95 Pnnt Master $36.75
Decision in Oesen .. .$24.95
.S22.95 ' 3M:
Silant Service 522.95 SSDD .. $16.99
DSDD $23.99 .
Microteague:
MouU:
Micro leas Baseball . .525.95
General Manager $25 95 SSDD $1599
Stsl Dish . .$17.95 DSDD $21.99 ,

'86 Team Dish . $14 95 Diskettes VntMlhn:


We stoch over

WMGA Epyi:
' Apshai Tnlogy-.... . .$24 75
5-1/4
SSOD
DSDD
S1699
524 99.
5000 Hues ol
software. I' US nol
Destroyer 524.75 Maxell: SKC: listed, call tor price
ard $24 95 KaraleChamp $19.75 SSDD ,$9.99 SSOD SKI.99 and avallablIlly!
«1 514.95 Movw Monster $34.75 DSDD $12 99 DSDD $19.99
Citizen 120-D...$179

Panasonic 1080i. .$195


StarNX-10 $195
StarNP-10 $169

r.i
SeikoshaSP1000VC..$154
Seikosha SP1200Ai.. .$195 F"™ '7T'*?2fl'!!?"

SEIKOSHA BOB
inao . -.5199,
SP1000APIIC $179
13B0 .. S229:
SP1200ASR5232.$l95 1385 1289,
SL-80AI $375
MP1300AJ
MP 5300AJ
S439
S549
Toshiba
BP5420Ai $1075 / 2 : $479,
P341E
1300 Color Kit. ...$119
P351 Modal II SCALL
BP-5420 Ribbon .$12.50
SP-1000Ribbon.. ,$B.5O
OigRATA
Ofcimale 20 $129
mil roaici-1 he 120NLQ-... -S209
1 29? wjinlertace .... $539

NX-10C S209 Panasonic ' 293 w.'inierlace. .. $679 ,

Monitors
182 S235,
NL-10 $229 192- S365,
NX-15 $329 1091i.. ..$269 193t $559,
NB-15 $689 1092i $335 Tshnlka
MJ-305
SD-10 $259 1592 $399
ND-15 $425 1595 $499
JUKI MJ503 S529,

Zenllh
SR-10 $469 3131 $249 $55/ ZVM1220...
R5232 sen si ooara
NR-15 $529 3151 $379 JIM 6300 .3739 / ZVM1230,
NB24-15 $729 1080 AP lie $239 5399 /Panasonic
. .3139

EPSON Commodorn
1902ACokw. . .. .S2B5

NEC
EX 1000 $579
Wuliisync. . S5B9
LQ B00 $449
LQ1000 SS59
FX86E $369
$519

SILVER REED
Modems
Hayes

CITIZEN EXP42CP
EXP600P .
..$209
1539
Smartmoaem 300 ...
Smanmodem 1200
I12S
$369
EXP800P-. . S6J9 / Avalex
Premieie35 5469 Smarlmodem 12O0B . .. S339
1200
MSP-10 $285 , SmartmoOam 2400 .. .. S559
MSP-15 $385 . l/icromodem lie S12S
MSP-20 $325 Smart 3D0 Appla lie $149
MSP-2S M85 CommodOM
1670 S99

DIABLO Zoam
PC1200ST(lnlem,il|...

D25 SS19 Atari PClSOOXLjiniernal).... $2S3


63S $799, The r<vi\et 1200hc XM-301 S42.95 PC 2400 ST (internal). £325
D-801F $1029 SX212 SCALL PC 2400 XL internal) .. $349

We slcch inlcrfactrg Tor Alan. CqmmQdore. Apple and IBM


Cassette
Sleeve Maker
David I to

Make custom cassette sleeves for your musk or computer cas


For more information
sette tape collection. For the Commodore 64, 128, Plus/'4, or 16
about the Clearinghouse,
with any printer. please fill out and mail back
the coupon below.
If you're like a lot of people, you've back.
probably accumulated a number of Enter the names of the songs or
tape copies of your record albums programs on side A of the tape.
or CDs. Or perhaps you use a Press RETURN after each name, or louse
Datassette for storage and have RETURN alone to enter a blank
built up a large library of program line. Avoid using the INST/DEL
tapes. While a tape can be recorded key to delete mistakes; instead use
over and over, the cassette sleeve the cursor keys to move back and
can be used only once. The result is forth within the line to make cor Yes! I would like to know more about UM1
mislabeled, unlabeled, or sloppy- rections. After each line you'll be Article Clearinghouse. 1 am interested in
looking tapes. "Cassette Sleeve given a chance to correct any electronic ordering through the folim'ing
system!!]:
Maker" lets you easily create your errors—just follow the prompts. If
3 DIALOC'Dialorder □ ITT Diatcom
own cassette sleeves with your you have fewer than 14 entries for
DOCLCILL
computer and printer. The sleeves the front of the sleeve, you can en Subsystem
are just the right size to slide into a ter an up arrow {T) to skip ahead to j Other (please specifyl.
standard cassette case. the cassette identification field (line 31 am interested in sending my order by
After typing in the program, be 15). You can use lines 15-16 for the mail.
sure to save a copy. The program name of the artist or group and the 'Z Please send me your current catalog and
works as listed on the 128, 64, album that you recorded on side A. user instructions for the system(s) I
checked abme.
Plus/4, or 16, and with any printer. Lines 17-19 can be used for addi
When you want to make a sleeve, tional song or program names, or to Name-
load and run the program. You'll be list the artist and album name again. Title-
asked whether you want to enter If you selected the option to Institution/Company.
information for one or both sides of enter information for two sides,
the tape. For each side, you can en you'll now repeat the entry process Department-
ter up to 19 lines of information. for side B. When you've finished,
Address
Each line can be up to 19 characters the program will wait for you to get
City .State. .Zip-
long. The first 14 lines will be printed your printer ready. Press RETURN
Phone(
on the part of the sleeve that will to print the sleeve. When the print
show on the front of the cassette out is complete, simply cut out the
Mail lo: University Microfilms International
case, lines 15-16 will appear on the sleeve, fold on the dotted lines, and 300 North Zeeb Ruad, Box 91 Ann Arbor. Ml 48106
bottom when the sleeve is folded, insert it into the cassette case.
and lines 17-19 will appear on the See program listing on page 97. O

52 COMPUTE'S Gajelle May 1987


Super Software Hits!
Cadpak SuperC Super Pascal
C is one of today's most popular languages. Your complete system for developing
It's easy to transport C source code from applications in Pascal. A complete implemen
one computer to another. With Super C you tation ot standard Pascal (Jensen and
can develop software or just learn C on your Wirth). C-64 version has a high-speed DOS
Commodore. Super C takes full advantage (3X) for quick and efficiont uso. The
of this versatile language. Produces 6502 extensive editor (sourco includod) contains
machine code and Is many times faster than added features: appond, soarch and
BASIC. Includes full-screen editor (search, replace. Assomblnr Includod to optionally
replace and block operations), compiler, code in machine language. Super Pascal
is so capable that it's used in hundreds of
schools to teach Pascal. But it can be used
for more than just loarning Pascal, uso it for

Design picturos and graphics quickly and


Super C serious programming. Tho graphic library
(source included) is written in machine
Language Compiler language for fast execution. Want to loam
precisely. Uniike other drawing programs,
Pascal or develop software using tho best
you can produce exact scaled output on
tool? Super Pascatis your first choice.
your printer. Design in the units of your Leam the the language of forC-64 $59.95 forC-128 S59.95
drawing problem (feet, miles, meters, etc.)
and send hardcopy to most printers. Uses the 80's and beyond
either the keyboard or a lightpen. Two on your'64 and'128
separate work screens—transfer artwork
from one screen to thB other. Place tent in
four sizes anywhere in the picture—three linker and handbook. Combine up to seven
Super Pascal
oxtra fonts includod: Old English, 3-D and modulos with the linkor. Bosidos the
Tech, "Try Again" functions allows you to standard I/O library, a graphic library (plot : languageC er
undo a mistake. Solid or dashed lines, points, draw linos, fill in aioas) and a m3th
circles, ellipses at any angle, rays and library (sin, cos, tan, log, arctan, more) are
boxes. Save and edit fill patterns, fonts and included. Whether you want to learn C, or
. .Expand your programming. %
objects. Cadpak is the full-featured design program in a serious C environment for your
fiijrizohson your '64 and '128:
package for your Commodore computer. Commodore, Super C is the one to buy.
torC-64 $39.95 lorC-128 S59.9S for C-64 $59.95 forC-123 S59.9S

Super Book Hits!


GEOS
INSIDE
cTR ■ a « ra o

AND OUT

fa o m c S o R

Anatomy ot i"t C 64 Anatomy ot th* 1541 Dffw Trkkw A Tpa tor th9 r (<* QEOS tnsttie and Out CEOS Tricks ind Tip*
Inakfofi Qutas to'M Intarn.i &e«| handbook on ill Is drfva. CoHoclcfioT Buy-lo-uso leclv Dtiattod mio on GEOS. Add Colleciion of naiplul t«ch-
Graphics, SOund, \/D, »iplains ml. Filled with many niquos: advanced graphic*. you* own application* to mquos lor all GEOS userg.
ory mi d i>xsimp:05 programs, utiMios Improved data Input, CP'M, □EOS. Edn Icons. ConetanT Incluflaa sou'co lor a font
mor# C ■>■.. -'N' com man u»d Fully cornmflfiled 1511 ROM *(ihan«*d BASIC, data hand display clock. Single-stup <:■.'.' ■ and a machine im i
>•■.•:• i ■.■„.', JOOpp . i i ■'■ Haling!! SOOpp S19.S5 ling and more. 27Spp &19.SS thJ mwnxjry $19 95 uig* monitof. S^995

iw rj ^j^. ™^ _j_j u^

INTERNALS BASIC 7.0


INTEHNAUS
|5 o ^ o

01 -j (B "j1

O ^ 73 lj_ to
in g-a . g
Q ce 5 »
I mpon a nl C-1 ? B mTo^malion
J INTERNALS C-T2*/*££*£ 4 POKES C- ;^ B asic ?.Q intom* is 5 H o
l reference Intemil Fascinating anrj pradCJi Inra Dqzons of programming Get an ihfl Jnside< info on
Coven graphic ehpi, MMU, drlwn function3 Explains on ins C-12S eo-coi hires tjuick-hrtfofs loenniquas on BASIC 7 0 This s*hauifi^P
I/O, flO column grapTiic* And various disk and fits format! graphics, banV iwilcMng. ma operating a^t*m, Hicksr handbook is complele «iih
fully cornm»nl*0 ROM Fully-cOnimenTed ROM 300 pages of useful inf r«ro p.igu, poinlerar and lulV cornmani(*ij BASIC 7 0
Inlirigt. rnor*. lollnpa. 45Opp Sl9 95 alon tot * S BASIC. 24Dpp S1G95 ROM Islmgs ^ 95
SpeedScript 3.2
For The Commodore 64
Charles Brannon

Since its introduction in the January 1984 issue of COMPUTEI's SCRIPT" would be the best choice
Gazette, SpeedScript has been the most popular program ever if you intend to use "SpeedScript
Date And Time Stamper" found
published by COMPUTE! Publications. Written entirely in ma
elsewhere in this issue).
chine language, SpeedScript contains nearly every command Before using SpeedScript, you
and convenience you'd expect from a quality word processor. should unplug any cartridges and
The latest version of Commodore 64 SpeedScript, version 3,2, expanders. SpeedScript cannot take
incorporates many improvements, readers' suggestions, and ad advantage of any custom hardware
configurations except those that do
ditional debugging. This version also works on a Commodore
not interfere with normal operations.
128 in 64 mode.
SpeedScript 3.2, though compact in sue. (If you already have a copy of
size (6K), has many features found SpeedScript 3.0 from the March 1985
on commercial word processors. issue of COMPUTE! or SpeedScript ^fpfdSfr d't v.>j bttn ihf "■■! i __ r-f.r ill.ii

PuhA tcations. Etitttn nn'imv in


SpeedScript is also very easy to leam 3.1 from the book SpeedScript: The MflfhiflD- Jjngijslgej Spi'Hi^tMPT (OrH.)jn;
nearly ecorv con-iind jnd tanvpntrnci?

and use. You can start writing with it Word Processor for Commodore 64 and yocj'd etpett irun > quality vorJ

Con-odore 64 Speed$trip1H version 3,?,


the first time you use it. You type in V1C-20, it's not necessary to retype
reajnr5' ^uggps'iojiS^ -ina jiiiii 1 nn\*i

everything first; preview and make the entire program. Skip to the sec !f-mg'3iii«% This version al^o wrrhv an i

corrections on the screen; insert and tion entitled "The SpeedScript Fam
delete words, sentences, and para ily" for simple modifications to
graphs; and then print out an error- update your copy to version 3.2.)
free draft, letting SpeedScript take When you run MLX, you'll be
care of things like margins, center prompted for a starting address and
ing, headers, and footers. an ending address for the data you'll SpeedScript 3.2 is the latest version of
be entering. For SpeedScript 3.2, re COMPUTE! Publications' popular full-
SpeedScript is a writing tool. It
spond with the following values: fcatured word processor for the Commo
won't necessarily make you a better
dore 64.
writer, but you may become a bet Starting Address: 0S01
ter writer once the tedium of retyp Ending Address: 2008

ing and erasing is replaced by the When you've finished typing Entering Text
flexibility of a word processor. in the data, save several copies to When you run SpeedScript, the
Words are no longer frozen in place tape or disk before leaving MLX. screen colors change to dark gray
by ink; they become free-floating on light gray except for the top
entities. You no longer think about Loading SpeedScript screen line, which is black with
typewriting—you can stand back SpeedScript can be loaded just as if it white letters. This command line is
and work directly with words and were a BASIC program. If you load used to communicate with Speed-
ideas. The distinction between SpeedScript and list it, you'll see that Script. SpeedScript presents all mes
rough and final drafts becomes it looks like a one-line BASIC pro sages here. The remaining lines of
blurred as you perfect your writing gram. This BASIC line is included the screen are used to enter, edit,
as you write. to make the program easy to load, and display your document. The
run, and copy. It's a good idea to cursor shows where the next char
Typing In SpeedScript save a couple of extra copies of acter you type will appear on the
SpeedScript is one of the longest SpeedScript, just in case the original screen. SpeedScript lets you move
programs we've ever published, is destroyed. To do this, type the cursor anywhere within your
but it's well worth typing in. Since 5AVE"SPEEDSCRIPT3.2",8 (or ,1 document, making it easy to find
SpeedScript is a machine language if you're using tape) after loading and correct errors.
program, it must be entered with SpeedScript, just as you would for a To begin using SpeedScript, just
the "MLX" machine language entry BA5IC program. Use whatever file start typing. When the cursor
program found elsewhere in this is- name you like (although "SPEED- reaches the right edge of the screen,
54 COMPUTE'S Gazette May 1987
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it automatically jumps to the begin printed page will end. When print for special-function key 1, and up
ning of the next line, just as in ing, SpeedScript automatically fits arrow for the upward-pointing ar
BASIC. But unlike BASIC, Speed- your text onto separate pages and row to the left of the RESTORE key.
Script never splits words at the right can even put short phrases and Some keys let you move the
edge of the screen. If a word you're page numbers at the top or bottom cursor to different places in the doc
typing won't fit at the end of one of each page if you want. ument to make corrections or scroll
line, it's instantly moved to the next Like all good word processors, text into view. SpeedScript uses a
line. This feature, called word-wrap, SpeedScript has a wide selection of unique method of cursor movement
makes it much easier to read your editing and convenience features. that is related to writing, not pro
text on the screen. Even if you make You can move the cursor a single gramming. Programmers work
numerous editing changes, Speed- space in either direction, or skip to with lines of text and need to move
Script reformats the screen and re- the next or previous word, sen the cursor up and down a line or left
wraps all words. tence, or paragraph. You can also and right across a line. SpeedScript,
move the cursor to the top of the however, is oriented for writers.
Scrolling And screen, the top of the document, or You aren't working with lines of
Screen Formatting the end of the document. The text, but with a continuous
When you finish typing on the last INST/DEL key is used to insert a document.

screen line, SpeedScript automati single space or delete a single char Therefore, SpeedScript moves

cally scrolls the text upward to


acter. Other features let you erase a the cursor by character, word, sen
make room for a new line at the
word, sentence, or paragraph, and tence, or paragraph. SpeedScript de
bottom. This is similar to the way
move or copy sentences, words, fines a word as any sequence of
and paragraphs to other places in characters preceded or followed by
BASIC works, but with one excep
your document. Using Search-and- a space. A sentence is any sequence
tion: The screen can scroll both up
Replace, you can find any phrase of characters ending with a period,
and down. Imagine the screen as a
and even automatically change one exclamation point, question mark,
24-line window on a long, continu
phrase to another throughout the or return mark. And a paragraph is
ous document.
entire document. defined as any sequence of charac
More than 43K of text space is
You can save your text on tape ters ending in a return mark.
available in memory, room enough
or disk, then load it later for addi (Again, a return mark appears on
for 20-40 printed pages of text. To
tions and corrections. You can the screen as a left-pointing arrow.)
check at any time how much space
transpose (exchange) two charac Here's how to control the
is left, press CTRL-= (hold down
ters, change the screen and text col cursor:
the CTRL key while pressing the =
ors, send disk commands, read the
key). The number which appears • The left/right-cursor key works
disk error channel, and automati as usual; pressing this key by itself
on the command line indicates how
cally tab over five spaces for para
much room remains for characters moves the cursor right (forward)
graph indents. You don't need to
of text. one space, and pressing it with
learn all these commands right SHIFT moves the cursor left (back
If you're used to a typewriter,
away, but you'll be glad they're ward) one space.
you'll have to unluarn some habits.
available as you become more com
First, since the screen is only 40 • The up/down-cursor key moves
fortable with word processing.
columns wide, and most printers the cursor forward to the beginning
have 80-column carriages, it of the next sentence. Pressing it
doesn't make sense to press RE Using The Keyboard with SHIFT moves the cursor back
TURN at the end of each line as you Most of SpeedScript's features are ward to the beginning of the previ
do on a typewriter. SpeedScript's accessed with control-key com ous sentence.
word-wrap takes care of this auto mands—you hold down CTRL
• The fl function key moves the
matically. Press RETURN only while pressing another key. In this cursor forward to the beginning of
when you want to force a carriage article, control-key commands are the next word. The f2 key (hold
return to end a paragraph or to limit abbreviated CTRL-* (where x is the
down SHIFT and press fl) moves
the length of a line. So that you can key you press in combination with the cursor backward to the begin
see these forced carriage returns, CTRL). An example is the CTRL- = ning of the previous word.
they appear on the screen as left- mentioned above to check on free
memory. CTRL-E means hold • The f3 function key moves the
pointing arrows (called return marks
down CTRL and press E. Some cursor forward to the beginning of
in this article).
times you have to hold down both the next sentence (just like the up/
When you print your docu
SHIFT and CTRL as you type the down-cursor key). The f4 key
ment, SpeedScript automatically for
(hold down SHIFT and press f3)
mats your text to fit the width of the command key, as in SHIFT-CTRL-
H. Other keys are referenced by moves the cursor backward to the
paper. Don't manually space over
beginning of the previous sentence
for a left margin or try to center a name or function, such as back ar
row for the left-pointing arrow in
(just like pressing SHIFT and the
line yourself as you would on a
up/down-cursor key).
typewriter. SpeedScript's printing the top-left corner of the keyboard,
routine automatically takes care of pound sign for the British pound ■ The f5 function key moves the
all margins and centering and lets symbol (£), CLR/HOME for the cursor forward to the beginning of
you customize the margin settings. home-cursor key, SHIFT-CLR/ the next paragraph. The f6 key
Also, don't worry about where a HOME for the clear-screen key, fl (hold down SHIFT and press f5)

5fl COMPUTEis Gflzer/e May 1987


Figure 1: SpeedScript Keyboard Map

Use (cnii)with most commands.


w/shift
ln"rt 5 Disk Insert a
(indent)
Command Home
cursor

n/*rt
Restore ln/*rt Ki" Print Enter
™"' w/shift
Mode
Mde buffer
bff rr "" format keif Erase All

f®(40Q©

Q©©£
n)©l©©fe)©(i
Lettering j Rnf c^rsor

s.Irch Border ***>" '"""' HT"*


left
WshTft*
& Replace Color Preyious
sentence

CTRL A Change case RUN/STOP Indent 5 spaces


CTRL B Change border color with SHIFT: Insert 255 spaces
CTRLD Delete (Sentence, Word, Paragraph) RESTORE Exit SpeedScript (Commodore 64}
CTRLE Erase (Sentence, Word, Paragraph) with RUN/STOP: Exit SpeedScript (VIC-20)
CTRLG Global search and replace Backspace
CTRLH Hunt for phrase with CTRL: Delete character under cursor
with SHIFT: Select hunt phrase and close up text
CTRL I Enter/exit insert mode with SHIFT and CTRL: Delete all spaces
CTRL J Replace from cursor to next character
with SHIFT: Select replace phrase RETURN Return mark
CTRLK Kill buffer with SHIFT: End paragraph, add an extra
CTRL L Change text character color return mark, and indent next paragraph
CTRL P Print INST/DEL Delete character
CTRL R Restore buffer with SHIFT: Insert space
CTRL V Verify
CTRLX Transpose characters
CTRL Z Go to end of text
CTRL = Display amount of free memory fl Next Word
CTRLT Send disk command or read error channel
f2 Previous Word
CTRL 4 Display disk directory
CTRLE Enter format (printer) commands f.3 Next Sentence
CTRL 3 Commodore 64 only: Same as CTRL-E
CLR/HOME Press once to go to top of screen f4 Previous Sentence
Hold down to go to top of text
fS Next Paragraph
with SHIFT: Erase all text
CRSR Move the cursor left one character f6 Previous Paragraph
(left/right) with SHIFT: Move Ihe cursor right one character
f7 Load
CRSR Got to next sentence
(up/down) with SHIFT: Go to previous sentence f8 Save

moves the cursor backward to the to ihe beginning of the document. in your printed document. Since
beginning of the previous • CTRL-Z moves the cursor to the you've typed everything before you
paragraph. bottom of the document. print it, you have plenty of oppor
• CLR/HOME, pressed once by it tunities to proofread and correct
self, moves the cursor to the top of Correcting Your Typing your work. The easiest way to cor
the screen without scrolling. One strength of a word processor is rect something is just to type over
Pressed twice, it moves the cursor that you need never have mistakes it, but there are other ways, too.

COMPUTED Gazelle May 1987 59


Sometimes you'll have to in to insert 255 spaces. This is enough sentence, W for a word, or P for a
sert characters to make a correction. room for a sentence or two. You can paragraph. Each time you press one
Maybe you accidentally dropped a press it several times to open up as of these letters, the text is quickly
letter, typing hngry instead of much space as you need. And SHIF erased. You can keep pressing S, W,
hungry. When you change the T-RUN/STOP is fast. (You don't or P until you've erased all the text
length of a word, you need to push want to be in insert mode when you you wish. Then press RETURN to
over everything to the right of the use this trick; that would defeat its exit the erase mode.
word to make room for the inser purpose.) The CTRL-D (delete) mode
tion. Use SHIFT-INST/DEL to Since the INST/DEL key is also works similarly, but deletes only
open up a single space, just as in slow when you're working with one word, sentence, or paragraph at
BASIC. Merely position the cursor large documents (it, too, must move a time. First, place the cursor after
at the point where you want to in all text following the cursor), you the word, sentence, or paragraph
sert a space, and press SHIFT- may prefer to use the back-arrow (-) you want to delete. Then press
INST/DEL. key to backspace. The back-arrow CTRL-D. Next, press S, W, or P for
key by itself moves the cursor left sentence, word, or paragraph. The
Insert Modes one space and blanks out that posi text is immediately deleted and you
It can be tedious to use the SHIFT- tion. It's more like a backspace than a return to editing. You don't need to
INST/DEL key to open up enough delete. press RETURN to exit the CTRL-D
space for a whole sentence or para After you're finished inserting mode unless you pressed this key
graph. For convenience, SpeedScript with these methods, there will prob by mistake. On general, you can es
has an insert mode that automati ably be some inserted spaces left cape from any command in Speed-
cally inserts space for each charac over that you didn't use. Just press Script by simply pressing RETURN.)
ter you type. In this mode, you can't SHIFT-CTRL-back arrow. This in CTRL-D is most convenient when
type over characters; everything is stantly deletes all extra spaces be the cursor is already past what
inserted at the cursor position. To tween the cursor and the start of the you've been typing.
enter insert mode, press CTRL-I. following text. SHIFT-CTRL-back
To cancel insert mode, press CTRL- arrow is also generally useful when The Text Buffer
I again. (This kind of command key, ever you want to delete a bunch of When you erase or delete with
one which is used to turn some spaces. CTRL-E and CTRL-D, the text isn't
thing both on and off, is called a lost forever. SpeedScript remembers
toggle). To let you know you're in Erasing Text what you've removed by storing
insert mode, the normally black Inserting and retyping are not the deletions in a separate area of mem
command line at the top of the only kinds of corrections you'll need ory called a buffer. The buffer is a
screen turns blue. to make. Part of writing is separating fail-safe device. If you erase too
Insert mode is the easiest way the wheat from the chaff. On a type much or change your mind, just
to insert text, but it can become too writer, you pull out the paper and press CTRL-R to restore the dele
slow when you're working with a throw it away. SpeedScript lets you tion. However, be aware that Speed-
very long document because it be more selective. Script remembers only the last erase
must move all the text following the Press the INST/DEL key by it or delete you performed.
cursor position. Although Speed- self to erase the character to the left Another, more powerful use of
Script uses turbocharged memory- of the cursor. All the following text is this buffer is to move or copy sec
move routines, the 6510 pulled back to fill the vacant space. tions of text. To move some text
microprocessor can go only so fast. Press CTRL-back arrow to de from one location in your docu
So SpeedScript has even more ways lete the character on which the cur- ment to another, first erase or delete
to insert blocks of text. sor is sitting. Again, all the it with CTRL-E or CTRL-D. Then
One way is to use the RUN/ following text is moved toward the move the cursor to where you want
STOP key. It is programmed in cursor to fill the empty space. the text to appear and press CTRL-
SpeedScript to act as a five-space These keys are fine for minor R. CTRL-R instantly inserts the
margin indent. To end one para deletions, but it could take a long contents of the buffer at the cursor
graph and start another, press RE time to delete a whole paragraph position. If you want to copy some
TURN twice and press RUN/STOP. this way. So SpeedScript has two text from one part of your docu
Alternatively, you can press SHIFT- commands that can delete an entire ment to another, just erase or delete
RETURN, which does this automat word, sentence, or paragraph at a it with CTRL-E or CTRL-D, restore
ically. You can use RUN/STOP to time. CTRL-E erases text after (to it at the original position with
open up more space than SHIFT- the right of) the cursor position, and CTRL-R, and then move the cursor
INST/DEL. No matter how much CTRL-D deletes text behind (to the elsewhere and press CTRL-R to re
space you want to insert, each inser left of) the cursor. store it again. You can retrieve the
tion takes the same amount of time. To use the CTRL-E (erase) buffer with CTRL-R as many times
So the RUN/STOP key can insert mode, first place the cursor at the as you like.
five spaces five times faster than beginning of the word, sentence, or Important: The CTRL-E erase
pressing SHIFT-INST/DEL five paragraph you want to erase. Then mode lets you erase up to the maxi
times. press CTRL-E. The command line mum size of the buffer (12K, or over
There's an even better way, shows the message Erase (S,W,P): 12,000 characters). CTRL-E normal
though. Press SHIFT-RUN/STOP RETURN to exit. Press S to erase a ly removes the previous contents of

60 COMPUTED Gazette May 1987


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OPEN 7 DAYS
A WEEK &
EVENINGS
the buffer each time it is used. Keep Search-And-Replace place phrase until you change it. You
this in mind if there's something in Here's another feature only a com can press RETURN alone at the Re
the buffer you'd rather keep. If you puter can bring to writing. Speed- place with: prompt to select a null re
don't want the current buffer con- Script has a Hunt command that place phrase. When you hunt and
tents to be erased, press searches through your document to replace, this deletes the located
SHIFT-CTRL-E instead. This pre find a selected word or phrase. A Re phrase. To search and replace man
serves the buffer contents and adds place option lets you automatically ually, start by pressing CTRL-H.
newly erased text to the buffer. change one word to another After SpeedScript has found the
Now you can see why CTRL-D throughout the document. Since on search phrase, press CTRL-J (without
lets you delete only a single sen the 64, CTRL-S is synonymous with SHIFT) if you want to replace the
tence, word, or paragraph at a time. the CLR/HOME key (try it), and phrase. If you don't want to replace
If it didn't, the deleted text would since SpeedScripl already uses CTRL- the phrase, don't press CTRL-]. You
be added to the end of the buffer, R, several command keys which are are not in a special search-and-
and when you pressed CTRL-R to slightly less than mnemonic have replace mode. You're free to contin
retrieve the buffer, the deleted text been designated for these functions. ue writing at any time.
would be out of order (since CTRL-D CTRL-G links CTRL-H and
SHIFT-CTRL-H activates the
deletes backward). Hunt feature, SHIFT-CTRL-J (J is CTRL-J together. It first asks Hunt
If you ever need to erase the for:, then Replace with:, and then
used because it's next to the H) lets
contents of the buffer, press CTRL- you selectively hunt and replace, and automatically searches and replaces
K (remember kill buffer). CTRL-G (Global) is for automatical throughout the document starting at
It's relatively easy to move ly searching and replacing. the cursor position.
blocks of text between documents. Searching for something is a A few hints and cautions: First,
Using the buffer, you can load one
two-step process. First, you need to realize that if you use the as the
document, erase some text into the
tell SpeedScript what to search for; search phrase, SpeedScript dutifully
buffer, load another document, and then you must trigger the actual finds the embedded the in words like
then insert the buffer contents into search. Press SHIFT-CTRL-H. The therefore and heathen. If you changed
the new document. You can also use
command line says Hunt for:. Type all occurrences of the to cow, these
the buffer to save an often-used
in what you'd like to search for—the words would become cowrefore and
word or phrase, then repeat it when
search phrase—up to 29 characters. hcacown. If you want to find or re
ever you need it.
SpeedScript remembers the search place a single word, include a space
phrase until you change it. (Inciden as the first character of the word,
Starting From Scratch tally, when you are typing on the since almost all words are preceded
If you want to start a new document command line, the only editing key by a space. Naturally, if you are re
or simply obliterate all your text, that works is INST/DEL for backing placing, you need to include the
press SHIFT-CLR/HOME. Speed- up. SpeedScript does not let you enter space in the replace phrase, too.
Script asks, ERASE ALL TEXT: Are control codes or cursor controls Also, SpeedScript distinguishes be
you sure? (Y/N). This is your last when you're typing on the command tween uppercase and lowercase. The
chance. If you don't want to erase the line.) Press RETURN after you've en word Meidids does not match with
entire document, press N or any oth tered the search phrase. If you press meldids. SpeedScnpt will not find a
er key. Press Y to perform the irre RETURN alone without typing any- capitalized word unless you capital
versible deed. There is no way to thing, the Hunt command is ize it in the search phrase. To cover
recover text wiped out with Erase canceled. all bases, you will sometimes need to
All. When you're ready to search, make two passes when replacing a
The RUN/STOP-RESTORE re press CTRL-H (without the SHIFT). word. Keep these things in mind
set combination on the Commodore SpeedScript looks for the next occur when using CTRL-G since you don't
64 has been disabled in SpeedScript. rence of the search phrase starting have a chance to stop an out-of-
As mentioned above, pressing from the current cursor position. If control search-and-replace.
RUN/STOP by itself inserts five you want to hunt through the entire
spaces for indenting paragraphs. document, press CLR/HOME twice Storing Your Document
Pressing just RESTORE brings to move the cursor to the very top Another advantage of word process
up the message Exit SpeedScript: Are before beginning the search. Each ing is that you can store your writing.
you sure? (Y/N), If you press Y for time you press CTRL-H, SpeedScript A Commodore disk, with 170K of
yes, you exit to BASIC. {If you press looks for the next occurrence of the storage space, can store 80-150
N or any other key at the prompt, search phrase and places the cursor pages of text as several document
you return to editing text with no at the start of the phrase. If the search files. Tapes also have great storage
harm done.) Once in BASIC you'll fails (if the search phrase isn't found capability—but they're slower.
still have one chance to reenter before the end of the document), It's easy to store a document.
SpeedScript without losing your you'll see the message Not Found. Hirst, make sure your cassette or disk
text—simply enter RUN and your CTRL-J (Replace) works to drive is plugged in and functioning.
text should be intact when Speed- gether with CTRL-H. After you've Insert a tape or disk into the drive.
Script is restarted. (Your chances of specified the search phrase with Press the f8 function key (SHIFT-f7).
recovering text decrease if you exe- SHIFT-CTRL-H, press SHIFT- You'll see the prompt Save:. Type in
cute other commands while in CTRL-J to select the replace phrase. a filename for your document. A file
BASIC.) SpeedScript also remembers this re name can be up to 16 characters long
COMPUTED Gazelle May 19S7 &5
and can include almost any charac to move the cursor to the end of the tory flagged with an asterisk. Vali
ters, but do not use question marks document, and then load the file you date can take awhile to finish.
or asterisks. You cannot use the same want to merge. Do not place the cur uj: Resets the disk drive to
name for hvo different documents on sor somewhere in the middle of your power-up state.
a single disk. To replace a document document before loading. A Load
already on disk using the same file does not insert the characters coming Additional Features
name, precede your filename with in from tape or disk into your old SpeedScript has a few commands
the characters @0: or @:. You can text, but overwrites all existing text that don't do much, but are still nice
also precede the filename with either after the cursor position. The last to have. CTRL-X exchanges the
0: or 1: if you use a dual disk drive. character loaded becomes the new character under the cursor with the
SpeedScript cannot access a second end-of-text marker, and you cannot character to the right of the cursor.
disk drive with a device number of 9. access any of your old text that may Thus, you can fix transposition er
After entering the filename, an appear after this marker. rors with a single keystroke. CTRL-
swer the prompt Tape or Disk by A changes the character under the
pressing either the T or D key. You Disk Commands cursor from uppercase to lowercase
can cancel the Save command by Sometimes you forget the name of a or vice versa. You can hold down
pressing RETURN without typing file or need to scratch or rename a CTRL-A to continue changing the
anything else at either the Save: or file. SpeedScript gives you full control following characters.
Tape or Disk prompt. over the disk drive. To view the disk Press CTRL-B to change the
After you press T for tape, press directory, press CTRL-4. The direc background and border colors. Each
RECORD and PLAY simultaneously tory will be displayed on ihe screen time you press CTRL-B, one of 16
on the cassette drive. SpeedScript be without affecting the text in memory. different background colors ap
gins saving. If you press D for disk, Press any key to pause scrolling. Af pears. Press CTRL-L to cycle be
your file is stored relatively quickly terward, press RETURN to switch tween one of 16 character (lettering)
(if the disk is formatted and has back to your text. All the other disk colors. The colors are preserved un
room). After the Save, SpeedScript re commands are also accessible. Just til you change them. In fact, if you
ports No errors if all is well, or reads press CTRL-TI (up arrow); then type exit and resave SpeedScript, the pro
and reports the disk error message in a 1541 disk command. You don't gram will load and run with your
otherwise. need to type PRINT#15 or any quo color choice in the future.
The Commodore 64 is not able tation marks as you do in BASIC—
to detect errors during a tape Save, so just the actual command. If you press Printing
SpeedScript provides a verify com RETURN without typing a disk com If you already think SpeedScript has
mand. Rewind the tape, press mand, SpeedScript displays the disk plenty of commands, wait until you
CTRL-V, and then type the file status. It also displays the status after see what the printing package of
name. Press T for tape; press PLAY completing a disk command. Here is fers. SpeedScript supports an array
on the recorder. SpeedScript will no a quick summary of disk commands: of powerful formatting features. It
tify you if there is an error. automatically fits your text between
n:disk ttame,ID This formats
(NEWs) a disk. You must format a left and right margins that you can
Loading A Document new disk before using it for the first specify. You can center a line or
To recall a previously saved docu time. The disk name can be up to 16 block it against the right margin.
ment, press the f7 function key. An characters. The ID (identifier) is any SpeedScript skips over the perfora
swer the Load: prompt with the two characters. You must use a tion on continuous-form paper, or it
filename. Insert the tape or disk with unique ID for each disk you have. can wait for you to insert single-
the file you want to load and press T Don't forget that this command sheet paper. A line of text can be
or D. Press PLAY if you're using erases any existing data on a disk. printed at the top of each page (a
tape. SpeedScript loads the file and header) and/or at the bottom of
S'.filename Scratches (deletes) a
should display No errors. Otherwise, each page (a footer), and it can in
file from the disk.
SpeedScript reads the error channel clude automatic page numbering,
r.naoname=oldname Changes
of the disk drive or reports Load error starting with whatever number you
the name of file oldname to newname,
for tape. like.
It's important to position of the cbackup filename — original
SpeedScript can print on differ
cursor correctly before loading a file. name Creates a new file (the backup
ent lengths and widths of paper,
SpeedScript starts loading at the cur copy) of an existing file (original and single-, double-, or triple-
sor position, so be sure to press copy) on the same disk. spacing (or any spacing, for that
CLR/HOME twice or SHIFT-CLR/ i: Initializes a disk. This resets matter) is easy. You can print a doc
HOME (Erase All) to move the cur several disk variables and should ument up to the size that can be
sor to the start of text space, unless be used after you swap disks or held on a disk or tape by linking
you want to merge two documents. when you have trouble reading a several files together during print
When you press f7 to load, the com disk. ing. You can print to the screen or to
mand line turns green to warn you if v: Validates a disk. This recom a sequential disk file instead of to a
the cursor is not at the top of the text putes the number of available printer. Other features let you print
space. blocks and can sometimes free up to most printers using most printer
To merge two or more files, sim disk space. Always use Validate if interfaces, and send special codes to
ply load the first file, press CTRL-Z you notice a filename on the direc the printer to control features like

66 COMPUTE!1!/ Goierfe May 1987


underlining, boldfacing, and double- with RS-232 serial printers or SHIFT keys, or engage SHIFT
width type (depending on the interfaces. LOCK. The border color changes to
printer). An additional note: Some print white while SHIFT is held down.
ers and interfaces incorporate an When printing is finished, press
But with all this power comes
automatic skip-over-perforation fea any key to return to editing.
the need to learn additional com
ture. The printer skips to the next SHIFT-CTRL-P prints to a disk
mands. Fortunately, SpeedScript
sets most of these variables to a de page1 when it reaches the bottom of a file when you press D. Enter the
page. Since SpeedScript already con filename when it's requested.
fault state. If you don't change
these settings, SpeedScript assumes trols paper feeding, you need to rum SpeedScript sends out all printer
a left margin of 5, a right-margin off this automatic skip-over-perf information to a sequential file. You
position of 75, no header or footer, feature (usually, by sending out con can use other programs to process

single-spacing, and continuous- trol codes) before running Speed- this formatted file. Try this simple
paper page feeding. To begin print Script, or paging won't work example:

ing, simply press CTRL-P. If your properly. Remember, sometimes the 10 OPEN 1,4

printer is attached, powered on, printer controls the skip-over-perf 20 OPEN %%fl,afilenam4'

and selected (online), SpeedScript feature, sometimes the interface, 30 GET#2,A$:SS « ST: PRINT#1,A$;: IF
SS = 0 THEN 30
begins printing immediately. To and sometimes even both.
40 PRINT#1: CLOSE1
cancel printing, hold down the The Commodore 64 version of 50 CLOSE2
RUN/STOP key until printing SpeedScript has been tested with the
following printers: Commodore This program dumps the disk
stops.
1525 and 1526; MPS-801, -802, and file specified by the filename in line
Before printing, be sure the pa 20 to any printer. You can use it to
-803; C. Itoh Prowriter 8510; Epson
per in your printer is adjusted to print SpeedScript files (produced
MX-80; Gemini 10-X; Star SG-10,
top-of-form (move the paper perfo with SHIFT-CTRL-P) on another
5G-10C, and SD-10; Okimate 10
ration just above the printing ele- Commodore computer and printer
and 20; Okidata 82 and 92; and
ment). CTRL-P assumes a without running SpeedScript.
Hush-80 CD. SpeedScript has also
Commodore printer, so it's helpful Change line 10 to OPEN 1,2,0,
been tested with these printer inter
if your interface simulates the CHR$(6) to dump the file to a 300-
faces: Cardco A/B/G+ and G Wiz,
modes and codes of the Commo baud modem or RS-232 printer, or
Tymac Connection, Xetec, Turbo-
dore 1525,1526, or MPS-801, -802, OPEN 1,3 to display it on the
Print, and MW-350. SpeedScript
or -803 printers. CTRL-P prints screen.
should work even if your printer or
with a device number of 4 and a
interface is not on this list. These
secondary address of 7 (uppercase/
are just the ones that have been Formatting Commands
lowercase mode). The print-formatting commands
tested.
If CTRL-P doesn't work for Be sure your printer or inter must be distinguished from normal
you, try another variation, text, so they appear onscreen in
face supplies its own linefeeds.
SHIFT-CTRL-P. Answer the Again, consult your manuals and reverse field with the text and back
prompt Print to: Screen, Disk, Print insure that either your printer or in ground colors switched. You enter
er? with the single letter S, D, or P. terface (but not both) supplies an these reverse-video letters by press
Press any other key to cancel the automatic linefeed after carriage re ing CTRL-E (pound sign) or CTRL-
command. 3, which is easier to type with one
turn. To test this, print a small sam
If you press P for printer, ple of text with CTRL-P. Since the hand. Answer the prompt Enter for
SpeedScript requests two more key default is single-spacing, you mat key: by pressing a single key.
strokes. First, answer the Device should not see double-spacing, nor This key is inserted into text in
number prompt with a number from should all printing appear on the reverse video. All lettered printer
4 through 7. This lets you print to same line. If you still aren't getting commands should be entered in
one of several printers addressed linefeeds, use the linefeed com lowercase (unshifted). During
with different device numbers. mand discussed below. printing, SpeedScript treats these
Next, answer the Secondary address characters as printing commands.
prompt with a number from 0 Printing To Screen And Disk There are two kinds of printing
through 9. SHIFT-CTRL-P prints to the screen commands, which will be called
when you press S. The screen col stage 1 and stage 2. Stage 1 com
Non-Commodore Printers ors change to white letters on a mands usually control variables
The secondary address is used on black background, and what ap such as left margin and right mar
most non-Commodore printer in pears on the screen is exactly what gin. Most are followed by a num
terfaces to control special features. would print on the printer. It takes ber, with no space between the
For example, you can bypass the two screen lines to hold one 80- command and the number. Stage 1
emulation features and use graph column printed line, of course. If commands are executed before a
ics mode to communicate directly you use double-spacing (see be line is printed.
with your printer (see the true low), it's much easier to see how Stage 2 commands, like center
ASCII command below). Consult each line is printed. With this ing and underlining, are executed
the list of secondary addresses in screen preview, you can see where while the line is being printed.
your printer interface manual. lines and pages break. To freeze Usually, stage 1 commands must be
SpeedScript does not work properly printing, hold down either of the on a line of their own, although you

COMPUTE'S Gazelle May 1987 67


can group several stage 1 com example, a value of 3 would start this command must be placed
mands together on a line. Stage 2 printing the third page of your doc before any text. Don't use this com
commands are by nature embedded ument. Normally, SpeedScript starts mand to achieve double-spacing,
within a line of text. A sample stage printing with the first page. but only if all text prints on the
1 line could look like this: x Sets the page width, in col same line.
umns (think a cross). Defaults to 80. i Information. This works
You need to change this for the sake like REM in BASIC. You follow the
Embedded stage 2 commands look
of the centering command if you command with a line of text, up to
like this:
are printing in double-width or 255 characters, ending in a return
□This line is centered. <- condensed type, or if you're using a mark. This line will be ignored dur
This isIQunderlfninglQ.i- 40-column or wide-carriage printer. ing printing; it's handy for making
n Forced paging. Normally, notes to yourself such as the file
Stage 1 Commands SpeedScript prints the footer and name of the document.
1 Left margin. Follow with a moves on to the next page only h Header define and enable.
number from 0 to 255. Use 0 for no when it has finished a page, but you The header must be a single line of
margin. Defaults to 5. See Figure 2 can force it to continue to the next text ending with a return mark (up
for an illustration of margin page by issuing this command. It to 254 characters). The header
settings. requires no numbers. prints on the first line of each page.
r Right margin position, a m Margin release. Disables You can include stage 2 commands
number from 1 to 255. Defaults to the left margin for the next printed such as centering and page num
75. Be sure the right-margin value line. Remember that this executes bering in a header. You can use a
is greater than the left-margin val before the line is printed. header by itself without a footer.
ue, or SpeedScript will become ex a True ASCII. Every charac The header and footer should be
tremely confused. Some printer ter is assigned a number in the defined at the top of your docu
interfaces force a certain printing ASCII (American Standard Code ment, before any text. If you want
width, usually 80 characters wide. for Information Interchange) char to prevent the header from printing
You'll need to disable this in order acter set. Most printers use this true on the first page, put a return mark
to permit SpeedScript to print lines ASCII standard, but Commodore by itself at the top of your docu
longer than 80 characters. printers exchange the values for up ment before the header definition.
t Top margin. The position at percase and lowercase to match f Footer define and enable.
which the first line of text is printed, Commodore's own variation of The footer must be a single line of
relative to the top of the page. De ASCII. Some printer interfaces do text ending in a return mark (up to
faults to 5. The header (if any) is al not translate Commodore ASCII 254 characters). The footer prints
ways printed on the first line of the into true ASCII, so you need to use on the last line of each page. As
page, before the first line of text. this command to tell SpeedScript to with the header, you can include
b Bottom margin. The line at translate. Also, you will sometimes stage 2 printing commands, and
which printing stops before con want to disable your interface's em you don't need to set the header to
tinuing to the next page. Standard ulation mode intentionally in order use a footer.
8V2 X 11-inch paper has 66 lines to control special printer features g Go to (link) next file. Put
on most printers {6 vertical lines of that would otherwise be rejected by this command as the last line in
text per inch is standard for Com emulation. Place this command as your document. Follow the com
modore printers). Bottom margin the first character in your docu mand with the letter D for disk or T
defaults to the fifty-eighth line. The ment, even before the header and for tape, then a colon (:), and final
footer (if any) is always printed on footer definitions. Don't follow it ly, the name of the file to print next.
the last line of the page, after the with a number. After the text in memory is printed,
last line of text. Since, in effect, the true ASCII the link command loads the next
p Page length. Defaults to command changes the case of all file into memory. You can continue
66. If your printer does not print six letters, you can type something in linking in successive files, but don't
lines per inch, multiply lines-per- lowercase and use true ASCII to include a link in the last file. Before
inch by 11 to get the page length. make it come out in uppercase. you start printing a linked file,
European paper is usually longer w Page wait. Like the true make sure the first of the linked
than American paper—11 Ye or 12 ASCII command, this one should files is in memory. When printing is
inches. Try a page length of 69 or be placed at the beginning of your finished, the last file linked to will
72. document before any text. With be in memory.
9 Spacing. Defaults to single- page wait turned on, SpeedScript
spacing. Follow with a number prompts you to Insert next sheet, Stage 2 Commands
from 1 to 255. Use 1 for single- press RETURN when each page is These commands either precede a
spacing, 2 for double-spacing, and finished printing. Insert the next line of text or are embedded within
3 for triple-spacing. sheet, line it up with the printhead, one.

@ Start numbering at page and then press RETURN to contin c Centering. Put this at the
number given. Page numbering ue. Page wait is ignored during disk beginning of a line you want to cen
normally starts with 1. or screen output. ter. This will center only one line,
? Disables printing until se j Select automatic linefeeds ending in a return mark. Repeat this
lected page number is reached. For after carriage return. Like a and w, command at the beginning of every

68 COMPUTE'S Gazeffa May 19B7


line you want centered. Centering
uses the page-width setting (see
above) to center the line properly. Figure 2: Graphic Presentation of Margin Settings
To center a double-width line,
either set the page width to 40 or Values shown are default settings
pad out the rest of the line with an
equal number of spaces. If you use
double-width, remember that the
spaces preceding the centered text "'Header
will be double-wide spaces. Top Margin gEra n no n/Speed Script/'
e Edge right. This command B5
will cause a line to be aligned with
the right margin when it is printed.
That is, spaces will be inserted in
Left Margin II"
front of Ihe line so that the last 66 lines
character in the line will be printed D5
at the right margin. Place the com
mand at the beginning of the line
you want aligned; it will only affect Right Margin
one line at a time, each ending with -75"
a return mark. Repeat this com* 58

mand at the beginning of every line Bottom Margin


: Footer
you want aligned to the right. Note B58
that this is not the same as right jus iHBrannon/SpeedScnpt/'
tification—a feature found on some
word processors that adjusts print
ing to align both the left and right
margins—since the edge-right
command aligns only one line, and
only at the right margin. SpeedScript Figure 3: Quick Reference Chart Format (Printer Commands)
has no right-justification feature.
# When SpeedScript encoun
ters this command, it prints the cur- Enter these commands with CTRL-E or CTRL-3:
rent page number. You usually
Command Description Default Command Paacription Default
embed this within a header or footer.
u A simple form of underlin
True ASCII off Next Page
ing. It does not work on Commo
Bottom Margin 5B
dore printers, but only on printers !;J Page Length" 66
that recognize CHR$(8) as a back Centering
space and CHR$(95) as an under ■ Right Margin 75
line character. Underlining works Edge Right H Spacing 1
on spaces, too. Use the first u to
start underlining and another one
Footer y, j Top Margin 5
to turn off underlining. Goto Linked File*
| Underline toggle
Header
Fonts And Styles 3 Page Wait
Most dot-matrix printers are capa Information*
ble of more than just printing text at 3 Tnlumns nrnvji.;* SO

ten characters per inch. The Com Select linefeeds* Initisii page » " 1
modore MPS-801 can print in dou
Left Margin
ble-width and reverse field. Some Skip |inf]f.'r;
printers have several character sets, Margin Release *
with italic and foreign language Print page number

characters. Most can print in


double-width (40 characters per SpeedScript/Q*- centered Header with page number
line), condensed {132 characters
n7QH2^ Left margin 10, right margin 70,
per line), and in either pica or elite.
double spacing.
Other features include programma
ble characters, programmable tab
0D-SpeedScript.2' Goto and continue printing with
stops, and graphics modes. Many
filename "SpeedScript.2"
word processors customize them
selves to a particular printer, but
SpeedScript was purposely designed " Notes command changed or added since Version 2 0
not to be printer-specific. Instead,

COMPUTED Gazelle May 1987 69


SpeedScript lets you define your mode on others. Printkey 4 is de ics characters and quickly skip from
own stage 2 printing commands. fined as 18, which selects reverse field to field.
You define a programmable field with Commodore printers You don't have to change or
printkey by choosing any character (and on some graphics interfaces in define printer commands every
that is not already used for other emulation mode) or condensed time you write. Just save these defi
printer commands. The entire up mode on some other printers. nitions as a small text file, and load
percase alphabet is available for Witfi so many codes available, this file each time you write. You
printkeys, and you can choose let you can even design custom logos can create many custom definition
ters that are related to their function and symbols using your printer's files and have them ready to use on
(like D for double-width). You enter graphics mode. For example, on the disk. You can create customized
these commands like printer com 1525/MPS-801, you can draw a "fill in the blank" letters. Just type
mands, by first pressing CTRL-3. box (perhaps for a checklist) by first the letter, and everywhere you'll
To define a printkey, just press setting the appropriate codes: need to insert something, substitute
CTRL-3, then the key you want to a graphics symbol. When you're
assign as the printkey, then an D=Q H=25 B-255□= 193 4-
ready to customize the letter, just
equal sign { = ), and finally the Then display the box with text by hunt for each graphics symbol and
ASCII value to be substituted for typing insert the specific information.
the printkey during printing. For SpeedScript does not work with
example, to define the + key as the lE&fififi&QTDDthposte i- any 80-column video boards or soft
letter z, you first look up the ASCII This appears on paper as ware 80-column emulators. Speed-
value of the letter 2 (in either your Script also wipes out most kinds of
printer manual or user's manual). D Toothpaste resident (RAM-loaded) software, in
The ASCII value of the letter z is 90, Keep one thing in mind about cluding most software-simulated
so the definition is □ = 91 *- printkeys. SpeedScript always as printer drivers. However, you can
Now, anywhere you want to print sumes it is printing to a rather print to disk using SHIFT-CTRL-P,
the letter z, substitute the printkey: dumb, featureless printer, the least and then dump the disk file to the
common denominator. SpeedScript printer from BASIC.
GadDooks! The Doo isDonylf-
doesn't understand the intent of a
This will appear on paper as printkey; it just sends its value out.
File Compatibility
So if you make one word within a
Gadzooks! The zoo Is zanyl SpeedScript documents are stored as
line double-width, it may make the
program files (PRG type on disk).
More practically, look up the line overflow the specified right
Naturally, you can't load and run a
value of reverse-on and reverse-off. margin. There's no way for Speed-
SpeedScript file from BASIC. The
Reverse-on, a value of 18, prints all Script to include built-in font and
characters are stored in their screen
text in reverse video until canceled type-style codes without being cus
code (POKE) equivalents. Several
by reverse-off (a value of 146) or a tomized for a particular printer,
commercial word processors store
carriage return. So, define SHIFT-R since no set of codes is universal to
text similarly, including WordPro
as 18 and SHIFT-O as 146. Any all printers, 3+ and PaperCHp. As a matter of
where you want to print a word in
fact, two commercial spelling
reverse, bracket the word with SpeedScript Mastery checkers designed for WordPro also
printkey R and printkey O. It may take you awhile to fully mas work with SpeedScript: SpeltRighl
You can similarly define what ter SpeedScript, but as you do you'll Plus {from Professional Software)
ever codes your printer uses for fea- discover many ways to use the edit and SpeUPro 64 (from Pro-Line
tures like double-width or ing and formatting commands. For
Software).
emphasized mode. For your example, there is a simple way to Program 2 is a SpeedScript file-
convenience, four of the printkeys simulate tab stops, say, for a colum conversion utility. It translates
are predefined, though you can nar table. Just type a period at every SpeedScript screen-code program
change them. Printkey 1 is defined tab-stop position. Erase the line; files into either Commodore ASCII
as a 27, the value of the ESCape then restore it multiple times. or true ASCII. The program works
code used to precede many two- When you are filling in the table, only with disk—not with tape.
character printer commands. (With just use word-left/word-right to
These translated files are stored in
some printer interfaces, you must jump quickly between the periods.
sequential format, the file type used
send two ESCape codes to bypass Or you can use the programmable in most file-processing applica
the interface's emulation.) For ex printkeys to embed your printer's tions. The file converter can also
ample, the Epson command for own commands for setting and translate a Commodore ASCII se
double strike is ESC-G. You can se jumping to tab stops. quential file into a screen-code
lect it in SpeedScript with SpeedScript can also be used as SpeedScript program file. You can
a simple database manager. Type in
Ik the information you need; then
use the file converter to translate a
database into a SpeedScript file (or
Printkey 2, a value of 14, goes store it as a SpeedScript document.
vice versa), and you can convert
into double-width mode on most The search feature lets you quickly SpeedScript files to true ASCII and
printers, and printkey 3, a value of find information, especially if you use a modem program to upload
15, turns off double-width on some use graphics characters to flag key them to another computer.
printers and selects condensed lines. You can search for the graph

70 COMPUTE!* Gazetto May 1987


L- FE
The SpeedScript Family MAJOR- SC JFTWW
IIDA1 IO N LEITTH EIPHER.
SpeedScript premiered in the Janu
ary 1984 issue of the GAZETTE in
L1OI ORY FROM BP
INVENT
NKRU 'TCY GET THE 6FST OUDS O"< *NY K1ITIBV

QUID \TED
the version we now refer to as .cv/FRYTHIr- JG MUST BE L > i r- j:-j:t -. ■■.■■■ ,■■■>.- -i . i OF

hUHlIM? TO r i'MH Finn

SpeedScript 1.0. A slightly modified


* Aht ""1 'm ■■' n . 11 ■ ■!'. h. i m -■ - i . * hi

COMMODORE SOFTWARE
version (1.1) appeared in COM- Progrim Nim Outrtptpori LMI '.■i.
Fiigm Simuiilor ■1 J_.di .-3 QflrTkB M99 1UI
PUTEl's Second Book of Commodore MimQttmonl Combo WOlfl PrO Coiling
- ■".•-•.■-' -.'■■■ ■■■ si n
Hit C-#-.'i«
SDfMdanMt 139 BS JI.M
64. The next major update, Speed- iniTiCilc
ZotM II
Ml
UK «»i
Script 2.0, appeared only on the first Zo/k III
MtSDf
Gima
Ohm
MM )'jr.
y qi
"Wmdcw
GAZETTE Disk, in May 1984. The StUCTCU DUII MSS i*s
»0 OlLid Moaim St reftH[-StVHlT10^IHt*WtNr,IS VLLTinU

original version of the currrent up


11JS
Slip* EiptPVLitF 04 31 r4*« GfliTHTlBFUJJ F>0 95 us tan**! t\«. UC ■ ■ - ^ - mf
Ohaii Tha bf Bl 1" CTiHft nr>j t.tt too* ■■»*■« ■ «■»■ to KHj«ki tui
date, SpeedScript 3.0, was published EQiic W/Sp*BCh MB) >.I5 111 UID LO'O TDV W"»Hl O-i OU
VLduulat Com. Jki»w PucIb W9S MB
in COMPUTE! in early 1985 (along Flit Ffldl*
Tu'TlO-H
B Leytl Gima
9 Lft«*l QliTifl
MB!
MM
l.tt
]gB
■ ' . '■

with versions for other computers). Si till Bvti


Squish 'Err
?0 PUy Scraen Game
15 Laval Gama
39 SS
3955
111
III
Although version 3.0 is based on Hf. fltPbol
Kwih-LDfld
22 Scra*n Gam-j
300% FaaiBT
39.95 1.19

Loa atopy 49 95
the earlier versions, it is sufficiently R8Dion A*t&tQ i'- - - .-, 39.95
US

G'Ofl Hfl»flriQB ':>'■- i- Giine 39 95 ttg


different that you cannot "patch" a BC Ou»lt POr Tlrflpj
W1 fgfi m i h efJ
Ccmic Strip BC
Wamory Game
3995 4-BV STOCK BROKER-
39 95 2.tg
copy of SpeedScript 2.0 (or an earlier Ser«r. EtHlw
eiutprlnl
3»?lQn your Scrwnj
ncrp*?9 Ptrl CJp
U9i
M91
in
to
version) to bring it up to version □■n>e-j rn
■nit* Wiiiv
7 Greit Gim«i
WOlil PrtOCVHlng
IB 95
BS9)
III
IMS
] boh guiiiJTT t;."1 .i i* n mo
3.0. You must type in the entire D*catriiort
3ri» 4 DaiLp"
3B95 H-IS T>B tHACV-9 iTllbf Ib »"t *DU fULT

Mino sntdow Hut Ttjul JUJven 1UB ID »T Tut LfwHT MCKWD C


program. Q hour Bu*t*< Uuabcal G*m# 4B91 IIS h l| T4 ITOCB 4U« IT
Pi in ii ii «BB! HI 5
However, if you have a copy of Thi Ubihc Sluflio
RoilT Rpc*
^(Ti&0» "Ujhc 59 U H.tS 1T-9UTI
Croii CounEry Ric* 5895 19.95
SpeedScript 3.0 or 3.1, you can easily i...■ -l :t

DEALER'S /\SK FOR QUANTITY PRICES


upgrade to version 3.2. Simply
WE BUY SOFTWARE
load, but do not run, your copy of AU KINDS—laiqe fi Small duanroesl Ca 1 £ Atk r* AfTI ACORN OF INDIANA, INC.
SpeedScript; then enter the follow
ing POKEs and SAVE the new ver A.T.&T. LIQUIDATORS ! 2721 OHIO STREET
MICHIGAN ClT>. IN J5W
2040 S. HARBOR BL, SANTA ANA, CA 92704 219-879-22&4
sion with a different name. Be very
7 MINIMUM ODDER f If
careful when typing the POKE i 4SD mSDtlM,, 4D0 |L» ■ L (Hi
VHA AM? MA5TEJL C41D ClBTjUu ^pq rt
^ ".Cl

0d SS CflillDcnla 1
statements. A mistyped number RBilgtnll idd fi'i - Shlpclno Criinjfli
INDIANA lUIPt-Vn ADD 4^ \ALES TAl

1 t10Q.t»— 7 SO * 11 Dl I0S200— lj fa • llOtfplU


could introduce a bug that would 1
-FREE

be difficult to locate.

POKE 2547,96iPOKE 4316,200:POK PHONE

"pES" «e«^ ELECTRONIC ONE'


E 4946,234iPOKE 4947,234:PO LINES IMES.T.
OPEM U-F
KE 7716,50
POKE 5785,234:POKE 5786,234:PO CALL T614J 864-9994 •P.O.Box 13428 •COLUMBUS. OHIO 43213
KE 5787,234:POKE 7561,11:PO
KE 7590,76 ^; commodore SOFTWARE
POKE 7S91,86:POKE 7592,29:POKE ■— - SPECIAL'S
VlFTWfcPF ACE 9.99
7593,201:POKE 7594,35:POKE ■-I ■_ r i Ti / \ l_

GEOS 39 99 Z PILOT S 99
7595,208:POKE 7596,23 HARDWARE PRINT SHOP r>i oq COBRA. . . 9.B9
MCMkCOMPUTEH 15999
BUSINESS FORM SHOP 22.99 KUNQ FU FIST ..9.99
1ZBC 128k COMPUTERE39 99
Version 3.2 doesn't add any new 1541C DISK DRIVE 17999
NEWSROOM 29.99 KUNG FU STICKS ... 9.99
MACKS . . 22.99 SARQONII 6.99
features or commands to versions 1S71C DISK DRIVE . .239.99
MACH 128 27.99 SARQONIII 22.99
1S02C MONITOR 189.99
3.0 or 3.1; only a few minor bugs 1B02A ROB MONITOR .279.96
FASTLOAO 24.99 JUKEBOX . 2.99
TURBO LOAD* SAVE. 17.99 TEMPLE APSHAI
are corrected. 1702 MONITOR 179r99
WORDPPOWfTURBO 22.99 TRILOGY .15.99

If you don't wish to type in the COMPUTER ACCESSORIES WORD PRO 1J8 W/FILE 22.99 DESERT FOX . .9.99
13S1 MOUSE 39.99 SPREADSHEET 22.99 ZORK TRILOGY .29.99
listing for SpeedScript 3.2, you may 128k UPGRADE 93.99 RLE PROM 18.99 BLUE MAX 7.99
POWER C 22.99 UP PERISCOPE
order the GAZETTE Disk for this MESSENGER MODEM 34.99 22.99
AVATEK 1200MODEM 79 99 PAPERCLIP W/SPELL JB.99 KARATE CHAMP M.99
month, which includes all the pro AVATEX 1200HC PAPER W/SPELL. 2B99 KUNG FU MASTER 14 99
SUPERBASEW J9.99 COMMANDO 1499
grams in this issue of COMPUTEI's MODEM . . .109 99
SUPERBASE 128 59 99 TOP GUNNER IS.99
KETECJR 39.99
Gazette. XETECSR S8.99 POWER ASSEMBLER 29.99 THE EIDOLON .7.99
POCKETWRITER W 27 99 BALL BLAZER .. 799
mmn CERTIFICATE MAKER. 2B.99 RESCUE ON
STARNX10 1M.99 DATAMANAGER12B . 39.99 FRACTACUS .... ..7.99
3VARXXIK: 21B.9O WORD MANAGER 128. 39.99 KORONISRIFT 7.99
See program listings on page 100. STARSG1OC 189.99 SWIFTCALCI28 ... . 39 99 BARD'S TAIL II 24.99
STAR POWER TYPE ..17B.9S SWIFT TAX 33.99 CHEST MASTER 2000 24.99
PANASONIC 10W....ISS.W PAPERCLIP II 49.99 F15 .19.99
PANASONIC 10S1I 25S.99 COPY II 24.99 SUB LOGIC FOOTBALL .29.99
SEIKOSHA10O0VC... 179.99 TOY SHOP 3*.99 SUB LOGIC a AS E BALL .27.99

HOW TO MUM It CASHIER CHECK. MONEY OROf R.MASTERCARO'ORVISA-tAO 0 4*F0RCX« BGECAROS) . NOPERSOHALCHECKS..
NO C 0 D.'S . . . SUPPED UPS ... ALL PRICES SUBJECT TO CHANGE WITHOUT NOTICE
IH-tlNG. A00 13 00 ON ALL ORDERS UNDER I IK CJ. . ADO K 00 ON ALL ORDEFIS OVER 1100 00 ACTUAL FREIGHT CHrU&ED ON
MULTIPLE ORDERS.
■fTEMMTIONAL: ACTUAL FREGKT CHWGE0 ON ALL OROERS OUTSIDE THE CONTINENTAL UNITED STATES INCLUDING A.P 0
Kuatt: no nnuws without a retur* AUTHORIZATION HO RETURNS UNLESS DEFECTIVE ALL DEFECTIVES WILL BE
EXCHANGED NO EXCEPTIONS PLEASE SPECIFY
CALL Ofl WRITE FOR FREE CATALOG

CALL ELECTRONIC ONE (6I4J S64-9994 OR WRITE


A Guide To
Commodore User Groups
Part 1
Caroline Hanlon

This list includes all the Commodore user groups in states beginning Commodore Helpers of Long Beach, 3736 Myrtle
Ave., Long Btach, CA 90807
with the letters A-M (Alabama through Montana) that responded to Pasadena Cummodore Computer Club, P.O. Box
our mailing. The user groups in the remaining states (Nebraska through 1163, Arcadia. CA 91006
Librascope Computer Club, 833 Sonora Ave. MS
Wyoming), APO, and foreign countries will be listed next month in
807, Glendale. CA 9120!
Part 2. When writing to a user group for information, please remember West Valley Commodore Users Group, Presi
to enclose a stamped, self-addressed envelope. dent, 23455 Justice St., Canoga Park, CA 91304
California Area Commodore Terminal User
User groups are listed in each state in zip code order. Society (CACTUS), P.O. Box 1277. Alia Lomfc
CA 91701
If your group does not appear in this list and you wish to be listed, South Hay Commodore Users Group, P.O. Box
1899, Chills Vista, CA 92Q1I-18P9
send your club name and address to COMPUTE! Publications, Attn: Oceana-64 Commodore User Croup, 1004 Plover
User Group Update, P.O. Box 5406, Greensboro, NC 27403. Way, Ocean side, CA 92056
Back-Country Commodore Club, P.O. Box 373,
Ham on a, CA 120 65
ALABAMA Catalina Commodore Computer Club, P.O. Box General Dynamics Commodore Computer Club,
32548, Tucson, AZ 85751 Gem-ral Dynamics/ Electronics Division, P.O.
Valley Commodore Users Croup IVCUC), P.O. Box B5227. MZ7205A, San Diego, CA 92138-
Canyon De Chelly-Four Corners Users Group,
!!<■* B3S, Dc-catur, Al. 35602-0835
c/o Calumet Consulting, Box 1945, Chink', AZ 5227
Shoals Commodore User Group, 4.10 Nottingham San Diego Commodore Users Croup, P.O. Bo*
86503
Kd., Florence, AL 35630
86531. San Diego, CA 92138
Scollsboro Commodore Users Group, Ri. 5, Box ARKANSAS
lli Desert Commodore Users Group, 62026 Sun
255. Scottsboro, AL 3576S Commodore Computer Club of Pine Bluff, P.O. burst Cr., Joshua Tree, CA 92252
Huntsville Alabama Commodore Komputer Box 1083, Pine Bluff, AR 71603 Commodore Users Group of Riverside (CUGR),
Society (HACKS), P.O. Box 11356, Huntsville, The Southwest Arkansas Commodore Users P.O. Box H0K5, Riverside, CA 92515
AL35H15 Group, 4U4 S. Criming St., Hope, AR 71801 Power Surge, c/o Orangewood Academy, 13732
Sequoyah Users Group (SUG), 702 Williams Ave, Commodore 64/128 Users Group, P.O. Box 2481, Clinton Ave., Garden Grove, CA 92643
N., Ft Payne, AL 35967-2624 Hot Springs. AR 71914 Commodore Technical User Group (CTUG), P.O.
Montgomery Area Commodore Kompuler Soci River City Commodore Club, P.O. Box 4298, N. Dox 8342. Orange- CA 92664
ety (MACKS), P.O. Box 210126. Montgomery Little Rock, AR 72116 64/20 Club, 6464 Shearwater St.. Venture, CA
A!. 36121-0126 The Stone 64 Users Group, P.O. Box 301, Reyno, 93003
East Alabama Users' Group, P.O. Box 249, AR 72462 CIV1C64, P.O. Box 2442, Oxnard, CA 93034-2442
Jacksonville, AL 36265 The Personal Touch Commodore User Group of A Bakcrsfield Area Commodore Users Society
The Byte Bunch, 318 Ferryman St., Evergreen, AL Hoxie and Walnut Ridge, 503 Kaylynn Dr., (ABACUS), 3101 Oakridge Dr.. Bakersfield, CA
36401 Walnut Ridge, AR 72476 93306
Commodore Mobile Users Group (CMUG), 3993 Harrison Users Croup, I!t. 1. Box 15, Harrison, AR San Luis Obispo Commodore Computer Club,
Cottage Hill Rd., #7B, Mobile, Al. 36609 72601 P.O. Box 3836. San Lull Obispo, CA 93403-3836
Smiths Alabama Commodore User Croup, Ri 2, Jintres Hillbilly's C64 User Croup, 721 Drennen Simply Users of Computers Combining Expe
Box 105, Smiths, AL 36877 St., Van Buren, AR 72956 rience for Strength and Success, 301 Veronica
ALASKA Ark-L.i i i-\ Commodore Users Exchange (CUE), Dr., PdKJ Robles, CA 93446
P.O. Box 6473, Texarkana, ar-tx 75505 Central Coast Commodore Users Group, 4237
Anchorage Commodore Users, P.O.Box 1U4615,
Anchorags, ak 99510-4515 CALIFORNIA PI inner! a Ct., Santa Maria, CA 93455

Mat Su Commodore 64 Club, 3970 Ruth Dr., Antelope Valley Commodore User Group
Hollywood Users Group (HUG) for Commodore
Wasilla, AK 99687 (AVCUG), P.O. Box 4436, Lancaster, CA 93539
Computer Owners, P.O. Box 38313 Hollywood,
Silka Commodore User's Group, P.O. Box 2204, Madora Users Group (MUG), P.O. Box 783, Ma-
CA 90038
Sitka, AK 99835 den, CA 93639
Cantell Commodore 64/128/CFM Mail Users
Flrsi City Users Group, Box 6002, Ketcliikan. AK PLUG (l'lus/4 Users' Group), Box 100). Monte
Group (CMUG), c/o Canlcll Computer Services.
99901
rey, CA 93942
3119 Isabel Dr,, Lot Angeles, CA 90065
Monterey Peninsula Commodore Group, P.O.
ARIZONA South Bay Commodore Users Group (SBCUC)
Box 2105, Seaside, CA 93955
(suburban LA.), P.O. Box 356. Manhattan
Commodore User Group at Arizona, P.O. Box
Beach, CA 10266
V1S1ONS-64, P.O. Box 26638, San fondlCO, CA
21291, Phoenix, AZ 85036 9412b
Commodore 64 West Users Club (West L.A and
Phoenix Arixona Commodore Club, P.O. Box PET-On-The-Air, 525 Crestlako Dr., S,in l:ran-
Santa Monica). P.O. Box 406, Santa Monica. CA
34905, Phoenix, AZ 85067 Cisco. CA 94132
90406-0406
Arizona Commodore Users Croup, P.O. Bon Diablo Valley Commodore User Group, P.O. Box
Begabytes C64, 58112 S. Calmada Avc., Whlttler,
27201, Tempe, AZ 85282 27155, Concord, CA 94527
CA 90605
CHa Hackers, Rt. 1, Box 34, GIoH AZ 85501 West Orange County Commodore Users Group,
Fairfield Commodore User's Group, 1758 Bin
Jose Ct., Fairfield, CA 94533
P.O. Box 6441, Buc-na Park, CA 90622

72 COMPUTED Gazafte May 1987


Fremont, Union City, Newark, Hay ward Users FLORIDA Chicago [1-128 Users Group, 4102 N. Odell, Nor-
Group (FUNHUC), 361115 Piz.irm Dr., Fremont, ridge, II. 60634
CA 94536 Public Domain Users Croup, PO. Box 1442, Or-
Knights of the Round Table, 1724 Pierce Ave.,
Napa Valley Commodore Computer Club, P.O.
Ulga Park, FL 32067 Rockford, 11,61103
Box 2324, Nap,!, CA 94558 Welaka Commodore Users Group, P.O. Box 1104, Knox Commodore Club, 675 Arnold St., Gales-
Welaka, R 32093-1104
Norlh Bay User's Group (NBUG), P.O. Bin 7156. burg, IL 61401
Vallejo. CA 94590 Commodore Computer Club, 8438 l.ynda Sue
Lane W., Jacksonville, FL 32217 Western Illinois Commodore Users Group
Ban Francisco Commodore Users Group, 2333D (WICUG), 9()fi W. 6th Ave., Monmouth, II.
9th Ave., Oakland CA 94606 Commodore Users Group of Pensacola, P.O. Hox
61462
Marin Commodore Computer Club, 6d5 Las 3533, Pmnwla, FL 32516
Fort Walton Beach Commodore Users Group, Canton Area Commodore Users Group, 13 N.
Coltndas Kd., San Rafael, CA 94903 17th Ave., Canton, IL 61520
P.O. Bo< 3, Shalimar, FL 32579
I'UG of Ihe Silicon Valley, 22355 Ranchu Ventura PAPUG (Peoria Area PET Users' Group}, 800 SW
Gainesville Commodore Users Group, Santa I:e
St., Cupertino, CA 95(114 Jefferson St., Peoria, IL 61605
Community College, P.O. Drawer 1530, Gaines
Commodore 64/Morc User Group, P.O. Box
ville, FL 32602 Bloomington-Normal Commodore User Group
26811, San Jose, CA 95159-6811 (BNCUC), P.O. Box 1058, Bloomington, IL
Gainesville Commodore User Group, P.O. Box
Stockton Commodore User's Group, 1911 Corn- 61702-1058
14716, Gainesville, FL 32604-4716
stock Dr., Stockton, CA 95209 Pros and Newcomers in Commodore (PANIC),
Citrus Commodore Computer Club, P.O. Box
Valley Computer Club, P.O. Box 310, Denalr, CA c/o DACC, 2000 F. Main St., Danville, IL 61832
95316
503, Beverly Hills, FL 32665
Lake County Educational Users Commodore Champalgn-Urbana Commodore User Group
Santa Kiisi Commodore User Group, 333 li. Ru (CUCUG), 802 N Pfldffl St., Tuscola, II. 61935
Club, P.O. Hox 326, Tavares, PL 32778
bles Ave,, Santa Rosa, CA 95407-7971 Meeting 64/128 Users Through the Mall, 51
Amateurs and Artesians Computing, P.O. Box
Titusville Commodore Club, 890 Alioid St.,
Thornhill Dr.. Danville. II. 61832
Titusville, FL 32796
682, c/O Ales KR6C. Cobh Mountain, CA 95426 East Side Computer Club, P.O. Bo* 1347, Alton,
El Shift OH, P.O. 361348, Melbourne, Fl 32936-
Computer Users Croup of Ukiah (CUCU), 9500 IL 62002-1347
1348
West Rd., Potlct Valley, CA 95469 Western Illinois PET User Group IWIPUG), Rt. 5,
Miami Individuals With Commodore Equip
Auburn Commodore Computer Club, PO Box BOX 75, Quincy, 11.62301
ment (MICE), 111 10 Bird Rd., Miami. Fl. 33165
4270, Auburn, CA 95603 Southern Illinois Commodore-Amiga Club,
Miami 2064 Commodore Users Group, 11531
Alpha Omega Telecommunications Group, P.O. 1707 li. Main St., Olney, II. 62450
S.W. 84 St., Miami, H. 33173
Ben 1339, Citrus Height!, CA 95611-1.139 Decatur Commodore Computer Club IDC3), 664
Suncojsl Bytes Commodore Computer Club,
Eligh Sierra Commodore Users Group, I'.O. Box W. Grand, Decatur, II. 62522
P.O. Box 721, Hirers, FL 33425
K110. S. Lake T.ihoe, CA 95731 Jacksonville Area Commodore Users' Group,
Gold Coast Commodore Group, P.O. Box 375,
North Valley Commodore User's Group, P.O. P.O. Box 135, Murrayville, II. 62668
Deerfield B.-ach, FL 33441
Box 1925. Chico, CA 95927 Capitol City Commodore Computer Club (5 C's),
Commodore Brooksville User Group (C-BUC),
Commodore Owners Users Group of Redding P.O. Box 2961, Springfield, IL 62708
P.O. Box 1261, Brooksville, FL 33512
(COUGORI, 2776-A Helen St., Redding CA SPUC Computer Club, P.O. Box 9035, Spring
Clearwiler Commodore Club, P.O. Box 11211,
96002 field, IL 62791
Clearwater, FL 33516
Chess Players' Commodore User Group, 723 Bar
COLORADO Bits and Bytes Computer Club, 1859 Neptune
ton St., Mt. Veman, il 62864
Colorado Commodore Computer Club, [1855 Dr., Etaglnvood, R 33533
Southern Illinois Commodore User Group, 508
Adams St., Nnrthglerm, CO 80133 R.H.C.C. Users Group 64/128, 8032 Banister Ln.,
W. Collins, Goreville. II. 62939
First United Nocturnal Golden Users' Service Port Rkhcy, Fl, 33968
(FUNGUS), 1869 Wesi Gunpus Rd., Golden, Commodore Users Group of SW Florida, P.O. INDIANA
CO 8(1401 Box7h<)2. Ft. Myers, FL 33911 Indy Commodore Computer Club (IC3 or 1CCC},
North Colorado Commodore Users Group Charlotte County Commodore Club (CCCC), P.O. Box 11543, Indianapolis, IN 46201
(NORCOCOM1, 2138V; lOlh St. Rd., Greeley, P.O. Box 512103, Punta Corda, FL 33951-2103
Midwest C-64 Users Group (MW64UG), P.O. Box
CO 80631 GEORGIA 9311, Highland. IN 46322
The Commodore Club, 4058 Bay town Dr.. Colo Stueben Commodore Users Group tSCCUG),
Metro BBS Society, 1842 Cashmere Cl., Lithonia.
rado Springs, CO 80916 P.O. Box 25, Pleasant Lake, IN 4»779
GA 3005S
The Local Folks Computer Club, 1653-1.10 Rd., Fort Wayne Area Commodore Club, P.O. Box
Griffin Commodore Program Exchange (GCI'EI,
Glenwnod SpnnRs, CO 81601 13107, Forl Wayne, IN 46867
1820 Mallm.uk Dr.. Criiiin. CA 30223
CONNrCTICUT l.ogansport Commodore Club, I'.O, Bo* 1161,
Stone Mountain Users Croup (SMUG 64/12H),
P.O. Box 1762, LilLmrn, CA 30247
Logan sport, IN 46947
Bristol Commodore Users Group (BCUG1, c/0 Q5! Alliance (QS/INKY), P.O. Box 1403, New Al
Computed! Systems, 17H Pine St., Bristol. CT C-64 Friendly Users Croup, 775 Kings Rd., Ath
bany, IN 47150
06010 ens, GA 30606
Richmond Area Commodore Users Group, P.O.
Capital Region Commodore Computer Club Commodore Club of Augusta, P.O. box 14337,
Box 1332, Richmond, IN 47375
ICRCCC), P.O. Bos 2372, Vemon, CT 06066 Augusta, GA 30919
Bloomington Commodore Users Group (BCUG),
Hartford County Commodore Users Group, P.O. Commodore Craze International, 1284 Lynn Dr.,
4755 Kinser Pike, Bloomington, IN 47401
Box 8553, East Hartford, CT 06U18 Waycross, GA 31501
Commodore Computer Club, P.O. Bo* 2332,
Eastern Conn Commodore Users Group, 227 Jag- HAWAII Fvansville. IN 47714
ger l.n., Hebron, CT 0624S
Makai Commodore User Group (MCUGr, I'.O. Commodore Owners of Lafayette (COOL), I'.O,
Millstone Users Group-C64, Sillin Trng. Clr.,
Box 6.181, Honolulu, III 96818 Box 5763, Lafayette, IN 47903
Ropefcrry Rd,, P.O. Hox 128, W.nc-rford. CT
Commodore Hawaii Users Group (CHUG), P.O.
06335-0128
Computer Users Group, b Saner Rd., Marl-
Box 23260, Honolulu, HI 96822; or 98-351
Commodore Users Group, Ames Region (COU
Kanaka Loop, Apt, 1207, Aiea, HI 96701
bOroUgh, CT 06447 GAR), P.O. Box 2302, Ames, IA 50010-2302
Greater New Haven Commodore User Group,
Advanced Commodore Users Group, P.O. Box
Capitol Complex Commodore Computer Club,
25273. Honolulu, HI 96S25
P.O. Box 796, North Haven, CT 06473 Box 58, Hartford, IA 50118
Commodore Users Group of Stratford, P.O. Box Commodore Hawaii User's Group (CHUG), 1114
Commodore Computer User Croup of Iowa, I'.O.
Punahnu «8A, Honolulu, HI 96826
1213, Stratford, CT 06497 Box 3140, Des Moines. IA 50316
Fairfield County Commodore User Group IDAHO 3C Users Group, R.R. 3, Box 20, Charles City. IA
IFCCUC), P.O. Hox 212, Danbury. CT 06813 50616
PFF (.4 Soft ware Exchange, 742 E. 19th, Jerome,
Stamford Area Commodore Society (SACS), CO ID B3338 Product Engineering Center Commodore Users
Box 2122, Stamford, CI 06906-0122 Croup (PECCUG), 333 Joy Dr., Waterloo, IA
Banana Belt Commodore Users Group (HBCUCK
PEL AWARE P.O. Box 1272, l.cwiston, ID 63501 50701
CEM-64, Ken Rosecrans, 407 N. DeClark, Syntax Errors Anonymous Commodore User
Newark Computer Users Group INCUGI, 210 Croup, K.R. Box 6894, Spirit Lake. IA 51360
Durso Dr., Newark, DE 19711
Emmeti, ID 83617
Commodore Treasure Valley/Boise Users Crawford County Commodore Users Group, 519
The Brandywine Users Group (HUG), 157 Stan
Group (TV/BUG), P.O. Box 6353, Boise. ID N. 19th St., Denisun, IA 51442
Rd., Newark, DB 19711
83707 Iowa City Commodore Users Group IICCUC),
First State Commodore P.O. Box 1313, Dover. DE
P.O. Box 2412, Iowa City, IA 52244
19903 ILLINOIS Washington Area Commodore Users Group,
DISTRICT OF COI.UMIJIA PET VIC Commodore Users Group, 892 P.O. Box 445, Washington, IA 52353
Knoll wood. Buffalo Grove, II. 60089 PennCity User Group, R.R 1, Box 390, Fort Madi
PcnIAF Commodore User Group, 1947 tISC
Fox Valley PF.T (Commodore) Users Group, 833 son, IA 52627
MWR, Rm. 5E367, AF Roc. Services, Pentagon,
Prospect Ave., Elgin, It. 60120 Quad Cities Commodore Computer Club, f'.O.
Washington, DC 20330
The Software Link, 763 Stewart Ave., Elgin, IL Bo* 3994, Davenport, !A 52808
Navy Micro User Group, c/o Clyde Williams,
60120
NAVDAC CODE 91, Washington,' DC 20374
Computers West, 440 N. Stewart, Lombard, II.
60148
Computer Hackers of Illinois, 6800 Powell,
Downers Grove, II. 60516

COMPUTERS Gazette May 1987 73


The Annapolis Commodore Users Group, P.O. Commodore Bemidji User Croup, Rt. 3. Box 392,
KANSAS
Box 3358. Annapolis, MD 2HO3 Bemidji. MN 56601-8313
Lawrence Commodore User's Group, P.O. Bo* Hagerstown User Group (HUG), 23 Coventry Ln.,
2204, Lawrence, KS 66045 Mississirn
Hagerstown, MD 21740
TCCUG, P.O Bo* B439, Topeka, KS 66608 Wicomico Commodore Users Group, 204 Hol
Commodore Computer Club, Southern Station.
Newton Area Commodore Club, 112 Brookside, Box 10076, Hattiesburg, MS 39406-0076
land Ave,, Salisbury, MD 21801
Newton, K3 f>7H4 Hattlesburg Commodore Computer Club, !;■■[■
65XX Assemblers & Tclecommunicitors, 617 MASSACHUSETTS of Polymer Science, S.S. Box 10076, Hattiesburg.
Lincoln, Sedgwldc, KS 67135 Pioneer Valley Commodore Club, 6 Lnnt] Ten.. MS 39406-0076
Parsons Commodore Computer Users Group, Westfield, MA 01O85 Commodore Blloxl User Group (ComBUG),
714 S. 35th St., Parson*, KS 67357 Commodore COM-RADES, 35 Hilltop Ave., 3004-2 Hwy. 90 E,, Ocean Springs, MS 39564
Commodore User's Group of MrFherson Jelferson, MA 01522 Columbus Commodore 64/128 Club, 407 E.
(CUGOM), 1009 Sycamore PI., McPherson, KS Eastern Mass Commodore User Group, 6 Flagg Gaywood, Columbus, MS 39702
67460 Rd., Marlboro, MA 01752 Software Source, 4550 W. Beach, Biloxi, MS 39531
Salt City Commodore Club, P.O. Box 26-14, Opportunities Adventure Came Club, 12 Spring
MISSOURI
Hutchinson, KS 67504 Ave, Wakefield, MA 01880
High Plains Commodore Users Group, 1307 Northeast Missouri Commodore Users Group
Foxboio Area Commodore Users Group, P.O.
Western Plains, Hays, KS 67601 Box 322, Foxboro. MA 02 035 (NEMOCUC), P.O. Box 563, Macon, MO 63552
EM 20/64 User Group, 24 Cottage St.. Stoneham. Heartland Users Group, P.O. Box 443, Cape
KENTUCKY Girardeau, MO 63701
MA021HO
Cold City Users Group, P.O. Bos 257, Ft, Kno*, C.B.U.G., 1925 Treasure Dr., Kennett, MO 63857
Rockland Area Commodore User's Group, 354
KY 40121 East Water St., RocklanJ, MA 02370 Northland Amateur Radio Association, 811
Commodore Users' Group of Central Kentucky, Llndenwood Ln., Liberty, MO 64068
Commodore Users Group of Cape Cod, P.O. Box
P.O. Box 55010, Lexington, KY 40555 1490, Cotuit, MA 02635 Commodore Users Group of Warrensburg, i'.O.
Purchase CM User's Gioup, Rt. 1, Box 209A, Cal- Box 893, Wanensburg, MO 64093
Massachusetts Electronic Modem Operators
vert City, KY 42029 [oplui Commodore Computer User Group, 422
P.O. Boi 3336, Fall River, MA 02722-3336
Glasgow Commodore User's Group, P.O. Box S. riorida Ave., Joplin, MO 64801
154, Glasgow, KY 42141 MICHIGAN Mid-Missouri Commodore Club, P.O. Box 7026,
Logan County Commodore Users Club, P.O. Bin Michigan Commodore Users Group, P.O. Box Columbia, MO 65205-7026
302, Lewis burg. KY 42256 539, East Detroit, Ml 48021 Commodore User Group of Springfield
Commodore Users Croup of Madlsonvillc Computer Operators (COMP), 7514 Puttygui Rd., (CUGOS), Box 607 lewell Station, Springfield,
ICUCOM), P.O. Box 849, Madisonvllle, KY Richmond. MI 48062 MO 65801
42431 Washtenaw Commodore Users Group, P,O, Box
MONTANA
LOUISIANA 2050. Ann Arbor, Ml 4B106-2050
University of Michigan Commodore User Cascade County Users Group, P.O. Box 739,
New Orleans Commodore Klub, 230M Houma Great Falls, MT 59403
Group, School oi Public Health, Ann Arbor, MI
Blvd., Apt. 724, Metallic, LA 7O001 48109 Commodore Classic User Group, P.O. Box 3454,
Acadiana Commodore Computer Club IACCO, Thieves World Users Group, P.O. Box 54, Wayne, Great Fallb, MT 59403 „
P.O. Box 31412. Lafayelte, LA 70503
Ml 48184
Baton Rouge Area Commodore Enthusiasts
Downriver Commodore Group, P.O. Box 1277,
(BRACE), P.O. Bos 1422, B.ilon Rouge, LA
Southgnte, Ml 48195
70B21
Soft-Type Users Croup, 20231 Westmoreland,
Ark-La-Tcx Commodore User Croup, P.O. Box Detroit. MI 48219
651)2, Shrevi-port, LA 71108
Northern Geneacc County Commodore Users
MAINE Group (NGCCUG), P.O. Box 250, Clio. Ml
4B420
Your Commodore Users Group, Brunswick
Chapter, 103 Main St., Topsham, MB 04036 The Commodore Kids, 127 Sagtnaw St.. lieavei-
Your Users Group (YUG), P.O. Bo< 1924, N. lon, MI 4B612
Mid-Michigan Commodore Club, 417 McEwan,
WIN
Wind ham, ME 04062
Compumania, 81 North St., Snco, MB 04072
Southern Maine Commodore, P.O. Box 416. Scar
Clare, MI 48617
Commodore Computer Club, 4106 Eastman Rd., THE LOTTO
borough, ME 04074-0416 Midland, MI 48640
With Your Computer!
Lansing Area Commodore Club, P.O. Box 1065,
Your Commodore Users Group, 18 Colony Rd., Forget random numbers (use a dartboard [or
Westbrook, ME 04092 East Lansing, MI 48823-1065
thai). This program for most home com
Commodore Users Society of Penobwol (CUSP), The Commodore Club, 304 N. Kibbee, St. Johns,
puters does an actual analysis and com
Ml 48879
c/o 101 Crosby Hall, University of Maine at plete probability study of (he pas! winning
Orono, Orono. ME 04469 United Martial Artists Computer Club
numbers This amazing program will quickly
Southern Aroostook Commodore User's Group (UMACC), 1325 Shaffer Ct.. Lansing. MI 48917
provide you with all the data you need (o
(SACUG), P.O. Box 451, Houltcn, Ml! 0473O Kalamazoo Valley Home Users Croup, P.O. Box
3085, K.llamazoo, Ml 49003
predict which numbers will likely come up
MAKYI.AN1) Battle Creek Commodore and VIC Enthusiasts, in subsequent drawings. It's completely
Federation of Commodore User Societies, (FO 1299 S. 24lh, Battle Creek, Ml 49015 menu driven so everyone can enjoy using
CUS DC/MD/VA), P.O. i!ox 153, Annapolis Van Buicn Users' Group 1V-BUG), 50984 35V: St., il Nearly all consistent lottery winners use
Junction, MD 2O701 (Note: flu's is a federation Maple Lake, Paw Paw, MI 49079 some kind ■ ■' system bwfld on tin; past win
consisting of 15 user groups in the VA/MD/DC DAB Computer Club, P.O. Box 542, Watervliet. ners Using the real power of your computer
area, not a dub offering individual memberships.) Ml 49098 give; you a definite edge All you do is add
C-64 Users Croup FGGM, SeaLandAir Rec. Cen Edwardsburg Commodore Users' Group the latest winners each week and the pro
ter, 9810 Emory Rd.. Ft. Meade, MD 20755 (ECUGI, P.O. Box 130, Edwardsburg, Ml 49112 gram does the rest in seconds. On screen or
Rockvflie Commodore Users Group, P.O. Box Columbia Commodore Computer Club (C), 133 punier it shows hot and cold numbers, fre
8S05, Rockville, MD 20S56 Ernest, Brooklyn, Ml 49230 quency, groups, patterns, sums-of-diglts,
Mid-County Commodore Users Group, 18320 odd/even, wheels numbers and more
MINNESOTA
Swan Stream Dr., Gaithersburg, MD 20877 No thick manual to read It even has a built-
Montgomery County Commodore Computer Minnesota Commodore Users Association in tutorial.
Society, P.O. Box 2689, Silver Spring, MD 20902 (MCUA), P.O. Box 22638, Rotiblnsdale, MN ASK YOUR SOFTWARE DEALER OR
VIC Appreciates (ViCAF), 10260 New Hamp 55422
CALL OR WRITE:
shire Ave., Silver Spring, MD 20903 Duluth Commodore Users Group, 1502 PsirvieW,
Cloquel, MN 55720
SOFT-BYTE
CUM-BACC, 1427 York Rd. at Seminary Ave,, P.O. Box 556 F. Park
Baltimore, MD 21093-6014 Hibbing Area Commodore Klub (H.A.C.K.), 1220
Dayton. Ohio 45405
BAYCUG, 110 Danbury Rd., Reisterstown, MD E. 14th Ave.. Hibbing, MN 55746
(513) 233-2200
21136 Rochester Area Commodore User's Croup, 2526
THE LOTTO PROGRAM {I designed for all
Baltimore Area Commodore Users Group (Bay- 6lh Ave. NVV, Rochester, MN 55901 6 & 7 dlyit loltn yames (up to 49 numbers)
CUG), 4605 Vogt Ave., Baltimore, MD 21206 Albert I.ea Commodore Users Group, 2217 N. and is sold worldwide1
Randallatown Commodore User Group, 3702 Bridge, Albert Lea, MN 56007 JXNVT PLAY LOTTO WITHOUT IV
Dinky Ln., Baltimore, MD 21207 Worthingion Commodore Computer Society, Rt. FOR APPLE & M/S DOS COM
C-I6 &Plus/4 Users Group, 8202 Edtvill Ave., 2, Box 261, Worthington. MN 56187
PATIBLES (IBM) JUST 124.95. ALSO
Baltimore, MD 21237 Commodore Users Therapy Group, 1309 N. Gor
FOR COMMODORE 64/128. RADIO
Commodore Users Group, PO. Box 8756, Bal ton Ave,, Willmar, MN 56201 SHACK III, IV & COLOR COMPUTER
timore, MD 21240 Redwood Falls Area Computer Exchange, 717 E. & ATARI 800/130XE JUST S21.95.
Weslinghouse Commodore Users Group, P.O. Wyoming St., Redwood Falls, MN 56283 FOR MACINTOSH (a super version.
Bon 8756, Baltimore, MD 21240 Heartland Area Computer Coop era live, Box 360. Bask Req.) S29.95.
Albany, MN 56307 Add 11.50 ihLppIng an all mdrr«- Thank yuul

74 COMPUTE'S Gazette May 1987


SpeedSearch
Tony St. Clair

This clever utility performs a rapid search through every the modified versions of Speed-
SpeedScript 3.x file on a disk to find any word or phrase that Script. For example, documents cre
you specify. ated using a copy of SpeedScript
which includes the "Fontmaker"
If you've forgotten which Speed- and punctuation marks, up to a to option from the January 1986 issue
Script file contains a certain name, tal of 25 characters. If punctuation of COMPUTE! will have a load ad
phone number, or whatever, marks or spaces are to be included dress of 12544. In these cases,
"SpeedSearch" can solve your in the search, the entire string SpeedSearch can be made to recog
problem. SpeedSearch searches should be enclosed in quotation nize these files by POKEing the low
through every SpeedScript file on a marks. The search is not case- byte of the load address into loca
disk, looking for a key word or sensitive, so Cat, CAT, and cat tion 2534 and the high byte into lo
phrase that you choose. It elimi would all be found in the sentence cation 2542. If you wish to make
nates frustrating manual searches The cat drank too much milk. Re the changes permanent, be sure to
of text files. versed characters are converted to save a copy of the new Speed-
their nonreversed equivalent dur Search after making the changes.
Typing It In ing the search. The RUN/STOP There are several utilities available
SpeedSearch should be entered key can be pressed at any time to to determine the load address of
using the "MLX" machine language halt the program. files stored on disk, including
entry program found elsewhere in "MetaBASIC" from the February
this issue. Be sure you understand Screening For SpeedScript 1987 issue.
the instructions for using MLX Once you've entered a phrase,
before you begin entering the data. SpeedSearch begins searching the Searching The Document
When you run MLX, you'll be asked disk for SpeedScript text files. It uses Once a file has been determined to
for a starting address and an ending two criteria for identifying these be a SpeedScript file, the entire file is
address for the data you're entering. files. First, it considers only files scanned for your phrase. As the file
For SpeedSearch, respond with the that are stored as program (PRG) is searched, the message SEARCH
following data: files, bypassing any sequential files. ING...filename is printed. After the
Second, it accepts only files that file has been scanned, a summary is
Starting Address: 0301
have a particular load address. As displayed indicating the number of
Ending Address: 0BB0
listed, SpeedSearch expects a load times the desired string was located
When you've finished typing address of 9472, the value for docu in that file. This continues until all
in SpeedSearch, be sure to save a ments created by an unmodified files have been processed or until
copy on disk. version of SpeedScript 3.0 or higher. the program is stopped. If you put a
To use the program, type Other versions of SpeedScript will disk with no SpeedScript files in the
LOAD"SPEEDSEARCH",8. Then have a different load address. For drive, the message No SpeedScript
place the disk— containing Speed- example, files created by Speed- files found on this disk is displayed.
Script files — that you want Script 2.0 will have a load address of With the information provided
searched into the drive and type 10240. Several of the add-on utili by SpeedSearch, you'll be able to
RUN. You are asked for a search ties published in GAZETTE and choose the correct file every time
phrase. In response, type in any COMPUTE! change the starting ad you use SpeedScript.
combination of letters, numerals, dress of documents created with See program listing on page 99. •

COMPUTE!'!! Gazette May 1987 75


SpeedScript Date And
Time Stamper
Bob Kodadek

With this utility installed, every file you create with Speed- stamping operation is immediate,
Script 3.2 will have a date and time "stamp"—which makes it and the entire disk is still available
easy to find the most recent version of a letter or other Speed- for storage. A stamped disk may
still be used normally, since the
Script file, A disk drive is required. date and time stamp is transparent
to the standard DOS routines.
Imagine how valuable it would be Program 2 expects this filename.
The new directory is accessed
to know the origination date of all Program 2, "Date And Time
in the normal fashion—by pressing
your SpeedScript files. "SpeedScript Loader," is written in BASIC. After
the CTRL-4 key combination. This
Date And Time Stamper" adds this typing it in, be sure to save a copy
routine prints the current date and
capability to SpeedScript 3.2. Once onto the same disk on which you
time at the top of the screen fol
the program is installed, all Speed- saved Program 1.
lowed by the directory information.
Script files are automatically date- To use SpeedScript Date And All of the usual information is dis
and time-stamped. A new Speed- Time Stamper, load and run the played in the typical Commodore
Script directory routine displays all BASIC loader (Program 2). It will layout. However, the file type had
the usual information plus the date automatically load SPEEDSCRIPT to be abbreviated in order to accom
and time that each file was created. DATE. You'll then be prompted for modate the date and time stamp.
The current date and time is also the current date and time. The pro The fiie types are displayed as PG,
displayed in full literal form— gram screens out incorrect data and SQ, UR, and RL, and are self-
you'll see May 3, 1987, not 5/3/87. proceeds to the next prompt only explanatory. So-called poison (or
after you've supplied the infor splat) and locked files are indicated
Typing It In mation in the required format. At as usual. Also notice that filenames
SpeedScript Date And Time Stamper this point you'll be asked to insert a are no longer in quotes. The listing
consists of two programs. Program disk containing a copy of the Speed- can bepaused by pressing the space
1, "SpeedScript Date and Time," is Script word processor. This file must bar and stopped by pressing RUN/
written in machine language. It be named SPEEDSCRIPT. After STOP.
must be entered using the "MLX" you've pressed RETURN, Speed- The program doesn't alter
machine language editor found Script is loaded. From now on, the SpeedScript's other functions in any
elsewhere in this issue. When you date and time are stamped onto ev way. You'll notice after saving a
run MLX, you'll be asked for the ery file you save from within Speed- document that the drive light will
starting and ending addresses of Script. To see the information, press come back on momentarily. This is
the data you'll be entering. For CTRL-4 for the modified directory. the date and time stamp being ap
SpcedScrip! Date And Time, re
plied to the directory sector of the
spond with the following values:
Behind The Stamp file. The utility is disabled when
Starting address: C8FB The actual stamping occurs in an you exit SpeedScript. To restart, type
Ending address: CF8A
unused area in the directory sector SYS 51487.
After entering the data, save a of the file and is accomplished by a See program listings on page 98. O
copy of Program 1 with the file machine language routine which is
name "SPEEDSCRIPT DATE". sent into the disk drive itself. The

76 COMPUTED Gszflrte May 1987


POWER SUPPLY (C-64) 29.95
1541 (Alignment) 35.00
C-64 (Repair) 44.95
C-126 (Repair) 95.00
1541 (Repair & Alignment) 75.00
1571 (Alignment) 40.00
1571 (Repair & Align) 135.00
POWER SUPPLY (C-128] 99.95

ScriptRead
PARTS C-64 &C-128 CALL
PARTS AND DIAGNOSTICS INCLUDED
(FREE Return Freight in the USA.
APO-FPO. C3PO add S10)

TO SAVE C.O.D. CHARGES -


Buck Childress SEND UNIT & POWER SUPPLY
WITH CHECK OR M.O.
{916)635-3725
Second Source Engineering
2664-B Mercantile Drive
Rancho Cordova,
This versatile utility allows you to read any SpeedScript file CA 95670
(version 2.x or 3.x) at high speed. Among its features are auto
matic word-wrapping and word counting. It also has a scratch
command to remove unwanted files. A disk drive is required.
300 Gaud Modtm

After a while, your SpeedScript disks Press D to see the disk directory. MONITORS S29.

can become overcrowded with files. Press CTRL to slow the directory
Even with the most descriptive of iisting. Press Q to quit the listing. l2"TTLAmb«r $98.
720x350
filenames, it's hard to remember the To read the contents of a file,
contents of every file. "ScriptRead" press R and then type the name of 14"color/a>8«n $299.
lets you read through any number of the file. ScriptRead displays the file RGB, TTL
composlts Input
SpeedScripl files, scratching any that on the screen. Since ScriptRead in MAGNAV0XCMB5S2
are no longer needed. And since cludes an automatic word-wrap
ScriptRead works so fast, it can also function, you'll never have to con
help you to locate a particular file— tend with words that are split be
without your having to waste time tween two lines. Press CTRL to
loading file after file into SpeedScript. slow the listing, any function key to
pause it, or Q to quit reading the
Using The Program file. When the end of the fiie is
ScriptRead is written in BASIC but reached, the number of words in
includes machine language subrou the file is displayed.
tines. Since the program requires Press S to scratch a file. Script
exact typing to work properly, be Read asks for the name of the file to
sure to use the "Automatic Proof scratch. Type in the name of the file
reader" program located elsewhere you wish to erase, or press RE
in this issue to enter it. Save a copy TURN if you don't wish to erase
to disk before attempting to run the any files.
program. If you encounter a disk error
To use the program, load it and (your disk drive light blinks on and
type RUN. The program asks what off), press E to read the error chan
you would like to do. Press M to see nel. See your disk drive manual for
a menu of your options. an explanation of disk errors.
You may change the screen You may press RUN-STOP at
colors for easier viewing by press the "What would you like to do?'
ing T to change the text color and B prompt to exit ScriptRead.
WaXTRON 1825ADURFEEAVE.S EL MONTE. CA 91733
to change the background color. See program listing on page 105. M (8181350-5707 VISAS MASTERCARD ACCEPTED
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Computers And Learning:
Wnich Future For You?

Fred D'lgnazio The Good Old Days no longer matter. If something


Associate Editor While I stood and marvelled at this breaks down, we'll take the com
super-high-tech classroom, I puter to the repair shop and have it
i have seen the future, and it is couldn't help remembering the first serviced. The teacher is spared the
awesome.
time I'd taken a computer into a nuisance of having to install, main
Recently I had an opportunity school. It was 1974, and I was a tain, and service her classroom
to visit a new Interactive Learning COBOL programmer fleeing from a computers. She'll hum the whole
System classroom at a local high mindless programming job in the mess over to a trained expert.
school. Twenty-five students were subbasement of the Pentagon. 1 "It's about time!" you say. And
sitting at twenty-five microcomput took my TI Execuport terminal, you may be right; perhaps it's a
ers, looking like bionic kids. They plugged it into the school tele good thing. After all, teachers don't
were wearing headphones to hear phone, and introduced elementary- have time to fuss and fume over ca
their computers talk and play the school kids to computers by bles, adapters, circuit cards, disks,
music and sound effects accompa teaching them to program simple and other computer paraphernalia.
nying their lesson. They controlled games in BASIC. But what about the students?
their computers by talking into a I kept 27 third graders spell When we tame technology and cover
microphone attached to their head bound for over an hour with a re up all those messy wires and glitch
phones, All the computers were mote terminal the size of a sewing es, are we enriching or impoverish
wired together into a local area net machine and a book of computer ing our students' learning? If all
work which shared a laser printer games. technology becomes as transparent
and a 20-megabyte hard disk drive. Of course I wasn't trying to or invisible as a car's carburetor or a
The students seemed totally ab teach high-school kids about earth refrigerator's electric motor, how
sorbed in their lesson (which ap science. I just wanted to turn kids can a student ever learn about
peared to be an "earth science" unit on to computers. technology?
about the ionosphere). They Let's look at the bottom line for
hunched over their computer key Scratching Your Head a moment. How does a learning lab
boards, their eyes locked onto the compare with a pencil! Which is the
When my first COMPUTE! column
color display screens. more versatile tool? Which is more
appeared in April 1982, it began
They reminded me of my son with a cartoon of a funny-looking creative, more open-ended? Which
when he watches the Saturday little man kneeling on the floor sur is more personal? Which tool gives
morning cartoons. A firecracker rounded by all kinds of computer a student more control over the pro
could have exploded beside them parts. The man was soldering some cess of learning rather than limited
and they wouldn't have noticed. parts together and looking like he goals and objectives?
I asked the students' teacher was having a great time. Which is cheaper?
how much such a setup cost. That little man was me, And what happens if the learn
"Only $145,000," said the He was also the thousands of ing lab's technician can't come in to
teacher proudly. "Ninety-five other computer hobbyists who first work? a
thousand for the computers, thirty got into personal computers be
thousand for the proprietary soft cause of the way they were so hh-
ware, and another twenty thousand formed—like Lego blocks which
for the technician who operates and you had to assemble yourself.
maintains all the equipment." As I looked at the students in
"Do you really need a paid the high-tech learning lab, I real
technician?" 1 asked. "Can't a teach ized how far we have come since
er be trained to do the same job?" those early days' in personal com
"No way," said the teacher, puters. It made me realize we are on
shaking his head. "The system is the verge of entering a new era in
too complicated. You need some which microcomputers officially
one devoted to it full-time. It's like become an "appliance"—like a car,
an expensive race car—to keep it on microwave oven, or TV set. All the
the track you have to fuss with it complexities, all the frustrating de
constantly." tails of making a computer run will

7B COMPUTED Gazette May 1987


Tom R. Halfhill, Staff Editor

Each month, COMPUTEVs Gazette information service is like a large, grams on the Atari 130XE that
tackles some questions commonly electronic bulletin board that offers allow the extra 64K to be used as a
asked by Commodore users. If you a number of services, including a li RAM disk. Is there a way of doing
have a Question you'd like to see brary of public domain programs; this on the Commodore 128 in 64
answered here, send it to this col public messages; private electronic mode? This could be a really useful
umn, c/o COMPUTERS Gazette, P.O. mail; and online conferencing capability. I can also imagine that
Box 5406, Greensboro, NC 27403. (something like a national "party using part of a memory expansion
line" in which dozens of people can module to set up a number of RAM
VJ* I plan to buy a modem. Do participate in a conversation by disk drives in 64, 128, or CP/M
I need things like QuantumLink typing on their keyboards). Other mode would be nice to do.
to make it work? Also, do I have popular information services which
to pay extra phone charges when I cater to owners of many different /\» Setting up a RAM disk on the
use the modem? If I upgrade my kinds of computers are Compu Atari 130XE is a little easier in one
system to a Commodore 128, will Serve, The Source, Delphi, GEnie, sense because it's not a multimode
I need a different modem in 12S and PeopleLink. computer. In addition to its regular
mode than in 64 mode? If so, are You can also use a modem to 64K, the 130XE has four extra 16K
there any modems that work in call any of the hundreds of bulletin banks which are available at any
both 128 and 64 mode? board systems (BBSs) spread time. The Commodore 128, on the
throughout the world. Unlike the other hand, is really three computers
f\% The word modem stands for commercial information services, in one: a 128, a Commodore 64, and
modulator/demodulator. Simply put, which are operated on large main a CP/M machine. The 128K of mem
it's a device which connects a com frames or minicomputers, BBSs are ory available in 128 mode is not "vis
puter to a standard telephone line. typically run on a single personal ible" to the computer in 64 mode.
It allows a computer to transmit computer by a hobbyist. They offer This was a necessary design compro
information to another modem- similar services, but on a smaller mise to insure full 64 compatibility.
equipped computer by converting scale. Check your local user group You could set up a RAM disk
the data into audio tones which are for a list of popular BBSs. using the 64K of memory available
carried by the phone line. At the Extra charges are usually as in 64 mode—in fact, this has al
other end, the tones are converted sessed only when you call a com ready been done on the Commo
back into the original data by the mercial information service with dore 64—but the RAM disk would
other modem. your modem. Most services have have to be relatively small to leave
You don't pay extra phone hourly rates ranging from $3 to $15. room for your program. To over
charges when using a modem be (An exception is QuantumLink, come this limitation, Commodore
cause as far as the phone company which charges a flat fee of $9.95 per has introduced a 256K memory ex
is concerned, you're making an or month and $3.60 per hour for cer pander for the 64. {For more on this
dinary phone call. If you call anoth tain services.) The bigger infor product, see the feature on data
er computer long-distance, you pay mation services have local phone storage elsewhere in this issue.)
the long-distance rates that you numbers in most major metropoli This $129 module plugs into the
would if you placed a voice call to tan areas, so you don't have to user port and comes with software
the same city at the same time of place a long-distance call to reach to set up two different kinds of
day. (There's one exception, which them. If you live outside these RAM disks. One RAM disk is for
we'll explain in a moment.) areas, you can link up through a normal 64 applications, and the
The only thing you need to special long-distance network that other is for use with GEOS (Graphics
make a modem work—besides a costs a few dollars an hour. Environment Operating System). Since
telephone line and the appropriate All modems that work with the GEOS frequently accesses the disk
terminal software running on your Commodore 64 are also compatible drive, the RAM disk's very high
computer—is another modem- with the Commodore 128, so you speed (about 1000 times faster than
equipped computer to call. The other won't need to buy a new modem if that of a floppy) makes GEOS much
computer and modem can be next you upgrade. The same modem easier to use.
door or on the other side of the world. works in either 64 or 128 mode, as Memory expanders for the 128
QuantumLink is a commercial well as in CP/M mode. can also be used as RAM disks, but
information service that specializes not in all three of the computer's
in Commodore computers. An '• I've noticed there are pro modes. q

COMPUTEIs GazetlB May 1997 T9


The Power Of The ON Command

Larry Cotton No. typed Program response Why?

negative ILLEGAL QUANTITY ON cannot handle negative numbers (but see


BASIC has a very useful command below}
that can be used in conjunction 0 Prints TWO ON statement is ignored when zero is typed in
with GOTO and GOSUB. That 1 Asks again Control is sent to line number in the first position

command is ON. after GOTO—line 100


2-5 Prints TWO—FIVE Control is sent to the line numbers in the second
If you've been writing simple through fifth positions after GOTO— lines 120
BASIC programs incorporating the through 150
statements we've discussed in this 6-255 Prints TWO ON statement is ignored when values exceed the
number of entries after GOTO
column, you may have encountered
256 ILLEGAL QUANTITY Maximum value ON can handle is 255 or more
situations where you need to test
for several conditions and take ap
100 INPUT "NUMBER FROM TWO TO • The maximum number of posi
propriate actions. Take a look at the FIVE"; A
following example: tions after GOTO or GOSUB is
110 ON A GOTO 100, 120, 130, 140, 150
120 PRINT 'TWO": END 255, but you can't actually type
100 INPUT "NUMBER FROM 1 TO 3"; A
110 IF A-l THEN GOSUB 500
130 PRINT "THREE": END 255 different line numbers be
120 IF A-2 THEN GOSUB 600
140 PRINT "FOUR": END cause of the 80-character limit of
ISO PRINT "FIVE": END
130 IF A "3 THEN GOSUB 700 a Commodore 64 BASIC line or
You're expected to enter a num the 160-character limit of Com
We've seen both INPUT and
IF/THEN before. Lines 500, 600, ber in the range 2-5. Program con modore 128 BASIC.
and 700 would contain the subrou trol will be transferred to lines • If negative numbers or numbers
tines which would perform differ 120-150, which are in positions 2-5 greater than 255 are used with
ent actions depending on the value after the GOTO. Try entering values ON, you'll get the error message
typed for A—1, 2, or 3. Here's a in this range and observe the results. ILLEGAL QUANTITY.
way to accomplish the same thing Next, type in some values out
• If the numeric expression follow
in only two lines: side the requested range, including ing ON is not an integer, the deci
1 and negative values. The table mal portion is dropped. For
100 INPUT "NUMBER FROM 1 TO 3"; A
110 ON A GOSUB 500, 600, 700 shows what happens for each pos instance, in the example pro
sible number, and why.
That's all there is to it. Again, grams above, if the user types
Here is a summary of the 3.25 at the prompt, it will be
lines 500, 600, and 700 would con guidelines for using ON:
tain the subroutines corresponding treated as 3.
• Line numbers must be separated
to the values of A.
by commas (spaces optional).
How does ON work? First, ON with Negative Numbers
• Any legal numeric expression
look at the line numbers following Suppose you want ON to handle
may follow ON. Examples: X,
the GOSUB; they are in positions negative input. An example might
N+3, X(3), GR"2-1.
one, two, and three. The number of be:
positions usually correlates with ■ AH the rules for GOTO and GO 100 INPUT "ENTER A NUMBER FROM

the highest value of A that we ex SUB (see last month) apply when -3 TO -1"; N

they are used with ON. 110 ON N + 4 GOTO 120, 130, 140
pect the user to type. In this case, 120 PRINT "MINUS THREE": END
we're asking for a 1, 2, or 3. There • If the destination line for the 130 PRINT "MINUS TWO": END
fore, there are three corresponding GOTO or GOSUB doesn't exist, 140 PRINT "MINUS ONE": END
line numbers following the GOSUB. you'll get the error message UN-
Here's a chance to really use
If the user types a 1, ON uses DEF'D STATEMENT ERROR IN
the old gray matter. ON has the ca
that value to choose which number line number.
pability of doing some simple (or
to go to—in this case line 500. Simi • The number of lines to which even very complicated) math before
larly, if the user types a 2 or a 3, program control may be trans it decides to which line number it
control of the program is sent to ferred usually corresponds to the should transfer control. In the above
line 600 or 700, respectively. highest value that the expression example, 4 is added to the number
may become. that is input (which should be in the
ON with GOTO • If the expression evaluates to zero range —3 to — 1). This brings the in
GOTO as well as GOSUB can be or a value greater than the num put number into the range 1 to 3—a
used with ON. Type in and RUN ber of positions after the GOTO range that ON can handle.
this program: or GOSUB, the ON" is ignored. Here's what happens: If you
80 COMPUTED Gazette May 1987
the most popular is with the RND 170 IF C>3 THEN 100: REM UPPER
type a —3 at the prompt, N be
LIMIT
comes — 3 and N + 4 becomes +1 (random) function, where pro
180 FOR T = l TO C: ON T GOSUB 200,
(—3+4= + l). 4-1 causes control grams can branch in random direc 300, 400
to be sent to line 120, which prints tions. We'll discuss RND in a future 190 NEXT:END
the message "MINUS THREE". column. 200 PRINT

Another use for ON is with the 210 PRINT "CAPITAL OF NC:


Similarly, if you type a —1 at
RALEIGH"
the prompt, N + 4 becomes three FOR-NEXT statement.
220 RETURN
and control is sent to the line num 100 FOR T = l TO 4 300 PRINT "CAPITAL OF SC:
ber in the third position—140. 110 ON T GOSUB 200, 300, 400, 500 COLUMBIA"
120 NEXT 310 RETURN
It's good programming prac
130 END 400 PRINT "CAPITAL OF VA:
tice to limit the responses to an IN
200 (subroutine followed by RETURN) RICHMOND"
PUT, even if it's not being used 300 (subroutine followed by RETURN) 410 RETURN
with ON-GOTO or ON-GOSUB, so 400 (subroutine followed by RETURN)
500 (subroutine followed by RETURN) Run this program three times,
we'll use two IF/THEN statements
each time making a different
to test for legal INPUT values, as This is useful for sequentially
choice, and observe the results. Re
shown In lines 110 and 120 below: executing several subroutines,
member: C is the user's response to
100 INPUT "NUMBER FROM ONE TO which can set up the screen or
the question, and T is the counter in
THREE",H sound chip in the computer, define
110 IF H<1 THEN 100 the FOR-NEXT loop. When you
constants, gather the user's input,
120 IF H>3 THEN 100 type 2, for instance, C is given that
130 ON H GOTO 140, 150, 160 and so on.
value, and the program loops twice.
140 (program continues here) To understand how ON is used
Lines 100-150 should be clear.
with FOR-NEXT, type in this
If values outside of the request Lines 160 and 170 limit the user's
program:
ed range are entered, control re response. Please be careful to note
100 PRINT "{CLR}{DOWN)HOW
turns to the INPUT statement in that in line 180, ON is followed by
MANY STATES WOULD YOU LIKE
line 100. T {the FOR-NEXT counter), not C
TO SEE?"
110 PRINT (the user's input—the high limit for
ON's Other Uses 120 PRINT "1. NC ONLY" the counter). Lines 200-410 contain
Of course, there are other ways to 130 PRINT "2. NC AND SC" the subroutines.
140 PRINT "3. NC, SC, AND VA"
use ON (which is always used with Next month we'll look at the
150 PRINT: INPUT "YOUR CHOICE"; C
GOSUB or GOTO) other than fol 160 IF C<1 THEN 100: REM LOWER GET statement. In the meantime, try
lowing INPUT statements. One of LIMIT using ON in your own programs. O

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Building Trampolines

Richard Mansfield No Cause For Concern you might want to set up a series of
Editorial Director The programmer, however, need JMPs in this way:
not worry that the targets (CON LDA CHOICE
It's something of an oddity that you TINUE, UP, and DOWN in our ex BEQ CHOOSE
cannot branch further than 127 ample above) of branch commands CMP #1
bytes forward or 128 bytes back are, in fact, within the bounds, BEQ ONE
ward, whereas you can JSR or jMP CMP #2
within the 255-byte limit. All rea BEQ TWO
as far as you want. You can give the sonable assemblers will detect any CMP #3
JMP instruction an address any such problems and report BEQ THREE
where within the 64K range of the BRANCH OUT OF RANGE. It's ONE JMP ONE1
Commodore 64 or within the 64K usually relatively simple to correct
TWO JMP TWO1
THREE JMP THREE1
size of any memory bank within the
the problem by moving things
Commodore 128. A BEQ {Branch if In this example there is a nearby
around a little.
EQual) command, however, is only subroutine, called CHOOSE, which
Once in a while, though, you'll
allowed to leap within a zone continually tests to see if the user
need to branch some distance from
which is 255 bytes large and which has indicated his or her preference
a branching instruction. One such
extends half that much in either di from your program's menu of
dilemma arises when there's just no
rection from its own location within choices. This CHOOSE subroutine
easy way to correct a BRANCH
your program. either leaves a zero (if there has
OUT OF RANGE error. In these
Before speculating about the been no choice yet) or the number
cases, you can simulate a far branch
possible reason for this curious associated with one of the items on
by inserting a JMP as the target of a
state of affairs, let's first review the the menu. If there is no choice yet,
branch, like this:
uses of the branching instructions. we branch up to CHOOSE and try
LDA 12000
Essentially, commands such as BEQ again. If a choice has been made,
BEQ CONT
and BNE (Branch Not Equal) are CMP#1
we branch down onto one of our
ML's way of handling IF-THEN BEQ UP waiting trampolines, and we're off
and ON-GOTO structures. The CMP #2 to the correct subroutine.
BEQ DOWN By the way, we don't have any
branching commands respond to
CONT JSR MAIN
whatever has just happened in your hard information on why branch
DOWN JMP DOWN1
program and either send the pro ing was limited to short distances,
What we've done is create a "tram but we can make a reasonable as
gram to a new location, or not:
poline" and labelled it DOWN. sumption that it had to do with
LDA 12000 Now we can locate the subroutine
BEQ CONT
memory conservation. Far branch
CMP#1
DOWN1 anywhere in 64K of mem ing would require two-byte address
BEQ UP ory because the JMP instruction es. In the early days of personal
CMP #2 uses a two-byte address. So, if there computers (back, say, six years)
BEQ DOWN is a 2 in the byte at address 12000, when the 6502, the granddaddy of
CONT go on with the program
we branch to DOWN, but DOWN the 6500 family of microprocessers,
This program fragment could come can bounce us anywhere we need was designed, computers had only
from a larger program which is test to go. This might seem a bit indi 8K or less of RAM within which to
ing the byte at memory address rect, but it's pretty simple to pro write programs. Since branching is
12000 to see what it contains and gram. The reason we have to go such a common event and since
then is making a decision about it. If through this indirection is that the short-distance branching is usually
12000 holds a zero, we jump to the JMP instruction cannot make deci all that's needed, it was felt that the
location within our program called sions and the branching instruc savings in memory usage achieved
CONT and simply proceed with the tions cannot go very far. with one-byte branch addressing
program. If, however, address was worthwhile. When you've got
12000 contains a 1, we branch to a A Massive Structure only 8K, every byte counts. More
routine called UP. UP has to be If you are planning a massive ON- recent microprocessors, such as the
somewhere nearby since branches GOTO structure, for example if you 68000, feature "far branch" instruc
must be within that 255-byte-large are branching to many places with tions which, with respect to their
zone. If 12000 contains a 2, we go to in your program as the result of a reach, are identical to jump and go-
the subroutine labelled DOWN. user's choice from a large menu, sub commands. 9

82 COMPUTE!* Gazette May 1987


Easy ML Line Drawing

Paul Carlson ample, the following routine draws ments which must be typed
a line from (10,20) to (150,80) with accurately, use "The Automatic
Drawing lines on the 128 with ma color source 1, and then draws to Proofreader," found elsewhere in
chine language is a lot easier than (40,120) with color source 2. this issue, to enter the program. Be
you might think, And its much sure to save a copy of the program
LDA #$00 ;set high bytes of
faster than with BASIC. As an ex STA SI 132 ; starting before running it.
ample of the effects possible, an STA $1134 ; and ending After you've saved a copy, load
excellent demonstration program STA SI 136 ; coordinates and run the program. You'll see a
STA SH38 ; to zero.
is included. bundle of lines walking across the
LDA #$0A ;U>,itl 10 ($A) into
STA $1131 ; slarting x. screen. Press any key to stop the
The 128's BASIC 7.0 has all the LDA #$14 ;load 20 into demo.
graphics commands that the 64 STA $1133 ; starting y. See program listing on page 104. •
LDA #$96 ;load 150 into
lacked. These commands are also
STA $1135 ; ending x.
available to machine language (ML) LDA #$50 ; In .id B0 into
programs. In this article I'll show STA $1137 ; ending y.
you how to use the line-drawing LDA #$01 ;ln,i(! 1 into
routine. Even if you're not interest STA $S3 ; color source.
)SR $AF72 ;draw first line
ed in ML programming, you might
LDA #$28 ;In.ul 40 into
be interested in typing in the pro STA $1135 ; ending x.
gram—it's an enhanced version of LDA #$78 ;Ioad 120 into
the classic "walking lines" demo STA $1137 ; ending y.

program.
LDA #$02 ;load 2 into
STA $83 ; color source.
The line-drawing routine is JSR SAF72 ;draw second line
among the easiest of the BASIC 7.0
ROM routines to use. Even if you're
RTS ;return.
COMPUTED Gazette is
just beginning to program in ma Although the graphics mode looking for utilities,
can be set using machine language,
chine language, you shouldn't have games, applications,
much trouble using it. it's best to use the BASIC GRAPH
IC statement, which initializes cer educational programs,
The line-drawing routine has a
jump table entry at address $AF72 tain memory locations used by the and tutorial articles. If
line-drawing routine. Likewise, it's
(a $ means that the number is in you've created a pro
hexadecimal). The routine gets the
best to use the BASIC COLOR state
ment to define the color sources. gram that you think
color source and the starting and
ending coordinates for the line from The routine above assumes that the other readers might en
multicolor mode has been set and
the following memory locations in joy or find useful, send
RAM (all coordinates are in stan
color sources 1 and 2 have been de
fined by the BASIC program that it, on tape or disk to:
dard low-byte/high-byte form):
calls the routine.
$0083 color source
Why bother with machine lan-
Submissions Reviewer
$1131-$] 132 starting x coordinate
$1133-$] 134 starting y coordinate guage at all, when the BASIC COMPUTE! Publications
$1135-S1136 ending x coordinate DRAW statement can do the same P.O. Box 5406
$1137—SI 138 ending y coordinate thing? The reason is speed. BASIC
may not be fast enough when many
Greensboro, NC 27403
When the line-drawing routine
is called, the values in these memory lines need to be displayed in a short Please enclose an SASE
locations determine the color and lo time. The program accompanying
cation of the line. After the routine this article demonstrates the speed if you wish to have the
has drawn a iine, it moves the val possible when a machine language materials returned.
routine is used.
ues from the ending coordinate ad Articles are reviewed
dresses to the starring coordinate
Walking Lines
within four weeks of
addresses. This makes it easy to
draw connected lines—after the first Type in "Walking Line Demo." submission.
line is drawn, only the new ending Since it contains a machine lan
point needs to be loaded. As an ex guage program in DATA state

COMPUWs Gatetie May 19B7 83


Alphabetizing

Todd Heimarck pare two items in the list, to see if When the loop has finished, N$(10)
Assistant Editor they're in the right order. In BASIC, holds ZELDA. We can't predict
you use the greater than (>) and whether any of the first nine strings
Computers are great at alphabetiz less than (<) operators, which work are in order, but we know that the
ing—they don't make mistakes and on both numeric and string vari last item in the array is correct.
they don't complain about how ables. The heart of a sorting routine Each time the loop is repeated,
boring the job is. is the section where the computer one more item falls into place.
This month we'll take a look at loops through the list to find out Eventually, the list will be sorted.
two sorting algorithms: the bubble which items are incorrectly placed. The main bubble sort routine is
sort and the Shell sort. (Shell is cap Finally, if two strings or num found in lines 120-180 below. The
italized, by the way, because it's bers are in the wrong order, you outer loop starting at line 120
named after Donald Shell, its in have to switch them with a line like counts backwards from 79 to 78 to
ventor.) Both sorts, including the this: T$=A$: A$ = B$: B$=T$. 77, down to 1. The inner loop
demonstration programs here, ap counts from 1 to M—1 to 79, then 1
ply to any Commodore computer. The Bubble Sort to 78, 1 to 77, and so on.
For short lists, a bubble sort is ade Since we know that the first
Four Rules quate. In terms of speed, however, pass puts the last element in place,
Sorting programs work in a variety it's not a good choice, as we'll see it's not necessary to check it in the
of ways, but they all have four later. For explaining how a sort later loops. The second pass puts
things in common. The first rule is works, the bubble sort is excellent the penultimate string (number 79)
that the items to be put in order, because it's short. in its place, so it doesn't need to be
whether they're strings or numbers, Let's say you have an array of checked anymore.
must be in an array. At the begin ten strings. The following three lines
ning of the program, use the DIM will put the array in partial order: Bubble Sort
command to set the dimension of 10 FOR J - 1 TO 9
RK 10 Z-BBiDIM CS(Z)iM-RND|-10
the array. If the list has room for 50 20 IF N$(J) > N«J + 1) THEN T$-N«J):
0)
items and is called B$, you'll put BB 20 FOR M-1TOZ>L-INT(RND(1)*
DIM B$(50) in one of the first lines. 30 NEXT 6+3)
AJ 30 FOR N-lTOLiCS|M)=CS(M)+C
To find a single element in the ar The FOR-NEXT loop counts
HR$(INT(RND(l)*26+65))iN
ray, use a number or a numeric from 1 to one less than the size of EXTiPRINTCS(M),
variable in parentheses after B$. the array (9, in this example). The AM 40 NEXTiPRINT CHRS(147)j
The 26th item on the list will be variable J is the counter for the loop KC 50 GOSUB100IGOSUB100
GH 60 GETASiIFAS-""THEN60
B$(26). If you're sorting numbers— and an index to the array. The IF- QD 70 END
batting averages, for example—use THEN in line 20 compares one AC 100 PRINT'SORTING"
a numeric array such as B(X). member of the array to its neighbor MS 110 M-FRE(0)iTI$-"000000"tC
P">0 ISW-0
The second rule is that you on the list. As J counts from 1 to 9,
FC 120 FOR M-(Z-1)TO1STEP-1
have to initialize the values in the N$(l) is compared to N$(2), then SE 130 FOR K-lTOMiCP-CP+1
array. Like all other variables on the N$(2) is compared to N$(3), and so XP 140 IF C$[N)<CS(N+1) THEN17
64 or 128, newly created arrays are on until the final pass through the 0
GK 150 SW-SW+1
empty. Numeric arrays start out loop, where N$(9) is compared to HE 160 TS-CS(H)|C$(N)-C$(N+1),
filled with zeros; string arrays begin N$(10). This covers the final two CS(N+1)-T$
as a collection of null strings items in the array, and it's why the SQ 170 NEXT
MR 180 NEXT
(strings that contain nothing, with a loop counts up to 9, when the array
KM 190 PRINT TI;"JIFFIES",CP;"
length of zero). To initialize the ar size is really 10. COMPARISONS"
ray, you could type in the values If two strings are out of order, CH 200 PRINT SW7"SWAPS"
yourself. Or you could put the val they're swapped. Now let's say GQ 210 FOR M-lTOZiPRINTCS(M),I
NEXT I PRINT
ues in DATA statements and READ N$(2) equals ZELDA and it's alpha
CD 220 RETURN
them into the array. Or you could betically the last string on the list.
store them in a disk file and initial The first comparison leaves N$(l) Line 140 compares two strings.
ize the array by reading the file. The and N$(2) in place. The second com If they're in place, the program
example programs set up the array parison switches 2 and 3 (now N$(3) skips ahead to line 170. The CP
by selecting characters at random. is ZELDA). The third moves our variable in 130 and SW in 150
Third, you need a way to com string down to N$(4), and so on. aren't really necessary. They're

84 COMPUTEfs Gazelfo May 1987


there to keep track of how many The Shell Sort of the list to the bottom, a time-
comparisons and swaps are made. As the size of the list grows larger, consuming process. The Shell sort
bubble sorts become very slow. moves it 40, then 20, then 10. After
A Modified Bubble Run one of the bubble sort pro only three comparisons, the way
Examine line 50 in the program grams above and note the time. On ward string has moved a total of 70
above and you'll see that the bubble a 128 in 64 mode, the first program spots on the list.
sort routine is called twice. The first took 4387 jiffies (73.12 seconds). How much faster is a Shell
time, the list is in random order. The Now change the first part of line 10 sort? Consider the following times:
second time, the array is in order. If to read Z=160. That doubles the SO stiings 160 strings
you run the program, the program size of the list. Run the program Bubble 4387 jiffies 18,649 jiffies
makes 3160 comparisons before it again and it takes 18,649 jiffies Shell 1860 jiffies 5001 jiffies
finishes (the number of comparisons (310.82 seconds). The list has dou Doubling the size quadruples
is predictable: Take the length of the bled in size, but the time used by the time for a bubble sort, but it
list, 80; multiply by the next number the sort program has quadrupled. only multiplies the Shell sort time
down, 79; and divide that number Here's an improved sorting by about 2.7. The longer the list to
by 2). The first sort takes 4387 jiffies program (lines 10-70 are the same):
be sorted, the better the Shell sort
(73.12 seconds; a jiffy is 1/60 sec
performs, as compared to the bub
ond). The second sort, when the list
Shell Sort ble sort. «f
is already in order, takes 2610 jiffies
RK 10 Z=S0:DIM C?(Z) |M=RND|-10
(43.5 seconds). Both times there are
0}
3160 comparisons.
The program can be modified
BB 20 FOR M=1TOZ:L=INT[RND(U*
6+3)
COMPUTED
to make it run faster when the list is AJ 30 FOR N=1TOL:CS(M)=CS(M)+C
HRS(INT(RND(1)•26+65))iN
GAZETTE
sorted (or mostly sorted);
AM 40
EXT:PRINTCS(M),
NEXT:PRINT CHR?(147);
TOLL FREE
Modified Bubble Sort
KC 50 GOSUB100:GOSUB100 Subscription
GH 60 GETAS:IFAS=""THEN60
RK 10 Z=80tDIM C$(Z):H-RND(-10 QD 70 END Order Line
a) GC 100 PRINT-SORTING":GP=Z
BB 20 FOR M-1TOZ:L=INT(RND[1)* MS 110 M-FRE(0)iTIS-"000000":C 1-800-247-5470
6+3) P=0 : SW0
In IA
AJ 30
FOR N=lTOLiC?(M)=CS<M)+C JK 120 GP=INT(GP/2)lIFGl>=0THEN
HRS(INT(RND(l)*36+65)):N 200 1-800-532-1272
EXTtPRINTCS(M), HB 130 F=0
AM 40 NEXT:PRINT CHR?{147); KR 140 FOR M=1TO(Z-GP):CP=CP+1
KC 50 GOSUB100:GOSUB100 CM 150 IF CS{M)<CS(M+GPlTHEN17
GH 60 GETASiIFAS=''"THEN60 0
QD
AC
70
100
END
PRINT"SORTING"
XB 160 TS=CS{M):CS(M)=CS(M+GP)
:CS(M+GP)=TS:SW=SW+liF=
SONY
MS 110 M=FRE(0)!TI?=n000000"iC 1 3.5" DISKETTES
P=0iSW=0 SQ 170 NEXT
Certified \>y Apple for Macintosh
HF 120 FOR M={Z-1)TO1STEP-1:F= KS 180 IF if THEN130 ■ Silety A:ii i Shuiler protects again?! fingerprints anil dust
0 SS 190 GOTO120 ■ Safeiv Auln DbiIjfi is heat-r«sfetanl and guards against
AP 200 PRINT TI;"JIFFIES",CP;" disk damage duimq handling
SE 130 FOR N=1TOM:CP=CP+1
XP 140 IF C$(N)<CS(N+1) THEN17 COMPARISONS"
Price Per Diskette
0 GE 210 PRINT SW;"SWAPS"
XD 150 SW-SW+1:F»1 MR 220 FOR M=1TOZ:PRINTCS(M).: SS DS
HE 160 T$=CS{N)iCS[N}-CS(N+l)i NEXTiPRINT
Box 1.09 1.59
CS{N+1)=TS GE 230 RETURN
JA 170 NEXT!IF F=0THENM=0 Bulk 1.17 1.29
MR 180 NEXT
KM 190 PRINT TIr"JIFFIES",CP;" The Shell sort uses a gap (the vari J00% ERROR FREE
COMPARISONS" able GP) that's initialized to half the
CH 200 PRINT SW;"SWAPS" size of the list. For an 80-element
POLY PACK 5W DISKETTES
GQ 210 FOR M-ITOZjPRINTCS(M),i
NEXT:PRINT array, GP would start at 40. Instead • Blank Jackets

of comparing neighboring strings, • WP Tabs


CD 220 RETURN
• Envelopes
you compare strings that are sepa 100=.'. ERROR FREE
The variable F has been added rated by 40. The first time through Sold in Lots of 100 Only
to lines 120, 150, and 170. It acts as the main loop, C$(l) is compared to IUALITY PRINTER RIBBONS
a flag that indicates whether or not C$(41), C$(2) is compared to Apple Im.irjrtwriTej , , , , S3.95 as
a swap has occurred during each C$(42), and so on. When no more OkidflTa 0Q'e2/B3
Epson LK G0.r9Q . . - . -
Si 49 ea
« , . S? 95 pa
pass of the outer loop. Obviously, if swaps can be made, the gap is cut in Sold 6'Boi (Minimum)
no swaps have been made, the list half and rounded down to 20, then MM D'dar (75 00 S&H Caul men Ed I URA HOO'IDO
of fp*ot tf--,k* (McQLnl :ii 300 nibbcm t J& each
is in order and no more sorting is 10, 5, 2, and 1. t u'ei(jii.?r<j«rjmjO^PO.[)leaii*cjll Ml rri id unit add
4%(Ik Pncc*auh|pcttQCri3ngijwitrioul notice Honu
needed. If F is still zero after the in The advantage to using the gap fl30 AM - Tim IJM

ner loop finishes, the sort routine is that it helps strings move faster
ends. Now the scrambled list re and farther. Let's use the ZELDA
quires 3139 comparisons instead of string as an example again. In a Precision Daia Prod nets'"
P.O Hl>. SJdi. (;rjml Hjpi.i. MI49
3160 and the sorted list needs 79 in bubble sort of 80 strings, it takes 79 l«U.|J5:MJ_'7.\li,.hit...n|.slK><.i:-
stead of 3160. swaps lo move ZELDA from the top
tjiuiidr Mi. Infill r-vxj.^H [*>**

COMPUTEI's GaieriB May 1987 85


Time Savers

64/128 Sprite Printer Instant 128 Help Screens per second), they don't run BASIC
Milche!) Ross programs at the same speed. In fact,
Anders Frankel
if you time a FOR-NEXT loop that
To look at a sprite shape, you can Here's a time- and memory-saving counts to 10,000, you'll find that
PEEK into memory. But it takes a technique for people who own a the VIC-20 is the fastest Commo
long time to convert the numbers 128 (or a 64 with a machine lan dore computer, followed in order
into spots on graph paper. Here's guage monitor). Screen memory on by the 64, the Plus/4 and 16, and
how to let the computer do the work. both computers starts at 1024. If the 128. Put the 128 in FAST mode
First you have to know where you have an introductory screen for (2 MHz), and it jumps to number 1
the sprite is located in memory. On a game or a series of help screens, on the list. Does this mean Plus/4
the 64 and 128, you can PEEK loca you could put the information for owners are doomed to remain in
tions 2040-2047 to find the point one screen in a series of 25 PRINT last place on the list of who's hot
ers for the eight sprites. (For sprites statements. But if you have six and who's not? Not necessarily.
used on the 128's hi-res screens, pages of text, you'd need 150 It's not very well known, but
GRAPHIC 1-4, substitute 8184- PRINT lines. The following idea the speed of the Plus/4 and 16 can
8191.) For example, if you have a will allow you to banish all those be increased tremendously by turn
128, PRINT PEEK(2040) should re PRINT statements from a program. ing off the screen. POKE 65286,11
turn the number 56. That's the On the 128, go into the moni turns it off and POKE 65286,27
pointer to the first sprite. Multiply tor by typing MONITOR. Clear the turns it back on. The increase in
the number by 64; that tells you screen and type whatever you like speed is roughly 30-40 percent,
where the 63 bytes of the sprite to create the screen you want. quite an improvement in programs
shape are located in memory. In When the screen looks right, cursor that do lots of calculations (sorts,
this case, sprite zero is found at down to the second-to-the-last line for example). It doesn't speed up
56*64, or 3584. and type S "filename1; 08, 400, 800 the clock—it just frees the Plus/4
The 64 doesn't have an area of and screen memory will be saved to from having to update the screen.
memory reserved for sprites, but I disk. This same idea can be used by With the screen turned off,
often use the area starting at 12288 64 owners who have Micromon, Su- suddenly the Plus/4 and 16 jump
in my programs. Once you know permoti, or some other ML monitor. out in front of the VIC and 64. Only
where the sprite is, run this short The line with the filename will the 128 in FAST mode is faster than
program: be saved along with the main screen. a Plus/4 with a blank screen.
To avoid seeing that line, you can If you're writing programs for
5 open1,3 write a short BASIC program (128 others to use, they may be discon
10 SL=12288 mode only) that sets up the screen certed to see the screen suddenly
20 FORJ=SLTO5L+60STEP3:ASo""
and then executes BSAVE "file disappear. Also, if you're develop
30 FORK=JTOJ+2:M=128:SE=PEEK{K
) Htf«ie",B0,P1024 TO P2023. ing a program and it stops with an
40 FORL=1TO8 Once the screen is on disk, you error, you won't see the error mes
50 IF SBANDM THENA$=AS+"*":GOT can BLOAD it back into memory on sage because of the empty screen.
070
S0 AS=AS+CURS(32)
the 128. On the 64, you'll have to Since the screen blartks to the
70 M=M/2 use a line like this at the beginning same color as the border, you can
80 NEXTL:NEXTK:PRINT#1,AS of the program: indicate that the program is still
90 NEXTJ
IF A-0THEN A = 1:LOAD"SCREEN1" running by changing the border
,8,1 color occasionally while the screen
It's written for a sprite that If you have a 128 memory ex is disabled. Insert a few COLOR 4,x
starts at 12288. For other memory pander, the screens can be STASHed lines in your program, where x is a
locations, just change the value of number in the range 1-16. Both the
in expansion memory, then
5L in line 10. The sprite shape border and the blank screen will
FETCHed for neariy instant access.
prints on the screen (in line 5, de change to the color you've chosen,
vice 3 is the screen). If you own a and you'll be able to tell that the
Turbo-Plus/4
printer, you can print out the shape program is working.
by changing the first line to OPEN Robert G. Boomers
1,4. You must also close the printer Although the VIC, 64, 16, Plus/4,
channel by adding PRINT#1: and 128 all have an internal clock
CLOSE1 as a final line. speed of 1 MHz (one million cycles

B6 COMPUTE!1! Gaialto May 1987


No-SYS Loader
Walter L Smith, Jr.

Noiv machine language programs can be as easy to handle as type POWERBALL. The converted
BASIC programs. With this 64 utility, running, loading, and program is saved to disk.
saving most machine language programs is a snap. A disk To make sure that the program

drive is required. is working correctly, enter these


lines:
Machine language {ML} programs BASIC loader form. First, load No- LOAD"POWERBALL",8
LIST
are more difficult to load, run, and SYS Loader and type RUN. The
copy than their BASIC counter program asks for a filename. Make You should see these lines on
parts. "No-SYS Loader" narrows sure that a disk containing a copy of the screen:
the gap between the two, allowing the Powerball program is in the 10 SYS2088
most ML programs to be treated drive; then type POWERBALL (or 20 REM your comment
like BASIC programs. whatever name you used to save
The SYS address will always be
No-SYS Loader works by com that program). No-SYS Loader
2088. This is the address of the load
bining the ML program with a short finds the file on disk and tells you er, not the ML program. Run the
BASIC loader to produce a new pro its load address. In the case of
program to see if it works properly.
gram that can be loaded, saved, and Powerball, this address is 49152.
Now that the program has
run like a BASIC program. When No-SYS Loader next asks for been converted, it's easy to make
the program is run, the loader trans the SYS address that starts the pro copies. For example, to make a copy
fers the ML to its correct location, gram. For Powerball, type 49152. of Powerball, type
performs a NEW, and, if necessary, Or, since the load address and SYS
LOAD"POWERBALL",8
resets certain BASIC pointers. address are the same, you may sim
ply press RETURN instead of typ Then change disks (if desired) and
Typing It In ing the address. type
No-SYS Loader is written in ma No-SYS Loader now gives you SAVE"NEW NAME",8
chine language. It must be entered the opportunity to insert a remark Notes
using the "MLX" machine language into the program. For Powerball, A limitation of this program is that
entry program found elsewhere in you may want to type May 1987 Ga it will not convert programs that
this issue. When you run MLX, zette so you'll know where to find load below address 2304 ($0900).
you'll be asked for the starting and instructions for the game. Be sure You'll find, however, that there are
ending addresses of the data you'll that the remark you enter contains no few ML programs that load below
be entering. For No-SYS Loader, re more than 19 characters. The pro this address.
spond with the following values: gram doesn't check the length of If the converted program is to
Starling address: 0801 your input, and if you enter too be used as a utility for a BASIC pro
Ending address: DA8S many characters, the resulting pro gram, the converted program must
After entering the data, be sure gram will crash when run. be loaded and run first, or else it
to save a copy of the program. Now insert the disk on which will erase any BASIC program cur
As an example of using No- you want the converted program rently in memory. An example is
SYS Loader, let's convert the game saved. Enter the filename for the "FilI-64" from the November issue.
"Powerball" from this issue to converted file. Let's assume you See program listing on page 100. ■
COMPUTED Gazette May 1987 87
Dazzlers
Paul Carlson

The most impressive screen displays on the Commodore 64 are ues in the range 0-15 into locations
done with high-resolution graphics. But you'll be surprised at 55296-56319. For example, POKE
55301,12 is valid; POKE 55219,17 is
what can be done in low resolution. These short programs
not. In addition to POKEing to color
demonstrate some eye-dazzling kaleidoscopic displays—using memory in your subroutine, you
just the text screen. may also print text to the screen. In
this way you can create your own
When most people think of com Now, when you want to write colorful, personalized messages.
puter graphics, they think of high- a Dazzler, load the main program
resolution drawings and video and type in a subroutine. As an ex
games. "Dazzlers" should change ample, let's use Program 2 (Subrou
that. Although the resolution is tine 1). First, load the main program
very coarse—the same as that of a with this line:
text screen—the flowing colors and LOAD"DAZZLER MAIN",8
simulated movements are fascinat (tape users substitute ,1]
ing to watch.
Then, with the Dazzler main
Program 1 is the main program
program in memory, type in Pro
for Dazzlers. It POKEs a machine
gram 2. When you've finished, save
language program into memory
the complete Dazzler program with
and prepares the screen for the
a line like this:
Dazzler routine. Five sample sub
SAVE"DAZZLER 1",8
routines are included to help get Tlw colors cascade across the screen hi
(tape users substitute ,1)
you started. this graphics leaser—one of jive differ
Now, you may load and run ent patterns included.
Typing It In the completed Dazzler program.
To begin, type in Program 1—the
Dazzler main program. Be sure to More Dazzlers
type the program in accurately since Programs 3,4,5, and 6 contain alter
it contains a machine language pro native subroutines for Dazzler. By The Engine
gram in the DATA statements. This following the above procedure with For those who may be interested in
program will not run without a sub each of these programs, you'll have the machine language program
routine beginning at line 100, bul if five different Dazzler programs. (Program 1), we have included the
you save a copy now, it will be easy You can create your own dis source code listing as Program 7.
to generate complete Dazzler pro plays by altering the subroutines You don't need to type this in—the
grams. Save the program with a provided. Dazzlers work by POKE- object code is included as DATA
statement like this: ing different colors into color memo statements in the Dazzler main
SAVE"DAZZLER MA1N",8 ry. When you write your own program.

(tape users substitute ,1) Dazzlers, be sure to POKE only val See program listings on page 104. O

9 COMPUTE-s Gazette May 1987


Fast Boot
Jim Allen

Once you're used to the speed and efficiency of aittobooting BASIC—SpeedScript, for example—
progratns on the 128, it's a disappointment when you return to you must choose the BASIC option
work in 64 mode. This clever utility offers a solution. A disk rather than the BINARY option.
Fast Boot will then prompt you
drive, either 1541 or 1571, is required.
for a new disk, the disk to be made
autobooting. Remove the program
Normally, the 128's autoboot fea ing. Don't renumber Program 2 or disk and put the new disk in the
ture is unavailable in 64 mode. add or delete any REM statements. drive. You can use a blank (unfor
"Fast Boot" lets you insert a disk in When you're ready to use Fast matted) disk if you wish; Fast Boot
the drive, turn on the computer, Boot, be sure that the drive is will offer you the option of format
and, within a matter of seconds, turned on and that it contains a disk ting the new disk.
have a 64 program appear on the with Program 2 and the ML files Several files are written to the
screen. If you have a 1571, Fast created by Program 1. Then load new disk. When Fast Boot ends, the
Boot also allows for loads up to five and run Fast Boot (Program 2). Fast new disk should be set up to auto
times faster than standard 64 mode Boot will load the ML files, then ask boot the specified program or pro
loads. Since some games and utili you to put the program disk in the grams. Test the autoboot disk by
ties consist of more than one pro drive. At this point, you should re turning the 128 off, and then back
gram, Fast Boot allows you to load move the disk containing Program on. Your 64 program should load
as many as three programs at once. 2 and insert the disk which contains automatically, and also run if you
the Commodore 64 program or pro specified the RUN option.
Typing It In grams that you'd like to have auto-
First, type in Program 1, "Fast Boot booted on the 128. (Fast Boot works Notes
ML Maker," and save it with the only with Commodore 64 pro BASIC programs load higher in
filename FA5TBOOT M/L PRG. Be grams.) When you're ready, press memory when the computer is in
sure to use the "Automatic Proof the space bar to continue. 128 mode, so conflicts are possible
reader" program located elsewhere Fast Boot asks if you'd like a when more than one program is be
in this issue to insure accurate en directory listing of the disk. Press Y ing loaded. For instance, the 64 ver
try. After typing it in and saving a to see a listing. Next, you're asked sion of SpeedScript can be auto-
copy, type RUN. Program 1 writes for the number of programs to auto booted, but you cannot use Fast
four machine language files to the load. This can range from 1 to 3. Boot to autoboot SpeedScript and
disk for use by Program 2. After the You must then give the filename of also load a SpcedScripi text file.
ML files are created, you shouldn't each 64 program that you want auto- Do not attempt to load or run
need to run Program 1 again. loaded. For each one, you must de BASIC programs that were not
Next, type in Program 2, "Fast scribe the program as BASIC or saved from 64 mode or from a
Boot." This program should be BINARY (for BASIC and machine Commodore 64. If you have a pro
saved on the same disk with the ML language programs, respectively), gram that works in both 64 and 128
programs created by Program I, Be and LOAD (to load the program mode, be sure that you save the
particularly careful when entering only) or RUN (to load and run it). program from 64 mode before at
lines 0-9. These lines must be typed For machine language programs tempting to make it autoboot.
exactly as they are printed in the list that load and run the same as See program listings on page 95. a
COMPUTED Gazetta May 1987 89
Gameports: joystick,
Paddle, And Mouse
Jim Butterfield

In this article, Jim Butterfield discusses how Commodore 128 interface for Flight Simulator II,
which gives more of the feeling of
and 64 game controller ports work, and he looks at the input
continuous control that a real air
devices that run through these ports. Also included are pro
craft joystick would provide.
grams that test the ports and input devices. The paddle was common with
some of the first video games.
The game controller ports of the A third type of interface is Tennis-type games, where each of
Commodore 64 and 128 are quite available on port 1 of the Commo two players would need to position
versatile. To them, we can connect dore 64 and 128: the light pen. This a bat on the screen to keep a ball in
joysticks, paddles, mice, light pens, is quite different from the joystick play, almost invariably used pad
and other devices such as graphics and paddle interfaces in that the dles. They are still around, al
tablets. light pen reading is calculated from though joystick-oriented games
Unfortunately, these devices the precise riming of the signal it have overtaken them in popularity.
sometimes fail; and occasionally sends to the computer. We won't
the circuitry within the computer deal with light pen operations here. Newer Interfaces
stops working. It's useful to be able The joystick is the best-known Since the introduction of the joy
to check the system out. The pro peripheral device that connects to stick and paddle, newer devices
grams given here allow you to test the game controller port. As we've have come into use. These use the
the ports as well as devices con mentioned, it's a digital device, same digital and analog inter
nected to the ports. They may also sending on/off signals. The five faces—a program picks up their
help you see how to go about your possible signals from a joystick are signals in the same way. Some of
own programming of these devices. up, down, left, right, and fire. Com these devices are versions of the
binations are possible, so that we earlier interfaces; for example, a
Two Main Devices could simultaneously send down trackball is an alternative to a joy
There are two principal types of in and left, or a three-way combina stick. Others change the nature of
terface through the controller ports: tion such as up, right, and fire. It the user interface—although a
digital and analog. The digital inter would be an unusual joystick sys graphics tablet uses the same con
face sends only on/off signals—it's tem that allowed sending simulta nections as a pair of paddles, it will
often called a joystick interface, neous up and down signals, but be put to a completely different use.
since the joystick is the most com from a technical standpoint even The trackball is a ball set into a
monly used device of this type. The these apparently contradictory sig freely rotating mounting so that it
analog, or proportional, interface nals would be clearly understood can be rotated easily in any direc
sends a continuously variable sig by the computer. tion. Its effect is the same as that of
nal—it's often called a paddle inter You may occasionally hear of a a joystick; it signals direction digi
face, since game paddles are the proportional type of joystick. This is tally. Roll it to the right, and the
most common devices of this kind. the type of joys tick used with Apple joystick port will detect a right sig
You'll also hear the analog connec II and IBM computers. This device nal until movement stops. Note
tion called a potentiometer (or pot) sends an analog signal; instead of that there's no speed indication—
interface. That's an electronics simple up or down, it sends contin the computer sees the same signal
term—most of us know a potenti uously variable horizontal and ver whether the ball is moving quickly
ometer as the volume control on a tical position values. Proportional or slowly. Trackballs cost more
radio. Paddles usually have fire but joysticks are read like paddles, than joysticks, but usually last
tons, which are on/off in nature, so through the analog portion of the longer; and they can be used for
the paddle interface has some digital port. This type of interface is used more precise control in such appli
input as well as analog. in such devices as the MicroFlyte cations as drawing with a joystick.
90 COMPUTE!* Gazette May 19B7
The graphics tablet has many then reports its position to the com try to cover for this by averaging
physical implementations. In gen puter. This is a useful way of doing readings received from paddles, but
eral, it allows you to indicate a things, since you get true mouse if the problem gets too bad, the in
screen position by pressing a point operation with no interrupt load on terface is unusable. The computer's
er against a selected location on a the computer. interface ports can fail. Damage to a
rectangular board called a tablet. When used in this way, the chip can make the computer unable
The pointer might be an electrically 1351 has a special problem which to detect the signals supplied by the
or mechanically interfaced device. needs to be recognized by the com device.
On some tablets, your finger could puter. Its position reports (both hor You may have seen warnings
do the job (with less accuracy). Al izontal and vertical) can go over the that you should never connect or dis
though the tablet is physically sep edge. Suppose I move the mouse connect a control port device while
arated from the screen, most users right until its horizontal position the computer's power is on. That's
find that good hand/eye coordina reading is reported as the maximum good advice, and is especially true of
tion (hand on tablet, eye on screen) value. What happens if I move the paddles and active devices that draw
is helpful when sketching or select mouse still further right? You've power, such as graphics tablets and
ing an area of the screen. Typically, probably guessed that the position most mouse devices.
the paddle interface connections reading wraps around to its lowest Occasionally, changing a de
are used to send horizontal and ver value, and then starts moving up vice seems to be unavoidable. For
tical position coordinates to the again. The computer needs to un example, GEOS 1.2 insists that you
computer. derstand this behavior so that going start by using a joystick, later giving
over the edge isn't mistaken for a you the option of switching to a dif
The Mouse large movement in the opposite ferent input device. It seems you
The mouse is easy to recognize. It's a direction. are stuck with a live device
small rectangular device with two or The position reported by the change—to select the new input
three buttons, and it rolls across the 1351 covers a range of 128 possible device you must use the old device
table or a special mat. Technically, values in both the horizontal and (the joystick), then unplug the old
mouse operation varies widely. vertical dimensions. Since a PEEK and plug in the new. In the case of
A mouse such as the Commo of the paddle ports gives a number GEOS, the best solution is to up
dore 1350, which sends only direc from 0 to 255, Commodore sug grade to GEOS 1.3, which allows
tional signals, is not a true mouse. gests you eliminate the high bit of you to select the input device by
The computer knows the direction the reading; you'd do this with the means of the keyboard.
of travel, but not the speed. In ef AND function. The Commodore 64 If live switching of a device
fect, the mouse is an upside-down statement to properly read the 1351 seems unavoidable, check the con
trackball, and can be read the way a might read X = PEEK(54297) AND nector. Some connectors are plastic
joystick is read. As such, it does 127. On the Commodore 128, on the outside, and others are met
some jobs well, and others poorly. you'd use X = POT(1) AND 127. al-clad. Don't ever try to do a live
A true mouse is more than a Further, Commodore suggests that switch with one of the metal-exterior
joystick; it must somehow give the lowest bit received from the connectors—you're almost sure to
both direction and speed to the 1351 be treated as jitter. To do this, hit a couple of pins on the socket
computer (either that, or position, replace the 127 above with 126. As and cause damage to your comput
which amounts to the same thing). a result of losing these bits, the er's interface chip.
Some mice operate on an interrupt 1351 supplies only 64 valid posi
principle: Every time the mouse tions to the computer. This is not a The Programs
moves a certain distance, it sends a serious limitation. By recognizing The "Gameport Test" programs re
signal to the computer that it has and tracking the wrap-around fea port what the computer sees—and
done so. The processor interrupts ture, a program could calculate if the computer doesn't see input
whatever it is doing to log the thousands of coordinate positions. from a device, either that device or
mouse's movement, and then re If you just want to use the 1351 the interface is bad. To find out
turns to its previous work. If the as a joystick, you may select this as which is at fault, switch ports or try
mouse is moved quickly, the pro an option at the time of computer another device.
cessor services more interrupts—if power-up. Just hold down the right Two versions of the Gameport
slowly, fewer interrupts. In either button of the mouse as you turn the Test program are provided: one for
case, the processor knows exactly power on, and it will become a non- the Commodore 64 or Commodore
where the mouse is at all times, and proportional joystick-type device 128 in 64 mode; the other for the
can track the movement regardless like the 1350. By the way, the 128's Commodore 128 in 128 mode.
of speed. reset button won't do the job—the Connect the device or devices
power supply to the 1351 must be you wish to test; then turn on the
The Commodore 1351 turned off before it can reconfigure. computer and load the program.
The new Commodore 1351 mouse Exercise the device gently-—the
has a built-in processor. When it's Problems program's response is a little slug
being used as a true, proportional Joysticks can fail or turn erratic. gish, and rapid motion might not be
mouse (and you may select this as Paddles can become "noisy" so that detected.
an option), it calculates its position the readings they supply jump You may discover things you
based on observed movement. It around randomly. Many programs didn't know about these devices.
COMPUTEIs Gazerfe May 1907 91
For example, most paddles have a
"dead spot" where movement is
not detected. Some joysticks are
good at detecting diagonal move
ment (such as simultaneous up and
left), and some are not so good. You
might like to explore devices—for
example, a graphics tablet that you
may have used with a custom pro
gram-—so you can get a better idea
of how to use them in your own
• We have received a number of phone FK 1130 IFV=65THEND-l:C{CP)=0iN=
programs.
calls and letters concerning the "Pick- 0:B{CP)=liGOTO1250
It's interesting that the 64 pro KA 1140 IFV-88THEND-1:GO5UB70:GO
A-Letter" program (February 1987).
gram doesn't work properly on the SUB70lB(CP)=l:GOTO890
Pick-A-Letter was originally written for KR 1170 GOTO890
Commodore 128 in 128 mode. Even the 128, but it will run on the 64 as writ DK 1200 IFMID$(CDS,G,1)=KSTHENN=
though all the PEEK locations are in ten—almost. The most common report M+l :GOSUI180 ■ PRINTKS r :GOT
the same place, the 128's interrupt 01215
was that, after several consecutive
CD 1215 NEXTG:C(CP)=C(CP)+PL*N:G
structure is more active, so that the games, the program stopped wilh an
OSUB1630
system is PEEKing the interfaces at OUT OF MEMORY ERROR IN LINE 50 CH 1220 PRINT"[HOME][4 DOWN}
the same time you are doing so. message. If you had this problem, you SRIGHTj"TAB(10*CP)"£83
didn't actually run out of memory; you [4 SPACES}(4 LEFT)"C(CP)
This causes confused readings.
ran out of stack space. The stack is the
By studying the program list AP 1230 NN-NN+NiIFNN-NVTHENZX=1!
special area of memory where infor GOTO1340
ing—written entirely in BASIC—
mation such as subroutine return ad XA 1240 GOTO 945
you may get a better insight into
dresses are stored. Pick-A-Letter uses a QJ 1270 NN=NN+N:IFNN=NVTHENZX=1■
how to write your own interface great many FOR-NEXT loops and GO-
GOTO1340

programs. The programs are good PM 1280 GOSUB100IGOTO890


SUBs, both of which eat up stack space CP 1290 PRINT"{HOME}"LEFT?(DN?,2
for device testing, and offer some quickly. To further compound the prob 1)LEFT5(SPS,39);
insight into how the devices work. lem, the program jumps out of a few EO 1300 PRINTLEFTS(LFS,39);iINPU
T "ANSWER";AS
See program listings on page 104. ■ GOSUBs without removing the subrou
XD 1330 GOSUB70iPRINT"[HOME]
tine call information from the stack—
[4 DOWNHRIGHT|"TAB(10*C
not a good programming practice. Be P)"ES3(4 SPACES}[4 LEFT}
cause the 128's BASIC stack is four "C(CP);
times as large as the 64's, the problem AO 1332 NN=NN+NlIFNN=NVTHENZX=l:
GOTO1340
doesn't appear nearly as soon on the
AH 1334 GOTO870
128. However, if you play Pick-A-Letter
COMPUTED Gazette is long enough on the 128, you'll eventu
DM 1440 PRINTTAB(10)LEFTS(SP$,29
)l
looking for utilities, ally get the same OUT OF MEMORY ES 1500 G-l

message as on the 64. The following BX 1505 IFKS=MIDS(RLS,G,1)THENUK


games, applications, line corrections and additions fix the
=1 j RETURN
RS 1510 G=G+l!lFG<=RTHEH150 5
educational programs, problem by exchanging several of the MB 1530 G=l
FOR-NEXT loops and GOSUBs with
and tutorial articles. If code that accomplishes the same thing
FE 1535 IFKS=MIDS(ULS■G,1)THENUP
=1:RETURN

you've created a pro without using stack space: SO 1540 G=G+1:IFG<-UTHEN1S3 5


JP 1560 PRINT"|HOME)"LEFTS(DNS,2
gram that you think AG 10 BO=532B0iAC«53281:SC-1024i 1)LEFTS(SPS,39);
S»54272iFORI-lTO40iSPS=SPS XD 1570 PRINTLEFTS|LFS,39)I
other readers might en +" ":LFS=LF$+"[LEFTlH:NEXT JB 1610 PRINTLEFTS(LFS,25)"£83
BR 20 FORI=lTO25:DKS=DNStMlDOWNi {2 UPl"f
joy or find useful, send ":NEXT:F0RI=lT09:READH(Ih SD 1660 PRINT"{HOME)"LEFT$(DNS,2
it, on tape or disk to: L{I):NEXT
BO 1690
3);
PRINT"{HOME}"LEFT?(DNS,2
KD 90 FORH=lTO100iNEXT:GOTO50
XP 120 POKES,232iPOK£S+l,3:FQRL=
Submissions Reviewer lTO100iNEXTtGOTO50 KB 1740 FORI5"1TO3iF0RJ=1TO9:POK
BE 520 PRINT"g39 0$"; ES,L(J)iPOKES+1,H(J)1NEX
COMPUTE! Publications AM 550 PRINTMBLKJB39 US"; T i F0RJ-9T01STEP-11NEXTJ,

P.O. Box 5406 OR 640 NV-0:NN=0iCDS-PS(p«(QO)):