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Sub Module 1.5 – Introduction To Statistics
MODULE 1 Sub Module 1.5
INTRODUCTION TO STATISTICS
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INTRODUCTION 
1 
DATA MANIPULATION / REPRESENTATION 
1 
BAR CHART 
1 
FREQUENCY DISTRIBUTIONS 
4 
STATISTICAL MEASUREMENT 
5 
THE ARITHMETIC MEAN 
5 
MEDIAN 
5 
PRACTICE QUESTIONS 
9 
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INTRODUCTION
Statistics is concerned with collecting, sorting and analyzing numerical facts which originate from several observations. These facts are collated and summarized then presented as tables, charts or diagrams, etc.
In this brief introduction to statistics we look at two specific areas. First, we consider the collection and presentation of data
in its various forms. Then we look at how we measure such data
concentrating on finding average values.
DATA MANIPULATION / REPRESENTATION
In almost all scientific, engineering and business journals, newspapers and Government reports, statistical information is presented in the form of charts, tables and diagrams as mentioned above. We now look at a small selection of these presentation methods, particularly bar chart and pie chart including the necessary manipulation of the data, to produce them.
BAR CHART
A bar chart is the method of representation of data in generally
vertical bars of equal widths in which height of each bar is proportional to the corresponding value from the data.
Example: Suppose, as the result of a survey, we are presented with the following statistical data:
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Sub Module 1.5 – Introduction To Statistics
Najor category of Employment 
Number of Employed 
Private business 
750 
Public business 
900 
Agriculture 
200 
Engineering 
300 
Transport 
425 
Manufacture 
325 
Leisure industry 
700 
Education 
775 
Health 
500 
other 
125 
In its simplest form, the bar chart may be used to represent data by drawing individual bars, as shown in the chart on next page, using the figures from the raw data given in the above table.
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The scale for the vertical axis, the number employed, is easily decided by considering the highest and lowest values in the table 900 and 125, respectively. Therefore we use a scale from 0 to 1000 employees.
Along the horizontal axis, we represent each category by a bar of even width. We could just as easily have chosen to represent the data using column widths, instead of column heights.
In this type of chart, the data is presented as a proportion of the total using the angle or area of sectors of a circle.
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Example: Represent the data given in the table below on a pie chart:
Remembering that there are 360 ^{o} in a circle and that the total number employed in general engineering is:
800+785+690+670+590 = 3535thousand.
Now, we manipulate the data as follows:
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The resulting pie chart based on the above manipulated data is shown below
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FREQUENCY DISTRIBUTIONS
One of the most common and most important ways of organizing and presenting raw data is through use of frequency distributions. Frequency distribution is the classification of the elements of a data set. It is the data arrangement in rows and columns to reveal meaningful patterns which shows the frequency of occurrence of a variable in a group or class of the data.
Example: Consider the data given below which shows the time in hours that it took 50 individual workers to complete a specific assembly line task.
Data for assembly line task:
1.1 
1.0 
0.6 
1.1 
0.9 
1.1 
0.8 
0.9 
1.2 
0.7 
1.0 
1.5 
0.9 
1.4 
1.0 
0.9 
1.1 
1.0 
1.0 
1.1 
0.8 
0.9 
1.2 
0.7 
0.6 
1.2 
0.9 
0.8 
0.7 
1.0 
1.0 
1.2 
1.0 
1.0 
1.1 
1.4 
0.7 
1.1 
0.9 
0.9 
0.8 
1.1 
1.0 
1.0 
1.3 
0.5 
0.8 
1.3 
1.3 
0.8 
From the data you should be able to see that the shortest time for completion of the task was 0.5 h and the longest time was 1.5 h. The frequency of appearance of these values is once. On the other hand, the number of times the job took 1 h appears 11 times, or it has a frequency of 11.
Trying to sort out the data in this manner is time consuming and may lead to mistakes. To assist with the task we use a tally chart. This
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chart simply shows how many times the event of completing the task in a specific time takes place. To record the frequency of events we use the number 1, in a tally chart and when the frequency of the event reaches 5, we score through the existing four 1’s to show a frequency of 5. The procedure is illustrated as follows:
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STATISTICAL MEASUREMENT
When considering statistical data it is often convenient to have one or two values which represent the data as a whole. In this respect, ‘average’ values are often used. For example, we might talk about the average height of females in the Pakistan being 5 feet, or that the average shoes size of Pakistan males is size 9. In statistics we may represent these average values using the mean, median or mode of the data we are considering.
THE ARITHMETIC MEAN
The arithmetic mean (AM), or simply the mean, is probably the average with which we are most familiar. It is obtained by dividing the sum of all the observations (values of a data set) by the number of observations.
Example: Find the arithmetic mean of the numbers: 8, 7, 9, 10, 5, 6, 12, 9, 6, 8.
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MEDIAN
When some values within a set of data vary quite widely, the arithmetic mean gives a rather poor representative average of such data. Under these circumstances, another more useful measure of the average is the median.
If the data is arranged in ascending or descending order, median is the value which divides the data into two parts such that 50% of the data is before the median and 50% after it.
If ‘n’ be the number of observations then:
Example: Find the median of the numbers: 7, 13, 8, 10, 5, 6, 14, 11, 4.
The given data, arranged in ascending order, is: 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 10, 11, 13, 14. Thus, n = 9.
Since ‘n’ is odd, thus:
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Example: Following are the heights (in inches) of 12 aircraft technicians: 51, 55, 53, 54, 58, 60, 62, 61, 56, 57, 52, and 64. Find the median of their heights.
The given heights of 12 aircraft technicians, arranged in ascending order, are: 51, 52, 53, 54, 55, 56, 57, 58, 60, 61, 62, 64. Thus, n = 12.
Since ‘n’ is even, thus:
MODE
The mode is defined as the element that appears most frequently in a given set of elements. Using the definition of frequency given above, mode can also be defined as the element with the largest frequency in a given data set.
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For a given data set, there can be more than one mode. As long as those elements all have the same frequency and that frequency is the highest, they are all the modal elements of the data set.
Example 5
Find the Mode of the following data set.
Solution
Mode = 3 and 15
Yet another measure of central tendency for data containing extreme values is the mode. The mode of a set of values containing data is the value that occurs most often.
Examples: For the set of values: 4, 4, 4, 5, 5, 5, 5, 6, 6, 6, 7, 7, 7, the mode or modal value is 5 as this value occurs four times.
Now it is possible for a set of data to have more than one mode, e.g. the data: 9, 7, 8, 7, 12, 70, 68, 6, 5, 8 has two modes, 7 and 8, both of these numbers occurring twice and both occurring more than any of the others.
A set of data may not have a modal value at all, e.g. the numbers: 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, all occur once and there is no mode.
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A set of data that has one mode is called unimodal, data with two modes is bimodal and data with more than two modes is known as multimodal.
Mode for Grouped Data
As we saw in the section on data, grouped data is divided into classes. We have defined mode as the element which has the highest frequency in a given data set. In grouped data, we can find two kinds
of mode: the Modal Class, or class with the highest frequency and the
mode itself, which we calculate from the modal class using the formula below.
where
L is the lower class limit of the modal class
_{} f1 is the frequency of the modal class
f0 is the frequency of the class before the modal class in the frequency table
_{} f2 is the frequency of the class after the modal class in the frequency table
h is the class interval of the modal class
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Example
Find the modal class and the actual mode of the data set below
_{} Solution
Number 
Frequency 

1  3 
7 

4  6 
6 

7  9 
4 

10 
 12 
2 
13 
 15 
2 
16 
 18 
8 
19 
 21 
1 
22 
 24 
2 
25 
 27 
3 
28 
 30 
2 
_{} Modal class = 10  12
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where 

L = 10 

_{} f _{1} = 9 

_{} f _{0} = 4 

_{} f _{2} = 2 

h = 3 

therefore, 
solving the above using the order of operations:
RANGE
The range is defined as the difference between the highest and lowest number in a given data set.
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Example 7
Find the range of the data set below
Solution
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Sub Module 1.5 – Introduction To Statistics
PRACTICE QUESTIONS 
4. 
For the group of numbers given below produce a tally chart and determine their frequency of occurrence 

1. 
Calculate the mean of the numbers: 176.5, 98.6, 112.4, 189.8, 

95.9 and 88.8. 

2. 
Determine the mean, median and mode for the set of numbers, 9, 
36 
41 
42 
38 
39 
40 
42 
41 
37 
40 

8, 7, 27, 16, 3, 1, 9, 4 and 116. 
42 
44 
43 
41 
40 
38 
39 
39 
43 
39 

3. 
In 
a particular university, the number of students enrolled by 
36 
37 
42 
38 
39 
42 
35 
42 
38 
39 
faculty is given in the following table. Illustrate this data on both 

a 
bar chart and pie chart. 
40 
41 
42 
37 
38 
39 
44 
45 
37 
40 
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