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Sub Module 1.5 Introduction To Statistics

MODULE 1 Sub Module 1.5

INTRODUCTION TO STATISTICS

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INTRODUCTION

1

DATA MANIPULATION / REPRESENTATION

1

BAR CHART

1

FREQUENCY DISTRIBUTIONS

4

STATISTICAL MEASUREMENT

5

THE ARITHMETIC MEAN

5

MEDIAN

5

PRACTICE QUESTIONS

9

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INTRODUCTION

Statistics is concerned with collecting, sorting and analyzing numerical facts which originate from several observations. These facts are collated and summarized then presented as tables, charts or diagrams, etc.

In this brief introduction to statistics we look at two specific areas. First, we consider the collection and presentation of data

in its various forms. Then we look at how we measure such data

concentrating on finding average values.

DATA MANIPULATION / REPRESENTATION

In almost all scientific, engineering and business journals, newspapers and Government reports, statistical information is presented in the form of charts, tables and diagrams as mentioned above. We now look at a small selection of these presentation methods, particularly bar chart and pie chart including the necessary manipulation of the data, to produce them.

BAR CHART

A bar chart is the method of representation of data in generally

vertical bars of equal widths in which height of each bar is proportional to the corresponding value from the data.

Example: Suppose, as the result of a survey, we are presented with the following statistical data:

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Najor category of Employment

Number of Employed

Private business

750

Public business

900

Agriculture

200

Engineering

300

Transport

425

Manufacture

325

Leisure industry

700

Education

775

Health

500

other

125

In its simplest form, the bar chart may be used to represent data by drawing individual bars, as shown in the chart on next page, using the figures from the raw data given in the above table.

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the raw data given in the above table. For Training Purpose Only PTC/CM/B Basic/M1/01 1 .

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The scale for the vertical axis, the number employed, is easily decided by considering the highest and lowest values in the table 900 and 125, respectively. Therefore we use a scale from 0 to 1000 employees.

Along the horizontal axis, we represent each category by a bar of even width. We could just as easily have chosen to represent the data using column widths, instead of column heights.

the data using column widths, instead of column heights. In this type of chart, the data

In this type of chart, the data is presented as a proportion of the total using the angle or area of sectors of a circle.

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Example: Represent the data given in the table below on a pie chart:

Represent the data given in the table below on a pie chart: Remembering that there are

Remembering that there are 360 o in a circle and that the total number employed in general engineering is:

800+785+690+670+590 = 3535thousand.

Now, we manipulate the data as follows:

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we manipulate the data as follows: For Training Purpose Only PTC/CM/B Basic/M1/01 1 . 5 -

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– M A T H E M A T I C S Category – A/B1/B2 The

The resulting pie chart based on the above manipulated data is shown below

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FREQUENCY DISTRIBUTIONS

One of the most common and most important ways of organizing and presenting raw data is through use of frequency distributions. Frequency distribution is the classification of the elements of a data set. It is the data arrangement in rows and columns to reveal meaningful patterns which shows the frequency of occurrence of a variable in a group or class of the data.

Example: Consider the data given below which shows the time in hours that it took 50 individual workers to complete a specific assembly line task.

Data for assembly line task:

1.1

1.0

0.6

1.1

0.9

1.1

0.8

0.9

1.2

0.7

1.0

1.5

0.9

1.4

1.0

0.9

1.1

1.0

1.0

1.1

0.8

0.9

1.2

0.7

0.6

1.2

0.9

0.8

0.7

1.0

1.0

1.2

1.0

1.0

1.1

1.4

0.7

1.1

0.9

0.9

0.8

1.1

1.0

1.0

1.3

0.5

0.8

1.3

1.3

0.8

From the data you should be able to see that the shortest time for completion of the task was 0.5 h and the longest time was 1.5 h. The frequency of appearance of these values is once. On the other hand, the number of times the job took 1 h appears 11 times, or it has a frequency of 11.

Trying to sort out the data in this manner is time consuming and may lead to mistakes. To assist with the task we use a tally chart. This

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chart simply shows how many times the event of completing the task in a specific time takes place. To record the frequency of events we use the number 1, in a tally chart and when the frequency of the event reaches 5, we score through the existing four 1’s to show a frequency of 5. The procedure is illustrated as follows:

a frequency of 5. The procedure is illustrated as follows: For Training Purpose Only PTC/CM/B Basic/M1/01

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procedure is illustrated as follows: For Training Purpose Only PTC/CM/B Basic/M1/01 1 . 5 - 4

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STATISTICAL MEASUREMENT

When considering statistical data it is often convenient to have one or two values which represent the data as a whole. In this respect, ‘average’ values are often used. For example, we might talk about the average height of females in the Pakistan being 5 feet, or that the average shoes size of Pakistan males is size 9. In statistics we may represent these average values using the mean, median or mode of the data we are considering.

THE ARITHMETIC MEAN

The arithmetic mean (AM), or simply the mean, is probably the average with which we are most familiar. It is obtained by dividing the sum of all the observations (values of a data set) by the number of observations.

(values of a data set) by the number of observations. Example: Find the arithmetic mean of

Example: Find the arithmetic mean of the numbers: 8, 7, 9, 10, 5, 6, 12, 9, 6, 8.

mean of the numbers: 8, 7, 9, 10, 5, 6, 12, 9, 6, 8. ISO 9001:2008

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MEDIAN

When some values within a set of data vary quite widely, the arithmetic mean gives a rather poor representative average of such data. Under these circumstances, another more useful measure of the average is the median.

If the data is arranged in ascending or descending order, median is the value which divides the data into two parts such that 50% of the data is before the median and 50% after it.

If ‘n’ be the number of observations then:

Example: Find the median of the numbers: 7, 13, 8, 10, 5, 6, 14, 11, 4.

the median of the numbers: 7, 13, 8, 10, 5, 6, 14, 11, 4. The given

The given data, arranged in ascending order, is: 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 10, 11, 13, 14. Thus, n = 9.

Since ‘n’ is odd, thus:

8, 10, 11, 13, 14. Thus, n = 9. Since ‘n’ is odd, thus: For Training

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n = 9. Since ‘n’ is odd, thus: For Training Purpose Only PTC/CM/B Basic/M1/01 1 .

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Example: Following are the heights (in inches) of 12 aircraft technicians: 51, 55, 53, 54, 58, 60, 62, 61, 56, 57, 52, and 64. Find the median of their heights.

The given heights of 12 aircraft technicians, arranged in ascending order, are: 51, 52, 53, 54, 55, 56, 57, 58, 60, 61, 62, 64. Thus, n = 12.

Since ‘n’ is even, thus:

60, 61, 62, 64. Thus, n = 12. Since ‘n’ is even, thus: MODE The mode

MODE

The mode is defined as the element that appears most frequently in a given set of elements. Using the definition of frequency given above, mode can also be defined as the element with the largest frequency in a given data set.

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For a given data set, there can be more than one mode. As long as those elements all have the same frequency and that frequency is the highest, they are all the modal elements of the data set.

Example 5

Find the Mode of the following data set.

data set. Example 5 Find the Mode of the following data set. Solution Mode = 3

Solution

Mode = 3 and 15

Yet another measure of central tendency for data containing extreme values is the mode. The mode of a set of values containing data is the value that occurs most often.

Examples: For the set of values: 4, 4, 4, 5, 5, 5, 5, 6, 6, 6, 7, 7, 7, the mode or modal value is 5 as this value occurs four times.

Now it is possible for a set of data to have more than one mode, e.g. the data: 9, 7, 8, 7, 12, 70, 68, 6, 5, 8 has two modes, 7 and 8, both of these numbers occurring twice and both occurring more than any of the others.

A set of data may not have a modal value at all, e.g. the numbers: 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, all occur once and there is no mode.

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A set of data that has one mode is called unimodal, data with two modes is bimodal and data with more than two modes is known as multimodal.

Mode for Grouped Data

As we saw in the section on data, grouped data is divided into classes. We have defined mode as the element which has the highest frequency in a given data set. In grouped data, we can find two kinds

of mode: the Modal Class, or class with the highest frequency and the

mode itself, which we calculate from the modal class using the formula below.

we calculate from the modal class using the formula below. where  L is the lower

where

L is the lower class limit of the modal class

f1 is the frequency of the modal class

f0 is the frequency of the class before the modal class in the frequency table

f2 is the frequency of the class after the modal class in the frequency table

h is the class interval of the modal class

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Example

Find the modal class and the actual mode of the data set below

Solution

Number

Frequency

1

- 3

7

4

- 6

6

7

- 9

4

10

- 12

2

13

- 15

2

16

- 18

8

19

- 21

1

22

- 24

2

25

- 27

3

28

- 30

2

Modal class = 10 - 12

- 27 3 28 - 30 2  Modal class = 10 - 12 For Training

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- 30 2  Modal class = 10 - 12 For Training Purpose Only PTC/CM/B Basic/M1/01

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where

 

L = 10

f 1 = 9

f 0 = 4

f 2 = 2

h = 3

therefore,

= 4  f 2 = 2  h = 3 therefore, solving the above using

solving the above using the order of operations:

solving the above using the order of operations : RANGE The range is defined as the
solving the above using the order of operations : RANGE The range is defined as the
solving the above using the order of operations : RANGE The range is defined as the

RANGE

The range is defined as the difference between the highest and lowest number in a given data set.

between the highest and lowest number in a given data set. ISO 9001:2008 Certified Sub Module

ISO 9001:2008 Certified

Sub Module 1.5 Introduction To Statistics

Example 7

Find the range of the data set below

To Statistics Example 7 Find the range of the data set below Solution For Training Purpose

Solution

Example 7 Find the range of the data set below Solution For Training Purpose Only PTC/CM/B

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PRACTICE QUESTIONS

4.

For the group of numbers given below produce a tally chart and determine their frequency of occurrence

1.

Calculate the mean of the numbers: 176.5, 98.6, 112.4, 189.8,

 

95.9 and 88.8.

2.

Determine the mean, median and mode for the set of numbers, 9,

36

41

42

38

39

40

42

41

37

40

8, 7, 27, 16, 3, 1, 9, 4 and 116.

42

44

43

41

40

38

39

39

43

39

3.

In

a particular university, the number of students enrolled by

36

37

42

38

39

42

35

42

38

39

faculty is given in the following table. Illustrate this data on both

 

a

bar chart and pie chart.

40

41

42

37

38

39

44

45

37

40

40 41 42 37 38 39 44 45 37 40 ISO 9001:2008 Certified For Training Purpose

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