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Assyria to Iberia

Assyria to Iberia
Joan Aruz
Art and Culture in the Iron Age
Mara Eugenia Aubet
Zainab Bahrani Edited by Joan Aruz and Michael Seymour
John Boardman
Annie Caubet The exhibition Assyria to Iberia at the Dawn of the
Classical Age (The Metropolitan Museum of Art,
Paul Collins
New York, 2014) offered a comprehensive overview
Marian Feldman
of art and cultural exchange in an era of vast impe-
Israel Finkelstein
rial and mercantile expansion. The twenty-seven
Amy Rebecca Gansell essays in this volume are based on the symposium
Sarah B. Graff and lectures that took place in conjunction with the
Eric Gubel exhibition. Written by an international group of

Art and Culture in the Iron Age

Ann C. Gunter scholars from a wide variety of disciplines, they
include reports of new archaeological discoveries,
Marsha Hill
illuminating interpretations of material culture, and
Ann E. Killebrew
innovative investigations of literary, historical, and
Carolina Lpez-Ruiz
political aspects of the interactions that shaped art
Hartmut Matthus and culture in the early first millennium B.C. Taken
Wolf-Dietrich Niemeier together, these essays explore the cultural encounters
Mirko Novk of diverse populations interacting through trade,
Asl zyar travel, and migration, as well as war and displace-
ment, in the ancient world. Assyria to Iberia: Art and
Nassos Papalexandrou
Culture in the Iron Age contributes significantly to our
Ronny Reich
understanding of the epoch-making exchanges that
Maurizio Sannibale

spanned the Near East and the Mediterranean and
Michael Seymour exerted immense influence in the centuries that

to Iberia
Nicholas Chr. Stampolidis followed.
Jonathan N. Tubb
Marc Van De Mieroop
Art and Culture
Irene J. Winter
in the Iron Age

ISBN 978-1-58839-606-8
Published by The Metropolitan Museum of Art, New York
Distributed by Yale University Press, New Haven and London
9 781588 396068 376 pages; 315 illustrations, including 254 in full
PRINTED IN CHINA color; bibliography

The Metropolitan Museum of Art Symposia

Assyria to Iberia
The Metropolitan Museum of Art Symposia

Assyria to Iberia
Art and Culture in the Iron Age

Edited by
Joan Aruz and Michael Seymour

T h e M etropolita n Museum of A rt, N ew Yor k

d i s t r i b u t e d b y Ya l e U n i v e r s i ty P r e s s , N e w H av e n a n d L o n d o n
The essays in this volume are based on papers and lectures Page 40: Detail of gypsum alabaster banquet relief of
presented in conjunction with the exhibition Assyria to Ashurbanipal (see Gansell, p. 55, fig. 1 and Winter,
Iberia at the Dawn of the Classical Age on view at The p. 182, fig. 4)
Metropolitan Museum of Art, New York, from September
27, 2014, though January 4, 2015. Page 86: Syrian-style ivory plaque with hunter slaying a
griffin. Nimrud, Fort Shalmaneser, Room SW 37. Neo-
This publication is made possible by The Adelaide Milton Assyrian period. The Metropolitan Museum of Art, New
de Groot Fund, in memory of the de Groot and Hawley York, Rogers Fund, 1961 (61.197.11)
Page 204: Bronze horse frontlet with nude females. Samos,
Published by The Metropolitan Museum of Art, Heraion, area to the southeast of the Great Altar. Syrian,
New York 9th century B.C. Archaeological Museum, Vathy, Samos,
Mark Polizzotti, Publisher and Editor in Chief Greece (B2579/A1306)
Gwen Roginsky, Associate Publisher and General Manager
of Publications Page 322: Bronze cauldron and iron stand. Salamis,
Peter Antony, Chief Production Manager dromos of Tomb 79. Cypro-Archaic, ca. 8th7th century
Michael Sittenfeld, Senior Managing Editor B.C. Cyprus Museum, Nicosia (T.79/202, 202[b])

Edited by Elizabeth Franzen The Metropolitan Museum of Art endeavors to respect

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Production by Christopher Zichello Publications and Editorial Department.
Bibliography edited by Philomena Mariani
Image acquisitions and permissions by Blair Fowlkes- Copyright 2016 by The Metropolitan Museum of Art,
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Anandaroop Roy First printing

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Jacket illustration: Gilded silver bowl with Egyptianizing Distributed by
motifs. Said to be from Kourion (the Kourion Treasure). Yale University Press, New Haven and London
Cypro-Phoenician, late 8thearly 7th century B.C. The
Metropolitan Museum of Art, New York, The Cesnola
Collection, Purchased by subscription, 187476
(74.51.4554) Cataloguing-in-Publication Data is available from the
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Frontispiece: Phoenician-style ivory plaque with gold leaf ISBN 978-1-58839-606-8
and inlaid semiprecious stones and vitreous material
depicting a lioness attacking a youth. Nimrud, Northwest
Palace, well in Room MM. Neo-Assyrian period, 9th8th
century B.C. The Trustees of the British Museum, London
(ME 127412)

Page 2: Detail of gypsum alabaster relief showing ships

transporting cedar logs from Tyre. Khorsabad, palace of
Sargon II, facade n. Neo-Assyrian, reign of Sargon II.
Muse du Louvre, Paris (AO 19889)

Page 12: Bronze wheeled vessel stand. Cyprus. Late

Bronze Age, 12501100 B.C. The Trustees of the British
Museum, London (GR 1946,1017.1)
Contributors to the Volume vii
Joan Aruz 3

I. From Bronze to Iron

Joan Aruz
Bronze to Iron: Art in Transition 14
Ann E. Killebrew
The World of the Philistines and Other Sea Peoples 30

II. Assyria and Babylonia

Paul Collins
The Face of the Assyrian Empire: Mythology and the Heroic King 42
Amy Rebecca Gansell
Imperial Fashion Networks: Royal Assyrian, Near Eastern, Intercultural, and Composite Style
Adornment from the Neo-Assyrian Royal Womens Tombs at Nimrud 54
Michael Seymour
The Empire in the Palace: Campaign Reliefs in the Southwest Palace at Nineveh
and an Assyrian Microcosm 65
Marc Van De Mieroop
Scholars and Scholarship in Assyria and Babylonia, or: What If Socrates Had
Studied Cuneiform? 81

III. Syria, the Levant, and the Phoenician Expansion

Jonathan N. Tubb
A New MillenniumA New Order: Philistines, Phoenicians, Aramaeans, and the
Kingdom of Israel 88
Ronny Reich
The City of David in Jerusalem and Its Phoenician Connection 104
Israel Finkelstein
The Levant and the Eastern Mediterranean in the Early Phases of the Iron Age:
The View from Micro-Archaeology 112
Mirko Novk
Assyrians and Aramaeans: Modes of Cohabitation and Acculturation at Guzana (Tell Halaf) 123
Asl zyar
Phoenicians and Greeks in Cilicia? Coining Elite Identity in Iron Age Anatolia 136
Mara Eugenia Aubet
Phoenician Politics in Colonial Context: Pyrgi Again 147
Marsha Hill
Tribal Dynamics, Child Gods, Festivals, and the Faraway Goddess: Mingling in the Egyptian
Delta in the Third Intermediate Period 154
Eric Gubel
Crossing Continents: Phoencian Art and How to Read It 168
Irene J. Winter
The Woman at the Window: Iconography and Inferences of a Motif in First-Millennium b.c.
Levantine Ivory Carving 180
Sarah B. Graff
The Art of the Elephant and Its Consequences 194

IV. Art of the Orientalizing Period: Greece, Cyprus,

and Italy
John Boardman
The Age of Heroes: Greeks and Phoenicians on the Wine-Dark Sea 206
Ann C. Gunter
Contemplating an Empire: Artistic Responses to the Neo-Assyrian World 216
Marian H. Feldman
Consuming the East: Near Eastern Luxury Goods in Orientalizing Contexts 227
Wolf-Dietrich Niemeier
Greek Sanctuaries and the Orient 234
Annie Caubet
Between Orient and Occident: The Iconography of Cyprus (ca. 800600 b.c.) 251
Nassos Papalexandrou
From Lake Van to the Guadalquivir: Monsters and Vision in the Pre-Classical Mediterranean 263
Hartmut Matthus
Metalwork from the Levant to Iberia during the Early First Millennium b.c. 273
Nicholas Chr. Stampolidis
Eleutherna on Crete: The Wider Horizon 283
Maurizio Sannibale
The Etruscan Orientalizing: The View from the Regolini-Galassi Tomb 296
Carolina Lpez-Ruiz
Greek Literature and the Lost Legacy of Canaan 316

V. epilogue
Zainab Bahrani
Assyria to Iberia: Closing Remarks 324
Photograph and Illustration Credits 359
Contributors to the Publication
Joan Aruz, Curator in Charge, Department of Ancient Near Eastern Art, The Metropolitan Museum
of Art
Mara Eugenia Aubet, Professor and Chair of Prehistory Department, Universitat Pompeu Fabra,
Zainab Bahrani, Edith Porada Professor of Ancient Near Eastern Art and Archaeology, Department of
Art History and Archaeology, Columbia University
John Boardman, Emeritus Lincoln Professor of Classical Art and Archaeology, Classical Art Research
Centre and The Beazley Archive, University of Oxford
Annie Caubet, Professor, Ecole du Louvre, and Curator Emerita, Dpartement des Antiquits
Orientales, Muse du Louvre
Paul Collins, Jaleh Hearn Curator for Ancient Near East, Department of Antiquities, Ashmolean
Museum of Art and Archaeology, University of Oxford
Marian Feldman, Professor, Departments of the History of Art and Near Eastern Studies,
Johns Hopkins University
Israel Finkelstein, Professor of Archaeology, Tel Aviv University
Amy Rebecca Gansell, Assistant Professor, Art and Design, St. Johns University
Sarah B. Graff, Associate Curator, Department of Ancient Near Eastern Art, The Metropolitan
Museum of Art
Eric Gubel, Director, Muses Royaux dArt et dHistoire, Brussels
Ann C. Gunter, Bertha and Max Dressler Professor in the Humanities, Department of Art History,
Northwestern University
Marsha Hill, Curator, Department of Egyptian Art, The Metropolitan Museum of Art
Ann E. Killebrew, Associate Professor of Classics and Ancient Mediterranean Studies, Jewish Studies,
and Anthropology, Pennsylvania State University
Carolina Lpez-Ruiz, Associate Professor, Department of Classics, The Ohio State University
Hartmut Matthus, Senior Fellow, Institut fr Klassische Archologie, Friedrich-Alexander-
Universitt, Erlangen-Nrnberg
Wolf-Dietrich Niemeier, Director Emeritus, Deutsches Archologisches Institut, Abteilung Athen
Mirko Novk, Professor, Institut fr Archologische Wissenschaften, Universitt Bern,
Asl zyar, Director of Tarsus-Gzlkule Excavations, and Professor, Department of History, Boazii
University, Istanbul
Nassos Papalexandrou, Associate Professor, Department of Art and Art History, The University of
Texas at Austin
Ronny Reich, Professor, Department of Archaeology, University of Haifa
Maurizio Sannibale, Curator, Reparto per le Antichit Etrusco-Italiche e il Museo Gregoriano
Etrusco dei Musei Vaticani
Michael Seymour, Assistant Curator, Department of Ancient Near Eastern Art, The Metropolitan
Museum of Art
Nicholas Chr. Stampolidis, Professor of Archaeology, University of Crete, and Director, Museum of
Cycladic and Ancient Greek Art, Athens
Jonathan N. Tubb, Keeper, Department of the Middle East, The British Museum
Marc Van De Mieroop, Professor, Department of History, Columbia University
Irene J. Winter, William Dorr Boardman Professor of Fine Arts Emerita, Department of History of
Art and Architecture, Harvard University


The exhibition Assyria to Iberia at the Groot Fund, in memory of the de Groot and
Dawn of the Classical Age, on view in Hawley families. Our colleagues in the Edu-
201415, and its extensive catalogue, focused cation Department and Concerts and Lec-
attention on the varieties of interaction across tures at The Met helped ensure the success of
western Asia and the Mediterranean during the various programs, and special thanks go
the early centuries of the first millennium to Joseph Loh and Jennifer Mock.
b.c. The success of the project relied to a We are very pleased that, with these essays,
great extent on the ability to secure extraor- we are able to make another contribution to
dinary loans from museums across the vast the Museums symposium series, three years
span of the Mediterranean region and on after the publication of Cultures in Contact:
contributions by many colleagues from these From Mesopotamia to the Mediterranean in the
institutions, thanks to the generosity of our Second Millennium b.c. We would like to
major donors: The Hagop Kevorkian Fund, thank Mark Polizzotti and Michael Sittenfeld
spearheaded by the commitment of Ralph D. of the Publications and Editorial Department
Minasian; the Stavros Niarchos Foundation; for their assistance in bringing this volume to
Dorothy and Lewis B. Cullman; and an completion. As with the Assyria to Iberia
Anonymous Foundation, as well as to cata- catalogue, Christopher Zichello has done
logue supporters The Andrew W. Mellon masterful work in production and contrib-
Foundation, The Hagop Kevorkian Fund, uted his expertise with images and layout.
and the A. G. Leventis Foundation. For the Elizabeth Franzen devoted much time,
rich programming that accompanied this energy, and skill to the careful editing of this
show, we would first like to thank the Direc- volume, with the assistance of Anne Rebecca
tor of The Met, Thomas P. Campbell, for his Blood, Elizabeth Gordon, Frances Malcolm,
support. The major event was a two-day and Amelia Kutschbach. Anandaroop Roy
symposium, which was preceded by the created the exhibition catalogue maps and
Charles K. Wilkinson lectures, both made has kindly adapted them for the purposes of
possible by the many friends of Charles K. this volume, Philomena Mariani prepared the
Wilkinson and of The Metropolitan Museum bibliography and endnotes, and Jane Tai han-
of Art. The keynote address for the sympo- dled image rights. Special thanks to Anne
sium was part of the Armand Brunswick Rebecca Blood who, as project manager,
Distinguished Lectures in Archaeology of ensured that the volume moved forward.
The Raymond and Beverly Sackler Founda- In the Department of Ancient Near
tion, Inc. Our loyal Friends of Inanna, who Eastern Art, we are extremely grateful for
also contributed to the exhibition funding, the careful work and dedication of Blair
supported a Scholars Day Workshop. The Fowlkes-Childs, who provided expert assis-
publication of papers presented during these tance and support on many aspects of this
events and a series of lectures dedicated to volume, particularly image and bibliographic
topics related to the showincluding the research, and Elizabeth Knott, Hagop
work of Ronny Reich, funded by the Friends Kevorkian Research Associate, who dili-
of the Israel Antiquities Authorityare gently researched the maps for both the
collected in this volume and published with exhibition catalogue and the present volume,
the support of The Adelaide Milton de while providing other essential research

assistance. Anne Elizabeth Dunn-Vaturi, always responding to our queries with expe-
Hagop Kevorkian Research Associate, helped dience and good cheer. Their contributions
with French to English accurate translation. enriched the presentation of the exhibition
Tim Healing and Cristina Velsquez Murri- and reflect the complexities of an era of
eta provided critical support throughout the ancient civilization that is best understood
project, and their work on numerous phases when its various aspects are considered from
of the programing is greatly appreciated. a global perspective, as we endeavored to
Finally, we would like to thank all the con- do in our journey from Assyria to Iberia.
tributors to Assyria to Iberia: Art and Culture
in the Iron Age, who worked closely with us, Joan Aruz and Michael Seymour

Corsica Adriatic Sea
Pyrgi Caere
Alalia Rome Praeneste

Atlantic Ocean IBERIA

Sardinia Pontecagnano
Madrid nds
isla Tharros
lea GR

da lquivir
Gua Bajo de la Campana
Motya Sicily
Huelva (Tartessos?) El Carambolo
Algiers Carthage
Gadir/Cdiz Tunis

of Gib raltar




S a h a r a D e s e r t

The Ancient Near East and the Mediterranean

in the First Millennium
With Select Second-Millennium Sites
Map showing place-names cited in the essays.

Archaeological site Modern city

Black Sea asus Mountains

Caspian Sea


Troy Ankara Hattusa

Karmir Blur Yerevan
EECE Aegean Sea Gordion
Lefkandi A N AT O L I A Lake
Delphi Eretria Sardis Van
Corinth Samos Ephesos
Athens Marash
OlympiaMycenae Miletos ASSYRIA
Tau Carchemish Arslan Tash Hasanlu
Sparta Cyclades r us M Musasir
t ns Amanus Tell Halaf Mosul Nineveh
Rhodes Mtns
Aleppo Tell al Rimah
Uluburun Nimrud
Crete Ugarit
Eleutherna Knossos CyprusSalamis SYRIA Tehran
M Ashur Kirkuk
Mount Ida Prinias Nicosia ES
Kition O

Byblos Eu TA
M e d Beirut ph MI
i t e r ra A

r a n e a Sidon te Tell Asmar Za

n S e a Damascus
Baghdad gr

Tyre os

Cyrene r is M
Megiddo Babylon ou
Samaria Dilbat Susa
Tobruk Amman

Jerusalem Uruk

Naukratis Tanis

Tell el-Amarna

Deir el-Medina Thebes

Medinet Habu

Dakka Red Sea

Abu Simbel


Jebel Barkal Nuri




Arabian Sea


r ic
Aliseda Berzocana ea

Medi terrane an
adal Castulo Sea
El Carambolo Bajo de la Campana
La Joya
Huelva (Tartessos?) Seville/Spal

Mlaga Toscanos
Gadir/Cdiz Cerro del Villar
it of
Lixus Greece and
Western Anatolia


Dodona TH E SSA LY Gordion
Abai/Kalapodi Tragana
PHOKIS Ptoon Euboia
Ithaca Delphi B O I OT I A Lefkandi Sardis
Kephallenia Thebes IONIA
Perachora Eleusis

Mycenae Isthmia Athens Samos Ephesos

Olympia Lavrion Priene


Argos Miletos

Delos Didyma


Cyclades Elmal



n Lindos

e Rhodes
Axos Fortetsa
Panormon Tylissos
M e d i t e r ra n e a n S e a Stavromenos Khaniale Tekke
Crete Eleutherna Knossos
Mount Ida Dreros
Phaistos Mochlos
Kommos Arkades/Afrati
Ida Cave
Verucchio Central Mediterranean
Casale Marittimo San Severino Marche
Poggio Civitate
Vetulonia Sarteano
Poggio Buco
Corsica Marsiliana E TRURIA Adriatic Sea
Vulci Civita Castellana
Alalia Tarquinia Narce
Pyrgi Veii Monte Aguzzo
Caere Praeneste
Ficana LAT I UM
Rocca di Papa
Laurentina Acqua Acetosa
Castel di Decima Capua CAMPANIA
Pithekoussai Bay
Ischia of Pontecagnano
Sardinia Naples
Cala Gonone
Francavilla Marittima

Monte Sa Idda

Bithia Nora

Palermo Solunto
Sicily Mediterranean Sea


Urartu and the
Syro-Hittite States


Black Sea


Karmir Blur
Gordion Mt. Ararat

Eski Acigl crater Van

Amida Giricano
Ivriz TUWANA Marash Kashiyari
Karatepe Incirli Mtns

Adana Zincirli CARCHEMISH Arslan BIT BAHIANI Nisibis
QUE SAM'AL Carchemish Tash Harran Tell Fekheriye Tig
ineky Misis Deve Hyk Til Barsip Tell Halaf/Guzana ri s
Amanus Mtns Kahat Khorsabad
Arsuz Ain Dara BIT Nineveh
Tell Tayinat ADINI Tell Sheik Hassan Tabete Nimrud

Alalakh Aleppo Tell adikanni

Emar Munbaqa ASSYRIA
O ro n t e




Homs Terqa

Sumur/Tell Kazel

Mediterranean Sea
Cyprus Apameia
Lapithos Platani Patriki Tweini
Kazaphani Tell Sukas r
Athienou Salamis

Idalion Enkomi Qadboun Hamath

Tamassos KitionGolgoi
Larnaca Arwad Tartus Qatna
Amathus Amrit
Kouklia/Palaepaphos Kourion Sumur/Tell Kazel Emessa/
Qadesh Homs
Tell Arqa

Nahr el-Kalb




Mediterranean Sea

Tel Dan

Kefer Varadim Hazor

Tel Hadar
Abu Hawam Tiberias Sea of Galilee
Atlith Nazareth
Tel Dor Jezreel
Megiddo Beth Shean Ramoth Gilead
Taanach Pella
Jatt ISRAEL Tel Rehov
Samaria Tell es-
Tell Qasile Aphek Saidiyeh
Joppa Beth
Tel Batash Gezer Shemesh Jericho
Tel Miqne-Ekron Jerusalem
Ashdod AMMON
Ramat Rahel
Gaza Maresha

Lachish Sea

Nile Delta Beersheba

Tell el-Farah (S) Arad
Aroer MOAB
Sais Tanis
Naukratis Mendes
Kom Firin Piramesse
N e g e v Khirbet en-Nahas
Bubastis/Tell Basta


Saqqara Memphis
S i n a i Timna
N il



Levant, Cyprus, and the Nile Valley

PHRYGIA Karmir Blur

Van Caspian Sea
Tarsus Zincirli
CI LIC IA Carchemish Arslan Tash Nisibis Hasanlu
Nagidos Kelenderis Til Barsip Tell Halaf Khorsabad
Al Mina Qarqar Nineveh Ziwiye
Cyprus Hamath E Ashur
area of detail, below



Me d ite r ranean S ea PHOENICIA
Sidon Damascus LURISTAN
Sippar Tig
r is
Samaria ISRAEL Babylon
Tanis Lachish JUDAH Nippur ELAM

Bubastis Uruk


Karnak Sea

Assyrian World

Tell Deir Situn



Imgur-Enlil/Balawat Arbela/Erbil




Ashur/Qalat Sherqat

Assyrian Heartland
C H RO N O LO GY, 1 2 0 0 4 0 0 B. C . (all dates are approximate)

Mesopotamia Iran Syria and the Levant Anatolia/North Syria

1200 Babylonia Iron AgeII, 1250800 Iron AgeI, 1200900 Syro-Hittite and Aramaean
NebuchadnezzarI (11251104) Sea Peoples incursions kingdoms, 1200800

Assyria Traditional date of Trojan War,

Tiglath-PileserI (11141076) 1184


1000 Neo-Babylonian period, 1000539 Neo-Elamite period, 1000539 Philistine city-states founded in
10th century
Neo-Assyrian empire, 911612
Adad-nirariII (911891)

900 Assyria Iron AgeII, 900700

AshurnasirpalII (883859)
Assyrian capital moved to Nimrud/Kalhu,

ShalmaneserIII (858824)
Battle of Qarqar, 853
SarduriI (840830) founds royal
Hazael of Aram-Damascus dynasty of Urartu

800 Assyrian rule in Babylonia, 729625 Iron AgeIII, 800550 Urartu

ArgishtiI (785/780756)
Assyria SarduriII (756730)
Tiglath-PileserIII (744727) RusaI (730714/713)

SargonII (721705) Phrygia

Assyrian capital moved to Khorsabad/ Midas (contemporary with SargonII
Dur-Sharrukin, 717 of Assyria)

Babylonia Assyria conquers Samaria, 722

Marduk-apla-iddinaII, 721711
Assyria conquers Philistine Assyrian sack of Haldi Temple,
Assyria city-states, 714712 Musasir, 714
Sennacherib (704681)
Assyrian capital moved to Nineveh/ Assyrian sieges of Lachish and
Kuyunjik, 704 Jerusalem, 701

700 Iron AgeIII, 700550 Urartu

RusaII (first half of 7th century)

Sennacherib destroys Babylon, 689 Lydia

Mermnad dynasty, 680546
Assyria Battle of Til Tuba, 653
Esarhaddon (680669)
Ashurbanipal (668627) Assyrian sack of Susa, 646
War between Ashurbanipal and Shamash-
shuma-ukin, 652649 Median empire, 625550

Fall of Nineveh, 612

Nabopolassar (626605)

Neo-Babylonian kingdom, 626612

Neo-Babylonian empire, 612539

NebuchadnezzarII (604562) Babylonian rule, 605539 Battle of Carchemish, 605

600 Babylonian sack of Jerusalem and Lydia

Nabonidus (555539) destruction of Temple, 587 Croesus (560546)

Persian conquest of Babylon, 539 Achaemenid dynasty, 559330 Achaemenid rule, 550330 Achaemenid rule, 546330

Achaemenid rule, 539330 Bisutun relief of DariusI, 521

500 Ionian Revolt, 499498

Egypt Cyprus Greece Western Mediterranean

RamessesIII (11841153) Late Bronze Age, 16001050 Late Helladic (LH)IIIC period on Spain
mainland/Late Minoan (LM)IIIC Middle and Later Bronze Age, 1500700
period on Crete, 12001125

Third Intermediate Period, Phoenician colonies on Cyprus, Sub-Mycenaean period on

1070712 (or 664)* ca. 1100 mainland/Sub-Minoan period on
Dynasty 21, 1070945 Cypro-Geometric period, 1050750

Libyan period/Dynasty 22, Protogeometric period, 1000900 Italy

945712 Iron Age, 1000750
Lefkandi heroon, 950
SheshonqI (945924)

OsorkonI (924889) Tekke bowl, late 10thearly 9th


Geometric period, 900700 Italy

Villanovan culture, 900500

OsorkonII (874850)
Phoenician colony at Kition founded,
mid-9th century Sardinia
Earliest possible date for Nora stele
(see cat.98)

North Africa
Traditional date of foundation of Carthage,

Iliad and Odyssey composed, Spain

8th7th century Tartessian rule, 800540
Salamis royal tombs, 8th7th
Olympic games established, 776
Cypro-ArchaicI period, 750600 Etruscan culture, 75090
Orientalizing period, 750600 Orientalizing period, 750575
Nestors cup inscription, 750725

Kushite period/Dynasty 25,

Cypriot kings pay tribute to SargonII,
Late period, 712332 707

Iron Age, 700200

Taharqo (690664)

Assyria invades Egypt, 671663

Saite period/Dynasty 26, 664525

Mazarrn shipwrecks, second half of
7th century
Greek settlement at Naukratis,
second half of 7th century

Bajo de la Campana shipwreck,

NechoII (610595) late 7thearly 6th century

Cypro-ArchaicII period, 600480 Archaic period, 600480 Italy

Archaic period, 575490
Amasis (AhmoseII) (570526) Egyptian rule, 570526 Polykrates of Samos (538522)
Achaemenid rule, 526333
Achaemenid rule, 525404

Cypro-Classical period, 480310 Classical period, 480323 Italy

Classical period, 490300

*See Hill in Aruz et al. 2014, pp. 198201.

Carolina Lpez-Ruiz its succession myths, its glorification of the
Storm-god and his battles with monsters,
even the castration of the Sky, cannot be
fully understood but as a variant of the epic
genre alongside the Mesopotamian, Hittite,
Greek Literature and the and Canaanite variants, all of them species
within a genus, as it were. The archaeology
of texts that we conduct through compara-
Lost Legacy of Canaan tive analysis brings up the culturalDNA of
these children of the romance between the
Near Eastern and Hellenic traditions. Com-
parison, of course, also helps us to under-
The exhibition Assyria to Iberia at the score the peculiarities of each tradition and
Dawn of the Classical Age brilliantly cap- to broaden the spectrum of interpretive
tured the networks that stemmed from the options for a given motif. In literature, as in
ancient Near East, forever transforming the art history, we have now moved beyond sim-
Mediterranean cultures. As this volume also ply detecting parallels and are now asking
demonstrates, we study this international what it means for Greek literature to be in
horizon mostly through the visual arts and dialogue with these other traditions, follow-
the ongoing process of archaeological exca- ing or departing from conventions of the
vations. Much less can be said from the liter- authoritative genres, adapting or ignoring
ary point of view about the ways in which motifs, and creating new narratives, and
the so-called Orientalizing movement framing new ideologies.2
would have also transformed less tangible Comparison may also lead toward an
aspects of the many cultures that entered this understanding of the possible dynamics
international networkTartessians in south- among the cultures in contact, and what
ern Iberia, Etruscans, local cultures in Sicily, types of interaction would have produced the
Sardinia, and North Africanone of whom artifacts (literary and material) that we have
left a written legacy of the sort through found. This essay focuses on the Phoenicians,
which we can trace this phenomenon at the and how Greek literature help us to ascertain
intellectual or literary level. Our great excep- their crucial role in shaping this Orientaliz-
tion is, of course, Greece. ing continuum. At the outset, it is important
There is no question anymore: we can all to acknowledge a sort of paradox when it
agree that Greek literature is part of an east- comes to the Phoenicians: for all their over-
ern Mediterranean continuum of narrative whelming archaeological (even epigraphical)
and poetic traditions.1 Hand in hand with presence, they fall on the side of the other
the circulation of artifacts and symbols, this Iron Age peoples whose own internal
literary koine must have its roots in the Late (emic) narratives are lost, since their litera-
Bronze Age (whose oral traditions in Greece tures (of whatever sort they were) did not
we can trace only through the trail of evi- make it into the short list of the Classical
dence in Archaic period written epic). But it canon. And yet, it was the expansion of
is with the complex re-organization and re- Phoenician settlements and entrepreneurship
definition of peoples across the Levant and that enabled communities throughout the
the Aegean in the Iron Age that we find a broader Mediterranean to join this new
surge of new literary forms and voices. The global network, bringing them into the
emergence of the Homeric poems in their cultural and economic gravitational pull of
(extremely long) written form cannot be Assyria and the Levant. Thus the field of
explained without the model of the Epic of comparative literature and mythology has tra-
Gilgamesh (fig.1); Greek cosmogony with ditionally favored the legacy of the great (not

to mention preserved) written sources from
Anatolia, Mesopotamia, and Egypt, associat-
ing the Phoenicians instead with material
culture alone: trading activity and artistic and
technological developments. The problem,
of course, is that we have almost completely
lost the Phoenician texts that would allow us
to conduct comparison on the literary side.
As a result, a double line of study has
emerged: some study the material Orientaliz-
ing phenomenon (which admits and even
highlights Phoenician agency), while others
address the literary intersections between
Greek and Near Eastern texts, where the
Canaanite tradition is almost a footnote.3
Given the importance of the Phoenicians
in the cultural exchange during this period,
it is worth making an effort to compensate
for this loss (clinging to that almost in we
have almost lost), by focusing on clues left
by traces of this Northwest Semitic legacy as
reflected in other traditions.4 The exercise
requires no small amount of reconstruction
and imagination. And yet, on close inspec-
tion, Northwest Semitic elements are present
in major areas of Greek literary culture.
Fig.1. Clay tablet with Babylonian cuneiform inscription: The Epic of
What more important element, in practical
Gilgamesh, Tablet 11 (the Flood Tablet). Library of Ashurbanipal,
and symbolic terms, than the connection in
Nineveh, Iraq. Neo-Assyrian, 7th century b.c. The British Museum,
the realm of writing itself and scribal tradi-
London (K.3375)
tion? Let us remember that the Phoenician
alphabet was adapted to Greek sometime
before 750b.c., and was unequivocally asso- ostraca found on the island of Pithekoussai
ciated with the Phoenicians by the Greeks (Ischia), across the Bay of Naples, one of the
themselves. Some even called their new earliest trading posts established by Greeks in
writing Kadmeian letters (from the legendary the west around 770b.c. These inscribed
Tyrian figure, Kadmos) and others phoinikeia objects come mostly from graves and present
grammata (Phoenician letters), while Archaic an unprecedented expression of cultural
scribes in Crete were called poinikastas.5 exchange: Aramaic or Phoenician epigraphs
Some might avoid drawing further cultural appear incised on Greek pots, while Near
implications by treating this innovation as a Eastern amulets and small objects are found
mere technological tool adopted in one in graves tentatively identified as Greek
aseptic transaction after which each speaker through the pottery used in the burials. Since
(one Greek, one Northwest Semitic) parted the inscriptions on the pots correspond with
ways. But the alphabet is, in fact, the clearest the earliest stage of the adaptation of the
evidence of the existence of areas of linguis- Phoenician alphabet (fig.2), the letters are so
tic contact, which, in turn, is an index of similar that in some cases the best specialists
cultural exchange beyond the technological cannot determine which are meant to spell
and visual realm. A good example of this Greek and which the Semitic language.
comes from the Greek and Northwest Semitic Here, the archaeological and the linguistic

Greek Literature and the Lost Legacy of Canaan 317

Fig.2. Ceramic kotyle with Greek inscription, known as the Cup of Nestor. Ischia, Pithekoussai,
necropolis of San Montano, cremation grave 168. Late Geometric. Archaeological Museum Pithekoussai,
Ischia, Italy (166788)

record reinforce each other to reveal the happens to be the most emblematic symbol
multicultural, bilingual makeup of a small of Orientalizing art. Moreover, whatever the
community, the likes of which must have other connotations of this hybrid creature
existed in many other places across the were, some think that her name, Sphinx
Mediterranean.6 (in Greek strangler) is the literal translation
The early mythological traditions are also or semantic calque of a Phoenician demon
rich with encrypted evidence of bilingual- called the strangler (honeket), attested on
ism and biculturalism between these groups. the Arslan Tash amulets.10 Even the grandson
These are instances where a word shows that of Kadmos, Dionysos himself (son of Kad-
the transfer of the mythical motif was paired moss daughter Semele), was called Bacchus,
with knowledge of the other language. a name that some scholars think came to the
One such cluster is that involving Kadmos exotic god from the Semitic verb bacha,
and Europa as part of the Theban saga. The to cry, forever attached to his maddened
westward trajectory of the Phoenician family followers, the Maenads, also called Bacchai.
symbolizes the coming of easterners to And the list of characters with a possible
Greece in early times, along with the alpha- Semitic inflection could go on (the clusters
bet, which Herodotos called Kadmeian let- of Danaos and Io, Melikertes and Palaimon,
ters.7 Their names themselves are fossilized and Kinyras, Myrrha, and Adonis, to name
sign posts of this relationship, since many only a few).11
think that Kadmos is a Greek adaptation of a Then there is Hesiods Theogony, also stem-
Semitic word kadm/kedem (east, levant, east- ming from central Greece, and without ques-
ern) and Europa of erev (evening or tion the most Oriental of all Greek poems.
western).8 The Thebans descent from Best known is his adaptation of a widespread
Phoenicians, as sons of Kadmos, was high- succession myth, or kingship in heaven (to
lighted in Greek literature (for example, in which I will return), most fully represented
tragedies), side by side with a parallel myth of in Mesopotamian and Hurro-Hittite myths.
autochthony, showing the complexity of But many other important characters and
communal identities.9 In fact, the famous stories in the Theogony reflect a Northwest
sphinx that Oedipus defeated (also at Thebes) Semitic substrate. Among them, I wish to

318 Lpez-Ruiz
highlight the story of Aphrodites birth from imagine a direct line of transmission between
the Sky (Ouranos). Besides connecting her Mesopotamian and Greek literatures, given
with the castrated genitals of her father (as the lack of evidence of cuneiform literary
she is the goddess of sexuality), the story texts circulating in the Greek world and the
serves to explain her epithet Ourania. As a more distant relations between the Aegean
celestial goddess, she aligns with Semitic and Mesopotamia, as compared with the
Ashtart, called Queen of Heaven. But the Levant.14 A more complicated and multi-
Semitic and Greek goddesses are of course layered transmission is more likely. Gilgamesh
explicitly identified in Classical literature. was, after all, the most popular epic by far in
Aphrodite is also called Kypris in Greek epic, the Near East with copies and adaptations in
and the overlapping of the two goddesses in other languages circulating in Anatolia and
the cultic landscape of Cyprus points to Canaan; even though we do not possess
Phoenician-Greek contact on that island in proof of a Northwest Semitic version, we
the early first millennium b.c. Moreover, her know the epic was read at Ugarit in Akka-
other epithet, Kythereia, is probably not, as dian; in the first millennium b.c., when the
Hesiod explains, related to the Greek island Assyrians produced their own copies of
of Kythera, but possibly to her association in Enma Eli, Gilgamesh, and other
Cyprus with the prehistoric metal-smith god. Mesopotamian classics, it is not at all
In the Phoenician realm he would have been impossible that written and oral versions of
identified with the Canaanite Kothar (com- these stories continued to circulate among
pare Ugaritic Kothar-wa-Hasis), and is attested Aramaeans, Phoenicians, and others.15 Such a
as Koushor. In other words, she may have had mechanism for transmission would constitute
a title such as Ms. Kothar, (for example, a striking parallel: Phoenician art itself (as
Kothareia or the like) in the Graeco- well as its Orientalizing local adaptations)
Phoenician realm of Cyprus.12 In turn, the represents precisely a creative synthesis of
monster Typhon that Zeus fights in Theogony Canaanite, Anatolian, Mesopotamian, and
is also very likely an adaptation of the Egyptian elements, selectively used in adapta-
Semitic Saphon, the abode of the Canaanite tions not unlike those we see in the literary
Storm-god north of Ugarit; and the sickle artifacts of the Archaic Greek world.
that Kronos used to castrate Ouranos in the My research on creation myths particularly
same poem also has a Semitic name, harpe, supports this pattern. Our sources for this are
from Semitic hereb. So a number of crucial Hesiod and fragments of Orphic texts, and
names in these Archaic stories are of possible the scattered representatives of a Northwest
Semitic derivation; more importantly, they Semitic tradition: Ugaritic and biblical texts,
provide internal clues that locate the stories in and fragments of Phoenician cosmogonies
the Levant. Typhon is placed by both Hesiod transmitted by Greek authors, including the
and Homer in the land of the Arimoi (most lengthier account by Philon of Byblos. On
likely a reference to the Aramaeans in North the one hand, Greek and Northwest Semitic
Syria), and Aphrodite is associated with Gre- elements converge in ways that are peculiar
co-Phoenician Cyprus as discussed above.13 to those two traditions. Some of these ele-
At the same time, the remarkable similari- ments are the central place of Heaven and
ties between the story of Gilgamesh and cen- Earth as a primordial couple; of Eros and
tral motifs in the Iliad and Odyssey, to Pothos (Love and Desire); a Time deity
mention the earliest known epic Greek (Greek Chronos and Aion, Semitic Oulo-
works, leave no question as to the over- mos/Olam); the sustained role of the patriar-
whelming influence of cuneiform literature chal figure of Kronos (outside Hesiod) and
in the eastern Mediterranean in the early first Ilu/El; and the motif of a cosmic egg that
millennium, and its lasting impact in the generates time (attested in Phoenician and
Greek world. It is, however, difficult to Orphic fragments).16

Greek Literature and the Lost Legacy of Canaan 319

On the other hand, and this is key, impor- as peoples of the book in Greek and
tant motifs that bring Greek cosmogony Roman sources, even if these are much later.
close to Mesopotamian and Hittite mytholo- Most explicit is Josephuss placement of
gies are also present in Northwest Semitic Phoenician antiquarians (Mochos and Hier-
strands, suggesting the Levant as a fertile onymos the Egyptian) together with
middle ground for the recasting of the old Manetho and Berossos, among All those
motifs. Most salient among these are: the who among the Greeks and the barbarians
emphasis on the primordial waters (charac- have compiled Antiquities, and Tertulians
terized in the Hebrew Bible and in Phoeni- statement, in connection with his inquiries
cian fragments in a form more reminiscent of about the early date of Moses, that we
Hesiods Chaos than of Tiamat and Apsu), would have to open up the archives of the
and the fight between the Storm-god and a oldest peoples alsoof the Egyptians, Chal-
watery dragon enemy personified in Ugaritic deans, Phoenicians. The library of Carthage
and Phoenician cosmogony as the Sea (Yam). was famous enough to be given by the
The alternative three-tier partition of power Romans to the Numidians in 146b.c., and
among the siblings Zeus, Poseidon, and the archives of Tyre were consulted by some
Hades in Homer also departs from the gen- of Josephuss sources. The Phoenician
erational succession of gods and recalls most brand is also explicitly associated with liter-
closely the Ugaritic hierarchy, in which Yam, ary culture in the genre of the novel, through
Baal, and Mot (Death) are in competition for titles such as the fragmentary Phoenikika or
the throne (also in Philon of Byblos). It is Phoenician story and the presence of
not impossible that even the most blatant Phoenician motifs in Heliodoross novel, the
Anatolian borrowing in Greek epic, the Ethiopika. The author adds a colophon to his
castration of the Sky, was part of first- work where he identifies himself as a Phoe-
millennium storytelling in the Levant, as the nician from Emessa, playing with an autho-
motif is present in Philons version (though rial Phoenician identity even in Roman
by this time he might also have been bor- times.
rowing it from Hesiod).17 Leaving other examples aside, my point is
In other words, we need to think of the that the Phoenicians, despite our scarce liter-
Phoenician-Greek adaptations as adaptations ary evidence, were part of the intellectual
of adaptations, molded from the already and literary circles of the Greek and Roman
hybrid packages that resulted from centu- world. They were also the carriers of the
ries of contact among cultures in the Levant. Canaanite torch in ways different from
The result is a fabric of interwoven Greek those of the Hebrews (and in the long run,
and Near Eastern motifs that resist the tradi- less successfully). This literary culture stimu-
tional analysis of isolated parallels following lated literacy and a wider worldview in many
a linear trajectory from point A to point B local Iron Age societies from east to west.
and identifiable with an original, isolated Returning to the so-called Orientalizing
source. They are part of a larger cultural phenomenon, how might we harmonize the
(even intellectual) movement stimulated material and the literary sides of it? I would
across the Mediterranean, foremost, if not argue that only if we consider the existence
only, by Levantines. To accept this, however, of a Phoenician artistic and ideological medi-
requires believing in the Phoenicians as cul- ation in the Orientalizing Mediterranean
tural agents, not mere empty vessels of lux- can we understand what these materi-
ury goods, but heirs to a Canaanite cultural alsobjects and textsconceal. In this dif-
heritage marked by its own adaptations of ficult rescue operation, we are mostly forced
traditions well rooted in the Near Eastern to look at the literary evidence through the
continuum. And indeed, if we listen to our lenses of Greek literature and comparative
sources, we find indexes of their reputation studies that include the broader Northwest

320 Lpez-Ruiz
Semitic legacy. But we also need to combine on Greek and biblical texts; Penglase 1994 on Greek
and Mesopotamian heroic patterns (mainly in the
forces with the study of cultural contact that
Homeric Hymns); and Bremmer 2008, with essays on
comes from archaeological and art-historical Greek religion and myth in light of Near Eastern
research in order to produce more nuanced and biblical parallels.
and complete readings of our respective tex- 2. On methodological issues, see discussions in Lpez-
tual and physical artifacts. Ruiz 2014; Ulf 2009; Haubold 2002.
3. I use Canaanite in this essay as a broader category
In addition to its possible Orientalist
that cuts across periods, applied to the Northwest
connotations (in Edward Saids terms),18 one Semitic groups of coastal Syria and Lebanon from
of the problems of the Orientalizing label the Late Bronze Age (for example, Ugarit) into the
is its vagueness. It obscures the complex and Iron Age, where we identify the group we know as
non-monolithic nature of the cultural com- Phoenicians.
4. For example, J. Brown 19952001; Burkert 2004;
ponents of what we call the ancient Near
Lpez-Ruiz 2010; Louden 2006, 2011; Bremmer
East. The Metropolitan Museum exhibition 2008.
Assyria to Iberia is a good example of our 5. See discussion and references in Lpez-Ruiz 2010,
search for the more precise motors and mod- pp.3135.
els involved in this process. However, the 6. Ridgway 1992, 1994; Coldstream 1994; Hall 2002,
p.94; Lpez-Ruiz 2010, pp.3334.
weakness of the term is also its strength: it
7. Herodotos, Histories 5.5961.
reflects nicely an ambivalent vagueness pres- 8. Phoenician inscriptions are not vocalized, hence
ent in the actual phenomenon. In other vocalization of attested or hypothetical Phoenician
words, we should consider the Phoenicians as words is tentative. I use it here to facilitate the read-
the first Orientalists themselves, as they ing and comparison with the Greek.
9. For the traditions surrounding Thebess foundation
projected, shaped, and exploited stereotypes
and its Phoenician background, see, for example,
(if positive ones), responding to the desire of Bunnens 1979; S. Morris 1992, ch.5. Cf. Lpez-
emerging proto-urban societies to join in the Ruiz 2010, pp.35, 46, and notes for ancient sources
aura of the old urban, literate, prestigious and more references.
cultures of the Near East.19 10. Aaron Demsky, The Phoenician Connectionof
the Greek Sphinx, paper delivered at the annual
Put differently, it is very likely that without
meeting of the Society of Biblical Literature, 2012.
these elusive first-millennium Canaanites we 11. On these and other parallels, see the works of West
would not be looking at an interconnected and Burkert cited in note 1, above.
Mediterranean, from Assyria to Iberia, 12. See Lpez-Ruiz forthcoming.
through the lenses that the exhibition offered 13. See the recent overview of these and other motifs
in Lpez-Ruiz 2014 and references there.
us. It is of crucial importance to recover (to
14. See discussion in George 2003, pp.5557; Lpez-
the degree possible) the lost voices of these Ruiz 2010, pp.12529.
Phoenicians, who, after all, introduced the 15. George 2003, esp. p.56; George 2007, esp. p.458;
technology of writing to Greeks, Etruscans, see a recent study of the parallels in Currie 2012.
and Iberians, among others, allowing them 16. For Phoenician and Orphic cosmogonies, see
Lpez-Ruiz 2010, pp.13070, with references; see
to encode their own voices, even if we cannot
especially West 1994 for the cosmic egg motif and
always understand them. In effect, they trig- West 1983 for Orphic poems in general.
gered the exit of those they encountered, not 17. For Philon of Byblos, see the most recent edition
least the Greeks, from prehistory and into and references in Kaldellis and Lpez-Ruiz 2009
the thriving Archaic world that precedes the and Lpez-Ruiz 2010, ch.3.
18. Said 1978.
Classical era.
19. A monograph on the Orientalizing phenomenon
across the Mediterranean and the role of the Phoe-
nicians in this phenomenon is forthcoming by the
1. Major works involving comparative literature, author.
mythology, and religion include Burkert 1979, 1987,
1992, 2004; Wests commentaries on Hesiods
Theogony and Works and Days (in Hesiod 1966,
1978) and his compendium of literary and mytho-
logical parallels (West 1997); J. Brown 19952001

Greek Literature and the Lost Legacy of Canaan 321

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Photograph and Illustration Credits 359

Courtesy Direction Gnrale des Art; fig.7: Boardman 2002, Geske; fig.3: RMN-Grand Images Group/ Art Resource, NY;
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fig.9: Boardman 2002, fig.126 Raphael Chipault; fig.4: Cyprus Stampolidis, with permission
Winter: fig.1: RMN-Grand Museum, Nicosia/ Department of granted by Department of
Palais/ Art Resource, NY; figs.2, Gunter: fig.1: Trustees of the Antiquities, Cyprus; fig.5: Antiquities, Cyprus
4: Trustees of the British British Museum; fig.2: Scala/ Muse du Louvre, dist. RMN-
Museum; figs.3, 5, 10: Images Ministero per i Beni e le Attivit Grand Palais/ Thierry Ollivier; Sannibale: fig.1: Canina 1846,
The Metropolitan Museum of Culturali/ Art Resource; fig.3: figs.6, 7: RMN-Grand Palais/ pl. LII; fig.2: Grifi 1841;
Art; fig.6: Wikipedia Baluster; Staatliche Antikensammlungen Art Resource, NY; fig.8: Image figs.312, 15, 16, 19: Vatican
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Jerusalem, photo: Elie Posner; Renate Khling; fig.4: Hopkinson Art; fig.9: Courtesy Department of fig.13: Herrmann 1986, no.499;
fig.8: Museum of Fine Arts, and Baker-Penoyre 1902, pl. V; Antiquities, Cyprus fig.17: Pf lzner 2008; fig.18:
Boston; fig.9: Trustees of the figs.5, 6: RMN-Grand Palais/ Trustees of the British Museum
British Museum Art Resource, NY; fig.7: Papalexandrou: figs.1a, 1b:
University of Pennsylvania Image The Metropolitan Lpez-Ruiz: fig.1: Trustees of
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Becker 2005, fig. 5, with additional drawings: Margaret George Preussicher Kulturbesitz/ Art
sites added by Graff; fig.3: Resource, NY; fig.3: Walter 1959a, Bahrani: fig.1: bpk, Berlin/
Frankfort 1955, pl.61, no.642; Feldman: fig.1: Marian H. pl.114, top; fig.4: Amy Vorderasiatisches Museum,
fig.4: Woolley and Mallowan 1976, Feldman; fig.2: Vatican Papalexandrou; fig.5: DAI-Athens; Staatliche Museen, Berlin/ Art
p.182, no.250; fig.5: Image The Museums. All rights reserved; fig.6: Montelius 1904, pl.322, Resource, NY; fig.2: J. Curtis et al.
Metropolitan Museum of Art; fig.3: Image The Metropolitan no.2; fig.7: Rathje 1983, p.13, 2008; figs.3, 6: Bruce M. White;
fig.6: Luschan 1943, figs. 8081, Museum of Art; fig.4: Courtesy fig.5; fig.8: Nassos Papalexandrou figs.4, 5, 8: Trustees of the
pls. 35a, 35b; fig.7: University of Nicholas Chr. Stampolidis, photo: British Museum; fig.7: Image
Pennsylvania Museum of Bruce M. White Matthaus: figs.1, 2: drawings: The Metropolitan Museum of Art
Archaeology and Anthropology, Hartmut Matthus; fig.2: Image
Philadelphia, photo: Katherine Niemeier: figs.1a, 1b, 4, 5, 6, 8, 9: The Metropolitan Museum of Cover, p.86: Images The
Blanchard; figs.8, 9: Trustees of Wolf-Dietrich Niemeier; fig.2: Art; figs.3, 4, 5: Courtesy Hartmut Metropolitan Museum of Art;
the British Museum Kilian-Dirlmeier 1985, p.233 Matthus; fig.6: Sakellarakis 1983, frontispiece, pp.12, 40: Trustees
fig.15; fig.3: Kilian-Dirlmeier p.440, fig.1; figs.7, 10, 11, 12: of the British Museum; p.2:
Boardman: fig.1: After 1985, p.239, fig.20; figs.7, 8: Bruce M. White; fig.8: DAI- RMN-Grand Palais/ Art
Herrmann 1972, p. 82, fig. 49; Bruce M. White Athens; fig.9: Image The Resource, NY; pp. 204, 322: Bruce
fig.2: Anandaroop Roy, after Metropolitan Museum of Art M. White
Boardman 1999, fig. 314B; fig.3: Caubet: fig.1: Courtesy
Boardman 2002, fig.22; fig.4: Marguerite Yon; fig.2: bpk, Stampolidis: figs.1, 13a, 14, 17,
Trustees of the British Museum; Berlin/ Museum fr Vor- und 19: Bruce M. White; figs.2, 3a, 3b,
fig.5: Boardman 2002, fig.32; Frhgeschichte, Berlin/ Art 4, 6, 7, 8, 9, 10, 11, 12, 13b, 15, 16,
fig.6: The Cleveland Museum of Resource, NY, photo: Ingrid 18, 20: Courtesy Nicholas Chr.
Stampolidis; fig.5: Universal

360 Assyria to Iberia