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Reid, Joy. M. 2000. The process of Composition. 3rd Edition.

New York: Longman

A CITATION (sometimes called a "reference") gives credit in writing to the author of an idea. A
writer who uses (repeats) the ideas and/or the words of another author will cite that author twice:
once in an abbreviated form in the body of the paper, and once completely at the end of the
paper, on a separate page titled References (or Bibliography, or Works Cited).
Many styles of citation exist (see "Discipline-Specific Citation Styles" on p. 168, 323, and
325). But regardless of the citation style (format) you use, the same information is included to
enable any reader to locate the cited material in a library or on the Internet. * Figure 1 displays
the general information that is essential in all citations, and some specific information that is
essential in different kinds of materials.

All citation formats

. author(s)
. year of publication
. title of material

Specific citation formats

. place of publication
. name of publisher
. inclusive page numbers

. volume number
. issue number

. complete date of WWW placement
. number of pages in the material
. WWW address
. complete date of material retrieval

Figure A-1 General and Specific Information Needed in Citations

What to Cite and Why

Remember the two general rules for citing a source in U.S. academic writing:
. Authors own words and ideas; therefore, writers must give authors credit by citing
(giving a reference for) each author's words and ideas used.
. Reference (i.e., cite) any information that you did not know before you began the

In the past, some academic writing used footnotes (a number in the text that referred to the complete
reference at the bottom of that page) or, in longer material, end-of-chapter notes. Most academic citation styles
no longer use footnotes. Informational footnotes, like this one--those that explain something additional in the
text--are often used in academic writing.
Writers must cite a source for any fact or information that is not general knowledge. For
example, a writer might know in general that freedom of the press allows newspaper reporters to
print facts about a public official's abuse of power, but she or he might not know the source of
that freedom, the legal differences between freedom of speech and libel, or the extent to which a
reporter may keep his sources secret. When that writer locates the information, she or he will
need to cite the source(s), to give credit to the author(s) of the material she or he discovers.
Note: Not citing sources can result in plagiarism, a serious offense in U.S. academic writing that
can result in the writer failing the course or, worse, expulsion from his or her college/university.
In addition to the legal and ethical reasons for using citations in U.S. academic prose, there
are several practical reasons:

Reasons for Using Citations in Your Writing

In- Text Citations End-of- Text Citations

1. to give credit to the author who wrote 1. to help the reader find the material quickly
the material and easily
2. to lend credibility to the paper 2. to demonstrate to the reader the breadth,
(i.e., to use an expert as evidence) depth, and currency of the writer's research

In fact, while writers will not cite their own ideas, if they know some of the answers to their
questions, they might cite a source they find in order to strengthen their credibility in the eyes of
their audience.

General Rules for APA Format

In this textbook, you will learn the most widely used citation format in college/university
undergraduate classes: APA Style. This format was developed by the American Psychological
Association and is used in the social sciences and in some science disciplines. While you may
not always use APA Style in your academic career, knowing APA Style will prepare you to
switch with ease to another style/format if that becomes necessary. For a complete introduction
to APA Style, consult the Publication Manual of the American Psychological Association.


Below are rules for APA in-text citations. An example follows each rule, and specific concerns
are noted in small print.

1. If the ideas of another author are used in a sentence, and the author's last name is not
identified in the sentence, the in-text citation includes the last name of the author and the year
of publication. The citation can occur within the sentence OR at the end of the sentence.

When the message from the foot is received, deposits of wastes in that part of the body
will break up and allow oxygen to he sent to that area (Kunz, 1997).

. in parentheses, the author's last name

. comma between last name of author and the year of publication
. period at the end of the sentence comes after the citation in parentheses.

The combination of chemicals in a firecracker work together to cause the color, the
design, and the explosion (Allen & Pope, 1997).
. article has two authors; ampersand [&] between last names
. authors + year of publication in parentheses

2. If the ideas of another author are used in a sentence, and the author's last name is identified
in the sentence (e.g., According to Scott Burrell,), cite just the year of publication
immediately after the ideas.

In one chapter in Body Talk (1994), Desmond Morris describes six different gestures
used by people in cultures around the world to indicate "Hello!"

. author identified and therefore already "given credit" in the sentence

. therefore, the citation in parentheses does not contain the author's last name

When I took Rebecca Oxford's Style Analysis Survey (SAS) (1992), I discovered that I
was a visual learner.

. author's name used in the sentence, so include only the year in parentheses
. comma follows the first part of the sentence (DC, IC) after the citation, but a comma does
not come before the citation
. abbreviation of the survey name put in parentheses immediately following the complete title
of the survey

3. The ideas and words of another author are used in a sentence. Use direct quotation marks
(" . . . "). Then give the citation immediately following the quotation, as explained above, and
give the page number where you found the quotation.

Three other rules for using direct quotations:

. Be sure you use the EXACT words of the author in a direct quotation.
. If you eliminate one or more words, show the reader by using an ellipsis:
three dots, with a space after each.
. If you add one or more words (usually to clarify meaning or to change a verb tense), put
those words in brackets [ ].

According to Mary Ann Christison, "When students learn about MI, they become more
confident learners" (1997, p. 13).

. quotation marks indicate an exact use of the author's words

. author identified in the sentence, so name does not appear in the parentheses
. comma precedes direct quotation
. first word of direct quotation capitalized because it begins the quotation
. parenthetical citation follows the direct quotation immediately
. p. = 1 page, and pp. = more than 1 page
Birth order is defined as "the order of chronological birth of children" (Sulloway,
1996, p. 245).

. quote involves only half the sentence

. no comma precedes quotation
. first letter of the quotation not capitalized because the quotation is part of the existing
. page number on which the quotation occurs must be included in the citation
. the citation, in parentheses, comes before the period at the end of the sentence
. comma between the year and the page number

According to Professor Paul Mussen, an expert in child psychology, "Younger children

[aged 4-6] are usually less cautious of their behavior. They tend to participate in . . . more
dangerous activities and are more likely to take risks" (1997, pp. 33-34).

. because the name of the author is identified in the sentence, only the year and the page
numbers appear in parentheses
. ellipsis indicates omitted words
. additional information added in brackets [ ]

4. A direct quotation of more than 40 words (about three lines) must (a) be separated from the
main text, (b) be indented 5 spaces, (c) have no quotation marks, and (d) have the citation
follow the final punctuation.

In his recent study on solar electricity, Jose Espinoza, an undergraduate electrical engineering
major from Colombia at Colorado State University, gave a brief historical summary of solar

The phenomenon of solar electricity was first noticed at the end of the 19th century. It was
known that an electrical current was produced when light was shone on an electrical cell.
However, no one knew why this current was produced. Albert Einstein gave the answer in
1920. He explained the photoelectric effect, which paved the road for the discovery of the
photovoltaic effect. (1997, p. 12)

. author identified in the sentence before the quotation

. long quotation (64 words) separated from text
. left margin of quotation indented five spaces (one tab length)
. no direct quotation marks used
. citation follows final punctuation (period)
Over seventy people have now died nation-wide from hantavirus, a largely unknown illness
until 1993:
The current Sin Nombre [Spanish for "without a name"] strain of the deadly virus is
transmitted by deer mice. The common house mouse and urban rats have not been
found to carry the strain so far, but the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention in
Atlanta caution that they believe more rodents than just deer mice may carry the virus. .
. . Deer mice are the same size or slightly larger than house mice, but unlike gray house
mice, they are bicolored, with a brown topside and white on the underside of their
bodies. (Tri-City Pest Control, 1998, p. 1)

. no author identified in the previous sentence; no author given in the publication

. publisher given as author
. definition added in brackets [ ]
. ellipsis indicates omitted material


Below are the rules for APA format for end-of-text citations and typical examples from student
writing. Also included are special notes to emphasize the details of each citation.

1. For books: general format for a book written by one or more authors:
Last name of author, First initial. (year of publication). Title of the book. Place of
publication: Publisher. [Note multiple authors]

Sulloway, E (1996). Birth order, family dynamics, and creative lives. New York:
Pantheon Books.

. first line indented five spaces (one tab length); subsequent lines at margin
. only the first letter of the first word in the title and all proper names capitalized
. the publication information for a book on the back of the title page
. state omitted from place of publication because city is easily recognized
. colon after place of publication

2. For periodicals (magazines and journals): An article in a magazine or journal has the
following general format:
Last name of author, First initial(s), Last name of next author, First initial(s). (Year of
publication). Title of article. Title of magazine, volume number (issue), inclusive page

Adams, B. N. (1997). Birth order: A critical review. Sociometry, 35, 411-438.

. author includes both first and middle name (so two initials)
. title of article capitalized only at the beginning of the title and the first letter of the first
word after the colon
. period at the end of the article's title, then two spaces
. title of journal italicized (or it could be underlined)
. volume number included (found on the cover page of the magazine or at the bottom of the
Table of Contents)
. comma between title of magazine and volume number
Kammeyer K (1967). Birth order as a research variable. Social Forces, 46 (6), 71-80.

. indentation of first line, but all other lines begin at the margin
. double-spaced throughout
. title of journal: all main words capitalized (but not and, the, a. of etc.)
. no issue number given because pages are sequentially numbered throughout each year
. issues individually paginated, so issue number is necessary
. numbers for inclusive pages (but do not use "p." or "pp.")

Newman, L. S., Higgins, E. T., & Vookles, J. (1992). Self-guide strength and emotional
vulnerability: Birth order as a moderator of self-affect relations. Personality and Social
Psychology Bulletin, 18, 402-41l.

. multiple authors format = Last, E, Last, E ,& Last, E

. ampersand [&] between last and previous author in multiple-authored material
. title of journal AND volume number italicized (or underlined)
. comma following issue number

3. For chapters in edited books or articles in edited anthologies, use an end-of-text citation
that is similar to the format for magazines/journals. An article or chapter in a book/ anthology
edited by another person has this general format:

Last name of author, First initial(s). (year of publication). Title of article/chapter. In F.

Last (Ed.), Title of book/anthology [inclusive pages, i.e., first and last pages of the article/
chapter]. Place of publication: Publisher.

Sakamoto, N. (1997). Conversational ballgames. In S. Reid, Purpose and process: A

reader for writers (3rd ed.) (pp. 313-318). Upper Saddle River NJ: Prentice Hall.

. book title has only first word and first word after colon capitalized
. article appears In + E Last (not Last, E)
. title of book is preceded by a comma
. 3rd ed.: this book has been revised twice
. inclusive page numbers of article follow title of book in parentheses
. initials of state given after the name of the city (NJ) with no punctuation

Pollio, H. R. & Edgerly, T. W. (1996). Comedians and comic style. In A. J.

Chapman & H. C. Foot (Eds.), Humor and laughter: Theory, research, and applications
(pp. 215-242). New Brunswick NT: Transaction Publishers.

. two authors of the chapter; two co-editors (Eds.) of the anthology

. has both a first initial and a middle initial listed for each author
. chapter appears In F M. Last & F M. Last
. multiple editors (Eds.) of the anthology format: F. M. Last & F. M. Last
. inclusive page numbers of article listed in parentheses ( ) immediately following title of
the anthology
Citation of Internet [World Wide Web] Sources
The World Wide Web is under constant construction and change. Even so, APA style for Internet
sources is becoming standardized. For future changes and additions, consult
. the newest edition of the Publication Manual of the American Psychological
. the APA website:
. a website devoted to discussion of APA style formats: http://www.lib.usm.

For in-text citations from the www, use the same APA form used for other sources.The
examples and notes below demonstrate the in-text citation forWWW sources.

Dust allergies are the most prevalent (Edelson, 1997).

. writer is using the ideas, but not the words, of the author
. author is not identified in text; use (Last, year)

The whistles, clicks, and barks of dolphins, according to Zihlman and Lowenstein, "have a
number of potential functions" (1998, p. 2).

. writer is using the ideas and the words of the authors in a direct quotation
. quotation is integrated into the sentence
. two authors are identified in the sentence, so the citation does not contain their names
. citation includes the year and the page number of the direct quotation

In contrast, end-of-text citations on the WWW are both similar to and differ from other
secondary source materials. Similarities include:

. indentation of first line; no indentation of following lines

. author(s) forms: Last, F. OR for multiple authors, Last, F, Last, F.M, & Last, F.M.
. capitalization, punctuation, and italicizing of similar forms

For materials published in other sources (e.g., in a newspaper or magazine) and then loaded
onto the www, the end-of-text citation will include some information about the published data as
well as the additional WWW data: the title of the magazine/journal (italicized or underlined) and
the month and year of publication. In addition, the WWW citation will include the necessary
information to enable the reader to access that article on the www, such as the date the material
was placed on the WWW and the URL (Universal Resource Locator): the WWW address.
The overall format for a WWW citation includes the following:

Last, E (Year, Month Day of Publication or Placement of the Materials) on the www. Title
of document. [Type of document described]. Retrieved Month Day, Year you accessed the
material: complete URL

Eastman, M. (1994, May 2). Sumo rituals. [Online article]. Retrieved October 12, 1997,
from the World Wide Web:
. double-spaced
. URL (WWW address): note capitalization and punctuation carefully
- general beginning (for most URLs): http;//www.
- individualized address must have capitalization and punctuation correct
- last piece of address shows the kind of group (and maybe the country):
> .com = commercial > .org = organization > .hu = from hungary
> .mx = from Mexico
. bracketed [ ] information is a brief description of the material for the reader
. period after the brackets

Edelson, S. B. (1997, October 23). Allergies. [Online article]. Retrieved June 15, 1998,
from the World Wide Web:

. author with first and middle initial

. date of publication or of material being placed on the WWW includes
month and day
. title of material is italicized
. material is briefly described in brackets [ ] for the reader
. "Retrieved" introduces the date you accessed the material
. complete URL is not followed by a "dot" (period)

Zihlman, A. L. & Lowenstein, J. M. (1998, July 26). Dolphins sapiens: How human are
dolphins? Oceans, July, 1997. [Journal article posted on the World Wide Web]. Retrieved April
20, 1999, from the World Wide Web:

. two authors, each with a first and middle initial

. comma after year and before month and day of placement on the WWW
. article previously published in a journal; month and year given
. brief description in brackets capitalizes first word, ends with period outside
the brackets
. URL can be divided at the end of the line after the forward slash ( / ) or dot

Unfortunately, many WWW sources are incomplete. If the 2.uthor's last name and first initial
(Last, F.) are not available, use the first significant words of the title for the in-text citation; do
not use insignificant first words such as a, an, the, of, or. Below are examples of (a) in-text
citations and (b) end-of-text citations from incomplete WW'N information.

In-text Children should always ride in the back seat of the car (Airbags, 1996).
. use of the first significant word of the title (see full titles below) because
the author is unknown
. comma follows title

End-of-Text Airbags a danger to small children. (1996, December 11). [Online article].
Retrieved on June 15, 1997, from the World Wide Web: http://www. mayohealth.
org/mayo/9611/htm/ airbags/htm
. use article title because the author is unknown
. brief description of the article in brackets

Note: To insert these end-of-text citations into the Reference page at the end of a paper, use the
first significant word in the title of the article as a last name, and insert the citation alphabetically
in the reference list.

Sample End-of-Text Reference Page

Journal article Allen, L. & Pope, G. (1997). Give me an "A.": July 4th displays get an
explosive new look: Fireworks you can read. Science World, 53 (2), 14-16.
Online article, Boulet, J., Jr. (1997, June 15). Pro and con-English pro. [Online article].
WWW Retrieved October 22, 1997, from the World Wide Web: com/
procon/htm/ englishino.html
Newspaper Chinoy, L (1997, January 3). In presidential race, TV ads were biggest '96
article on the cost by far. The Washington Post, B6. [Newspaper ~cle on the World Wide Web].
Retrieved February 11, 1998, from the World Wide Web: http://ads. campfin/stories/ cf033197.htm
[Newspaper Clair, R. (1997, March 20). Let there be light Translucent door opens the
article] foyer. St. Louis Post-Dispatch, D2.
[Magazine Emerson, H. & Monmaney, T. (1988, September 26). The risk from radon.
article] Newsweek, 112, 69.
[Edited book] Glantz, M. H. (Ed.). (1994). Drought follows the plow: Cultivating
marginal areas. New York: Cambridge.
Journal article Holmes, S. E., Drutz, J. E., Buffone, G. J., & Rice, T. D. (1997). Blood lead
levels in a continuity clinic population. Journal of Toxicology: Clinical
ToxiCology, 35,181-186.
Online article, Know what you're handling. (1998, August 5). [Online artide for Pyro
WWW,"no website]. Retrieved October 8, 1998, from the World Wide Web: http://php.
author -every-pyro.html

Journal article Krishnamurti, T. N., Correa-Torres, R., Latif, M., & Daughenbaugh, G.
(1998). The impact of current and possibly future sea surface temperaiUre
anomalies on the frequency of Atlantic hurricanes. Tellus: A Dynamic
Meteorology and Oceanography, 50A (2), 186-210.

Foreign Richard, M. (1991, October 31). Cohue au Palais de verre. LeMonde, 3.

Textbook Smith, E K. & Bertolome, E J. (1986). Bringing interiors to light: The
principles and practices of lighting design. New York: Whitney Library of
Article in Watson, G. & Yamashita, T. (1997). Nearshore, wave and topographic effects
edited in storm surges. In B. Came (Ed.), Proceedings of the International Conference
on Coastal Engineering (pp. 1417-1430). Melbourne, Australia: Monash

Discipline-Specific citation style

Undergraduate college/university classes will often ask you to use APA format. However, for
some course assignments, students may be required" to use another Citation Styles such as
MLA (Modem Language Association) or CBE (Council of Biology Editors).

Usually the instructor will give specific written directions concerning the reference style; if not,
ask your instructor (a) which citation format to use and (b) for an example of that format.
Students in major fields must learn the citation format common to that field. Ask an academic
advisor, another instructor, or the secretary in the department (a) what citation style is generally
used and (b) where to find examples of that reference style.

Study the citation style carefully. As you analyze the format, consider the following:

All Citations
. Order of information: What comes first? Then what? And after that?
. Available information: What doesn't exist? What to do about it?

In-Text Citations
. Placement: Where to place the citation in the sentence?
. In-sentence use of author's name: What to put in parentheses of citation?

End-of-Text Citations
. Position on the page: What's indented? What's not?
. Spacing: Single or double (or something else, or a combination) for each citation? between

In addition, writers must carefully study

. Punctuation: Where are the commas, the parentheses, the quotation marks, the periods, the
colons, the brackets?
. Capitalization: What is capitalized? What's not?
. Italicization or Underlining: Use one or the other, but not both, for the same piece of the
citationthey both mean the same thing.

Note: Within a single major field of study, there may be differences in citation styles. For
example, your department may require one reference style, a respected journal in the field
another, and a single instructor still another. It is therefore important for you to be aware of the
requirements and to analyze different reference formats.
Below are examples of several citation styles. Remember that although these in-text citations
and reference lists have come from student papers in various fields, the styles may not exactly
represent the reference styles required by your department. Instead, they serve as possible
examples for analysis. You must then investigate and analyze the formats in your department

English In-text
department According to Roger Axtell (1990), "Cite your own personal experiences, or, if
[Page number at
end} possible, of a mutually respected third party" (33).
Book; last, Axtell, Roger E. Do's and taboos of hosting international visitors. New York:
complete first John E. Wiley and Sons, 1990.
name; year at
Journal article; Kimball, Geoffrey. "Men's and women's speech in Koasati: Are-appraisal."
quotation International Journal of American Linguistics 53 (1997): 30-38.
marks, italics,
(year), colon
Book;2nd McFarlane, Evelyn and James Saywell. If. . . (Questions for the game of life).
author's name New York: Random House, 1995.

[Edited book} Oe, Kenzaburo, Ed. The crazy iris and other stories of the atomic aftermath.
New York: Grove Press, 1985.
Hydrology In-text
Et al. = several This cost analysis is based on the partial data obtained by Murphy et al. (1996a,
authors; a, b =
two different b) on the solar pilot plants in Florida.
articles by the
same authors]
[Textbook] References
Howe, D. (1998). Solar desalination of water: An introduction. New York: A.G.
[Journal article; Kettani, M. A. (1997). "Solar desalination with latent heat recovery," Solar
note capitals] Energy 12, 79-102.
[First of 2 Murphy, J., J. R Irwin, and J. A. Eibling. (1996a). "Efficiency of solar
articles, same distillation still," Energy Engineering, 21, 5,112-116.
authors, year]

Second article, Murphy, J. J. R Irwin, and J. A. Eibling. (1996b). "Solar desalination in

1996b; note connection with controlled environmental agriculture in arid zones," Energy
issue number
Conservation and Management, 26, 1, 20-25.
Research report: Taylor, M. E (1998). "Field evaluation of solar sea-water stills," Report No. 243,
state document Office of Saline Water, Columbus, Ohio.

Economics In-text
Dornbush (1) states the gross national product (GNP) is one of the most
important indicators in measuring economic progress.

Book; note (1) Dornbush, R, and S. Fischer. Macro-Economies. McGraw-Hill, New York,
number 1994.
Federal (2) Economic Report of the President. Transmitted to the Congr8ss, January
government 1999. United States Government Printing Office, Washington, 1989.
document; note
Doctoral thesis (3) Jensen, E. R The Sources of Aggregate Demand Disturbances: An
Empirical Analysis. Unpublished thesis, University of Michigan, 1998.
Magazine, no (4) "Investments Today," Money, Vol. 15, May, 1996,50-52.
Chemistry In-text
Use of number
in brackets for Many kinds of aromatic hydrocarbons can't be polymerized because the
citation monomer is very stable [1, 2, 4].
Journal article; 1. Ran, RC., J. S. Han, and S. H, Polymer-supported Lewis acid catalysts:
note order of Cationic polymerization, J. Mol. Catal, 1993,21,203-210.
authors, year
Book; note 2. Fraze, A. H., High temperature resistant polyiners. WIley, New York, 1994.
Abbreviation of 3. Stille, J. K., Supported chiral catalysts in asyrp.metric synthesis. J.
journal, Macromal. Sci. Chern, 1994, 121 (13-14), 1689-93.
Article in edited 4. Corey, L. S., P. Hodge, and D. C. Sherrington, Synthesis and characterization
book; note of polymers. In Polymer-supported reactions inorganic synthesis (A. Recca,
sequence Ed.), Wiley, New York, 1995,249-255.
Fluid In-text
Mechanics The inflow forecasting model carries out two distinct operations, the first being
[And, not &; the creation of a series of natural runoff simulations from which can be extracted
comma] the second (Baines and Davies, 1990).
Book; notice Works Cited
capitalization, Baines, P. G. Topographic Effects in Stratified Flows. Cambridge University
no place of
publication Press, 1995, 209 pp.

journal; Baines, P. G. "A Unified Description of Two-layer Flow Over Topography," 1.

sequence, Fluid Mech. 156 (1994), 127-167.

Sequence of Baines, P. G. & Davies, P. A. "Laboratory Studies of Topographic Effects in

same author; Rotating and/or Stratified Fluids." Orographic Effects in Planetary Flows.
research report Chap. 3. 233-299. GARP Publication No. 23, WMO/ICSU, 1990.
Abbreviated Kitabayashi, K. "Wind Tunnel and Field Studies of Stagnant Flow Upstream
journal title, of a Ridge." J. Meteorol. Soc. Japan 65 (1989), 193-203.
boldfaced issue
Electrical In-text
Engineering These methods have been replaced by the Carnegie-Mellon University
[No comma]
Vision Laboratory (Kanade 1993).
Conference Chen, L. K. "A Fabrj-Perot Interferometer System for High-Speed Velocity
proceedings; Mea:mrement," Proceedings of the SPIE-The International Society for
no indentation Optical Engineering, Vol. 2969, pp. 1050-57, 1997.
Book; 2nd Craig, J. J. Introduction to Robotics: Mechanics and Controi, 2nd ed. Addison
edition, Wesley, San Francisco, 1995.
Research report; Kanade, T. An Optical Proximity Sensor for Measuring Surface Position and
notice Orientation for Robot Manipulation," Vision Laboratory, Carnegie Mellon
punctuation University, Report No. CMC-RI-TR-93-15, 1993.
Semicolon Zimbleman, D.; J. Burt. "Acquisition, Tracking, and Pointing X," The
between International Society for Optical Engineering, Vol. 2383, pp. 55-65, 1996.
& reversed
Vol. and pp.

1. Cite any information (electronic, audio, or print) that you did not know before you began writing.
2. When in doubt, cite it.
3. Even when paraphrasing or summarizing, if the idea(s) belong to another author, use a citation.
4. Unless you did the counting yourself, cite others' statistics and numbers.
5. In general, use quotation marks when three or more major words of another author are used
consecutively (do not count articles, prepositions, or conjunctions).
6. If you quote two or three sentences, use only one set of quotation marks (at the beginning of
the first sentence and at the end of the last).
7. Direct quotations must be exact.
. If you omit words in a direct quotation, use an ellipsis (three dots, separated by a space: . . .).
. If you add words to a direct quotation, use brackets for those words [ ].
8. If a direct quotation is more than 40 words (about three typed lines), separate that quotation
from the rest of the text:
. begin the quotation on a new line
. indent the direct quotation
. do not use quotation marks
. end the direct quotation with a period
. add the citation after the period, in parentheses
9. It is not necessary to use a citation if the information is a fact that is known by most of your readers.


In U.S. academic prose, instructors prefer that student writers investigate the ideas of several authoritative
sources rather than depend on just one or two sources. In other words, quantity is nearly as important as
quality. Therefore, try to use more than one authoritative source in each paragraph; do not simply quote or
cite the same author again and again.
In general, try not to use too many direct quotations; often, instructors prefer students' own words that
are supported with the ideas (but not necessarily the direct quotations) of authoritative sources. In
addition, instructors prefer that you summarize and synthesize your authoritative sources rather than list
quotation after quotation. The reasons:
. If you cite the ideas of several authors, you indicate to your audience that you have read
broadly as well as deeply about the topic.
. If you paraphrase, synthesize, and/ or summarize the evidence from several
authoritative sources, your ideas are substantially strengthened.

When you first use a direct quotation, and often when you use a source, introduce the author and/ or
the context of the quotation. Then follow the direct quotation by explaining exactly how the quotation fits
into your specific argument and appeals to your specific audience. That is, in the same way you (a)
introduce and (b) interpret non-text materials, you should introduce and. demonstrate the relevance of
your sources.
You may decide to use a direct quotation if the author's words are memorable or unique, or if the
direct quotation will emphasize a very important point. If you decide to use a direct quotation, try to use a
piece of the quotation in your own sentence. Use only the best pieces of the author's words; paraphrase
(and cite) the rest in your own words for clarity and continuity.
Finally, remember that you do not have to make every decision about citation alone. You may consult
a style manual, your instructor, the writing center on your campus, or a knowledgeable friend. With time
and practice in the citation format and style of your major field, you will become more comfortable with
the guidelines for citation.