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The Evolution Of Program Design

$3.00

COMPUTED
November 1986 ©
Issue 41, Vol. 4, No. 11

02220 $4.25 Canada

FOR COMMODORE PERSONAL COMPUTER USERS

Power BASIC: An Introduction


128 Instant To Compilers
Keywords Find out how these powerful
utilities can make your BASIC
Save time and typing effort
programs run at nearly the
with this Commodore 128 speed of machine language. A
program that lets you enter beginner's guide to available
up to 52 keywords—each compilers for the Commodore
with an easy-to-remember, 128 and 64.

two-key combination.
Turbo
Also In This Issue:
64 Multitasker
Format
Your 1541 disk drive will
1526 Underliner
welcome this powerful
Horizons: Elegant utility that formats a disk in
*^W jkiV Programming less than ten seconds—

j0^'
And More and eliminates head
knocking. For the 64.

Bump-N-Run
It's a head-to-head
confrontation in this fast,
two-player action game foe
the Commodore 64.

1 1

Fill-64
Create fast, animated sequences on your 64's
I486 2220
hi-res screen with this exciting package.
(No I.D. required for half-elves.)

When the Going Gets Tough,


the Bard Goes Drinking*

Hnd the going is tough are magic, the Bard is ready


. in Skara Brae town. to boogie. All he needs is
The evil wizard Mangar a hand of loyal followers:
has cast an eternal winter a light-fingered rogue to
spell. Monsters control find secret doors, a
the streets and dun couple of fighters
geons beneath. Good to bash heads, a con
citizens fear for their jurer to create weird
lives. What's worse, allies, a magician for
there's only one tavern magic armor.

left that serves wine Then it's off to com


But the Bard know bat, as soon as the Bard
no fear. With his trusty finishes one more verse.
harp and a few rowdy Now what's a word that
minstrel songa he claims ' rhymes with "dead ogre?'

aau . 1. ■ Bath's £

1 §}>.-<!« J
B • !«•!■ >t»
, I'^HlI 1 -' II' fk 1
1 r 1 i Iron i k»y tn ;

CMntTi* Vint It Hill f

1
:? 0 1
19 Ul J
128 color monsters, many Full-color scrolling dungeons.
4 classes of magic user, including
animated. All challenging. 16 levels, each better than the
wizard and sorceror. 85 new
one before. 3-D city, too.
magic spells in all.

The Bards Tale


from

ELECTRONIC ARTS'

Spvti: I0OX machine lunj 4MK w(lr,!, m I dWa, HK RAM mi.^m.m; cAbKbI fo. 12BK N™ ^Uabk fo. Apple II bt) f« S4495. CM & 12B fo. SW^i
-1112) fcr VISA or MMi«C»ni otdn.. To pordwM by mail, send check Dt money r-.rfer rt, blecomc
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• Upload your own programs free of connect the Electronic Gamer."
time charges.
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• Take advantage of CompuServe's inexpen All you need is your Commodore
thousands of Commodore users world
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your Commodore Computer.
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The Commodore Communications
with a local phone call. tail price is $39.95. To receive our free
Forum provides the latest news on com
• Receive a $25.00 Introductory Usage brochure, or to order direct, call 800-
munications software and advice on
Credit when you purchase your CompuServe 848-8199 (in Ohio, call 614-457-0802).
effective telecommunications.
Subscription Kit. If you're already a CompuServe sub
The Commodore Programming
Information you simply can't find scriber, type GO CBMNET (the Com
Forum supports programmers and
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developers of Commodore 8-bit
Use the Forum Message Board to to see what you've been missing.
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"In a wide variety of locations around


the world, the American soldier will
now have a powerful new ally whose
speed, maneuverability and firepower
will serve as an added deterrent to
opposing forces."
—commander-ln-Chief Ronald Reagan
speaking about the ah-64 apache
as quoted In the Journal
Of Defense & Diplomacy

The APACHE—as fierce and elusive as Its warrior namesake.

aircraft on the modern electronic battlefield. by early 1990,


The attack h'ellcopter—the gunship—came of age during the But youdpn't have to wait, As the latest additlonto the evergrow
Vietnam War. Starting as a primitive patchwork of machine guns ing hue of MicroProse Simulation Software, CUNSHIP now brings
and rocket pods straped to the side of a utility helicopter it all of trie danger and excitement of attack helimntw art™

hottest trouble spots... Central America, the Middle East, south


The ah-64 Apache is here to give America all the muscle it needs east Asia and Central Europe. You'll use an unbelievable array of
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All of the CUNSHIP action is presented in revolutionary S-D
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See your software dealer today and become a part of the CUN S'lMUl.Ar'l'ON • ' ,S' O F T w'Aft.E ■"
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New! Now with Near Letter Quality printing!


Commodore 64' and 128™ TheOKiDATA 120 is built for Hands" ribbon cartridge. Simply
owners, meet the personal printer long-term relationships. With a full plug it in and you're ready to go.
of your dreams. one-year warranty and a printhead Meet the printer of your dreams
It's the Commodore-compatible life of 200 million characters, at your OKIDATA retailer now. For
OKIDATA 120. And it's got everything You'll love the very affordable the name of the OKIDATA retailer
you've been looking for in a printer. price, too. nearest you. call 1-800-OKIDATA.
Like a Near Letter Quality TheOKiDATA 120comes complete The OKIDATA 120. To you, it's a
speed of 30 characters per second. with everything you need to start great printer. To your Commodore,
A Utility mode speed of 120 cps. priming. Including its own interface it's Mr. Write.
And high-resolution graphics. cable, paper and self-inking "Clean

an OKI AMERICA company

We put business on paper.

OKinATA n,i rendered rr.idem.iriiolCVtArniTic.1 Inc OKIDATA. M^rc|ucdppos« deCki Amend Inc Commodore ftj m a r trademark ot Commodore Llet Ironies Lid
Commodore I2fl i> .* ir-.ilr-m;irk uf Commodore Electronics Ltd
November 1986 Vol. 4, No. 11

features
The Evolution of Program Design Selby Bateman 22 *
An Introduction to Compilers Todd Heimarck 30 *

reviews
Vlzawrite Classic 12B Scott Thomas 58 128
Nine Princes In Amber Neil Randall 60 64
The Music System and The Advanced Music System Art Hunktns 62 64
Superbase 128 Ervin Bobo 64 128

games
Bump-N-Run Tim J. Mldklft ♦* 64
Obstacle 12B Stephen Cheng 46 12S
Match Blox Mark Tuttle 50 64/+4/16

programming
BASIC for Beginners: The PRINT Statement Larry Cotton 36 128/64/+4/16/V
Machine Language for Beginners: A Practical Program Richard Mansfield 72 128/64
Fill-64 Hubert Cross 76 64
Power BASIC: 128 Instant Keywords Shawn K. Smith 82 128
BASIC Examiner Rick Kephart 84 64
Mastering 128 Sound and Music, Part 2 D. C. Holmes 90 128
64. Multitasker Richard F. and Sally J. Daley 94 64
1526 Underliner Georg Zimmer : 96 64
Polar Art Jim and Deborah Chambers 90 128/64/+4/16
Draw 128 Mike Cortese " 128
Turbo Format floss Ouwinga 1°° 64

departments
The Editor's Notes Robert C. Lock 6 *
Gazette Feedback Editors and Readers 10 *
Simple Answers to Common Questions Tom R. Halfhill 102 *
Computing for Families: Something Fun for Teachers Fred D'lgnazio 103 *
Horizons: Elegant Programming Todd Heimarck 104 *
User Group Update 105 *
News & Products 106 *

program listings
How to Type In COMPUTEI's Gazette Programs 107 *
The Automatic Proofreader 108 128/64/+4/16/V
MLX 109 64
Advertiser's Index 144 *

• -General. V=VIC-20. 64=Commodore 64. +4=Pius/4, 1S=Commodore 16, 12a=Commodore 126


COM/W£'"* GAZETTE published momhiy by TOHPUTII Publications. Inc., A25 7th Avenue, New York, NY 10019 USA. Photic1 (212) 265-8360. lidilurial o/ficts art located at 324
We-t IVendovtr Avenue Crepmbuio, NC 27408. Domestic Subscriptions: 12 issues. S24 POSTMASTER. Send address changes to COMPUTED GAZETTE. P.O. Bn. 10957. Dei
Mo>n«. !A 50310. Sclond class application pendmiaiGrecniboro. NC 2740) ind additional mailing ollim Entire tiwipnt! copyri^il 'O19B6 bv COMPUTE! Publications. Ire All
rights reserved, tSSN 0737-3716.
COMPUTE Publ I cation >, Inc. Is pjrl of AI1C Connrmrr Magaiinps, Int.. One of Inp ABC 1'ubllshlnR Cornpjnlcs: AHC 1'ublijhinn, President, Itobrrl C. Butlon; 133U AvmUBdl Ihc
America*; New Vorlt. Nnv York 10019.
Just in case you're not a regular Looking Ahead nounced. Almost five years later,
reader of the financial news, we're We're looking forward to another thousands of Commodore 64 own
happy to relate that Commodore good year for the GAZETTE. As re ers are still finding new ways to use
International President Thomas flected in responses from you, our this versatile machine.
Rattigan announced a net profit for readers, we think we're providing What's more, software compa
Commodore in the fourth quarter the best coverage available for nies both big and small have made
ending in June 1986. Commodore Commodore computers in each is commitments to continue produc
net sales for the quarter were up 58 sue; 1987 will be no exception. ing Commodore 64 software for at
percent from the comparable quar We have already scheduled least the next couple of years. Not
ter a year ago. Concurrently, Com several outstanding programs— only are these companies finding
modore Chairman Irving Gould utilities, games, and educational that the installed base of 64 and 128
pointed out that this net gain fol programs. You'll also see some ex users is just too big and active to ig
lowed six consecutive quarters of cellent articles in our features sec nore, but their own programmers
losses. Rattigan also noted that the tion—-hands-on tutorials that meet and software designers are now
June quarter sales for the Amiga the needs of both beginning and coming out with some of the best
were the best since the computer's advanced users and programmers. 64 software ever produced. After
launch. In an upcoming issue, we'll also spending more than four years
This is one set of quarterly re have an exciting report on new learning the ins and outs of the
ports that many have been anxious technologies, showing the slow, Commodore 64 system, these pro
ly awaiting. Commodore has been but increasing merger of audio and grammers are working wonders
battered by the same weaknesses video technologies with personal that couldn't have.been imagined
that have plagued the rest of the in computers, much of this currently when the 64 was first introduced.
dustry, as well as by Amiga sales or soon available for eight-bit Com Couple that situation with the
that have been lower than antici modore machines. fact that the Commodore 128 has
pated. Conversely, Commodore 64 In addition, you'll find first turned out to be even more success-
sales, and now 64C sales, have hand reports on the winter and ful than Commodore officials
been consistently strong. Amiga summer Consumer Electronics thought it would be, and you've got
sales, especially with the advent of Shows (CES), which promise to a terrific environment in which the
international marketing, are show bring forth a host of new software GAZETTE and its readers can operate.
ing continued improvement. Com and hardware products for the One of the pleasures of pub
modore has traditionally been quite Commodore machines. There will lishing the GAZETTE each month is
strong in European markets, and also be articles on the latest com that we're constantly hearing from
has, in the past, been criticized for puter printers and how to use them, both experienced 64 and 128 own
pushing products in Europe vigor updates on new developments in ers—some who've read the GA
ously while soft selling their intro telecommunications, more infor ZETTE from its first issue—as well
duction in the U.S. With Amiga, mation on the graphics and sound as brand-new 64, 64C, and 128
Commodore apparently reversed capabilities of the 64 and 128, and owners. As always, the GAZETTE
the emphasis, and therefore only much, much more. and its variety of readers create a
now is able to begin to draw on its With computers as versatile synergistic effect that helps to keep
reputation and sales in Europe after and popular as the 64 and the 128, the Commodore enthusiasm alive
a slower than desired U.S. launch. there's certainly no shortage of and well.
We continue to hope that first-rate information and programs Stay with us—1987 should be
Commodore will retarget the to be shared with our readers. an exciting year.
Amiga, or perhaps an Amiga-
equivalent machine, at price points A Remarkable Success Story
more system-competitive with the The continuing popularity of the
ST. Perhaps the newly introduced Commodore 64—as shown most
Apple IlGS will assist the Amiga, al recently in healthy sales of the 64C
beit in a convoluted way, by in computer—is a remarkable success
Robert C. Lock
creasing interest in the market story that's now approaching its
Editor in Chief
while helping highlight the signifi fifth anniversary. Introduced in
cance of many of the Amiga features. January 1982, the Commodore 64 with Lance Elko
We digress. For now, a profit offered a combination of graphics, and Selby Bateman
able quarter is significant. Let's go sound, and computing power that
for back-to-back. was remarkable when first an
6 COMPUTERS Gazette November 1986
GUDERIAN-Sirmilation ot the
German campaign in Russia,
re-crealing the 1941 attack on
Smolensk. For Apple II series,
064(128 and Atari 8-bit. $30
SUPER SUNDAY—PLAY THE
GREATEST SUPER BOWL
TEAMS OF ALL TIME. Expansion
season disks available
separately—Apple' II series,
IBM1"PC £ compatibles (color
|BW ;.\-
graphics board required) and
Commodore-64/128- $35 J. 1£

SPITFIRE MO—WWII (light game


and simulator. Available for
Commodore 64/128. $35
GULF STRIKE-
winning wargame of modern
warfare in the Middle East.
Available for Atan1 8-bil, Apple II
series, C64/128, IBM PC &
compatibles (color graphics
board required). $30

MACBETH—Text and graphics


adventures, covering four

Straighten Up
different parts ot Shakespeare's
play. For Commodore 64/128. $25

and
Fly Right!

MISSION ON THUNDERHEAD—
An intergalactic scavenger
hunt—an arcade adventure.
Available (or Apple II series,
Atari 8-bit and C64/128. $25

Whether you're in the cockpit of our super realistic SPITFIRE '40,


matching wits with three witches in MACBETH or
going for the long bomb in SUPER SUNDAY,
The Avalon Hill Game Company has the games to take you
and your p.c. to new heights. Available at leading
game and computer stores everywhere ... or call for ordering information:
TOLL FREE 1-800-638-9292. Ask for Operator CG.

microcomputer games division


\m
The Avalon Hill Game Company
A MONARCH AVALON, INC. COMPANY
4517 Harford Road, Baltimore, MD 21214
COMPUTE! PublicationsJncg
O-« t* meSSC ftOWwig Coinoonei
Sales Offices, Jules E. Thompson, Inc.
1290 Howard Avenue
Suite 303
Burlingame, CA 94010
Publisher James A. Casella
Midwest 312-726-6047
Founder/Editor in Chief Robert C. Lock ill il
Texas 713-731-2605
Senior Editor Richard Mansfield
Pacific Northwest 415-348-8222
Managing Editor Kathleen Martinek Northern CA
Kratd
415-348-8222
Executive Editor Selby Bateman Southern CA 213-378-8361
Editor Lance Elko Arizona 213-378-8361
Assistant Editor Rhett Anderson New Mexico 213-378-8361 •\.:.: 13 "u
Production Director Tony Roberts Colorado 303-595-9299 of ClrcnLitton*

Editors
COMPUTE! Publications, Inc., publishes
Tom R. Halfhill, Editor, COMPUTED Atari ST Disk &
COMPUTEI COMPUTEI Books COMPUTEI's GAZETTE
Magazine; Stephen Levy, Editor, COMPUTE! Books Division;
Ottis R. Cowper, Technical Editor COMPUTEI't GAZETTE Disk Apple Applications
Assistant Editors COMPUTEI'i Atari ST Disk & Magazine
Gregg Keizer, Ann Da vies (Books); George Miller, Dale Editorial Office:
McBane, (Technical); Philip Nelson (COMPUTE! Magazine); 324 West Wendover Ave., Suite 200, Greensboro, NC 27408
Todd Heimarck, (COMPUTED Atari ST Disk & Magazine); Corporate Offices:
Kathy Yakal, Assistant Features Editor; Tammie Taylor, Karen 825 7th Avenue, New York, NY 10019
Uhlendorf, Copy Editors; Mark Tuttle, Submissions Reviewer
Customer Service:
Editorial Programmers
P.O. Box 5038, F.D.R. Station, New York, NY 10150
Palrick Parrish (Supervisor), Tim Victor, Tim Midkiff
Telephone: (In NY) 212-887-8525;
Programming Assistants
(In U.S.) Toll free 1-800-346-6767
David Florance, David Hensley, Troy Tucker
Office Hours: 8;30 AM to 4:30 PM Monday-Friday
Administrative Staff
Executive Assistant, Debi Nash; Julia Fleming, Iris Brooks, Subscription Orders
, Mary Hum, Sybil Agee
COMPUTE!':; GAZETTE
Production P.O. Box 10957, Des Moines, IA 50340
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Director; Lee Noel, Assistant Editor, Art & Design; De Potter, TOLL FREE
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Typesetting 1-800-247-5470
Artists In IA 1-800-532-1272
Dabney Ketrow (Publications); Harry Blair, Illustrator
COMPUTEI's GAZETTE
Associate Editors Subscription Rates
)im Butterfield (Toronto), Fred D'Ignazio (Alabama)
(12 Issue Year): US (one year) $24. Canada, Mexico and Foreign
Customer Service Surface Mail $30. Foreign A'ir Mail $65.
Diane Longo, Customer Service Manager; Orchid Tamayo,
The COMPUTED gazette subscriber list is made available to carefully
Dealer Sales Supervisor; Cassandra Greene, Customer Service screened organizations with a product or service which may be of
Supervisor interest to our readers. If you prefer not to receive such mailings,
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Receptionist, Anita Armfield gazette, P.O. Box 10958, Des Moines, IA 50950. Include a note in
Warehouse Manager, John Williams dicating your preference to receive only your subscription.

Authors of manuscripts warrant that all materials submitted to


President James A. Casella
compute! * gazette are original materials with full ownership rights
Vice President, Advertising Richard J. Marino resident in said authors. By submitting articles to COMFUTEri
Director, Finance & Planning Christopher M. Savine gazette, authors acknowledge that such materials, upon accep
tance for publication, become the exclusive property of COMPUTEI
Promotion Publications, Inc. No portion of this magazine may be reproduced
Caroline Dark, Promotion Assistant in any form without written permission from the publisher. Entire
contents copyright © 1986 COMPUTEI Publications, Inc. Rights to
Advertising Sales programs developed and submitted by authors are explained in our
Richard J. Marino, Vice President, Advertising Sales; Peter author contract. Unsolicited materials not accepted for publication
Johnsmeyer, Director of Advertising Sales; Bernard J. Theobald, will be returned if author provides a self-addressed, stamped en
Jr., Associate Advertising Director; Kathleen Hanlon, velope. Where programs are included in an article submission, a
Production Coordinator tape or disk must accompany the submission. Printed listings are
optional, but helpful. Articles should be furnished as typed copy
Sales Representatives
(upper and lowercase, please) with double spacing. Each article
Jerry Thompson 415-348-8222 page should bear the title of the article, date, and name of the
Lucille Dennis 415-348-8222 author. COMPUTEI Publications, Inc., assumes no liability for errors
Andrew Eisenberg 212-887-8474 in articles or advertisements. Opinions expressed by authors are
Harry Blair 919-275-9809 not necessarily those of COMPUTEI Publications, Inc. COMPUTE!
Publications assumes no responsibility for damages, delays, or fail
Address all advertising materials to; ure of shipment in connection with authors' offer to make tape or
Kathleen Hanlon, COMPUTED GAZETTE disk copies of programs published herein.
324 West Wendover Ave., Suite 200, Greensboro, NC 27408 PET, CBM, V1C-20, Commodore 64, Plus/4, 16, and 128 are trade
Sales Offices marks of Commodore Business Machines, Inc., and/or Com
modore Electronics Limited. Other than as an independent supplier
Northeast 212-315-1665 of quality information and services to owners and users of Com
Mid-Atlantic 212-315-1665 modore products, COMPUTEI Publications, Inc., is in no way asso
Southeast 212-275-9809 ciated with Commodore Business Machines, Inc., or any of its
subsidiaries.
F-16 Dogfight with Enemy MiG-23 F-18 on the Deck ol a Nimltz-Class F-1S HFgh-G Pullout over Detailed
Fighters Aircraft Carrier (Control Tower View) Wargame Scenery (Rear View)

■1

■MB
UBSE
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From the author of Flight Simulator With Jet you can fly ihrough either See Your Dealer...
II comes a new dimension in structured or non-structured or write or call for more informa
realism. Jet simulates two fast and environments. Engage in a deadly tion. For direct orders please
maneuverable supersonic jet variety of combat missions. Explore enclose $39.95 plus $2.00 for
fighters, a land-based F-16 or a the wargame territory, or relax by shipping and specify UPS or first
carrier-based F-18. The simulator practicing precision aerobatic
class mail delivery. Visa,
includes modern electronic flight in maneuvers. Load in scenery from
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strumentation and the most optional United States Scenery
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simulation sophisiicaiion, combined off the Flight Simulator II disk. SCENERY DISKS FOR JET
with excellent visual attitude New high-performance graphic AND FLIGHT SIMULATOR II
references, makes it truly enjoyable drivers provide beautifully detailed ARE NOW AVAILABLE.
to fly. scenery in either day or night-flight
Easy aircraft control coupled with modes. You can look forward, left,
Commodore 64 ,in<J Commmlori-i 1?fl a"i trarifrrcwks
ballistic thrust gives you the kind of right, rearward, or straight up out of
aerobaiic maneuverability only a the cockpit with a single keypress.
modern jet fighter can provide. Jet's The Jet simulator even includes a
attitude indicator is easy to read no special view-magnification feature
matter what your orientation. A full lhat lets you zoom-in to identify
screen out-the-window view helps objects or details at a distance.
you get the most out of Jet's ex Jet will run on any Commodore 64 or
cellent flight controls. And that's a Commodore 128 computer with one
major consideration when flying at disk drive and either color or
speeds in excess of 1300 MPH. 713 EdgebrooK Drive
monochrome monitor.
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Editors and Readers

Do you have a question or a problem? before you press RETURN): QR 30 PRINT#4,AS; iIFS=.0THEN20
Have you discovered something that RR 3S PRINT#4:CL0SE4
OPEN 3,4: CMD 3: LIST
could help other Commodore users? We EK 40 CLOSE1

want to hear from you. Write to 7Viis opens a channel to the printer J/ would be possible to have most
Gazette Feedback, COMPUTED GA (the file number is 3; the printer's device programs return to the menu after they're
ZETTE, P.O. Box 5406, Greensboro, NC number is 4). 1}: you'd prefer to see upper-/ done, but there are several problems with
27403. We regret that due to the vol lowercase characters, use a secondary ad this suggestion. First, the original idea for
ume of mail received, we cannot dress of 7 (OPEN 3,4,7). CMD transfers the Disk was to provide exact copies of
respond individually to programming output to the previously opened channel, programs as they're listed in the maga
questions. so the listing is sent to the printer instead zine. The magazine listings don't return to
of to the screen. a menu, so we'd have to make changes to
When the program is finished listing, the programs on the Disk. In some cases
A Good Idea For A Program type this line: this would be simple enough, but other
After many years of programming PRINT#3: CLOSE 3 programs (especially ML games and utili
games on my Commodore 64, I've fi ties) rely on special programming tech
nally come up with a truly original idea
The PRINTS flushes out any charac
niques that add wedges, introduce
ters that might remain in the printer and
for a game. My problem is I don't have interrupts, or move memory around.
the knowledge to write it. What I want CLOSE shuts down the channel to the
Before returning to the menu, the program
printer.
to do is patent the idea, and then try would have to undo the various changes
and sell it to a software company. Have that had been made to the computer.
people done this before? Is there any Another factor is that many subscrib
Returning To The Menu
thing wrong with trying to do this? If ers to the Disk make backup copies—
not, how do I go about getting a patent Can you use the printer to print out the
games on one disk, utilities on another,
for my idea? menu from the GAZETTE Disk? I'd like
and so on. A return-to-menu command
to place a copy of the menu on the front
Paul Rapnikas would generate error messages if the pro
of each month's disk envelope.
gram was run from a disk that didn't con
Many software companies buy programs Also, can you return to the disk
tain the menu program. In the case of ML
from outside programmers or develop menu program from a program without
programs, it would be difficult for some of
ment teams, but most wouldn't be very re reloading?
our readers to remove or rewrite the por
ceptive to buying an idea for a program. It LN Lambprice
tion of the program that reloaded the
would be like sending an inquiry to a book
A disk directory can be loaded and listed menu.
publishing company asking if they'd like Adding the option of returning to the
as if it were a program file. Type the fol
an idea for a story which one of their au disk menu would please some subscribers,
lowing lines to list the disk directory of
thors could write. You could ivrite to indi but it would displease many others.
any disk to the printer (the diskname after
vidual companies and ask them if they are
CMD4 is optional):
interested, but most—if not all—only buy
the rights to completed programs. LOAD "S0",8
OPEN4,4: CMD4,"diskname": LIST The SpeedScript Buffer
You could copyright the game, but PRINT#4: CLOSE4 I have a question about SpeedScript.
only after writing the program. Only a
If you load and list the directory from Two of the commands deal with a buff
creative original work (a story, a song, a
the GAZETTE Disk, you'll see the various er. The buffer isn't mentioned in the ar
computer program) can be copyrighted.
programs for the 64 and 128, along with ticle, but the keyboard map shows the
An idea cannot.
support programs and files such as the commands CTRL-R (retrieve buffer)
One thing you might consider is
menu loader. If you'd prefer to see just the and CTRL-K (kill buffer). Please explain
teaming up with a friend who could make
programs for the 64, type in the following how to insert text into the buffer and
your idea a reality. Or you could continue
short program, which reads the contents how to use these commands.
to program and hope that eventually
file on the disk and prints it to the screen. Chip Mattson
you'll have the skills to write the game
This is a generic file-reading program that
yourself. SpeedScript's erase command automati
will work on any files that contain ASCII
cally activates the buffer. After you press
characters:
CTRL-E, a prompt appears on the top line
Listing A Program To The Printer FS 13 OPEN1,8,2("64 CONTENTS" to ask whether you want to erase a sen
I wrote a short program and would like AE 20 GETil,A$:S=ST tence, word, or paragraph (press S, W, or
MX 30 PRINTASi!IFS=0THEN20
to print it out after I run it, but I don't P). Whatever you erase is temporarily
EK 40 CLOSE1
know how. Could you tell me how to saved in the buffer. To retrieve the text,
print my program? To read the file and send the results press CTRL-R.
to the printer, use this program: The buffer can be used in two ways. If
Martha L. Cox
FS 10 OPECJ1,6,2, "64 CONTENTS"
you accidentally erase more than you
While the program is in memory, type this SM IS 0PEN4.4 wanted to, you can immediately retrieve
line (make sure the printer is turned on AE 20 GET#l,A$iS=ST it. Also, if you wish to move a section of a
to COMPUTE! s Gazette November 1986
IF YOU CAN FIND A BETTER C64
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"' COMMODORE 64 is a registered trademark of Commodore Eloctronics, Ltd.
IGEO5 ib a ir.-,;:. -i ■ :-- oT Borfcesey Software, Inc

© 1983 Tlmiwo'ki, Inc. All Righto Reserved.


document, you can erase it, move the cur called TEMP. At this point, the same pro way to set up the array is to use a FOR-
sor to the itew location, and press CTRL-R gram is on the disk in two places, once as NEXT loop:
to insert it there. You can retrieve the con ZEBRA and once as TEMP. Next, scratch
10 DIM BSIS)
tents of the buffer any number of times, (SO:) ZEBRA, which frees up the first spot 12 FOR X ■= 1 TO 8: READ BS(X): NEXT
which is handy for making repetitive in the directory. Finally, rename (RO:) the 14 DATA DOROTHY, NE£SY, WALLY
forms (Name/Address/Phone, for ex file TEMP to its original name of ZEBRA.
ample). Also, some (but not all) versions of The DATA statement on line 14 must
Now you have to copy AMBER to the
SpeedScript allow you to erase part of a contain eight names for this to work prop
newly opened first position in the
document, load a new file, and copy the erly. Note that line 12 uses a variable in
directory:
buffered text from the first file into the stead of a number in parentheses. You can
PRINT#15, "C0:TEMP = 0: AMBER" put either a number or a numeric variable
second. PRINT#15, "SffcAMBER"
'in parentheses. This means you could re
The text in the buffer will remain PRINT#15, "R0:AMBER = 0:TEMP"
place the INPUT and eight IF-THENs
there until you use CTRL-E again, at CLOSE15
which point the buffer is zeroed and the starting at line 310 with the following two
This copies the file AMBER to the lines:
newly erased text begins to fill it. If you
next available space in the directory
want to add to what's in the buffer, use 310 INPUT NM
(which happens to be the first filename,
SHIFT-CTRL-E instead, 320 NMS = BS(NM)
because ZEBRA was just moved). Then the
When you 're erasing large portions of A two-dimensional array needs two
original AMBER is scratched, and TEMP
a document, you may reach a point where numbers (or variables) in parentheses,
is renamed to be AMBER. Finally, channel
there's no more room in the buffer. To let's say you want to keep weekly scores
15 is closed. Now, when you enter
clear out the buffer, press CTRL-K. You for each of the bowlers on the team. On
LOAD"0:'",li you'll get the AMBER pro
can then resume erasing. paper, the grid would look like this:
gram because it's the first one in the
directory.
NB NW |

The Meaning Behind CMD


WEEK1 WEEK 2 WEEK 3
In the September issue of the GAZETTE, Arrays Are Lists
we said that the CMD statement doesn't Could you write an article about the use BOWLER 1 660 639 591
seem to be an abbreviation and suggested of the DIM statement? The reference BOWLER 2 501 505 542
that it doesn't have a long form. Readers books 1 own have very sketchy infor BOWLER 3 482 595 403
R.S. Heyer and Jim Yost both sent letters mation. I've enclosed a partial listing of BOWLER J
with the same answer: CMD means a program I'm trying to write for our
Change Main (output) Device, which bowling team. I keep getting an error
makes sense to us. Thanks for your letters. message in the line that contains DIM. The number of bowlers (NB) runs
Any help would be appreciated. down the left side, and the number of
A.G. Trobaugh weeks (NW) runs across the top. To imple
Moving Files Around ment this in BASIC, you need a line like
The DIM statement sets up the size (Dl-
How can I reposition files on a disk di this:
Mcnsion) of an array of variables. An ar
rectory so that an often-used program is ray is basically a numbered list of 10 NB = 8; NW = 33: DIM SC(NB,NW)
the first on the disk? This would be use variables. The array has a single name, You also need a way to fill up the ar
ful in loading programs with just an as like a variable, but it is followed by an in ray with the appropriate numbers, wheth
terisk (").
dex number in parentheses. Arrays are er you INPUT from the keyboard, READ
David Marz
useful in a wide variety of applications. from DATA statements, or OPEN and
First, the asterisk doesn't always load the You can crea'.e arrays to contain strings or READ a disk file.
first program on a disk. If you have just numbers, and they may have one or more There are two problems in the line
loaded or saved a program and then type dimensions. that's giving you the error message. The
LOAD"*",8 you'll load the most recently From the program listing you sent, it first is that DIM should be followed by the
accessed file—not the first on the disk. looks like you understand how to use ordi array name and parentheses containing
This is handy if you accidentally scratch a nary variables. And there are sections of the size of the array (see the examples
program. A scratched file is the most re the program that would benefit from the above). Another, more serious, mistake is
cently accessed, so you can LOAD"*",8 use of arrays. For instance, there's one that there are several DIM statements
to retrieve it and then save it back to disk. part of the program that looks like this: sprinkled throughout the program. An ar
To load the first file on a disk, enter ray can be dimensioned only once. If you
310 INPUT NM use DIM more than once on the same ar
LOAD"0:*",8. Usually the shorter
320 IF NM - 1 THEN NMS -
LOAD";*",8 will also work. ray, you'll get a REDIM'D ARRAY error.
"DOROTHY"
You can replace the first disk file A common practice is to put all DIM
330 IF NM - 2 THEN NMS - "NESSY"
with another file by using the DOS copy 340 IF NM - 3 THEN NMS - "WALLY" statements at the beginning of a program
command in conjunction with the rename or in a subroutine that's called only once.
and scratch commands. Let's say you have and so on, with a total of eight IF-THEN
a disk that contains ZEBRA as the first file statements. This is a situation that could
and you'd prefer to have another program be handled very nicely with an array. Exception To The Rule?
called AMBER at the beginning. First, you There are eight names, so you need to In one of your programs, you used neg
have to move ZEBRA out of the first DIM the array to a size of 8, and then as ative numbers in DATA statements. I
position: sign the names to each position in the don't understand that. 1 thought all
array: DATA statements were between 0-255.
OPEN 15,8,15
PRINT#15, "CO:TEMP = O:ZEBRA" 10 DIM B$(!t) How does this work?
PR1NT#15, "S0:ZEBRA" 12 BS(1) - "DOROTHY": BS(2) = Glenn Peterson
PRINT#1S, "R0;ZEBRA = 0:TEMP" "NESSY": B$<3) = "WALLY"
Three of the most common uses for DATA
First, copy (CO:) the file named ZE The rest of the array is then filled statements are machine language pro
BRA to a temporary file on the same disk with the appropriate names. A shorter grams, custom characters, and sprite
12 COMPUTE!'s Gazolta November 1986
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Ofder. Snipping(BeU*S200MlJ5t'otfSut>-
total (o™ S200 Ma! 5% oi Stioioioi] Expires.
mESSE« OH «PO ADO 5% EXTRA
til pr.ces ana spoeiVcoi ons om suOisci w cd^nge wiinoul
lOW AHIIIinnillf relics Not resconsiDiofor (yoegraoinc srrors CC3 1-86
shapes. All three of these require numbers When a sprite-to-character collision oc reduces by a factor of four the number of
to be POKEd into memory. An individual curs, you can PEEK location 53279 available characters (64 instead of 256),
byte of memory can hold a number in the ($D01F) to determine which sprite was in but multiplies by four the number of back
range 0-255. so in a sense you're right. volved in the collision, but there's no easy ground colors. You can then choose one of
When DATA statements hold numbers way to figure out which character it hit. the 16 available colors for the character in
that are going to be POKEd into memory, All you really know is that a certain sprite the foreground and one offour background
the DATA statements must be limited to happened to hit a character. You can't de colors for the rest of the 8 X 8 character
the range 0-255. termine which character was hit unless grid.
But DATA statements can hold other you PEEK the horizontal and vertical lo
sorts of information, too. If the data is cations (x and y coordinates) of the sprite,
names of people or bowling scores, the translate them into the equivalent row Pictures On Disk
0-255 rule doesn't apply. Negative num and column on the screen, and then PEEK I recently purchased a Commodore
bers are acceptable in DATA, as long as screen memory in that vicinity. 128. One of the main reasons I chose
the numbers aren't being POKEd to To answer your second question, the 128 is because 1 heard of its easy-to-
memory. there are several ways to set up a hi-res use graphics capabilities that are acces
screen. The first is true hi-res, where you sible from BASIC. I have written many
can turn on or off 64,000 picture elements hi-res programs and wish to save just
How Much Room Remains On (pixels) arranged in a pattern of 320 pixels the pictures to disk, preferably with the
The Disk? across X 200 pixels down. Since a byte of BSAVE command. Is this possible?
I have a program to control a loan busi memory contains eight bits, it can hold How could I do it?
Brian Aljian
ness. Each account is kept as a sequen enough information to control eight pixels
tial file. The individual file lengths vary on the hi-res screen. Thus, 8000 bytes are After you've designed the hi-res picture
from account to account, and it's some required to bitmap a standard hi-res and displayed it on the screen, type the
times necessary to ascertain how much screen. following line in immediate mode—or in
space is available on the disk. It would Color memory is also important. clude it in your program:
not do to suddenly run out of space. When you set up a hi-res screen, 1000
BSAVE "picturename", B0, P7168 TO
Could you provide a BASIC sub bytes are set aside for color memory. Each PI6383
routine that would allow me to read at memory location in hi-res color memory
any time the number of blocks free on a controls the foreground and background To load it back into memory,
disk? colors for an 8-pixel X 8-pixel section of BLOAD"picturename",B0. For multi
Ralph Greenhalgh color hi-res pictures, you'll have to set
the screen. Within each 8X8 section,
you're allowed only two colors (not count colors 2 and 3 before BLOAD ing the
The following program does what you're
looking for: ing sprites that might be moving around). picture.
But each section is independent of the oth BLOAD and BSAVE were intended
EE 10 ZSaCHRS(0)
er sections. So, for example, you could primarily for machine language programs,
KC 20 DEFFNA(X)=ASC(AS+ZS)+256
*(ASC(BS+ZS)) have an 8 X 8 chunk of the screen with a but they can also be used to load and save
KC 25 PRINT"CHECKING DISK, PLE blue background and white pixels next to hi-res pictures, sprite shapes, character
ASE WAIT" sets, function key definitions, and so on. If
a section that has a red background with
RC 30 OPEN1,8,0,"S0"
gray pixels. Each 8X8 area can contain you have a portion of memory you want to
BE 40 GET#1,AS,B5
only two colors, but the colors are inde send to disk, BSAVE is a handy command.
HQ 50 GET#1,AS,BS:IF FNA(X)=0
{SPACEJTHEN 90 pendent of colors that might appear in
BJ 60 GET#1,CS,DS other 8X8 areas.
BE 70 GET#1,ES:IF ASC(ES+ZS) T The Other Side Of The CP/M Disk
Another method to set up a bit
HEN 70 I'm a Commodore 128 owner, and I
DG 80 GOTO50
mapped screen is to use multicolor hi-res.
was unaware that the CP/M disk was
SJ 90 AS=CS:BS-DS:F = FNA(X):C If you choose to use multicolor mode
two-sided until I read about it in your
LOS El (which could be called medium-res), you
magazine.
XS 100 PRINT F, "BLOCKS FREE 0 trade half the horizontal resolution in re
N THE DISK" After 1 booted it for the first time
turn for two additional colors. Instead of
and before 1 copied it, I managed to
After the routine is finished, the 320 X 200, the screen has 160 double-
"nuke" the disk. Now, the first side still
number of blocks free will be in the vari width pixels X 200 lines. Each pixel re
boots up, but the second side gives me a
able F (see line 90). quires two bits (binary 00, 01,10, or 11) to
disk error and prints a whole bunch of
define the color. Color memory still con
trols an 8 X 8 section of the screen, but question marks.
Sprite Collisions And Hi-Res What happened to my disk and
the pixels are twice as wide, so you really
Graphics have only a4X 8 area to work in. The 32 how can I get it replaced?
pixels can contain one of four different Jim Traverse
I have two computers, a VIC and a 64.
I've been writing machine language colors. Again, the separate sections of the The first side of the CP/M disk contains
programs for both of them for about a screen are independent of each other, al the boot sector for starting up CP/M and
month now. How can I write a program though one of the colors is universal. the second side does not. You must turn on
that detects collision between a certain Some screens that seem to be hi-res the computer (or type BOOT) white side
sprite and a certain background charac actually use custom characters. Each one is in the disk drive. After CP/M has
ter in machine language? Say a pro character can have an individual fore booted, remove the disk and pip it over.
gram that checks for collision between ground color (based on the number in When the second side is in the drive,
sprite one and the letter R and a colli color memory) in addition to a background type D1R to see if you can get a directory.
sion between sprite two and the letter color shared among all characters. Multi If you still get question marks, try press
A. color characters can have an individual ing CTRL-C (hold down the CONTROL
Another question. I have a game foreground color plus two other common key and press C). This tells CP/M to log
that displays 16 colors in bitmap (hi colors in addition to the background. out the previous disk and prepare for a
res) mode. How is this done? Characters can also be displayed in new one. Then type DIR again. Pressing
Sayam Tantasook extended background color mode, which CTRL-C may solve your problem.
16 COMPUTE'S Gazeno November 1986
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COMPUTED
If the disk is defective, it should be the program I have figured out how which is arranged as if you were inside the
covered by the warranty. See the DRI li to do both a warm start and a cold computer looking out. Connect pin 1 to
censing agreement that came with the start. the outside portion of the coaxial cable
disk. It says that defects in the media The warm start is easy; all it and pin 7 to the inner wire.
(meaning a disk that doesn't work) are does is re-enable the Fastload com The Radio Shack parts cost about $5,
covered and you can return the disk for a mands without clearing the screen and the cable is easy to make if you're
replacement. or erasing any program in memory, good with a soldering iron. If you're not,
just SYS 57134. The cold start is you can buy one for S8-S15. Batteries In
similar to SYS 64738 but also en cluded, Microvations, and Cardco have
Addressing Envelopes ables Fastload. Below is a program such cables for sale (ask your local Com
] have a Commodore 64 with a 1526 that does it. The variable S can be modore dealer for details). Some Commo
printer. I routinely use SpeedScript for set to any value where there are 6 dore dealers also make their own cables.
letters with tractor-feed paper. 1 have free bytes of memory.
trouble with regular single sheet paper IDS=820
and 1 have been unable to type enve 20 FOR 1 = S TO S + 5: READ A:
XMODEM: A Standard Protocol
lopes. How do 1 do this? POKE I,A: NEXT: SYS S Where can I obtain the XMODEM pro
George A. Clark 30 DATA 32,6,223,76,48,128 tocol? I am interested in designing my
own terminal programs and need infor
When you're using SpeedScript with sin David MacKenzie
mation on this.
gle sheets of paper, you should put Ihe Tim Kollas
I'm sure Fastload users have
page-wait command at the top of the doc found that SYS 64738 doesn't reset
ument. Hold down CTRL and press the XMODEM (also known as Modem?) is an
Fastload. This short routine can re
English pound key. You'll be prompted for error-checking scheme used to transmit
place SYS 64738:
a format key; type the letter w (for "wait files from one computer to another,
10 FOR I - 288 TO 293: READ A: usually over the telephone lines. It is
between pages"). You may have to set the
POKE LA: NEXT without a doubt the most popular micro
bottom margin a little higher as well.
20 DATA 32,21,223,76,61,128
When a page has printed, SpeedScript computer protocol for uploading and
will print a line that reminds you to insert After you run the program, you can downloading.
the next sheet. reset the computer and re-enable The original XMODEM protocol was
The Commodore 1526 printer has a Fastload with SYS 288. devised by Ward Christensen, who also set
paper sensor that causes the printer to Albert H. Cooper, III up the first computer bulletin board. Data
stop when it thinks it has run out of paper. is sent in blocks of 128 bytes, with a check
Thanks to both of you for the answer to sum and other extra information which
By using the page-wait command, you can
this question. insures that each block is received
avoid most problems caused by the sensor.
The printer won't print envelopes be correctly.
cause of the paper sensor. When you've XMODEM transfers always involve
80-Column Cables For The 128 eight-bit bytes; if you are using a telecom
lined up the envelope, the printer thinks
it's out of paper and refuses to continue. I would like to know where 1 may pur munications program, make sure that you
Here's a way to use your printer to chase the monochrome 80-co!umn ca are communicating with a word length of
address envelopes; Place a piece of paper ble that you mentioned recently, and eight bits and no parity. Four ASCII char
between the flap and the main envelope. how much it is. acters have a special meaning in this
Ricky Seidenstein protocol:
Carefully pick up the paper and envelope
together and insert them top first into the The 128 has both monochrome and color 1 SOH start of header
printer. Advance the paper until the top of 80-column outputs. These two signals are 4 EOT end of text
the envelope shows. The piece of paper available on the port labeled RGBI. To see 6 ACK acknmvledge
you've inserted fools the paper sensor into 80 columns in color, you need an RGB 21 NAK negative acknoivledge
thinking there's more paper. monitor and an IBM-compatible color ca The computers at both ends of the
ble (almost any merchant that sells RGB link use these characters as signals during
monitors will also stock cables for the the transfer. Respectively, they are used to
A Fastload Warm Start IBM, so they're not difficult to find). mark the start of a data block ISOH), and
I am a happy owner of the Epyx Fast- You can use either a monochrome to indicate when the transmission is com
load cartridge, but when 1 use the 64's monitor, also called a green-screen or an plete (EOT), when a block has been re
system reset command (SYS 64738), amber-screen, or a composite color moni ceived successfully (ACK), and when an
Fastload is disabled. Is there a reset tor such as the 1701 or 1701 to obtain 80 error has occurred in receiving a block
command that will leave Fastload in columns in monochrome. For the 1701 or (NAK).
place? 1702, connect the monochrome input to A complete XMODEM block always
Brian Johnson the jack on the rear of the monitor labeled consists of 132 bytes of information. The
LUhlA. Monochrome means one color, first 3 bytes of the block are called the
We don't usually respond to programming
but you really have three colors: dark, header. The next 128 bytes contain the ac
questions about specific commercial prod
light, and a gray shade that's between the tual data being transferred, and the last
ucts (it's best to address inquiries to the
two extremes. byte contains a checksum. The first byte is
software company that produces the pro
To build your own cable, buy a length the starl-of-header character(SOH, ASCII
gram), but within a week after we received
of coaxial cable, an RCA male plug, and a 1) which says to the receiving computer,
your letter, two answers appeared in the
standard male nine-pin D connector (Ra "Here comes a block." The second byte is
"Feedback" mailbox, so this must be a
dio Shack part #276-1537). The nine-pin the block number, which begins at one and
common problem. Here they are:
connector is the. complement of a joystick increases by one every time a block is suc
The Fastload manual states connector, which is to say that a joystick cessfully transmitted. When the block
that the only way to use the car plug will fit into this connector. Pin 1 of number exceeds 255, it flips over to zero
tridge after it has been deactivated the RGBI connector is ground and pin 7 is (not one). The third byte is the block com
is to turn the 64 off and on again. the monochrome output. See page 352 of plement, a value equal to the ones com
However, through disassembling the 128 System Guide for a diagram, plement of the block number (256 - the
18 COMPUTEl's Gazano November 1986
The Flyin
Chosen by Real Pilots

We regularly hear from military and commercial Air


Iraffic Controllers who rave about bur KfnnidyAppboach'
simulation, qnd though we can'l mention nairios (.-.
(Ih'ey'ro Federal emplqyoes), wo cart say thaVft^dny of
those professionals tell us KrtiNf ov Ai-pRoicn Is tho mast

IhoMcroPtoie Civilian AviatiorvS or I Qs includai^'

cialed with dySingle-engine proposer aircralf. AcsoJn '


fecreales the sensitive contrdrchaiaclOfjslics ol the
The loughesl evaluators of (lying bytha*javtaliongame»:
, 'fit. Marttn Isn't Iho only pi'61 who's awlderangeolmulllpfayorcompetitionevbnts KiNNtnv
simulations aren'l compulet bufls.
Ai'pKoach allows you to guldo dozens of commercial
Ihoy're actual pilots afid ilighl pro- spent monyorhiifecontleisurehours
with MicroProso simulations. Com olrctdrt Into and oul of the nation's busiest airports.
losiionals. And when Iheso (lyersialk
paring his experience in training ' From. MicroPros^: 1he flying simulators chosen not'
'authenticity and realism, ono name
real llyors with the instrument Igyout only by computer enlhusiosls. bul also by real pilots...
comes op again and agaitv,,,-
MlcroPf ose Simulation Software, found in Soio Flghj. Cessna Flight SoioIunmlio»oilontBlorConiiTH)'Io(sM7f?»1"ApRioiMiimlljAldn '

We're used to !hr. kind o! stringent Instructor Mark Rice told us "the
comparison; our company president instrument flying segmenlsore vory !■ i,-'.'. :/ir ktptt)ilufJ%tinmnMH)Q<nli"litflnilfilCQoil's* 55
is a formor (Ighler |ock wlih 3,000 similar to the real Ihlng - you're up in AvartablolromyQiif local rota I lur » . i',.1 I .■ I- - ..Li . I n -^ , , .
<1piocI1/Irrf luiTh*n tnlo"rooNanaflDuf h>EI lOh'JU of limuloli'hi --rjtl-
flying hours in his logbook, tin ■ clouds and using your readings lCVll

roke Hi" evaluation of Senior to guldo the alrcralt ."


Edllor David Maiiln, In Private Pilot Concorde pilot and lor morRAF jet
magazine's August 19B6lssuo. Martin, I Iyer John Hutchlnson i eviowed Micro
a formor Navy aviator who has flown Prose'sport flight AceoJtr lot the British
almost everything with wings, re press. His conclusion: "this simulalion
viewed live MicioProse programs, isone thai reall/ does live up to its
rhcludingtrtebeslsellingSoioFuGHt roal-lile counterparl... I find AcpoJet
primary Ilighl simulator. "I'd nol have complelely absorbing and very u % «, O r ' W ■ H
bstlovod It possible..." he wrofe, excillng." High praise, liom the man
"Pilois of all sorts will be la&cinatad who files the world's fastest airliner ..
block number). Together, the block num covers the case where a block contains too 2040-2047 to 18424-18431? Since my
ber and complement allow both computers few bytes). If all 132 bytes arrive on time, game is in machine language, the place
to make sure they are synchronized (deal the receiver sends a NAK if the first byte is ment of BASIC is not a problem. Can
ing with the same block). not an SOH or if the block number, com you help?
The 128 data bytes may contain any plement, or checksum does not match. If Dean Kreutzer
sort of eight-bit data (executable programs the receiver gets a duplicate block (caused
as well as ordinary ASCII text). The The V1C-U video chip handles all graph
when the sender fails to recognize an
checksum is the eight-bit sum of all 128 ics, including sprites, hi-res screens, char
ACK}, it throws away the duplicate and
data bytes. It's reset to zero at the begin acter shapes, and screen memory for
sends an ACK to say, "I got that block al
ning of each block, and flips over to zero ordinary characters. This chip can only
ready; send the next one." In this case,
whenever it exceeds 255. In BASIC, the "see" 16K at a time, so you can choose
and whenever it needs to send a NAK, the
from four video banks:
checksum can be calculated with the receiver first purges the line by getting the
statement CHECKSUM = (CHECKSUM remainder of the block (getting characters bankO: 0-16383
+ BYTE) AND 255, where CHECKSUM is until no more characters are incoming) bank 1: 16384-32767
the checksum value and BYTE is the and throwing it away. bank 1: 32768-49151
ASCII value of the current character. Termination. If the sender's EOT is lost, bank 3: 49152-65535
Here is a nutshell description of a success or the sender simply stops sending, the re When you switch to a new video
ful XMODEM transfer: ceiver eventually aborts because it experi bank, all video information moves there. If
Initiation. Sender waits for an initial ences ten 10-second timeouts without you have a character screen at locations
NAKfrom receiver. Receiver sends a NAK receiving anything. If the sender does not 1024-2023, with sprite pointers at
to initiate the transfer. receive the receiver's final ACK, it aborts 2040-2047, and you move the video to
Transfer of blocks. Sender transmits a when ten 10-second timeouts occur. Note bank 1, the new sprite pointers will be lo
132-bytc block consisting of a one-byte that if the very last block of data contains cated at 18424-18431.
SOH character, one-byte block number, fewer than 128 bytes, the sender "pads" To switch to a new bank in BASIC,
one-byte block number complement, 128 the block with extra characters, often use the following lines (where BANK is
bytes of data, and a one-byte checksum. If nulls (ASCII 0). the bank number):
the receiver gets the block successfully, it Though it's notprovided in the origi POKE 56578, PEEKI56578) OR 3
sends an ACK lo say, "I got that block nal protocol, many implementations of POKE 56576, (PEEK(56576) AND 252) OK
okay; send the neit one." If an error oc XMODEM use another special character (3-BANK)
curs, the receiver sends a NAK to say, (CAN, ASCII 26) to allow either computer The machine language equivalent,
"Send the last block again." This process to cancel the transfer immediately. Propo assuming you want to switch to bank 1, is:
continues until all blocks have been re nents of XMODEM claim an accuracy
LDA 56578
ceived successfully (or the transfer is rate in excess of 99 percent (fewer than 1
ORA#3
aborted; see next section). percent undetected errors). XMODEM
STA 56578
Termination. Sender transmits an EOT was devised in the early days of personal LDA 56576
character to signal the end of the trans computing, when the eight-bit CP/M ma AND #252
mission. Receiver sends an ACK to say, "1 chine was king. Its major limitations arise ORA#2
see that you're done, so I'm quitting, too." because, understandably enough, it relies STA 56576

Timing and error-checking are criti on eight-bit arithmetic. An improved ver


You won't be able to print to the
cal parts of XMODEM. Since the transfer sion of XMODEM uses the CRC (cyclic re
standard text screen unless you also
is largely automatic, each computer must dundancy checksum) method to reduce the
POKE 648, (PEEK(648)AND63> OR
have a means of aborting the process if too likelihood of undetected errors. Programs
(BANK*64), «
many errors occur. Here is a description of designed for use with commercial infor
error-checking during an XMODEM mation services often relax the timing re
transfer: quirements (increase the timeout periods)
as well, to allow for the delays caused by
Initiation. Sender aborts the transfer if it
telephone packet-switching networks.
doesn't receive an initiating NAK from
XMODEM has also been criticized
the receiver after ten W-sccond timeouts
because it involves a high degree of over
(100 seconds total). Receiver sends the
head: For every 128 bytes of data, you
first NAK, then waits to get the first SOH,
sending another NAK every ten seconds if
must process a minimum of five non-data All programs
bytes (SOH, block number, complement,
no SOH appears. Receiver aborts the
transfer if ten W-second timeouts occur
checksum, and ACK or NAK). More recent
protocols such as Kermk transmit data in
listed in this
without its receiving an SOH.
1024-byte or even larger blocks.
Transfer of block. Sender transmits a magazine are
132-byte block, then waits for a response
from the receiver. Sender aborts transfer if available on the
ten 10-second timeouts occur for any Video Banks
block without its receiving an ACK or
NAKfrom the receiver. Receiver waits for
[ am in the process of writing an arcade- GAZETTE Disk.
style game for the 64 which uses both
each block to arrive, sending a NAK every
ten seconds if no SOH appears, and abort
sprites and hi-res graphics. Unfortu
nately, I have more than 50 sprite
See details
ing transfer if ten such timeouts occur for
any block. After receiving an SOH, the re
shapes, so the shapes and the hi-res
screen cannot be located in block zero, I
elsewhere in
ceiver reduces the timeout interval to one haven't been able to find out how to
second for each of the 131 remaining bytes move sprites and the hi-res screen to this issue.
in the block, and sends a NAK to request block one. The screen memory and
retransmission if more than ten l-second character memory must be moved also.
timeouts occur for any single byte (this Do the sprite pointers change from

20 COMPUTED Gazette November 1986


And you don't even have to
leave your room.
llic Russians have The Doomsday Papers'" locked
deep in a Siberian stronghold. With them, they can
bring the world to its knees.
The U.S. government needs your help. Using their
.satellite you can get into the complex with your
computer. All you have to do is locate the combina
tions to the safe, find and open it, and get die
documents out.
Sounds simple enough. Unfortunately it's not that
easy There are video cameras and monitors to be
avoided. Guard patrols. And something called.. .The
Annihilator. Plus, your only map is the one you've
got to make while not being discovered by all of
the above.
Your reputation got you into this mess. Your
hacking skill is the only thing that can get you out. Hacker II: The Doomsday Hacker II for Commodore
Bon Voyage. Papers designed by Steve 64/128, Apple II. IBM
For more Information and the dealer nearest you call 800/ Cartwright, who brought PC/PCjr and Tandy 1000,
you the award winning Amiga, Atari ST and
227-9759 (In California, call 415/960-0410) weekdays
challenge ofHacker™ Macintosh computers.
10:00 a.m. to 4:00 p.m. Pacific rime.

ACXIYLSION
ENTERTA1NMI NT SO1 TWARF".

Commodore 64,128 and Amiga arc trademarks of Commodore Electronics Limited. IBM is a trademark of International Business
Machines Corporation, 'liindy is a trademark ofTandy Corporation Atari and STarc trademarks of Atari Corp. Apple and Macintosh
are trademarks of Apple Computer. Activision is the registered trademark of Ac ti vision. Inc. c 1986 Activision, Inc.
*g

■'

->**-..

.-

■ ' -

■■ ■-
The Evolution Of
Design
Selby Bateman, Features Editor

individual programmers be replaced by teams of program When you want to squeeze a good
designers, each with his or her own specialty? It's been hap program into a small space, you
have to write your programs in ma
pening for years in the mainframe and minicomputer environ
chine (assembly) language.
ment, and is fast becoming the norm in the microcomputer
So-called high-level languages
programming world. As computers grow more powerful, soft like BASIC and Pascal are fairly
ware becomes more complex—and programmers often find large programs, which use up a lot
themselves with too much of a good thing. of memory themselves. So, Craw
ford and many others studied ma
Veteran program designer Chris Running Away From Us chine language, and discovered the
Crawford remembers leaning over At the same time that he and other thrill of communicating one-to-one
his KIM-1 single-board microcom programmers are enjoying this ex with the computer. While the task
puter in 1977, trying to program a panded memory, Crawford issues a was not a simple one, the programs
game that would run in the ma warning: "Basically, the hardware were small, fast, and elegant.
chine's 1K of Random Access Mem is running away from us." But when Crawford began to
ory (RAM); that's 1,000 bytes of total To understand that cautionary climb up to computers with larger
memory—1/64 the RAM of your note, consider Crawford's own his memories, he quickly found a dif
Commodore 64 and 1/128 that of tory in the programming busi ferent problem.
the Commodore 128. ness—a tenure that surpasses that "In small machines, you had to
"I was sweating every bit, of most other programmers in dura work in assembly language to
packing every bit; fitting it into tion and success. accomplish much," says Crawford.
RAM was the dominant consider After working in the impossi "But when we got to 48K, it got a
ation," says Crawford. "It's largely ble space of IK in 1977, Crawford little rough to do everything in as
opaque to the user, but program moved up to 8K in 1978 with his sembly language.
mers have always sweated RAM." first commercial game, Tatiktics, "For me, the big transition was
He succeeded in finishing the then jumped to the then unheard- going to 128K in Balance of Power. I
game, and in the process learned a of 16K in 1981 with his popular worked in Pascal. It's difficult to
great many lessons about efficient game, Eastern Front. Another game, imagine someone writing a 128K
program design and execution. Excalibur, was created in 1983 to program in assembly language. Al
Less than ten years later, run on a machine with 48K. His re though people do it, it's very hard."
Crawford is now working on a cent highly acclaimed Balance of
computer with 512K of RAM, de Power requires 128K of memory. The Real Problem
signing a game that will operate And now he's in the midst of de And something else began to hap
only on computers with a minimum signing a game that requires 256K pen. A few programmers noticed
of 256K of memory. That mush to operate. that the extra memory was making
rooming growth in available mem In the days when he had little some programmers lazy—wasting
ory is the trend that Crawford says RAM to work with, Crawford dis all of that formerly precious memo
has most dramatically affected his covered what many other program ry by writing sloppy code. For ex
work and that of every other pro mers—professional and amateur ample, a word processor that
gram designer today. hackers alike—have since learned. previously would have been

COMPUTEIs Gazelle November 1986 23


! ■ '
squeezed into 20K when written in development language that includes
machine language might now be many proven machine language
written in a high-level language like routines and that was created inter
C, taking up 100K or more of nally for the company's own use.
memory. This library of development tools is
But, says Crawford, that's not composed of building blocks, every
the real problem. All of this extra thing from a static background to
memory is cheap. It's the quality of sound and sprite programming rou
the program itself that's suffering tines from earlier games the compa
today, he adds. ny has produced. "It lets you
"Wasteful memory? That's not develop interactively without the
so much a problem. Do you waste hassles of machine language."
The excellent visual effects in such Epyx
paper clips in your office? Big deal," Meier is responsible for such
computer games us Summer Games II
says Crawford with a laugh. "The are created by computer art director hits as Solo Flight, F-15 Strike Eagle,
more serious problem is that pro Michael Kosako and his team of four and Silent Service, in addition to de
grammers have had problems ad artists. signing the company's Command
justing to the new RAM sizes, and Series of strategy games. He's been
using them effectively." a part of many changes that have
When it comes to today's pro made his teams of designers more
gram design, Crawford is con effective.
cerned with what he calls the "For instance, the standards
difference between meat and meat and levels of artwork required have
extender. In earlier days, a 30K pro improved dramatically," he says.
gram might have had 12K of actual "Generally today, you need an art
program (the meat} and 18K of data ist, or someone competent to do the
(the meat extender). Today, Craw graphic part of the program."
ford is seeing programs with 40K of Another example of shared re
real programming and 500K of sponsibilities is the MicroProse
meat extender. Command Series, including titles
"They spend a lot more time such as Crusade in Europe, Conflict
throwing little nothings at the user, Although Sid Meier's popular flight in Vietnam, and Decision in the De
but the programs aren't much dif simulators and air combat software have sert. While Meier may do much of
ferent. Programmers are shoveling been based on his ou<n development the actual program design, it's Mi
a lot of filler into their programs— libraries, he started from scratch when croProse resident historian Ed
meat extenders." creating the screens for the MicroProse
Bever who conducts the research to
submarine simulation. Silent Service.
On the happier side of this make sure that the final product de
equation, Crawford sees this as a sign is as accurate as possible in a
temporary aberration. But, one that game. They work as a team, bring
will change over time only slowly. ing together talents that would be
difficult to find in just one designer.
Emerging Design Teams
How are commercial program de The Feel Of The Game
signers coping with this problem? At Strategic Simulations (SSI), a
For several good reasons, the enor leader in strategy and fantasy
mous changes in available memory games, the development teams are
and much more powerful and flexi a mixture of talents as well. For ex
ble computer systems have given ample, Paul Murray worked with
rise to software design teams. Pro co-designer Keith Brors to create
grammers, graphic artists, testers, the fantasy game Wizard's Crown.
project directors—a!l work together The approach they took with that
to create the best possible program. game is similar to any program they
Garry Kitchen's GameMaker package
These teams also use a host of pro includes a SprileMakcr among its arsenal might tackle, says Murray.
gramming tools, usually built up of programming tools for "The first thing we do is to
through earlier projects, which be nonprogrammers. come up with what we want the
come a virtual library of program game to do, what the fee! of the
ming tricks and timesavers. game is. And then we write the
Sid Meier, who has designed or rules. The emphasis from the start
directed the design of virtually all of in Wizard's Crown was on tactical
MicroProse Software's popular sim combat.
ulation and strategy games, says "We came up with the basic al
that MicroProse uses an interactive gorithm, tested it to see if it worked,
2S COMPUTE! s Gazelle November 1986
i r-Mi'H ii .-.

^uP
rn
CO

'■

FRANKIE ■•

Frankic have sent you over 60 tasks in your This combination awards you the minimum on (he Bar Charts {when Ihe woid BANG will
journey from Mundanesville through the requirement (99Do 3 complete person) to ligtil upabovethe personality factors)
Pleasure Dome. Tasks ranging from the search for the Special Door - the Door to and achieve a score of 87,000
trivial, to heroic foals of skill and intelligence, the Ultimate Experience - the heart of Ihe Pleasure Points.
Whenever you complete these ctiaFlengcs a Measure Dome. '"Be$t adventure game 1S85" ^
Your goal is lo become a complete petson

international
Pleasure points will be awarded...

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then started doing the general ing what's possible to accomplish. may bring in sorne help on the
stuff," he says. He's seen the way that today's graphics work.
While Brors worked on the computers, especially the Commo
characters and the data surround dore 64, can produce results far be A Monk In A Monastery
ing them, Murray concentrated on yond what programmers just two Chris Crawford maintains that
working out the combat situations. years ago felt were possible. "It's there's still plenty of room for the
Later, the two put together what fascinating. It's the same basic ma program designer who's willing to
they'd worked out individually, but chine, but a lot of new things are invest thought and energy. In fact,
the entire process was one of con going on with it. And a lot of that is he's convinced that it's this type of
stant interaction. Even SSI Presi experience, hacking away at it." programmer who will, in the long
dent Joel Billings, who has Garry Kitchen is another suc run, prevail. And that includes pro
extensive experience as a war cessful program designer who's grammers working alone as well as
gamer and a game designer, gets in made a transition from working design teams. Crawford, who is
volved as a tester and fine-tuner in alone to working with a co-designer. continually studying the evolution
the SSI development process. After creating Activision's The De of computer programming, is the
Computer game enthusiasts signer's Pencil by himself, Kitchen author of the book, The Art of Com
today usually demand exceptional began work on what was to become puter Game Design: Reflections of a
ly well developed color graphics. the popular GameMaker program. Muster Game Designer (Osborne/
To answer that need, one of the GameMaker is a package that McGraw-Hill).
changes in program design is the lets the nonprogrammer create "The fundamental question
emergence of the art director, workable, stand-alone action here is, What is programming?
whose job it is to make sure that the games, including sprites, sound ef We're in the middle of a transition
computer graphics are as effective fects, music, and background from one regime to another. The
as possible. At Epyx, a company scenes. Just as commercial program first regime is the monk in the mon
known for its graphically excellent designers now use their own devel astery copying a manuscript—the
action games, Michael Kosaka opment libraries and refined tools, programmer does what the com
serves as art director for computer GameMaker lets the nonprogram puter does well," says Crawford.
graphics. mer have much the same thing— "The new regime is program
Managing a staff of four other only less powerful. ming as an act of communication:
artists, Kosaka works with individ "The GameMaker code is prob The emphasis is on what we should
ual project managers and program ably 150K; it takes up almost all of say. People will become bored with
mers, trying to get the right mix of one side of a disk," notes Kitchen. communication that says nothing.
graphics and game play. Like a Since GameMaker is essentially That's rather like opening a book
number of other companies, Epyx' composed of five separate sound that has an illuminated manuscript,
designers build many products and graphics modules, Kitchen but is nothing more than 'Mary had
with in-house development tools. brought in programmer and musi a little lamb'—not saying anything.
Kosaka even has a set of graphics cian Alex DeMeo to create the "I take a generally optimistic
tools that let him create any images SoundMaker and MusicMaker sec view over the long term, but less in
he wants without having to be an tions of the program. A!l five mod the short term," he adds. "When I
expert in machine language. ules must work together, so Kitchen take the long view, I can certainly
and DeMeo had to carefully design say that the top ten products of
Thrashing Things Out and program each section. 1986 are better than those of 1983.
"I think my goal is to try to get the "It's increasingly difficult to There are a lot of weeds in the gar
absolutely best images I can," he work alone with that much memo den, but they're not choking out the
says. And he admits that part of ry," says Kitchen. "You have to roses."
what he likes most about his work generate vast amounts of assembly Whatever the course of pro
is "thrashing things out with the language code." gram design, it's obvious that com
programmers, working with them, Nevertheless, Kitchen has not puters will always attract individual
pushing and learning from them. made the jump to a high-level pro programmers like Crawford and
"It's very interesting. We've gramming language such as Pascal Kitchen. Even with microcomputer
found a nice blend of give and take, or C. He prefers to stay with ma memories quickly approaching one,
and it works out real well." chine language despite the rigors two, and four megabytes, there will
Kosaka also works with pro such a course involves with large be designers who prefer a solo ap
grammers who may be hundreds of programs. "I'm always dedicated to proach to programming tasks. But,
miles away. As a game designer and maxing out the hardware. If I write just as clearly, commercial software
an artist himself, he sends samples a program in assembly language for microcomputers is now reach
of sprites and storyboards to the and someone else writes in C, my ing a point where the combined tal
programmers for their development. program will be better." ents of a group of programmers can
Then, once the programming itself What's more. Kitchen's current be a potent force in bringing new
has started, Kosaka and the pro project, a new game, is so far a solo products to the software
grammers go back and forth decid- effort. He admits, however, that he marketplace. a
28 COMPUTE!* Gazette November 1986
Better Than RISK

Power -you know you love it.


You used to play onto warships for
RISK as a kid. Maybe attacks across oceans.
you still do some ... great multi-
times — whenever player games, com
you can get enough plete with treaties,
people together. trades, and treachery,
Did you ever wish ... playing chal
you could play by lenging solo games
yourself? Or make against an intel
changes in the map? ligent computer
Wouldn't it be great opponent.

if you could attack ...a built-in game


North Africa from editor powerful
North America? Or enough to be called
Japan from Brazil? a "Strategy Game
Announcing Lords Construction Set."
of Conquest~from Elec music, color graphics, and Lords of Conquest. No
tronic Arts. strategic challenges impos more mucking around with
It isn't RISK... its better sible in a board game. cards and dice and little
It's a conquer-the-world Imagine... pieces of plastic that roll
board game that explodes ... having an infinite under the couch. Now
with new life and new pos number of unique maps to you're free to concentrate
sibilities because it uses all choose from, so each game on more important things.
the power of your computer. is different. Like exterminating the
Every battle is alive with ... marching your armies opposition.

1I
1,
Ittlr J
BflEB

■1 ail
A Great Strategy Game Neii' Worlds ro Conquer Strategy Came Coiutruction Set
* Five kinds of forces to fight with-horxs, u-ea- • An injinilc mricrv of game maps, • Variable game setting} —you set the locations and
pans, boats, lemioryIxnitivus. anddties, •Crcati your men. 0! play any o/20b»i(:-in maps abundance ojresources. forces, and transport
' Fur kindi of wealth to fight for-gold, limber, l&t Anaml Rome. European Wan, and The World • You d<tide the lucfc /actor.
iron. coal, and herds cfhona. • The compuitr can generate unlimited ran
•For J-4playen. As fun for one as it is forfour. dom maps. • t levels of handicapping.

ELECTRONIC ARTS"
Hnivlu Ufdcti Visil your rclailer. If you arc unable lo find Ihc product HI your local relailer, you can call 8OO-315-45J5 for direct VISA or Ma He re a rd orders
(In CA call 800-562-1112).The d>recr price « 112 95 for ihe Commnd(ice vcracon. Apple and Alan i-eisiuns coming soon.To buv hv mail, icndchecbnr montv ordci to Electronic Airs
Dirscr Sal", P.O Box 7530, San Maito, CA 914(53. Add 5^ fur ihlpinns and handling (}7 Ctnadlun) Allow 4 »«elu for dtUrai* There na 14-ilay, moncpb«k (inriniM on direct onfere.
For a eomcldte pindiifi drains send 50J and a aamped, *e!f-addrened rnvelrjpe EO Elscironic ArtECaiHlog, 1820 Gateway Drive, SanMmcp. CAy44C4 RISK h a rcgi^rcrcd Trademark of
Poritr BlDtKmCa Conlmndorc \i a .cjisietcd trade mill (if CluthiicJou- Umlnrh- MicbllHI. Apple is a icgi5rrrcd iradcinaik of Apple compmen. Ann In re||i!itred lu V uf Ala
BorJerland* ^nd Cmmk Encounter jtc rcjfiitcfed [fadrm.iTb vt tiO?J Soft warp. Loid* z>i ConquciT and Electronic Arts arc regained [ladtmarti of Electronic Am.
Lardi of Conquest n blued on tlnlm.itd Ennic"DnrdtrlBnd>""by EON —llic crcatonof "Coimlc Encounter.'"
.;,'■

n
Introduction

ers
Todd Heimarck, Assistant Editor

A compiler is a powerful utility that translates programs writ never seen before speaks up. "Ex
ten in a high-level programming language, like BASIC, into cuse me; this is my first meeting
and I don't know a lot about pro
machine language that your computer can understand without
gramming, but I might be able to
first having to interpret each step. Here's a beginner's guide to help. Give me a minute or two."
one of the most useful items in a programmer's toolkit. He comes forward with a disk
in hand, types a few commands,
The BASIC programming language looking for techniques to put some switches disks, presses a key, and
has a built-in speed limit that you'll more zip into the program. waits for a few minutes. Your origi
encounter sooner or later. Let's say The first one, an experienced nal program is changed, almost
you've worked hard on writing a BASIC programmer, says, "I think I magically, into a new program that
large and complex BASIC program. see a subroutine that could be re runs about four times faster, and
Perhaps it's an arcade-style game, written. And this section should be not a single line has been changed.
or maybe it's a program to manipu removed and changed to a three-di What's happened? Your slow
late 1000 customer records for a mensional array. You know, of BASIC program has been compiled.
small- to medium-sized business. course, that this bubble sort is not
The program works; it runs without as efficient as a quick sort, although The BASICS Of Speed
evident errors. But it's slow—ex a shell sort might be acceptable. A BASIC compiler can significantly
cruciatingly sluggish. You've hit the Yes, give me a week or two and I speed up a BASIC program by con
speed limit. could have it running 20 percent verting it into a form that's essen
The fact is, BASIC is not al faster. I'll speed it up, Why, my tially machine language (ML). To
ways very good at high-speed notebook is full of hints and...." understand how this is possible, we
screen movement, such as you'd The second one, the best ma should first take a look at what hap
need in an action game. And it's not chine language programmer around, pens when you run a normal (un-
very fast at sorting large lists, espe interrupts, "Yes, your collection of compiled) BASIC program.
cially if there are lots of strings of hints and tricks, I know. But that's Consider the PRINT com
data involved. There are many oc just BASIC. I could rewrite it in ma mand. Its purpose seems simple
casions where a program written in chine language, using my own al enough—it prints something,
BASIC will be excessively slow. gorithms and relative files and usually to the screen—but it can
perhaps even some sprites and al perform a wide variety of actions:
Three Wise Men ternate video banks. Hmmm, that PRINT

Let's say you bring your BASIC would be a nice touch. Of course, it PRINT "HELLO"
PRINT A
program to a local user group meet might take a month or so to con
PRINT ABSIA + B)
ing and ask the two wisest pro vert, but it would be worth it." PRINT "THE NUMBER"; LOG(VAL<ASH;
grammers for their advice. You're Then a third person you've ■IS THE NATURAL LOC OF ";A$

30 COMPUT&'s Gazette November 1986


..<V

JB*""" .****»"
<,C^W
When a program is running program is running, which is what Finally, it inserts a machine lan
and a PRINT statement comes up, the uncompiled program will do, guage jump (JMP) instruction at the
BASIC has to analyze the context. Is the compiler figures out the address appropriate place in the program.
it a single PRINT with nothing after at the time the program is com But all of the translating and
it? Is it followed by a string inside piled. When the compiled program searching happens during compila
quotation marks? Does it refer to a is run, the computer can go directly tion, not while the program is run
variable? A function? A series of to that address instead of spending ning. The result, of course, is a
strings, functions, and variables time looking through memory for a faster program. The compiler does a
separated by semicolons? variable. lot of the work ahead of time so the
You might think of PRINT as a As another example, consider program can be speedier when the
single command, but it has many the line A - C*34.85, which multi compiled version is run.
flavors. Before your computer exe plies a variable C by 34.85 and as
cutes a PRINT statement, it has to signs the result to the variable A. In A Few Handicaps
scan forward in the line to decide a standard BASIC program, the As useful as they are, compilers do
which sort of PRINT you intend to computer will have to find the have some drawbacks and short
use. If there are parentheses, the number in C and then find the comings.
process gets more complicated— floating-point equivalent of the five One problem is that some
the computer has to build up the characters "34.85" (floating-point BASIC compilers support only a
meaning of the phrase by starting at format is a way of representing subset of BASIC commands. There
the innermost parentheses and numbers that makes it easier to per are some keywords they don't rec
building outwards. form mathematical operations). ognize, so you can't use these com
The two numbers will then be mul mands in your programs. (Some
There's also a second stage, at
least when variables are involved. tiplied together and the result compilers do support all BASIC
After the computer has figured out stored in A. commands, so this is not always a
that PRINT AB means that it's sup problem.)
A compiler has to go through
posed to print the number held in Some compilers are extremely
the same steps, but most of them
fast when programs are limited to
the variable AB, it has to find the happen at the time the BASIC pro
variable's location in memory. If 57 integer math (whole numbers), but
gram is compiled. The compiler fig
variables have been defined before not when fractions and decimal
ures out the floating-point format
AB is used for the first time, it will points are included. In a financial
of the number 34.85 and decides
be 58th on the list of variables and program that uses percentages and
ahead of time where A and C will
the PRINT routine will have to dollar amounts rounded to the
be stored. When you run the com
search through all 58 variables nearest penny, the time savings af
piled program, the math is much
forded by a compiler might not be
before AB can be located. When AB faster because the computer doesn't
is finally found, its value will be very significant. Again, this de
have to spend time translating
printed out. pends on the individual compiler.
numbers and looking up variables.
Programmers who program in
The compiler has already done much
teractively generally prefer inter
A Matter Of Interpretation of the work—the interpreting.
preted languages. They like being
This process of taking apart a line One more example: A com able to type a few lines, run the pro
while the program is running—fig mand such as GOTO 780 causes gram, change a variable or two, run
uring out what a single command is several actions to take place. First, it again, add a subroutine, use
supposed to do, analyzing the con the computer translates the three GOTO to test the routine, and so
text, looking up variables, and so characters "780" to a binary integer on. With BASIC, you can have the
on—is called interpreting. While a (in low-byte/high-byte format), be best of both worlds. Use the inter
BASIC program is running, every cause that's how line numbers are preter to write the program and test
command that's executed has to be stored in memory. It then compares it. Then, when it's all done, you can
interpreted first. Interpreting takes this number to the current line be compile it to make it run faster.
time and generally slows down the ing executed, If 780 is smaller, the Some languages are available only
program. program goes back to the first line in a compiled version, which means
A compiler speeds things up of the program and searches a few seconds (or possibly several
by interpreting some or all of the through every line number, looking minutes) of waiting for the source
commands before the program is for line 780. If 780 is higher than file to be compiled before you can
run. For example, a compiler might the current line number, the com test it. Interactive programmers
examine a command such as puter starts searching forward in suggest that this pause stifles their
PRINT AB and assign a small por memory from where the program creativity.
tion of memory to this variable AB; is. Finally, control is transferred to One thing that stops program
let's say AB is going to occupy loca line 780. mers from using compilers is the
tion 5003. The compiler will then Compare that to how a compil fact that a compiled program is
store in the compiled program a er handles the GOTO. It, too, has to often several times longer than the
command that reads something like translate the number 780 to an inte uncompiled version. An already
this: PRINT (the value at 5003). ger. It also has to locate the actual long program may compile into a
Instead of having to look up line and the equivalent memory ad version that's too big for memory.
the variable's location when the dress within the compiled program. Or, if the program fits memory,
32 COMPUTED Gazette November 1906
o9"

tfi

.cP

^S^'
^os
there may not be enough room left
for all the variables.
ADA Compiler ($39.95)
Some Commodore owners ar An ADA programming language compiler for the 64 (Abacus Software, P.O
gue that compilers are nice, but if Box 7211, Grand Rapids, Ml 49510).
what you want is flat-out speed of
BASIC Compiler (128 version, $59.95; 64 version, $39.95)
execution, nothing beats machine
BASIC compiler and development package for the 64 and 128; separate
language (ML). A well-written ML
versions (Abacus Software, P.O. Box 7211, Grand Rapids, MI 49510).
program will almost always beat
the speed of a compiled program. Blitz! ($49.95)
You don't necessarily have to write A BASIC compiler for the 64 (Skyles Electric Works, 231 E. South Whisman
Rd., Mountain View, CA 94041).
a whole program in ML; if the slow
part of the program is the alphabet C Power ($99.95)
izing routine, you can use an ML A C compiler that contains both book and disk (Pro-Line Software, 755 The
sort program to take care of the Queensway East, Unit 8, Mississauga, Ontario, Canada L4Y 4C5).
problem. COBOL Compiler ($39.95)
A 64 COBOL programming language compiler and development package
Beyond BASIC (Abacus Software, P.O. Box 7211, Grand Rapids, MI 49510).
So far, we've discussed only com C-64 Forth/79 {$69.95)
pilers that speed up BASIC pro A Forth programming language package for (he 64 (Performance Micro
grams. But compilers are also Products, P.O. Box 370, Canton, MA 02120)
available for Pascal, C, Forth, and Forth-64 Language ($39.95)
other programming languages. A Forth programming language compiler and development package for the
A compiled language generally 64 (Abacus Software, P.O. Box 7211, Grand Rapids, Ml 49510).
requires that you type in the pro
Gnome Speed ($59.95)
gram (also called source code) using
A 128 BASIC compiler (SM Software, P.O. Box 27, Mertztown, PA
a word processor or a text editor 0027).
program. When the source code is
finished, you save it to disk and run KMMM Pascal ($99)
A Pascal programming language compiler and development package for tl
the compiler program. The compil
64, recently updated (Wilserve Industries, P.O. Box 456, Uellmawr, NJ 08031)
er then creates the runnable pro
gram (the object code). To make a Kyan Pascal ($49.95)
change, you must load the word A Pascal programming language compiler for the 64 (Kyan Software, Suite
processor or editor again, reload the 183, 1850 Union St., San Francisco, CA 94123).
source code, insert corrections, MasterForth ($100)
save, and recompile. It's rare to find A Forth programming language compiler and development package,
a language that includes both an in including a graphics system (MicroMotion, 8726 S. Sepulveda Bl., #A171,
terpreter and a compiler, although Los Angeles, CA 90045).
both are usually available in Forth. PROMAL (end-user version, $49.95; developer version, $99.95)
You should also be aware that A 64 PROMAL programming language development package (SMA, 3700
there are two types of compilers. Computer Dr., P.O. Box 20025, Raleigh, NC 27619).
The first kind compiles the source The Sixty Forth ($39.95)
code directly into machine lan A Forth programming language compiler for the 64 (Elcomp Publishing,
guage. The second creates a file 2174 West Foothill Blvd., Unit E, Upland, CA 91786).
written in pseudo-code (p-code). A
Super C Language Compiler (128 and 64 versions, $59,95 each)
p-code program is then combined
A C compiler on disk in both 64 and 128 versions (Abacus Software, P.O.
with a runtime package that in Box 7211, Grand Rapids, MI 49510).
cludes math routines, printing rou
Superforth 64 ($59.95)
tines, and all the other features of
A Forth programming language compiler and development package for the
the language. You may have to load
64 (Parsec Research, Drawer 1766, Fremont, CA 94538).
the runtime package as a separate
program or use a compiler com Superforth 64+ Artificial Intelligence ($99)
mand to append it to the end of the A Forth programming language compiler and development package, plus an
p-code portion of the program. expert system development module (Parsec Research, Drawer 1766,
Fremont, CA 94538).
We can only begin to scratch
the surface here in detailing all of Super Pascal (128 version, $59.95; 64 version, $39.95)
the many features related to differ A Pascal programming language compiler and development package for the
ent compilers. For more infor 64 and 128; separate versions (Abacus Software, P.O. Box 7211, Grand
Rapids, Ml 49510).
mation, contact the following
manufacturers about their particu White Lightning ($49.95)
lar compilers for the Commodore A 64 compiler and development kit for the Forth programming language
64 and 128. While this list is not a (Oasis Software, 377 Oyster Point Blvd., Unit 15, San Francisco, CA 94080).
comprehensive survey of all com
pilers available, those listed here
should help you get started.
34 COMPUTER'S Gazelle November 19B6
PARTNER 128
THE 1st DESKTOP ACCESSORY THAT
WORKS CONCURRENTLY WITH
OTHER C128 SOFTWARE.
PARTNER! A cartridge-based program with eight
convenient memory-resident desktop "accessories"
that operate "concurrently" with other C128™ soft
ware programs.

Like Sidekick*™, PARTNER automagically sus


pends the existing program in your computer
while you use the PARTNER accessories. When
you are through, press a button and PARTNER
returns you to the point in your program where
you left off.

Accessories at your command:


Appointment calendar and date book: Keep Phone list & auto dialer: Keep track of important
track of appointments and deadlines. At the press of a phone numbers. At your command, the computer will
key, you'll be able to review your appointments for a day, search through your list for the number you want, and
week, or month. Months may be viewed in their entirety automatically dial the number for you."
in a traditional calendar format, and then printed out. Screen print: At the press of a key, the contents of
Memo pad: Write yourself important notes. Print them your computer display will be duplicated on your printer.
out on paper or save them onto disk.

Name and address list: Keep track of important Other features:


names and addresses. Available instantly, any time you SwiftDOS: Allows you to access Commodore disk
are using your computer. drive commands any time.
Calculator: A multi-function calculator with an SwiftLock: Enter your secret code before you leave
optional "paper tape" that prints out your calculations on your computer. The keyboard will be locked until you
your printer. re-enter your code.
Typewriter: Turns your computer and printer into a Extended Printer Control: Allows you to send com
traditional typewriter. mands directly to your printer at any time.
Envelope addresser & label maker: Use this SwiftLoad: Allows your Commodore 1541 diskdrive to
feature and your name and address list to address load as fast as the Commodore 1571 diskdrive.
envelopes or create mailing labels - quickly, without
leaving the software you are working with. Suggested Retail Prices:
C128 (128K, 80 column):
$69.95
C64- (64 K, 40 column):
$59.95
Available at your favorite Dealer,
or call Timeworks today.
More power for your dollar
Timeworks. Inc. 444 Lake Cook RcL Deerfield, IL 60015 TO ORDER CALL:
312-948-9200 1-800-535-9497
" An eulo-dial modam is required lo usetrraphone-dmisr foaiure.
" Commodore 12Sr-(9 arm do mark arxT Com modorflS4 Is nrcflisto rod trademark of Commodore
Electronics, Ltd., Sidekick is a trademark of Borlund International, Inc.
O19B5Tlmeiv0rk8, Inc. All rights (esarved.
The PRINT Statement

Larry Cotton 3. Make sure there is enough might almost be considered as a


room on the disk for your program. language of its own...."
(One program we'll write takes You already know that PRINT
As promised, we're going to look at about two blocks—a measure of sends information directly to the
more uses for PRINT, one of the disk capacity). To check the con TV or monitor screen. You can put
most versatile BASIC statements. tents (directory) of the disk on the words, numbers, and symbols any
The best way to get familiar with VIC or 64, type where on the screen using only
PRINT is to write simple programs LOAD"S",8 PRINT. It may be used in either the
which feature it, which we'll do this immediate mode (as a command you
month. and press RETURN. That command
just type on screen and follow by
But first, you need to know also works on the Plus/4, 16, and
pressing RETURN) or program mode
how to save a BASIC program on a 128, but those computers have a
(as a statement within a program).
disk. The procedure is as follows: simple command to perform the
Be sure to remember that any
same function. Type
1. The disk must be compatible time you type something in imme
DIRECTORY
with Commodore computers. Al diate mode, you must press the RE
most all are. If you have any and press RETURN. (The 128 also TURN key when you're finished
doubts, buy your disks from a deal has a CATALOG command, which with the command, or when you
er who knows what he's selling. functions exactly the same as want to see the results.
2. A new disk must be set up DIRECTORY.) And when you're typing in, or
(formatted) to receive information 4. To save a program on the changing, BASIC program lines
(files). To format a disk, put a new formatted disk {the program, of (they always have numbers in front
disk (or one that contains expend course, must be in the computer's of them), be sure to press RETURN
memory), type to store each line in the computer's
able files) in the drive and close the
memory. I'm not always going to
door. For the Commodore 64 or SAVE "PRINT EXAMPLES"^
VIC, type
note that you should press RE
and press RETURN. As with the TURN, except in unusual circum
OPEN 15,8,1 S:PRINT#1V'NO:MISC, other statements, the Plus/4, 16, stances.
GZ":CLOSE 15
and 128 have a simpler form. Type (Many non-Commodore com
and press RETURN. That statement DSAVE "PRINT EXAMPLES" puters call the RETURN key the
will also work on the Plus/4, 16, ENTER key. The Commodore 128
and press RETURN.
and 128, but those computers also computer has an ENTER key with
The drive will run, the busy
have a simpler statement that per its new numeric keypad. It serves
light will come on, and your pro
forms the same function. Type the same purpose as RETURN.)
gram will be saved on the disk.
HEADER "MISC",DO,IGZ
Substitute anything you want, up
and press RETURN. to 16 characters long, for the file Printing Variables
After a couple of minutes the name PRINT EXAMPLES. Once Start by typing this: X = 4. You
drive will stop running and the the drive stops, you can turn the should press the RETURN key right
busy light will go out. The disk is computer off, which erases your after that. This causes the computer
now formatted and ready to receive program. By the way, it's not a good to "remember" what X is until you
information. You can substitute any idea to cram a disk full. The more change it or reset the computer's
name for the word MISC as long as programs you have on a disk, the memory. X is known as a variable,
it's not over 16 characters long. In more you stand to lose if the disk is because its value can vary.
the VIC/64 command, follow your accidentally damaged or erased. When you assign a letter a val
disk's name with a comma and two 5. If you really like a program, ue, you can see what its value is by
characters for the disk ID. The ex save it on two disks. typing PRINT x, where x is the let
ample statement above uses the let ter representing the variable. (Inci
ters GZ for the disk ID, but you can dentally, you can abbreviate PRINT
use any two characters you like. The Versatile with a question mark.) For instance,
Just be sure to give each disk a PRINT Statement type: ? X. You should see 4 (assum
unique ID. For the HEADER com The Commodore 64 Programmer's ing you typed X = 4 above). Now
mand, the ID is specified in the two Reference Guide says there is "no add something to X—say 5, like
characters following the ,1 at the statement in BASIC with more vari this: PRINT X + 5. You should see
end of the command. ety than the PRINT statement...it 9. You can also assign another vari-
36 COMPUTERS Gazol/o November 1986
Mastertronic International Inc., 731 IB Grove Road, Frederick, Maryland Z1701, U5A.

Available through good dealers everywhere or contact the MAGNUM HOTLINE on (301) 695 8877
There seems to be some
disagreement as towhich one
ofour Commodoreprograms
is the most fun.

Sometimes it's tough to make everybody happy all of the titles you'll surely find at least one you have to get your hands
time. But that's not your problem, on. Maybe two. Even three.
Mindscape makes so many great Commodore1" software The choice is up to you. No holds barred.

Slam Get Hoist With-|


Bam. pre ready" a sail out
With plenty of pow. Bop pared to take evasive to work some magic. on your monitor. And sit question, thisquest is
'n Wrestle"1 puts you in action. In Injiltmtor'" by Spell of Destruction'" down at the keys. The for you. Fairlight'"com
the ring with a crazy Chris Gray, you're Cap makes you a wizard's American Challenge: bines magic, adventure,
collection of bone crush tain Johnny"Jimbo apprentice inside the A Sailing Simulation'" strategy, and action as
ers. For oneortwo players, Baby" McGibbits, ace Castle of Illusions. You will make you a better you meet the challenge
this first truly 3-dimen chopper jockey. Your must find and destroy sailor in a few short to find the Book of Light.
sional combat sports mission is no day at the the Prime Elemental. strokes. Race against You're in a faraway
simulation lets you climb, races. When you make it You're armed with a the program, another and ancient land. But
gouge, and claw your through hostile enemy supply of spells and skipper head-to-head, or 3-dimensional high-
way to the top of the airspace, this realistic via modem from coast-
fireballs, but there are resolution graphics
heap. Drop kicks, full flight simulation con plenty of lessons to learn to coast, When you've make it all seem real.
nelsons, and the turn- verts to covert ground- before you pass the mastered the basics This epic will grab you.
buckle fly have never based animated graphic Loremaster's challeng you're ready to meet Only the strong and
been this much fun adventure. Now just ing trial. Music and the Aussies and reclaim resourceful will conjure
before. destroy the mad leader 3-dimensional graphics The America's Cup. Set up the courage it takes
and his angry troops. of 70 eerie localions your sails and your to survive.
Thumbs up! make this adventure sights on the waters of
truly awesome. Silicon Bay.

nglil
able, such as Y, for the 5. Type Y = here. (Remember, you can use a ? that character. For a detailed de
5; then type PRINT X + Y. (Think instead of typing PRINT. When you scription of the conventions, refer
of the implications for doing math LIST the program, the word PRINT to the article "How to Type In
on your computer. Later, we'll de will be displayed.) {DOWN} COMPUTED GAZETTE Programs"
vote a column or two to BASIC means you should press the cursor- elsewhere in this issue.
math functions.) down key, located next to the right Let's begin the program with a
You can also make words vari SHIFT key. line that turns the screen black—
ables. How does the computer dis 10 PRINT'FIRST" both background and border. To do
tinguish between numbers and 20 PRINT'SECOND (DOWN]" this, we must use BASIC statements
words? Use a $ sign after the vari 30 PRINT"THIRD" we haven't covered yet—POKE on
40 PRINT"{DOWN}"
able letter to make it a word. For in the 64 and COLOR for the Plus/4,
50 PRINT'TOURTH"
stance, type A$ = "PIECE " (note 16, and 128. We'll look at these in a
the space between the E and the Run the program and study the re future column, but for now, just
quotation marks); then type PRINT sults. Line 10 prints the first word, type line 10 as you see it.
A$. You should see the word PIECE then moves the cursor to print the
For the Commodore 64:
printed out. next item on the line immediately
Believe it or not, BASIC allows below. In line 20, however, there is 10 POKE 53280,0:POKE 53281,0

words to be added together. Kow? a cursor-down character before the


second quotation mark, which
For the Plus/4, 16, or 128:
Type PRINT A$ + "OF CAKE" (al
ways remembering to press RE makes the cursor skip a blank line 10 COLOR 0,1:COLOR 4,1

TURN). You should see PIECE OF between the second and third words. Now let's clear the screen
CAKE printed to the screen. Line 40 contains a cursor down
(which also moves the cursor to the
As with numbers, you can use on its own separate line, which
upper left corner of the screen—
another variable—say, B$—for yields two blank lines between the called the home position):
"OF CAKE": Type B$ = "OF third and fourth words.
20 PRINT"{CLR}"
CAKE", and then type PRINT A$ Also try experimenting with
+ B$. Voila. These word variables cursor-right, -left, and -up charac The cursor needs to be moved
($) are called strings. A$ is called A- ters. If you'd like to save your ex down somewhat from the top of the
string, B$ is called B-string, and so periments on disk, do so now. Then screen:

on. There are probably as many ap reset the computer by turning it off, 30PR1NT")6DOWN)"
plications for manipulating strings then on.
(If you examine the gazette's list
as there are for arithmetically ma ing conventions, you'll notice that
nipulating numbers. Other PRINT-ables the {6 DOWN} means to press the
There are several other miscella cursor down key six times.)
Printing Symbols neous, but very convenient, uses The next line prints the top of a
Temporarily, we'll leave printing for the PRINT statement: horizontally centered border. It's
numbers and words, and go to the composed of cursor-right, SHIFT-
1. Moving the cursor to the top
symbols that are on the front side of U, SHIFT-*, and SHIFT-I charac
left corner of the screen.
the computer's keys. These are ters. Notice the rounded comer and
called graphics characters, and are 2. Moving the cursor to the top
horizontal line symbols on the U, *,
unique to Commodore. They have left corner of the screen and clear
ing the screen at the same time. and I keys. The cursor-rights are
many uses.
necessary because the cursor always
You can print these symbols to 3. Changing text colors.
starts at the left edge of the next line
the screen by holding the SHIFT or 4. Printing characters in reverse down after a PRINT statement.
the Commodore key while typing video.
40 PRINT"{9 R[CHT}U{17 1)1"
any key with a graphics character 5. Printing blank lines. (Again, you'll need to understand
on it. The best way to learn to use
the GAZETTE'S listing conventions to
symbols is to experiment. Because A Demonstration enter this line properly. For ex
of the variety of symbols, it's possi We'll type in another short BASIC ample, the {171} means to hold
ble to create pictures, graphs, and program, line by line, which illus down the SHIFT key and type the "
charts, and to enhance the appear trates all the discussed uses for the key 17 times.)
ance of a printed screen by using PRINT statement. It will print two To PRINT the sides of the bor
the symbols to form borders and messages inside a small border. der, we'll use the same program
boxes. The example program contains line, repeated seven times. There
a number of underlined characters are other ways to do this, but let's
Moving The Cursor and words in braces ({ }). These are save them for another time. Type in
The cursor's position—the spot the gazette's way of representing the line 50 shown below and press
where things are printed on the characters which require special RETURN. Then move the cursor
screen—can also be controlled with typing. You'll need to understand back up over the 5 in the line num
the PRINT statement. Commodore these listing conventions to type in ber and type a 6 to make 60; then
uses a somewhat arcane method of any programs in the magazine. For press RETURN again. LIST the pro
indicating which way the cursor example, when you see an under gram. You'll see both lines 50 and
will move; a short BASIC program lined character, you should hold 60, and they will be identical. Do
and practice are the best teachers down the SHIFT key while typing the same for lines 70-110. This is
40 COMPUTE'S Gazette November 1986
«**%#
what makes BASIC programming screen and print the first message. 190 PRINT"(RVS) {II RIGHT}"BS;Y
so easy on Commodore computers. The first character typed after the
Last, let's send the cursor back
SO PRINT"{9 RIGHT)B{17 SPACESJB" opening quotation mark is CTRL-8,
to the upper left corner of the
The bottom of the border is al which changes the text color to
screen—the home position.
most like the top, so Jet's make a yellow.
200 PRINT")HOME)"
virtual copy of line 40. Just move Note that the variables A$ and
the cursor to line 40 and type 120 X are typed right after the second What do the colons in lines 10
over the 40, change the SHIFT-U to quotation mark. This insures that and 130 do? Their main purpose is
SHIFT-] and the SHIFT-I to SHIFT- what you want to print stays on the to allow you to combine two BASIC
K, and press RETURN. same line with the cursor after it's statements on one line. If the state
120 PR1NT"{9 RIGHT}J{17 Z}K" been moved to the right. ments were placed in separate lines,
170 FR1NT"{YEL}{11 RIGHT!"A$;X the program would run the same.
The next three lines assign nu
Colons often separate BASIC state
meric variables X and Y and string Now we want to print a blank
ments which are similar. They
variables A$ and B$: line between messages. One way to make the program more compact,
130 X = 4:Y ■= 5 do this is to type PRINT as a single
and, when used judiciously, easier
140 AS = "X IS EQUAL TO" statement.
150 BS = "Y IS EQUAL TO" for others to understand.
180 PRINT Have you run the program yet?
OK, the border has been taken If not, do so, and don't forget to
Next, the cursor must be
care of, and the values have been save it on disk for future reference.
moved to the right and the other
assigned to variables. We want to
two variables printed. This time, Next month we'l! look at more
PRINT all four numeric and string
let's print them in reverse. The first features of the PRINT statement,
variables inside the border. To do
character typed inside the quotes is and some new BASIC commands.
this we must move the cursor up:
CTRL-9, which reverses the text on
160PRINT"{7UP}"
the Commodore 64. Note again
The next line will move the that the B$ and Y are typed imme
cursor over from the left edge of the diately outside the quotes.

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This clearly written, comprehensive memory map Edited A book/disk combination with seven powerful,
and programmer's guide, written by the technical This collection of the best machine language sophisticated applications on disk. The book has
editor of COMPUTE' Publications, provides a de games from COMPUTE! magazine and C0M- complete, easy-to-follow documentation for each
tailed explanation of the inner workings of the PUTEI's Gazette is a must for 64 game players of the six applications. It features SpeedScript
Commodore 128 computer. Topics include mem and machine language programmers. The book and SpeedCalc, COMPUTEI's commercial-quality
ory management, BASIC 7.0, I/O chip registers, includes both the source code (studying these word processing and spreadsheet programs;
the operating system, system RAM, and much listings is an excellent way to improve your ma "Plus/Term," an easy-to-use, yet versatile, tele
more. This is an important reference for both chine language programming) and object code (or communications program; and "Sidplayer," a
BASIC and machine language programmers. the popular games "Cut-off!," "Campaign Man powerful music editor and player. "Hi-Resolution
$16.95 ISBN 057455-060-2 ager," "Nessie," "Miami Ice," "Heat Seeker," Sketchpad," "Ultra-Font +," and "Mini-filer" are
"Whiriybird," and "Laser Beam." A disk is avail also included. All trie applications are on a disk
able tor $12.95 which includes programs in the ready to load and use on the Commodore 64 and
book, 610BDSK. 128 running in 64 mode.
S16.95 ISBN 0-87455-061-0 $29.95 (or book/disk package
ISBN 0-87455-062-9

Vialt your local book or computer store and ask for one of these new summer releases from COMPUTEI Books.

You can order directly from COMPUTE! by calling toll-free 800-346-6767 (in NY 212-887-8525) or writing COMPUTE!
Books, P.O. Box 5038, F.D.R. Station, New York, NY 10150.

Please include S2.00 per book or disk for shipping and handling in U.S. and surface mail or $5.00 per book airmail. NC
residents add 4.5 percent sales tax. NY residents add 8.25 percent sales tax.

Please allow 4-6 weeks for delivery.

COMPUTE! books are available in the U.K., Europe, the Middle East,
COMPUTE! PublicationsJnc©
Port OT
Port OT ABC
ABC Consumer
Consumer Magazines,
Magazines, me
me ^^^^
and Africa from Holt Saunders, Ltd., 1 St. Anne's Road, Eastbourne,
East Sussex BN21 3UN, England, and in Canada from McGraw-Hill,
One oMne AflC Publishing Compamet
625 71h Avenue. 6th Floe*, New York, NY 1001G Ryerson Ltd., 330 Progress Ave., Scarborough, Ontario, Canada M1P
COMPUTEI Bw*i. COMPUTEli
. and COMPUTEI 'I A 2Z5.
Tim J. Midkiff, Editorial Programmer

Challenge a friend in this fast-paced, action-strategy game for and each player guarding his own
the Commodore 64. It's written entirely in machine language goal. The joystick in port 1 controls
for rapid play and smooth movement. Two joysticks are the purple player. The yellow play
er is controlled by the joystick in
required.
port 2. Catch the ball by touching it
with your player. Your opponent
This two-player action game can be load the game, type LOAD"BUMP-
can then steal the ball by bumping
played at two conceptual levels: N-RUN",8,1 {tape users should
into you. The direction and speed
When you first play, it seems to be type LOAD "BUMP-N-RUN",U)
your player travels is controlled by
purely an action game—all speed and SYS 49152 to begin play. Be
the joystick. When you first push
and reflexes—but after you and sure to have two joysticks plugged
the joystick, you move slowly; keep
your opponent master the basics of in. Press RESTORE to exit the
pushing and you'll accelerate. Press
the game, you'll discover the im game, and SYS 49152 to replay.
the fire button to shoot the ball.
portance? of having a strategy.
When the ball is released, you lose
The object of "Bump-N-Run"
your speed, but the ball continues
is to get the ball and shoot it into
on with your previous speed and
the other player's goal. Of course,
direction. Make sure your shot is
your opponent is trying to do the
accurate, because once you shoot
same, and this is the conflict which
the ball you can't catch it again un
is the heart of the game.
til it bounces off a wall. Remember
that you can steal the ball from your
Typing It In
opponent at any time simply by
Bump-N-Run is a machine lan
bumping him. The first player to
guage game, so you must use
score 15 goals wins, and the game is
"MLX," the machine language en
reset when both players press the
try program found elsewhere in this
fire button.
issue, to type it in. Be sure you un One player has the ball and is threaten Here are a few more details
derstand how to use MLX before ing to score. The other is going to try to concerning the physics of the game.
you begin entering the data for steal the ball hi/ humping his opponent.
When players collide, their veloci
Bump-N-Run. After loading and
ties and directions are exchanged.
running MLX, respond to the
Collisions with the walls cause
prompts with the following: Bumping And Running players to bounce back. A player
Starting address: COOD As with many computer games, the may go beyond the walls only if he
Ending address: C6A7
best way to learn this one is by is pushed by another player.
Save a copy to disk or tape playing it. The game begins with
when you've finished typing. To the ball in the middle of the court See program listing on page 112. a
AA COMPUTE'S Gazsrte November 1986
m

„-.

■'■■■■

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■ PIS -.-■
"" "

Imtiel

BHpB
-.■■'■
Obstacle 128
Stephen Cheng

Here's an example of how to tap the power of BASIC 7.0. It's a several strategies to this game, but
short program and uses no machine language—yet the result is in general the player who carves
a fine, fast, two-player, hi-res action game. For the Commodore out the most area and commits the
128. fewest mistakes will be the winner.

How It Works
"Obstacle 128" is a short two-player Trailing behind each player is a The program is divided into three
arcade-style game for the 128. At a wall of light, which both must avoid parts: the setup of the screen in
length of roughly IK, it's a much hitting. Eventually one player or the lines 10-40, joystick control and
more condensed program than a other gets trapped in an ever- graphics in lines 50-200, and sound
similar version for the 64 would be. shrinking area and crashes into a effects and scoring in lines 210-
The game concept is not new. wall. The survivor wins one point. 320. Let's look at the program in
It's basically a version of the classic After typing Obstacle 128 in, some detail.
Tron game where two light-cycles save a copy. To play, load it and In line 10, GRAPHIC 3,1 turns
duel to see who survives. Four type RUN. Be sure to have two joy on the multicolor graphics mode
choices face you as your light-cycle sticks plugged in. The first player to and clears the screen. SOUND
tools around the playing area: Do accumulate five points is declared 3,100,30000 generates an incessant
you move up, down, left, or right? If the winner. There is some variety in beat of a low frequency (100 cycles
you make no choice, you continue every battle as the size of the arena per second) for 30000 jiffies, so this
in the direction in which you were changes and the players start mov will last 8 minutes and 20 seconds,
already moving. ing in different directions. There are enough for the whole game.

Lifocom introduces four new earn


Infocom,™ the crazy people piqued, you'll embark on a rowdy and profound. You journey
who brought you "Zork"® and romp through the solar system. through a time warp into a mis
"The Hitclihikers Guide to the This hilarious spoof of 1930's pulp chievous fantasy world where all
Galaxy,"'" has a habit ofcoming science fiction lias 3 "naughtiness atomic explosions are mysteri
up with games that add a new levels," for the prude to the lewd. ously connected. "Trinity" takes
dimension to interactive fiction. "Leather Goddesses" is sure to you back to the dawn ofthe
And the best keeps getting bet amuse members ofeither sex. atomic age and puts the course
ter. Case in point: "Leather God One's really warped. ofhistory in your hands.
desses ofPhobos."11" Ithasa One's a real circus.
Then there's "TVinity."™ It
scratch n' sniffcard and a 3-d It has been said that the
answers the question ofwhether
comic book to excite all your circus is the only really mysteri
a game can be both light-hearted
senses. Once your interest is ous thing left in civilization.
] One thing's for sure, there
is plenty ofmystery in
"BaUyhoo.'MMWMe trying to
locate the circus owner's kid
napped daughter, you are
somersaulted into a three-
ring world of deception and
ciime. To solve the ciime
position of the first player, and A signs a number to variable Jl de
and B are the coordinates of the sec pending on where joystick one is
ond player. In line 40, X is subject to pointing. If the joystick is untouched
a little randomness, as is A, so that (centered), Jl equals zero and the
the players start at different x coor program skips the next four lines,
dinates when the game begins. Y Lines 60-90 control the direc
and B are set at 100, so both players tion of movement of player one, ad
will start in the middle of the screen. justing the x and y coordinates based
Next, random values are as on the current state of the joystick.
signed to J and K, the directions of Line 100 sees it the cyclist
movement of player 1. If J is 1, the bumps into anything such as his
player travels to the right, and it J is trail, the other player, or the arena
Note how both players have closely walls. LOCATE X+J,Y+K moves
— 1, the player travels to the left. If
followed each other in an attempt to the pixel cursor to the new position,
K is 1, the player moves down, and
cut each other off. Current positions which is calculated by adding the
if K is — I, the player moves up.
are in the upper left section of the direction of movement to the play
Since this game has no diagonal
screen.
movements, one of the two direc er's current position. Then we read
tions has to be zero, while the other the dot color of the selected pixel,
Line 20 sets the background is nonzero. L and M are the corre using RDOT(2). If the color is either
color, the border color, and multi sponding movement directions for 2 or 3, player one has crashed into
color 1 and 2. A random number player 2. Notice that L = j and something and lost a battle. Thus,
between 30 and 69 determines the M = K, so both players will start in line 100, if RDOT(2) > 1 THEN
size of the playing field. The handy traveling in the same direction at J3—1. ]3 is a flag which signals
CHAR command places text any the beginning of the game. whether the player has crashed or
where on the screen. The +S and not. Line 110 updates the position
— 5 in the DRAW commands are The Main Loop of player one, and the DRAW com
used to shrink the y-axis (the After the board is set up, we're mand puts a small dot with color 3
height) of the arena. ready to start the game. Lines on the screen representing the
Line 40 generates the locations 50-200 are the main loop, where all player.
and the starting positions of the the action takes place. The joystick Lines 120-180 are the analo
combatants in the arena. X and Y reading function (JOY) is quite gous lines for player two. The only
are the x and y coordinates for the handy. In line 50, ]1=JOY(1) as thing different is that new variables

es. One really smells.


Castle and get involved with an
eccentric cast ofcharacters,
including British nobility, while
trying to save your best Mend
fc from a vengeful ghost. "Moon-
mist" offers four distinctly differ
ent sets ofdues, problems,
Every package includes an inttgml set ofprvps solutions and hidden treasures.
to fxcile yoursemts and enkante the game.
So you'll die to replay it again
and save your hide from a per and again.
manent spot in the freak show, All four are easy to get.
you'll need to stretch your
Simply follow your nose to
puzzle-solving skills to the limit.
your local software store today.
One's really haunting.
Wrapping u^ this new quartet
is a classic gothic mystery set in
inFoconv
a haunted castle on the mist- Or write to us at 125 CambrulgeFark Drive,
shrouded seacqast of Cornwall. Cambridge, MA 02140.

In"Moonmist"IW you'll explore & Jnfocnjn, Inc. Zork \e a reei'l erol Irak mark anil Ri%-
hwj, TrijiJlJ\ l.palher Goddesses of I 'Fiubci bfill Moonml^L
the darkest reaches ofTresyllian are tndemuta of J nfoeoir.. Inc, Thp Hilchhik*r> GuidUd
t be GlLuy i * i: r. 1 ■■ t ■: - of llou j(la» A dtnu-
are needed to store the data for
player two.

CONVERT YOUR
Line 190 tests whether either
player has crashed. If so, the pro
gram jumps to the scoring section
in lines 210-310, Line 200 directs

COMPOSITE
the program back to the start of the
joystick-reading part beginning at
line 50 to continue with the move
ment of both players.
The final part of the program

MONITOR
contains the routines for scoring,
sound effects, and printing crash
messages on the screen. Line 210
makes an explosion sound and
prints the CRASHED message for
player 2. Lines 220-230 detect the
rare occurrence when both players
crash at the same time. Line 240
prints the CRASHED message for
player 1. Line 260 creates another
explosion, and the computer
SLEEPs for one second so that the
players can view the screen for a
short time. The two scores are con
verted to strings, because CHAR
can't handle numeric variables, and
printed to the hi-res screen. Lines
280-290 check whether either
player has won five matches. If so,
Inc. perform. All
a congratulatory message is dis
Introduces ihe components
KGIil Conversion necessary for
played for the winner, and the pro
System! Now you can convert your assembly are included. For those re gram jumps to line 310. Otherwise
1702 composite monitor* to true, quiring additional assistance we have J3 and J4 (the collision flags) are re
100%, full color RGB] Call three provided a technical support number set to zero and another round begins.
Huns driven separately)! Vfiih ilie Hip to call, we are firmly committed (0 There are several ways pro
of a switch go to composite or Wild. customer support. grammers could modify and en
This is not an emulation of RGB! or a So don't wait any longer — Ret hance the game. When a player
mono the full use of your monitor — crashes into a wall, perhaps you
chrome convert it to RGB! with Digfifek, Inc.'s
could use CIRCLE to draw a series
cable RGB! Conversion System! Just send
of concentric circles to mark the
and $49.95 plus S3 ^0 for postage and
spot where the crash happened.
handling.
quires Fur more information or 10 place Then flash the hi-res screen by al
no software your order call our customer service ternating background colors
or use of line at (813) 933-8023, or write to: (COLOR 0) a few times. You might
computer memory With DigiTek, Inc., 10415 N. Florida Ave., also want to experiment with the
nur conversion system your Suite (10, Tampa, Florida 33612, sound effects and the victory song
composite monitor IS an RGB] There is a S5.00 additional charge at the end of the game. To make the
monitor for C.O.D. orders. Dealer Inquiries game more challenging, use CIR
F.ujoy ihe full potential of your welcome. CLE or BOX to put some barriers on
CUB - USE (if the 80 column mode, 'Conversion available for all com the screen. The players would face
tin- hij;h resolution mode and Ihe full
posite monitors, write or call for the additional challenge of avoid
1 MHZ speed. All this with a picture
further information. ing the obstacles.
quality that equals any factory built
RGB! monitor (but for a fraction of It wouldn't be especially diffi
the price)! cult to convert Obstacle 128 to a
Our conversion system is a hard
ware add-on and requires minor
DigiTek, Inc. one-player game—you against the
computer. A simple technique for
assembly. The system comes com 10415 N.Florida Aw, Suite 410 moving the computer player is to
plete with detailed instructions for Tampa, Florida .W>1- use RDOT to check for an imminent
converting your monitor. Our con collision, then pick a right or left
version process is simple and easy to (813) 933-8023
turn. A slightly more intelligent rou
tine would look ahead, to see which
direction has more empty space.
See program listing on page 116. O
M\A S TIE R\TRJMIlI C
m*

SPEED KING
Rated the best motor cycle
race game on the
Commodore 64/128. Race
on world class circuits
against nineteen tough
competitive riders in the
action game of '86.

Rm*l]

quences yet

■.■•.-"■ ■ ;\
mam

VIDEO POKER
i

-l awesome
The great gamble always »
pays off in these realistic ;peeds Wou
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gas poker and
achine
escapes in o«
the most
lrca*
games w

RELEASE
s Hunte,
PRO-GOLF
. -'■ - A totally realistic joystic
Tolled golf simulation
knocks "all other golf
Mastertronic programs are now available at all
ames into the rough."
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Also featured at good software dealers and locations ■ club controls and full 3D
of Caldor, Crazy Eddie, Gemco, Electronic Boutique, | perspective animated
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CROSS

NO CENTER

Match Blox
Mark Tuttle

If you like puzzles, try your hand at one of the five variations
of this entertaining solitaire game for the 64, Plus/4, and 16. A
joystick is required.
FOUR CORNERS
"Match Blox" is a solitaire puzzle
game in which you try to solve any
of the five variations in the fewest jjj 1
number of moves possible. Each
game is played on a 3 X 3 matrix of
squares, and each square is colored

IP
blue or orange. The object is simple:
Manipulate the squares until they
match the pattern displayed.
The program listing (Program
1) for Match Blox is for the Commo
dore 64. If you have a Plus/4 or 16, You must think ahead for success in FIVE POINTS
this solitaire strategy game for the

il
type in Program 1, but substitute
the lines from Program 2 for the Commodore 64.
corresponding lines in the Program
1 listing. To select any of the five games,
After you type in the program, move the joystick left or right. Right
save a copy. To use it, plug a joy increments the variation number (it
stick into port 2 (port 1 on the will roll over from 5 to 1), and left
Plus/4 or 16), load it, and type decrements the number (it will roll
RUN. The program first displays over from 1 to 5). Press the fire but
the titles of the game variations, ton when the number displayed
numbered 1-5. A box at the bottom corresponds to the game you wish
of the screen displays the number 1, to play.
which corresponds to the first game The patterns to be matched for Matching The Pattern
variation. (If you want to start with each of the game variations are as After you choose a game, the screen
this one, just press the fire button.) follows: displays the game board in the cen-
SO COMPUTEI's Gazette NovamBer 19B6
SOFTWARE
THAT TALKS
AGES 2-8,

IBS
, • ■
,i,

C-y
I*": ' ! '::■

i Tcautl*! nunlilrii". II lnlUmiirv l,t>tf«un' iironauni •■ and iiiliiiminrb iiiutowiM and imiiiTi Biwwvri ■""■
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M>llwnrc i-iiiii i.. mi i ic iii [itoplili i mi!
.m.iiiiiibIihi play amlon to ptovlrie v"" i h»li i i" ii that i "i-11 i i»»i
IMftl I FlWp <i> llUIUO . i'iii|iuli>r ixi vk tun vuitii ttiu heytaoaidl ">i"« *■!>■ NQTKTQ PAHINTBi Alter loading
'iCp|H.V,il|. N'l IptttilAl 'i nili'^ilH1 b ti"»<< lawon* miiy '»■ un|uyuil by yatir
quited la iiiitint v"n' ■ omjiui Ihl ,:. i wa tidadiy i hlld Ihrauoh 1 hlldren wldtaul 1 1 :
talking 'I1"." i■ l'■ coutn hi ■ ■ Hi. I jili i. luiiiimini i nil mi oil lultt>r HHliiKvlMim. KctW"V^rt Uii'
tutrali inomlnfl h.mih [di • h&ltknn null uilntl " '" " "■>"■>' Typlno ilu> iiuhi i iiin ni 1 imi 11 viiin. 1 .in ii ihannad
iiuiK ii Tbol ini tmiutu lelltn imii ii miuntryatdo IlUw! <«iili hy vutM' p.11"' 11 I"UL
Capital null Idwui hum loltor inn,i'.it nl mnil ob|m ti i"
Idontltli i'11 hi <i lutybonnl lin;>n Ililllilil. ftHUfl 1 t
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Mounth ui »w"i lODwendN. LttmuH Themi nitt* your child M) Idtuill
Mpntlal relntlonibl}>ii (lalti right, !!■!■ llegl ii| li-tturot Ihewonln
,11. -.1-iii i,l in i.i-'-mil "I'wii MUImIihn ihj
i i l)

FACTSHEET/Ollliin linriINt; 201.934,7373 FjREBIRO LICENSEES INC. P.O. BOX 49, RAMSEY, N.J, 07446
(iir.i-.iinniiil i.i i ■!! .nil ill.mi MARKS 01 CIIMMIHKIIII DUSINES9 MACHINES.
SCIENTISTS
When we started our
company on the west coast,
people thought we were a little
spaced out. So you can imag
ine their reactions when we
announced we'd discovered
s
a new universe.
People laughed. People
scoffed. And they really freaked
out when we told them where
we'd found it:
Inside a Commodore 64.
It's called GEOS. And it
turns any Commodore into a
powerful PC that holds its own
against any computer, no matter
what kind of fruit it was named
after.
GEOS: The superior
intelligence. Of course, we
always knew Commodores
possessed superior brains. It just
took GEOS to discover them.
You see, GEOS opens your
Commodore to a huge universe "■■<!.-... '
that can hold an infinite number of
applications. Which means that
GEOS can do just about anything
the expensive PC's can do,
including one thing they can't:
Add even more GEOS
applications that are being Not twice or three times as Every universe conies
developed even as you read this. fast. But five to seven times complete with a desk. The way
Increase your speed to faster than normal. Which lets to keep order in our universe
warp factor 7. The first thing you streak through files and is with the GEOS Desktop. It's
you notice with GEOS is how documents at what seems like just like your desk at home, only
its diskTurbo speeds up your warp speed. without the coffee stains.
Commodore's disk loading and And that saves you endless The Desktop keeps your art
storing time. time. and documents filed, and comes
-*■ wmwmm mm nHnam ■

W UNIVERSE
with all the accessories you need Running out of space.
to keep you organized: With GEOS, that's hardly likely.
An alarm clock keeps you Because there's endless space in
punctual. A notepad keeps your the universe for new applications.
memos. And a calculator keeps Unfortunately, there's only so
your accountant honest. much space in this ad.
How to communicate So zip down to your nearest
with a new universe. With software dealer. Tell him you want
geoWrite, you can rearrange your to explore the new universe in
written words. Move blocks of your Commodore.
copy. Cut and paste. And even
thing about a new universe is rM°WX\i.\Q.rt
display your text in fonts of
finding your way around. But . rt-. - - , ._._v-_ff.

different styles and sizes, right


with GEOS, you only need to
on the screen.
remember two things: You uA t* pbflHd 14 bnoiu itj

With geoPaint, you become


i****f*Ai ft tht poll

Point and click. nrrw ixHVtlt tf ilit jrnpic

a Michelangelo with a mouse.


When GEOS offers you
options, you just point to your
answers and click your mouse or
JflH HP HUB
joystick. If I Qojmi Sti
You want to draw? Point
and click. And if he looks at you like
You want to write? Point you're some kind of alien, well,
and click. just tell him Berkeley Softworks
You want to fill in that obtuse sent you.
rhomboid with an air-brushed The name is universally
geometric pattern in a lighter known.
shade of pink? Point and click.
Sketching and painting with all To order, call 1-800-443-0100 cxt. 234
Easy, huh? And in case you
kinds of colors, textures and GEOS is just S59.95
ever do make a mistake, GEOS (California residents add 6.5% sales i.-ix.)
patterns.
backs you up with an "Undo" $2.50 US7S5.60 Foreign for shipping and
You can invert, mirror and hiindlinfi- Allow six weeks for delivery.
feature that undoes the very last Commodore 64 and C64 lire trademarks of
rotate images. Insert them into
command you entered. Commodore Electronics. Ltd. GEOS, GEOS
your geoWrite documents. And Desktop, jjeaPaint, geoWrile, diskTbrbo nnd
Herkeley Softworks are tradenames of
save them in your GEOS Photo
Berkeley
Fl Softworks
Berkeley Soft works.
Album for use later.
Finding your way through
the universe. The most difficult

The brightest minds are working at Berkeley.


THE UNIVERSE
Well, we told you it
wouldn't be long until the
first GEOS applications
were ready. And these are
just the first. The number
of satellites in the GEOS
universe is infinite.
Judge Font Pack on
looks alone. Let's face it.
People judge your work not
only by what it says, but
how it looks.
That's why we devel
oped Font Pack. A collec
tion of 20 different type
styles that not only say
what you mean, but really
look like they mean it.
is charming.
Boalt is all business.

financial. And Telegraph


is... hmmm, well, you
get the point.
When you combine
these 20 fonts with the
five you get with geoWrite,
your work not only reads Look what we
found in your desk. You
Boalt know how there's always Shop, Print Master and
one drawer in your desk Newsroom for use in
Durant mykonos that's filled with really neat geoWrite and geoPaint.
Harmon Slinoi h stuff? Well, GEOS has one The Desk Pack
of those, too. Calendar pops up whenever
LeConte Xiiden It's called Desk Pack. you need to plan your
Putnam Bowditch The ingenious Desk schedule. And since it's
Pack Graphics Grabber valid until the year 9999,
better, it practically speaks copies graphics from clip you'll never have to miss
for itself. art galleries like Print one of those swell family
IS EXPANDING.
New discoveries
reported. The GEOS
universe is expanding* And
we'll report each new dis
covery to you as it occurs.

In the meantime, add


Desk Pack and Font Pack
to your GEOS system.
And see how much you
can explore.

1
• ;■ -*■■:• 1^ -. J
I w 1 t ■>
1 i 1

1 t r t t w ii

It 11 M » Ii ir U

11 19 ii H 11 H n

Jl 17 11 14 11

03 Q3 ES

reunions ever again. deals the sharpest Black To or^ call 1-800443-0100 ext. 234
Font Pack $29.95 Desk Pack S34,95
There's even an Icon Jack game this side of (California residents add tJ.5% sales lax.)

Editor, which lets you Vegas, complete with $2.50 US/S5.5O Foreign for shippingand
handling. Allow six w^eks for delivery.
customize your GEOS file graphics and sound effects. Ccjmmudore 64 and C64 are trademarks of
Cortnodore Elcclronics. Ltd. CEOS. GEOS
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Super Graphix ter and the pattern to be matched on
the right. The computer randomly
selects blue and orange squares, and
places them on the game board. Be
Includes: cause the choices are random, there
are over 500 possible initial configu
Utility Disk rations for each pattern.
A flashing cursor appears at
With the center of the game board when
play begins. Select the square you
27 Fonts wish to change by moving the cur
sor with the joystick to the square
And and pressing the fire button. Only
the orange squares may be changed.
Font If you press the fire button while on
a blue square, nothing happens.
Creator Choosing one of the four corner
squares (1, 3, 7, or 9) reverses the
GRAPHICS and FONTS plus an 8K BUFFER for Ihe ultimate In performance and color of that square and the three
speed. The XETEC Super Graphix Interlace (or Commodore Computers now
offers a new high In technology with these features: adjacent squares. Choosing an edge
• 8K Buller Standard • Capable of Slofing 2 Additional Fonls square {2, 4, 6, or 8) reverses its
• 10 Printing Modes • Correct Graphlcs/Tant Aspect Ratio tor color as well as the two adjoining
• 3 Internal Screen Dumps all Major Printers corner squares. If you select the
• Extensive Command Channel * a Aclive Swilchas with Changns
• Resat Button to Halt Printing Constantly Monitored center square, its color is reversed
from Buffer * Internal Fonts Support Super-script. and so are the colors of the four
• Switch Settings on Label for Subscript Underlining. Bold-face and edge squares.
Quick Reference Choice of 9 Pitches
• Correspondence Quality Foni Built-in

1 2 3
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4 5 6

COMMODORE BRAND SOFTWARE 7 3 9


FOR THE 64 AND 128 COMPUTERS
BELOW ORIGINAL WHOLESALE Don't worry if at first it takes a
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Assembler S15
There's no limit to the number of
Kickman(C] $5 Business S3
Super Expander (C) 12 Clowns (C) 5 English I 3
moves you can make. A message
Pilot 14 Visible Solar Sysiem (C) 6 English II 3 will inform you when you solve the
Screen Editor 12 Tooth Invaders (C) 6 English III 3 puzzle. In games 2-5, be careful not
English IV 3 to change all the squares to blue. If
Blue Print fC) 6
EDUCATIONS LEARNING English V 3
Solar Fox (C) 8 you do, there are no legal moves
English VI 3
ABeeC's(C) S6 Star Rangers (C) 8 available—remember, you can't
English VII 3
EZMatch/EZ Count 6 Viduzzles(C) 8 Math I reverse a blue square—and the
3
WhatsNext 6 Satan's Hollow 10 Math II 3 game ends. It's suggested that you
Fisfimetic 6 Triad 9 Math III 3 tackle game 1 {UNI-COLOR} first.
Chess 10 Math IV 3
INFOCOM MIND GAMES MaihV
It's the easiest of the five. When
Rail/Speedway 10 3
Math VI 3 you've mastered this one, try the
Zork II $11 NOTE ALL SOFTWARE Math VII 3 others.
Zork III 11 IS ON DISK EXCEPT Math VIII 3
Suspended 11 WHERE NOTED WITH A Science I 3
Starcross 11 (C) WHICH IS ON CAR Science II 3
Strategy
Deadline 11 TRIDGE. Science III 3 You'll probably develop your own
Science IV 3 way of solving the puzzles, but if
ORDERING INFORMATION: For fast delivery send cash Technology 3 you can't seem to get anywhere, try
iers check or money order Personal checks allow 3 weeks History 3
to clear. COD charges S3.00. Please add 5% (or shipping to establish some sort of symmetry
Games III 3
and handling with a S3.00 minimum. Florida residents on the board and then make moves
please include 5% sales tax. All goods are new and factory sealed, All sales are final.
which maintain that symmetry. This
will make it easier to solve the puz
S & R MARKETING TO ORDER CALL TOLL FREE
1-800-523-4874 zle, since all the goals are symmetri
PO. BOX 9597
IN FL CALL 305-685-5423 cal.
CORAL SPRINGS. FL 33075-9597 BETWEEN 9 a.m -■ip.m.E.T MONDAY - FRIDAY
See program listings on page 117. ®
56 COMPUTE!'! Gazelle November 1986
NUMBER ONE ARCADE HITS...

--V-

FOR YOUR COMPUTER.

tan

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picturesque settings In this leading MarllaJ rebel forces. Armed with only a machine evil forces through the five dangerous
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CHAMP. For the Commodore 64"/l 28 through the enemy lines to reach the fort captive fair maiden. For the Commodore
and the 48K Apple II ■ Series. ress. For the Commodore 64'"/) 28. 64"7128 and the 48K Apple ll» Series.

Apple and Commodore 64 are trademark* of Apple Com DATA EAST USA, INC.
puter. Inc. and Commodore Electronic!. Lrd. respectively.
470 Needles Drive, San Jose, California 95112
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Vizawrite Classic 128 the words representing the desired
command and subcommand.
Vizawrite Classic 128—written by Kevin of your printer. The program then ai- The word processing commands
Lacy, author of Ommwriter 64 and Vi- lows you to go through an extensive se are fairly standard, using function and
zastar 64—may just be the most power ries of options to define exactly what control keys. There are two quirks that
ful word processing tool presently you want to print. Vizawrite's use of the may represent differences between Eu
available for the Commodore 128. printer is so extensive, however, that ropean and American command con
Frankly, it's hard to imagine needing a setting up a file to print the way you ventions. First, the DELete key erases
word processor to do something that want may take some time initially. Be the character on which the cursor is
Vizawrite cannot do. Besides having all tween working through all the options placed. Second, commands executed
the standard word processing features and figuring out which are appropriate with the CONTROL key (such as CON-
that users have come to expect, such as for use with your printer and the docu TROL-E, which begins and ends the
moving, copying, and deleting blocks ment in question, preparing to print is boldfacing of a portion of text) are ac
of text; searching and replacing words not simple. Fortunately, once you've complished by pressing CONTROL
and phrases; and centering, justifica completed the exercise, your choices and releasing it, then pressing the E
tion, and highlighting of text, Vizawrite can be saved with the file. 1 found it key. The most common convention re
has many extraordinary features. Those useful to set up the desired printing op quires holding down CONTROL while
include the ability to do news letter-like tions (and screen colors) and save a pressing the other key to complete the
columns, a glossary of frequently used blank file to disk. Then before creating command.
words and phrases for quick insertion, a new document, i load in the blank file The formatting of text is accom
onscreen highlighting of text (boldface containing the desired options and save plished by the use of embedded codes
and/or underline), and automatic for the time and trouble of setting up the and what Vizawrite calls a format line—
matting of each page as you type. Ex options for every new document. a dotted line that appears above the text
cept for certain text enhancements, An additional printing capability of to be manipulated by the desired for
such as italics, Vizawrite is a "what you Vizawrite is its built-in proportional and mat commands, such as tabs, margins,
see is what you get" word processor, near-letter-quality (NLQ) fonts. The line spacing, column setting, and page
permitting you to see onscreen what program offers four different propor breaks. Additionally, special printer
your document will look like when tionally spaced fonts and three different codes can be defined on a format line,
printed out. Vizawrite has over 59K of NLQ fonts. However, 1 could not get all allowing the user to embed the neces
text memory, enough for a 25-30 page of the proportionally spaced and NLQ sary codes in the text to produce special
document. Of course, the program can fonts to work with my Epson printer. characters or text enhancements, such
link multiple files for creating extra long Also, the NLQ fonts only permit 49-1/2 as international characters, italics, and
documents. To top it off, all of these lines per page, as opposed to the stan super- or subscripts.
features are in the 128rs 2 MHz fast dard 66 lines per page. The fonts that While the embedded codes, format
mode and are displayed in 80 columns. worked with my Epson looked ex lines, and faint dots Vizawrite places in
In addition to these many ad tremely good. In fact, the Vizawrite text between words—-and wherever else
vanced word processing features, Vi- user's manual was produced using the the user leaves a space using the space
zawrite provides a great degree of program's NLQ fonts, bar—may be visually distracting, Vi
control and flexibility over the system. Usually, the price of such power zawrite provides the option to hide such
You can easily customize the display and versatility in a word processor is formatting symbols. You simply press
colors to your own choosing, and when complexity and difficulty of use. How CONTROL and then H, and the for
a screen is customized and the file ever, Vizawrite does an admirable job of matting symbols are "hidden" on the
saved to disk, the color choices are making itself relatively easy to use. Vi screen, thereby permitting you to view
saved along with it. A built-in calcula zawrite utilizes a command bar at the your document almost as it would ap
tor with memory is available from a sin top of the display screen and drop pear when printed on paper. I say fl/-
gle keystroke, as well as online help down menus for most file, disk, print most because some text enhancements
windows that you can customize. A full ing, and utility commands. To activate are not displayed on the screen, such as
range of disk commands is available the command bar, simply press the italics, condensed print, superscripts,
from within the program—you can for Commodore key; then use the cursor and subscripts. Seeing your document
mat new disks; save, scratch, and verify and RETURN key to drop a particular as it will appear on paper as you are
files; and perform any DOS commands menu down into its subcommands. editing is a tremendous feature in a
available from BASIC 7.0 (such as From there, you again use the cursor word processor—one that cannot be
switching a 1571 from single-sided to and RETURN keys to activate the de overstated. Besides allowing you to be
double-sided format and vice versa). sired subcommand. However, once you more creative while writing, the hide
Vizawrite allows you to take full become familiar with the commands option saves you a significant amount
advantage of your printer's capabilities available, you can employ a much fast of time because you don't have to
by employing a "printer profile" sys er command execution by simply press switch between an edit and a preview
tem allowing you to create a custom ing the Commodore key and then the mode or print out the document to see
printer profile to meet the exact needs key corresponding to the first letter of how it will appear on paper.
58 COMPUTE!1! Giuode November 1986
COMMODORE
64C

1-'tjt1v1t't't1tT'i'yit't't:7'~
KWrVrrrT t» 'rW~

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Yet another great feature of Vila- program should look to, it does not me, but after a while I gained a feel for
write is its integrated 30,000-word dic allow simultaneous use of two disk Zelazny's world and an interest in Cor-
tionary, which allows you to access the drives. Frankly, I find it easier to flip the win's situation. But then I hit a snag, a
spell-checking functions from the com lever on the disk drive and switch disks puzzle I simply could not solve. So I did
mand bar without having to save your than to remember the command to the only reasonable thing: I gave up.
document file to disk before checking switch to a different drive number. Restoring games with the 1541 drive
the spelling. The spell-checking abili Vizawrile is not a program you can encourages surrender.
ties include listing the words in your load up and use immediately. Fortu Then I read Zelazny's books, and I
document alphabetically, according to nately, it comes with a fairly well- decided to return to the game. Every
usage, and by unrecognized words. written and concise manual, as well as a thing became, of course, much clearer,
Provided are several utilities which couple of example document files on and I began to move through the story
allow creation of a user dictionary for the program disk. While infrequent us very quickly. I even got past the snag,
specialized use, and expansion and re ers will probably find themselves leaf because it is something Corwin experi
structuring of the existing dictionary. ing through the manual periodically to ences in the novel. Suddenly, though, I
The package includes a disk con refresh their memory on certain com realized I was doing everything per
taining the Vizawrite program on one mands, the frequent user should be able haps loo quickly; having read the
side and the dictionary on the other, to shelve the manual after the first few books, the challenge simply wasn't
and a cartridge for the user port. Since documents produced. there. I began to wonder if I was going
the cartridge must be in place before the All in all, Vizawrite is a top-notch to just walk through the entire thing.
program will load, the disk is supplied program. Its power, versatility, and de
to the user without copy protection. sign leave little room for disappoint
This enables you to easily make backup ment. It could become a, if not the,
and working copies of the program and word processor of choice for the 128.
dictionary files. I must note, however, The only noticeable shortcoming is the
that I'm not crazy about having to plug absence of an option to use a 40-
in the cartridge every time I want to use column display, which makes the pro
the program. Between the Vizawrite gram unusable to 128 owners with a Walk Shadow to Arden
cartridge, a cartridge to use Vizawrite 40-column monitor. Solid State Soft Vou begin to notice strange Ihtnas
happening (o 1 He world outside Inecar...
128, and my fast load cartridge, I find ware has indicated that enhancements Itw countryside Is scattered wild large,
myself pulling cartridges in and out to Vizawrile are in the works that will slowly turning wimfmllls...a sudden and
violent Ihundeistorni, slratigely colored
much more often than I'd like. enable it to take advantage of the RAM ciourfs rolling ove'liead. Avast doseit
The program works with either a suriounds you...(tie roadway begins to
expanders for the 128 as RAMdisks, !
1571 or 1541 disk drive, but is fairly and to add a font editor permitting you
slow to load even on the 1571. Once to define your own font styles.
loaded, however, the program disk is —Scott Thomas As it turns out, I didn't. After a cer
no longer needed, thereby eliminating tain point, the adventure veers signifi
Solid State Software
most of the disk-swapping headaches cantly from the course of the book. A
1125 East Hillsdak Blvd.
of a single-disk-drive user. In fact, the new plot emerges, reminiscent of the
Suite 104
program is almost easier to use with a original, but not merely a clone. You
Foster City, CA 94404
single disk drive. While Vizawrite al still play the'role of Corwin, but Cor-
$79.97
lows the user to define which drive the win's new tasks differ from his original
tasks. But then I began to wonder if an
Amber newcomer, one who had never
read the books, would ever have made
Nine Princes In Amber it this far. I know I wouldn't have, and I
suspect the same is true for others. Still,
An interesting recent development in try to ally with you in your quest for the even for newcomers, the story is a good
interactive fiction is the adaptation of throne. On the way you must learn the one, and those who hit snags can al
novels into computer text adventures. art of fencing, and you must successfully ways run to the library or the bookstore
While lnfocom's The Hitchhiker's Guide walk the Pattern of Amber. and read the original.
to the Galaxy is among the most famous If you understood the previous Nine Princes, then, combines the
of these, Telarium Software has special paragraph, you'll enjoy Telarium's established story with a new one. In do
ized in them from the beginning. With product. You have also read the books. ing so, it finds the balance between
early titles such as Fahrenheit 451, Ren If you didn't understand the paragraph, Amber newcomers and Zelazny veter
dezvous with Rama, and Dragon world, you still might enjoy the product, but ans. Newcomers can play and enjoy the
Telarium has had plenty of experience that is nearly impossible to predict. The game, albeit with a fair bit of difficulty,
bridging the two fields. majcy difficulty in adapting novels to and veterans will find something new
Nine Princes hi Amber for the Com interactive fiction is, I think, finding the to interest them.
modore 64 demonstrates the pros and balance between those who know the The game has two outstanding fea
cons of such an enterprise. Based on the original and those who do not. If the tures. First, it uses a large vocabulary
first two novels of Roger Zelazny's adventure slavishly reproduces the for interaction and diplomacy. Con
well-known Amber fantasy series, the novel, players who know the story will versing and dealing with other charac
story takes you, in the role of Corwin of quickly become bored. But if knowl ters is simple and interesting. Second,
Amber, through many adventures on edge of the original is assumed, players at certain points you enter the fencing
your hopeful path to the Amber throne. who have not read it will easily become game, with commands such as Parry,
You begin, like the Corwin of the book, confused. Nine Princes in Amber reflects Thrust, and Feint that really work. Im
in a hospital bed, the victim of amnesia, these problems, but in the end it is a pressively, both features are as essential
and from there you play out many of creditable adaptation. to the game as they were to the novel.
the book's most important scenes. You When I first tried the interactive Because these features, along with
meet your siblings—Eric, Random, Flora, version, I had not yet read the original. the adherence to the original story,
Deirdre, Julian, and others—whom-you The whole thing was very strange to show the game's faithfulness to the
60 COMPUTE! s Gazene November 1986
Tokyo for $19.95

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dealer, or write or call SubLOGIC for more information.

stafeLOGIC
Corporation
713 Edgnbrook Drlva
Champntgn ILG1B20
{217) 359-M6? T» -• .
novels, Nine Princes in Amber is a comers and recent readers should also tasks become more comprehensive—
worthwhile adventure game. With find it worth looking at. for this process to be handled separate
added touches such as graphics screens —Neil Randall ly. Although your effort must be pains
of important scenes, and occasional Telarium
taking, you can optionally enter
bursts of music, the game captures quite compositions note by note through the
Spinnaker Software
nicely Roger Zelazny's weird and un Voice Monitor Window, one voice at a
One Kendall Square
predictable world. ! suspect it will ap time. Most users will probably choose
Cambridge, MA 02139
peal most to veterans who have not to play "rough draft" tracks on a key
$32.95
read the novels for a while, hut new board (synchronized aurally to previ
ous tracks and visually to the
metronome) and then polish things
with the editor.

The Music System And Whereas music/sequence files are


saved from the keyboard and editor
The Advanced, Music System modules, it's the synthesizer module
that creates sound files. Sound files arc
From Firebird come The Music System might have implemented the more in groups of 15 "instruments" (waveform/
and its big brother, The Advanced Music tuitive back arrow and cursor control envelope combinations) and four sets of
System, the latest and perhaps most keys—the latter remain unused in filter parameters. A single filter setting
comprehensive single-disk "music pro either package. is available to all instruments simulta
cessors" for the Commodore 64. In The basic Music System package neously; it may be switched in or out
tended for musical hobbyists, both consists of two modules—a keyboard/ for each instrument as desired. Al
packages are thoughtfully designed editor and a synthesizer—one on either though only one sound file is active at
and well-produced, and they sport ex side of the disk. Both modules contain any given time, a second is coresident
cellent documentation, including many sequencers. The programs write and ac in memory and may be manually
helpful diagrams. cess the same music and sound files, and "swapped" on a moment's notice.
Both systems are substantial and the systems are 100-percent compatible. Experienced music hobbyists may
complex. You'd need to spend some Synthesizer modules in The Music Sys miss the presence of ring modulation
time and effort on both programs, as tem (TMS) and The Advanced Music Sys (there is no way of getting bona fide
you would with any complete system of tem (AMS) are virtually identical. In AMS, bell tones), sync, and voice 3 envelope
this scope. Outstanding features in the keyboard and greatly expanded edi and oscillator modulation. Perhaps this
clude extremely clean hi-res graphics tor are separate, however. Additionally, is why the packaged sound files (two in
and Macintosh-style pop-up menus AMS includes linker, printer, and MIDI TMS, three in AMS) tend to sound rather
and icons. The programs also function programs—all accessed through a mas bland and unexciting. Also, there is no
well with monochrome monitors, and ter icon menu. These add-ons expand way to tune voices to near unisons, for a
joysticks are not required. Icons and system capability, but the TMS basic sys rich, chorus effect. Filter cutoff points
other graphics insure that anyone with tem is complete and workable on its are preset by the user and cannot
minimal musical background may ap own. It's also much more approachable "track" oscillator pitch.
proach these systems—another real for the beginner. However, this just opens the door
strength, which should also facilitate The keyboard modules allow you for perhaps the most innovative device
use by those whose primary language is to enter—either in "tinker" or record contained in TMS and AMS—the Dy
not English. The advanced system will mode—notes and rhythms from the top namic Response Envelope (DRE). The
even insert bar lines or automatically two rows of Commodore 64 keys. This DREs are three-stage control-envelope
correct them for you. arrangement gives immediate access to contours, available either once per
The systems are operationally almost two octaves of pitches. Octave event (note) or repetitively. There are
well-conceived. Four function keys ac shifts higher and lower are available— two of them for each instrument: one
cess standard sets of menus throughout as are a number of other options—by modulates pitch and/or pulse width;
(Files, Values, Commands, Info). And pressing special key combinations. It is the other, filter contour. Each stage is
the space bar advances you clockwise these combinations that are difficult to expressed in terms of number of steps
(or counterclockwise) around the remember. One voice only may be per (time), slope of curve (rate), and step
screen to access the various devices per formed at a time. On playback, you time (overall speed); they roughly cor
tinent to each program or to highlight a may select up to three voices. An ever- respond to envelope segments (and
desired menu selection. Pressing RE present visual metronome icon—with programming) on Casio CZ keyboard
TURN enters your choice. The RUN/ variable tempo—keeps you in time, to synthesizers. (Slower step times can
STOP key always starts/stops se three varying degrees of resolution. In create a limited range of "sampling" ef
quence play. And the Commodore- AMS, it optionally "clicks" if a voice is fects.) As useful as this capability is, it's
RUN/STOP key combination initiates available to play it. too bad that there are only three stages
record mode. You may watch the single voice (a simple pulse modulation, like a mod
Below this level, things get more you play through the Voice Monitor ern police siren, requires four stages),
complicated. It's difficult to remember Window. In TMS, you can also view all and that the contour ceases automati
which key(s) to press for what. Where three voices on playback. This is the cally at the onset of the note's release
options are most numerous—in The same window through which you edit: stage. This should be an option, not
Advanced Music System—a most wel add, delete, change bar lines, pitches, automatic.
come "Quick Key Reference Guide" is rhythms, and instruments (which can The advantage of the DRE ap
provided. (An innovative, but more ex be redefined at any point—an impor proach to modulation over the tradi
pensive solution would be to create a tant feature). AMS doesn't use this win tional "voice 3" method is that it allows
custom input device, such as a touch dow to edit since it has a separate three-voice harmony to continue, and
tablet. It seems that many special- editing module. that all voices may be modulated simul-
purpose systems would be friendlier The keyboard/editor module in taneously, even with contrasting
with similar peripherals.) Lacking such TMS is a most useful hybrid. Of course, contours.
a device, The Music System designers it's appropriate in AMS—where editing One other notable characteristic of
62 COMPUTBIS Gazette November 19B6
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■ Built-in telecommunications module: access - RUN MAGAZINE
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...So clearly superior,... State-of-the-art
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■ Maximum document size expanded to -ANTIC
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■ Insert/Delete, Move & Copy, Cut & I'aslc, computer."
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INCLUDED Solutions
the synthesizer module is its ability to Here are my recommendations. If well as the writer of the liner notes.
repeat sequences infinitely while you you primarily want rich and/or "wild" Fortunately, Superbase 12S has the
try out different instruments. It's like sounds, are looking for a full-featured power to do all this and more because it
changing instrumentation while the MIDI sequencer/editor, or are a profes is a programmable database. And being
piece is playing—a real arranging tool. sional composer/arranger, these prod programmable means that it has a great
Of course, there is also a key to press for ucts are not for you. But consider The deal of flexibility, not only in creating
a single tone or repeats thereof (you Music System seriously if you are an av records, but also in accessing infor
may specify pitch and duration). erage hobbyist seeking a reasonably mation from records once they have
In AMS, editing capability is great priced, single-disk music package to ex been stored.
ly expanded to include the handling of periment with or for making short, sim If, for example, you want your
triplets (notably missing in IMS), multi ple arrangements. If you want an Deadbeat file to print out (to screen or
ple repeat structures and "loops" (infi introduction to MIDI (wish to use a real printer) everyone who owes you more
nite repeats of specified sections), and keyboard) or want to make longer, than ten dollars, it is easily done. Or, if
"macros" to facilitate the editing of more involved arrangements, take a you want to access your invoice files to
groups of notes (even complete voices). good look at The Advanced Music Sys find out how many widgets were sold
Also included is a "notepad" file which tem. (A $40 upgrade to The Advanced between May and July of 1985, the
can be separately saved to facilitate Music System is offered with the basic number of multiple sales, the number
moving material among voices, reposi package.) Both are solid, state-of-the- of repeat customers, and the average
tioning it or copying it, and so forth. In art pieces of software. cost and selling price per widget, it can
contrast to TMS, the editor transposes in —Art Hunkins be done.
notation as well as in sound. The key to doing all this is in two
Firebird Licensees
Don't look to AMS for anything parts: designing your files at the field
P.O. Box 49
fancy In terms of MIDI capability. How level, and being able to write a program
Ramsey, N] 07446
ever, the basics are covered, You'll need that will tell Superbase which file to re
The Music System, $39.95
a SIEL or Passport MIDI interface plus a port on and which fields to manipulate.
The Advanced Music System, 579,95
MIDI keyboard. With them, you can For the former, Superbase allows
enter data from an external keyboard for easy creation of records. From the
one voice at a time, edit the MIDI music first menu screen, you select Edit and
files, and then play them back through
the MIDI keyboard. Unfortunately, for
Superbase 128 are then presented with an almost
blank screen. Type the title for the field,
editing, files must be converted from Superbase 128 is a database designed such as Lastname; specify the type of
MIDI type to the normal AMS format. specifically to take advantage of the ad field (text); then set the length of the
Whereas MIDI allows up to six tracks, vanced features of the 128. As such, it field according to the maximum amount
AMS files are limited to three voices, offers a lot: full 80-column display, of information you may have to enter
and they eliminate much important automatic booting, and formatting of (up to 255 characters for text, up to nine
musical information (such as pitch both sides of your data disks (with the digits for numeric).
bend, slides, after touch, modulation). 1571 drive). And to keep everything When you get to a Date field, de
Each MIDI track is limited to one voice, both readable and easy on the eyes, the fine it as such and it will accept no other
and only one MIDI keyboard can be default screen colors are green on black, type of information. (If you use the Cal
controlled by the sequencer at a time. emulating a monochrome monitor. endar designation, entering any date in
As a simple sequencer storage device, Rather suddenly, your computer is dis ihis century will cause Superbase to sup
and for keyboard pitch and rhythmic playing the power you knew was there. ply the day of the week.) Similarly, a
input, the MIDI module would seem But now what do you do with it? Numeric field is designed to accept only
most useful. I am unaware of compara If you haven't yet used a database, digits and may include up to four deci
ble hobbyist-oriented packages which a few definitions are in order so that mal places. Use this for amount owed in
offer this feature. you'll better understand the features to your Deadbeat file.
The AMS linker module allows you be evaluated. You can go on with this for quite
to create link files, which are collections The smallest part of a database is some time: Each record can contain as
of individual music files. Longer ar the field. This is one item of infor many as 127 fields and comprise as
rangements, with complex sectioning, mation, such as a name. Multiple fields many as four pages (screens) of infor
are thus possible. make up a record—for example, the ad mation. Further, Superbase places no
Finally, the printer module permits dress, phone number, amount owed, limits on the number of records that can
hi-res dot-matrix printing of one to and so on. Multiple records comprise a be contained in a file. Think of this as a
three voices, at the rate of 10 to 15 min file. Ideally, all records in a file will constantly expanding file cabinet; each
utes per page. Commodore and Epson have a common denominator, such as time you add a new folder, the cabinet
(Epson-compatible) printers are sup everyone who owes you money. And grows to accommodate it.
ported. Although printing details are multiple files—everyone you know— If a record is to contain calcula
especially clean, the result is only mar comprise a database. tions, you'll also want to specify a field
ginally useful since each voice is widely Uses for a database go far beyond to hold the result of those calculations.
separated from the others and is printed merely keeping lists of names and ad Once you've finished and saved the
on a double (grand) staff rather than on dresses for your Christmas card list. De form of such a record, you'll be prompt
a single line. (Note thai, with three pending on how powerful a base is in ed for a calculation for the Result field.
voices, there is only one system per allowing you to manipulate fields, re In the case of our Deadbeat file, we
page.) This module also includes a text cords, and files, it may also be useful in could answer the prompt with:
option, where you add text to the lead building an invoicing system; keeping a
[balance] — [amount owed] — [amount
voice. Text is saved as a separate file, "preferred customer" list complete
paid]
and several useful spacing options are with date and amount of last purchase;
provided. One limitation is that text is and cataloging your collection of Barbra This example illustrates the pro
printed out only (optionally) under the Streisand albums with information on grammable part of Superbase, and it can
top voice. composer and lyricist of each song, as be as simple as that. Dozens of new,

64 COMPUTE'S Gazette November 1986


BUILT

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RESULT: You have hours more time to enjoy all those great pro
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(plus S2.00 shipping and handling) by calling
1-800-346-6767 (in NY 1-212-887-8525).
plain-English commands have been storage is to disk rather than to RAM.
added, and you'll be able to use all the
math operators you've used in your
While this process takes a few seconds
mote than simply storing the record in
GREAT
other programming endeavors. memory for later storage on the data
Once a file of records has been cre
ated, you'll need to specify the type of
disk, the time would certainly be worth
it in the event of a power failure or a
k PRICES
system lockup: Everything done up to ON
information you wish to extract. Though
the menu offers an Output option, this the time of trie crash would be saved.
DISKS
*
prints each record in full (to screen or Superbase 128 was created by Preci
printer)—and this may not always be sion Software and is marketed by Pro
desirable. gressive Peripherals & Software. * WEOONTSELL
*. FANCY NAMES.
For those times when you may Precision also developed Superscript T sur we sure
128 for word processing (also marketed *SELL THEIR DISKS;
want to see only the most pertinent
parts of a record, there's an easy-to-use by Progressive Peripherals), so it's not
Report Generator included in Supvr- surprising that the two programs are in
qiriurr. hi&h Hdiiaiiin.
base. Answer the prompts concerning tegrated. With such an arrangement,
file to work on, calculations, breaks and it's possible to design a database report
subtotals, and so forth, and the genera that picks out only the names and ad ■ nJ. k^i*|i nviir

tor builds a BASIC program that will dresses from a file (and only the ad IVffO MAKES
* UNITECH DISKS?
manipulate the information just as you dresses within a particular zip code if
you like) and affixes them to form let
want it to be manipulated.
To check this out, select Program ters created with Superscript. A nice
from the menu and you'll see your re surprise is that Superbase can also work
port in program form, complete with in this way with Commodore's Easy- '■JJ ••■Biinnmi*

line numbers. As with any BASIC pro Script as well as with other word pro
QUALITY!
gram created on the Commodore, full cessors that create sequential files.
To sum up, Superbase 128 is a pow *;;;
screen editing allows you to alter or add
erful database, one of the most power
UP LITE1IU

to the program as you wish.


'PROPERLY PACKAGED & PRICED!
While the documentation of over ful available for Commodore computers.
200 pages does all it can to provide clar —Ervin Bobo
ity and detailed instructions, it does fall Progressive Peripherals & Software
somewhat short as a reference tool. The 464 Kalamalh St.
novice, following the step-by-step in Denver, CO 80204
structions in the three extensive tutori S99.95 ©
als, will be able to create an address list,
Eir tfnih C»ll Tar HIQ' BMLt TOO M0_ IK 5
a simple invoicing file, and a more com m lullII H-".IFc"lie -UM" !■:
plex invoicing file—but only exactly as ;j\' : '.r - 'r; i -. :i ■-. ". :-:: \r

stated in the book. For any kind of re DISCOVER THE H" JIE i: i.i i;« tcvr rn-rti.-''i iumJitiai'Mt™
4 K 'Hi oinnir igr \m ii -uflr i ;s i n i fiei es
port generation that is not detailed in HIDDEN POWER!
IJ
iinijfn njn rnr Mic "UDJ NB'NINIVM II
the documentation, you must have OBubll lide Icr Mac A Amlgai JUHfl I H I III il BBl^J
Control lights, appliances, heating & cooling SLilViS !!.-hni iini -S.I V '" 3iCi
something more than a nodding ac systems, relays, motors and virtually any *
SlIHIS iMlliM HIV ,1e|SE '
quaintance with BASIC. electrical device.
Connect lo temperature, light, sound, mois
In storing records, Superbase oper ture, fluid level, pressure and vibration sen MORE GREAT PRICES
ates on a "key field" basis. Any field in sors - plus many more. UP*IN* QH.

Use os an advanced security system.


a record can be specified as the key, and
Perform automated tests and experiments. )+■ Illi1 10f DISH FltES h«ldk JD 5-1*1 >
in our Deadbeat file we would probably Use Tor laboratory data acquisition. )f- r.UhH FLU1 lO-l1 iTOHli^l MLI pi,.|h I
want that field to be LASTNAME. Access each memory mapped port via one
statement in BASIC. NO liSTKRFACB
p

Though the explanation is simplified,


l ■■ \ l i, ._■:-.■„ '

4 ■>.. di^ii »ir i»


COULD BE EASIER TO USE.
think of it this way: When a record is 32 separate buffered digital output lines.
32 separale digital input lines.
completed and stored, a separate direc
tory consisting of only the key fields is INCREDIBLE PRICES ON ACCESSORIES!
UNI.NOTCH RIGID.PAK , SURGE
set up on the disk. To access the record, NOTCHER DISKETTE T JBflTECTOR
specify the last name. Superbase picks it ■7,"> ^ MAILER/CARRIER

out of the key directory and finds a


pointer leading to the full record. It is in
this way that Superbase can retrieve a villa.. 11 iiiu

record in 0.3 seconds—and that's fast. ♦ PHil.jNi ICr. ! KILUllil BI 17 Hi Ml 111 ]? 9] =PRLiQ« IS'J LJ »J1 ** J

You may direct that your sort be on irieeONt r*ncpso« hi fu iiic -mutc i4th* iz nisu
*FTI0»ON^ rOlrlPPlt IHltEVrlUllH CIldM PBOWHirE- - : : I '
"
j
Expands lo meet your needs: "Flirt PFfOTECT TtES. bIiIH 1110 Libi H DO L0C4 l*b^ 14 *
a field that is not the key field, but re
1 channel A' D plug-In conversion modulo: 130.
trieval will not be as fast. You may also Bctiannol A'O plug-In conversion module: 145. * DS/DD COLORED .DISKS from h
do multiple sorts on as many as 34 User Manual Includes Instructions, sample programs
S diagram! ol lypjcal hookups.
fields: With this feature you could call BH100 !'■;■■■ iim.V Si.1 '.
j^ 1h> IB- PC. ^["-.D-.E.bH-L A»« II HAfk CtifiTitlff. 1KV» ili«
up the records of those who owe you Beginner') Module wlln B lED'S, 8 IwllchM On0 1
IOC «9L SM CJ< IOW lib
rolay: |25.
money; who live in zip code 63146; Beginner's UO Inlnrlaca Course Book: |19. HOW TU i . kv MC

who have blue eyes; and who part their BW100. Beginner's Modulo ano1 Course Booh: 1159.

hair on the left side. And that is only


wlHuluuiclmrdef 5100 1-0U Ui..(^h 111

four fields deep. Complex sorts require lnlemR«>!l/OTIac P,O.Bm70


more time. Poi.rlum.NT I36T6 (315)36114350 JOJ MUHLEr - t i | . : 4.

I also like the manner in which a WNITECH ATUPrJDCf. MAD2T4J^I»

record is entered. When it's complete,


(800)343-0472
66 COMPUTEfs Gazette Novomber 1986
BBS 64 or 128 $39.95 •*■ V
Tfiese &*B full performance BBSs IhaE Include all the options □■ the big
boards including 30W12QQ baud, remote accoss, printer oclions, 10 levels
ol security. X-Modom-New Punier S Mldwesterm Protocols Ttieso pro
grams use one or two disk drives, are easy lo set up and run. Anyone can do

N-CODER&D-CODER $29.95
These are Machine Language helpers everybody should hava. O-Codsr
reads daia right off ihe disK and gives you an English translation of each
command Can oe used to examine any Machine language programs aro-
leciion routines N Coder ALLOWS YOU TO MAKE CHANGES IN MACHINE
LANGUAGE PROGRAMS . FLIGHT ON THE OI5K Now oolh programs are
included in one pnea

GRAPHIC LABEL MAKER $24.95


This program will allow you lo use graphics provided or use your Print Shop
Graphics when you print your labels. It also works wMh Ihe XXX Haled Dala
Dish XXX All you hava to do is insert 3unesof text men choose tna piciure
you want lo run ihan, prim and your done.

A-COPY and TOOLS 64/128


This is the llrBt lull featured copier with a complete aol of lools lo go with It. Tharo ar«
none belter or fasier than A Copier Parameter are buitt fn and require no additional rime

MAGNUM LOAD $29.95 apont looking for ihe right parameter LIKE ALL THE REST REQUIRE...
The copier is fully automatic, last and easy to use Th>s copier will work wilh one or two
1541s drives or,..1571s in the 04 or 128 mode Other maior features include...Fast File
Magnum Load is a new replacement for (fie kernal ROM lor both ma C-64 Copy. Hesmon. Drive Alignment Prg. Directory + and; Drive Monitor.
or C-12B. Magnum Load will increase your load speed by Bx lasier In mosi Lilt ol ■ viDibit fulum
cases it will load lasier (nan FasiLoad or Macfi 5 Unlike Fastioad and A-Copier Fast File Copier
Mach 5, usinn Magnum Load allow! your carl'ldoe port lo be 'res lor olner Hesmon by Heawaro Dfiwe Ahgnrnenl Prg.
use.
Directory • Write Prolecl
Bootmakor Unnew a Program
Drive Monitor Repair a Track
10 See Formal

$24.95
This package is Ihe mosi elfoctive tools available at any price. This package also
comes with a compteie eoiy to understand manual lor ail programs listed
PHOTOCOPY
Photocopy i£ a graphics integration program used lo transport
favorite graphics Irorn One program lo another, IT can converl Print Shop lo
your
$39.95
Newsroom, Hi-Rea lo Print Shop or Nowsroam Pholocopy works wMh a
variety of files doodle, Flexidrsw, Prlnl Shop, Screen Magic. Graphics
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C-64/128 TERMINAL PACK. +

$29.95
WARGAMES
AUTODIALER
This is a full featured package...I! has EVERYTHING already SPECIAL DEALS
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name a few.
with QUANTUM LINK S 1 9.95
DISK NOTCHERS $ 5.99
THE SOFTWARE
PROTECTION HANDBOOK $29.95 128 40/80 COLUMN
Over 250 pages that cover software protection, copying, pro ADAPTER with SOUND $12.95
tect and unprotect software, and the legalities involved. This
FOURTH EDITION includes Track Trap, Ihe most unusual and 10 FOOT LONG
inovative protection analysis tool for the C-64 yet! This addi
tion will allow you to load an BK block of data (a whole track at
DRIVE CABLE $ 7.95
a time) Into the drive, then sends it over to the computer (or
modification before saving it back to the disk. This allows you
to copy virtually any track.

Dnsler and Dlsitrllmtor InquirBB Invltad. To place your order Cy phone Call (208) 6877178
or in Canada call (70S) 7488081
Enclose Cashiers Check. Money Order or
Personal Check. Allow 2 to 6 weeks for For mail Orders:
delivery.

M.00 S S H on ill ordan MegaSoft or in Canada MegaSoft Canada ltd


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A Practical Program

Richard Mansfield Screen Test putting a 4 into our pointer, we're


Senior Editor directing the action to the fourth
10000 LDA #4
page (4 " 256 is 1024, the start ad
10002 STA 253
dress of the screen RAM cells in the
10004 LDA #0
Last month we started using the 64 and 128).
10006 STA 252
primary tool of machine language When you want to POKE a
10008 TAY
(ML) programming: an assembler number in ML, you must first enter
10009 TAX
to create executable programs. Now that number into a register. The ac
10010 STA (252)Y
let's put our assembler to work and cumulator is the most often used
10012 CMP (252)Y
write a program for the 128 and 64 register. We LDA (LoaD the Accu
10014 BNE 10037
which will test RAM memory. mulator) with 4 by using the # sign
10016 DEX
The program will POKE in ev before the 4 to show that we mean
10017 BEQ 10023
ery possible number (0-255) that the actual number 4 rather than
10019 TXA
can be held in a RAM memory cell, whatever number might be current
10020 JMP 10010
and it will then check to see wheth ly held in address 4. So our first job
10023 INY
er that number really made it into is to set up a pointer, and we load
10024 BNE 10010
the cell to which it was POKEd. the accumulator and store the 4
10026 INC 253
Aside from allowing you to spot de (STA 253). Pointers are two-byte
10028 LDA 253
fective RAM chips (the routine will units, so we then put a zero into
10030 CMP #8
report the address of any offend 252, the less important part of our
10032 BNE 10010
ers}, it will allow us to explore some pointer. Address 252 points within
10034 JMP 10044
fundamentals of ML programming. the page defined by 253. So, by
10037 LDA 253
This month we'll set it up to test storing a zero into 252, we're leav
10039 LDX 252
screen RAM so that we can see it ing the pointer at 1024. If we put a 6
10041 JSR 36402 (JSR 48589 for
working {128 users should set the into 252, the pointer will point to
the 64)
screen to 40-column mode). address 1030.
10044 RTS
Take a look at the "Screen When you STA, the register—
Test" program below. When you the accumulator—still holds the
first start to learn ML, the three- number you copied to the target ad
letter codes which are its com bier, insert a comma between the dress. So, we can take advantage of
mands seem quite mysterious. right parenthesis and the Y in lines this by transferring the zero still sit
Actually, there are about as many 10010 and 10012: ),Y. ting in the accumulator to the X and
commands in ML as in BASIC and, When you're finished, you can Y registers by TAX and TAY. We
as you would expect, you'll use SYS 10000 to test it. The screen will could have used LDX #0 and LDY
only about 20 of them most of the be POKEd with all the possible £0, and the effect would have been
time. However, where BASIC spells characters—but it will happen too the same; we just took a shortcut.
out command words, ML abbrevi fast to see. After each cell has been We're zeroing X and Y because
ates. For example, RETURN in tested, the letter A, the last POKE, we're going to use them as loop
BASIC is the equivalent of ML's will remain behind. counters. You don't have FOR-
RTS (ReTurn from Subroutine) NEXT commands in ML, so you set
command; BASIC'S X = X + 1 be up your own counters. Our main
comes INX (INcrement X); and
A Feel For The Language loop starts with STA (252)Y, which
GOTO becomes JMP (JuMP). But Let's now go through the program causes whatever is in the accumula
you get used to these abbreviations step by step to get a feel for how the tor to be stored into the cell pointed
very quickly. to by the pointer we set up plus the
language works. We start off by
If you're using the simple as putting a 4 into address 253. Ad value ofY. In this first pass through
sembler published last month, give dress 253 is going to be a pointer this command, Y is a zero, so a zero
10000 as the start address of this into memory. It will always hold is stored in address 1024, and we
program and then type in the three- the page of the address being acted then compare what's in the cell to
letter ML commands in the pro upon while we PEEK and POKE what's still in the accumulator
gram. Note the different number at during the program. Memory can (CMP). They should be the same
address 10041 required for the 64. be conveniently divided into 256- unless RAM is faulty and can't ac
If you're using a different assem- cell chunks called pages. So, by cept the zero we just stored there.

72 COMPUTEIs Gazette November 1986


One good book... deserves another... and another...
COMMODORE ^ COMMODORE COMMODORE ^k (^\ (^\
TViE AUTWORrTATTVE
INSIDER'S OJ IDE
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The Osscripliva
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TRICKS & TIPS


INTERNALS 1571 INTERNALS

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GOTO And NEXT we jump back up to the start of our a new, higher 256-byte-size chunk
If there is a failure, we are sent off to POKE-PEEK loop at 10010. of RAM).
an error-reporting subroutine at ad When, however, X has counted If, however, we have finished
dress 10037 within our program. down all the way to zero, we move with page 8, we jump down to the
BNE means Branch if Not Equal. It ourselves to the next higher RAM RTS (RETURN) instruction which
causes the program to GOTO its cell in memory by raising the num sends us out of ML and back into
target address if the previous action ber in the Y register. (Recall that Y is BASIC.
(the CMP in this case) was not being added to the pointer address, The commands at 10037-10041
equal. In other words, if the number so by raising Y we access a higher access a subroutine built into the
currently in the accumulator is not RAM address.) computer itself. It's located in ROM
the same number discovered in the But Y—like the accumulator, BASIC and, for BASIC, it prints line
RAM cell sampled by the CMP, the the X register, and any single mem numbers to the screen during LIST.
branch takes place. Conversely, if ory cell—can hold only numbers However, we can use it to print the
the compared numbers are equal, between 0 and 255. So, eventually, address of a failed RAM cell if we
the program passes right over the Y will go to 255, and then when we simply load the page and cell point
branch and ignores it. An ML try to INY, it will reset itself to zero. er numbers into the accumulator
branch, then, is the equivalent of It's at this point that the BNE com and X register, respectively, before
IF-THEN-GOTO. mand located at address 10024 fails JSR (Jump to SubRoutine). e
Now we come to the ML equiv to trigger us back up to the start of
alent of BASIC'S NEXT command. our main loop, and we fall through
DEX reduces the X register by one, to the command at address 10026,
COMPUTED
and BEQ (Branch if Equal to zero) which raises the page number in GAZETTE
tests to see whether the X register our pointer by one. (INC means in
has reached zero yet. If so, we are crement.) Then we load the page
TOLL FREE
branched out of this loop and sent pointer into the accumulator and Subscription
down to address 10023. However, check to see whether it is yet an 8
while X is still counting down, we (which would mean we've reached
Order Line
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the value of X (the next number we return to loop through the next In IA
we're going to be POKEing into the page (we just INCed the page 1-800-532-1272
RAM cell currently under test). Then pointer, so now we're ready to test

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summary of what each command
does. Later sections of this article
contain programming examples

Fill-64
and additional information about
these commands.

FILL number,color,xl,yl...
xnumber,ynnmber
The FILL command paints a poly
Hubert Cross gon of the specified color at the des
ignated screen location. The first

This exciting graphics utility for the Commodore 64 adds 15 parameter (number) indicates how
many vertices (corners) the shape
new commands to BASIC. "Fill-64" allows you to paint any
has. For example, a triangle has 3
solid shape on the hi-res graphics screen at a speed that's fast vertices; a square has 4; and so on.
enough for animation. Once an animated sequence is complete, Use a vertex number of 1 to draw a
you can store the entire animation on disk or tape, to be re dot; a vertex value of 2 draws a line.
played at a future time. No machine language knowledge is The second parameter {color) sets
the shape's color, using the same
needed to use this program.
color numbers explained in your
user's manual. After these values
you must supply an appropriate
If you're interested in high-resolu must enter the following lines in
number of x- (horizontal) and y-
tion graphics on the Commodore immediate mode (with no line
(vertical) coordinate pairs. To draw
64, you may have used programs numbers). Don't forget to press RE
a triangle, for instance, you need
that add commands such as PLOT TURN at the end of each line.
three pairs of x,i/-coordinates, one
and DRAW to BASIC. Most of these POKE 51,25S:POKE 52,63 pair to define each corner. This
programs allow you to draw a POKE 55,255:POKE 56,63
statement draws a triangle:
closed shape on the screen with NEW
lines, then paint it with a command FILL 3,2,10,10,50,10,30,50
These statements move the top
called something like FILL. Fill Notice that the FILL command
of BASIC memory down to a point
commands of this type often suffer 24,577 bytes lower than usual. That automatically displays the hi-res
from two drawbacks: They cannot screen. No special command is
leaves 14K for BASIC programs,
draw over existing dots on the more than enough for most applica needed to switch from the text
screen, and they are much too slow tions. The reserved 24K area is used screen to hi-res.
for animation.
to store Fill-64 and its data. It's very
"Fill-64" lets you paint a solid
important that you perform this SWITCH
shape anywhere on the hi-res step every time you wish to use Fill- SWITCH moves from one hi-res
screen, even over existing shapes, 64; if you don't, the program can't screen to the other. If you're in
The program works so fast that it work properly. screen 1, SWITCH flips you to
can even be used for animation. Next, load Fill-64 with LOAD screen 2, and vice versa. SWITCH
Since it adds new commands to "PROGRAM",8,1 for disk or ordinarily erases the screen that it
BASIC, Fill-64 is easy for anyone to LOAD "PROGRAM",1,1 for tape. previously displayed. If you per
use, With simple commands such Replace the name PROGRAM with form SWITCH from the text screen,
as FILL, CLEAR, RECORD, and the name you used when saving the Fill-64 displays screen 1 without
PLAY, you can draw complete ani
program with MLX. When the pro erasing its contents.
mated sequences, store them on gram has loaded, type NEW and
disk or tape, and redisplay them at FLIP
press RETURN to reset the comput
your convenience. FLIP works exactly like SWITCH
er's BASIC pointers.
To activate Fill-64, type SYS but does not erase the previous
Typing It In 33846 and press RETURN. Fill-64 screen.

Fill-64 is written in machine lan makes two hi-res screens available CLEAR
guage and must be typed in with at all times. When you first activate This command erases both hi-res
"MLX," the machine language en the program with SYS, it clears screens. It's useful at the beginning
try program found elsewhere in this both screens and displays screen 1. of a program.
issue. However, no machine lan Use the function keys to switch
guage expertise is required to use LOWRES
from one screen to the other. The f5
the program. Read the MLX in key displays screen 2. To return to The LOWRES statement switches
structions carefully before you type screen 1, press f3. The f7 key clears to the text screen under program
Program 1, and be sure to save a the current screen, and fl returns control. In immediate mode (when
copy when you're done. Here are you to the normal text screen. you're not running a program) you
the addresses required for Fill-64: can also do this by pressing the fl
Starting address: 83FF Fill-64 Commands key.
Ending address: 981F
Fill-64 adds 15 new graphics com SETCOLOR border, background,
Before loading Fill-64, you mands to BASIC. Following is a hi-resl, hi-res2, hi-res 3
76 COMPUTEIs Ga. effe November 1986
BY THE TIME YOU FINISH THIS AD,

YOUR READING SPEED 2500%.

See Spot. See Spot run. tected program.


Go boy It also recovers lost files or
Yes, your Commodore erasures in seconds.
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But today, you're going to your head turn.
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FIVE TIMES FASTER. WITHOUT GRIEE
Press two keys. Now, even a complete
And your 64 or 128 will novice can create com
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And so on.
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a serious wink. the name anything you want. a hundred new commands that
You can direct commands to As long as you do aren't even in BASIC 7.0.
the drive, or have the drive send it twenty-five A QUICK CONCLUSION.
up a directory I times faster We could write volumes about
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Sets the screen border, background, enter Programs 2 and 3 as you would The triangle moves one pixel to
and three hi-res colors. The default any BASIC program. the right. When an animation re
colors for Fill-64 are white, blue, Program 2 creates several dif quires more than a few frames,
black, yellow, and white, respec ferent animations. For each animat you'll probably want to use a pro
tively. ed sequence, the program switches gram loop. This example moves the
RECORD into RECORD mode, then performs triangle all the way across the
a series of FILL commands. Then it screen with a FOR-NEXT loop:
This command records animated
replays the animation with PLAY
graphics sequences. It tells Fill-64 KP 100 FOR X=50 TO 150
and optionally saves the animation. QC 110 FILL 3,2,10+X,10,50+X,1
to "memorize" every graphics com
When you run Program 2, it asks 0,30+X,50
mand that follows, until it encoun AP 120 SWITCH:NEXT:LOWRES
whether you wish to save the ani
ters a REWIND or PLAY statement
mations. Answer yes (enter Y) the Notice that the triangle moves
(see below). As a reminder, Fill-64
first time you run the program, and off the screen without painting any
sets the border color to red when
be patient—some of the more com unwanted areas. Fill-64 automati
ever RECORD is active.
plex shapes take considerable time cally clips the edge of any shape
PLAY to calculate. Notice how much fast that moves across a screen border.
Replays an animation previously er the animation proceeds when re It faithfully paints only the visible
recorded with RECORD or stored played with PLAY. When Program portion of a shape as long as its co
with DPUT or CPUT (see below). 2 has finished, you can run Pro ordinates do not exceed the range
When Fill-64 is PLAYing an anima gram 3 to load and replay all the -32768-32767.
tion, it can be interrupted only by animations in rapid sequence. To
See program listings on page 118. a
pressing RUN/STOP-RESTORE. gether, these two programs demon
strate the complete process of
REWIND
drawing, recording, reloading, and
Exits RECORD mode. In effect, this
replaying an animation.
command "rewinds" Fill-64's re
Fill-64 has two limitations
corder to the beginning, erasing
when painting. First, you can draw
any previously recorded animation.
any solid polygon with as many as
MEMORY 18 vertices, but the polygon must
Prints the number of bytes avail be convex—that is, its inside angles
able for RECORDing animations. must be equal to, or less than, 90
degrees. To draw a shape contain
DPUT "filename"
ing obtuse angles (angles greater
Saves an animation to disk. Replace than 90 degrees), break it down into
filename with any legal Commo two or more convex polygons. For
dore filename. instance, a star shape can be built
DGET "filename" from two triangles, one placed up
Loads a previously saved anima side down over the other.
tion from disk. Second, although you may
start defining the polygon at any
CPUT "filename"
vertex, you must proceed in a clock
Saves an animation to tape (the file wise direction. The FILL command
name is optional). ignores any vertex written in a
CGET "filename" counterclockwise direction. This
Loads an animation from tape (the feature is extremely useful for elim
filename is optional). inating hidden surfaces in three-
dimensional objects.
Let's look at a simple example.
Fill-64 Techniques
This command paints a small trian
Program 2 demonstrates just a few
gle in color 2 (yellow):
of the effects you can achieve with
Fill-64, from detailed kaleidoscopic FILL 3,2,10,10,50,10,30,50

patterns to three-dimensional ani The first value (3) indicates the


mation. Program 3 loads and re number of vertices in the shape, and
plays the animations created by the second (2) indicates the color.
Program 2, using the full speed of The remaining values contain the
Fill-64's built-in machine language coordinates for the triangle. This
routines. Since these programs use program shows how SWITCH flips
Fill-64 BASIC commands, you must These photos illustrate just a few of the
from one hi-res screen to the other.
install Fill-64 as described above thousands of hi-res graphics designs you
can create with "Fill-64," a sophisticat
before you type them in (naturally, FC 108 FILL 3,2,10,10,50,10,30
ed graphics utility. Using new BASIC
you must also install Fill-64 when ,50
commands such as FILL, RECORD, and
XD 110 SWITCH
ever you wish to run these pro PLAY, you can draw animated graphics
CX 120 FILL 3,2,11,10,51,10,31
grams). Once Fill-64 is active, press ,50 sequences, store the animation on disk
fl to return to the text screen; then HE 130 SWITCH or tape, and reload it for future viewing.
80 COMPUTEI's Gazelle Novem0er1986
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128 Instant Keywords

Shawn K. Smith by one-byte tokens. For instance, cordingly. If you're unsure of the
the command PRINT is stored in token value of any keyword, type
Save time and typing effort with this the computer with a token value of in this program:
short utility for the Commodore 128. $99 (153 decimal). Because the 128
GA 10 GOTO30
Up to 52 keywords can be entered, has a larger vocabulary, the design
EF 20 HEM "PLACE KEYWDRD HERE
each an easy-to-remember, two-key ers of the 128 decided to use two-
combination. byte tokens to represent some of HS 30 BANK15iB=PEEK(45)+12+PEE
the new commands. All of the new K(46)*256iPRINT"KEYTORD
[SPACEjVALUE(S) » ";
"Instant Keywords" can drastically two-byte commands use $CE or BD 40 H=PEEK(B)lPRINTRIGHTS(HE
reduce the time it takes to type in a $FE as the first byte of the token. In XS(H),2);' ",
program. This utility prints a BASIC stant Keywords will allow you to AE 50 IFH-254ORH-206THSNB-B+1!
7.0 keyword when the Commodore use any keyword except those that
GOTO40

or SHIFT key is pressed in conjunc begin with $CE as the first token
In line 20, type the keyword
tion with a letter key. For instance, value. (This eliminates the use of
for which you want to find the
pressing the SHIFT and L keys dis only eight keywords.)
token value. Run the program and
plays the keyword LOOP. A total of The last 52 hexadecimal values
52 keywords can be displayed in it will display the token value for
in the loader (beginning with 0B in
this fashion. Refer to the chart for a the keyword you've inserted.
line 200) are the token values of the
list of the key combinations. Also, keywords displayed by Instant Key See program listing on page 121. <B
pressing the SHIFT or Commodore words. The first 26 hex values are
key while in quote mode displays for the SHIFT key (the token for
the standard graphics characters SHIFT-A is the first, and the token
rather than a BASIC keyword. for SHIFT-Z is the twenty-sixth).
Instant Keywords is short and UNBRANDED
The last 26 values are for the Com
easy to use. Although it contains modore key. If you plan to add to
mostly machine language (ML), 100% ERROR FREE,
kens for any two-byte commands, LIFETIME WARRANTY
you don't have to know any ML to leave off the first byte ($FE)—the Wilh Hubftngs.WnWPioleclTsBj,
Tyvec Envelopes. Uwr ID Labels -
use it. In fact, you can just type it in program knows that it is a two-byte In Factory/Sealed Poly Pacha

and run it as a BASIC program. command and will adjust itself ac-
(YOU GET EVERYTHING BUT THE BOX)
PfllCESAREPEX DISK
First, type in the program and then 5V. 3V,"
save a copy. When you run it, the Lctler SHIFT Commodaie 55DC OSDD DSHO96TEI ss OS

BASIC loader stores the ML in an .47 .52 1.69 1.39 1.65


area of RAM which is determined A SLEEP STRS
B BEGIN BEND SPECIAL OFFER! DATFA0"Se
by the value 5 in line 100 (changing
C CHRS COLOR i •■ '■■'■I OH SV." Dliktild
JUST 03.UU HOLDS Ml
the value of S will relocate the utili D DOPEN DCLOSE
{With OrOtr af 100 3 ii.-i.i:
ty). Once the data is stored in RAM, E ELSE ENVELOPE

the utility is activated, the address F FOR FILTER PRINTER RIBBONS


G GOTO GOSUB
to deactivate/reactivate it is dis
H HEX$ DEC
played, and the loader is erased I INPUT INSTR
from memory. Pressing RUN/ J JOY PLAY
STOP and RESTORE is another K DRAW CHAR
Apple imagewnter S3.95 ajch
L LOOP LOCATE
way to deactivate the program. Apple Scriber 12.95 each
M MIDS MOVSPR Epson LX 80/90 S2.95 each
N NEXT COLLISION Okidala 80'82'83 $1,75 each
Modifying The Program O TAB< SPC( Minimum 6 Ribbons. S&H: 25c each. SZOO'Do?

Readers may wish to rearrange the P PRINT PAINT Minimum order S25 00 Shipping and Hjndlingi

utility to support a different set of Q GSHAPE SSHAPE S400 per 100 diskelles Coniinemai US* APO'
FPO. add SflOO per TOO dnheitei Foreign o'der
keywords. This can be accom R RETURN RESTORE oie*se can Reduced *K zz-ro charge lor Urgi"
qvlntttlM
S SPRITE SOUND
plished with minor changes to the T THEN TEMPO
Mr residents add- JS. sales iad Puces iuDieet to
change ttHhauT notice HOURS S 3D AM-6 00 PM
utility. But first, a quick background U USING UNTIL
Eastern Time

about keywords is in order. BASIC V READ DATA


7.0 contains 130 plus commands or w WHILE WINDOW
X POKE PEEK Precision Data Products
keywords. Most of the keywords P.O But ilf). Grand Ripidi. Ml «5IS
Y GRAPHIC CIRCLE
(including all of the keywords in (616H92-349T • M N
Z LEFTS RIGHTS GuUid; Michi(jn |
the 64's BASIC 2.0) are represented
82 COMPUTED Gazeff0 November 1986
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BASIC Examiner
Rick Kephart

If you'd like to know how your Commodore 64 stores a BASIC To get started, type in the pro
program, this utility will help. It operates with any BASIC gram and save a copy to disk or
tape. Disk users must also type in
program and offers a complete analysis of its structure—exactly
the following one-line program and
as it's seen by the computer.
save it as a separate file. (For ex
ample, save the main program as
"BASIC EXAMINER" and the one-
line program as "EXAMINER
What happens when you turn on Also added to the program are LOADER".)
your computer, type in a BASIC line links. These are two-byte num
10 POKE44.192iPOKE56,208iPO
program, and run it? The Commo bers that point to the memory ad
KE49152,0iLOAD"BASIC EXA
dore 64 instantaneously performs a dress where the next line begins. MINER",8
large number of complex tasks—so Everything in the Commodore 64 is
To use BASIC Examiner, load
fast that you probably don't realize stored at a particular memory loca
and run "EXAMINER LOADER"
that your BASIC program under tion between 0 and 65535. Normal
from disk. It will then automatically
goes a Tadical transformation after ly, a BASIC program is stored in
load BASIC Examiner. The loader
you type a line and press RETURN. memory (RAM—Random Access
program moves BASIC Examiner to
This article and the accompanying Memory) beginning with address
another area in memory (address
program demonstrate just what 2049. The available RAM goes all
49152), out of the way of the BASIC
happens. the way up to address 40959. The
program which it will analyze
Your BASIC program, as it's program itself shares this space with
{stored beginning at address 2049).
stored and run by your computer, all of its variables, arrays, and other
This method allows a BASIC pro
looks quite different from what you odds and ends it requires as it runs.
gram of any length to be loaded
may expect. First, any BASIC Besides the items just dis
into its normal location for viewing
keywords (like FOR, NEXT, GOTO, cussed—the tokens, the tokenized
without disturbing the Examiner.
and so on) are tokenized. This line numbers, and the line links—
If you're using tape, first load
means that any word in BASIC'S each character that makes up the
the program you wish to examine
vocabulary is converted to a single program is stored as an ASCII val
just as you normally would, but do
number as soon as the line is stored ue. For example, if you type in the
not run it. Then type the following
in memory, rather than as the word number 3, it's stored as the number
two lines, pressing RETURN after
you type in or see when you type 51—PRINT CHR${51) will display
each:
LIST. This reduces the size of the a 3. The letter A is stored as the
POKE 44,192: POKE 56,208: POKE
program in memory and allows the number 65—PRINT CHR$(65) will
49152,0: NEW
program to run much more quickly. display an A, (But remember that
LOAD "BASIC EXAMINER",!
The line numbers you type in letters that make up BASIC
are changed into a two-byte, binary keywords are tokenized and will When the program prompts
form. For example, the number 100 not appear as individual charac you for a filename, press RETURN.
is converted to 0 and 100 {0 X 256 ters.) Anything typed within quota
+ 100 - 100), and the number tion marks is also stored in its Seeing It Work
1000 is stored as 3 and 232 (3 X ASCII form, even if it is a keyword, When run, Examiner requests a
256 + 232 = 1000). program name. If you're using a
As each program line is placed For Disk And Tape Users disk drive, type in the name of any
into memory, a 0 is appended to the "BASIC Examiner," the program BASIC program on the disk in the
line to identify the end of that line. accompanying this article, demon drive. (You may wish to view the
Three 0's are placed at the end of strates what we've discussed. It Examiner itself. If so, type BASIC
the program to indicate the last line. works with any BASIC program. EXAMINER.) The program then

84 COMPUTED Gazelle November 1986


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asks for a line number at which to You may slow down the listing
begin dissecting the program. Press at any time by pressing the CTRL
RETURN to start at the beginning key. The listing may be paused by
of the program. You don't have to holding down SHIFT or SHIFT-
choose a line number in the pro LOCK. If you wish to view another
gram. The Examiner will automati part of the program, press and hold
cally jump to the next available line down RUN/STOP, then type in the
if the line number you enter is not new line number.
in the program. If the number en The top line of the screen re
This could be your tains the headings regardless of the
tered is higher than the highest line
last opportunity to add number in the program, the Exam rest of the screen's scrolling or
on or replace your iner will start at the last line, indi clearing. A small machine language
existing equipment at the cate that it has found the end of the routine changes the interrupts to
program, and ask for another line create the split screen. These inter
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number. (Whenever the end of a rupts are necessary for disk opera
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E3 commodore for a line number to restart the pro cannot be used while the split-
cess.) As noted, pressing RETURN screen is in operation. The RUN/
STOP key is trapped in order to
COMMODORE starts examining at the beginning of
the program. prevent any attempt to use the disk
CBM COMPUTERS drive while the split screen is being
Every memory location used to
8032 $275.00 store the program is displayed, one displayed. Use the RUN/STOP-
4032 (Pet) $229.00 by one, in the following format: RESTORE combination to break
out of the program. This, in turn,
■ The memory location.
COMMODORE will restore the normal interrupt
• The number stored in that
CBM DISK DRIVES memory location, displayed in both
and make disk operations safe. // a
SYNTAX ERROR should stop the
8050 (1mg) $395.00 hexadecimal and decimal form. If program while the headings are dis
the number represents a BASIC
COMMODORE played across the top of the screen, do
token or the end of a line, it is
not attempt any disk operations until
CBM PRINTERS highlighted.
that line has been removed by press
8023P (160cps) $129.00 • If the number is not a BASIC ing RUN/STOP-RESTORE.
4023 CBM (100cps). $115.00 token, the character-string form of BASIC Examiner is written in
the ASCII number is displayed. BASIC, but includes a few machine
COMMODORE • The BASIC token, or any es language subroutines. Machine
CBM CABLES pecially significant ASCII value language is used to create the split
(one that clears the screen or screen and also, in the interest of
Pet-IEEE S 29.00
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IEEE-IEEE $ 32.95 ample), is printed. Also, if a number BASIC tokens as keywords and to
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Ml PRODUCTS ARE BRAND NEW that information is printed. ning line number requested.
IN ORIGINAL COMMODORE BOXES.
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Program Variables

MasterCard & Visa accepted A: value of the Accumulator for the machine language subroutines
add 3% surcharge lor credit cards B: flag to indicate if the value is a BASIC loken
D: used by the functions for decimal/binary/hexadecimal conversions
F.O.B. Dallas, Texas
F: length of the filename being loaded from the program
1 and ]: used in loops and to read DATA
M: memory location currently being examined
Q: flag lo indicate whether quote mode is on or off
S: starting line number
ORDERS ONLY CALL V: value stored in thai memory location
X: X-Register for machine language subroutines
1-800-527-1738 Y: Y-Register for machine language subroutines
INQUIRIES & INFORMATION V(0) and
PLEASE CALL V(l): two bytes of the line number or line link
DS: character-string expression for DELete
1-214-231-2645 F$; filename to be loaded
1$: string containing the- introductory message
S$: string form of the starting line number
Micro-Sys Q$: character-string impression for quotation marks
i s i i S$(): string array containing miscellaneous messages
FNC(): function to convert a decimal number 0-15 to a hexadecimal digit O-F
641 Presidential Drive FNH() and
Richardson, Texas 75081 FNL(); functions to convert a decimal number inlo high-byte/low-byte binary form
9:00 a.m. -4:30 p.m. {Mon.-Fri.
Your computer can tajk in your own voice. Not C.ltoh'sRitemanC +
a synthesizer but a true digitizer that records your natural
voice quality—and in any language or accent. Words and is Commodore's First Mate.
phrases can be expanded without limit (com disk. Speech
If you've been looking for a quality printer for
Editor program alters or improves sounds.
your Commodore® one that's small enough to
And it will understand what you say. A real word
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recognizer for groups of 32 words or phrases with unlim
ited expansion from disk memory. Speech playback and sturdy enough to take day-in, day-out printing
word recognition can work together. Have a Iwo way con without a whimper, and inexpensive enough to
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Easy for the beginning programmer with new no further.
BASIC commands. Machine language programs and C. Itoh's Riteman C + gives you more printer
memory locations (or the more experienced software for the money.
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For starters, the C + gives you easy-to-read
Exciting Music Bonus lets you hum or whistle to print with full descenders. In bold, italic, under
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Mastering 128 Sound
And Music
Part 2
D. C. Holmes

Translating a melody from sheet musk is easy with the 128's voice until another Vn control char
PLAY statement. This month the author describes and illus acter is found in the string. If no
trates how this can be done with one-, two-, or three-voice voice is specified, the default of VI
(voice #1) is assumed.
compositions, and includes a Bach minuet.
Tonal Envelope
The tonal quality of each of the
Last month we discussed how the Elements: it—sharp ( B ) voices used can be selected from
128 has streamlined the music- $—flat ( t ) one of ten envelopes. One of the
W—whole note ( o)
programming process with the 128's preset envelopes can be used
H—half note ( J )
sound and music statements of Q—quarter note ( J | (as we discussed last month), or
BASIC 7.0. The key to this instant I—eighth note ( J<. ) you can create your own custom
virtuosity is the PLAY statement. S—sixteenth note ( ^) ized tonal envelope using the EN
This month we'll see how we can .—dotted note
VELOPE and FILTER statements
R—rest
translate sheet music into BASIC M—wait for end of measure
(we'll devote next month's install
program lines using the PLAY voice ment to this). The control character
statement. Tn specifies the envelope for the
For example, to play the first
The format for the PLAY state voice whose control character most
five notes of a C-major scale with
ment is PLAY "Vtt, Tn, On, Vn, Xfi, recently preceded it. The SID will
voice 2 and volume 6, you would
elements, notes". The capital letters continue to be tuned to this enve
use PLAY "V2 U6 CDEFG" or you
represent characters you type; for lope for this voice until this Vn im
could use a string variable: A$ =
the lowercase letters, substitute one mediately preceeds another Tn.
"V2 U6 CDEFG": PLAY A$ (the
of numbers or characters from the For example, take a look at line
spaces are optional, but they make
list below. Note that if you omit one 70 of this month's program,
the string a little more readable).
of the control characters, the 128 "Minuet":
The SID chip is capable of pro
uses the default value. 70 PLAY "VI T7 V2 TO"
ducing three independent voices
Vn - Voice (n-1-3, de/ault n-1)
(sounds) simultaneously. When the The SID is set to play voice 1
Tn ■■ Tonal envelope (n—0-9, default
n=0) control character Vn appears in a (VI) in envelope 7 (T7)—a piano
On = Octave (n-0-6, de/ault ti-4) character string used in a PLAY sound—and voice 2 (V2) in enve
Vn - Volume (n — 0-B, default ii"9) statement, it specifies which one of lope 0 (TO)—an organlike tone.
X« = Filter (n — i for on, n — 0 for off; the three voices is to be pro If no envelope is specified for a
default ji-0)
grammed by the characters which voice, that voice will use the default
Notes: C,D,E,F,G,A,B
follow. The characters apply to that envelope of 0.
90 COMPUTEfs Gazette November 1986
The semantics of the Tn con
trol character are somewhat differ
ent from the other control THE ATARI

characters in the PLAY string. TEH COMHflNDMfil

Whereas Th always refers to only


the Vh which most recently preced c~ "We shall create a computer
ed it, the other control characters
(Oh, Uii, Xh) refer to the notes -' that will be a landmark in the
which follow, regardless of which
voice is programmed to play them.
history of computers.'^ 'atari corp

Recently, a writer compared of $999. That's actually less


Octave
the revolutionary 1040ST'" than S1 per Kilobyte.
Notes may be programmed in a six-
to Henry Ford's Model T'" We think Henry Ford
octave range, corresponding rough
You may be surprised to would be very proud.
ly to the middle 72 keys on the
learn that we were very
piano. The control character On in a complimented.
PLAY-statement character string The truth is that both the
The ATARI 1040ST is at
dictates the octave range for all ST"*and the Model T were
your computer retailer now.
notes which follow, until another designed !o be machines of
On control character is encoun great power and usefulness
tered. If no octave is specified, the at a price that was affordable
default of 04 is assumed. to everybody.
The only difference is that
the 16-bit 104OST uses the
Volume
most advanced technology
Dynamic level (volume) may be
in the world. And the result
controlled by using the character
is a computer that has 1024
Uh in a PLAY string. The parameter Kbytes of memory for the
tl may range from 0 (no volume) to amazingly affordable price
9 (maximum volume), and it ap
plies to all notes which follow in all
AATARI"
© 1986. Ami) Cmp
ATARI. IO40ST. and ST aft TMI or nj TM'i o( Aiart Coip
voices until another Uh character Model T li a TM of Ford Motor Company J

appears. You can't set individual


volumes for the three voices, al
though changing the sustain values of a character string, using the VOL
06
statement.
(with ENVELOPE) can make some
sounds louder or softer than others. 05
If Uh does not appear in a program, Filter
the default value of U8 is used. Vol The Xti control character allows ad
ume may also be specified using the ditional creative control over the 04
VOL statement. The format is VOL tonal quality of the 128's sound. XI
A where d is a value from 0 (off) to turns on the filter for a given voice
15 (maximum volume). and XO turns it off. Within a compo Cfc

sition, you may use the filter on one ~2_ 03


Notice that the range of vol /
ume settings, normally 0-15 when or more voices. The SID chip has " .o
controlling volume with the VOL only one filter, however, and it ap
statement or with POKEs, is com plies to all filtered voices at any one Xf
pressed in the Un control character time.
to 0-9. Apparently the program
mers who wrote the PLAY routine Notes And Elements
To sound a note, place the letter of common time (4:4), the elements
didn't want to have to deal with
have these values:
two-digit parameter settings (all the the note you want to play within
other PLAY control characters take the PLAY character string. Sharps S (sixteenth note) 1/4 beat
I (eighth note) 1/2 beat
only single-digit parameters). UO and flats may be piayed by includ
,1 (dotted eighth note) 3/4 beat
corresponds to VOL 0, while U9 ing the # (sharp) or $ (flat) element
Q (quarter note) 1 beat
corresponds to VOL 15. Other vol prior to the letter of the note. Oc Q (dotted quarter note) 1-1/2 beats
ume settings are distributed rough taves start at C and end at B, with H (halt note) 2 beats
.H (dotted half norc) 3 beats
ly evenly between. For example, U4 middle C being O4 C.
W {whole note) 4 beats
corresponds to medium volume The length of time the note is ,W (dotted whole note) 6 beats
(the equivalent of VOL 7). The Uh to be held is specified by preceding
control character in a PLAY string it with one of the duration elements A rest can be included in the
allows more precise volume control (W,H,Q,I,S). When a dot (.) pre PLAY character string by following
than the VOL statement, but there cedes a duration element, it in a duration element with the R ele
are situations when it is more desir creases the duration value of that ment (QR programs a quarter rest,
able to have volume control outside element by half. For example, in SR a sixteenth rest, and so on).

COMPUTED Gazelle November 19B6 91


The M element in a PLAY acter string. When the 128 reads a then PLAYing that string in another
character string instructs the com note, it follows these two rules in line, facilitates organization and de
puter to wait for all voices currently determining when to start playing bugging of my musical programs.
playing to end the current measure. that note: The notes of the second mea
With all of this in mind, we're sure are listed in the same manner
1. If the voice specified for this
now ready to begin writing music to to synchronize their playing:
note is currently playing another
PLAY on the Commodore 128. Let's V1O5QD V2O3.HB V1O4IG IR IG 1R
note, the new note will begin after
start with the first measure in voice
the old note has been played for the This string is named B$, the
1 of Bach's G Major Minuet. The
full duration specified. If this voice third measure C$, and so on.
first note is a quarter note D in oc
is not currently playing, the note Note that this melody was
tave 5 (05QD). This is followed by
begins immediately. (Remember that written in the key of G Major, and
eighth notes G, A, and B in octave 4
the voice is specified by the last Vn that there is one sharp (V#) in the
(O4IGIAIB) and eighth note C in
character to precede a note in a key signature. The 128 doesn't
octave 5 (O5IC). To play only the
PLAY string.) know what key it's playing in, so
first measure of voice 1, type:
any sharp or flat notes must be pre
PLAY "VI O5 QD O4 1G IA IB O5 IC"
2. The computer will not pro
ceded by a # (sharp) or $ (flat) in the
ceed to the next note in a string un
Synchronizing voice 2 with PLAY character string.
til the note just read has begun to be
voice 1 is a little trickier, though. One more important note about
sounded (regardless of whether the
Voice 2 begins with a half note G in synchronization: The Commodore
notes are specified for the same, or
octave 3 followed by a quarter note 128 System Guide offers this advice
different, voices).
A in the same octave (03HGQA). (page 156) on synchronizing notes
So, we list the notes in the fol of different durations: "As a rule,
We want to program these notes in
such a way that the half note G be lowing order to play both voices in always start with the note with the
sync:
gins at the same moment as the longer duration." This is a rule with
quarter note D in voice 1, and the V2O3HG V1O5QD O4IG iA IB V2O3QA which I disagree. If we followed
V1O5IC this rule, we would come up with
quarter note A is synchronized with
the eighth note B in voice 1. This measure is programmed the following PLAY strings for the
In order to understand the co by the character string A$ in line 90 first six measures of "Minuet":
ordination of voices, let's consider of the program "Minuet." I've AS-"V2O3HG V1OSQD O4IG IA
the logical way the computer reads found that the practice of assigning V2O3QA V1O4IB O5IC"
B$ = "V2O3.HB V1O5QD O4IG IR IG IR"
and plays the notes in a PLAY char a name to a string in one line, and
C$ = "V2O4.HC V1OSQE IC ID IE I#F"
DS = "V2O3.HB V1O5QG O4IG IR IG
IR"
ES-"V2O3.HA V1O5QC ID IC O4IB IA"
F$-"V2O3.HG V1O4QB O5IC O4IB IA
THE ATARI IG"
TEN COMMANDHEHTS If you type these in and PLAY
them, you'll find that the voices

. "We shall create a computer gradually lose their synchroniza


tion. By the end of the fifth measure,
that is as smart as the people voice 2 is an eighth note ahead of
voice 1. The explanation for this is
fairly simple; There is a very small,
The real genius of the chance to spend big bucks to but definite, period of time required
ATARI 1040ST'" is that the upgrade their systems to for the computer to read and process
level of performance you where the ST™ started in the each note. While a whole note
want is already built in. first place. should play for exactly the same du
Our competitors, how We're pretty sure which ration as two half notes, the two half
ever, think they can sell you computer smart shoppers notes will take slightly longer to
a computer with a puny will buy.
play on the 128 than the whole note
memory, and then charge
because there are two notes to read
you a small fortune to The ATARI 1O4OST is at
and process instead of one. Four
expand it. your computer retailer now.
We don't think that makes quarter notes, then, take longer to
much sense. play than two half notes; eight
That's why the 1O4OST of eighth notes longer yet; and sixteen
fers you 1024 Kbytes of sixteenth notes even longer.
memory built in for the To overcome this inherent
incredibly low price of just problem with the PLAY statement,
S999. That's less than SI I have my own rule for synchroni
per Kilobyte. zation. To synchronize two or three
About the only thing the
notes to start playing at the same
competition offers is the
time, the notes should be listed in
the following order in the PLAY
AATARr C 1986. AH1I CofjJ
ATARI, 1M05T, and ST uc TM'i oi rtj TM1 of Ann Corp character string:
1, List first the note played by
the voice which is the last to stop
playing prior to the point of syn THE ATARI
chronization. If more than one TEH COMMAHDMENT^

voice is currently playing, this voice


will be the one which was last "We shall create a computer
named in a PLAY character string.
2. List second the note played that sets a new standard for
by the voice which is next to last to speed and performance";
stop playing prior to the point of
synchronization. The revolutionary 1O4OST™ And we've succeeded in
You can see how I've followed has a sizzling clock speed of creating this amazing combi
8 MHz that the competition nation of speed and perfor
this rule in lines 100-160 in Minuet.
Strings B$, C$, D$, E$, and F$ all just can't touch. And the mance for the incredibly low
more speed your computer price of just S999.
begin with voice 1 since voice 1 was
has, the less time you'll Which means the 1040ST
playing the last note specified in
waste waiting for it to do sets new standards for speed,
each preceding string.
its job. performance and price!
Once these few concepts are
It's what you would ex
understood, the listing of character pect from a system driven The ATARI 1040ST is at
strings for the rest of the piece is by a powerful 68000 micro your computer retailer now.
fairly straightforward. Although processor.
Minuet uses only two voices, the Similarly, the 1040ST de
principles of listing and synchroni livers one Megabyte of
zation are the same for musical ar memory for you to work
rangements using all three voices. with, which is two to four
7
Next month, we'll explore the EN times more than our com
VELOPE statement and its parame petitors deliver.
ters in more detail. We'll see how to
use this statement for creative con

AATARI
trol of the SID's tonal quality. © 1986, Ala.lCorp
ATAHIandlMOSTartTM'soii-efl TMS of A(«l Corp
See program listing on page 115. ffl

dore
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COMPUTE'S Gazette November 1986 93


64 Multitasker
Richard F. and Sally J. Daley

Many powerful computers—such as the Amiga—have an ad STORE sequence while using 64


vantage over the Commodore 64; They're capable of multitask Muttitasker. It could cause the com
puter to lock up.
ing, running two or more programs at the same time. Here's a
way to give your 64 the same capability.
A Simple Test
If you've followed the procedure
The April 1985 issue of the GAZETTE form LOAD "MULTITASKER",8,1.
described above, you're now in
included a program which parti (Substitute the name you used
block 1. If you're in block 2, press f3
tioned the memory of the Commo when you saved the program. Tape
to go back to block 1. If you're not
dore 64 into three individual 12K users should substitute ,1,1 for the
sure which block you're in, press f7
blocks. "Triple 64" allowed you to ,8,1.) Activate 64 Multitasker by
to find out. Once in block 1, type in
treat each block of memory as an typing SYS 49152. After a brief de
the following program:
independent computer. Each block lay, the computer will respond with
could contain an independent pro a READY prompt. Now press the f 1 100 FOR 1 = 0 TO 10000
110 PRINT I
gram with its own variables. Now, function key. You won't see any
120 NEXT I
"64 Multitasker" takes this idea one thing happen yet (except possibly a
step further and lets you run two blink of the cursor). Now type SYS When you're finished, press f3
programs simultaneously. 49155 and press RETURN. This to switch to block 2 and type in this
time the screen will clear and the program:

message MULTITASKER EN 100 FOR I-1O00O TO 0 STEP -1


Installing The Program 110 PRINT ,1
ABLED will appear on the second
Since 64 Multitasker is written en 120 NEXT I
line of the screen.
tirely in machine language, it must
The memory is now configured You can see that both pro
be entered using the "MLX" ma
into two separate and independent grams are in memory at once by
chine language entry program found
blocks—effectively two comput pressing f3 to switch between
elsewhere in this issue. Be sure you
ers—ready for your use. At this memory blocks and then typing
read the instructions for using MLX
point, you're in block 2. To confirm LIST in each block.
before you begin entering the data
this, press (7. This key tells you Now go to block 1. Type RUN
for Multitasker. When you run MLX,
which of the two blocks of memory and press RETURN. You'll see a
you'll be asked for the starting and
is currently selected. column of numbers at the left side
ending addresses for the data you'll
Blocks 1 and 2 each have 17917 of the screen counting up from
be entering. The correct values for
bytes of memory available—you zero. Watch it for a few seconds;
Multitasker are as follows:
can check this by typing PRINT then press f3 to get to block 2. Type
Starting address: C000 FRE(O). Now press f3, and you'll in RUN and press RETURN. You'll
Ending address: C30F
stantly switch to block 1. (This was see a column of numbers counting
When you've finished entering all the block you were in before the last down from 10,000. Because of the
the data, be sure to save a copy SYS command.) Pressing f3 switch comma in the PRINT statement, the
before leaving MLX. es you from one block to the other. column is about one-fourth the way
To use Multitasker, load the Do not, under any circum across the screen. This lets you easi
program with a statement of the stances, use the RUN/STOP and RE ly differentiate between the two

94 COMPUTED Gazo/to November 1986


blocks. Watch the programs run for
a few seconds. Function Key POKE Action
Press f3. You'll again see the fl 4 Saves the contents of memory locations 0-1023 (needed
program in block 1 running. Al only during installation)
though pressing f3 allows you to (3 5 Switches between blocks in single process mode and
between screens in multitasking mode
switch between viewing the two
B 6 Toggles the multitasking mode on and off
programs running, the 64 still isn't
17 3 Tells you which block is currently in use
really multitasking—if you watch
carefully as you switch between the
blocks, you can see that each pro
gram runs only while you view it. could design competitive items, within 64 Multitasker, you may
However, the more quickly you such as spacecraft; then, using multi have to change that program (f2, f4,
press f3, the closer you come to true tasking mode and sprites, you f6, and f8 may be available). Anoth
multitasking. could let the two programs battle it er conflict arises when you try to
out. The winner could be the pro run a program that uses memory
gram which destroys the creation of beginning at location 49152
Even Closer the other. Many variations on this ($C000). This is the area where 64
You don't have to keep pressing f3 theme are possible. Multitasker resides. Unfortunately,
to make your 64 a multitasking There are numerous possibili many other programs also are de
computer. Pressing f5 makes the ties for switching blocks under pro signed to be used at this location. In
computer quickly swap tasks back gram control (remember, POKE cases like this, it may be possible to
and forth by itself. You may notice 725.X—see the table). This can get relocate the code or data above lo
that the counting slows down to complicated, but you could have a cation 49934, where 64 Multitasker
about half its previous speed. Your program in block 1 which would ends.
Commodore 64 is now running two call a subroutine from block 2. The Also remember that as long as
programs, even though you can see advantages are that you wouldn't two programs are running, each of
only one screen at a time. You can have to worry about screen setup, them will run only at about half
check this by pressing f3 to swap variables, line numbers, or any of a speed. This may affect some games.
screens. number of other possible conflicts.
The f5 key starts and stops the Each block has its own screen, vari How It Works
automatic functioning of the two ables, and operating system memo The principle of operation for 64
blocks of memory as two indepen ry from 0 to 1023. Multitasker is to exchange the oper
dent computers. When you start ating system memory in pages 0-3
multitasking, the program automat Limitations (locations 0-1023) during each sys
ically switches between the two Unfortunately, 64 Multitasker does tem interrupt. These pages are
blocks, running both programs si have some limitations. There are transferred to a holding buffer. The
multaneously. This switching oc several items that are not separate two screens are maintained in dif
curs every three system interrupts,
for each block of memory. Most sig ferent areas in memory, so they are
or 20 times per second.
nificant of these are the color mem not buffered—the video chip is
The accompanying table is a ory and the I/O block. Also, if you simply set up to look at the user-se
guide for using the function keys. It set up a video effect, it affects both lected screen. We chose not to ex
also includes a number which can blocks. This is useful, however, in change color memory because of
be POKEd into location 725 to sim that sprites could be controlled the need also to exchange color reg
ulate the pressing of a function key. from both blocks on one screen— isters in the video chip.
You'll find this useful if you write
an advantage for the two-program- Moving the stack (page 1 of
programs to run under 64 Multi- game idea discussed above. Other memory—locations 256-511)
tasker. items such as high-resolution causes a few headaches. If you're
graphics, programmable characters, new to machine language, the stack
Applications and sound effects are also common is a place designed to hold return
You may already have some ideas to both blocks. addresses for subroutines and inter
for using the 64 Multitasker. If not, Another problem is the physi rupts. If the stack or the stack pointer
here are a few suggestions to get cal limitation of having only one has been changed, an RTS instruc
you started. screen, keyboard, serial port, and so tion will not find the correct address
Background processing is an on. If a program requires keyboard on the stack. The CPU, unaware of
exciting possibility. For example, if input as it is operating in the back the problem, will faithfully try to ex
you have a long sort to run, set it up ground, it must wait until you ecute whatever instruction is found
and run the sort in one block; then switch back into its block. An espe at the address located at the top of
swap blocks and do something else cially messy situation could occur if the stack. This usually results in a
in the other block. You could write both programs tried to access the computer lock-up. The moral of the
or edit a program, play a game, list serial port at once. story is that the computer must copy
a program to the printer, or look at a 64 Multitasker uses the func the stack pointer and the stack
disk file. tion keys fl, f3, f5, and f7. If you whenever an exchange of system
How about creating a new wish to run a program that uses one memory takes place.
form of game? You and a friend or more of these function keys from See program listing on page 115. <B

COMPUT£!s Gazette November 19B6 95


1526 Underliner
Ceorg Zimmer

With this short machine language program, you can now have everything looks correct, then print
underlined characters on documents printed with the Commo your document with CTRL-P.

dore 1526 or MPS-802 printer. Written for the Commodore 64, If you exit SpeedScript, Under
liner is, of course, turned off. To re
it's fully compatible with SpeedScript versions 2.0, 3.0, 3.1,
activate it and reenter SpeedScript,
and 3.2. type:

SpeedScript is a powerful word pro as printkeys, but SpeedScript 3.x al SYS 52809

cessor, but it doesn't allow you to lows any character. First, we'll de RUN

underline words or sentences when fine a new underline character. To Underliner also works with
used with 1526 pr MPS-802 print do this, go to the top of your docu BASIC. Load Underliner and
ers. Now, with "1526 Underliner" ment, press CTRL-E, and then press change line 120 to SYS 52809 (de
you can do just that. Although Un the key you wish to use for under
lete everything after the SYS in the
derliner is designed to work with lining (I use the minus key (—) for existing program). Run the pro
SpeedScript, you can use it with any SpeedScript 3.x. Use 1 with Speed- gram. Now use CHR£(255)—the pi
BASIC program or any program Script 2.0). Then type " = 255". sign—as the underline toggle. This
that doesn't disturb RAM locations Now define a reset character with a can be done either in direct mode or
52809 to 53247. value of zero. To do this, press within a program. To reset, print
CTRL-E again. Then press the key
CHR$(0), or SYS 52809.
Using Underliner you wish to use (I use the 0 key for
SpeedScript 3.x. Use 2 with Speed-
With SpeedScript
First, you must modify SpeedScript Script 2.0) and type "=0". Speed- A Look Inside
so that it won't overwrite Under Script 3.x users should end up with Underliner is a small machine lan

liner. To make a new copy with the something that looks like this: guage subroutine that "patches"

underlining feature, load Speed-


Script, if you're using SpeedScript goes here.«-
3.x, then type the following com Text . . . HThis will be under 1 InedB- ♦-
mands in direct mode:
Tex-t . . .«-
POKE 2481,205
SAVE"UL.SPEED",B
If you're using SpeedScript 2.0, into the operating system (OS) of
If you're using SpeedScript 2.0, use you should see 1 's instead of minus the 64. Whenever the OS wants to
these commands instead: signs, and 2's instead of 0's. print a character, this subroutine
POKE 2370,164 To toggle underlining, press takes control. It stores the charac
POKE 2985,204 CTRL-E, and then the minus key (1 ters it receives into a 255-byte buff
POKE 6547,204 with SpeedScript 2.0). This is the er, then returns control to the OS,
SAVE"UL.SPEED",8 same procedure normally used by which sends the characters to the
Now type in Underliner and save a SpeedScript to underline with non- printer. When the OS tries to print a
copy on the same disk as your modi Commodore printers. When you've carriage return and linefeed, Un
fied copy of SpeedScript (UL.SPEED). finished typing, put the reset char derliner sends the carriage return
The next time you're ready to use acter at the bottom of your docu only. It then scans the buffer for
SpeedScript with this feature, load ment. To do this, go to the end of bytes of 255, which act as toggles
and run Underliner instead. It will your file with CTRL-Z. Then press for the underlining. If the underline
automatically load SpeedScript for CTRL-E, and then 0 {2 with Speed- toggle is on, it prints CHR$(164)—
you. Here's how to put Underliner Script 2.0). The reset character the underline character. If the tog
into operation. A feature of Speed- should now be the last character in gle is off, it prints a space. Then it
Script known as printkeys—de your document. prints a linefeed, resets the buffer
signed to let you use all of your It's always a good idea to print pointer, and returns control to the
printer's features—allows you to the document to screen before print OS. Underliner repeats this process
easily underline characters, words, ing it on paper just to make sure ev until the entire document has been
or phrases. We'll use two of these erything is how you want it. Do this printed.
printkeys. SpeedScript 2.0 allows by pressing CTRL-SHIFT-P and se See program listing on page 111. <B>
only the numbers 1 — 8 to be used lecting SCREEN at the prompt. If

96 COMPUTEIs GezaltB November 1986


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= f(A)

POLAR
AXIS

\ POLE
This program uses your input to create some fascinating im
ages on the high-resolution screen. Included are versions for
the Commodore 64, 128, Plus/4, and 16.

As a matter of introduction, polar these; then, when you're prompted


art is not what happens when you for input, simply type in the re
give a polar bear finger paints. It is, quired three or four constants
instead, a result of the beauty and {three for Art I, four for Art II). Sep


elegance of mathematical equations arate these values by commas; then
of the form R = f(A), in which the press RETURN. For starters, try the
points of a curve are described by a values shown below; then substi
distance R (radius) from an origin or tute some of your own. As written,
pole, and by an angle A (see figure the program will not allow invalid
above). This is different from the entries, so feel free to try fractions
more familiar x,y method of graph (like 0.1 or 1.5), negative numbers, This three-petal flower is typical of
ing in the Cartesian coordinate sys and very large numbers (like 20,000). the attractive patterns produced
tem (named for Rene Descartes). Aril with Art I. (Values used for this
The advantage of polar graph
N k: R2 pattern are N = 3, Rl = 50, R2 = 60J
ing is that certain types of curves
1.5, 30, 60
(such as circles, ellipses, and heart-
3, 45, 78
shaped figures known as cardioids)
3, 30, 60
are more easily described by using
Art II
polar rather than Cartesian equa
tions. The program that accompa NI N2 Rl r:

nies this article uses two different 2, 8, 80, 16


forms of polar equations and allows 2, 8, 40, 64

you to manipulate the constants. It


then computes the coordinates of a The Math Behind The Art
number of points on the resulting In Ait i, the equation is R = R1 +
curve and plots them on the hi-res R2*SIN(N*A), where you choose
Art II's formula created this
screen. The result is polar art. the constants N, Rl, and R2. In
complex shell-like picture. (Values
After typing in the program most cases, this equation generates
used for this pattern are Nl=8,
(Program 1 for the 64, Program 2 circular curves and patterns.
N2-J, R1=50,R2 = 60.)
for the 128, Plus/4, and 16), save a In Art II, the equation is R = R1
copy. To use it, load it and type •S1N(N1*A) + R2*S1N(N2'A), Note that the greater the val
RUN. You're first asked to choose where you set the constants Nl, ues for the constants, the longer it
between two different drawing N2, Rl, and R2. This equation can takes to plot the resulting curve.
modes, Art I or Art II, Select one of produce some very exotic curves. See program listings on page 114. VB
98 COMPUTE'S Gazolto November 19BG
Draw 128
Mike Cortese

This short, easy-to-use 128 drawing program lets you sketch, drawing ovals and rectangles and
draw circles, ovals, squares, and rectangles in any of 16 colors— painting. Note that if you draw
with more than two colors in the al
and add text to your artwork. Also included is the ability to
lotted 8 X 8-pixel area, the color
save and load your work. A joystick is required. breaks will appear blocky (like
stairsteps in many cases) and won't
This program demonstrates how a on (which it is when the program is look as you intended. This is due to
compact program can be very use first run). You can turn drawing the color limitations in graphic
ful with BASIC 7.0's powerful com mode on and off by pressing the D mode 1, which is used to allow for
mands. "Draw 128" lets you create key. When the program is first run, the most detail.
your own masterpieces with a few it's in Fast mode—the cursor moves
commands. The premise for the at a reasonable speed. If you want
Rectangles, Squares, Ovals,
program is simple: With a joystick, to draw in detail, you'll probably
want to slow down the cutsot
and Circles
you draw freely anywhere on the
To draw a rectangle or square,
screen. By pressing any of the as speed. You can toggle fast mode on
move the cursor (which can be on
signed keys (see below), you can and off by pressing the F key. Also,
or off—see above) to one of the four
create circles, ovals, rectangles, and when the program is first run, it's in
corners and press B. Then move the
boxes, and fill designated areas Width 1 mode, which draws thin
cursor to where you want the oppo
with color. You can choose to draw vertical lines. You can change these
site corner and press B again. The
in any of the 128's available 16 col to double width (vertical lines only)
rectangle or square will then be
ors. Also included is a command by pressing W. Pressing W again
drawn in the current drawing color.
that lets you add text to your graph turns off the double-width line.
To draw a circle, move the cur
ics screen. Additional commands
sor to the center of the area in
allow you to save and load draw ............

which you want the circle drawn


ings for future use. Finished prod

II
and press O. Then move the cursor
ucts can be used as title screens or
left or right of the center (on exactly
pictures in your own BASIC pro
the same horizontal line) to the de
grams. If you're not yet familiar
sired radius and press 0 twice. To
with BASIC 7.0, you can study the
draw an oval, move the cursor to
program listing and see how to use
the center of the oval to be drawn,
some of these powerful commands.
press O, then move the cursor up or
down (actually, any direction ex
An Empty Canvas cept due east or west) relative to the
To get started, type in the program center and press O twice. Note that
and save a copy to disk. Load the This drawing program features hi when drawing an oval, the second
program, then plug a joystick into res graphics, text, and color. cursor position marks the maxi
port 2 and run Draw 128. The cross mum length and width of the oval,
hairs symbol appears at the center but docs not lie on its outer boundary.
of an otherwise blank screen, and It is suggested that you experiment
indicates the cursor position. You You can change the drawing with this feature before using it in
can toggle the cursor on and off by color by pressing the C key until the any serious endeavor. The oval will
pressing the X key. Moving the joy color you want is displayed. The be drawn in the current drawing
stick in any of the eight directions border color changes to indicate the color. This command can be used to
will result in moving the cursor and drawing color. All drawing is done make curves by having part of the
drawing a line if drawing mode is in the color selected, including oval drawn off the visible screen.
COMPUTE'S Gazelle November 1986 99
Fills And Text
To paint—or fill—an object, move
the cursor in the area to be painted
and press P. If the object is not com
pletely closed, the color will leak
out .into the rest of the screen. To
paint an area, it's best to draw with
the double-width feature. There's
less chance of color leaking.
To add text to your graphics
screen, first select a color and then
move the cursor to the position
where you want the first letter to ap
pear. Press T and the screen will
clear. Then respond to the TEXT:
prompt by typing your message.
Press RETURN after typing the
message, and the graphics screen
will reappear with your text in place.
Pressing the E key erases the
entire screen, moves the cursor to

Turbo Format
the middle of the screen, and sets
the drawing color to black. The
back arrow {*-) key—in the upper
left corner of the keyboard—places
the cursor back in the center of the
screen. After a screen is erased, it Ross Ouwinga
cannot be retrieved unless it was
saved to disk.
The following keys move the
If you're interested in saving time, and wear and tear, on your
cursor quickly to another part of the
screen:
1541 disk drive, you'll put this program high on your list of
utilities. It formats a disk in only 9-1/2 seconds—a super
center
1 top left corner speed-up from the usual minute and 20 seconds—and it elimi
2 top right corner nates head knocking. Also, it's easy to use—just answer a few
3 bottom left corner prompts, and you're seconds away from a formatted disk.
4 bottom right corner
To save the graphics screen to
disk, press S and type the filename. "Turbo Format" is a fast, easy-to- Type in Turbo Format and save
(Be sure the filename is unique, not use disk formatting program. It for- it to disk. To run it, type LOAD
one that already exists on your mats a disk in only 9-1/2 "filename",% and RUN. There will
disk.) The screen will be saved and seconds—the standard 1541 format be a short delay (while most of the
then displayed again. program requires one minute and program is transferred to the mem
To load a previously saved 20 seconds. That's a speed increase ory in the disk drive), and a title
screen, press L and type the file of over eight times. It's easy to use screen with the first prompt will be
name. It will automatically be load because you don't have to remem displayed.
ed and the screen will be displayed. ber the cryptic command line re
Then you can modify the screen quired by the 1541 to format a disk.
and resave it if you wish. To view Three Easy Steps
And you're prompted through each
the disk directory, type D at the You're first prompted to enter the
step of the procedure so there's no
FILENAME: prompt. disk name (up to 16 characters).
need to memorize anything.
To use a screen made with Virtually any character may be used
Draw 128 in a BASIC program, add in the name, but some may cause
these lines to the program: Typing It In undesirable side effects, so caution
The program is written entirely in is recommended whenever charac
BLOAD-'fiiename", BD.P7168
GRAPHIC 1
machine language. "MLX," the ma ters other than letters or numbers
chine language entry program are used.
To save a screen in program or found elsewhere in this issue, is re The second prompt is for the
immediate mode, use BSAVE "file quired to type it in. After loading disk ID. This is the number used by
name-,BO,P7168 TO P16383. This and running MLX, answer the the disk drive primarily to deter
can be used to save any picture cre prompts for starting and ending ad mine when a disk has been
ated in graphic mode 1. changed. Normally this number is
dresses with the following:
See program listing on page 116. «B Starling address: 0801 two characters long, but Turbo For
Ending address: 0EC8 mat will allow up to five characters.
100 COMPUTE'S Gazeffo November 1986
More than five characters may be aged. Also, if you have a disk which disk drive. An error will be detected
typed in, but only the first five will you know is faulty, but wish to for immediately and you will again be
be used. Only the first two charac mat anyway, you must use the no- given the prompt to quit by press
ters will actually be used by the verify option. I strongly recommend ing fl.
disk drive to identify the disk after using the verify feature if you're Using Turbo Format does not
it has been formatted, but all five formatting the back side of a disk mean your disks will become less
will appear in the BAM (Block Allo certified only for single-side use, or reliable. It's much faster because it
cation Map). if the disk is well used, or if you use eliminates several very unneces
Next, you'll be instructed to in an inexpensive, off-brand disk. sary and time-consuming routines.
sert the disk to be formatted. Be sure Most of the time used to format a
that you do not leave your disk with disk is spent by a routine whose
No Knock only function is to space the sectors
Turbo Format in the disk drive. For
After pressing the space bar or RE
matting the disk will erase every evenly around the disk. Turbo For
TURN to format, the process be mat sets this space the same for ev
thing. A recommended safeguard is
gins. A feature that will be noticed
to put a write-protect tab on your ery sector on every track, but skips
immediately is that there is no loud a time-consuming calculation pro
disk immediately after you have a
knocking noise at the beginning of cess used in the standard format
working copy. Turbo Format does
the format routine. A single short
check the write-protect tab, and if ting process. It's amazing how
click is heard instead to indicate
one is present, the disk will not be much rime is saved by this one
that the routine is working correct
formatted. Also, an error message modification. To a lesser extent,
ly. This feature is possible since
will appear to notify you that the time is saved by reducing delays
Turbo Format is loaded from a disk when stepping between tracks and
disk is write protected.
at the start and the exact location of
Along with the prompt to in by eliminating unnecessary data-
the read/write head is saved in
sert a disk is an abort option. Press conversion routines. A technical
memory in the disk drive. The pro
the fl key to abort. This causes the discussion of this is beyond the
gram is then able to calculate the
program to start again at the begin scope of this article, but it should be
exact position of the first track with
ning, prompting you to re-enter the noted that only those procedures
out trie excessive knock. The stan that do not affect reliability were
disk name. This option allows you
dard format routine does not changed. Disks formatted with Tur
to change your mind and enter a
necessarily know the position of
new disk name or ID or correct any bo Format work just as well as
the read/write head; it therefore as those formatted the standard way.
spelling errors before formatting
sumes the worst-case condition and Intermediate or advanced ma
the disk.
tries to step the head down 45 chine language programmers might
tracks. If the head reaches track one be interested to know that the data
Two Kinds Of Formatting before it has stepped 45 times recorded to the BAM of the disk is
The formatting process does not ac (which is usually the case), it bangs
at locations $0BO0 (2816) through
tually begin until you press the the bead against the stop until the $0BFF (3071). If you have a thor
space bar or RETURN. Note, how count of 45 is complete. It works,
ough understanding of the BAM
ever, that the space bar and RE but it makes an awful racket and, in
and its contents, you can modify
TURN do not perform the same some cases, eventually works the
this area of the program to custom
function. If you press the space bar, disk drive out of alignment.
ize or personalize the BAM on your
the disk will be formatted and all When the format process is
disks. Be aware, however, that
data written to the disk will be complete, a message is displayed
modifying the BAM may have un
checked for errors. If an error oc and will indicate OK if there were
desirable side effects and is not rec
curs, the formatting will stop and no errors. At this point you have
ommended for the beginner or
the type of error will be displayed the option of formatting another
someone who knows no more than
on the screen. If you press RE disk or quitting. It's important that
the basics of disk drive operation.
TURN, the disk will be formatted as you press fl to quit. Do not reset the
For those of you with disk
quickly as possible without check computer by turning it off and back
drives other than the 1541, Turbo
ing for errors. on. The reason for this is that the
Format will likely work if the drive-
The reason for offering the two format routine leaves the read/
claims to be 100-percent compati
options is to aliow you to use the write head on track 35 when it fin
ble. Most of the program is trans
program in a manner which most ishes. By using fl to quit, the disk
ferred to and operates in the disk
closely suits your needs. If the disks drive is sent an initialize command
drive and calls on several routines
are verified, the procedure takes 17 and also a reset command to set ev
which are part of the standard pro
seconds rather than 9-1/2 seconds. erything back in order. If you acci
gram in the drive. If these routines
Verifying provides more assurance dentally turn the computer off, you
are not at the same addresses as in
that the disk is formatted correctly. should initialize the disk drive
the 1541, the program will not op
The additional 7 or 8 seconds may using the IO: command. Failure to
erate correctly. No damage will oc
not make much difference to you. do so could cause erratic operation.
cur to your disk drive if this should
On the other hand, if speed is im If'you accidentally restarted when happen, but it may be necessary to
portant, you may choose not to ver you intended to quit, it will be nec
turn it off and on again to regain
ify your disks. Errors occur very essary to press RETURN for the en
control.
rarely and most are self-correcting, ter name and ID prompts and press
provided the disk itself is not dam the space bar with no disk in the See program listing on page 112. •
COMPUTED Gaze/la November 1986 101
Tom R. Halfhill, Staff Editor

Each month, computed gazette $299, was a price breakthrough. It quired a cooling fan.
tackles some questions commonly had 5K of RAM (3K free for BASIC), After the 64 was introduced,
asked by Commodore users. If you 16 colors, three-channel sound, the home computer price war really
have a question you'd like to see built-in BASIC language, and a heated up and prices plunged. To
answered here, send it to this typewriter-style keyboard. It day you can buy a Commodore 64
column, c/o computers gazette, hooked up to a TV set and didn't re for less than $150, or a Commodore
P.O. Box 5406, Greensboro, NC quire a special monitor, and for 128 with 128K of RAM for under
27403. about $75 you could add a cassette $300 (less than $2.35 per kilobyte).
recorder for loading and saving Thanks to the new 256K RAM
^ With the VIC-20, you have programs. The VIC was the open chips, which are replacing the 64K
approximately 3K of free BASIC ing shot in Commodore's home chips, prices are still dropping. The
memory. With the Commodore computer price war, and it played a current price/memory champion is
64, you have 38K of free BASIC major role in forcing down the the Atari 1040ST, which comes with
memory. What crazy arrange prices of competitors. one megabyte of memory (1024K)
ment kept the VIC-20 from hav This was before 64K RAM for $999, including disk drive and
ing a lot of memory like the 64? memory chips were affordable monitor-—less than $1 per kilobyte.
As a result of this, shouldn't the enough to be used in home comput On the horizon are one-megabit
VIC have some other special fea ers. Instead, 16K RAM chips were RAM chips. It takes only eight of
ture that the 64 doesn't have? the norm. A 16K RAM chip contains these to yield one megabyte, and
16,384 bits of memory, so it actually they should be commonplace with
A
Vm» TV,
1 he » crazy arrangement takes eight of these chips to yield 16 in two years.
which limited the VIC-20 to 3K of kilobytes, which we commonly refer
BASIC memory was simply the to as 16K. Even the IBM PC, intro Is it possible to hook up
state of computer technology in duced soon after the VIC-20, origi both a TV and a monitor to a
1981, the year the VIC was intro nally came with only 16K RAM. The Commodore 64 at the same time?
duced. You may not realize how VIC-20, at $299 for 5K, offered an If so, can you show something
dramatically computer technology attractive price/memory ratio of less different on each screen at the
has advanced and prices have than $60 per kilobyte. An 8K memo same time?
dropped in the past five years. ry expander sold for about $80, or
Commodore's goal in 1981 $'10 per kilobyte. A. Yes and no. You can connect
was to bring out the first home By the summer of 1982, whole both a TV and a monitor simulta
computer with color graphics and sale prices of the new 64K RAM neously, but you can't show two
sound for less than $300. At that chips had declined to the point different screens simultaneously.
time, the only other personal com where they became affordable for Both screens will show exactly the
puters with color graphics were the home computers. (Again, it takes same thing.
Apple II (about $1,200 for 16K), the eight 64K RAM chips to yield 64 To connect two screens to a 64,
Atari 800 (51,080 for 16K), the Atari kilobytes of memory.) For technical just plug a monitor into the com
400 ($630 for 8K), the TRS-80 Color reasons, however, it was not practi posite output jack and a TV into the
Computer (about $600 for 8K), and cal to redesign the VIC-20 to accept RF output jack. This capability
the Texas Instruments TI-99/4 the new chips. So Commodore in comes in handy during group pre
(about $1,200 with 16K and color troduced an entirely new com sentations, such as user group
TV/monitor). None of those prices puter—the Commodore 64. At its meetings and in classrooms. You
included a disk drive, tape drive, original retail price of $599, the 64 could also hook up a monochrome
printer, or software. Floppy disk was another breakthrough. It of monitor to the composite jack for
drives typically cost $500 to $800 fered a price/memory ratio of less text displays, and a TV to the RF
during that period, and a dot- than $10 per kilobyte. If the Com jack for color graphics.
matrix printer with no special fea modore 64 had been constructed By the way, the Commodore
tures cost $500 to $1,000. A 300- with the older 16K RAM chips, it 128 can also display two screens si
baud modem was around $300, not would have taken 32 memory chips multaneously—a 40-column dis
including interface. A 16K memory to yield 64 kilobytes. Not only play connected to the standard
expansion board for the Atari 800 would the cost have been prohibi monitor or RF modulator (TV) out
retailed for $200. tive, but the computer would have put, and an 80-column display con
The VIC-20, introduced at been much larger and may have re nected to the RGB output. <O

102 COMPUTE!* Gazette November !9B6


Something Fun For Teachers

Fred D'lgnazio to making mistakes, since they ginners to learn something new. I
Associate Editor usually turn into the funniest mo get the teachers to pressing buttons
ments of each day's workshop. and pulling switches with great
For the last several months I've glee and playfulness, and suddenly
been conducting workshops to in Teachers Come First the need for manuals goes away.
troduce teachers to computers, vid Manuals come later when you have
I make the point early in each
eo, electronic keyboards, and other the self-confidence and the curios
workshop that the equipment is not
high-tech tools. ity to learn how to do something
for kids; it's for the teachers. Teach
The workshops have been an specialized and can't figure it out on
ers usually hear how computers
exhilarating, eye-opening expe your own.
and other high-tech materials are
rience—for me as well as for the
for kids, so no wonder they have
teachers. I've discovered that teach Fun
little interest in the equipment and
ers are extremely interested in be In the workshops, there are high-
have little incentive to learn more
coming competent with high-tech tech workstations all over—com
about it themselves. If teachers see
products, and they are enthused puters, video cameras, electronic
themselves as technicians or "facili
about introducing these products synthesizers and digital samplers,
tators" who deliver computer-based
into the classroom. Over the last ampiifiers, TV monitors, VCRs, cas
learning to students, they can't help
several months I have created a nu- sette recorders, and special-effects
feeling devalued and threatened.
cieus of highly motivated teachers generators. But we avoid the word
Instead I stress that teachers
who have returned to their schools workstation in favor of sandbox.
come first and are central to the the
and have started to build multime Each high-tech work area is a sand
personal development and growth
dia classrooms. The amount of en box, and it's to be treated as such.
of each student. In our workshops
ergy and creativity these work You go there to play, be silly, be
we look at things that computers
shops have unleashed has been creative and imaginative, and have
can do that spark the interest of
truly amazing. fun. You go there to lose your sense
teachers and get them personally
At first, however, I made lots of time, and become oblivious to all
involved. I start every workshop by
of mistakes. 1 kept experimenting the hubbub and confusion going on
having all the teachers write me
and trying to do better. Gradually around you.
"Dear Fred" letters that tell me why
an approach emerged that has The approach works. I've had
they are really there and what they
proven to be very successful. In the teachers take off their shoes and
hope to get out of the workshop. I
hope that hearing about this ap play synthesizers with their stock
read their letters and let each teach
proach will benefit other workshop inged feet. Without embarrassment
er know I don't care about schools,
leaders, teacher trainers, and school teachers climb onto tables and aim
principals, parents, or kids. All I
administrators, I'd like to share their video cameras at their class
care about is the teacher and his or
some of the key elements with you. mates. They shoot irreverent close-
her need to have a personally
ups of my ears, knees, and beard.
meaningful experience with me.
Honesty They write haunted house stories
I've learned that the most effective on the computer and set them to
way to reach teachers is to be abso Quick Tech music. They use Print Shop and cre
lutely honest. In this context, it I begin each workshop by picking ate banners, personalized posters
means that I don't represent myself up a huge stack of manuals. I tell with their names and the graphics
as a technology expert. Instead, I the teachers that these are the man icon that they most identify with,
admit that I make mistakes and uals for the equipment that they see and certificates that say, "Graduate
sometimes get confused about new around them in the room. Then the of Fred's Multimedia Sandbox." A
machinery myself. manuals go into the wastebasket recent workshop ended with one
When I make mistakes in front and the teachers are promised that teacher videotaping the rest of us
of the teachers, I don't try to cover they'll learn how to use all the holding up a banner that read, "All
them up; instead I go out of my way equipment in two days without It Takes Is All You've Got!" Some
to dramatize them and make them reading about them. There's usually of the teachers blew and popped
humorous. I leave lens caps on cam applause at this point. bubbles. All of us danced together
eras, plug cables in the wrong way, The message within all this to Beethoven's Third Symphony.
and crash disks with great poise and melodrama is that manuals can be Who said learning about high-tech
aplomb. I've learned to look forward an extremely inefficient way for be couldn't be fun? •

COMPUTE'S Gazelle November 1986 103


Elegant Programming

Todd Heimarck saves memory and noticeably im When S was zero, RND(S)
Assistant Editor proves the program speed. gave these results: 90 was picked 16
times, 94 was picked 20 times, and
Programmers sometimes describe a Substituting A Period 98 was picked 19 times (your re
subroutine or technique as being el For Zero sults may vary slightly). The num
egant. What is elegance? We might In many cases, a period all by itself bers 91, 92, 93, 95, 96, 97, 99, and
say that a short, simple, and fast will act like a zero. Word has spread 100 never appeared at all.
program is more elegant than one among Commodore programmers That's not the way a random
that's long, complicated, and slow that a period is a good substitute. number generator should work.
(although this isn't always true). It's For obtaining random values, many RND(0) hits every fourth number
almost an aesthetic judgment; a programmers seem to prefer (at least when you're asking for a
program that looks better and runs RND(.), which is said to be faster number between 1 and 1000). It's
better is elegant. than RND(0) and more random like shaking dice 5000 times and
Let's examine two techniques than RND(l). We can test this with seeing only twos and sixes. If you
that are sometimes used in BASIC two programs. First we'll measure substitute S = 1 in line 10, the distri
programs. In both cases, there's a the speed of a period versus a zero: bution of random numbers im
better (more elegant) alternative. proves greatly. RND{1) is clearly
EG 10 TlS=M000000"
the better choice.
KM 20 FORJ=1TO10B0:K=RND(.):NE
A Page Of IF-THENs XTtPRINT TI It's true that using a period
You'll occasionally see a program SK 30 TIS="000000" yields a miniscule improvement in
with several lines that look some PS 40 FORJ=1TO1000:K=RND(0):NE
speed. But you should avoid RND(.)
XTjPRINT TI
thing like this: because of the problems associated
JF 50 Z=0;TIS="000000"
60 IF A - 5 THEN B = 7 KM 60 FORJ=1TO1000:K=RND(Z):NE with RND(0). Plus, it's confusing.
70 IF A - 6 THEN B - 13 XTtPRINT TI Even if you understand that periods
80 IF A = 7 THEN B - -3
On a 128 in 64 mode, the times can replace zeros, RND(.) looks
90 IF A = 8 THEN B - 6
were 174 jiffies (a jiffy is 1/60 sec awkward and inelegant.
Let's say the value in variable ond) when a period was used, 208
A is an integer between 5 and 21; for a zero, and 186 for a variable
you'd need 17 IF-THENs to cover Professional Programmers
equal to zero. A period is about 16 If you've been reading the GAZETTE
all possibilities. Not only do the 17
percent faster than a zero, which is
lines take up memory, but they also for a few years, you might remem
quite an increase in speed. But if we
slow down the program. If the vari ber the "inside View" section,
substitute a variable equal to zero, where we published interviews
able A happens to equal 19, the
the time saved is only about 6 per with programmers. Fans of that col
program has to go through several
cent. This example generates 1000 umn might enjoy a new book from
tests: Is A equal to 5? No. Is it 6? No.
random numbers in roughly 180 jif Microsoft Press called Programmers
Is it 7? And so on.
fies, or 3/1000 second per random at Work. It includes interviews with
The 17 lines of IF-THENs
number. Six percent of .003 sec 19 well-known and successful
could be replaced by the following
onds doesn't amount to much, es microcomputer programmers. It's
lines. First, put this at the beginning
pecially when you consider that not an especially technical book, al
of the program:
getting a random number is only a though it helps if you know a little
10 DIM ZZ(17): FOR X --= 1 TO 17: READ small part of most programs. about programming.
ZZ<X): NEXT
Now let's see how the random Two motifs that run through
12 DATA 7,13,-3,6,...
numbers are created. The program the book are elegance and simplic
The DATA statement would below creates 5000 random num ity. No two programmers define el
have to be filled in with the appro bers from 1 to 1000. A 1000- egance the same way, but after
priate values, which are stored in element array keeps track of how you've read a few interviews, you
the numeric array ZZ. Then, later in many times each is picked. start to get a pretty good notion of
the program, where all the IF-
what it means.
THENs occur, a single line suffices: AM 10 S=0:R=0
Lois of books teach program
60 B = ZZ<A-4) GO 20 DIM A(1000)
EC 30 FORJ=1TO5:PRINTJ, ming, but very few show you how
Since the number in variable A BX 40 FORK=1TO1000:R=INT(RND(S programmers think. If you'd like to
)"1000+1)iA(R)=ft{R)+l
is between 5 and 21, we subtract 4 know more about how professional
XQ 50 NEXTK,J;PRINT
to match it up with the array num CP 60 FORJ=1TO100:PBINTJ,A(J): programmers do what they do, I
bered from 1 to 17. The technique NEXT recommend this book. O
104 COMPUTEl's Gszeila November 1986
w
I Be A Winner
L With
D

User Group
C
A
R
D

From Inkwell
Update
- Systems
When writing to a user group for information, please remember to
'Til Dec. 31st
enclose a self-addressed envelope with postage that is appropriate for
■ the country to which you're writing.
a Send typed additions, corrections, and deletions for this list to:
a
v
COMPUTE! Publications
D P.O. Box 5406
a Greensboro, NC 27403
Attn: Commodore User Groups

K now
User Group Notes All programs
The correct address for the Rock-
land Area Commodore Users listed in this
Group is 354 East Water St.,
RockJand, MA 02370. magazine are
The Bristol Commodore Users INTERACTIVE HI-RES
Group now receives mail in care
available on the
GRAPHIC SYSTEM
of Computech Systems, inc., 178
Pine St., Bristol, CT 06010.
Complete package includes GAZETTE Disk.
Professional Quality
Fellsmere's Club Compu-Mania Light Pen and SoMware See details
has a new address: P.O. Box 629, • Use lo create Artistic/
Fellsmere, FL 32948. technical drawings
. Pnnl in 3 sins
elsewhere in
The VIC Indy Club has changed
its name to the Indy Commodore
. lull too yeai
this issue.
Computer Club (1C3 or ICCC).
The address is still P.O. Box
11543, Indianapolis, IN 46201.
The Osage/Kay Commodore
User's Group (OKCOM) has INTRODUCING
changed its address to P.O. Box
1214, Ponca City, OK 74602.
NEW YORK
The Commodore Computer Club Commodore Users of Western New York
has changed its address to P.O. (CUWNY). 27 Oalka St., Warsaw, NY 14569

Box 23396, Vancouver, BC,


Canada V7B 1W1. The Commodore User Group, Inc. (TCUG), P.O.
Box 63. Columbus, OH 4310<>

rr.NNSVIVANIA "A SERIES OF CLIP ART


New Listings Commodore 64/123 Club of Pittsburgh, 6337
AND ILLUSTRATIONS
Helen St., Library, PA 15129
CALIFORNIA FOR USE WITH
Outside The U.S.
■)
Commodore Users Group of Riverside (CUCR).
P.O. Bo* S0B5, Riverside, CA 92515 AUSTRALIA Now Available:
ILLINOIS Commodore User Group (ACT), P.O. Bo« 599, • HOLIDAY thews
Dek'onncn, A.C.T, Australia 2616 • CUP-M11 POIPOUI
Meeting 64/128 User* Through the.Mail, SI
Thomhill Dr., Danville, IL 61B32 CANADA • OOHUtHSS SIGNS

Tf't WOHLD
MARYLAND Sudbury Commodore Assembly Language
Extension Group, 1326 Hastings Crescent. Sud
The Annapolis Commodore Users Croup, P.O.
bury, Ontario, Canada P3A 2R5
Box 33511, Annapolis, MD 21403
Commodore 64 Users Exchange (CUE), C.F. 1027,
MIWTSOTA Malartic, Quebec, Canada JOY 1Z0
Albert Lei Commodore Users Group, 2217 N.
Bridge, Albert Lea. MN 56007
returns. A feature unique to PPD is
Commodore Interface Printer Driver Software For
a built-in 8K interrupt-driven print
The Deluxe RS-232 Interface from Commodore 64
er buffer.
Omnitronix allows you to hook up The PPD is a software printer-driv
PPD is being marketed as a
standard RS-232 computer accesso er program that provides complete
Shareware program, and is not
ries such as modems, printers, ro software support to drive any Cen
copy protected. It will be available
bots, and more to the Commodore tronics compatible parallel printer
through Shareware distribution
64, 128, Plus 4, and VIC-20. The through the 64's user port. Using
channels; users are asked to register
unit plugs into the user I/O port the PPD program and an appropri
their copies for $10. Registered
and supports RS-232 pins 2 through ate cable, any parallel printer can be
disks and cables may be purchased
8,12, 20, and 22. The R5-232 inter accessed as though it were a stan
through Drude Micro Services;
face supplies standard RS-232 plus dard Commodore serial printer.
prices are $35 for disk and assem
and minus voltage levels, has The software is compatible with
bled cable; $25 for disk and unas
switches located on the cover, and much existing software.
sembled cable; $30 for assembled
includes a three-foot cable. The in PPD contains most selectable
cable only; and $20 for unassem
struction manual contains a BASIC features found in other Commo
bled cable kit only.
terminal program. dore printer interfaces, including
Dutde Micro Services, P.O. Box
The Deluxe RS-232 Interface "PETSCII to ASCII" character con
533, Cedar Fails, IA 50613.
has a suggested list price of $49.95. version, a LISTing mode for BASIC Circle Reader Service Number 201.
Ommtronix, Inc., P.O. Box 43, programs, a transparent mode for
Mercer Island, WA 98040. high-resolution bit graphics, and
Circle Reader Service Number 200. automatic linefeeds after carriage

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106 COMPUTE! s Gazotte November 1986


m How To Type In
COMPUTEYs GAZETTE Programs

Each month, computers gazette Special Characters This can be entered on the Com
publishes programs for the Com Most of the programs listed in each modore 64 by pressing the CTRL
modore 128, 64, Plus/4, 16, and issue contain special control charac key while typing the letter in
VIC-20. Each program is clearly ters. To facilitate typing in any pro braces. For example, [A} means to
marked by title and version. Be sure grams from the GAZETTE, use the press CTRL-A.
to type in the correct version for following listing conventions.
your machine. Al! 64 programs run The most commoti type of con
on the 128 in 64 mode. Be sure to trol characters in our listings appear The Quote Mode
read the instructions in the corre as words within braces: jDOWN} Although you can move the cursor
sponding article. This can save time means to press the cursor down around the screen with the CRSR
and eliminate any questions which key; {5 SPACES} means to press keys, often a programmer will want
might arise after you begin typing. the space bar five times. to move the cursor under program
We frequently publish two To indicate that a key should control. This is seen in examples
programs designed to make typing be shifted (hold down the SHIFT such as {LEFT} and {HOME} in
easier: The Automatic Proofreader, key while pressing another key), the program listings. The only way
and MLX, designed for entering the character is underlined. For ex the computer can tell the difference
machine language programs. ample, A means hold down the between direct and programmed
When entering a BASIC pro SHIFT key and press A. You may cursor control is the quote mode.
gram, be especially careful with see strange characters on your Once you press the quote key,
DATA statements as they are ex screen, but that's to be expected. If you're in quote mode. This mode
tremely sensitive to errors. A you find a number followed by an can be confusing if you mistype a
mistyped number in a DATA state underlined key enclosed in braces character and cursor left to change
ment can cause your machine to (for example, (8 A}), type the key it. You'll see a reverse video charac
"lock up" (you'll have no control as many times as indicated (in our ter (a graphics symbol for cursor
over the computer). If this happens, example, enter eight SHIFTed A's). left). In this case, you can use the
the only recourse is to turn your If a key is enclosed in special DELete key to back up and edit the
computer off then back on, erasing brackets, £ 1, hold down the line. Type another quote and you're
whatever was in memory. So be Commodore key (at the lower left out of quote mode. If things really
sure to save a copy of your program corner of the keyboard) and press get confusing, you can exit quote
before you run it. If your computer the indicated character. mode simply by pressing RETURN.
crashes, you can always reload the Rarely, you'll see a single letter Then just cursor up to the mistyped
program and look for the error. of the alphabet enclosed in braces. line and fix it.

When You Read: Press: See: When You Read: Press: See: Press: See:

(CLR| SHIFT . , CLR HOMt {FUR!

{HOME] 1 CLR'HOME (GRN]

(UP) ■ SHUT [fcRSR J [BLUj

{DOWN) (YEL] For Commodore 64 Only


shift] I*—cbsr
{LEFT!
II I Ft I
rj
'.COMMODORE, j ] ]
f RIGHT! it— CRSR Icommodore] 11
{ F2 j

fRVSi ) FJ ) 'COMMODORE! ' 3 '

(OFF)
: ^
I F* j [commodore] [Tj
fBLK) .CTRL,, 1 I F5 ] , COMMODORE] | 5 | KJ
5 3
{WHT] CTRllf Z I F6 1 [commodore; t> j
(RED) f F7 ] icOMMODORi]^7j Q
{CYN] I CTRLL | ['l < F8) 'COMMODORE, Tt j J .

COMPUTE'S Gazetfo November 1986 107


Philip I. Nelson, Assistant Editor pressing RETURN. LISTing the line 20 PRINT "AUTOMATIC PROOFREADE

substitutes the full keyword for the ab B FOB ";.slF VEC=42364 THEN
{SPACEjFRINT "C-64"
breviation and allows the Proofreader
"The Automatic Proofreader" helps 30 IF VEC=50556 THEN PHINT "VI
to work properly. The same technique
you type in program listings for the O20"
works for rechecking programs you've 40 If VEC=35158 THEN GRAPHIC C
128, 64, Plus/4, 16, and V1C-20 and
already typed in. LR:PRINT "PLUS/4 £ 16"
prevents nearly every kind of typing
If you're using the Proofreader on 50 IF VEC=17165 THEN LO=45:HI=
mistake.
the Commodore 128, Plus/4, or 16, do 46:GRAPHIC CLR:PRINT"128"
Type in the Proofreader exactly as 60 SA=(PEEK(LO)+256*PEEK(HI))+
not perform any GRAPHIC commands
listed. Since the program can't check it 6:ADR=SA
while the Proofreader is active. When
self, type carefully to avoid mistakes. 70 FOR J-0 TO 166:READ BVT:POK
you perform a command like GRAPH E ADR,BYT:ADR=A1)R+1:CHK=CHK
Don't omit any tines, even if they con
IC 1, the computer moves everything at +BYT:NEXT
tain unfamiliar commands. After finish
the start of BASIC program space—in 30 If CHK<>20570 THEN PRINT "*
ing, save a copy or two on disk or tape ERROR* CHECK TYPING IN DATA
cluding the Proofreader—to another
before running it This is important be STATEMENTS":END
memory area, causing the Proofreader
cause the Proofreader erases the BASIC 90 FOR J=l TO 5:READ RF,LF,HF:
to crash. The same thing happens if you
portion of itself when you run it, leav RS=SA+RFiliB=INT(RS/256) :LB=
run any program with a GRAPHIC RS-(256*HB)
ing only the machine language portion
command while the Proofreader is in 100 CHK=CIIK+RF+LF+HF:POKE SA+L
in memory.
memory. F,LB:POKE SA+HF,HB:NEXT
Next, type RUN and press RE 110 IF CHKO22054 THEN PRINT "
Thougn the Proofreader doesn't
TURN. After announcing which com •ERROR* RELOAD PROGRAM AND
interfere with other BASIC operations,
puter it's running on, the Proofreader [SPACUjCHECK FINAL LIME"iEN
it's a good idea to disable it before run
displays the message "Proofreader D
ning another program. However, the 120 POKE SA+149,PEEK(772):POKE
Active". Now you're ready to type in a
Proofreader is purposely difficult to dis SA+150,PEEK(773)
BASIC program.
lodge: It's not affected by tape or disk 138 IF VEC=17165 THEN POKE SA+
Every time you finish typing a line
operations, or by pressing RUN/ 14,22:POKE SA+L8,23:POKESA+
and press RETURN, the Proofreader 29,2 24 :POKESA+139,224
STOP- RESTORE. The simplest way to
displays, a two-letter checksum in the 140 PRINT CHRS(147);CHRS(17);"
disable it is to turn the computer off
upper-left corner of the screen. Com PROOFREADER ACTIVE"iSYS S!\
then on. A gentler method is to SYS to 150 POKK liI,PEEK{HI)+l:POKE <P
pare this result with the two-letter
the computer's built-in reset routine EEK{LOH2S6*PEt:K(HI))-l,0sS
checksum printed to the left of the line
(SYS 65341 for the 128, 64738 for the EW
in the program listing. If the letters 160 DATA 120,169,73,141,4,3,16
64, 65526 for the Plus/4 and 16, and
match, it's almost certain the line was 9,3,141,5,3
64802 for the VIC). These reset routines
typed correctly. If the letters don't 170 DATA 88,96,165,20,133,167,
erase any program in memory, so be 165,21,133,168,169
match, check for your mistake and cor
sure to save the program you're typing 180 DATA 0,141,0,255,162,31,18
rect the line.
in before entering the SYS command. 1,199,157,227,3
The Proofreader ignores spaces not
If you own a Commodore 64, you 190 DATA 202,16,248,169,19,32,
enclosed in quotes, so you can omit or 210,255,169,13,32
may already have wondered whether
add spaces between keywords and still 200 DATA 210,255,160,0,132,180
the Proofreader works with other pro
see a matching checksum. However, ,132,176,136,230,180
gramming utilities like "MetaBASIC." 210 DATA 200,185,0,2,240,46,20
since spaces inside quotes are almost al
The answer is generally yes, if you're 1,34,208,8,72
ways significant, the Proofreader pays
using a 64 and activate the Proofreader 220 DATA 165,176,73,255,133,17
attention to them. For example, 10
after installing the other utility. For ex 6,104,72,201,32,200
PRINT'THIS IS BASIC" will generate 230 DATA 7,165,176,208,3,104,2
ample, first load and activate Meta
a different checksum than 10 08,226,104,166,180
BASIC, then load and run the
PRINT'THIS ISBA SIC". 240 DATA 24,165,167,121,0,2,13
Proofreader, 3,167, 165,169,105
A common typing error is transpo
When using the Proofreader with 250 DATA 13,133,100,202, 2011,239
sition—typing two successive charac
another utility, you should disable both ,240,202, 165, 167, 6'J
ters in the wrong order, like PIRNT
programs before running a BASIC pro 260 DATA 168,72,41,15,168,185,
instead of PRINT or 64378 instead of 211,3,32,210,255
gram. Whiie the Proofreader seems un
64738. The Proofreader is sensitive to 270 DATA 104,74,74,74,74,168,1
affected by most utilities, there's no
the position of each character within the 85,211,3,32,210
way to promise that it will work with
line and thus catches transposition 280 DATA 255,162,31,183,227,3,
any and every combination of utilities 149,199,202,16,248
errors.
you might want to use. The more utili 290 DATA 169,146,32,210,255,7G
The Proofreader does not accept
ties activated, the more fragile the sys ,B6,137,65,66,67
keyword abbreviations (for example, ? 300 DATA 68,69,70,71,72,74,75,
tem becomes.
instead of PRINT). If you prefer to use 77,80,81,82,83,88
abbreviations, you can still check the The New Automatic Proofreader 310 DATA 13,2,7,167,31,32,151,
line by LISTing it after typing it in, 10 VEOPEEK(772)+256*PEEK(773) 116,117,151,128,129,167,136
.137 _
moving the cursor back to the line, and :I,O=43 :ill = 44

108 COMPUTErs Gazette November 19B6


Machine Language Editor
MLX For The Commodore 64
Ottis Cowper
Technical Editor

"MLX" is a labor-saving utility that played. You can get back to the menu match, you'll hear a pleasant beep, the'
will help you enter machine lan from most options by pressing data is added to the workspace area,
guage program listings without error. RETURN. and the prompt for the next line of data
MLX is required to enter all Commo appears (unless the line just entered
dore 64 machine language programs Entering A Listing was the last line of the listing—in
published in computers gazette. To begin entering data, press E. You'll which case you'll automatically ad
This version of MLX was first pub be asked for the address at which you vance to the Save option). But if MLX
lished in Ihe January 1986 issue; it wish to begin. (If you pressed Eby mis detects a typing error, you'll hear a low
cannot be used to enter MLX pro take, you can return to the command buzz and see an error message. Then
grams published prior to that date, menu by pressing RETURN.) When MLX redisplays the line for editing.
nor can earlier versions of MLX be you begin typing a listing, enter the To edit a line, move the cursor left
used to enter the listings in this issue. starting address here. If you're typing in and right using the cursor keys. (The
a long listing in several sessions, you INST/DEL key now works as an alter
Type in and save a copy of MLX. You'l! should enter the address where you left native cursor-left key.) You cannot
need it for all future machine language off typing at the end of the previous move left beyond the first character in
programs in COMPUTEl'a GAZETTE, as session. In any case, make sure the ad the line. If you try to move beyond the
well as machine language (ML) pro dress you enter corresponds to the ad rightmost character, you'll reenter the
grams in our companion magazine, dress of a line in the MLX listing. line. To make corrections in a mistyped
COMPUTE!, and COMPUTE! books. Otherwise, you'll be unable to enter the line, compare the line on the screen
When you're ready to enter an ML pro data correctly. with the one printed in the listing, then
gram