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### Classical Particulate Mechanics

“Classical mechanics gave us a deterministic view of the world. Quantum mechanics, conversely, gives us a probabilistic view instead. According to Newton, if you know the cause af an event, you can predict the outcome. According to M.Born,

you can only predict how likely that outcome will be.” Classical mechanics is the investigation of the motion of systems of particles in Euclidean three-dimensional space, under the influence of specified force laws, with the motion’s evolution determined by Newton’s second law, a second order differential equation. That is, given certain laws determining physical forces, and some boundary conditions on the positions of the particles at some particular times (Shapiro, 2003). It is the study of the motion of bodies, including the special case in which bodies remain at rest, in accordance with the general principles first enunciated by Sir Isaac Newton in his Philosophiae Naturalis Principia Mathematica (1687), commonly known as the Principia. ( Leonid V. Azaroff ,1926) Classical mechanics is the investigation of the motion of systems of particles in Euclidean three-dimensional space, under the influence of specified force laws, with the motion’s evolution determined by Newton’s second law, a second order differential equation. That is, given certain laws determining physical forces, and some boundary conditions on the positions of the particles at some particular times (Shapiro, 2003). It is the study of the motion of bodies, including the special case in which bodies remain at rest, in accordance with the general principles first enunciated by Sir Isaac Newton in his Philosophiae Naturalis Principia Mathematica (1687), commonly known as the Principia . Classical mechanics was the first branch of Physics to be discovered, and is the foundation upon which all other branches of Physics are built. Moreover, classical mechanics has many important applications in other areas of science, such as Astronomy ( e.g. , celestial mechanics), Chemistry (e.g., the dynamics of molecular collisions) , Geology ( e.g. , the propagation of seismic waves, generated by earthquakes, through the Earth's crust), and Engineering ( e.g. , the equilibrium and stability of structures) . Classical mechanics is also of great significance outside the realm of science. After all, the sequence of events leading to the discovery of classical mechanics--starting with the ground-breaking work of Copernicus, continuing with the researches of Galileo, Kepler, and Descartes, and culminating in the monumental achievements of Newton--involved the complete overthrow of the Aristotelian picture of the Universe, which had previously prevailed for more than a millennium, and its replacement by a recognizably modern picture in which humankind no longer played a privileged role. " id="pdf-obj-0-25" src="pdf-obj-0-25.jpg">

Classical mechanics was the first branch of Physics to be discovered, and is the foundation upon which all other branches of Physics are built. Moreover, classical mechanics has many important applications in other areas of science, such as Astronomy (e.g., celestial mechanics), Chemistry (e.g., the dynamics of molecular collisions), Geology (e.g., the propagation of seismic waves, generated by earthquakes, through the Earth's crust), and Engineering (e.g., the equilibrium and stability of structures). Classical mechanics is also of great significance outside the realm of science. After all, the sequence of events leading to the discovery of classical mechanics--starting with the ground-breaking work of Copernicus, continuing with the researches of Galileo, Kepler, and Descartes, and culminating in the monumental achievements of Newton--involved the complete overthrow of the Aristotelian picture of the Universe, which had previously prevailed for more than a millennium, and its replacement by a recognizably modern picture in which humankind no longer played a privileged role.

is also known as Newtonian mechanics,

though textbook authors often consider Newtonian mechanics as one of the three

main formalisms of classical mechanics, along with

Hamiltonian mechanics. After all, it is so useful because the more

accurate theories that we know of make corrections to classical mechanics generally only in extreme situation.

Lagrangian Mechanics

It is a reformulation of classical mechanics, introduced by the Italian-French mathematician and astronomer Joseph-Louis Lagrange in 1788. Lagrangian mechanics and Hamiltonian mechanics . After all, it is so useful because the more accurate theories that we know of make corrections to classical mechanics generally only in extreme situation. Lagrangian Mechanics It is a reformulation of classical mechanics , introduced by the Italian-French mathematician and astronomer Joseph-Louis Lagrange in 1788. In Lagrangian mechanics, the trajectory of a system of particles is derived by solving the Lagrange equations in one of two forms, either the Lagrange equations of the first kind , which treat constraints explicitl y as extra equations, often using Lagrange multipliers ; or the Lagrange equations of the second kind , which incorporate the constraints directl y b y j udicious choice of generalized coordinates . In each case, a mathematical function called the Lagrangian is a function of the generalized coordinates, their time derivatives, and time, and contains the information about the dynamics of the system. L=T-V Where; L=Lagrangian T= sum of all the kinetic energies of the particles V = potential energy of the system " id="pdf-obj-1-30" src="pdf-obj-1-30.jpg">

In Lagrangian mechanics, the trajectory of a

system of particles is derived by solving the

Lagrange

equations in one

of two

forms, either

the Lagrange equations of the first kind, which treat

constraints explicitly as extra

equations, often

using Lagrange multipliers; or the Lagrange equations of the second kind, which incorporate the

constraints directly by judicious choice

of

generalized coordinates. In each case, a mathematical function called the Lagrangian is a function of the generalized coordinates, their time derivatives, and time, and contains the information about the dynamics of the system. Lagrangian mechanics and Hamiltonian mechanics . After all, it is so useful because the more accurate theories that we know of make corrections to classical mechanics generally only in extreme situation. Lagrangian Mechanics It is a reformulation of classical mechanics , introduced by the Italian-French mathematician and astronomer Joseph-Louis Lagrange in 1788. In Lagrangian mechanics, the trajectory of a system of particles is derived by solving the Lagrange equations in one of two forms, either the Lagrange equations of the first kind , which treat constraints explicitl y as extra equations, often using Lagrange multipliers ; or the Lagrange equations of the second kind , which incorporate the constraints directl y b y j udicious choice of generalized coordinates . In each case, a mathematical function called the Lagrangian is a function of the generalized coordinates, their time derivatives, and time, and contains the information about the dynamics of the system. L=T-V Where; L=Lagrangian T= sum of all the kinetic energies of the particles V = potential energy of the system " id="pdf-obj-1-75" src="pdf-obj-1-75.jpg">

### V = potential energy of the system

Hamiltonian Mechanics

Hamiltonian mechanics was first formulated by

1833, starting from

Lagrangian mechanics, a previous reformulation of classical mechanics introduced by Joseph Louis Lagrange in 1788.
In Hamiltonian mechanics, a classical physical
system is described by a set of canonical
coordinates r= (q,p) , where each component of the
coordinate q i ,
p i is
indexed
to
theframe
of
reference of the system.

The time evolution of the system is uniquely defined by Hamilton's equations: William Rowan Hamilton in 1833, starting from Lagrangian mechanics , a previous reformulation of classical mechanics introduced by Joseph Louis Lagrange in 1788. In Hamiltonian mechanics, a classical physical system is described by a set of canonical coordinates r= (q,p) , where each component of the coordinate q i , p i is indexed to theframe of reference of the system. The time evolution of the system is uniquely defined by Hamilton's equations: Where; H= H(,q,p,t) is the Hamiltonian, which often corresponds to the total energy of the system.For a closed system, it is the sum of the the system. kinetic and potential energy in Reynold’s Number but Osborne Reynolds popularized the concept. It is an important dimensionless quantity in fluid mechanics that is used to help predict flow patterns in different fluid flow situations. It is used to check whether the flow is laminar or turbulent. It is denoted by R e . This number got by comparing inertial force with viscous force. " id="pdf-obj-2-20" src="pdf-obj-2-20.jpg">
 Where; H= H(,q,p,t) is the Hamiltonian, which often corresponds to the total energy of the system.For a closed system, it is the sum of the the system. and energy in Reynold’s Number popularized the concept. It is an important in that is used to help predict flow patterns in different fluid flow situations. It is used to check whether the flow is laminar or turbulent. It is denoted by R e . This number got by comparing inertial force with viscous force. fluid dynamics , Bernoulli's principle states that an increase in the speed of a fluid occurs simultaneously with a decrease in pressure or a decrease in the fluid ' s potential energy . The principle is named after Daniel Bernoulli who published it in his book Hydrodynamica in 1738. Bernoulli's principle can be applied to various types of fluid flow, resulting in various forms of Bernoulli's equation; there are different forms of Bernoulli's equation for different types of flow. The simple form of Bernoulli's equation is valid for incompressible flows : " id="pdf-obj-3-2" src="pdf-obj-3-2.jpg">

L =is the length or diameter of the fluid.

Where;

ρ= is the density of the fluid, V =is the velocity of the fluid, μ=is the viscosity of fluid,

Reynolds number formula is used in the problems to find the Velocity (V), density (ρ), Viscosity (μ) and diameter (L) of the fluid. It is dimensionless.

The Kind of flow depends on value of R e

• 1. If Re < 2000 the flow is Laminar

• 2. If Re > 4000 the flow is turbulent

• 3. If 2000 < Re < 4000 it is called transition flow. fluid dynamics , Bernoulli's principle states that an increase in the speed of a fluid occurs simultaneously with a decrease in pressure or a decrease in the fluid ' s potential energy . The principle is named after Daniel Bernoulli who published it in his book Hydrodynamica in 1738. Bernoulli's principle can be applied to various types of fluid flow, resulting in various forms of Bernoulli's equation; there are different forms of Bernoulli's equation for different types of flow. The simple form of Bernoulli's equation is valid for incompressible flows : " id="pdf-obj-3-28" src="pdf-obj-3-28.jpg">

Bernoulli’s Equation

 In fluid dynamics , Bernoulli's " id="pdf-obj-3-37" src="pdf-obj-3-37.jpg"> Bernoulli's principle states that an increase in the speed of a fluid occurs simultaneously with a decrease in or a decrease in fluid ' s potential " id="pdf-obj-3-96" src="pdf-obj-3-96.jpg"> the energy. The principle is named after who published it in his

book

Hydrodynamica in 1738. Bernoulli's principle can be applied to various types

of fluid flow, resulting in various forms of

Bernoulli's equation; there are different

forms of Bernoulli's equation for different types of flow. The simple form of Bernoulli's

equation is valid for : fluid dynamics , Bernoulli's principle states that an increase in the speed of a fluid occurs simultaneously with a decrease in pressure or a decrease in the fluid ' s potential energy . The principle is named after Daniel Bernoulli who published it in his book Hydrodynamica in 1738. Bernoulli's principle can be applied to various types of fluid flow, resulting in various forms of Bernoulli's equation; there are different forms of Bernoulli's equation for different types of flow. The simple form of Bernoulli's equation is valid for incompressible flows : " id="pdf-obj-3-147" src="pdf-obj-3-147.jpg"> fluid dynamics , the Hagen–Poiseuille equation , also known as the Hagen–Poiseuille law, Poiseuille law or Poiseuille equation, is a physical law that gives the pressure drop in an incompressible and Newtonian fluid in laminar flow flowing through a long cylindrical pipe of constant cross section. It can be successfully applied to air flow in lung alveoli , for the flow through a drinking straw or through a hypodermic needle . " id="pdf-obj-4-2" src="pdf-obj-4-2.jpg"> fluid dynamics , the Hagen–Poiseuille equation , also known as the Hagen–Poiseuille law, Poiseuille law or Poiseuille equation, is a physical law that gives the pressure drop in an incompressible and Newtonian fluid in laminar flow flowing through a long cylindrical pipe of constant cross section. It can be successfully applied to air flow in lung alveoli , for the flow through a drinking straw or through a hypodermic needle . " id="pdf-obj-4-4" src="pdf-obj-4-4.jpg">

Hagen–Poiseuille Equation

In nonideal fluid dynamics, the Hagen–Poiseuille equation, also known as the Hagen–Poiseuille law, Poiseuille law or Poiseuille equation, is a physical law that gives the pressure drop in an incompressible and Newtonian fluid in laminar flow flowing through a long cylindrical pipe of constant cross section. It can be successfully applied to air flow in lung alveoli, for the flow through a drinking straw or through a hypodermic needle. y derived independently by Jean Léonard Marie Poiseuille in 1838 and Gotthilf Heinrich Ludwig Hagen , and published by Poiseuille in 1840 and 1846.The assumptions of the equation are that the fluid is incompressible and Newtonian ; the flow is laminar through a pipe of constant circular cross-section that is substantially longer than its diameter; and there is no acceleration of fluid in the pipe. For velocities and pipe diameters above a threshold, actual fluid flow is not laminar but turbulent , leading to larger pressure drops than calculated by the Hagen– Poiseuille equation. Where; Δ p is the pressure reduction, L is the length of pipe, μ is the dynamic viscosity , Q is the volumetric flow rate , R is the pipe radius , π is the mathematical constant pi . " id="pdf-obj-5-2" src="pdf-obj-5-2.jpg">

It was experimentally derived independently by Jean Léonard Marie Poiseuille in 1838 and Gotthilf Heinrich Ludwig Hagen, and published by Poiseuille in 1840 and 1846.The assumptions of the equation are that the fluid is incompressible and Newtonian; the flow is laminar through a pipe of constant circular cross-section that is substantially longer than its diameter; and there is no acceleration of fluid in the pipe. For velocities and pipe diameters above a threshold, actual fluid flow is not laminar but turbulent, leading to larger pressure drops than calculated by the Hagen– Poiseuille equation. y derived independently by Jean Léonard Marie Poiseuille in 1838 and Gotthilf Heinrich Ludwig Hagen , and published by Poiseuille in 1840 and 1846.The assumptions of the equation are that the fluid is incompressible and Newtonian ; the flow is laminar through a pipe of constant circular cross-section that is substantially longer than its diameter; and there is no acceleration of fluid in the pipe. For velocities and pipe diameters above a threshold, actual fluid flow is not laminar but turbulent , leading to larger pressure drops than calculated by the Hagen– Poiseuille equation. Where; Δ p is the pressure reduction, L is the length of pipe, μ is the dynamic viscosity , Q is the volumetric flow rate , R is the pipe radius , π is the mathematical constant pi . " id="pdf-obj-5-23" src="pdf-obj-5-23.jpg"> y derived independently by Jean Léonard Marie Poiseuille in 1838 and Gotthilf Heinrich Ludwig Hagen , and published by Poiseuille in 1840 and 1846.The assumptions of the equation are that the fluid is incompressible and Newtonian ; the flow is laminar through a pipe of constant circular cross-section that is substantially longer than its diameter; and there is no acceleration of fluid in the pipe. For velocities and pipe diameters above a threshold, actual fluid flow is not laminar but turbulent , leading to larger pressure drops than calculated by the Hagen– Poiseuille equation. Where; Δ p is the pressure reduction, L is the length of pipe, μ is the dynamic viscosity , Q is the volumetric flow rate , R is the pipe radius , π is the mathematical constant pi . " id="pdf-obj-5-25" src="pdf-obj-5-25.jpg"> y derived independently by Jean Léonard Marie Poiseuille in 1838 and Gotthilf Heinrich Ludwig Hagen , and published by Poiseuille in 1840 and 1846.The assumptions of the equation are that the fluid is incompressible and Newtonian ; the flow is laminar through a pipe of constant circular cross-section that is substantially longer than its diameter; and there is no acceleration of fluid in the pipe. For velocities and pipe diameters above a threshold, actual fluid flow is not laminar but turbulent , leading to larger pressure drops than calculated by the Hagen– Poiseuille equation. Where; Δ p is the pressure reduction, L is the length of pipe, μ is the dynamic viscosity , Q is the volumetric flow rate , R is the pipe radius , π is the mathematical constant pi . " id="pdf-obj-5-27" src="pdf-obj-5-27.jpg">

Where;

Δp is the pressure reduction, L is the length of pipe, μ is the dynamic viscosity, Q is the volumetric flow rate, R is the pipe radius, π is the mathematical constant pi.

### References:

Lee, S. & Kimberly, H. (2012). Particle technology and application. BocRaton: CRC Press.

Merkus, H.G.(2009).Particle size measurements: fundamental, practice, quaity. U.S.A: Springer Science & Business Media.

Rhodes, M. (2008). Introduction to ParticleTechnology. 2 nd ed.Australia: John Wiley & Sons Ltd http://alfa-img.com/show/lung-gas-exchange-physiology.html. Retrieved February 1,

2017

www.limat.org/data/Handouts/CIVIL/FMbyBulu/lecture_notes_07.pdf.

Retrieved February

1,2017isites.harvard.edu/fs/docs/

...

/ES162_08_Notes02a_Flow_In_Pipes_ChangTAMU.pdf.

Retrieved February 1, 2017