“Classical mechanics gave us a deterministic view of the world. Quantum mechanics, conversely, gives us a probabilistic view instead. According to Newton, if you know the cause af an event, you can predict the outcome. According to M.Born,
you can only predict how likely that outcome will be.”
(Leonid V. Azaroff,1926)
Classical mechanics is the investigation of the motion of systems of particles in Euclidean threedimensional space, under the influence of specified force laws, with the motion’s evolution determined by Newton’s second law, a second order differential equation. That is, given certain laws determining physical forces, and some boundary conditions on the positions of the particles at some particular times (Shapiro, 2003). It is the study of the motion of bodies, including the special case in which bodies remain at rest, in accordance with the general principles first enunciated by Sir Isaac Newton in his Philosophiae Naturalis Principia Mathematica (1687), commonly known as the Principia.
Classical mechanics was the first branch of Physics to be discovered, and is the foundation upon which all other branches of Physics are built. Moreover, classical mechanics has many important applications in other areas of science, such as Astronomy (e.g., celestial mechanics), Chemistry (e.g., the dynamics of molecular collisions), Geology (e.g., the propagation of seismic waves, generated by earthquakes, through the Earth's crust), and Engineering (e.g., the equilibrium and stability of structures). Classical mechanics is also of great significance outside the realm of science. After all, the sequence of events leading to the discovery of classical mechanicsstarting with the groundbreaking work of Copernicus, continuing with the researches of Galileo, Kepler, and Descartes, and culminating in the monumental achievements of Newtoninvolved the complete overthrow of the Aristotelian picture of the Universe, which had previously prevailed for more than a millennium, and its replacement by a recognizably modern picture in which humankind no longer played a privileged role.
In addition, classical mechanics
is also known as Newtonian mechanics,
though textbook authors often consider Newtonian mechanics as one of the three
main formalisms of classical mechanics, along with
mechanics and
Hamiltonian mechanics. After all, it is so useful because the more
accurate theories that we know of make corrections to classical mechanics generally only in extreme situation.
Lagrangian Mechanics
It is a reformulation of classical mechanics, introduced by the ItalianFrench mathematician and astronomer JosephLouis Lagrange in 1788.
In Lagrangian mechanics, the trajectory of a
system of particles is derived by solving the
Lagrange
equations in one
of two
forms, either
the Lagrange equations of the first kind, which treat
constraints explicitly as extra
equations, often
using Lagrange multipliers; or the Lagrange equations of the second kind, which incorporate the
of
generalized coordinates. In each case, a mathematical function called the Lagrangian is a function of the generalized coordinates, their time derivatives, and time, and contains the information about the dynamics of the system.
Hamiltonian Mechanics
Hamiltonian mechanics was first formulated by
1833, starting from
Lagrangian mechanics, a previous reformulation of classical
The time evolution of the system is uniquely defined by Hamilton's equations:
Where; 
H= H(,q,p,t) is the Hamiltonian, which often corresponds to the total energy 

of the system.For a closed system, it is the sum of the the system. 
and 
energy in 


Reynold’s Number 

but Osborne Reynolds 
popularized the concept. 
It is an 

important 
in 
that is 

used to 
help predict flow patterns in 
different fluid flow 

situations. 
It
is used to check whether the flow is laminar or turbulent. It is denoted 

by
R e .

This number got by comparing inertial force with viscous force. 
L =is the length or diameter of the fluid.
Where;
ρ= is the density of the fluid, V =is the velocity of the fluid, μ=is the viscosity of fluid,
Reynolds number formula is used in the problems to find the Velocity (V), density (ρ), Viscosity (μ) and diameter (L) of the fluid. It is dimensionless.
The Kind of flow depends on value of R _{e}
1. If Re < 2000 the flow is Laminar
2. If Re > 4000 the flow is turbulent
3. If 2000 < Re < 4000 it is called transition flow.
Bernoulli’s Equation
In 
fluid dynamics , Bernoulli's " id="pdfobj337" src="pdfobj337.jpg">
Bernoulli's 

principle states that an increase in 

the speed 
of 
a 
fluid occurs 

simultaneously 
with 
a decrease 

in 
or 
a 
decrease 
in 

the 
energy. The 

principle 
is 
named 
after 

who published it in his 
book
Hydrodynamica in 1738. Bernoulli's principle can be applied to various types
of fluid flow, resulting in various forms of
Bernoulli's equation; there are different
forms of Bernoulli's equation for different types of flow. The simple form of Bernoulli's
equation is valid for
Hagen–Poiseuille Equation
In nonideal fluid dynamics, the Hagen–Poiseuille equation, also known as the Hagen–Poiseuille law, Poiseuille law or Poiseuille equation, is a physical law that gives the pressure drop in an incompressible and Newtonian fluid in laminar flow flowing through a long cylindrical pipe of constant cross section. It can be successfully applied to air flow in lung alveoli, for the flow through a drinking straw or through a hypodermic needle.
It was experimentally derived independently by Jean Léonard Marie Poiseuille in 1838 and Gotthilf Heinrich Ludwig Hagen, and published by Poiseuille in 1840 and 1846.The assumptions of the equation are that the fluid is incompressible and Newtonian; the flow is laminar through a pipe of constant circular crosssection that is substantially longer than its diameter; and there is no acceleration of fluid in the pipe. For velocities and pipe diameters above a threshold, actual fluid flow is not laminar but turbulent, leading to larger pressure drops than calculated by the Hagen– Poiseuille equation.
Where;
Δp is the pressure reduction, L is the length of pipe, μ is the dynamic viscosity, Q is the volumetric flow rate, R is the pipe radius, π is the mathematical constant pi.
Lee, S. & Kimberly, H. (2012). Particle technology and application. BocRaton: CRC Press.
Merkus, H.G.(2009).Particle size measurements: fundamental, practice, quaity. U.S.A: Springer Science & Business Media.
Rhodes, M. (2008). Introduction to ParticleTechnology. 2 ^{n}^{d} ed.Australia: John Wiley & Sons Ltd http://alfaimg.com/show/lunggasexchangephysiology.html. Retrieved February 1,
2017
www.limat.org/data/Handouts/CIVIL/FMbyBulu/lecture_notes_07.pdf.
Retrieved February
1,2017isites.harvard.edu/fs/docs/
...
/ES162_08_Notes02a_Flow_In_Pipes_ChangTAMU.pdf.
Retrieved February 1, 2017
Molto più che documenti.
Scopri tutto ciò che Scribd ha da offrire, inclusi libri e audiolibri dei maggiori editori.
Annulla in qualsiasi momento.