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ME 380Q ENGINEERING ANALYSIS:

ANALYTICAL METHODS

Dr. Tess J. Moon, 471-0094 (office), 471-8727 (fax),

tmoon@mail.utexas.edu

_______________________________________________________________

Mathematical Preliminaries

1) Indicial Notation

numbers a1, a2 , a3 are denoted by ai .

Range Convention: Unless otherwise specified, all subscripts have the range

1, 2, 3.

Thus, ai j stands for the 9 real numbers

a11 a12 a13

a21 a22 a23

a31 a32 a33

Such a rectangular array is called a matrix and is usually set off in brackets [ ],

a11 a12 a13

[ ]

aij = a21 a22 a23

a

31 a

32 a

33

The three elements a1 j constitute the first row, while ai 1 is the first column,

etc.

In general, a symbol a1 j ... k with N unspecified, distinct subscripts represents

3N real numbers. It should be clear that a j and ak represent the same three

numbers as ai .

ai + bi denotes the 3 numbers a1 + b1, a2 + b2 , a3 + b3 ;

ai bj denotes the 9 numbers

a1b1 a1b2 a1b3

a2b1 a2 b2 a2b3

a3b1 a3b2 a3b3

multiplication);

ai denotes the 3 numbers a1 , a2 , a3 ( R)

ai = bi stands for the 3 equations a1 = b1, a2 = b2 , a3 = b3.

multiplication; e.g.,

ai bi = ai + ( 1)bi .

Since we are dealing with real numbers, it is evident that the above

ai + bi = bi + ai

commutative rule;

aij bk = bk aij

ai + (bi + ci ) = ( ai + bi ) + ci

associative rule;

ai (b jk cm ) = ( ai bjk )cm

aij ( bk + c k ) = aijbk + aijc k } distributive rule;

etc.

It should be obvious that if

ai = bi ,

then

ai = bi

and

ai c j = bi c j

ai + bj or cij = ak .

aij ...m...n...k = aij ...n...m...k.

aij = (aij + a ji ) + (aij a ji )

1 1

2 2

shows that a 2-index symbol aij can be written as the sum of a symmetric and

skewsymmetric symbol.

The symmetric and skew parts of aij are denoted by a( ij) and a[ij ] , respectively;

i.e.,

aij = a( ij) + a[ ij] ,

where

a( ij) =

1

2

( aij + aji ), a[ ij] = ( aij a ji ).

1

2

2) The Summation Convention

3

aii = a ii = a11 + a22 + a33 ,

i =1

3

aij bj = a b ij j = a11b1 + a12b2 + a13 b3,

j =1

Clearly, aii = a jj = akk , etc.; and repeated subscripts are dummy subscripts.

Unspecified subscripts which are not repeated are called free subscripts.

The process of setting two free subscripts in a monomial equal and summing

is called contraction. E.g., ai bj ci is obtained from ai bj ck by contracting on i and

k.

w.r.t. one subscript from each symbol is called inner multiplication. E.g.,

aijk brk is an inner product.

Clearly, we can contract in a given equation and preserve the equality. E.g.,

suppose

aij = bij

Then in particular a11 = b11, a22 = b22 , a33 = b33, and addition yields

Definition 3.1 Kronecker's delta is the 2-index symbol ij defined by

1 if i = j ( no sum),

=

0 if i j

ij

Thus, 11 = 22 = 33 = 1,

12 = 13 = 21 = 23 = 31 = 32 = 0.

Theorem 3.1

(i ) ij = ji (Kronecker' s delta is symmetric)

(ii) ii =3

(iii) ii =1

Theorem 3.2

(

(i ) ija j = ai , ij ai = aj Kronecker's delta is often called the substitution operator )

(ii) ij ajk = aik

(iii) ij ija = aii

(iv) ij ij = 3.

Definition 3.2 If each element of the list i j k denotes one of the integers from

1 to 3 (inclusive) and if each of the integers from 1 to 3 appears once and only

once in the list, then the list i j k is called a permutation of the integers from 1

to 3.

Definition 3.5 The alternating symbol is the 3-index symbol ijk defined by

+1 if ijk is an even permutation of 1,2,3

ijk = -1 if ijk is an odd permutation of 1,2,3

0 if ijk is not a permutation of 1,2,3

Thus,

123 = 231 = 312 =1 ,

321 = 132 = 213 = 1 ,

112 = 131 = 222 = ... = 0.

Theorem 3.3 The alternating symbol is antisymmetric w.r.t. any two of its

indices; e.g.,

jik = ijk .

4) Determinants

[ ]

Definition 4.1 Given a square matrix aij , its determinant is the number

a11 a12 a13

[ ]

det aij = a21 a22 a23

a31 a32 a33

It should be clear that i and j on the l.h.s. of the definition of the determinant

Theorem 4.1

(i) If all the elements of a row (column) of aij are zero, then det aij =0. [ ] [ ]

(ii) If the corresponding elements of two rows (columns) of aij are equal, [ ]

then det aij =0.[ ]

[ ] [ ]

(iii) If bij is formed from aij by interchanging two rows (columns), then

det[b ] = det [a ] .

ij ij

(iv) If [ b ] is the same as [ a ] except that all the elements of a row (column) of

ij ij

ij

ij ij ij

th

ij

two terms, then det[ a ] may be expressed as the sum of the determinants

ij

corresponding terms of the k th row (column) of aij . All other rows [ ]

(columns) are the same throughout.

[ ] [ ]

(vi) If bij is formed from aij by adding a multiple of one row (column) to a

[ ] [ ]

(vii) If bij is the transpose of aij , i.e., bij = aij , then det bij = det aij . [ ] [ ]

Theorem 4.2 Suppose that the elements aij are all differentiable functions of

d aij

= aij

ds

then

a11 a12 a13 a11 a12 a13 a11 a12 a13

d

ds

[ ]

det aij = a21 a22 a23 + a21

a22

+ a21

a23 a22 a23

a31 a32 a33 a31 a32 a33 a31 a32 a33

a11 a12 a13 a11 a12 a13 a11 a12 a13

a22 a23 + a21

+ a21 a22 a23 + a21 a22

a23

a32 a33 a31

a31

a32 a33 a31 a32

a33

Theorem 4.3

ijk apiaqj ark = det[ amn ] pqr

a a a = det[ amn ]

ijk ip jq kr pqr

Theorem 4.4

aip aiq air

ijk pqr det[amn ] = a jp a jq a jr

akp akq akr

Theorem 4.5

ip iq ir

(i ) ijk pqr = jp jq jr

kp kq kr

Definition 5.1 Given a square matrix aij , any matrix a1

ij with the properties [ ] [ ]

that

aij1akj = aik akj1 = ij

Theorem 5.1 A square matrix can have at most one inverse; i.e., the inverse,

[ ] [ ]

Theorem 5.2 det aij 0 is a necessary condition for aij to have an inverse.

ij ij

ij

1

aij1 = a a

2det [ ars ] ipq jmn mp nq

[ ]

Theorem 5.4 Let det aij 0 . Then the linear equations

aij x j = bj

1

xi = aij1b j = a a bj

2det[ ars] ipq jmn mp nq

[ ]

Theorem 5.5 If det aij 0 , then the only solution of the homogeneous

equations

aij x j = 0

equations

aij x j = 0

have a nontrivial solution is that det aij = 0 . [ ]

6) Vectors

element) in . The projections of a on the X1 , X 2 , X 3 axes are denoted by

w.r.t. is at the tail of a and the point Q with the coordinates Qi w.r.t. is at

a = PQ, ai = Qi + Pi .

The projection ai is positive or negative according as the vector a points in

Definition 6.1 The rectangular Cartesian components of a w.r.t. are the

projections ai .

Next we recall some facts from Euclidean geometry. The magnitude or length

of a is the number

a = ai ai (all square roots positive)

ai

a

Thus, the components of a vector determine its length and direction-and vice

versa.

Theorem 6.1 Two vectors a and b are equal (same magnitude and direction)

iff their components are equal, i.e. ai = bi .

a and whose direction is the same or opposite as a according as

> 0, or > 0.

Vectors add according to the parallelogram rule and as was the case with

a = a1 e1 + a2e2 + a3e3 = aiei

aiei ,

Theorem 6.4 The zero or null vector 0 is the vector with zero length.

Moreover, a = 0 iff ai = 0 .

such an important role that we must ask "What if we rhad used a different

coordinate frame for , and let {ei } be the associated set of unit vectors.

Letting ij be the cosine of the angle between the i -axis and the j -axis,

we have

ei = e

ij j (7.1)

and

ei = e.

ji j (7.2)

Then

a = aiei (7.3)

and

a = aiei . (7.4)

a = ai ji ej ; (7.5)

a = aiei = a jej (7.6)

a a = aje j ae = (a j

ji j j a )e j = 0 .

ji j

ai = a

ji j

ai = a , ai =

ij j a .

ji j

Here, a = aiei = aiei and ij is the cosine of the angle between ei and e j .

We now see that to characterize a vector by its components w.r.t. some frame

The direction cosines ij must satisfy certain relationships since the vectors ei

are mutually orthogonal and of unit length as are ei . To find these, we let a

ai = a =

ji j ji a

jk k

But

ai = a ,

ik k

and

( ji jk ik )ak = 0. (7.7)

Now (7.7) must hold vectors a . In particular, it must hold for the vector a

with components

a1 = 1, a2 = a3 = 0 w.r.t. X .

ji j1 = i1

ji jz = iz and ji j3 = i3 .

Thus

ji jk = ik

instead of ai .

ji jk = ij kj = ik .

orthogonal, and the transformation X X (ai ai) is said to be an

orthogonal transformation.

proper or improper according as det [ ] =1 or -1 .

ij

ij

aijT = a ji ,

= =

T T

ij jk ij jk ik .

orhtogonal matrix is defined by the property that its transpose is its inverse.

other.

8) Cartesian Tensors

a ij... mn (components in X )

N Subscripts

mn

aij... (components in X )

is called a Cartesian tensor of order N if under every orthogonal

mn =

aij... ip dq ... mr ns apq ...rs

(8.1) and (8.2)

aij... mn = pi qj ... rm a

sn pq...rs

frame, we can find them in any other by the transformation rule (8.1). In the

indicial notation.

Definition 8.2 Let aij... k and bij... k be the components in X of two N th -order

Cartesian tensors.

(i) The two tensors are equal if their coponents agree in every frame; in

particular

aij... k = bij... k .

aij... k + bij... k in X ,

(iii) The scalar multiple of a tensor aij... k (components in X ) by a scalar

aij ...k in X,

Theorem 8.2 If the components of a Cartesian tensor are all zero in one

Theorem 8.3 If the components of two tensors (of the same order) agree in

Theorem 8.5 Let aij... m... n...k be the components in X of a Cartesian tensor. If

aij... m... n...k is symmetric (skew) w.r.t. m and n, then the components in any other

Theorem 8.6 Let aij... k and bpq ...r be components in X of Cartesian tensors.

M N

cij ...kpq...r = aij... k bpq...r

The "c tensor" is called the outer product of the "a tensor" and the "b tensor".

Theorem 8.7 Let aij... m... n...k be the components in X of a Cartesian tensor of

bij... k = aij... m... n... k

The "b tensor" is said to be formed from the "a tensor" by contraction.

If the operation of contraction is applied to the outer product of two tensors in

such a way that the repeated index belongs to each of the two factors, the

We have just seen, e.g., that if aij and bij are Cartesian tensor components,

then c = aij bij is a scalar. It is natural to ask: If c and bij are tensor components,

are the aij necessarily tensor components? Theorems that answer questions

of this sort are called quotient laws. The following two theorems are typical

quotient laws.

Theorem 8.8 Suppose that in each frame we have a set of 9 real numbers, e.g.,

aij in X .

aij bij = c

for every choice of the vector b j , where the ci are also vector components.

Note that if we have a set of 3N real numbers associated with a single frame,

components in any other frame via the transformation rule (8.1). We now

construct tensors this way out of Kronecker's delta and the alternating

symbol.

We start with Kronecker's delta and take the components in X to be ij

(Definition 3.1). Then the components in any other frame X are defined by

ij = im jn mn

= im jm ( by Theorem 3.2)

= ij (by Theorem 7.2 )

Thus, we have

coordinate frame by Kronecker's delta ij is a second-order Cartesian tensor -

In genera, tensors whose components are the same in every frame are said to

be isotropic.

Turning now to the alternator, we take the components in X to be ijk

(Definition 3.5). Then the components in any other frame X are defined by

ijk = ip jq kr pqr

= det[ mn ] ijk (by Theorem 4.3)

=+ ijk or ijk (by a homework exercise)

ijk = ijk = det[ mn ] ip jq kr pqr .

the factor det[ mn ] ) are known as axial or pseudo or weighted Cartesian

tensors.

frame by the alternating symbol ijk is a third-order Cartesian tensor - the

alternating tensor.

9) Scalar, Vector, and Tensor Products of Vectors

Definition 9.1 Let a and b be vectors ( components ai and bi in X ). Then the

a b = ai bi .

It follows immediately from Theorems 8.6 and 8.7 that a b is indeed a scalar

addition, i.e.,

a b = a b,

a (b + c) = a b + a c,

( a) b = (a b).

There is no question about the scalar product being associative since ( a b) c

a = a a

Theorem 9.2 Let be the angle between a and b (0 ) . Then

a b = a b cos

As correlaries, we have

ai = ei a

ab = 0

iff a and b are orthogonal (i.e., the angle between them is ).

2

Definition 9.2 Let a and b be vectors ( components ai and bi in X ). Then the

are

ci = ab .

ijk j k

a b = b a,

a (b + c) = a b + a c,

a (b c ) = (a c )b ( a b )c,

(a b) c = (a c)b (b c) a,

( a) b = (a b).

In terms of the unit vectors {ei } for X, we can write

a b = ijk a j bk ei .

This equation together with (Hmk. 1, Prob. 7) gives rise to the familiar

mnemonic

e1 e2 e3

a b = a1 a2 a3

b1 b2 b3

(0 ) be the angle between a and b . Then

a b = a b sin n

The above theorem appears to indicate that the frame X used in the definition

of the cross product has some special significance. However, we shall soon

see that if X is right (left)-handed, then all frames that can be obtained fromX

by proper orthogonal transformations are also right (left)-handed. We have

agree to work with only right-handed frames. Then the ordered triple a ,b ,

a (b c ) .

a (b c ) = ab c

ijk i j k

a1 a2 a3

a (b c ) = b1 b2 b3 .

c1 c2 c3

right - or left-handed.

matrix ij , which is not necessarily proper orthogonal. Consider the scalar

ei = ij ej

e1 (e2 e3 ) = det [ ].

ij

The volume of the parallelopiped determined by e1, e2, e3 is 1, and from the

discussion above e1 (e2 e3 ) =1 or 1 according as the ordered triple e1, e2, e3 is

a b = 0

iff a and b are collinear (i.e., a = kb for some nonzero scalar k).

Definition 9.3 Let a and b be vectors ( components ai and bi in X ). Then the

ai bj .

It follows immediately from Theorem 8.6 that the tensor product is indeed a

a b or ab .

The fact that a skew tensor has only 3 independent components suggests that

Theorem 9.9 Given any skew tensor Wij , a unique vector wi

In fact,

1

wj = ijk Wjk

2

w is called the axial vector or dual vector corresponding to Wij . Conversely,

In fact,

Wiju j = ijk wk .

ai bj a j bi

In view of (Hmk. 1, Prob. 1), we can say that the skew product of a and b is

twice the skew symmetric part of the tensor product a b . The skew product

a b,

which unfortunately is also occasionally used for the cross product.

a b = dual (a b),

Definition 10.1 The unit vector n (components ni in X) is said to be a

second-order Cartesian tensor aij (components in X) if a real number a

aij nj = ani

i.e., if the vector aij nj ei is parallel to n . The number a is called the associated

Theorem 10.1 The base vector e1 is a principal direction of aij ( components

in X ) iff

a11 0 0

[ ]

aij = 0 a22 a23 ,

0 a32 a33

and in this case a11 is the associated principal value. Similarly, for the other

base vectors.

are orthogonal.

Now suppose that the unit vector n is a principal direction of aij with

aij nj = ani .

These equations are easier to study if we note that ni = n and write them in

ij j

the form

(a ij a ij )n j = 0.

in the 3 n j 's, and by Theorem 5.7, nontrivial solutins (required by n = 1) if

[

det aij a ij ]= 0

Of course, any nontrivial solution can be normalized so that n n = 1.

Thus, we have

Theorem 10.3 Let n be a principal direction of aij (components in X) with

[

det aij a ij ]= 0.

Conversely, suppose that a R meets the above equation. Then aij has a

(a ij a ij )n j =0

subject to the contition n j nj = 1.

Theorem 10.4 Every (symmetric) tensor aij (components in X) has at least one

principal frame X ; i.e., a right-handed triplet of orthogonal principal

directions, and at most 3 distinct principal values. The principal values are

[

det aij a ij ] = a 3

+ I1a2 I2 a + I3 = 0,

I1 = aii

a11 a12 a22 a23 a11 a13

I2 =

1

2

( aii a jj aij a ji ) =

a21

+

a22 a32

+

a33 a31 a33

I3 = det aij [ ]

are the fundamental invariants. The characteristic polynomial always has 3

roots, which are denoted by ai . The components in X of the principal axis e k

(aij a ij ) ek j = 0

subject to e k e k = 1. e k is not unique. Three possibilities arise.

unique except for sense. Hence, essentially only one principal frame.

Case 2 (Two Principal Values Equal) Suppose that a1 a2 = a3 and that

{

X = e1 ,e 2 ,e 3

}

is a corresponding principal frame. Then e1 is unique to within sense, and

every frame obtained by a rotation of X about e1 is also a principal frame

principal frame.

[

det aij a ij ]

according to (Hmk.1, Prob. 9). The details are left as a homework problem.

fundamental theorem of algebra. Since the coefficients are real, any complex

Theorem 10.3, a1 is a principal value of aij , and the corresponding principal

(aij a1 ij )(n ) 1 j = 0, subject to n1 n1 = 1

a11 0 0

[ ]

aij = 0 a22 a23

0 a32 a33

[ ]

det aij a ij = det aij a ij [ ]

(a1 a) 0 0

= 0 (a22 a ) a23

0 a32 (a33 a)

= ( a1 a)[ a2 (a22 + a33 )a + a22 2] .

a33 a23

a1

1 (10.1)

a2 ,a3 = ( a22 ) ( a22 a33

+ a33 ) + (2 a23 )

2 2

2

Again by Theorem 10.3, the corresponding principal directions n1, n2 ,n3 are

found by solving

(aij ak ij )(n ) k j = 0, subject to nk nk = 1.

Case 1 (a1 a2 a3 a1 ) By Theorem 10.2; n1, n2 , and n3 are mutually

}

perpendicular. Hence X = e1 ,e 2 ,e 3 defined by e i = ni is a principal frame.

(We can always choose the signs X is right-handed).

Now suppose that X = { e1 , e2 , e3} is any other principal frame. To show that X

is not essentially different from X , we note from Theorem 10.2 that

ek el = 0 for k l

Thus, e.g., e1 is perpendicular to both e 2 and e 3

e1 = e1 .

Similarly, e2 = e2 , e3 = e3 .

1

a2 = ( a22

+ a33 ) + ( a22 ) + (2a23 ) ,

2 2

a33

2

1

a3 = ( a22 + a33 ) ( a22 a33 ) + (2 a23

) ;

2 2

2

and a2 = a3 a22

= a33

, a23 = 0 and a22

= a33 = a2 = a3 .

Thus,

a1 0 0

[ ]

aij = 0 a2 0 ,

0 0 a3

the argument used in Case 1. However, there are no constraints on the choice

of e2 and e3 other than orthogonality and right-handedness.

X X e1 = n1 . Then

a 0 0

[ ]

aij = 0 a 0 X a principal frame.

0 0 a

Since

aij = a ij ,

aij nj = a ij nj = ani ;

i.e., every unit vector n defines a principal axis. Consequently, all frames are

properties which we introduce in the following geometrical way. Let aij

a( n) = ai (n )ei = aij n jei (10.2)

N (n) = n a( n) = niai ( n) = aij ni n j .

We can express a( n) as

a( n) = N (n)n + s(n)

where

s(n ) n = 0 .

define

S (n) = s (n) ,

a(n) = [ N (n )] + [S( n)] .

2 2 2

Now take X to be a principal frame for aij so that

a1 0 0

a = 0 a 0 ,

ij 2

0 0 a3

a( n) = a1 n1 e1 + a2 n2 e2 + a3 n3 e3

Consequently,

N 2 + S2 = a(n) = a1 2 n12 + a2 2 n2 2 + a3 2 n3 2 ,

N = a1 n1 2 + a2 n22 + a3 n3 2 , (10.3)

1 = n1 2 + n2 2 + n3 2

Equations (10.3) may be viewed as a set of 3 linear, algebraic equations for the

3 ni 2 . Since ni 2 0 , these equations place restrictions in N and S. In order to

investigate these, we assume that the principal values have been ordered:

a1 a2 a3

Case1 (Principal Values Distinct, a1 > a2 > a3 ) In this case, the determinant of

(a1 a2 ) (a2 a3 )( a1 a3) 0

and the solution of (10.3) is

S2 + (N a2 )( N a3 )

0 n12 = ,

(a1 a2 )(a1 a3 )

S 2 + ( N a3)( N a1)

0 n2 2 = ,

(a2 a3 )( a2 a1 )

S2 + ( N a1)( N a2 )

0 n3 2 = .

(a3 a1 )( a3 a2 )

Since a1 > a2 > a3 , these inequalities

S 2 + ( N a2 )( N a3 ) 0,

S 2 + ( N a3 )( N a1 ) 0,

S 2 + ( N a1)( N a2 ) 0 .

a2 + a3 a2 a3 2

2

S + N

2 2

2

,

a + a a a1

2 2

S 2 + N 3 1 3 , (10.4)

2 2

2

a1 + a2 a1 a2

2

S + N

2

.

2 2

Inequalities (10.4) are easily interpreted by letting N and S represent the

point (N,S) must lie in the cross-hatched region between the 3 semicircles as

Case 2 (Two Principal Values Equal, say a1 > a2 = a3 ) In this case, (10.3) reduc to

N 2 + S2 = a12 n12 + a22 n22 + n32 ,

N = a1 n1 2 + a2 n22 + n32 ,

1 = n1 2 + n22 + n32 .

Substitution for n22 + n32 from the third of these into the first two yields

(a 1

2

a2 2 ) n12 + a2 2 = N 2 + S 2

N a2

n1 2 =

a1 a2

Eliminating n12 , we find that

a1 + a2 a1 a2

2 2

S + N =

2

.

2 2

Thus, in Case 2, the point (N,S) must lie on the semicircle indicated below

We note that this semicircle is what results when the admissible region of

Case1 collapses in accordance with a3 = a2 . The inequalities (10.4) still hold in

Case 2.

Case 3 (All Three Principal Values Equal, a1 = a2 = a3) In this case, (10.3)

reduces to

N = a1 , S = 0 ;

i.e., the set of admissible (N,S) points is the single point ( a1,0 ) .

Of course, this agrees with the collapsing of the admissible region of Case 1 in

accordance with a1 = a2 = a3. The inequalities (10.4) obviously still hold in

Case 3.

max N (n) = a1 ,

n =1

min N (n) = a3 ,

n =1

a1 a3

max S(n) = .

n =1 2

To find the values of n at which these extrema occur, we merely substitute

the corresponding values of N and S into (10.3). E.g., to find the n at which

a12 = a12 n12 + a2 2 n2 2 + a3 2 n3 2 ,

a1 = a1 n1 2 + a2 n22 + a3 n32 ,

1 = n12 + n22 + n32 .

sizes of the principal values just as before. There will, of course, be some

nonuniqueness in Cases 2 and 3. In any case, the result is that max N occurs

at n1 = 1, n2 = n3 = 0 . Of course, the star refers to the fact that the components

are w.r.t. the principal frame X .

In the same way, we find that min N occurs at n1 = n2 = 0, n3 = 1 and that max

1 1

S occurs at n1 = , n2 = 0, n3 = .

2 2

These results are summed up in the following theorem. The geometrical

Mohr's circles.

Theorem 10.5 Let aij (components in X) be a symmetric Cartesian tensor. For

a( n) = aij nj ei

and write

a( n) = N (n)n + s(n), n s( n) = 0 .

Set

S (n) = s (n) .

Order the principal values of aij according to

a1 a2 a3 .

Then

max N (n) = a1 ,

n =1

min N (n) = a3 ,

n =1

a1 a3

max S(n) = .

n =1 2

Moreover, the direction n at which max N (min N) occurs is a principal

direction of aij corresponding to the largest (smallest) principal value a1 (a3 ) ,

while the direction of max S bisects the directions of max N and min N.

coordinate frame.

Of course, given X, P is determined by its coordinates xi or its position vector

write

f ( P) = f ( x1 , x2 , x3 ) = f ( x i ) = f ( x )

as best suits the purpose at hand. Of course, the actual functions above can

not really be the same because their domains are different; however, their

Generally, there is nothing special about the frame X i and in the spirit of

keep the origin of X at 0 so that the position vector P w.r.t. X is still OP = x .

The coordinates of P w.r.t. X are just the components of OP = x w.r.t. X , i.e.,

xi = ei x = ij xj

aij... k ( P) ( components in X)

are components of a Cartesian tensor of order N, then they are said to be the

k ( P)

aij...

k ( P) =

aij... im jn ... a

kp mn... p ( P).

Note that the ' s are not functions of position. It is usually most convenient

For the remainder of this section, D will always denote some open subset of

f C M (D )

if f and all its partial derivatives up to and includin order M are continuous

D.

coordinates (w.r.t. some frame) of the points in D. The kind of analysis used

in proving the following theorem can be used to show that the choice of

Theorem 11.1 Let aij... k C (D) be the components in X of a Cartesian tensor

bij... kl ( x1 ,x 2, x 3) = aij... k ( x1 , x2 ,x 3) (components in X )

xl

kl ( x1, x 2 , x3 ) =

bij... k ( x1, x2 , x 3)

aij... (components in X )

xl

Then the b ' s are the components of a Cartesian tensor field of order N+1.

aij... k ,m = aij ...k ,

xm

k ,m =

aij... aij ...k .

x m

smoothness, we define

gradient of : grad = = ,i i e

Laplacian of : = 2 = ,ii

curl of v : curl v = v = v e

ijk k, j i

Theorem 11.2 Let and be scalar fields and u and v be vector fields, all of

(i ) ( ) = ( ) + ( ),

(ii ) ( u) = u + u,

(iii) ( u ) = u + u,

(iv ) (u v ) = v u u v.

Theorem 11.3 Let and be scalar fields and u be a vector field, all of class

C 2 (D ) . Then

(i ) ( ) = ( ) + ( ) + 2 ,

(ii) = ,

(iii) = 0,

(iv ) u = 0,

( v) ( u) = u u.

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