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New Journalism - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia 26/04/16 21:41

New Journalism
From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

New Journalism is a style of news writing and journalism,

developed in the 1960s and '70s, which used literary techniques
deemed unconventional at the time. It is characterized by a subjective
perspective, a literary style reminiscent of long-form non-fiction and
emphasizing "truth" over "facts," and intensive reportage in which
reporters immersed themselves in the stories as they reported and
wrote them. This was in contrast to traditional journalism where the
journalist was typically "invisible" and facts are reported as
objectively as possible.[1] The phenomenon of New Journalism is
generally considered to have ended by the early 1980s.

The term was codified with its current meaning by Tom Wolfe in a
1973 collection of journalism articles he published as The New
Journalism, which included works by himself, Truman Capote,
Hunter S. Thompson, Norman Mailer, Joan Didion, Terry Southern,
Robert Christgau, Gay Talese and others.
Nan and Gay Talese in 2009. Gay
Articles in the New Journalism style tended not to be found in Talese was one of the pioneers of
newspapers, but rather in magazines such as The Atlantic Monthly, New Journalism.
Harper's, CoEvolution Quarterly, Esquire, New York, The New
Yorker, Rolling Stone, and for a short while in the early 1970s,
Scanlan's Monthly.

Contemporary journalists and writers questioned the "newness" of New Journalism, as well as whether it
qualified as a distinct genre. The subjective nature of the New Journalism received extensive exploration;
one critic suggested the genre's practitioners were functioning more as sociologists or psychoanalysts, than
as journalists. Criticism has been leveled at numerous individual writers in the genre, as well.

1 Precursors and alternate uses of the term

1.1 First Usage

1.2 Early development, the 1960s

1.3 The 1970s

1.4 The 1980s

2 Characteristics

2.1 As subjective journalism Pgina 1 de 15
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2.2 As form and technique

2.3 As intensive reportage

3 Writers and editors

4 Criticism

4.1 "Parajournalism" and the New Yorker affair

4.2 Gail Sheehy and "Redpants"

4.3 Criticism against New Journalism as a distinct genre

5 See also

6 References and Notes

7 Further reading

8 External links

Precursors and alternate uses of the term

Various people and tendencies throughout the history of American journalism have been labeled "new
journalism". Robert E. Park, for instance, in his Natural History of the Newspaper, referred to the advent of
the penny press in the 1830s as "new journalism".[2] Likewise, the appearance of the yellow presspapers
such as Joseph Pulitzer's New York World in the 1880sled journalists and historians to proclaim that a
"New Journalism" had been created.[3] Ault and Emery, for instance, said "Industrialization and urbanization
changed the face of America during the latter half of the Nineteenth century, and its newspapers entered an
era known as that of the 'New Journalism.' "[4] John Hohenberg, in The Professional Journalist (1960),
called the interpretive reporting which developed after World War II a "new journalism which not only seeks
to explain as well as to inform; it even dares to teach, to measure, to evaluate."[5]

During the 1960s and 1970s, the term enjoyed widespread popularity, often with meanings bearing
manifestly little or no connection with one another. Although James E. Murphy noted that "...most uses of
the term seem to refer to something more specific than vague new directions in journalism",[6] Curtis D.
MacDougal devoted the preface of the sixth edition of his Interpretative Reporting to New Journalism and
cataloged many of the contemporary definitions: "Activist, advocacy, participatory, tell-it-as-you-see-it,
sensitivity, investigative, saturation, humanistic, reformist and a few more."[7]

The Magic Writing MachineStudent Probes of the New Journalism, a collection edited and introduced by
Everette E. Dennis, came up with six categories, labelled new nonfiction (reportage), alternative journalism
("modern muckraking"), advocacy journalism, underground journalism and precision journalism.[8] Michael
Johnson's The New Journalism addresses itself to three phenomena: the underground press, the artists of
nonfiction, and changes in the established media.[9] Pgina 2 de 15
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First Usage
In 1887, Matthew Arnold was credited with coining the term "New
Journalism",[10][11] a term that went on to define an entire genre of newspaper
history, particularly Lord Northcliffe's turn-of-the-century press empire.
However, at the time, the target of Arnold's irritation was not Northcliffe, but
the sensational journalism of Pall Mall Gazette editor, William Thomas
Stead.[11][12][13] He strongly disapproved of the muck-raking Stead, and
declared that, under Stead, "the P.M.G., whatever may be its merits, is fast A polemic map by W. T.
Stead, social reformer
ceasing to be literature."[14][15] W.T. Stead called his brand of journalism
and journalist of the
'Government by Journalism'
"New Journalism"
magazine of the 1880s
Early development, the 1960s and 1890s.

How and when the term New Journalism

began to refer to a genre is not clear.[16] Tom Wolfe, a practitioner
and principal advocate of the form,[16] wrote in at least two
articles[17][18] in 1972 that he had no idea of where it began. Trying
to shed light on the matter, literary critic Seymour Krim offered his
explanation in 1973.

February 14, 1972 article in New York "I'm certain that [Pete] Hamill first used the expression.
by Tom Wolfe, announcing the birth In about April of 1965 he called me at Nugget Magazine,
of New Journalism where I was editorial director, and told me he wanted to
write an article about new New Journalism. It was to be
about the exciting things being done in the old reporting
genre by Talese, Wolfe and Jimmy Breslin. He never
wrote the piece, so far as I know, but I began using the
expression in conversation and writing. It was picked up
and stuck."[19]

But wherever and whenever the term arose, there is evidence of some literary experimentation in the early
1960s, as when Norman Mailer broke away from fiction to write Superman Comes to the Supermarket.[20] A
report of John F. Kennedy's nomination that year, the piece established a precedent which Mailer would later
build on in his 1968 convention coverage (Miami and the Siege of Chicago) and in other nonfiction as well.

Wolfe wrote that his first acquaintance with a new style of reporting came in a 1962 Esquire article about Joe
Louis by Gay Talese. "'Joe Louis at Fifty'a wasn't like a magazine article at all. It was like a short story. It
began with a scene, an intimate confrontation between Louis and his third wife..."[21] Wolfe said Talese was
the first to apply fiction techniques to reporting. Esquire claimed credit as the seedbed for these new
techniques. Esquire editor Harold Hayes later wrote that "in the Sixties, events seemed to move too swiftly Pgina 3 de 15
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to allow the osmotic process of art to keep abreast, and when we found a good novelist we immediately
sought to seduce him with the sweet mysteries of current events."[22] Soon others, notably New York,
followed Esquire's lead, and the style eventually infected other magazines and then books.[23]

The 1970s

Much of the criticism favorable to this New Journalism came from the writers themselves. Talese and Wolfe,
in a panel discussion cited earlier, asserted that, although what they wrote may look like fiction, it was
indeed reporting: "Fact reporting, leg work," Talese called it.[24]

Wolfe, in Esquire for December, 1972, hailed the replacement of the novel by the New Journalism as
literature's "main event"[25] and detailed the points of similarity and contrast between the New Journalism
and the novel. The four techniques of realism that he and the other New Journalists employed, he wrote, had
been the sole province of novelists and other literati. They are scene-by-scene construction, full record of
dialogue, third-person point of view and the manifold incidental details to round out character (i.e.,
descriptive incidentals).[26] The result:

... is a form that is not merely like a novel. It consumes devices that happen to have originated
with the novel and mixes them with every other device known to prose. And all the while, quite
beyond matters of technique, it enjoys an advantage so obvious, so built-in, one almost forgets
what power it has': the simple fact that the reader knows all this actually happened. The
disclaimers have been erased. The screen is gone. The writer is one step closer to the absolute
involvement of the reader that Henry James and James Joyce dreamed of but never achieved.[27]

The essential difference between the new nonfiction and conventional reporting is, he said, that the basic unit
of reporting was no longer the datum or piece of information but the scene. Scene is what underlies "the
sophisticated strategies of prose."[28]

The first of the new breed of nonfiction writers to receive wide notoriety was Truman Capote,[29] whose
1965 best-seller, In Cold Blood, was a detailed narrative of the murder of a Kansas farm family. Capote
culled material from some 6,000 pages of notes.[29] The book brought its author instant celebrity.[30] Capote
announced that he had created a new art form which he labelled the "nonfiction novel."[29]

I've always had the theory that reportage is the great unexplored art form... I've had this theory
that a factual piece of work could explore whole new dimensions in writing that would have a
double effect fiction does not havethe every fact of its being true, every word of its true,
would add a double contribution of strength and impact[31]

Capote continued to stress that he was a literary artist, not a journalist, but critics hailed the book as a classic
example of New Journalism.[29] Pgina 4 de 15
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Wolfe's The Kandy-Kolored Tangerine-Flake Streamline Baby,

whose introduction and title story, according to James E. Murphy,
"emerged as a manifest of sorts for the nonfiction genre,"[29] was
published the same year. In his introduction,[32] Wolfe wrote that he
encountered trouble fashioning an Esquire article out of material on a
custom car extravaganza in Los Angeles, in 1963. Finding he could
not do justice to the subject in magazine article format, he wrote a
letter to his editor, Byron Dobell, which grew into a 49-page reportb
detailing the custom car world, complete with scene construction,
dialogue and flamboyant description. Esquire ran the letter, striking
out "Dear Byron." and it became Wolfe's maiden effort as a New

In an article entitled "The Personal Voice and the Impersonal Eye", Truman Capote, as photographed by
Dan Wakefield acclaimed the nonfiction of Capote and Wolfe as Roger Higgins in 1959.
elevating reporting to the level of literature, terming that work and
some of Norman Mailer's nonfiction a journalistic breakthrough:
reporting "charged with the energy of art".[33] A review by Jack Newfield of Dick Schaap's Turned On saw
the book as a good example of budding tradition in American journalism which rejected many of the
constraints of conventional reporting:

This new genre defines itself by claiming many of the techniques that were once the
unchallenged terrain of the novelist: tension, symbol, cadence, irony, prosody, imagination.[34]

A 1968 review of Wolfe's The Pump House Gang and The Electric Kool-Aid Acid Test said Wolfe and Mailer
were applying "the imaginative resources of fiction"[35] to the world around them and termed such creative
journalism "hystory" to connote their involvement in what they reported. Talese in 1970, in his Author's
Note to Fame and Obscurity, a collection of his pieces from the 1960s, wrote:

The new journalism, though often reading like fiction, is not fiction. It is, or should be, as
reliable as the most reliable reportage although it seeks a larger truth than is possible through the
mere compilation of verifiable facts, the use of direct quotations, and adherence to the rigid
organizational style of the older form.[36]

Seymour Krim's Shake It for the World, Smartass, which appeared in 1970, contained "An Open Letter to
Norman Mailer"[37] which defined New Journalism as "a free nonfictional prose that uses every resource of
the best fiction."[38] In "The Newspaper As Literature/Literature As Leadership",[39] he called journalism
"the de facto literature" of the majority,[40] a synthesis of journalism and literature that the book's postscript
called "journalit."[41] In 1972, in "An Enemy of the Novel", Krim identified his own fictional roots and
declared that the needs of the time compelled him to move beyond fiction to a more "direct" communication
to which he promised to bring all of fiction's resources.[42] Pgina 5 de 15
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David McHam, in an article titled "The Authentic New Journalists", distinguished the nonfiction reportage
of Capote, Wolfe and others from other, more generic interpretations of New Journalism.[43] Also in 1971,
William L. Rivers disparaged the former and embraced the latter, concluding, "In some hands, they add a
flavor and a humanity to journalistic writing that push it into the realm of art."[44] Charles Brown in 1972
reviewed much that had been written as New Journalism and about New Journalism by Capote, Wolfe,
Mailer and others and labelled the genre "New Art Journalism," which allowed him to test it both as art and
as journalism. He concluded that the new literary form was useful only in the hands of literary artists of great

In the first of two pieces by Wolfe in New York detailing the growth of the new nonfiction and its techniques,
Wolfe returned to the fortuitous circumstances surrounding the construction of Kandy-Kolored and added:

Its virtue was precisely in showing me the possibility of there being something "new" in
journalism. What interested me was not simply the discovery that it was possible to write
accurate nonfiction with techniques usually associated with novels and short stories. It was that
plus. It was the discovery that it was possible in nonfiction, in journalism, to use any literary
device, from the traditional dialogisms of the essay to stream-of-consciousness...

The 1980s

In the eighties, the use of New Journalism saw a decline, several of the old trailblazers still used fiction
techniques in their nonfiction books.[46] However, younger writers in Esquire and Rolling Stone, where the
style had flourished in the two earlier decades, shifted away from the New Journalism. Fiction techniques
had not been abandoned by these writers, but they were used sparingly and less flamboyantly.

"Whatever happened to the New Journalism?" wondered Thomas Powers in a 1975 issue of Commonweal.
In 1981, Joe Nocera published a postmortem in the Washington Monthly blaming its demise on the
journalistic liberties taken by Hunter S. Thompson. Regardless of the culprit, less than a decade after Wolfe's
1973 New Journalism anthology, the consensus was that New Journalism was dead.[47]

As a literary genre, New Journalism has certain technical characteristics. It is an artistic, creative, literary
reporting form with three basic traits: dramatic literary techniques; intensive reporting; and reporting of
generally acknowledged subjectivity.[48]

As subjective journalism
Pervading many of the specific interpretations of New Journalism is a posture of subjectivity. Subjectivism is
thus a common element among many (though not all) of its definitions.[49] In contrast to a conventional
journalistic striving for an objectivity, subjective journalism allows for the writer's opinion, ideas or
involvement to creep into the story. Pgina 6 de 15
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Much of the critical literature concerns itself with a strain of subjectivism which may be called activism in
news reporting.[49] In 1970, Gerald Grant wrote disparagingly in Columbia Journalism Review of a "New
Journalism of passion and advocacy"[50] and in the Saturday Review Hohenberg discussed "The Journalist
As Missionary"[51] For Masterson in 1971, "The New Journalism" provided a forum for discussion of
journalistic and social activism. In another 1971 article under the same title, Ridgeway called the
counterculture magazines such as The New Republic and Ramparts and the American underground press
New Journalism.

Another version of subjectivism in reporting is what is sometimes called participatory reporting. Robert
Stein, in Media Power, defines New Journalism as "A form of participatory reporting that evolved in parallel
with participatory politics..."[52]

As form and technique

The above interpretations of New Journalism view it as an attitude toward the practice of journalism. But a
significant portion of the critical literature deals with form and technique.[16] Critical comment dealing with
New Journalism as a literary-journalistic genre (a distinct type of category of literary work grouped
according to similar and technical characteristics[53]) treats it as the new nonfiction. Its traits are extracted
from the criticism written by those who claim to practice it and by others.[16] Admittedly it is hard to isolate
from a number of the more generic meanings.

The new nonfiction were sometimes taken for advocacy of subjective journalism.[16] A 1972 article by
Dennis Chase[54] defines New Journalism as a subjective journalism emphasizing "truth" over "facts" but
uses major nonfiction stylists as its example.

As intensive reportage

Although much of the critical literature discussed the use of literary or fictional techniques as the basis for a
New Journalism, critics also referred to the form as stemming from intensive reporting.[55] Stein, for
instance, found the key to New Journalism not its fictionlike form but the "saturation reporting" which
precedes it, the result of the writer's immersion in his subject. Consequently, Stein concluded, the writer is as
much part of his story as is the subject[56] and he thus linked saturation reporting with subjectivity. For him,
New Journalism is inconsistent with objectivity or accuracy.[57]

However, others have argued that total immersion enhances accuracy. As Wolfe put the case:

I am the first to agree that the New Journalism should be as accurate as traditional journalism. In
fact my claims for the New Journalism, and my demands upon it, go far beyond that. I contend
that it has already proven itself more accurate than traditional journalismwhich unfortunately
is saying but so much...[58] Pgina 7 de 15
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Wolfe coined "saturation reporting" in his Bulletin of the American Society of Newspaper Editors article.
After citing the opening paragraphs of Talese's Joe Louis piece, he confessed believing that Talese had
"piped" or faked the story, only later to be convinced, after learning that Talese so deeply delved into the
subject, that he could report entire scenes and dialogues.

The basic units of reporting are no longer who-what-when-where-how and why but whole
scenes and stretches of dialogue. The New Journalism involves a depth of reporting and an
attention to the most minute facts and details that most newspapermen, even the most
experienced, have never dreamed of.[21]

In his "Birth of the New Journalism" in New York, Wolfe returned to the subject, which he here described as
a depth of information never before demanded in newspaper work. The New Journalist, he said, must stay
with his subject for days and weeks at a stretch.[17] In Wolfe's Esquire piece, saturation became the "Locker
Room Genre" of intensive digging into the lives and personalities of one's subject, in contrast to the aloof
and genteel tradition of the essayists and "The Literary Gentlemen in the Grandstand."[18]

For Talese, intensive reportage took the form of interior monologue to discover from his subjects what they
were thinking, not, he said in a panel discussion reported in Writer's Digest, merely reporting what people
did and said.[24]

Wolfe identified the four main devices New Journalists borrowed from literary fiction:[59]

Telling the story using scenes rather than historical narrative as much as possible
Dialogue in full (Conversational speech rather than quotations and statements)
Point-of-view (present every scene through the eyes of a particular character)
Recording everyday details such as behavior, possessions, friends and family (which indicate the
"status life" of the character)

Despite these elements, New Journalism is not fiction. It maintains elements of reporting including strict
adherence to factual accuracy and the writer being the primary source. To get "inside the head" of a
character, the journalist asks the subject what they were thinking or how they felt.

Writers and editors

It's hard to say definitively which writers are New Journalists. In The New Journalism: A Critical
Perspective Murphy writes, "As a literary genre, New Journalism [...] involves a more or less honk defined
group of writers [...]. Each is stylistically unique, but all sharing common formal elements."[48] Among the
most prominent writers of New Journalism, Murphy lists: Jimmy Breslin, Truman Capote, Joan Didion,
David Halberstam, Pete Hamill, Larry L. King, Norman Mailer, Joe McGinniss, Rex Reed, Mike Royko,
John Sack, Dick Schaap, Terry Southern, Gail Sheehy, Gay Talese, Hunter S. Thompson, Dan Wakefield and
Tom Wolfe.[48] In The New Journalism, the editors E.W Johnson and Tom Wolfe, include George Plimpton
for Paper Lion, Life writer James Mills and Robert Christgau, et cetera, in the corps. Christgau, however,
stated in an 2001 interview that he does not see himself as a New Journalist.[60] Pgina 8 de 15
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The editors Clay Felker, Normand Poirier and Harold Hayes also contributed to the rise of New Journalism.

While many praised the New Journalist's style of writing, Wolfe et al., also received severe criticism from
contemporary journalists and writers. Essentially two different charges were leveled against New
Journalism: criticism against it as a distinct genre and criticism against it as a new form.[61][62]

Robert Stein believed that "In the New Journalism the eye of the beholder is allor almost all,"[63] and in
1971 Philip M. Howard, wrote that the new nonfiction writers rejected objectivity in favor of a more
personal, subjective reportage.[64] This parallels much of what Wakefield said in his 1966 Atlantic article.

The important and interesting and hopeful trend to me in the new journalism is its personal
naturenot in the sense of personal attacks, but in the presence of the reporter himself and the
significance of his own involvement. This is sometimes felt to be egotistical, and the frank
identification of the author, especially as the "I" instead of merely the impersonal "eye" is often
frowned upon and taken as proof of "subjectivity," which is the opposite of the usual journalistic

And in spite of the fact that Capote believed in the objective accuracy of In Cold Blood and strove to keep
himself totally out of the narrative, one reviewer found in the book the "tendency among writers to resort to
subjective sociology, on the other hand, or to super-creative reportage, on the other."[65] Charles Self[66]
termed this characteristic of New Journalism as "admitted" subjectivity, whether first-person or third-person,
and acknowledged the subjectivity inherent in his account.

Lester Markel polemically criticized New Journalism in the Bulletin of the American Society of Newspaper
Editors, he rejected the claim to greater in-depth reporting and labelled the writers "factual fictionists" and
"deep-see reporters."[67] He feared they were performing as sociologists and psychoanalysts rather than as
journalists. The lack of source footnotes and bibliographies in most works of New Journalism is often cited
by critics as showing a lack of intellectual rigor, verifiability, and even author laziness and sloppiness.

More reasoned, though still essentially negative, Arlen in his 1972 "Notes on the New Journalism," put the
New Journalism into a larger socio-historical perspective by tracing the techniques from earlier writers and
from the constraints and opportunities of the current age. But much of the more routine New Journalism
"consists in exercises by writer . . . in gripping and controlling and confronting a subject within the
journalist's own temperament. Presumably," he wrote, "this is the 'novelistic technique.'"[68] However, he
conceded that the best of this work had "considerably expanded the possibilities of journalism."[68]

Much negative criticism of New Journalism were directed at individual writers.[69] For example, Cynthia
Ozick asserted in The New Republic, that Capote in In Cold Blood was doing little more than trying to devise
a form: "One more esthetic manipulation."[70] Sheed offered, in "A Fun-House Mirror," a witty refutation of Pgina 9 de 15
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Wolfe's claim that he takes on the expression and the guise of whomever he is writing about. "The Truman
Capotes may hold up a tolerably clear glass to nature," he wrote, "but Wolfe holds up a fun-house mirror,
and I for one don't give a hoot whether he calls the reflection fact or fiction."[71]

"Parajournalism" and the New Yorker affair

Among the hostile critics of the New Journalism were Dwight MacDonald,[72] whose most vocal criticism
comprised a chapter in what became known as "the New Yorker affair" of 1965. Wolfe had written a two-part
semi-fictional parody in New York[73] of The New Yorker and its editor, William Shawn. Reaction notably
from New Yorker writers, was loud and prolonged,[74]c but the most significant reaction came from
MacDonald, who counterattacked in two articles in the New York Review of Books.[75][76] In the first,
MacDonald termed Wolfe's approach "parajournalism" and applied it to all similar styles. "Parajournalism,"
MacDonald wrote,

... seems to be journalism"the collection and dissemination of current news"but the

appearance is deceptive. It is a bastard form, having it both ways, exploiting the factual
authority of journalism and the atmospheric license of fiction.[75]

The New Yorker parody, he added, "... revealed the ugly side of Parajournalism when it tries to be

In his second article, MacDonald addressed himself to the accuracy of Wolfe's report. He charged that Wolfe
"takes a middle course, shifting gears between fact and fantasy, spoof and reportage, until nobody knows
which end is, at the moment, up".[76] New Yorker writers Renata Adler and Gerald Jonas joined the fray in
the Winter 1966 issue of Columbia Journalism Review.[77]

Wolfe himself returned to the affair a full seven years later, devoting the second of his two February New
York articles[78] (1972) to his detractors but not to dispute their attack on his factual accuracy. He argued that
most of the contentions arose because for traditional literati nonfiction should not succeedwhich his
nonfiction obviously had.[78]

Gail Sheehy and "Redpants"

In The New Journalism: A Critical Perspective, Murphy writes, "Partly because Wolfe took liberties with the
facts in his New Yorker parody, New Journalism began to get a reputation for juggling the facts in the search
for truth, fictionalizing some details to get a larger 'reality.'"[79] Widely criticized was the technique of the
composite character,[79] the most notorious example of which was "Redpants," a presumed prostitute whom
Gail Sheehy wrote about in New York in a series on that city's sexual subculture. When it later became
known that the character was distilled from a number of prostitutes, there was an outcry against Sheehy's
method and, by extension, to the credibility of all of New Journalism.[79] In the Wall Street Journal, one
critic wrote: Pgina 10 de 15
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It's all part of the New Journalism, or the Now Journalism, and it's practiced widely these days.
Some editors and reporters vigorously defend it. Others just as vigorously attack it. No one has
polled the reader, but whether he approves or disapproves, it's getting harder and harder for him
to know what he can believe.[80]

Newsweek reported that critics felt Sheehy's energies were better suited to fiction than fact.[81] John Tebbel,
in an article in Saturday Review,[82] although treating New Journalism in its more generic sense as new a
trend, chided it for the fictional technique of narrative leads which the new nonfiction writers had introduced
into journalism and deplored its use in newspapers.

Criticism against New Journalism as a distinct genre

Newfield, in 1972, changed his attitude since his earlier, 1967,[34] review of Wolfe. "New Journalism does
not exist," the later article titled "Is there a 'new journalism'?"[83] says. "It is a false category. There is only
good writing and bad writing, smart ideas and dumb ideas, hard work and laziness."[83] While the practice of
journalism had improved during the past fifteen years, he argued, it was because of an influx of good writers
notable for unique styles, not because they belonged to any school or movement.[83]

Jimmy Breslin, who is often labelled a New Journalist, took the same view: "Believe me, there is no new
journalism. It is a gimmick to say there is ... Story telling is older than the alphabet and that is what it is all

See also
Creative nonfiction
Gonzo Journalism
Embedded journalism
Immersion journalism
New Games Journalism
The New Journalism
Nonfiction novel

References and Notes

1. Korda, Michael (1999). Another Life: A Memoir of Other People. United States of America: Random House.
pp. 329340. ISBN 0-679-45659-7.
2. Park 1967 [1925], p. 93.
3. Joseph Pulitzer, Maker of a New Journalism. The Literary Digest, Volume 43. November 11, 1911.
4. Ault & Emery 1959, p. 11.
5. Hohenberg 1960, p. 322.
6. Murphy 1974, p. 2
7. MacDougal 1971, p. v.
8. Dennis ed. The Magic Writing Machine. (1971) see also The New Journalism in America. Dennis & Rivers eds
9. Johnson 1971 Pgina 11 de 15
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9. Johnson 1971
10. Hampton, Mark (2004). Visions of the Press in Britain, 1850-1950. University of Illinois Press. pp. 3537.
ISBN 0252029461.
11. Morison, Stanley (1932). The English Newspaper: Some Account of the Physical Development of Journals Printed in
London Between 1622 & the Present Day. Cambridge University Press. ISBN 9780521122696. "It was the first sign
of the coming of the 'New Journalism', and Stead was its prophet. When Matthew Arnold wrote his article in The
Nineteenth Century for May 1887 he had W. T. Stead in mind."
12. "We have had opportunities of observing a new journalism which a clever and energetic man has lately invented. It
has much to recommend it; it is full of ability, novelty, variety, sensation, sympathy, generous instincts; its one great
fault is that it is feather-brained." Mathew Arnold, The Nineteenth century No. CXXIII. (May 1887) pp. 629643.
Available online at
13. Conboy, Martin (Jan 19, 2011). Journalism in Britain: A Historical Introduction. Sage Publications.
ISBN 1847874959.
14. Quoted in Harold Begbie, The Life of General William Booth (,
(2 vols., New York, 1920). Available [online]
15. Baylen, J.O. (December 1972). "The 'New Journalism' in Late Victorian Britain". Australian Journal of Politics &
History 18: 367385. doi:10.1111/j.1467-8497.1972.tb00602.x.
16. Murphy 1974, p. 4.
17. "The Birth of 'The New Journalism'; Eyewitness Report by Tom Wolfe (",
New York, February 14, 1972. p. 45
18. "Why They Aren't Writing the Great American Novel Anymore," Esquire, December, 1972, p. 152.
19. In a private letter to James E. Murphy, dated February 6, 1973 (see Murphy 1974, p. 5.)
20. Esquire, November, 1960.
21. Wolfe. "The New Journalism" Bulletin of the American Society of Newspaper Editors. September, 1970.
22. Hayes ed., 1970, p. xxi.
23. Murphy 1974, p. 5.
24. Hayes, Gay Talese and Wolfe, with Leonard W. Robinson, "The New Journalism." Writer's Digest. January. 1970, p.
25. Esquire, pp. 152159: 272280
26. Esquire, p. 158.
27. Esquire, p. 272.
28. Esquire, p. 278.
29. Murphy 1974, p. 7.
30. See for example. J. Howard, "Six Year Literary Virgil," Life, January 7, 1966: George Plimpton, "Story behind a
Nonfiction Novel," New York Times Book Review, January 16, 1966: G. Hicks, "Story of an American Tragedy,"
Saturday Review, January 22, 1966: Neil Compton, "Hyjinks' Journalism," Commentary, February, 1966.
31. Capote, as quoted by Roy Newquist, Counterpoint, (Rand McNally, 1964), p. 78.
32. Wolfe 1965, pp. ixxii.
33. Dan Wakefield, "The Personal Voice and the Impersonal Eye," The Atlantic, June, 1966, pp. 8689.
34. Jack Newfield, "Hooked and Dead," New York Times Book Review, May 7, 1967, p. 20.
35. Robert Scholes, "Double Perspective on Hysteria," Saturday Review, August 24. 1968. p. 37.
36. Talese 1970, p. vii.
37. First published in Evergreen Review, February 1, 1967.
38. Krim 1970, p. 115.
39. First published in Evergreen Review, August 1, 1967.
40. Krim 1970, p. 359.
41. Krim 1970, p. 365.
42. Krim, Seymour. "An Enemy of the Novel." The Iowa Review, Winter 1972, pp. 6062.
43. David McHam, "The Authentic New Journalists," Quill, September, 1971, pp. 914.
44. William L. Rivers , "The New Confusion," The Progressive, December, 1971, p. 28.
45. Charles Brown, "New Art Journalism Revisited," Quill, March, 1972, pp. 1823.
46. For example, Wolfe (The Right Stuff, 1979), Talese (Thy Neighbors Wife, 1980), and Thompson (The Curse of Lono,
47. Robert Boynton (January 23, 2005). "Whatever happened to New Journalism?". Los Angeles Times.
48. Murphy 1974, p. 16. Pgina 12 de 15
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48. Murphy 1974, p. 16.

49. Murphy 1974, p. 3.
50. 1970, pp. 1217.
51. Saturday Review. February 11, 1970, pp. 7677.
52. Stein 1972, p. 165.
53. The definition is based on that of William F. Thrall, et al., A Handbook to Literature (1960), p. 211.
54. Dennis Chase. "From Lippmann to Irving to New Journalism," Quill August, 1972. pp. 1921.
55. See, for example, Charles Self, "The New Journalism?" Quill and Scroll, DecemberJanuary, 1973, pp. 1011: "The
new journalism requires days, weeks or even months of research for each story. The new journalist writes from a
detailed knowledge of his subject." (p. 11)
56. Smith 1972, p. 167.
57. Murphy 1972, p. 10.
58. *Wolfe, Tom (February 21, 1972). "The New Journalism: A la Recherche des Whichy Thickets". New York Magazine
(New York Media LLC). p. 46.
59. Beuttler, Bill. "Whatever Happened to the New Journalism?". Retrieved 2007-09-09.
60. Cartwright, Garth (May 12, 2001). "Master of the Rock Review". The Guardian (Guardian Media Group). "Being a
reporter was another path I could have gone down, but the kind of journalism New Journalism requires is not only
powers of observation but the ability to hang around people for hours and hours . . . the qualities of being a real
asshole . . . and it's just not me."
61. Murphy 1974, p. 15
62. See for example, Jack Newfield, Columbia Journalism Review, JulyAugust, 1972, p. 45., "What is called the New
Journalism is really a dozen different styles of writing."
63. Stein 1972, p. 168.
64. Philip M. Howard. Jr., "The New Journalism: A Nonfiction Concept of Writing," unpublished master's thesis,
University of Utah, August, 1971, 5 ff. (see Murphy 1974, p. 11.)
65. F. W. Dupre, "Truman Capote's Score," New York Review of Books, February 3, 1966, p. 5.
66. Charles Self, "The New Journalism?" Quill and Scroll, DecemberJanuary, 1973, pp. 1011
67. Lester Markel, "So What's New?" Bulletin of the American Society of Newspaper Editors, January, 1972, p. 8.
68. Michael J. Arlen, "Notes on the New Journalism," Atlantic, May 1972, p. 47.
69. Murphy 1974, p. 14.
70. Cynthia Ozick, "Reconsideration: Truman Capote," The New Republic, January 27, 1973, p. 34.
71. Wilfrid Sheed, "A Fun-House Mirror," New York Times Book Review, December 3, 1972, p. 2.
72. Murphy 1974, p. 12.
73. Wolfe, "Tiny Mummies! The True Story of the Ruler of 43rd Street's Land of the Walking Dead," New York, April
11, 1965, pp. 79: 2429: and "Lost in the Whichy Thicket," New York, April 18, 1965, 16 ff. At the time, New York
was still the Sunday magazine for the now deceased New York Herald Tribune.
74. "The New Yorker Affair: From Other Angles". April 16, 2002. Retrieved January 7, 2010.
75. Dwight MacDonald. "Parajournalism, or Tom Wolfe and His Magic Writing Machine," New York Review of Books,
August 26, 1965, pp. 35
76. "Parajournalism II: Wolfe and the New Yorker," New York Review of Books,, February 3, 1966, pp. 1824.
77. Leonard C. Lewin, with Renata Adler and Gerald Jonas, "Is Fact Necessary?", Columbia Journalism Review, Winter,
1966, pp. 2934.
78. New York, February 21, 1972, pp. 3948
79. Murphy 1974, p. 13.
80. W. Steward Pinkerton. Jr., "The 'New Journalism' is Something Less Than Meets the Eye." Wall Street Journal,
August 13, 1971, p. 1.
81. Newsweek, December 4, 1972, p. 61.
82. John Tebbel, "The Old New Journalism," Saturday Review, March 13, 1971, pp. 9667.
83. Jack Newfield, Columbia Journalism Review, JulyAugust, 1972, pp. 4547.
84. In a personal letter to Philip Howard, quoted on Howard's p. 9.

Notes Pgina 13 de 15
New Journalism - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia 26/04/16 21:41

^a The article Wolfe referred to was actually titled Joe Louisthe King As a Middle-Aged Man, Esquire, June, 1962.
^b Wolfe's letter had the original title There Goes (Varoom! Varoom!) That Kandy-Kolored (Thphhhhhh!) Tangerine-Flake
Streamline Baby (Rahghhh!) Around the Bend (Brummmmmmmmmmmmmmm).... The title was later contracted to The
Kandy-Kolored Tangerine-Flake Streamline Baby, which became the title of the book, published in 1965.
^c For example, J.D. Salinger wrote to Jock Whitney With the printing of the inaccurate and sub-collegiate and gleeful and
unrelievedly poisonous article on William Shawn, the name of the Herald Tribune, and certainly your own will very likely
never again stand for anything either respect-worthy or honorable. E. B. White's letter to Whitney, dated April 1965,
contains the following passage: Tom Wolfe's piece on William Shawn violated every rule of conduct I know anything
about. It is sly, cruel, and to a large extent undocumented, and it has, I think, shocked everyone who knows what sort of
person Shawn really is[...], and Shawn's hand-delivered letter to Whitney, sent Thursday before publication on April 11,
1965, read To be technical for a moment, I think that Tom Wolfe's article on The New Yorker is false and libelous. But I'd
rather not be technical ... I cannot believe that, as a man of known integrity and responsibility, you will allow it to reach your
readers ... The question is whether you will stop the distribution of that issue of New York. I urge you to do so, for the sake
of The New Yorker and for the sake of the Herald Tribune. In fact, I am convinced that the publication of that article will
hurt you more than it will hurt me ... Bellows 2002, pp. 34.


Ault, Philip H.; Emery, Edwin (1959). Reporting the News. Dodd, Mead and Company.
Bellows, James G. (2002). The Last Editor: How I Saved the New York Times, the Washington Post, and the Los
Angeles Times from Dullness and Complacency. Andrews McMeel Publishing. ISBN 0-7407-1901-7.
Burgess, Ernest W.; Park, Robert E., eds. (1967) [1925]. "Natural History of the Newspaper". The City: Suggestions
for Investigation of Human Behavior in the Urban Environment. University of Chicago Press. ISBN 0-226-64611-4.
Eason, David (Spring 1982). "New Journalism, Metaphor and Culture". Journal of Popular Culture 15: 142149.
Dennis, Everette E., ed. (1971). The Magic Writing MachineStudent Probes of the New Journalism. University of
Oregon Press.
Dennis, Everette E.; Rivers, William L., eds. (1974). Other Voices: The New Journalism in America. Canfield Press.
ISBN 0-06-382562-7.
Grant, Gerald (Spring 1970). "The "New Journalism" We Need". Columbia Journalism Review (Columbia University
Hohenberg, John (February 11, 1970). "The Journalist As Missionary". Saturday Review. pp. 7677.
Hayes, Harold, ed. (1970). Smiling Through the ApocalypseEsquire's History of the Sixties. McCall.)
Hohenberg, John (1960). The Professional Journalist: A Guide to the Practices and Principles of the News Media.
Henry Holt and Company. ISBN 0-03-018226-3.
Johnson, Michael (1971). The New Journalism: The Underground Press, the Artists of Nonfiction, and Changes in
the Established Media. University of Kansas Press. ISBN 0-02-373110-9.
Krim, Seymour (1970). Shake It for the World, Smartass. Dial Press.
MacDougal, Curtis D. (1972). Interpretative Reporting (Sixth ed.). Macmillan. ISBN 0-02-373110-9.
Mailer, Norman (November 1960). "Superman Comes to the Supermarket". Esquire (Hearst Corporation).
McQuade, Donald, ed. (1974). Popular Writing in America: The Interaction of Style and Audience. Oxford
University Press.
Murphy, James E. (May 1974). Westley, Bruce H., ed. "The New Journalism: A Critical Perspective". Journalism
Monographs (The Association for Education in Journalism) 34.
Russello, Gerald J. (November 21, 2005). "How New Journalism Became Old News". The New York Sun (ONE SL
Stein, Robert (1972). Media Power; Who Is Shaping Your Picture of the World?. Houghton Mifflin. ISBN 0-395-
Talese, Gay (1970). Fame and Obscurity. World Publishing Corporation. ISBN 0-03-018226-3.
Wolfe, Tom (July 14, 2008). "A City Built of Clay". New York Magazine (New York Media LLC).
Wolfe, Tom (February 14, 1972). "The Birth of 'The New Journalism'; Eyewitness Report by Tom Wolfe". New York
Magazine (New York Media LLC). p. 44.
Wolfe, Tom (February 21, 1972). "The New Journalism: A la Recherche des Whichy Thickets". New York Magazine
(New York Media LLC). p. 46. Pgina 14 de 15
New Journalism - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia 26/04/16 21:41

Wolfe, Tom (December 1972). "Why They Aren't Writing the Great American Novel Anymore". Esquire (Hearst

Further reading
Flippen, Charles C. (1974). Liberating the Media: The New Journalism. Acropolis Books. ISBN 0-
Hollowell, John (1977). Fact & Fiction: The New Journalism and the Nonfiction Novel. University of
North Carolina Press. ISBN 0-8078-1281-1.
Johnson, E. W.; Wolfe, Tom (1973). The New Journalism. Harper & Row. ISBN 0-06-014707-5.
Mills, Nicolaus (1974). The New Journalism: A Historical Anthology. McGraw-Hill. ISBN 0-07-
Polsgrove, Carol (1995). It Wasn't Pretty, Folks, But Didn't We Have Fun?: Surviving the '60s with
Esquire's Harold Hayes. W. W. Norton & Company. ISBN 1-57143-091-1.
Weber, Ronald (1974). The Reporter as Artist: A Look at the New Journalism Controversy. Hastings
House. ISBN 0-8038-6330-6.
Weingarten, Marc (2006). The Gang That Wouldn't Write Straight: Wolfe, Thompson, Didion, and the
New Journalism Revolution. Crown Publishers. ISBN 1-4000-4914-8.
Of honest men & good writers
( Jack Newfield
making the case against New Journalism as a distinct genre in a Village Voice article published May
18, 1972

External links
"The 7 Greatest Stories in the History of Esquire Magazine". Esquire (Hearst Corporation). November
30, 2009. Retrieved December 31, 2009.

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