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RUBENSTEIN, An Introduction to Human Geography, The Cultural Landscape

Chapter 2 Population

MULTIPLE CHOICE. Choose the one alternative that best completes the
statement or answers the question.
1) One important feature of the world's population with the most significant future
implications is that
A) it is increasing more slowly than in the past.
B) there are more people alive in the world now than at any time in the past.
C) the most rapid growth is occurring in the less developed countries.
D) people are uniformly distributed across Earth.
Answer: C
Diff: 2

2) Geographers define overpopulation as


A) too many people in the world.
B) too many people compared to resources.
C) too many people in a region.
D) all of the above
Answer: B
Diff: 1

3) The world's largest concentration of people is located in


A) East Asia.
B) South Asia.
C) Southeast Asia.
D) Western Europe.
Answer: A
Diff: 1

4) The most populous country in the world is


A) China.
B) India.
C) Russia.
D) Java.
Answer: A
Diff: 1

5) The world's population is clustered in five regions. Which of the following is not one
of these five regions?
A) East Asia
B) Southeast Asia
C) Sub-Saharan Africa
D) Western Europe
Answer: C
Diff: 2

Rubenstein Chapter 2 p. 1
6) Most people live in cities in which of these regions?
A) East Asia
B) South Asia
C) Southeast Asia
D) Western Europe
Answer: D
Diff: 1

7) The most populous country in the Southeast Asia region is


A) Bangladesh.
B) China.
C) India.
D) Indonesia.
Answer: D
Diff: 1

8) Human beings avoid all but which of these regions?


A) cold lands
B) dry lands
C) warm lands
D) wet lands
Answer: C
Diff: 1

9) Relatively few people live at high elevations, but there are significant exceptions,
especially in
A) Asia.
B) Europe.
C) Latin America.
D) North America.
Answer: C
Diff: 1

10) Physiological density is the number of


A) acres of farmland.
B) farmers per area of farmland.
C) people per area of land.
D) persons per area suitable for agriculture.
Answer: D
Diff: 3

11) A country with a large amount of arable land and a small number of farmers will
have a
A) high physiological density.
B) low physiological density.
C) high agricultural density.
D) low agricultural density.
Answer: D

Rubenstein Chapter 2 p. 2
Diff: 3

12) Land suited for agriculture is called


A) population density.
B) arable land.
C) physiological density.
D) agricultural density.
Answer: B
Diff: 1

13) If the physiological density is much larger than the arithmetic density, then a country
has
A) inefficient farmers.
B) a large number of farmers.
C) a small percentage of land suitable for agriculture.
D) too many people for the available resources.
Answer: C
Diff: 3

14) India and the United Kingdom have approximately the same arithmetic density.
From this we can conclude that the two countries have the same
A) level of output per farmer.
B) number of people per area of land.
C) pressure placed by people on the land to produce food.
D) all of the above
Answer: B
Diff: 2

15) The annual global population growth rate increased approximately ten thousand
years ago because of the
A) agricultural revolution.
B) demographic transition.
C) Industrial Revolution.
D) medical revolution.
Answer: A
Diff: 1

16) The annual global population growth rate increased approximately two hundred
years ago because of the
A) agricultural revolution.
B) demographic transition.
C) Industrial Revolution.
D) medical revolution.
Answer: C
Diff: 1

17) The medical revolution has been characterized by


A) development of new inventions.

Rubenstein Chapter 2 p. 3
B) diffusion of medical practices.
C) increased agricultural productivity.
D) invention of new medicines.
Answer: B
Diff: 2

18) The average number of births women bear in their lifetimes is


A) crude birth rate.
B) crude death rate.
C) total fertility rate.
D) natural increase rate.
Answer: C
Diff: 2

19) To study fertility, geographers most frequently use the


A) crude birth rate.
B) crude death rate.
C) infant mortality rate.
D) natural increase rate.
Answer: A
Diff: 2

20) The world's population in 1995 was approximately 6 billion and was expected to
reach 12 billion in approximately 45 years. The period of 45 years is known as
A) doubling time.
B) life expectancy.
C) natural increase rate.
D) overpopulation.
Answer: A
Diff: 1

21) The annual natural increase rate is currently approximately


A) 1.25 percent.
B) 12 percent.
C) 1.25 per 1,000.
D) 125 million.
Answer: A
Diff: 2

22) A decline in a country's crude birth rate would result in an increase in the country's
A) total fertility rate.
B) life expectancy rate.
C) crude death rate.
D) doubling time.
Answer: D
Diff: 2

23) Of the following four countries, the highest natural increase rate is found in

Rubenstein Chapter 2 p. 4
A) China.
B) Colombia.
C) Denmark.
D) Uganda.
Answer: D
Diff: 1

24) Of the following four countries, the lowest crude birth rate is found in
A) China.
B) Colombia.
C) Denmark.
D) Uganda.
Answer: C
Diff: 1

25) Which of the following rates are not typically found to be low in less developed
countries?
A) crude birth rate
B) crude death rate
C) infant mortality rate
D) natural increase rate
Answer: B
Diff: 1

26) Costa Rica has a lower crude death rate than Sweden because Costa Rica
A) has a lower percentage of elderly people.
B) has more hospitals per person.
C) has a milder climate.
D) is in Stage 4 of the demographic transition.
Answer: A
Diff: 3

27) Among world countries, the spread between the highest and lowest crude death rates
is ________ than the spread between the highest and lowest crude birth rates.
A) greater
B) less
C) the same as
D) more related to income
Answer: B
Diff: 2

28) Life expectancy is lowest in


A) Africa.
B) Asia.
C) North America.
D) Western Europe.
Answer: A
Diff: 1

Rubenstein Chapter 2 p. 5
29) The total number of live births per year per 1,000 people in a society is the
A) crude birth rate.
B) life expectancy rate.
C) natural increase rate.
D) total fertility rate.
Answer: A
Diff: 1

30) The highest natural increase rates are found in countries in which stage of the
demographic transition?
A) Stage 1
B) Stage 2
C) Stage 3
D) Stage 4
Answer: B
Diff: 2

31) The lowest crude birth rates are found in countries in which stage of the
demographic transition?
A) Stage 1
B) Stage 2
C) Stage 3
D) Stage 4
Answer: D
Diff: 2

32) The highest crude death rates are found in countries in which stage of the
demographic transition?
A) Stage 1
B) Stage 2
C) Stage 3
D) Stage 4
Answer: A
Diff: 2

33) Country X has a crude birth rate of 40 and a crude death rate of 15. In what stage of
the demographic transition is this country?
A) Stage 1
B) Stage 2
C) Stage 3
D) Stage 4
Answer: B
Diff: 3

34) Country X has a crude birth rate of 40 and a crude death rate of 15, while Country Y
has a crude birth rate of 20 and a crude death rate of 9. Which country has a higher
natural increase rate?

Rubenstein Chapter 2 p. 6
A) Country X
B) Country Y
C) The rate is the same in both countries.
D) The rate can't be computed.
Answer: A
Diff: 3

35) For every 1,000 babies born in Mozambique this year, nearly 150 of them will die
before they reach their first birthday. The rate of 150 deaths per 1,000 births is known as
the
A) crude death rate.
B) infant mortality rate.
C) life expectancy.
D) total fertility rate.
Answer: B
Diff: 1

36) Rapidly declining crude death rates are found in which stage of the demographic
transition?
A) Stage 1
B) Stage 2
C) Stage 3
D) Stage 4
Answer: B
Diff: 2

37) More developed countries moved from Stage 1 to Stage 2 of the demographic
transition 200 years ago in part because of
A) the agricultural revolution.
B) invention of new technology.
C) people moving to cities.
D) women choosing to enter the labor force.
Answer: B
Diff: 2

38) The percentage of people who are too young or too old to work in a society is the
A) dependency rate.
B) life expectancy.
C) population pyramid.
D) sex ratio.
Answer: A
Diff: 1

39) The shape of a country's population pyramid is determined primarily by its


A) crude birth rate.
B) crude death rate.
C) dependency rate.
D) sex ratio.

Rubenstein Chapter 2 p. 7
Answer: A
Diff: 2

40) A crude birth rate of approximately 10 per 1,000 is typical of a country in which
stage of the demographic transition?
A) Stage 1
B) Stage 2
C) Stage 3
D) Stage 4
Answer: D
Diff: 2

41) The country with the narrowest population pyramid is


A) Cape Verde.
B) Chile.
C) Denmark.
D) the United States.
Answer: C
Diff: 3

42) England's population pyramid would most likely resemble that of


A) Cape Verde.
B) Chile.
C) Denmark.
D) the United States.
Answer: C
Diff: 1

43) The population pyramid of Naples, Florida, is "upside down," because the city has a
large percentage of
A) elderly people.
B) young people.
C) immigrants.
D) females.
Answer: A
Diff: 1

44) In contrast to the experience of more developed countries, less developed countries
entered Stage 2 of the demographic transition through
A) creation of higher levels of wealth.
B) diffusion of the Industrial Revolution.
C) diffusion of medical technology from other countries.
D) profound changes in their economic and social systems.
Answer: C
Diff: 2

45) Thomas Malthus concluded that


A) population increased arithmetically while food production increased geometrically.

Rubenstein Chapter 2 p. 8
B) the world's rate of population increase was higher than the development of food
supplies.
C) moral restraint was producing lower crude birth rates.
D) population growth was outpacing available resources in every country.
Answer: B
Diff: 2

46) In comparing Malthus's theory to actual world food production and population
growth during the past half-century, the principal difference is that
A) actual food production has been much higher than Malthus predicted.
B) Malthus's theory predicted much higher food production than has actually occurred.
C) actual population growth has been much higher than Malthus predicted.
D) Malthus's theory predicted much higher population growth than has actually occurred.
Answer: A
Diff: 3

47) The principal reason for declining natural increase rates in less developed countries
today is
A) increasing crude birth rates.
B) declining crude birth rates.
C) increasing crude death rates.
D) declining crude death rates.
Answer: B
Diff: 1

48) The low rate of contraceptive use in Africa reflects the region's
A) improving education of women.
B) low status of women.
C) rapid diffusion of contraceptives.
D) all of the above
Answer: B
Diff: 2

49) China's one child policy has resulted in a substantial decline in all but which of the
following?
A) crude birth rate
B) doubling time
C) total fertility rate
D) natural increase rate
Answer: B
Diff: 2

50) India's most controversial family planning program has been to


A) allocate housing on the basis of one child per family.
B) sterilize people.
C) legalize abortions.
D) prohibit marriage until age 27 for men and age 25 for women.
Answer: B

Rubenstein Chapter 2 p. 9
Diff: 3

TRUE/FALSE. Write 'T' if the statement is true and 'F' if the statement is false.
51) More people are alive now than at any time in the past.
Answer: TRUE
Diff: 1

52) Since the end of World War II, world population has been growing more slowly than
in the past.
Answer: FALSE
Diff: 2

53) Most population growth is presently concentrated in more developed countries.


Answer: FALSE
Diff: 1

54) Nearly half of the people in the world live in East and South Asia.
Answer: TRUE
Diff: 1

55) Two thousand years ago, East and South Asia contained about the same percentage
of world population as they do now.
Answer: TRUE
Diff: 3

56) City X contains 2,000,000 people living on 1,000 square kilometers of land. The
population density of city X is 200 persons per square kilometer.
Answer: FALSE
Diff: 2

57) The physiological density of Egypt is 1,967 persons per square kilometer, while the
arithmetic density is 59. This means that most people in Egypt are farmers.
Answer: TRUE
Diff: 3

58) A country of 30,000,000 people has a crude birth rate of 10. This means that in one
year 3,000,000 babies were born.
Answer: FALSE
Diff: 1

59) The highest crude birth rates are found in the less developed countries of Africa,
Asia, and Latin America.
Answer: TRUE
Diff: 1

60) The highest crude death rates are found in the less developed countries of Africa,
Asia, and Latin America.
Answer: FALSE
Diff: 2

Rubenstein Chapter 2 p. 10
61) Relatively few people inhabit the highlands, yet some of the world's largest cities are
located in highlands.
Answer: TRUE
Diff: 3

62) A country in Stage 2 of the demographic transition is likely to have higher crude
birth and crude death rates than a country in Stage 4.
Answer: TRUE
Diff: 2

63) A country in Stage 4 of the demographic transition is likely to have a population


pyramid with a flatter base than a country in Stage 2.
Answer: TRUE
Diff: 3

64) Societies move from Stage 2 to Stage 3 of the demographic transition because of
technical change, but from Stage 3 to Stage 4 because of social change.
Answer: FALSE
Diff: 3

65) According to Malthus, population increases geometrically, while food supply


increases arithmetically.
Answer: TRUE
Diff: 1

SHORT ANSWER. Write the word or phrase that best completes each statement or
answers the question.
66) As the GNP per capita increases, the crude birth rate generally ________.
Answer: decreases
Diff: 2

67) As the GNP per capita increases, the crude death rate generally ________.
Answer: remains about the same
Diff: 2

68) As the GNP per capita increases, the natural increase rate generally ________.
Answer: decreases
Diff: 2

69) One of the world's five main population concentrations is northeastern


U.S./southeastern Canada. Name the world's four other main population concentrations:
a. c.
b. d.
Answer: East Asia; South Asia; Southeast Asia; Western Europe
Diff: 3

70) Match the 1994 natural increase rate to the country:


Chad a. -0.1

Rubenstein Chapter 2 p. 11
China b. 0.6
Germany c. 1.1
Ireland d. 2.6
Answer: d; c; a; b
Diff: 3

71) Explain why today's more developed societies moved from Stage 1 to Stage 2 of the
demographic transition.
Answer: new technology that increased the permanent food supply and controlled
diseases
Diff: 3

72) Explain why today's more developed societies moved in the past from Stage 2 to
Stage 3 of the demographic transition.
Answer: people chose to have fewer children; urbanization
Diff: 3

73) Explain why some of today's more developed societies have recently moved from
Stage 3 to Stage 4 of the demographic transition.
Answer: women entering the labor force; lifestyle; diffusion of birth control techniques;
education
Diff: 3

74) Explain why today's less developed societies moved from Stage 1 to Stage 2 of the
demographic transition.
Answer: diffusion of medical technology from more developed countries
Diff: 3

75) How do geographers define the concept of overpopulation?


Answer: the number of people in an area exceeds the capacity of the environment to
support life at a decent standard of living
Diff: 3

ESSAY. Write your answer in the space provided or on a separate sheet of paper.
76) Explain why the Persian Gulf States and China do not fit the general model of the
relationship between crude birth rate and GDP per capita.
Answer: Varies
Diff: 3

77) Why does Mexico have a lower CDR than the United States and why does Vietnam
have a lower CDR than Sweden?
Answer: Varies
Diff: 3

78) Summarize the main stages of the demographic transition and the reasons why a
society moves from one stage to another.
Answer: Varies
Diff: 2

Rubenstein Chapter 2 p. 12
79) Compare the birth control policies in India and China.
Answer: Varies
Diff: 2

80) Debate alternate solutions to the world population growth problem.


Answer: Varies
Diff: 3
RUBENSTEIN, An Introduction to Human Geography, The Cultural Landscape
Chapter 3 Migration

MULTIPLE CHOICE. Choose the one alternative that best completes the
statement or answers the question.
1) The ability to move from one location to another is
A) migration.
B) mobility.
C) net migration.
D) voluntary migration.
Answer: B
Diff: 1

2) A permanent move to a new location is


A) migration.
B) mobility.
C) net migration.
D) voluntary migration.
Answer: A
Diff: 1

3) A country has net immigration if emigration ________ immigration.


A) equals
B) exceeds
C) is closer to net migration than
D) is less than
Answer: D
Diff: 1

4) Refugees migrate primarily because of which type of push factor?


A) economic
B) environmental
C) political
D) all of the above
Answer: C
Diff: 2

5) Which of the following events would be considered a migration pull factor?


A) communist takeover of a government
B) failed harvest
C) flooding of a river

Rubenstein Chapter 2 p. 13
D) opening of a new factory
Answer: D
Diff: 2

6) Several million Irish migrated in the 1840s primarily because


A) the English forced them to become refugees.
B) disastrous economic conditions pushed them out of the country.
C) poor environmental conditions induced them to migrate.
D) they were attracted to the United States.
Answer: B
Diff: 2

7) 100-year floods occurred in the floodplain of the Missouri River in 1993 and again in
1995. This proves that
A) the area is not actually in a 100-year floodplain.
B) a 100-year flood can occur twice within 2 years.
C) the area is actually in a 2-year floodplain.
D) all of the above
Answer: B
Diff: 2

8) The most important intervening obstacle hindering emigration from Eastern Europe
during the past 50 years was
A) the Rhine River.
B) the Alps.
C) the Iron Curtain.
D) all of the above
Answer: C
Diff: 1

9) Millions of West Africans who migrated to Nigeria during the 1970s, when the
country's economy expanded, were expelled during the 1980s, when the country's
economy declined. This is an example of
A) an economic migration factor changing to an environmental migration factor.
B) emigration changing to immigration.
C) forced migration changing to voluntary migration.
D) a pull factor changing to a push factor.
Answer: D
Diff: 3

10) The most important pull factor for migrants to North America is
A) economic.
B) environmental.
C) forced.
D) political.
Answer: A
Diff: 1

Rubenstein Chapter 2 p. 14
11) A physical feature, such as a body of water, which hinders migration is an example of
A) an environmental push factor.
B) a forced migration.
C) an intervening obstacle.
D) a political pull factor.
Answer: C
Diff: 1

12) Which factor usually induces voluntary migration?


A) economic
B) environmental
C) international
D) political
Answer: A
Diff: 1

13) People are forced to migrate primarily because of which factor?


A) economic
B) environmental
C) international
D) political
Answer: D
Diff: 2

14) The purpose of the enclosure movement in England was to


A) promote more efficient agriculture.
B) encourage emigration to the United States.
C) provide more workers for factories.
D) keep people in England.
Answer: A
Diff: 2

15) Millions of Europeans were forced to emigrate from their farms because of
A) a decline in food supplies.
B) poor economic prospects in the rapidly growing cities.
C) forced consolidation of farms.
D) increased crude death rates.
Answer: C
Diff: 2

16) The most popular destination for voluntary migrants from Great Britain has been
A) Asia.
B) Australia.
C) North America.
D) South America.
Answer: C
Diff: 1

Rubenstein Chapter 2 p. 15
17) Most migrants to the United States during the 1840s and 1850s came from which
part of Europe?
A) north and east
B) north and west
C) south and east
D) south and west
Answer: B
Diff: 3

18) Most migrants to the United States during the late nineteenth century came from
which part of Europe?
A) north and east
B) north and west
C) south and east
D) south and west
Answer: B
Diff: 3

19) Most migrants to the United States during the early twentieth century came from
which part of Europe?
A) north and east
B) north and west
C) south and east
D) south and west
Answer: C
Diff: 3

20) Most migrants to the United States during the 1960s and 1970s came from
A) Africa.
B) Asia.
C) Europe.
D) Latin America.
Answer: B
Diff: 2

21) Most migrants to the United States during the 1980s came from
A) Africa.
B) Asia.
C) Europe.
D) Latin America.
Answer: D
Diff: 2

22) Norwegians were most likely to immigrate to the United States


A) prior to 1840.
B) during the 1840s and 1850s.
C) during the 1880s and 1890s.
D) between 1900 and 1915.

Rubenstein Chapter 2 p. 16
Answer: C
Diff: 3

23) Migration to the United States declined during the 1920s primarily because of
A) economic depression in the United States.
B) forced migration after World War I.
C) imposition of quota laws.
D) increasing dislike of immigrants by Americans.
Answer: C
Diff: 2

24) The main impact of the 1920s quota laws on the national origin of immigrants to the
United States was to
A) encourage more migration from Asia and Latin America.
B) admit migrants mostly from Europe.
C) permit migrants from any region of the world.
D) all of the above
Answer: B
Diff: 2

25) The largest numbers of recent immigrants to the United States are
A) illegal immigrants.
B) political refugees.
C) relatives of U.S. residents.
D) talented professionals.
Answer: C
Diff: 2

26) Brain drain is


A) the large-scale emigration of talented people.
B) the process by which people are given reference for migration.
C) people forced to migrate for political reasons.
D) a cultural feature that hinders migration.
Answer: A
Diff: 1

27) Most Asians are currently migrating to the United States through the process of
A) boat people.
B) brain drain.
C) chain migration.
D) illegal immigration.
Answer: C
Diff: 2

28) The largest number of legal immigrants to the United States come from what
country?
A) Cuba
B) Mexico

Rubenstein Chapter 2 p. 17
C) the Philippines
D) South Korea
Answer: B
Diff: 1

29) The largest number of undocumented immigrants to the United States come from
what country?
A) Cuba
B) Mexico
C) the Philippines
D) South Korea
Answer: B
Diff: 1

30) Compared to other Mexicans, approximately half of the illegal Mexican immigrants
to the United States are more likely to be
A) better educated.
B) older.
C) unmarried.
D) all of the above
Answer: A
Diff: 2

31) According to the 1986 Immigration Reform and Control Act, undocumented
immigrants were
A) permitted to become legal residents.
B) increasingly deported if caught.
C) encouraged to remain because of shortages of workers.
D) no longer eligible for public services in the United States.
Answer: A
Diff: 2

32) Pollero or coyote is a term for


A) an undocumented immigrant from Mexico.
B) someone who helps undocumented Mexicans immigrate.
C) a Mexican made legal by the 1986 Immigration Reform and Control Act.
D) a U.S. Border Patrol agent.
Answer: B
Diff: 2

33) Guest workers in Europe and the Middle East are


A) illegal immigrants.
B) low-status foreigners.
C) Muslims.
D) southern Europeans.
Answer: B
Diff: 1

Rubenstein Chapter 2 p. 18
34) Most European guest workers come from which part of Europe?
A) north and east
B) north and west
C) south and east
D) south and west
Answer: C
Diff: 2

35) Most guest workers head for which part of Europe?


A) north and east
B) north and west
C) south and east
D) south and west
Answer: B
Diff: 2

36) The largest level of interregional migration in the United States was caused by the
A) arrival of Europeans beginning in the 1600s.
B) illegal immigration from Latin America.
C) immigration of Asians beginning in the early twentieth century.
D) opening up of the western territories.
Answer: D
Diff: 2

37) The U.S. center of population has moved steadily to the


A) east.
B) north.
C) south.
D) west.
Answer: D
Diff: 2

38) Which is a current intraregional migration trend in the United States?


A) rural to urban
B) urban to suburban
C) metropolitan to nonmetropolitan
D) all of the above
Answer: B
Diff: 2

39) The largest interregional migration in the United States of African-Americans has
been
A) from south to north.
B) from north to south.
C) from east to west.
D) from west to east.
Answer: A
Diff: 2

Rubenstein Chapter 2 p. 19
40) Large-scale migration occurred in Southeast Asia after 1975 primarily because of
A) boat people.
B) communist victory.
C) failure of the monsoon rains.
D) separation of religious groups.
Answer: B
Diff: 2

41) Many of the refugees from Vietnam became known as the


A) boat people.
B) communists.
C) Hindus.
D) Okies.
Answer: A
Diff: 1

42) The United States has received the lowest number of refugees from which of these
countries?
A) Cuba
B) Ethiopia
C) Haiti
D) Vietnam
Answer: B
Diff: 1

43) Migration to the United States increased from Europe after 1800 in part because of
A) deteriorating public health, medicine, and food supply.
B) expanded economic opportunities during the Industrial Revolution.
C) higher natural increase rates.
D) rapid increase in the crude death rate.
Answer: C
Diff: 3

44) Communist control of Eastern Europe caused many people to emigrate to the west.
The Berlin Wall was built because
A) Communist Eastern governments wanted to delimit their territory.
B) Western Europe didn't want any more people.
C) Communist Eastern governments feared losing their most able workers.
D) West Berlin wanted to keep their territory safe from Communist encroachment.
Answer: C
Diff: 1

45) The Brazilian government encouraged interregional migration by


A) making Rio de Janeiro and Sao Paulo more attractive.
B) dictating optimal locations for factories.
C) clearing the rain forest for agricultural activities in the interior.
D) moving the capital to Brasilia.

Rubenstein Chapter 2 p. 20
Answer: D
Diff: 2

46) In the United States, which is likely to cause virtually all population growth in the
next couple of decades?
A) natural increase rate
B) net in-migration
C) crude birth rate
D) declining death rate
Answer: B
Diff: 2

47) An example of a government limiting migration is


A) the State of Assam.
B) Bangladesh.
C) Mexico.
D) the United Kingdom.
Answer: A
Diff: 3

48) The most prominent type of intraregional migration in the world is


A) rural to urban.
B) region to region.
C) urban to rural.
D) city to city.
Answer: A
Diff: 1

49) Suburbanization of more developed countries is due to


A) expanding urban territory.
B) increasing employment opportunities.
C) desire to change lifestyle.
D) development.
Answer: C
Diff: 2

50) Counterurbanization is
A) the move from urban core to suburban areas.
B) due to expanding suburbs.
C) increased migration to rural areas and small towns.
D) the trend of the elderly retiring to rural locations.
Answer: C
Diff: 2

51) Many of the first Europeans to settle in Australia migrated to serve jail sentences
which is the combination of which push and pull factors?
A) cultural push, economic pull
B) environmental push, cultural pull

Rubenstein Chapter 2 p. 21
C) economic push, political pull
D) political push, environmental pull
Answer: A
Diff: 3

TRUE/FALSE. Write 'T' if the statement is true and 'F' if the statement is false.
52) The difference between the number of people migrating to a place and the number
leaving is called net migration.
Answer: TRUE
Diff: 1

53) The three major kinds of push factors are political, economic, and environmental.
Answer: TRUE
Diff: 1

54) The most common environmental threat to people comes from too much or too little
water.
Answer: TRUE
Diff: 2

55) Most migration occurs because of a combination of push and pull factors.
Answer: TRUE
Diff: 2

56) In recent years, the immigration quota has been sufficient to accommodate all people
who wish to migrate to the United States.
Answer: FALSE
Diff: 2

57) People who migrate to another country are more likely to be better educated than
average.
Answer: TRUE
Diff: 2

58) Most illegal immigrants to the United States are young Mexican men.
Answer: TRUE
Diff: 2

59) The major reason for illegal immigration to the United States is to escape political
persecution.
Answer: FALSE
Diff: 2

60) Only a small percentage of Africans shipped as slaves to the Western Hemisphere
ended up in the United States.
Answer: TRUE
Diff: 2

61) The largest number of "guest workers" in Europe come from southern Europe and

Rubenstein Chapter 2 p. 22
northern Africa.
Answer: TRUE
Diff: 2

62) Historically, the center of population in the United States has moved a long distance
to the west but not a long distance to the south.
Answer: TRUE
Diff: 2

63) Migration is more likely to be from rural to urban areas within less developed
countries, but from urban to rural areas in more developed countries.
Answer: TRUE
Diff: 2

64) The most important type of internal migration within the United States is from urban
to suburban.
Answer: TRUE
Diff: 2

65) Most Asian immigrants in the United States are single young men trying to find
work.
Answer: FALSE
Diff: 2

66) Positives toward immigrants in the United States are seen in new laws affording
immigrants opportunities.
Answer: FALSE
Diff: 2

67) There is little distinguishable difference between economic migrants and refugees,
except in the way they are granted admittance to a new country.
Answer: FALSE
Diff: 3

SHORT ANSWER. Write the word or phrase that best completes each statement or
answers the question.
68) List the three types of migration push and pull factors:
a. b. c.
Answer: political; economic; environmental
Diff: 2

69) Which of the three migration factors has been the most important pull factor for
immigration to the United States?
Answer: economic
Diff: 1

70) Name one of the two countries which sent 75 percent of all immigrants to the United
States during the 1840s.
Answer: Ireland; Germany

Rubenstein Chapter 2 p. 23
Diff: 2

71) After 1900, from what part of Europe did ninety percent of the immigration to the
United States come?
Answer: southeast
Diff: 2

72) During the 1980s, which country provided the largest number of LEGAL immigrants
to the United States?
Answer: Mexico
Diff: 2

73) During the 1980s, what country provided the largest number of ILLEGAL
immigrants to the United States?
Answer: Mexico
Diff: 2

74) Migration to the United States declined in the 1920s as a result of new laws. What
did these laws do?
Answer: set quotas
Diff: 2

75) Several million people have migrated to the United States illegally in recent years.
Why have most of these people come to the United States?
Answer: economic advancement
Diff: 1

76) Briefly describe the distinguishing characteristic of urbanization.


Answer: relocation of rural people to urban areas creating an increase in the number and
percentage of urban dwellers
Diff: 1

77) Describe suburbanization in more developed countries.


Answer: large-scale migration to the suburbs because of pull by a suburban lifestyle
Diff: 2

ESSAY. Write your answer in the space provided or on a separate sheet of paper.
78) Why has the major source of immigrants to the United States changed over time?
Answer: Varies
Diff: 3

79) Describe changes in the movement of the U.S. center of population and reasons for
those changes.
Answer: Varies
Diff: 3

80) List the major push and pull factors in migration and give examples of each.
Answer: Varies
Diff: 2

Rubenstein Chapter 2 p. 24
81) Describe the major intraregional and interregional migration patterns within the
United States in recent years.
Answer: Varies
Diff: 2

82) Describe the similarities and differences between illegal immigrants to the United
States and guest workers in Europe.
Answer: Varies
Diff: 3

Rubenstein Chapter 2 p. 25