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GEOS: A Look At An Exciting, New Commodore 64 Operating System

June 1986 <&
Issue 36, Vol. 4, No. 6

02220 $3.95 Canada


Power BASIC:
Help Screens
Easily create up to eight
help screens for your
BASIC or machine
language programs using
this handy utility for the
Commodore 64 and 128.

SpeedScript-80 Your fortune changes fast
Convert SpeedScript into in this two-player strategy
an 80-column word game for the 64.
processor with a
Solarpix Commodore 128 and 80-
Set the solar system in column monitor.
motion, see the orbits of
comets, and much more
with this excellent
simulation for the 64.

Also In This Issue:

Guide To Commodore
ser Groups, Part 2

Software Reviews

ew Products

Design your own character sets and print them
out with this versatile two-program package
6 0222
for the 64.
(No I.D. required for half-elves.)

When the Going Gets Tough,

the Bard Goes Drinking*

Zj nd the going is tough arc magic, the Bard is ready

L i in Skara Brae town. to boogie. All he needs is
a band of loyal followers:
The evil wizard Mangar
has cast an eternal winter a light-fingered rogue to
spell. Monsters control find secret doors, a
the streets and dun couple of fighters
geons beneath. Good to bash heads, a con
citizens fear for their jurer to create weird
lives. What's worse, allies, a magician for
there's only one tavern magic armor.
left that serves wine. Then it's off to com
But the Bard knows bat, as soon as the Bard
no fear. With his [rusty finishes one- more verse.
harp and a few rowdy Now what's a word that
minstrel songs he claims rhymes with "dead ogre?"

4 classes of magic user, including 128 color monsters, many Full-color scrolling dungeons.
wizard and sorceror. 85 new animated. All challenging. 16 levels, each better than the
magic spells in all. one before. 3-D city, too.

The Bard's Tale™



Specs: 100% mrehkte language. 400K worth un I disks 64K RAM mmimutn. enhanced for LZ8K. Now jvailablc for Apple 11 family foi S44.9i, C-64 & 128 fnr *39 95.
Tt> orden Vfail ymit icuili-r i»r call (fiOOl 24V4S25 jlnCjIif. c-iLl J800) 5(>2-lll2j far VISA or Ma&tetCnul orders Tn purcJtfK by mnil. lend cEecL or money fprdet m ElcCMDnic
Aril. I'O lk>s 106, Hjlf Moon BsyyCA 94104 Add $1 foi ItUUred shippinu Jind handling AIIhw 1-4 wnkl Tcir delivery The Bifd'i TUa !l worth the whIt
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EftfcrtoniC Atis ,<rr tttdemtrkl <>^ ElecirontC Arcs For \ copy nfciur cormpfeir cauk^ur miA duccT urdcr form, send £ W and a itflmpcd ir-lf-iddtc*^ed rnvetnrf W lil«rronic
Am. Z7^^ Ciimpu^ Drivr. Sun MltCO CA
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Melodian will teach you to play, compose,

keyiioarii cm ■ *'!
load sane erase adsr

ffi vKteriASsr-yp

A True Breakthrough In Music Education ScoreMastcr enables you to print out your music in standard music
Al last, a program thai makes il nol only easy but fun to learn music. notation for other musicians to play, or for yourself.
The Melodian keyboard and software were designed by Harry Mendell
who designs custom synthesizer electronics and software for professional
musicians such as Stavia Wonder and Eric Himy. an award winning
New York Times Says . . .
concert pianist. The Melodian boasts many of Ihe professional features
found only on more expensive equipment. These features include Erik Sandberg-Diment of Ihe New York Times states "really useful and
muliilrack recording, the ability to create cuslom instrument sounds and instructive item ... Tanya, our 10 year old beginner quickly caught the
most importantly, ease of use, spirit of matching the dance of her fingers to the measured metronome."
"One piece of educational software that, unlike most of its kinfolk. ac
Start your lesson with RhythmMaster Software. With its built-in tually delivers These software-hardware combinations offer a lot of enter
melronome. RhylhmMaster will display the treble and bass musical slaffs tainment to the Commodore owner."
and a picture of a piano keyboard RhylhmMaster will then play a measure
of music and you must Iry to play Ihc same measure back on Ihe Melo RUN Magazine Says . . .
dian keyboard. You're nol familiar with the keyboard or can't read music? Tom Benford of RUN notes "Whenever a selection of products of the
No problem. RhylhmMaster displays the noles you are lo play on the same genre is available, one among the bunch rises head and shoulders
musical slaff and on Ihe keyboard piclured on the monitor. If you strike
above Ihe rest. Such is the case with Melodian ConcertMaster keyboard
Ihe wrong key Ihe note on the musical staff lums red and shows" you and software The combined features of RhythmMaster and ConcertMaster
which key you played wrong, making it ever so easy to correct what give you a complete music tutorial."
you played.
If you should hold a key loo long a turtle runs across the screen Inverse
AHOY! Magazine Says . . .
ly if you should release a key too quickly a rabbit scurries by. If you don'l
play il correclly RhylhmMaster knows il and repeals the measure for you Peggy Herrington of AHOY! said "The system is so easy to use that I
lo play. didn'l need the documentation". "It's fun, challenging, and educational,
and for playabilily and ease of use it is nothing short of spectacular."
Concert Master leaches you how to play jj pre-recorded songs from
Bach to Rock. With ConcertMasler you can analyze music note by note,
instrument by instrumenl and learn how a music composition is pul
Satisfaction Guaranteed When You Buy Direct
together. Then you can compose your own music and record it right on
to your floppy disks. By selling directly to you. we are able to give you the Melodian Keyboard
There are nineteen different instrumenl sounds to choose from in over and Software at far lower prices than ever offered before. You take no
a seven oclave range giving you a wide choice of instrument lo suit risk, It tin- Melodian keyboard or any of the programs
your musical taste and expression. You can also create your own instru don't pleas* you, for any reason whatsoever, sand it
ment sounds. back within 60 days for a full refund!
and record music in just one evening!!
Software cm-o.
ConcertMaster leaches how a composition is put together, note by
note, instalment by instrument. You learn to play 55 pre-recorded
songs from Bach to Rock. Then you can compose your own songs
and record them right onto your floppy disk.
ConcertMaster Teaches:
Scales. Bass lines. Familiar Beginner Songs such as "Jingle Bells",
Easy classical songs such as "Bach Minuet" and Ravel's "Bolero".
Advanced classics like "A Midsummer's Night Dream" by
Mendelssohn. Popular hits such as "Thriller"
Instruments Sounds
Organ. Trumpet, Flute, Clarinet. Piano. Hnrpsicord. Violin, Cello.
Bass, Banjo. Mandolin, Calliope, Concertina, Bagpipe. Synthesizer 1.
RhythmMaster Synthesizer 2. Clavier I, Clavier 22, which can be played over a
Software rm-oi $29-95 ^octave range. Programmable sounds as well.
RhylhmMaster leaches a beginner ho* lo read music and play i! cor Recording Functions:
rectly and in rhythm on the musical keyboard, Three track sequencer (recorder) with overdubbing and multitimbral
(different instrument sounds at the same time) effects.
RhylhmMasler will have you reading and playing musical noles in
Each track can be set to one of seven different functions:
minutes with fun and excitement.
" Monitort Lets you use a track to play music live, without recor
RhythmMaster Features: ding it.
Trumpet, organ, violin, and synthesizer instrument sounds. Built in " Record: Records a track as you play.
metronome. Pause/Play control. Set-up menu for customizing • Playback: Lets you hear whatever has been recorded or load
RhythmMasler. ed into the track. You may playback one track while recording
RhythmMaster Teaches: another to build layers of instrument.
How to read notes on the treble and bass musical staffs.the names of • Mulct Turns a track off. This is useful when you want to listen
the noles. where the noles are on the keyboard how to play whole to 01 record one or two tracks at a time.
notes, half notes, quarter notes, eighth noles and sixteenth notes in • S.iv.:: Stores a track to the disk.
combinations, in both j/+ and t/4 time, How to play in different • Load: Loads a track from the disk.
tempos. • Protect: Write protects a track.
RhythmMaster Requires: Create New Instrument
A Commodore 64 or Commodore 126 with disk drive. Melodian
Musical Keyboard kb-oi is required to study the reading and playing Choose from pulse, sawtooth, triangle and noise sound sources Con
of musical noles. trol the sound envelope wilh altack. decay, sustain, and release
limes. Ring Modulation and Syncronization effects Set Low pass,
band pass, and high pass filler frequencies.
Melodian Musical ConcertMaster Requires:
Keyboard kb-«. $99-95 A Commodore 64 or Commodore 12a wilh disk drive. Melodian
Musical Keyboard kb-oi is required to study the reading and playing
4O Keys (A-CJ in professional gauge spring loaded lo give the feel and
response of a real keyboard instrument Polyphonic. of musical noles.
Registers (with ConcerlMaster)
Organ. Trumpet. Flute. Clarinet, Piano, Harpsicord. Violin. Cello. Melodian ScoreMaster
Bass. Banjo. Mandolin, Calliope. Concertino. Bagpipe. Synthesizer |,
Synthesizer 2. Clavier 1, Clavier 2. which can be played over a ? With the ScoreMasler program your music can be printed out in
octave range. Programmable sounds as well.
music notation, which other musicians can read and play. Any music
Recording (with ConcerlMaster) recorded with Irre ConcertMaster program can be printed by
Three track sequencer (recorder) with overdubbing and multitimbral
(different instrument sounds at the same time) effects
Interface ScoreMaster Requires:
Built in interface for Commodore 6*. Commodore 128. plugs right in A Commodore 64 or Commodore 12a wilh disk drive and printer
to joystick port no. 2 and user port. compatible with the Commodore graphics mode such as the Com-
Power Supply modore MPS 8OJ. 1515, and 1525.
Powered direct by the computer, no batteries and cords required. Melodian ConcerlMaster program
Table Model in white high-impact matenal. with carrying handle, pro
Headphones $12.95
tective key cover, and built in music stand. Size 29 -i/s X o-9<!6 X
3-11/16. weighs 9 pounds. Stereo Cables... $ 9-95
Demonstration Disk $ 9*95
Programmer's Tool Kit RECORDINGS
pt-01 Christmas Carols $12.95
Contains programs, and BASIC source listings for reading the Melo Tchaikowsky Nutcracker $12.95
dian Musical Keyboard, and for reading and creating music files for Bach's Hits $12.95
Melodian ConcertMasler. Classical Favorites $12.95


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m LJ-S dollars, a* can 303-979-3777. For Canada and Memco. ado Ji 5 00 lor air mail Overseas The new, fast way to learn, play and compos* music.
add $16.00 for surface mail, and 570 CO far air mail. B 1985, Meiodian, Inc.. 970 W. McNab Pa, Fan Uudordaio. FL 33309 All iighis tesmvaa
Search For The Best High Quality Graphic Printer

If you have been looking very long, you have automatically, through easy commands right printing when new, but quickly starts to fade.
probably discovered thai there are just too from your keyboard. Do you sometimes want To keep the printers output looking consis
many claims and counter claims in the primer lo emphasize a word? It's easy, just use bold tently dark, the ribbons must be changed
market loday. There are printers that have (double strike) or use llalicstQ make the words quite often. We solve this problem by using a
some of Ihe features you wan!, but do not liave stand out. Or, if you wish to be even more em wide I'/i") ribbon carlridge that will print
others. Some features you probably don't care phatic, underline Ihe words. You can combine liiousands of pages before needing replace
about, others are vitally important to you. We many of these modes and styles lo make ihe ment. (When you finally do wear utit your
understand. In fact, not long ago, we were in variation almost endless. [Jo you want to ex ribbon, replacement cost is only SI 1.00.
the same position. Deluged by claims and press something that you can'l do with words? Order #200!. /Also Locally Available.)
counter claims. Overburdened by rows and Use graphics with your text — even on ihe
rows of specifications, we decided to separate same line. You have variable line spacing of 1 The Best Part
all the facts — prove or disprove all the claims line per inch to infinity (no space at all) and When shopping for a printer with this quality
to our own satisfaction. So we bought 143 other software selectable settings in bet and these features, you could expect to pay
printers. We bought samples of all Ihe major ween. You can control line spacing on a dot- much more. No! now! We sell this fantastic
brands and tested them. by-dot basis. If you've ever had a letter or printer for only $219.95! Yon need nbsolulely
other document thai was just a few lines too nothing else lu start |>rintini> — just uild
Jur Objective Was Simple long to fit a page, you can see how handy this paper (single shed ur fuufultl trucior).
We wanted to find that printer wliich had all feature is. Simply reduce the line spacing
the features you could want and yet be sold di slightly and ... VO1LA! The letter now fits on No Risk Offer
rectly to you at the lowest price. We didn't one page. We give you a 2-week satisfaction guarantee.
want a "close-out special" of an obsolete If you are not completely satisfied for any
product that some manufacturer was dump reason we will promptly refund your pur
ing, so we limited our search to only those new Q 95 chase. The warranty has now been extended
printers that had the latest proven technology. to 2 years. The warranty repair policy is to
We wanted lo give our customers the best
For Commodore repair or replaee and rcship to the buyer
printer on the market today ai a low price. within 72 hours of receipt.

The Results Are In The Bottom Line

Be sure to specify the order ft for the correct
Our search is over. We have reduced the field
version printer designed for your computer.
to a single printer that meets all our goals (and
more). The primer is our SP-1000 manufac Commodore C-64 Sl C-128, Order #2200,
tured by a Division of Seiko, the world class graphics interface &-cable built in. S219.95
manufacturer of many fine products from IBM-PC and compatibles. Order rtlOO,
Japan.We ran this printer through our battery SU9.95 plus 8' shielded cable #1103. S26.00
of tests and it came out shining. This printer
Apple lie & Macintosh Order «300, S239.95
can do it all. Standard draft printing at a re
with cable.
spectable 100 characters per second, and with
a very readable 12 (horizontal) by 9 (vertical) Standard Parallel with 36 pin Centronics con
character matrix. This is a full feature, bi nector, Order #2400, 5239.95 no cable.
directional, logic seeking, true descender Standard Serial with RS-232 (DB-25) Con
printer. nector, Order #2500, $239.95 no cable.
We also have interfaces and cables for many
"NLQ" Mode
other computers not listed. Call Customer
One of our highest concerns was about prim Forms? Yes! Service ai 805/987-2454 for details.
quality and readability. This primer has a
Your Letlerhead? Of Course!
print mode termed Near Letter Quality print .Shipping and insurance is SI0.00 — UPS
ing (NLQ mode). This is where we outshine all Do you print forms? No problem. This unit
within the continental USA. If you are in a
the competition. Hands down! The character will do them all. Any form up to 10 inches
hurry, UPS Blue (second day air), APO or
matrix in NLQ mode is a very dense 2-1 wide. The tractors arc adjustable from 4 to 10
I;PO is $22.00. Canada, Alaska, Mexico are
(horizontal) by 18 (vertical). This equates to inches. Yes, you can also use single sheets.
S30.00 (air). Other foreign is S70.00 (air).
41,472 addressable dots per square inch. Now Plain typing paper, your letterhead, short
California residents add 6% tax. The above
we're talking quality priming. It looks like it memo forms, labels, anything you choose.
are cash prices — VISA and MC add 3*A to
was done on a typewriter. You can even print Any size to 10* in width. In fact this unit is so
total. We ship the next business day on
graphics using the standard graphics symbols advanced, it will load your paper automati
money orders, cashiers' checks, and charge
built into your computer. The results are the cally. Multiple copies? Absolutely! Use forms
cards. A 14-day clearing period is required
best we've ever seen. The only other printers (up to 3 thick). Do you want to use spread
for checks.
currently available having resolution this high sheets with many columns? Of course! Just go
For information call 805/987-2454
sell for hundreds more. to condensed mode printing and print a full
13ft columns wide. Forget expensive wide-car TO ORDER CALL TOLL FREE
riage printers and changing lo wide carriage 1(800) 962-5800 USA
18-8 PST)
Features Tha) Won't Quil paper. You can now do it .ill on a standard 1-1800) 962-3600 CALIF.

Your computer can now print 40, 48. 68, 80, 8'/j" wide page, and you can do it quietly, it's Dealer Inquiries Invltad
96, or 136 characters per line. You can print in only55dB. This is much quieter than any other
impact dot matrix printer that we know of and or send order to:
ANY of scores of styles including double
widih and reversed (white on black) styles. is quieter than the average office background
noise level.
You not only have the standard Pica, Elite,
Condensed and Ifalics, but also true
Superscripts and Subscripts. Never again will Consistent Print Quality
you have to worry about how to print H,O or Most printers have a ribbon carlridge or a
1071-A Avenida Acaso
X1. This fantastic machine will d"o it single spool ribbon which gives nice dark Camarillo, CA 93010
June 1986 Vol. 4, No. 6

GEOS: The Quiet Revolution Lee Noel, Jr. 20 *
The Evolution of Commodore Graphics Kathy Yakal 34 *
A Guide to Commodore User Groups, Part 2 Joan Rouleau 79 *

The Bard's Tale Lee Noel, Jr. 44 64
Ballyhoo Joan Rouleau 46 64
Jet David Florance 48 64
Battle of Antietam George Miller 48 64
Leader Board Gregg Keizer 50 64
vbtalker Speech Synthesizer Todd Heimarck 51 64

Star Dragon Sean D. Wagle 54 64
Predictor John Krutch 58 64/+4/16/V
Switcheroo Kevin Mykytyn and Mark Tuttle 60 64

education/home applications
Solarplx Simon Edgeworth 64 64
Computing for Families: My Favorite Robots Fred D'lgnazio 90 *

Hints & Tips: A Little More Speed 66 128/64/+4/16/V
MonoTones Samuel Ford 68 128/64
Quick Key James Nakakihara 69 64
64 AutoBoot Maker flene Suarez 75 64
Power BASIC: Help Screens Jaffer Siddiqui 76 128/64
SpeedScript-80 for the 128 Todd Heimarck 77 128
BASIC Magic: Arrays in the Next Dimension Michael S. Tomczyk 84 123/64/+4/1G/V
Machine Language for Beginners: More Math Richard Mansfield 91 128/64/+4/16/V
FontMaker John Cawley, III 92 64

The Editor's Notes Robert C. Lock ... . 6
Gazette Feedback Editors and Readers 10
News & Products 73
Simple Answers to Common Questions Tom R. Halfhill 88
Horizons: Thanks for the Memory Todd Heimarck 89

program listings
COMPUTEI's Gazette Author's Guide 95 *
How to Type In COMPUTEI's Gazette Programs 96 *
The Automatic Proofreader 97 128/64/+4/16/V

MLX 98 64

Advertiser's Index 12B

• -General, V=VIC-20, 64=Commodore 64, +4=Plus/4, 16=Commodore 16. 128=Commodore 12B

naht) mwmxi. ISSN 0737-3716.

COMWTTTI Publication!, I"- ii P«t of ABC Coniumo Migarinc*. Inr, Oni of Iht ABC PublllhlnR Compintn: ABC Publlihlng, Pmldtnt, Robert C. Burton; 1330 Artnuc al thp
America.; New Yori>, Nm Vcnk 10019 J|l\
You may recall that just last month Here's one of the most colorful side showing the price of
(the May GAZETTE "Editor's responses, and we were pleased to $250. We use it in lectures to
Notes") we requested that you discover it was from old friends show that computers may
write in on a variety of topics. What who had contributed a major fea one day become premiums
we can't figure out is how your let ture article to the very first issue of in cereal boxes.
ters have already begun to arrive— COMPUTE!. 3. Our remaining VIC-20 with
by the dozens these first couple of a Datassette is reserved for a
days. As promised, here's a sam We are taking advantage of your weather station to read the
pling of the early arrivals. promise to read what we...have current barometric pressure,
Under the heading of what's done with computers since pur the outdoor temperature,
happening to the VIC-20s, as well chasing a PET 2001 in 1978....
wind velocity and direction,
as how you're using your computer We are retiring from leaching
calculate the Delta T and
(VIC-20 or otherwise): this year....
Delta P, and prepare a
We've had several comput weather forecast for 6-24
Yes, I have one, and I still use it, ers since 1978 when we ran the hours with an accuracy of
although admittedly somewhat first course in BASIC for teach about 85 percent.
irregularly, I use it because it is ers in our area. We forecast at
4. The Pioneer is used in our
easier to program than the 64, that time that there would be
research work for interactive
plus the characters are large and 753 computers in the 13-school
video using a laser disk and
easy for little children to use. system by 1985. The estimate
computer with graphic over
Columbus, Ohio proved a little conservative.
lays on the video. It's the
There are over 800 in use.
only $400 computer we have
The computers we acquired
I use my VIC-20 for Cub Scout ever seen capable of that
for personal use include:
records; educational programs function.
for my eight children; and a few 1. Two VIC-20S with Datas- 5. The 64/128 is brand-new....
games.... settes and monitor TVs.
We use the computer al
Clarksville, Tennessee 2. Two PETs (2001 and 4032)
most daily for word processing
with dual disk drives and an
....It is an even greater consider
After five years of retirement Epson MX-80 printer with
ation in our Gifted Children
from an active life as an ac an IEEE interface.
Programs at grades 4-6 and
counting executive and CPA...I 3. Commodore 64 with 1702
10-12. Touch-typing fourth
purchased a VIC-20 (in 1982) monitor, 1541 floppy, and an
graders are turning in error-
for the purpose of teaching my MPS-803 printer.
corrected copy to us.
self to program. I needed the 4. Timex/cassette and mono Now that we are "retiring"
mental stimulation. I have not chrome monitor. we plan to produce interactive
been bored since then.... 5. Pioneer MSX with a Hitachi video programs as leaching ma
Athens, Alabama 3V*-inch floppy drive, laser terials using generic laser disks
disk game, and graphics and computer programs....
Thanks for asking! Your maga tablet. Frankfort, New York
zine is the finest on the market 6. Commodore 64/128 with a
and if a satisfied reader's opin 1702 monitor, 1571 floppy, Again, thank you for your con
ion can help it stay that way and Comrex printer. tinued contributions, and within
then I, for one, am pleased to the next few months we'll put to
contribute. We have used the equip
gether an article sharing in greater
ment in the following ways:
I own a Commodore 64... detail some of your input.
this letter is being written on 1. One VIC-20 and the 64 (used
it....I just refigured my home in teaching at first) went to
mortgage last week and I am our grandchildren and
setting up a program to do my daughter....
restaurant inventory as well.... 2 The Timex is in a Corn
Holly Springs, Flakes box, with an advertis
North Carolina ing page pasted on the out Editor In Chief
6 COMPUTE'S Gazetta Juno 1986
You know Temple of Apshal. The graphics and sounds are new. The
The classic. Best-seller for over challenge of the dungeons is timeless.
four years. Are you ready for the most involving
You may have friends trapped forever role-playing game ever designed?
in its dark recesses. Tfcmple of Apshai is waiting. Silently
Players have dropped from sight for lurking. Patiently waiting. For you. At
weeks at a time, searching for the your nearest Epyx dealer.
treasures of Apshai.
Well now we've raised the stakes. *mi II MU MUM ISM PC (Mill)

Introducing the new Apshai Trilogy.

hai THlogy
The combined'wrath of the world
famous Temple of Apshai® Upper
Reaches of Apshai® and Curse of Ra®
All on a single disk. Twelve levels.
568 rooms to explore. More choices.
i Kiel Court, Sunnyvale, CA *»)H9
More chances. Best of all, there's faster
game play. StrategyGamesfortheAction-GamePlayer
Sales Offices, Jules E. Thompson) Inc.

COMPUTE! PublicationsJnc.®
OncoMhe ARC t'u
1290 Howard Avenue
Suite 303
Burlingame, CA 94010
Midwest 312-726-6047
Texas 713-731-2605
Publisher James A. Casella Pacific Northwest 415-348-8222
Founder/Editor in Chief Robert C. Lock Northern CA 415-348-8222
Senior Editor Richard Mansfield Southern CA 213-378-8361 <4ARfT
Managing Editor Kathleen Martinets Arizona 213-378-8361
Executive Editor Selby Bareman New Mexico 213-378-8361 ■".■- ' : Ttareiu

Editor Lance Elko Colorado 303-595-9299 of Ckiculitioas

Assistant Editor Todd Heimarck

COMPUTEI Publications, Inc., publishes
Production Director Tony Roberts
COMPUTEVs GAZETTE Disk Apple Applications
Tom R. Halfhill, Editor, COMPUTE! Magazine; Stephen Levy,
Editorial Office:
Editor, COMPUTE! Books Division; Gail Cowper, Production
324 West Wendover Ave., Suite 200, Greensboro, NC 27408
Editor; Ottis R. Cowper, Technical Editor; Charles Brannon,
Program Editor Corporate Offices:
Assistant Editors 825 7th Avenue, New York, NY 10019
Gregg Keizer, Ann Davies (Books); George Miller, (Technical); Customer Service:
Philip Nelson (COMPUTE! Magazine); Kathy Yakal, Assistant P.O. Box 5038, F.D.R. Station, New York, NY 10150
Features Editor; |oan Rouleau, Research/Copy Editor; Mark Telephone: (In NY) 212-887-8525;
Tuttle, Submissions Reviewer (In U.S.) Toll free 1-800-346-6767
Editorial Programmers Office Hours: 8:30 AM to 4:30 PM Monday-Friday
Patrick Parrish (Supervisor), Tim Victor, Kevin Mykytyn
Programming Assistants President James A. Casella
David Florance, David Hensley Vice President, Advertising Richard J. Marino
Administrative Staff
Subscription Orders
Executive Assistant, Debi Nash; Julia Fleming, Iris Brooks,
Mary Hunt, Sybil Agee
P.O. Box 10957, Des Moines, IA 50340
Irma Swain, Production Manager; Janice Fary, Art & Design TOLL FREE
Director; Lee Noel, Assistant Editor, Art & Design; De Potter, Subscription Order Line
Mechanical Art Supervisor; Terry Cash, Carole Dunton, 1-800-247-5470
Typesetting In IA 1-800-532-1272
Dabney KetTOW (Publications), Debbie Bray (Books); Harry
Subscription Rates
Blair, Illustrator
(12 Issue Year): US (one year) $24. Canada, Mexico and Foreign
Associate Editors Surface Mail $30. Foreign Air Mail $65.
Jim ButterMd (Toronto), Harvey Herman (Greensboro),
Fred D'Ignazto (Alabama) The COMPUTEni gazette subscriber list is made available to carefully
screened organizations with a product or service which may be of
Customer Service interest to our readers. If you prefer not to receive such mailings,
Diane Longo, Customer Service Manager; Orchid Tamayo, please send an exact cony of your subscription label to: compute!"*
gazette, P.O. Box 10958," Des' Moines, IA 50950. Include a note in
Dealer Sales Supervisor; Cassandra Greene, Customer Service
dicating your preference to receive only your subscription.
Authors of manuscripts warrant that all materials submitted to
Receptionist, Anita Armfield computes Gazette are original materials with full ownership rights
resident in said authors. By submitting articles to computed
Warehouse Manager, John Williams
gazette, authors acknowledge that such materials, upon accep
Data Processing tance for publication, become the exclusive property of COMPUTEI
Publications, Inc. No portion of this magazine may be reproduced
Leon Stokes, Manager
in any form without written permission from the publisher. Entire
Promotion contents copyright © 1986 COMPUTEI Publications, Inc. Rights to
programs developed and submitted by authors are explained in our
Caroline Dark, Promotion Assistant
author contract. Unsolicited materials not accepted for publication
Advertising Sales will be returned if author provides a self-addressed, stamped en
Richard J. Marino, Vice President, Advertising Sales; Peter velope, Where programs are included in an article submission, a
Johnsmeyer, Director of Advertising Sales; Bernard J. Theobald, tape or disk must accompany the submission. Printed listings are
Jr., Associate Advertising Director; Kathleen Hanion, optional, but helpful. Articles should be furnished as typed copy
(upper and lowercase, please) with double spacing. Each article
Production Coordinator
page should bear the title of the article, date, and name of the
Sales Representatives author. COMPUTE! Publications, Inc., assumes no liability for errors
Jerry Thompson 415-348-8222 in articles or advertisements. Opinions expressed by authors are
Harry Blair 919-275-9809 not necessarily those of COMPUTEI Publications, Inc. COMPUTEI
Jonathan Just 212-315-1665 Publications assumes no responsibility for damages, delays, or fail
ure of shipment in connection with authors' offer to make tape or
Address all advertising materials lo: disk copies nf programs published herein.
Kathleen Hanion, COMPUTED GAZETTE PET, CBM, V1C-20, Commodore 64, Plus/4, 16, and 128 are trade
324 West Wendover Ave., Suite 200, Greensboro, NC 27408 marks of Commodore Business Machines, Inc., and/or Com
Sales Offices modore Electronics Limited. Other than as an independent supplier
of quality information and services to owners and users of Com
Northeast 212-315-1665
modore products, COMPUTEI Publications, Inc., is in no way asso
Mid-Atlantic 212-315-1665 ciated with Commodore Business Machines, Inc., or any of its
Southeast 212-275-9809 subsidiaries.
Two €xciting New Books


BOOK Computer
Commodore Projects
lin Commodore ami Man
Personal Computers

COMPUTEi's First Book of the Electronic Computer Projects

Commodore 128 Learn how to build all kinds of new devices to
A spectacular collection of articles and programs Interface with your computer from Inexpensive,
exclusively for the Commodore 128 in 128 mode. available parts.
Edited For the Commodore 64, 128, VIC, and any eight-bit
The editors at COMPUTE! Publications have col Atari personal computer.
lected some of the best games, programs, and tu Soori Sivakumaran
torials for the Commodore !28 from COMPUTE! and This introduction to digital electronics and computer
COMPUTER'S Gazette, plus some never-before- interfacing is the easy way to learn how computers
published articles and programs. Learn how to cre interact with the outside world. Using a Commodore
ate windows, program sound, and make disks 64, 128, VIC, or any eight-bit Atari computer and
autoload. You'll even find a map of all the important Electronic Computer Projects, you'll be guided
memory locations. There's something for every 128 through the steps to building a joystick, light pen,
user. All programs run in 128 mode. A disk is avail game paddle, and numerous other devices. And
able which includes programs in the book, $12.95, since each project is independent from the others,
$14.95 ISBN 0-87455-059-9 you can choose only those projects that interest you.
All the projects can be built at home and most re
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COMPUTfel Books, P.O. Box 5038, F.D.R. Station, New York, NV 10150.
Please include $2.00 per book ($5.00 air mall) for shipping and handling. NC residents
add 4.5 percent sales tax. Allow 4-6 weeks from receipt of order for delivery.

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Editors and Readers

Do you have a question or a problem? necessarily mean such a program doesn't off and back on. Load and run TurboTape
Have you discovered something that exist. Perhaps our readers can help. We'll and reload the program; it will be relo
could help other Commodore users? publish answers as we receive them. cated to the standard start of BASIC. Now
We want to hear from you. Write to you can TSAVE to tape. Keep the other
Gazette Feedback, COMPUTED GA version of the program in case there's a
ZETTE, P.O. Box 5406, Greensboro, Proofreader Load Problems correction you need to make at a later
NC 27403. We regret that due to the After using the new "Automatic Proof time. Remember, you can't TurboLoad a
volume of mail received, we cannot reader" on a 64,1 noticed that it sets the standard BASIC program from tape while
respond individually to programming beginning of BASIC memory up one Proofreader is running.
questions. page to 2305. This causes problems Auto File assumes thai BASIC pro
with programs that are 'Turbosaved" grams for the 64 always load at 2049 (a
to tape at 2049. How can I get around safe assumption that's nearly always
Loading From Disk this problem? true). Any program that doesn't start at
James L. English 2049 must be written in machine lan
1 purchased a disk drive less than a
month ago. Everytime I try to load a guage, so Auto File performs a SYS to the
I have discovered a problem with the
program 1 either get a syntax error or it address where the program loads. If you
new "Automatic Proofreader." When I
says PRESS PLAY ON TAPE. I can't save a program with Proofreader active,
load the Proofreader from "Auto File"
seem to figure out what the problem is. the disk file is marked for loading at 2305,
(November 1985), then type in a pro
J. Sarli gram and save it, the program will not
which causes problems with Auto File. To
correct it, turn off your 64 and turn it back
load correctly from "Auto File." The
If you type LOAD "PROCRAMNAME" on. Type LDAD"programname",8 (not
you should see the PRESS PLAY ON first line of the typed-in program says
,8,1) and the BASIC program will be relo
TAPE message. You haven't indicated 43266 NEWCLOSE, which is wrong.
cated to the normal address of 2049. Now
where the program is. In the absence of But if the program is loaded without
save back to disk. This resaved program
explicit instructions, your computer Auto File, it works fine. Is there a way
will run correctly when loaded from Auto
to correct this?
assumes you want to load the program File.
John Kinary
from a tape drive, thus the prompt to press
the play button. The Automatic Proofreader program is a
To load from a disk drive, you must machine language "wedge" that helps The Earthquake Effect
include the device number. A disk drive readers double check their typing when In your September 1985 issue, you pub
fresh from the factory is always device 8. they're entering programs. It temporarily lished a game called "Maze-Mania."
Enter LOAD "PROCRAMNAME",8 to intercepts the characters typed, calculates One of the game options made the
load a BASIC program (the number S tells a checksum, and prints the checksum on screen shake. I'd like to know how this
the computer to search for that program tlie top line of the screen. was done.
on the disk drive). You can then run the Danny Gardner
Like any other program, it must occu
py some portion of memory. The free area
Sometimes you'll need to follow a Here's a short program to give your 64
at 679 was ruled out because it wasn't
slightly different format, especially if you screen the jitters:
large enough. Placing the routine in the
have cither commercial software or a ma
cassette buffer interferes with tape access. 10 POKES3265,PEEK(53265)AND24fl
chine language program. LOAD "PRO-
High memory locations such as 32768, ORRNDO)*8:POKE53 270,PEEK(5
GRAMNAME",8,1 forces the program
36864, or 49152 are often occupied by pro 3Z70)ANU240OHRND(1)*8
to load into the same section of memory 20 GOTO 10
gramming utilities.
from which il was saved. You often won't
By moving the beginning of BASIC
be able to run such a program. In some The lower three bits of location
up 256 bytes, from 2049 to 2305 (on the
cases, the program loads and automatical 53265 on the Commodore 64 (location
64), several potential memory conflicts are
ly runs by itself. Other times you may 36864 on the VIC) control the horizontal
avoided. But no answer is perfect. Datas-
have to type in SYS and a memory address fine scrolling of the screen. The value in
sette users will not be able to load Turbo-
where the program is located. these three bits represents the number of
Saved programs into memory while
pixels right of the normal screen position.
Proofreader is resident. And disk drive us
To scroll the screen from left to right
Nutrition Software ers will have problems using the menu
program from Auto File. seven pixels (almost a full character), use
I am a new diabetic and diet is an im the following line:
portant part of controlling blood sugar. Here's the answer for users of Turbo-
Tape: When you're first typing in a pro FOR A~0 TO 7: POKE 53265,PEEK
I would like to know if there are any (5326S) AND 248 OR A: NEXT
programs for the 64 to assist in plan gram, don't use TurboTape at all. Save the
ning menus for a diabetic. program to tape as you did before Turbo- Noli? that the upper five bits of 53265
Robert L. Cole Tape. When you've finished the last line of are preserved using the AND and OR
the program, perform a normal save. This statements. This is important since these
We don't know of any softxoare that ana version will have the address that's 256 other bits are used to control other fea
lyzes meals for diabetics, but that doesn't bytes too high. Now turn your computer tures of the video chip.
10 COMPUTE'S Gazelle June 1986
First there was PHANTASIES le of the most popular

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If you ve played Mountain View, CA
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Atiuenturerf Qviitt.

-md ATAHI ST;ut iniikltt.irks ill A(>)>lf CmtiptKcr. tin. r. r.Ii'tlniriK.'i I,Ei). .mil
Location 53270 {location 36865 on it has a higher density. In other words, the Commodore computers use a variation of
the VIC) is used similarly to control the weight depends on what you're storing in ASCII; if you were to send Commodore
vertical fine scrolling of the screen. the container. In addition, you may or characters to a standard printer, the up
may not want to consider the additional percase and lowercase letters would be
weight of the container itself. switched, IIKE tHIS.
Where's The Rest Of The Memory? The following short program, for all At the very least, the interface will
Cm writing a program which requires a Commodore computers, asks you to input handle the task of converting Commodore
lot of memory capacity. After reading the height, width, and length of a rectan ASCII to true ASCII. Many popular inter
an article about the 128,1 went right out gular container. It then calculates the vol faces also offer a variety of graphics and
and bought one (122,365 available ume in gallons, the weight of the liquid, listing modes.
bytes). When 1 turn it on, there it is right and the total weight (container plus Your best bet is a printer interface
on the screen, 122365. But when 1 try liquid). that has an RS-232 plug on one end (for
PRINT FRE(O), it says 58109. Is there the printer) and a six-pin plug for the
10 D=.0360iCW=5.10:REM DENSITY
more memory available? What do I OF WATER (LBS/CUBIC INCH),
Commodore serial port on the other end. If
have to do to access it? CONTAINER WT (LBS) you don't own a disk drive, the six-pin
Al Donahue 20 PRINT"{CLRlINPUT HEIGHT, HI plug would fit into your 64's serial port. If
DTH, AND LENGTH OF CONTAINE you do own a drive, you would plug the
Your letter stated that you previously R (IN INCHES)"iINPUTH,W,L interface cable into the serial port on the
owned a 64, which contains the FRE(0) 30 V=INT{W*L'H*10+.5)/10 back of the disk drive. Some interfaces
function for finding out how much memo 40 WE=INT(V*D*10+.5)/10:V=INT(
have an additional wire that draws power
ry remains. On the 64, the number inside V/231*10+.5)/10
50 PRINT"{DOWNJVOLUME=-"V"GALS" from the cassette port.
parentheses is a dummy value, meaning A second option is to buy an interface
it doesn't matter which number you use. ="WE"LBS" that plugs into the 64's user port (other
The 64's FRE function disregards the val 60 PRINT"TOTAL WT (CONTAINER S, wise known as the RS-232 port). There are
ue in parentheses. LIQUID ) = "W£+CW'LBSP1
a couple of problems with this type of in
The 128 can address up to 16 banks of terface, however. Some commercial pro
In this program, the density (variable
64K each. BASIC programs occupy bank 0 grams expect printers to be connected to
D) of the liquid and the container weight
and variables are stored in bank 1. The the serial port. With such a program, you
(CW) are defined in line 10. We've as
character set is in bank 14, while ROMs couldn't use your printer when the inter
sumed that the liquid is water and that the
and I/O chips use bank 15. The memory face was plugged into the user port. Also,
container weighs 5.1 pounds. If the liquid
in between is reserved for memory expan it's more difficult to send information to
in the container were something else, say
sion and programs on cartridge. the RS-232 port than it is to print or list to
gasoline, you'd need to substitute its den
Because of the way the 128 is split the serial port. On the VIC and 64, open
sity in line 10.
into different banks, BASIC 7.0 handles ing communications to the RS-232 port
These same calculations can be ad
the FRE function a little differently. En clears all variables—which means you
justed for a cylinder by substituting the
tering PRINT FRE(0) tells you haw much have to open the RS-232 channel before
folloii'ing two lines in the above program:
memory is available in bank 0—58109 you do anything else. In addition, you
bytes for holding programs. But if you 20 PRINT"|CLR}INPUT HEIGHT AND have to tell the computer how fast you
PRINT FRE(l), you'll see 64256, the num DIAMETER OF CONTAINER (IN want to send characters (the baud rate)
ber of bytes reserved for variables in bank I SPACE JINCHES)":INPUTH,DI and you may have to do your own transla
1. Adding the two together gives i/oii 30 V=INT(_T*(Dl/2)i2*H*10+.5)/l tion to true ASCII. Finally, modems fit
122,365, the total memory of the unex- into the user port; if you had a printer in
panded 128. In this variation, you input the terface attached there, you couldn't use a
height and diameter of the cylindrical printer and a modem at the same time.
container. Type line 30 carefully; the first If your printer has only one RS-232
Calculating Volume up-arrow is underlined, which means you port, you're correct about having to switch
I've been trying to figure out a formula should hold down the SHIFT key to get the printer cables when you move to the other
that tells you how many gallons would pi (n) character. The second up-arrow computer, unless you have a switchbox.
fill a container if you input the length, should be unshifted (T). We called a local Radio Shack store; they
width, and height. It would be nice to have a Printer Selecter Switch (catalog
also get the total weight of the contain #26-1498, $119.95) that would allow you
er when it's full. Connecting A Printer to connect two computers to a single
Terry Moore I own two microcomputers: a Commo printer. It's likely that a similar switch
dore 64 and a DEC Professional 350. I would be available from other sources as
Multiply together the three measurements
would like to use my DEC LA50 printer well.
length, width, and height, and (assuming
with both systems, but don't know how
they're all in inches) the result will be the
to connect it to the Commodore. It's a
volume of the container in cubic inches. A Additions To Sequential Files
serial printer with an RS-232 port. I ex
gallon is just another way of measuring
pect I will need to disconnect and re Lately I have been working with se
volume, so we need to know how cubic
connect the printer each time 1 swap quential files on my 64. I haven't been
inches translate to gallons. According to
computers, unless you know of a meth able to find any information on how to
an almanac we consulted, there are 231
od such that the printer remains con add data to the end of a file. Is it possi
cubic inches in a gallon. So to discover
nected to both computers. ble to append to a file?
how many gallons fit into a container,
Kathleen Dahly Steven Tuck
multiply the three dimensions and divide
that number by 231. To connect a non-Commodore printer to a If you're using tape, the only way to add to
Weight is not quite as simple. Con 64 you need an interface, one that can a sequential file is to read the entire file
sider a gallon of water and a gallon of translate Commodore ASCII characters to into memory, make any necessary changes,
mercury. Both are liquids and both have true ASCII. (ASCII is the standard way of and then write a new file to tape.
the same volume, but the mercury will sending characters and other information Disk users have some other options.
weigh much more than the water because between computers and peripherals.) String data may be read from a sequential
12 COMPUTE'S Gazette June 1986
■■-■* I ■

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F-15 STRIKE EAGLE is for Commodore 64/128, Atari SDD/XE/XL series, Apple II+
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disk file as follows (note that you have to 130, which is pretty low. Is there a way and one for the comma, a total of 13, just
DIMensiort the array AS if the file con to retrieve more memory—renumber for two numbers to be POKEd into
tains more than ten items): ing, crunching, or something like that? memory.

10 OPEN i.a,2,"fikHiime,S,R" The program is almost done, but I'm

aoc-c+i stuck until I can get more memory.
30 INPUTJfl, ASIC) Scott McLaughlin A Partial Reset
40 IF (64 AND ST) = 0 THEN 20 I've installed a reset switch on my 64
50 CLOSE ] When you create an array with DIM, your
and I'm wondering why, with some
computer sets aside some memory for ex
The syntax for the 128 is similar: commercial games, it doesn't perform
clusive use by the array. So if the OUT OF
the normal reset. It just starts the game
10 DOFEN#l,7i7rnflme" MEMORY error happens on the line con
20C C
over and doesn't give me the usual cold
taining the DIM commands, it means
30 INPUT#1, AS(C) start message.
there isn't enough memory available for
40 IF (64 AND ST>-0 THEN 20 D.J, Sadowski, Jr.
the arrays you want to use.
50 DCLOSE#1 When you turn on a 64, it goes through a
If you're using numeric arrays ami
Once the file is in memory, the data startup sequence which sets up some im
they hold whole numbers in the range
may be changed or revised as desired. portant memory locations. Among other
-32768 to 32767, you can save a lot of
Complete the operation by writing the file things, your computer checks for an auto
memory by switching to integer arrays.
back onto the disk. start cartridge. If the letters "CBM80" are
Floating point arrays need five bytes per
in locations 32772-32776, the 64 allows
10 OPEN l,8,2,"fitename,S,W" element, while integer arrays need only
the program in the cartridge to take over.
two bytes for each variable. So DIM
30 PRINT#1, A$(X) The two bytes in 32768-32769 point to the
A(100), an array of 101 floating point
40 NEXT beginning of the machine language pro
numbers numbered 0-100, would take up
50 CLOSE 1 gram which will begin running, and
approximately 505 bytes. But DIM
Again, 128 users may use DOPEN 3277O-3277I are the warm start vector
A°/o(100) would need only about 202 bytes,
and DCLOSE. (triggered by pressing RESTORE).
a savings of more than 300 bytes.
The 128's BASIC 7.0 includes an AP Pressing the reset button you've built
You could also reduce the size of the
PEND command for adding data to a se causes the 64 to go through the standard
arrays. Could you get by with an array of
quential file. Everything printed to that startup sequence, and if there's an auto
4000 elements instead of 5000? If you cut
file is appended to the end of the file, start cartridge in place, the program in the
back, the arrays won't need as much
tacked on after the last entry. Use this line cartridge will begin running.
to open the file for writing: Some disk-based programs load the
If you can't use integers or smaller characters "CBM80" into locations
APPENDm/Jilename" arrays—or don't want to—you'll have to 32772-32776, to make the computer think
Other Commodore computers can crunch the program. Here are a few sug a cartridge is installed. If you reset the 64
append to a file as well. Open the file gestions that may help: with such a program in place, it finds
using this line: something that looks like a cartridge and
• Eliminate all REMarks. The REM token
transfers control to the program.
OPEN \fil2l"fllenami,3lK" uses one byte, and every character and
An A (for Append) is substituted space in the message uses a byte.
where the W (for Write) would normally • Remove all unnecessary spaces. IF A = 64 Cartridges On The 128
appear. Keep in mind that the data is just 5 THEN 500 might be more readable 1 recently purchased a 128 and would
pasted onto the end of the file and that the than 1FA=5THEN500, but the extra like to know how I can run the Simons'
file to which you are appending must al spaces eat up memory, BASIC cartridge if the computer starts
ready exist on the disk. You can't create a in 128 mode. Could I harm the cartridge
brand new file with this line. And, unfor • Where you can, combine more than one by starting in 128 mode? Any advice
tunately, if you need to change or delete command on a line. Every line in a will be greatly appreciated.
data, you must first read the file into an BASIC program requires five bytes for M.C. Carney
array in memory, make the correction, and overhead (two for the line link, two for
write it back to disk. the line number, and a zero to mark the The 128, like the 64, checks for the pres
There's one more command you end of a line). If you eliminate a line, you ence of a cartridge when it's turned on.
might find helpful. If you have two se save five bytes. One sequence of characters signals a car
quential files on a disk, you can combine tridge for the 64 (see the previous letter),
• Renumbering sometimes helps. Line
them with the DOS copy command. Use another sequence marks a 128 cartridge.
numbers up to 63999 are allowed, and
this line: Simons' BASIC runs on the 64, so if
the number at the beginning of aline al
you plug it into the 128 and turn on the
OPEN 15,8,15, "CQ:tieivfi!c = 0:firstfile, ways takes up two bytes. But when a line
system, your computer will automatically
secondfiW contains something like GOTO 21000,
go into 64 mode and run the program. You
The two files will be combined (in the the five characters "21000" take up one
don't need to follow any special instruc
same order as they're listed) and copied to byte each. If you renumbered, the line
tions, just insert the cartridge and flip the
a new filename on the disk. The two origi might change to, say, GOTO 511 and
power switch. The 128 is able to recognize
nal files will remain on the disk. you would sain1 a couple of bytes.
autostart cartridges for the 64. If you have
• If you have a machine language routine other cartridge-based programs that don't
that's POKEd into memory from DATA automatically start, you'll have to either
Memory Management statements, you can save a lot of memory type GO64 or turn on the computer with
I'm writing a bulletin board program. I by creating an object file, a machine lan the Commodore key held down.
knew it was big. but I didn't think I guage program that you load directly
would run out of memory. The program from disk instead of POKEing it into
loads fine, but gives an OUT OF MEM memory. Consider the line DATA Learning New Commands
ORY error in the line holding all the 155,201, which would need five bytesfor Can you explain the INSTR, USR, PU-
DIM statements. 1 checked free memo the tine and the links, one for the DATA DEF, 5YS, and WAIT commands?
ry with FRE and it returned the number token, six bytesfor the ASCII numbers Scott Baum
14 COMPUTE'S Gazelle June 1986
"Pro Golf Simulator"
By Bruce &. Roger Carver

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MAi ii I IS It a murLl-lHlureci enhancement Am 11 Bool on Hi ti f

p^cliflgv '•■' |he Commodore 12S tompucer In I'MtK ■>"- Of All Vilr...»rn liki iL.illm: < <i|^
either the rutlvt I /n or C-64 tmuUiloiL mode. l"ii i4i 4. I i-ii I ■.!■> 14^
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For mall orders, enclose check or money order, 4 h.irirtv retet budun It Aiu provided on (he
cAmldae tot "waxm ^lanfs^' o< the computer.
plus $1.00 shipping <""r hAndllng, Anil fpeclfy Auto Run .»ru n.i'.ii rrogfJiin
machine version detlred- Order by phone on MACII US iprcdi |)iL^;r,»,i iDAdlng bf Ai much Open And Clott Trln(er (ii hkh-k v.Hit a Single
visa. MAiterCrurge or t .o,n. by caIIIii^ [SOI) U MOtt on the 1541 rittk itflvr i>. ihr IK I dkk Key
Z9S-9077. drkr In I 54 I mode. In *pe<'*l "wnrp drive"
Srnd DO*i Commiind
made, program lu.nh m^y be InireAud up id
ACCESS SOFTWARE,1 INC. 1561 South 1560Wett 700% l.nin. And "vtAtp" mode m-n be iLiw..iu,r-il
He». i>c< in^i in.Mr^ Converirr

Wood* him, LIT B4087 oi dlienflAged " will, MACK 119 JiUo perform«
Uh'lN- :. 1111 'm-.iu h

program loitdi At "bunt" tpeed with (he 1ST I

drive in IZS derive apefJilorMl mode.
The INSTR function looks for a particular Adding Memory Changes The VIC 30 DATA 88,96,173,27,212,141,2
substring of characters contained in an 2,212,76,49,234,256
I started working on a program for a 40 READ BYT:IF BYT<>256 THEN P
other string. For instance, A=INSTR VIC with no memory expansion and OKE ADR,BYT:ADR=ADR+1:GOTO
d$,"DOG"), looks for the word DOG later decided it would need the 8K ex I SPACE]40
within siring variable 1$, and sets the nu pander. My father told me 1 would have 50 POKE 54286,200:POKE 54287,0
meric variable A to DOG's position. If IS to rewrite the program because memory iPOKE 54273,10
holds the characters "WALK THE DOC", locations are different, (s there some
60 POKE 54277,15:PQKE 54278,24
01POKE 54276,129
the above line would set A to 10, since the way 1 can avoid rewriting the whole 70 POKE 54290,16:POKE 54295,24
D in DOG is the tenth character in IS. If 15 program? Is POKE 54296,15 + 32
did not contain the substring "DOG", A Aaron Feeney 80 SYS49152
would he set to 0. This command is useful
for analyzing a user's input or for search The additional 8K cai/ses three sections of This example works by wedging a
VIC memory to change. short machine language routine into the
ing through large amounts of information.
The memory location where BASIC computer's hardware interrupt routine
This function is available in BASIC 3.5
programs start moves from 4096 to 4608. that normally works "in the background"
(Plus/4 and 16) and 7.0(128), but not in
BASIC 2.0 (VIC and 64). This shouldn't affect most BASIC pro while other tasks are in progress. The
grams. If you're working with machine main duties of the interrupt routine are to
Both SYS and USR (implemented on
language, it would be a good idea to check read the keyboard and update the comput
all Commodore BASICs) tell the computer
the pointer at S2B-2C (decimal 43-44) to er's internal timers. By changing the vec
to begin executing a program written in
machine language (ML). SYS is to machine find out where BASIC starts. PEEKing this tor that points to this routine, we can
pointer can tell you whether or not memo make the computer perform our short ML
language what RUN is to BASIC. It's al
ry has been added. routine before proceeding with its normal
ways followed by a number that corre
The two other changes may cause tasks. As a result, the computer plays the
sponds to the starting address of the ML
some problems in a BASIC program. helicopter sound automatically, changing
routine (SYS 64738, for example). Al
Screen memory moves from 7680 (unex- it as many as 60 times every second, with
though USR allows you to pass an input
panded VIC) to 4096 when you add 8K or out slowing other tasks significantly.
value to the routine and lets the routine
more. In addition, color memory moves Though it seems like the computer is
return a result, SYS is generally easier to
use. from 38400 (unexpanded) to 37888. You'll doing two things at once (making a heli
have to change all lines that POKE to copter sound while operating BASIC), its
PUDEF(not available on the VIC or
screen or color memory. POKE 7682 microprocessor can actually do only one
64) changes the characters which are used
for formatting PRINT USING and would become POKE 4098, for example. thing a.t a time. By alternating very rapid
PRINT* USING statements. By default, One way to avoid making a lot of ly (60 times per second) between one task
the filler character for padding out short changes is to define a variable for the start and another, it seems to perform both si
numbers is a space, the separator between of screen memory and another for the start multaneously, even though it is interrupt
numbers is a comma, the decimal point is of color memory. At the beginning of a ing (hence the term interrupt) the
program for the unexpanded VIC, put execution of BASIC each time it performs
a period, and the currency symbol is set to
a dollar sign. The keyword PUDEF is fol SM = 7680:CM = 38400. Then, within the its housekeeping chores.
lowed by a four-character string contain program use these variables for POKEs to Since the 64 isn't designed for multi
ing the new values for each of these the screen: POKE SM + 5,1: POKE tasking, it's necessary to use tricks like
formatting characters. Note that the de CM+5,4, for example. To modify the pro this to achieve the illusion that two things
are happening at once. Such tricks aren't
fault symbols are still used in the format gram for an expanded VIC, you would
necessary on a true multitasking system
ting string in a PRINT USING statement. then change only that one line at the be
If you changed the dollar sign to a lira ginning of the program to SM = 4096: like the Amiga (or a mainframe computer)
Symbol (Z) with PUDEF, you would still CM=37888. although much the same process occurs.
By switching back and forth between sev
put a dollar sign in the formatting state
eral programs, the Amiga can give the il
ment after PRINT USING. When the re
Multitasking? lusion of running all of them at once, even
sult was printed, the lira symbol would be
substituted. though it too has only one microprocessor.
I'd like to know how to write a routine
The WAIT statement repeatedly tests which operates simultaneously with
Of course, the Amiga was designed for
one memory location until a certain con the execution of the BASIC program.
multitasking from the ground up, and has
a much faster microprocessor than the 64,
dition is satisfied. On the VIC and 64, For example, 1 have a game where the
as well as custom support chips that re
WAIT 198,15 causes the computer to helicopter sound keeps on going even
pause until a key is pressed. The first after the game has finished and the
lieve the burden on the main processor.
number is a memory address, the second is READY prompt has appeared.
The 64's SID chip also has the inher
a bit mask which is ANDcd with the value ent ability to create sound continuously,
Hamil Ranu
of the memory location. It determines without any expenditure of processing
Here's a short routine for the Commodore time. If you can still hear the sounds from
which bits will be tested. A bit mask of IS
64 that does exactly what you're talking the previous program, press RUN/STOP-
clears the lop four bits, and tests only bits
about. Note that the whirring helicopter RESTORE, then type the following lines.
0-3. As soon as any one of those four bits
sound continues even after the program Be sure to press RETURN at the end of
changes from 0 to I,(he program will con-
ends and the READY prompt reappears. each line.
Unite. If a third (optional) parameter is
You can LIST the program, change it and
added, it is exclusive-ORed with the val FOR J-54272 TO 54296:POKE J,0:NEXT
use BASIC as you normally would. To
ue in memory before the bitwise AND is POKE 54273,10:POKE 54277,15
performed. This has the effect of reversing change the pitch of the whir, POKE differ POKE 54278,240:POKE 54276,33
ent values into location 54273. To change POKE 54296,15
the polarity of certain bits. Instead of
its speed, POKE new values into location These commands create a continuous
waiting for a bit to change from 0 to 1, it
54286. sound with voice I, the first of the 64's
waits for a I bit to change to a 0.
Of these commands, you rarely (if three tone generators. We've set voice 1's
10 FOR J=54272 TO S4296:POKE J
ever) find USR and WAIT in a program be ,0:NEXT:ADR=49152 Attack/Decay /Sustain/Release (ADSR)
cause they have very specialized uses. 20 DATA 120,169,13,141,20,3,16 envelope to make a continuous tone rather
9,192,141,21,3 than fade out within a certain time period.
16 COMPUTE'S Gazelia June 1986
Get more out of your Commodore with


More fun Children will learn and

develop new skills with States
& Capitals Tutor, Wordmatch,
Munchmath, Wordspell, Con
nect the Dots, Aardvark
Attack, and Alfabug. Comput
ing for Kids, a regular monthly '-ir-rn .r
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■ '
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Quickfind, Word Hunt, Disk
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You'll profit from comprehen
Gazette each month. Just
sive reviews of everything from
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data-quality cassette tapes to
watch your screen explode
software to graphics plotters
with colorful new computer
and modems. Virtually any
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thing that's compatible with
your Commodore is reported
on in COMPUTEI's Gazette.
With this kind of expert help,
More challenge every computer purchase you
make can be the right one!
Ready to tackle more ad
vanced projects? In COM-
More programs
PUTE's! Gazette, you'll learn Programs to help you balance
how to use tape and disk files, your checkbook, store your Order now
how to program the function addresses, keep tax records,
All you do is mail the postpaid
keys, writing transportable manage your personal busi
card bound into this issue. But
BASIC, how to make custom ness. You can create your
don't delay! Subscribe now to
graphics characters, new own programs and games,
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ways to enliven programs with improve your word processing,
COMPUTB's Gazette.
sound, one-touch commands spreadsheets, and data base
for the 64, how to use ma management, load and run For Faster Service
chine language, speeding up faster with 64 Searcher, Call Toll-Free
the VIC-20—and much more! VIC/64 Program Lifesaver, 1-800-346-6767
The sound continues until you do some ,32,155,183,224 great for preserving column titles. Is
thing to terminate it. Strictly speaking, 90 DATA 0,240,16,165,4,24,105,
there a similar line for the 128?
80,13 3,4,16 5,5,105,0,133,5,
this is a function of the SID chip, not an James Thompson
example of multitasking.
100 DATA 169,0,133,2,169,4,133
To terminate the sound, press RUN/ Yes, no, and yes. There are at least three
,3, 162,24,160,39,177,4,145,
STOP-RESTORE. On some 64s you can 2, 136, 16,249 ways to append one BASIC program to an
still hear a faint sound in the background 110 DATA 165,2,24,105,40,133,2 other on the 128. But when you append,
(this is caused by "crosstalk" or electronic , 165,3,105,0,133,3,165,4,24 the second program must have higher line
,105,80,133 numbers than the first program, so it's not
leakage in the sound circuits). RUN/
120 DATA 4,165,5,105,0,133,5,2
STOP- RESTORE (or typing SYS 64738) as flexible as a true merge utility. An easy
turns down the SID chip's volume, but way to merge two 128 programs was de
doesn't affect other SID settings. So the scribed in the recent March Hints & Tips
tone generator still keeps working. To column. You first create an ASCII program
prove this, type POKE 54296, 15 to turn Plus/4 joystick Reader listing and then have the computer enter
the volume back up. The sound comes Have you heard anymore about the the lines into memory from the file. See
back, loud and clear. The proper way to Plus/4 Programmer's Reference Guide the March 1986 issue for details.
turn off a sound is to uugate the tone gen and if it is available? Also, I would like FAST mode leaves the 80-column
erator by setting the gate bit of its voice to know how you read the Plus/4's joy screen alone, but blanks the 40-column
control register to 0. In this case you can sticks in machine language. screen to the border color. It's not possible
ungate the voice by typing POKE 54276, Bob Harrison to restore the 40-column screen while the
32. 128 is running at double speed, although
We hllVe recently received the Program you can still PRINT to the screen, which
mer's Reference Guide for the Commo is helpful if you need to track certain vari
dore Plus/4, published by Scott,
A Scrolling Map able values while you're in FAST mode.
Foresman and Company. It contains a You won't see what's printed until you go
I'm trying to program a maplhat is larg
wealth of information for Plus/4 and back to SLOW mode, of course.
er than the screen. I'd like to be able to
Commodore 16 programmers. Chapter six If you're doing a lot of FAST calcula
scroll the screen around the map if of this book has an in-depth explanation of
that's possible. tions in 40 columns, you can change the
how to read the joysticks from ML Here's border color occasionally to remind the
Colt Rymer a brief summary. user that the computer is still working. It's
The program below (for the 64 only) uses The single location $FF08 can read also a good idea to insert a TRAP state
the joystick to scroll through a large both joysticks. To read joystick one, you ment and then start off the error-handling
screen 80 columns wide and 50 rows first store the value $FA into SFF08. Store routine with the SLOW command. Other
high—twice as wide and twice as high as an SFD to read joystick two. wise, you won't necessarily know when an
the normal screen. This requires 4000 Once a value has been stored in error has happened, because of the blank
memory locations, so the map fits nicely SFF08, the corresponding joystick value screen. The 128 always starts out in SLOW
into memory starting at 49152. Publishing can be read from the same location. The mode, so readers who regularly use the
an actual map would requite many DATA following ML program reads the value of 80-column screen will wan! to enter the
statements, so we'll leave it up to you to joystick one then, using a number output FAST command when they first turn on
create the large map by POKEing screen routine ($A45F), prints this value on the the computer. You'll notice a big improve
codes to locations 49152-53151 (remem screen. After you have entered this rou ment in the speed of program listings and
ber, every eightieth byte is the beginning tine, exit the monitor and type SYS 828. all calculations will double in speed.
of a new row). The following line could be The value of joystick one is printed on the Finally, there are a couple of ways to
used to clear the map: screen. clear part of the screen on the 128. If you
FOR A^49152 TO 53151:POKE A,32: To read joystick two, change the position the cursor somewhere on the
NEXT number $FA to SFD in the first line of the screen and press the ESC key (don't hold it
ML code. down) and then the commercial-at (@)
lines 80-120 contain the data for the
033C LDA #$FA
key, every screen location past the cursor
machine language routine that updates
033E STA $FF08 is cleared. The ESCape character is
the screen. Line 30 is the line that reads
0341 LDA SFF08 CHR$(27), so within a program you would
the data and POKEs it into memory. 0344 TAX place the cursor in the appropriate loca
To use the routine, SYS 828 followed 0345 LDA #$00 tion and print ESC-@ as follows:
by a comma, the left column number 0347 JSR SA45F CHARl,0,3,CHli$<27) + "@". If you're
(0-40), another comma, and the top row 034A LDA #S0D using column headings, another option is
(0-25). For example, SYS828.5.12 would 034C JSR SFFD2
to use the WINDOW command to parti
display columns 5-44 and rows 12-36. 034F JMP S033C
tion off part of the screen. All printed
10 POKE646,1:POKE5 3281,1iPRINT
characters will remain within the win
dow. If you add a comma and a 1 after the
:FORA=0TO10 Merge, FAST, And Windows top and bottom coordinates, the newly
20 REAI)X(A),Y(A):NEXTsDATA 0,0 For 1 2fl created window will be cleared and every
,0,-1,0,1,0,0,-1,0,-I,-1,-1 thing outside the window will remain
1 have a few questions about the 128.
First, is there a short utility to merge or intact. ©
append two programs on the 128? Sec
INT"!CLRjDATA ERROR":STOP ond, the FAST command gives the 128
40 a speed of 2 MHz, but in 40 columns it
50 J = 15-(PEEK(56321)A.ND15) :TX= blanks the screen. Can you double the
speed without the screen blank?
HEN 50
Finally, the line FOR I=4TO23:
70 X=TX:Y=TY:GOTO40 POKE 781,1: SYS59903: NEXT would
(30 DATA 32, 155, 103, 138, 24, 105, erase the bottom screen on my 64 and
0,13 3,4,169,192, 1.0 5,8,13 3,5 leave the first four lines intact. This was

18 COMPUTEI's Gazol/a June 19B6

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This entirely new operating system for
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20 COMPUTE'S Gazelle June 1986

Lee Noel, Jr., Assistant Editor

he headlong rush to per similar user interface that's easy the graphics programs and the
sonal computers based on to understand and to use. Pull word processors available for the
Motorola's powerful down menus, command bars, Macintosh are a part of the GEOS
68000 microprocessor has icons (graphic symbols), and a system.
created revolutionary new ma mouse-driven cursor are all simi Although at this writing
chines such as the ST, the Apple lar among the three 68000-based GEOS isn't quite finished, it will
Macintosh, and the Amiga. These computers. be by the time you read this. The
new micros come close to being Even people who fear and version we've been working with,
desktop mainframes. Great speed, distrust computers readily adapt and from which the photos ac
flashy graphics, and the promise to the logical pictorial environ companying this article were tak
of superlative software give these ment pioneered by the Macintosh en, is a near-final test edition.
computers tremendous advan and now used by the Amiga and Although a few aspects of GEOS
tages over their established eight- ST. still remain to be fully imple
bit rivals. mented, it's probably safe to say
But what of the millions of that the new operating system
happy 64 owners? Software for Happily for 64 owners, that type and its initial applications have
the machine is abundant, and of environment will shortly the potential to be among the
much of it is excellent. Is there be available for their machine. most important programs written
any real reason to abandon this While the new technology has for the 64 since the computer's
wealth of computing power? roared into the headlines, a quiet built-in operating system was
Clearly, many people don't software revolution has been tak created.
think so, and the 64 continues to ing place. Berkeley Softworks, a Not surprisingly, the moti
thrive. Commodore attempted to Berkeley, California, software vating force behind GEOS, Brian
stop production of the machine house, has developed GEOS, an Dougherty, president of Berkeley
several times in 1985, only to be entirely new operating system for Softworks, had at one time hoped
forced back to the assembly lines the 64. to write the original operating
by public demand. Loyalty to the No longer are icons, win system for the 64. In 1982, Dou
computer is further borne out by dows, and pull-down menus re gherty, then a vice president at
good sales of the Commodore 128, served for the new computers. Imagic, was enthusiastic about
the only computer offering up GEOS, which stands for Graphic the soon-to-be-released 64, and
graded capabilities and full com Environment Operating System, was negotiating with Commo
patibility with the 64. implements all these features on dore to write a disk-based operat
It's even possible to question the 64. At the same time, GEOS re- ing system for it.
whether the 64's technology is programs the 1541 disk drive, But those were heady days
really outdated. After all, not making it five to seven times fast for the videogame industry, and it
every mainframe is a Cray super er and fully capable of playing a was difficult for Imagic to shift its
computer, nor should it be. Tech central part in this high-speed focus away from its highly suc
nology, like every type of power, system. The overall effect is a cessful games to an untried com
should be applied at a level appro complete transformation. The 64 puter system. Additionally,
priate to its use. doesn't quite turn into a Macin Commodore wasn't sure there
However, the Amiga, ST, and tosh, but it's closer to that com was going be much of a market for
Macintosh offer more than power puter than to an unmodified 64. In disk drives for the 64. Programs in
and flexibility. They all contain a addition, applications similar to ROM (Read Only Memory)

COMPUTERS Gn/olte June 1906 21

seemed more likely to dominate, so
Dougherty had to put his plans on a
back burner.
Not too long afterwards, the
videogame industry began a spec
tacular collapse. Dougherty left
Imagic in September 1983, and
started his own company, Berkeley
"Anyone Softworks. Hard economic realities
who wants to win MegaWars dictated other projects then, but the
has to dominate idea for a new operating system
entire planetary systems. continued to simmer, and the 64's
And me." 1541 disk drive became extremely
Finally, after an inspiring visit
to the hurly-burly of the 1985 Sum
mer Consumer Electronic Show,
Dougherty decided to return to the
fray. The operating system was
shifted to the forefront, and was in
good shape by November. About
the same time, old friend Clive
Smith, vice president of corporate
planning and development for
Commodore, called. Dougherty
sent Smith a copy of the evolving
GEOS project. Duly impressed.
Commodore offered encourage
ment and a measure of support. At
Winter CES in 1986, GEOS generat
ed considerable and weli-deserved
interest. (See "The Winter Con
sumer Electronics Show" article in
April's GAZETTE.)

But background and history are

only a minor part of the GEOS
story. What is it, exactly, and what
can it do for the 64?
The GEOS software consists of
'You Guessed It!'? It's just like a TV game show. a number of small satellite pro
Answer questions—win prizes. grams and a core of four major
i And I can play right here ones, all supplied on a single disk.
\ in the living room!" The first of these, and the corner
stone on which the GEOS structure
rests, is Berkeley's new operating
system for the 64 and 1541. As pre
viously mentioned, loading GEOS
turns the 1541 into something of a
speed-demon. About 25 seconds
after booting GEOS, approximately
34K of programs have been pro
cessed through the 1541. All subse
quent disk operations in the GEOS
environment take place at the same
accelerated rate, including non-
GEOS applications loaded through
the deskTop. For example, we load
ed a version of SpeedScript through
GEOS in only 4 seconds instead of
the usual 21 seconds.
Once GEOS is installed, the 64
user is in unusual, but not unfamil
I * iar territory. Instead of a barren
screen into which BASIC com
mands are typed, you see a graphic
display representing the top of a
desk. Since all GEOS screens oper
ate in the 64's high-resolution
mode, the desk graphic is highly
detailed. This is particularly notice
able in the display of standard text,
since it's in 80-column format, a
significant improvement over the
normal 64. This is close to being the
optimum size of text for the 64: It's
perfectly readable on an ordinary
TV. Appropriately enough, this dis
play is known as the GEOS deskTop.
It's the second major program in
the system, and it ties all the others

I 1

The GEOS desHbp: The dark blue
Notepad represents files and programs
with clear, hl-res icons.

Its largest element is the desk You never know

Top Notepad. Analogous to a large
who you'll be up against
pad of paper, the Notepad shows
icons—distinctive pictures—that when you go online
indicate the type and number of
with CompuServe.
files on the disk presently being
used. If there are more files than
will conveniently fit on one page,
To buy your CompuServe Subscription Kit,
GEOS automatically prepares more
see your nearest computer dealer.
Suggested retail price S3 9.95,
To see these other pages, a joy
stick is used to move the screen To request our free brochure or order direct,
pointer to the dog-eared corner of call or write: 800-848-8199
the notepad. Just clicking the fire <ln Ohio, call 614-457-0802)
button while the pointer is in this
location will cycle through all avail
able pages. Most features of GEOS
are accessed in this straightforward
way: Joystick moves pointer to

Gerry Mte our toprovahis
worth as a vibrant virus



Wilh your help.

maintenance may Oe able
lo keep me plants alive
until help arrives. .



Allyotineedislhoreto jor me limbecs','splico
rake Locale (he weapons, fie malFibraceanOpass
Ihen make a journey 01 iq grog me hearties —
I you dare ... here be the greaiesi pirate
adventure ol them all

*vjrnor king to
nvoitigolions haws traced Twos split by Quad ana
the source of piratical radio the landotEvol Ou'
hidden still — an amuiel to
signals lo a gianl alien seek thy will — oeople need a now
jossoi orbiliog the eanh — The pieces lost must Irieo leader to mane us

irie groat again


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symbol, then one or two clicks of Also on the GEOS desk display,
the fire button activate the neces at its very top, is the Command Bar.
sary function. There are no special In exactly the same way that file
codes or syntax sequences to re icons are activated, the various op
member. Both the Amiga and 5T tions in the Command Bar can be
have a similar desktop environ selected with the joystick fire but
ment, bul their screen pointers are ton. As soon as one of these options
controlled by mouse, not joystick. is picked, a menu pops down, giv
Since Commodore is only now in ing further subchoices in that cate
troducing a mouse for the 64, gory. Some of these pull-down
Berkeley has concentrated on the menus contain functions that are
joystick. Special programming in duplicates of those that can be per
GEOS compensates for some of the formed with just icons. Other func
joystick's inherent shortcomings, tions are unique and must be
and actually renders it superior to accessed through the Command
the mouse for certain purposes. Bar and pull-down menus.
"The Preference Manager": With lime,
However, Berkeley does plan to The system operates very date, colors, and jot/stick response set to
add a mouse driver, a program for swiftly and smoothly, and even of the user's taste, the new adjustments are
fers some improvements over the about to be saved lo disk.
Macintosh environment. The Mac's
menus pop back up into the com
mand bar the momenl the mouse
button is released, so even a brief
lapse in attention means a lost
menu. GEOS menus are stable once
activated, disappearing only when
a selection has been made or the accessible not only from the desk-
pointer moves outside the menu Top, but also from geoPaint and
boundaries, GEOS also dispenses geoWrite.
with a particularly aggravating as Foremost among these acces
pect of some other systems. These sories is the "Preference Manager."
present only a single page of file Activated either by opening its icon
icons. When a large number of files on the deskTop or by making a
and icons are in use, the page must menu choice in another application,
The copy feature has been selected In/ be resized to accommodate them. this program provides a control
pulling the disk options menu down These elastic pages are quite im panel for the GEOS user. Again,
from the Command Bar. pressive graphically, but it can be with just the joystick and pointer,
awfully hard to find files on them. screen graphics are altered. As the
GEOS' method of using as many
pages as needed is not only more
convenient, it's much truer to the
idea of a real desktop. After all, few
of us have notebooks made out of
just one sheet of rubberized, highly
expandable paper.
receiving input from a mouse, to To further extend computing
GEOS in the near future. power, the GEOS deskTop is also ca
Once you're on the correct pable of manipulating entire disks
page of the notepad, manipulating and a two-drive network.
files is as easy and instinctive as if
they were really lying on a desk The other programs on the GEOS
top. A single click of the fire button disk not only operate in the
will activate a file, turning its icon same graphics-oriented manner as
dark. A second click following the deskTop, but also have to be ac
The "Calculator": A very useful accesso
closely will load the file, or with a cessed from it. The two remaining ry, available not only on the deskTop,
little more delay, will produce a major programs are geoPaint and but also in geoPaint and geoWrite.
ghost version of the icon. The ghost geoWrite, special applications that
can be picked up and dragged take advantage of the newly estab
around by the pointer, enabling the lished GEOS environment. But
file to be moved, copied to another before looking at these excellent art
disk, thrown into the trash, or print and word-processing programs, it's
ed. Certain old-style 64 files can worth mentioning a number of the
also be manipulated through the smaller programs on the disk, since
deskTop. they are convenient helpmates—
26 COMPUTE'S Gazelle June 1986
The Infinity flac
holds the se


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display is changed, corresponding displays a window that shows only
changes are being made in some of a small portion of the final docu
GEOS' characteristics. Here, it's ment, which will actually be print
possible to set the time and date. ed with a resolution of 80 dots per
This should be done at the start of inch, impossible to achieve in any
every session with CEOS, because 64 screen graphic. Eventually,
chronological information is part of Berkeley will provide a driver pro
the data stored with every file you gram for laser printing. At that
create. Once you've seen the point, output will approach typeset
convenience of dated files, you'll quality, a real quantum leap for the
wonder how you ever got along 64.
without them. Other changes that
can be made from the "Preference Both geoPaint and geoWrite are
Manager" include adjusting back full-featured programs, offer
ground and text colors, redesigning ing—in combination—capabilities
The geoP.iint drawing environment.
the shape of the screen pointer, and never before available on the 64.
Tool icons are at the left of the working
resetting joystick responsiveness to Exploring either of them in detail
area. The tool being used to draw the
suit your personal tastes. Once set, white rectangle displays precise mea would take a small book. Paradoxi
your preferences can be saved to surements at the bottom of the screen. cally, they're so well-designed that
the GEOS disk, a permanent part of using them requires virtually no
the system until you decide to mod
documentation. However, a brief
ify them again. In this way, each
look at some of their many features
GEOS system will become a person
will provide a tantalizing insight
alized extension of the user.
into the power of GEOS.
Other support programs in The design program, geoPaint,
clude "Calculator," which can be high-speed operating system for has many of the features that have
operated by joystick or from the the 64, the GEOS disk's two major become standard in 64 art applica
keyboard, and the multipaged application programs give you tions. The abilities to automatically
"Notepad" in which fleeting complete desktop publishing capa draw lines, make outlined and solid
thoughts can be set down and rap bility. Both geoPaint and gcoWritc circles and rectangles, and paint nu
idly stored to disk. Naturally, bear strong resemblance to some of merous patterns with different
there's "Alarm Clock," which you the design and word-processing pro types of brush—including an air
can set to remind you when you've grams available for the Macintosh. brush-like effect—are supported.
spent too much time in the inviting Also like the Macintosh, the So, too, are cut, copy, and paste fea
GEOS environment. "Text Album" quality of GEOS output is a function tures for easily moving around
and "Photo Album" let you trans of printer resolution, rather than chunks of design work. There's also
fer chunks o( geoWrite text into gco- the fineness of the screen display. a magnified mode that permits
Paint designs, and vice versa. As a consequence, GEOS generally pixel-by-pixel, close-up editing of
About half of the other small design details. Naturally, undo,
programs are printer drivers en erase, and fill options haven't been
abling you to print out your geo- left out. All tools are selected by
Paitil and geoWrite creations on just pointer from a strip of icons at the
about any popular printer. The re side of a display window. As usual,
mainder are text fonts used to put file-handling and other refinements
different styles of type into docu are available from the Command
ments and designs. Bar.
GEOS is, at present, supplied What's really special, though,
on just one disk and requires no is the overall orientation toward
hardware. A well-thought-out producing a printed document. In
manual completes the package. Ini geoPaint, an on-screen measuring
tial sales are to be by mail order, but tool allows accurate sizing in either
dealer sales will come at a later pixels or inches. This latter option is
essential for keeping control of
The disk is copy-protected, but printed artwork. Another tool en
Berkeley's protection allows the e!- ables you to move the display win
geoPaint's pixel edit option enables the
ements of GEOS to be copied onto artist to magnify any section of a design dow quickly to any point in a
other disks. This method permits for precise detail work. Note the small design, while a smaller window
backups for safety, and also enables status window (lower right) which indi monitors the movement relative to
you to put only essential programs cates the working area's position in the the entire document. MacPaint, a
onto given disks, thus freeing up document.
similar design program for the Mac
storage space and creating disks intosh, handles documents in much
customized for particular projects. the same way. As an informal com
As you've probably realized by parison between GEOS on the 64
now, in addition to a powerful, and MacPaint on the Macintosh, a
28 COMPUTED Gazallo June 19B6

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Call now for the name of your nearest dealer. Or to order directly by credit card, MC, AMEX of VISA call (616)
241-5510. Other software and books are available-Call and ask for your free catalog. Add $4.00 for shipping
per order. Foreign orders add $10.00 per book. Dealer inquires we!come-1400+ nationwide.
Also helpful is an option that
allows you to look at a condensed
version of the entire document. Data
compression is used to facilitate the
storage and retrieval of graphics
information, so a full page can be
displayed in about 20 seconds.
Another exceptional feature of
geoPaint is its method of handling
text. When text is placed in a de
sign, it is entered into an elastic-
bordered text box defined by the
artist, who simply types the desired
message on the 64's keyboard.
Word-wrap takes place automati
cally within the box—-it's like hav
The entire document is displayed on the geoWrite offers a wide choice of differ
ing a tiny word processor available
right half of the screen. The design in ent sizes and styles of text. Nole the
at any point in a design. Even after
the working area appears as a small margins and tab set on the ruler at the
all intended text is typed into a giv
shape in the top left corner of the docu top of the screen. This is half-width
ment display. en box, resizing of the box is possi mode.
ble. A couple of clicks on the fire
button, and the same text appears
in a completely different block.
Again, word-wrap is automatic, so
there are no problems with words
broken apart arbitrarily. The ad
full document from each was ished product will look like. As a re-
vantages for setting up columns of
scanned by moving the display sult, the full-width mode is
text should be obvious.
window across the entire design provided. Once an author finishes a
Some of the text fonts supplied
with the appropriate tool. The Mac piece, the usual procedure will be to
on the GEOS disk are creative and
intosh system took about 50 sec reformat the document into full-
unusual; others are classics. All of
onds; GEOS, about 70. That's a width. In this display, the page flips
them can add an extra dimension to
pretty respectable performance back and forth between the two
graphic design. It's more than help
measured against a 68000-based sides of the document whenever
ful to have a full typesetting service
computer, especially when you the pointer reaches the side of the
only an icon and a few pull-down
consider that output from the sys screen. This allows an exact pre
menus away.
tems is virtually identical in size view of the eventual printed docu
On the whole, geoPaint pro
and appearance. ment, and it offers the opportunity
vides an excellent environment for
the creation and—just as impor
tantly—printing out of reproduc
ible artwork.

No less impressive is geoWrite,

the system's word processor.
As always, by simple manipulation
of on-screen graphics, GEOS per
forms magic.
For example, the writer can set
tabs and margins, and actually see
where they are. All the geoPaint text
fonts are available, too. Bold, italic,
underlined, and outlined type can
appear simultaneously, and in dif
ferent sizes.
A title is added to the design with the Two display modes are sup The accessory "Notepad" is available at
highly effective text tool. ported. The half-width mode oper any time.
ates as you might expect—every
word that's typed remains visible
on the screen. This is probably the
way to enter text most efficiently.
On the other hand, because the
document will print a full 80 col
umns wide, the screen image does
not accurately depict what the fin-
X COMPUTE!1! Gazette June 1986


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The complete compilar
ARE Remarkably easy-to-use
Interactive drawing pack
and development pack
age for accurate graphic
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•xact icalftd output to all
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major dot-matrix prlnten.
compiling to machine
Enhanced v«r»ton allow!
code, compact p-code or
you to Input via keyboard
both. '126 version: 40 or
or high quality llghtpen.
80 column monitor output Two graphic screens lor
and FAST-mode opera COPYing from or* to the
tion. '128 Compiler's ex othW.DRAW.LINE.BOX,
tensive SO-page pro
grammer's (juide covers available. FILL object!
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optimization, memory usage, I/O handling, 60 column hl-res graphics, faster,
library of symbols/objects with the .asy-to-u.e OBJECT MANAGEMENT
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One of the most powerful spreadsheets with Integraded Xper
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Abacus Software
P.O. Box 7219 Grand Rapids, Ml 49510 - Telex 709-101 - Phone (616) 241 -5510
Call now for the name of your nearest dealer. Or to order directly by credit card, MC, AMEX of VISA call (616)
241-5510. Other software and books are available-Call and ask for your free catalog. Add $4.00 for shipping
per order. Foreign orders add $12.00 per iiem. Dealer inquires welcome-1400+ nationwide.
to make any final changes. Working together, and using the this does become available, many
Text is entered into either kind previously mentioned albums to GEOS-based applications could be
of display from a cursor that can be transfer material, they are capable resident in memory at any given
positioned simply by moving the of creating the same high-quality time. Switching from one to anoth
pointer to the desired location and material that the Macintosh has er would be virtually instanta
clicking the joystick fire button. The been producing for some time. neous, thus increasing both the
text itself is then typed in directly GEOS fonts are, in fact, public- scope and flexibility of programs
from the keyboard, which also of domain typefaces created for the for the 64. The RAM expansion is
fers access to features such as dele Mac, says Dougherty. As a result, supposed to be coming from Com
tion and tabbing. printed material from the two sys modore, who is also expected to be
Excellent graphics-based ma tems will often be indistin gin offering some kind of concrete
nipulations are available in typical guishable. support for the fledgling GEOS sys
GEOS style. Any existing section of tem. News on both fronts may have
writing may be highlighted by in Even without GEOS, desktop been announced by the time you
serting the text cursor at the begin publishing has become ex read this.
ning of the material and dragging it, tremely popular for the 64. Pro- Meanwhile, Berkeley and
with fire button depressed, to the gTams such as Broderbund's Print Dougherty plan to enhance GEOS
end. All the highlighted text can Shop and Springboard's Newsroom continuously, and will keep regis
have established high positions in tered owners of the system notified
the applications software charts. of details. Already in the works for
The GEOS disk offers professional geoPaitlt are pattern-editing and
publishing capability at a remark full-color capabilities. (The system
ably low cost, and on the same currently operates mostly in two
computer that millions are already colors, due to the strong emphasis
using. on producing black and white
GEOS, however, is not limited printed output.) There is also talk of
to desktop publishing. The system someday putting part of the system
is an open one. Software develop on cartridge, but the bulk will stay
ers other than Berkeley can easily on disk, where it can readily be re
tap into it. Activision and Bank fined and improved.
Street are reportedly converting ex GEOS doesn't offer merely new
isting programs to interface with life for the 64; it provides a means
GEOS. This process was designed to for you to acquire advanced com
be an easy one, and Berkeley and puting capability at low cost. Con-
The highlighted section of text is about Commodore hope it will attract sequently, the question of
to be cut from the document with one of many more third-party developers upgrading may be put off indefi
the edit functions available from geo- to the system. nitely for many people. With GEOS,
Write's Command Bar. For those interested in writing Berkeley is blazing an alternative
new software, GEOS offers oppor trail that, considering the 64's loyal
tunities for both hackers and pro following, is a pathway likely to be
fessional programmers. The 22K of heavily traveled. O
the new operating system includes
the high-speed disk code, and fully
supports the graphics-oriented user
COMPUTED Gazette is look
interface. By utilizing a series of
ing for utilities, games,
then be cut, copied, deleted, pasted, jump tables—maps giving entry
or replaced in a few simple steps. addresses for accessing important
applications educational pro
Since a document in geoWrite GEOS features—programmers can grams, and tutorial articles. If
may consist of many pages, options easily write software with all the you've created a program that
at the top of the screen enable the speed and ease-of-use of GEOS it you think other readers might
writer to flip through the pages self. Berkeley expects to release a enjoy or find useful, send it,
one-by-one, home in on a particu programmer's reference guide con on tape or disk to:
lar page, or get to the start or end of taining the tables and other techni
Submissions Reviewer
text rapidly. All necessary file oper cal information in June of this year.
ations are also found in the com Every effort is being made to en
COMPUTE! Publications
mand bar at the top of the display. courage others to write for the sys P.O. Box 5406
Additionally, geoYtrite allows tem. Berkeley and Commodore hope Greensboro, NC 27403
the writer to further enhance the GEOS will catch on in a big way, es Please enclose an SASE if you
appearance of the printed docu tablishing a uniform, standardized wish to have the materials
ment by adjusting line spacing and operating system for the 64. returned.
setting page breaks wherever Also on the horizon, and of
Articles are reviewed within
they're wanted. great importance for GEOS, is the
four weeks of submission.
gt'oWritc Is a sophisticated and expected announcement of signifi
powerful partner for geoPttlnt. cant RAM expansion for the 64. If
32 COMPUTE!'s Gazsfie Juno 1986

Now Get Inside Your Commodore with

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A few designers—like
those behind Epux
Software's Suminer
Games II—have Kathy Yakal, Assistant Features Editor

1Ihink back for a minute to the first

broken new ground in
Commodore graphics.

program you ever saw on a Commodore 64.

Chances are it was a game, if you've had a 64
for more than a couple of years. And chances
are its graphics were either crude or
nonexistent. In early 1984, publishers started
delivering software that contained some rather
startling graphics. Here's why.

34 COMPUTED Gazefle Juno 1986

Of Commodore Graphics
m ■

W... /'■-''//

In the first year or so of the already done so. But consumer so fact that program designers had
Commodore 64's life, hundreds phistication had grown. Home simply spent more time with the
of software programs were de computer owners were demanding machine.
veloped, very few of which better software: database programs
showed any parlicularly impressive with greater filing and search capa
visual effects. But don't blame the bilities; word processors that had In any endeavor, the more you
programmers. The success of the 64 simple command structures, but practice, the better you get.
in those days hinged on how much more power and flexibility; educa Though that's not the sole reason
software got out quickly. No soft tional software that held a child's for the improvement in Commo
ware, low hardware sales. Happily, attention, yet actually taught some dore 64 graphics—maybe not even
it took only a few months before a thing; and richer entertainment ex the most important one—it's cer
multitude of programs were avail periences. Better games required tainly the most obvious. Bruce
able, some good and some bad, but not only more complex design con Carver, president and founder of
available. As the price of the ma cepts, but also better graphics. Access Software, attributes much of
chine dropped and more publishers Consumer demand was but his company's present-day success
produced titles, hundreds of thou one factor that triggered the next to a steadily increasing knowledge
sands of people bought the 64. step in the evolution of Commo of the machine.

The survivors of the software dore graphics. Several forces collid "It's been an evolution of tech
shakeout that began in 1984 and ed in early 1984, resulting in games nology," says Carver. "Someone
continued into 1985 found them in which superb color graphics sur does a game, and someone else
selves with a different kind of prob prised and pleased their players. looks at it and says, 1 can do it
lem. It was no longer necessary to That seemingly sudden change was better."
rush products out so people would evolutionary, not revolutionary, Carver, a mechanical engineer,
feel safe buying the machine, be say many of the people involved, bought a Commodore 64 early in
cause about three million had and its impetus goes beyond the 1982, and started programming as a

COMPUTE'.^ Gazette June 1986 35

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Access Software president Bruce Carver HOtt ■ t.

hobby. In those days, little docu learned a little more about programming PRH 5

mentation was available beyond graphics on the Commodore 64 on each COURSE t

the user manual, so designing a new project. Here, you can see that pro BSD

program was a learning process gression in these scenes from Neutral 10 E

that involved a lot of trial and error. Zone, Beachhead, and Raid Over
Carver's first commercial at
tempt, Sprite Master (a simple sprite
editor), launched his company and
encouraged him to push his pro
gramming skills further. It was fol Leader Board is Carver's latest H 1PDUER

lowed by a succession of popular program, and his best graphically.

games, including Neutral Zone and
Beachhead, each a little better
graphically than the previous one. that the sequence looks fluid when examples of the types of things that
His most recent game. Leader Board, run, and you don't miss the frames program designers are doing to
contains some of the best visual ef in-between. push the Commodore 64 to its tech
fects his company has produced. Finding that balance is diffi nological limits while there is still
Carver credits three years of prac cult, says Carver, because not only demand for new software. "Value-
tice and two programming tools for do you not want to use loo few, but wise, I still think it's the most bene
the lifelike graphics and animation also you don't want to waste mem ficial machine, dollar for dollar, on
in this golf simulation. (See review ory by using too many. the market today, although the
elsewhere in this issue.) The next step is to rewind the Atari ST and Amiga are giving it a
The first tool, rotoscoping, is a tape and start from the beginning of run," says Carver. "I think it's be
technique similar to one used in the the sequence, bringing up each in ing pushed by a lot of programmers
movie industry. In previous Access dividual image and shooting it with as hard as it can be pushed."
games where animation was neces a camera to produce slides. Each
sary, it was created in the same way slide is projected on a glass plate
animators draw cartoons. Each with a grid on it, and then it's Fo further understand why Com-
frame in succession is drawn just traced. Using Sprite Master, Carver 1 modore 64 graphics improved
slightly different from the preced translates that information into a so rapidly, you have to go back to
ing one, so that when the sequence sprite shape. Then it's just a matter the late 1970s at the Atari Corpora
is run very fast, it looks like the of determining the timing rate. tion. Atari was selling millions of
characters are actually moving. The second tool employed in videogame systems, and it em
Rotoscoping involves using a developing Leader Board was simu ployed some of the best designers
video camera to film a sequence (in lation equations, a way of translat in the business to develop new
Leader Board, it was a golfer taking a ing 3-D perspective information game cartridges for a demanding
swing). The sequence is then put up into two-dimensional screen infor market. Once home computers be
on a monitor and run through slow mation. (This technique is used came available and affordable in
ly, a single frame at a time. A series often in designing flight simula the early 1980s, interest in the dedi
of frames is then chosen from shots tors.) Though neither of these tech- cated game machines began to wane.
that are close enough together so niques is new, they're good Craig Nelson, now director of
3B COMPUTE!1* Gazette Juno 1986
of the Commodore 128
By the author of
Machine Language
for Beginners and
Second Book of
Machine Language

Ito undnttnOatto giWe to 8502 mmSt™

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S COMMTCtt Wi PiiaictfiW

128 Machine Language for Beginners

Richard Mansfield

One of the bestselling computer books ever has now been completely revised for the Commodore 128.
Most commercial software is written in machine language because it's far faster and more versatile than BASIC.
This new edition of Machine Language for Beginners is a step-by-step introduction to 8502 machine language
programming on Commodore's 128 computer.
The book includes everything you need to learn to effectively program the 128: numerous programming
examples, memory management tutorials; a complete description of the many Kernal routines and other new 128
features; numerous hints and programming techniques; and a dictionary of all major BASIC commands and their
machine language equivalents. It also includes a high-speed, professional-quality, label-based assembler,
optimized to take advantage of the speed and extra memory of the 128.

Like the other top-quality books from COMPUTE!, 128 Machine Language for Beginners brings you ready-to-use
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vanced computer user.

An optional disk is also available which includes the assembler and example programs in the book. The 128
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COMPUTE!* Publicationsjnc
East, and Africa from Hott Saunders, Ltd., 1 St. Anne's Road, East
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But some have succeeded. Nel
son credits the emergence of better
Commodore graphics in great part
to the presence of trained artists on
those teams. "Programmers can
program, but they can't necessarily
draw," he says. "And artists can
draw, but they can't necessarily
Input by artists was key, ac
Epyx has enjoyed cording to Nelson, partly due to the
enormous success with dearth of graphics tools available to
Winter Games and
programmers. "Some of the graph
Summer Games II,
ics modes on the 64 are really
thanks, hi part, to
strange, and they have no analogs
the programs' superb
color graphics. to the Atari or Apple, like the ability

product development at Epyx, was

one of those Atari game designers
who watched the old give way to
the new. I,ike many of his co-
workers, he moved over to the
Atari 800 in the early 80s. "The
money used to be in VCS (Video
Computer System) games, and
that's where most of the talent was
concentrated," he says. "So if you
want to look back at the old days,
there are a lot of reasons why Com
modore graphics weren't up to par.
One is, simply, not many of the
pros were working on them."
Which leads to another point.
Many games designed initially for
the Atari 800, taking advantage of
the 800's sound and graphics capa
bilities, were then translated into a
Commodore 64 format. Naturally, writing a game involves coming up to change color of the character ba
in comparing the two versions, with an original, entertaining con sis across the screen. That gave us a
Atari usually excelled. The best cept, having the skill to bring it to lot of color capability that had not
Commodore 64 games had to be fruition through good, efficient pro been exploited. The Koala Pad [a
designed on the machine itself, and gramming, and also being a fairly digitizing tablet] was the first good
that just wasn't being done very respectable artist. art tool thai exploited the nice bit
often. The period starting in late Of course, the team approach map graphics mode."
1983, with a steadily increasing in has its problems. Anytime you try Nelson acknowledges the de
stalled base of 64s, saw more and to get a group of people together to mand by game players for better
more developers take an interest in do a project—defining goals and graphics as some motivation, but
original design on the 64. deadlines, assigning individual feels he and his staff create a lot of
In that same period, software tasks, meeting along the way to their own pressures. "We do it to
development teams started to form. check progress, and completing the ourselves," he says. "It's a horrible
Much of the earliest Commodore project satisfactorily and on sched situation. We come out with some
64 software was done by one indi ule—it can be a headache. Add to thing like Summer Games, and then
vidual, a Herculean task. It's almost that the pressures on everyone in we have to do something even
impossible for one person to have the home computer industry, and better.
the multiple talents necessary to you can see why so many tried and "There's a need, because of the
create a good game. The process of failed. general state of graphics, to do the
40 COMPUTE'S Gazette June 1986
' IHI3 I aoj.

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x' Impossible Mission was The co-founders of Accolade Software believe that
designed by Dennis Casweli, one of exceptional color graphics are key to the success
those rare people who has at! the skills of a computer game. These scenes from
necessary to create and design an Law of the West and Psi-5 Trading Company
outstanding game. illustrate that belief.

really hard work. Before, it was suf "With the new machines (the Com memory was allocated for graphics
ficient to throw up a background modore Amiga and Atari ST), you and music.
screen and have a few sprites mov can afford to throw memory away. "I really don't think that de
ing around. Now, you have to do With the 64, we're scraping for ev signers are learning that much
complicated software interrupt rou erything we can get, and we just more about the machines," says
tines to reuse sprites and do fancy can't afford to blow away the kind Miller. "It was the case in the VCS
programming things to get objects of memory that digitizing implied. market because we were primarily
moving around." While it's an interesting thing, it's employing tricks to get advanced
That's the history of any given not appropriate yet." graphics out of the cruder ma
machine. You work your very hard chines. Computers that are avail
est to get the most out of it. And able now are pretty straightforward
Nelson thinks we're getting close All of these elements—top de in descriptions of how to generate
with the Commodore 64. signers moving over to the sound and graphics."
"We very clearly have limita Commodore 64 and doing original Today's best game designers
tions that are insurmountable." he programming, input from artists, have proven quite successful in
says. "We can't go much farther greater familiarity with the ma stretching the limits of Commodore
with Apple because of its slow pro chines, and better graphics tools— 64 graphics over a period of three
cessor. Commodore has the same have triggered the evolution of years. But the learning curve posed
processor, but has some graphics Commodore 64 graphics from what for the next generation of game de
help that Apple doesn't have. we saw in 1983 to what we see to signers may be a bit tougher.
We've pretty much used all of that day in 1986. Al Miller, a cofounder What state-of-the-art home en
up now. There are a few little niche of Activision and, more recently, tertainment will be like five or ten
areas that haven't really been ex Accolade Software, thinks demand years down the road is almost im
ploited all the way, but we're find from the public and competition possible to predict. Laser technol
ing it more and more difficult to from other companies have been ogy is shaking up the information
come up with technical innovation." the most important driving forces. storage and retrieval industry these
Digitizing is one technical in Miller started designing 2K days with the advent of equipment
novation that could have some ef games for Atari VCS cartridges in like CD-ROMs, and it's likely to
fect on Commodore 64 games, but 1977. Then he moved to 8K. His have some effect on the kinds of
Nelson and his co-workers have yet first game for Accolade, Law of the games we'll see in the future. In the
to use it in an actual game. "We just West, came in at 256K. That's 32 meantime, image-rich games on the
haven't found the place where it's times bigger, but it wasn't 32 times Commodore 64 are the best they've
appropriate in a game yet," he says. more complex, he says. The extra ever been. an
42 COMPUTE' s Gazette June 1986
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One essential element: Well-hidden your party. Many of them are cleverly
The Bard's Tale within Skara Brae, a single stalwart Re animated, and most are works of art.
view Board refuses to submit to Mangar. Your reactions to what you see in
To His Most August Majesty, Emperor The high folk from the ten classes will in the display are transmitted through the
crease our powers if we can but find them keyboard, either in single keypresses or
Huracor IV:
Most Exalted One,
and satisfy their noble standards. I know, brief codes. Movement is also con
too, that weapons and devices of sublime trolled through the keyboard.
It is as we had feared. The threads of
power still remain in the city. Many c\
a few tenor-swollen reports can note !'• Beyond simple mechanics, the
them, 1 fear, have been secreted in the
woven into a single cloth: The city of game unfolds to revea! level upon level
mazes and dungeons of the old town—
Skara Brae lies under a grim, malignant of thought and challenge. Overall strat
never the safest places to venture, and egy is much as indicated in Tranhoff's
cloud; and the town—once the brightest
now doubly dangerous. In the darkness of letter: Find the Review Board, then
jewel of your realm—is in the hands of the
those cold chambers, perhaps the small le.irn and grow stronger, and eventual
loathesmne Manger. How Mangar came
magic of my songs will bring us some ly topple Mangar himself.
here, I do not know. But I have been into
slight strength.
the city, and his wizardry and evil are ev Tranhoff is not the bard supplied
Still, there is no alternative. Shortly,
erywhere present. Decay and darkness are on the character disk, but you could cre
I will return to the Adventurer's Guild—
the order of the day, and death stalks the ate him. An option exists for creating all
there to join mi/ five companions and go
streets in a thousand different guises. or any of the members of your band.
into the streets and alleyways to pry at the
There are, however, wet a few stout hearts Attributes are assigned randomly, but
chinks in Mangar's armor. Wish us well,
within the walls. you can repeat this stage until you're
and if we do not return, at least let our
It is with them that our hope lies. For satisfied with the strengths of a charac
suffering pave the way for those who will
it pleases Mangar to maintain a sem ter. You must be careful with the newly
blance of normal life in the town. This born; they are terribly vulnerable in the
I have the jou to remain,..
may be his conceit, or it may be that he streets and dungeons of Skara Brae.
Your obedient servant,
needs commerce and the skills of these Some have valuable characteristics not
good people to sustain him in some man available to those already on the disk,
Imperial Bard
ner. Regardless of Itis reasoning in this Nurturing new characters may become
You won't find the emperor—or
matter, it shall be his undoing. an important element of strategy at the
Tranhoff—hut everything else—and
Here is my plan: higher levels of play.
more—is in The Bard's Tale, a won
A good number of taverns and tem Another fascinating area of game-
drous new adventure game from Elec
ples remain open. In addition to the places play is the use of magic. The Bard's Tale
tronic Arts. Two seemingly normal 5
of entertainment and worship, two outfit offers an array of 85 powerful spells
1/4" disks can row transform your 64
ters have survived, and the venerable Ad and a complex system of ranking spell-
into the world of Mangar and the
venturer's Guild remains untouched. casters. As magic users rise through the
blighted city, Skara Brae.
I met in these places with some of the In its general approach. The Bard's various levels and evolve into different
valiant souls whose heartfelt desire it is to Tale is like any number of role-playing classes, more of the spells become
overthrow Mangar. They are not great fantasy games. A band of intrepid ad available to them. Optimizing spell use
men of arms or wizardry. Many such were venturers fights its way through foes and employing it effectively in combat
taken by Mangar or fled at his coming. But both magical and mundane. Eventual is intriguing and—eventually—re
by stealth and cunning, we may be able to ly, some elusive, mystic goal is warding. Any Bards in your party pos
creep unnoticed through the city, growing achieved. Cannons fire, music swells, sess songs of magic, but no initial
ever stronger in force and knowledge, un and everybody goes home happy. knowledge of their purposes.
til at last we confront and destroy the vile The excellence of The Bard's Tale A few final points. Players must
stems not from its departure from this explore Skara Brae's dark places to pro
As we had conjectured, Skara Brae basic idea, but rather from its depth of gress satisfactorily. These are contained
cannot be taken by a great force of war concept and brilliance of execution. The on the second disk, the Dungeon Disk.
riors. There is power here to resist the program apparently represents over Clues to find the first of them are pack
might of all our armies. Even in daylight 400K of machine language, and it cer aged with the game. After that, you're
the streets are patrolled by the Llndead, tainly looks like every bit has been put on your own. Good luck with your
Mangar has summoned them to join his to good use. searching, and don't come to depend
hordes of men and monsters and sundry The game is a graphics adventure too much on your equipment or party
evil wizards. At night, the situation wors rather than one based on text and a members. He prepared to reclaim earlier
ens—they say there are dragons, ogres, parser. All player options are presented ncarnations from disk. I'or this reason,
and fierce things that were never alive. in the form of smoothly scrolling t's a good idea to play with two charac-
Fighting will be inevitable and, against menus that appear in a special message er disks, backing up any party member
opponents such as these, would be window. Simultaneously, another win whose powers increase dramatically.
loomed to failure without the utmost care dow displays graphics. These may be of Working out a method of dealing
in planning and strategy. monsters, buildings, or members of vith character disks is an area that may
44 COMPUTE!'! Gazette Jura 1986

For Kids
Help your children learn the basics
of computer programming with these 0-67455-038-6
SI 4.95 0-87455-032-7
two new entertaining and educational Si 4.95
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Each book contains easy-to-follow Instructions, programming examples, quick reviews, and
colorful illustrations. Written In COMPUTED clear, easy-to-understand style, the books offer
hours of entertainment while helping kids (and adults) learn to program In BASIC.

[f you're acquainted with BASIC, you can easily write your own games and applications on
Atari's ST or Commodore's 128 computers. Over 30 sections—all with instructor notes.
lessons assignments, and lively illustrations—entertain and amuse as you learn to use
these powerful computers. COMPUTEI's Kids and the Atari ST and COMPUTEt's Kids and the
Commodore 128, in the bestselllng series from author Edward Carlson, are gentle
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Look for these and other books from COMPUTE!

at your local book store or computer store. Or order directly from COMPUTE!.

r ™i
To order call toll Iree in the I >-B0O-346-fi767 <ln NY 212-265-8360) or mail the atlached coupon with
your payment lo | HE Books, P.O. Box 5038, F.D.R. Stallon. New York. NY 10150.
Pleose send me Ine following CQMDU1£I books. Mv payment is enclosed.
COMPUTEi's Kids and the Commodore 128, (032-7) $14.95 each
COMPUTE!'* Kids and the Atari ST, (038-6) $14.95 each
NC residents add 4.5%. sales tax
MUST BE Shipping and handling per book
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COMPUTEI books are available in me U.K.. Europe, the Middle
COMPUTE! Publicationsjnc. East, and Africa from Holt Sounders, Ltd., 1 St. Anne's Road.
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be somewhat confusing. There's noth to tear yourself away from this master tween acts and explore the shadowy
ing wrong with the program, the docu piece of a game. world lurking beneath all the glitz. At
mentation is not at its clearest here. —Lee Noel, ]r last I've found the opportunity with
Also on the topic of disk operations, the Ballyhoo, Infocom's richly evocative
Electronic Arts
program's extremely clever design has 2755 Campus Dr. often exasperating, and very clever new
reduced the need for swapping the two San Malta, CA 94403 text adventure.
disks to an absolute minimum. Players 11 9.95
The game begins as the circus per
who've tangled with other games of formance ends. You are prowling
this type will greatly appreciate this
around behind the big top, trying on
feature. Ballyhoo stray masks and peering into the prop
The Bard's Tale is a story of mystery
tent, when you overhear a conversation
and magic. It tells of a complex and
between the circus boss and a detective
wonderful world where monsters lurk From up in the bleachers, the circus is about the mysterious disappearance oi
and great deeds wait to be done. You all glitter and daring, a magical kaleido
the circus boss's daughter. Neither the
enter that world at your own peril. And scope of improbable images. But watch
boss nor the detective sounds terribly
the greatest danger is not Mangar—it's ing the circus 1 always want to sneak
concerned or competent, so you val
the likelihood that you'll never be able backstage, to see the performers be iantly resolve to find her on your own
Thus begins your foray into the seamy
underworld of the circus.
Once you become immersed in the
SAFEGUARD YOUR SOFTWARE BY game, though, you may discover that
/WAKING A BACKUP WITH your mission to find the abducted g
becomes secondary to exploring the bi
zarre and chimerical world around you.
Sympathetic as you are to the girl's
plight, you can hardly pass up the op
portunity to walk a tightrope, watch an
impromptu clown act, play with the ex
Version 3.3 otic animals, or be hypnotized by Rim-
shaw the Incomparable. And often in
pursuing these seemingly pointless di
versions you can pick up some clues to
the mystery.
But Ballyhoo, true to the Infocom
tradition, is not for the impatient. Clues
arc hidden under layers of rod herrings;
some maneuvers have to be repeated
two or three times before they'll work,
while others are stubbornly refused;
MODULES and each of the circus folk, from the
tiny midget to the 827-pound Tina, is
evasive when not downright cantan
kerous. Even the seasoned Infocom
player is well-advised to draw a map,
take copious notes, and leave no gorilla
suit unturned.
While the game can frustrate—
don't expect to complete it in a day—it
THE PROFESSIONAL WAY TO BACKUP can also charm. Great care was taken to
evoke the atmosphere of the circus: You
YOUR C128/C64 SOFTWARE! hear a calliope in the distance, you smell
the musty elephant tent nearby, you feel
the rough canvas of the tent as you
only $49.95 order byphone805-687-1S41 ext. 64 sneak behind the big top. Many of the
scenarios and props are added solely for
Also available: DIskMaker ToolKft™ SUPER Disk Utility package. their humor. And often the responses to
Ask for SPECIAL combo offer with DIskMaker™! MODULE your commands are whimsical or ironic.
subscription available.
The parsing in Ballyhoo is surpris-
ngly flexible. You tan, for instance,
make commands such as "Take the ap-
ale. Polish it. Put it in the box." or
DON'T LET AN ACCIDENT RUIN YOUR ONLY 'Drop all except the mask and the
cheese morsel." You can also ask ques
COPY...BACK IT UP WITH DISKMAKER™ || tions of specific characters, or use in-
aluablc Infocom commands such as
beak VERBOSE (for a thorough description
ttv=~ 3463 Stare street ■ Suite 154IA - Santa Barbara ■ CA 93105 = of each location) and OOPS (which al-
ows you to retype only the word you
yped incorrectly in the last sentence).
As can be expected from Infocom,
46 COMPUTE'S Gazelta June 1986
Great Software for T Tnder
And Free Diskettes, Too!
Now is your chance to build your software library at awry reasonable cost! Kor ONLY .$(>.!(!) you can tf«
software for your Commodore or Apple computer, Choose from entertainment, home management or
education titles.
As an added BONUS: For any merchandise order over $10.00 you will receive one FREE universal diskette!
These diskettes are double-notched, DS/DD giving single-sided users twice 1 he storage at the same great price!

For the Commodore 64/128 For the Apple II+, lie, He

Entertainment Serial Enti-rtolnmiTil Srrirn
v 38Hnmo "mi Business rani Kile
A-1 Begin net's t'uvi1, an Adventure A-34TBX Bncnrd llrwiiiii/.er
C-l Memory Quchi C-88HomB Expanse Manager
6-2 -Sky lighters A*3 Cave of the Mind, an Adventure A-3Q Checkboak Balancer
G-4Q Home Finance Organizer I A-JiiJHasi-
C 3 Atomic Challenger A-3 River Adventure, an Adventure
(1-41 Home Finance Organizer i
('-A IVofesslanal Gambler C 42 Home Inainic Manager
A-4 Fort-lr Golfing Simulator Education Series
I'5 The Survival lnstlnd A-5 Lady Luck
C-l-'t Home Money Manager A-17Mr. Math
A-ti Space Adventure
c +> Arcade Action i' AA Home Property M»ri»K('r A-38 Speed Reading
0-7 Adventure Master A-7 Clavsie (Samea
C-4fi Money Minder A-39 Beginning Counting
AS Android Invasion
C-8 A I'ACaLIPS NOW c 46 Personal File Keeper
(' it Hit*. Pieces Bud Cluea A-ii Championship Gambler
c a~ Personal Investment Manager A 41 Addition I
C 10 Board Games 1 A IIK'hess Champion
O48 Family Tree A-42A(lditi<m It
C II Board Game Challengers
O19 Electronic Schadoln A-l I Memory Quest A-4:!Addition 111
C-l! Chess Champion A 12 Wizard \ thi1I'rinress
c So Prci Financial Organber A-4-1 Addition IV
c. t3 Ciazy Comers A-I3 Ulysses a the Qolden Rppcp
C-61 Recipe Box A-459ubtractlon I
A-14 Mission Asteroid
C-I4 Galactic Empire Builder C-52Tax Record Organizer A-46SubtractEon II
C IDJusl Games (With BTwist!) A.-15 Passport to London
Education Series A- Hi Passport to Paris
a 47Subtraction III
C-ltt Land, Sea & Air Adventures A*48Mulilpllcaiion I
('■17 Ma/i' Madness! C-B3 Number Builder Home M.i11.11 '-in A-49Multiplication II
(' 1H IVjjOui (The Crlbbago Game) G-54 Number Chaser A-60Multiplication III
A-17'l'he Addresser—Mailing List
c l9StarTrek Evolution C-B5HldoS3eek
A-18 Financial Planner A 51 Division i
C-SO Trivia Quest t'-ftfi Picture This
A IQQeneral Ledger A WDivision II
C-21 Open— C ri71 .el's Count
A-20Monthly Btidgetsr A-53Division 111
GiilfiiiK Royal Si. Georfto'a DBS Time Trucker
A-2] Nutrition Monitor A-54DMslon lv
C-22 Alien C-,riS> Fancy Kaiv
A-22 Securities Portfolio Electric Book Co.
C>23 Bulge—Battle fur Antwerp C (ill Marh Manor
C 24Wizards the Prlncem ('-'31 T\pmg Tutor F. ducal ion SadCB
A-24 Daiaiia^e Manager
C-2B Ulysses & the Golden Fleece C-G2 Speed Reader A-r,r,why?
A 25 Disk Library
C 2i>MisMim Asteroid Electric Book Co. A-&6Whcn?
A-26 Electronic Calendar A-5T The Three Bears
{' 271'essport in London Education SeritH A-27 Electronic Phone iio<pk
C-U81'asaport In Paris A-'>HGingerbread Msin
C till Why1.' A ZSRuniiyTrco
llrmu' "iT.iii.iiL "I C-04Whon? A 29 Personal Spreadsheet
Olluppy tile ('urloiiH KanKiinm
C-BQTax Record Qrganber C-GBTho Three Heiir^ A UOJWrltor, Word Processor
1 Wild Anlmall
C-30 Vital Data Keeper C<66 Gingerbread Mim A ill Utility Master
At STom Thnmh
(' -\\ Wirdmaster Senior C 67 Baby Animals A-32Vital liiiiii Keeper
A-tili I Was n Second * iradg Werewolf
C-3! Master Word C-flS iioppy the Curious Kangaroo A-33Typing Tutor
A-64 Tough Eddie
C -i-i Personal Spreadshee I C-B9 Wild Animals
C-M gHASE. database manager C-7tlTom Thiimh
(' 35 My 64—A Comrjuu-r TlltiFT C-71 I Was a Second Grade Vftrewolf.
C 36Commodore ti4 Utllltlaa Kl> Kddio
C-3T Financial Anatyiora
Plus these Super Accessories
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$eJ9. Blank Diskettes: LOO* certified, DS/DD, Hox of 10: S7.5O. floppy disk drive
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• ShareData :1OOC" 300
Baud Moiii-m: Autodial, ORDER FORM
autoanswer, includes u-i- Please list;theorderlngnumberCs)CC-l1A-3,etc0ortheprogram(a)you wish to order and
jnmal softwore $34.06. return this order form along With your check, money order or VISA MiUilorOaril infor
Utilitj- CartridRt*: ;t(l luni- mal ion to: Flrstline Software, 7124 Shady Oak Bd,, Eden i'rairie, MN r>w.i4A.
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the packaging of Ballyhoo is splendid. in the details from the outline of the
The game comes with a circus ticket (or "WW1 Ace" scenario presented in
Annie Oakley, in circus lingo), a balloon, Flight Simulator II. Complete with dog
and a superbly illustrated circus pro- fights, jet provides computer-controlled
gram (or bible). Included in the booklet radar tracking, heat-seeking missiles,
are a brief history of circuses, .1 colorful and enemy aircraft thai maneuver with
description of each of the key Ballyhoo apparent intelligence. Take some target
characters, and a glossary of circus jar practice in the Target Strike Game, in
gon (so that you too can toss around which there are air-to-ground missiles,
terms like Annie Oakley, bible, lollke, machine guns, and smart bombs. The
etc.). There are also several pages of enemy is land-based, and seeks you out
clearly written instructions, explana relentlessly, turning your screen to a
tions, and tips. But don't be misled: The streaming flash of red and yellow
mysteries of Ballyhoo are not easily un should it make contact. Three-dimen
esting comparison of the two.
raveled. Or, as the program has wryly sional graphics allow clear views of the
told me more than once, "You'll have to First, J?t is easier to fly—especially
enemy. (But fire before you see the
do that yourself." for novices. All you have to do to get
whites of their eyes.) If it appears that
airborne is throttle up with the + key,
—Jaan Rouleau you're in danger of losing your plane,
and pull back on the joystick. You have
Infocom, Inc.
the opportunity to look back and see don't worry: Jet includes a cockpit ejec
55 Wheeler St. tion system. You can always bail out
the airstrips disappear more quickly
Cambridge, MA 0211s and parachute lo safety.
and .it a sharper angle than with Flight
Simulator 11. You can select a land- A featured bonus with Jet is its
compatibility with any of the Flight
based craft or take off from a carrier at
Simulator Scenery Disks. You can fly it
sea. When flying the land-based craft,
to New York, San Francisco, Albuquer
Jet you pilot an P-16, a ship modeled after
que, or Los Angeles, or anywhere in the
its versatile and powerful namesake. If
charted world of flight simulators.
the carrier-based option is selected, an
For flight simulation fans, there's more Getting started might typically go
F-18 is used. The carrier-based takeoff
fun on the hori/on./e(, subl.OGIC's lat requires more tries to master. General
like this: Take JET out of the hanger and
est addition to an ever-growing family taxi out a bit to the runways. Press C to
ly, though, getting in the air is not
of flight software, is an upscale, friend get a view from the control tower, and
lier version of Flight Simulator. There then turn the craft until it faces the tow
fel offers some features for arcade
are several points which draw an inter er. Hit the thmsters and take off right
fans. Designer Bruce Artwick has filled
by the tower—not something you'd
want to try in real aviation. What you
see is a great computer program doing

what it does best—and letting you have
some fun,
—David Flo ranee
siibLOCIC Corporation
713 Blgebrook Dr.
Champaign, IL 67820
(Scenery Dtsfo, S19.95 cadi)

Battle of Antietam
\ Having grown up near several major
Civil War battlefields, 1 developed an
early interest in this special period of
American history. Being able to explore
the woods and fields of so many leg
endary exploits made the events of the
StNGLE.DUAl FILE COPLElt f-»t *(T *>- C*jr"-(-d*<« DOS (L>"f4l4-f
1 him '■o'lrai DO& ifwtnl "*iu.H'i n Civil War more real and personal than
the history 1 was taught in school.
SUPER DISK SURGEON So when 1 saw the package for Bat
Ou'l? 'r*n"li 'I"i*Mi wil PIlHiiJJ yOu 1' ■£■ u*f I H Mi
TRACK & SECTOR EDITOR tle of Antietam, a recent release for the
FnI Pdltina uf i*H »n 1(1 Air Wu b,n |i;'uiMl
rlinrHHirVdi4a^4*"iMTi' ml" [HlfhiGUl [imnUrim Commodore 64 from Strategic Simula
tions, it was only a question of how
$29.95 many minutes it would take before I
PI 115 SJ 00 S HflFlii tS IJl] [, U 0 t had the game up and running.
1 began by playing the basic game,
suilable for beginners, before moving
up to the more difficult and demanding
intermediate and advanced levels. To
begin each game, the forces are mar
■101 taw air D» suiii d • w«0 Unas rc7in shalled in their historical positions,
ORDtMS (H17j «j?flOJl ■ TECH (SUl IV 01W
where they stood at sunrise on Septem
ber 17, 1862. The Union force consists
48 COMPUTEfs Gazette Juno 1986
CSM (219) 663-4335
P.O. BOX 563, CROWN POINT, IN 46307

Software, Inc.
Shipping - S3.50 most items Visa & MasterCard Accepted
(Foreign shipping extra) Dealer Inquiries Invited


SNAPSHOT 64 is a unique and exciting uuiity that virtually lakes a picture
of your computer's memory. SNAPSHOT 64 then saves that 'snapshot1 Strll the best! No special tools or knowledge are required to properly align the
to disk and automatically creates an auto-boot loader for the program 1541 disk drive (although average mechanical aQility is required). Thousands
already in use.
Once saved to disk the program may be restarted at the eiact same point
at which it was interrupted See the review in the Oct. 1984 Computers Gazette Also reviewed in Ahoy
and Pun ... __ , ...
THAN THOSE UTILITIES THAT CLAIM TO "COPY ALL MEMORY- Updates available \o prior purchasers
RESIDENT SOFTWARE" S20.00 plus Shipping

The Source Generator is an advanced programming utility that will produce
WORKS MUCH FASTER THAN OTHER SIMILAR UTILITIES code from programs in memory or directly from a disk Imagine being able
to take any ML program and convert it to true source code, complete
wiih labies and cross reference table.
DISASSEMBLES 6502. 6510. 65CO2. 6511 & 8SO2 OPCODES


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Tfie EPROM PROGRAMMERS HANDBOOK was written With the average THE C-64 VOLUME I
user in mind Important concepts are covered in a readable, informative This is the original protection manual. Covers bad blocks. BASIC and ML pro
manner, But the HANDBOOK is much more than theory. Many useful tection schemes, reset and cartridge switches and much more Program disk
programs are included on the accompanying diskette. Topics include; is included, with many helpful programs If you are just getting into program
protection, this volume is reguired reading
$29.95 plus shipping


Not just a third edition — a new and up-to-date manual covering the latest
MODIFYING THE KERNAL - ADD THE DOS WEDGE AND MORE advances in program protection Over 275 pages of valuable information. The
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Only $32.95 plus shipping CARTRIDGE BACKER II

Just updatedl New auto-parameter version archives many more cartridges
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We have a full line of EPROMS and csnndgi- supplies $14.00 plus shipping
of over 67,000 troops, while the Con you quite well for an encounter with a hundred men in a brief moment. You
federacy has only about 35,000—close human opponent. may even receive reports of entire com
to half the size of the Union army. (Lee The Battle ofAntietam is a must for panies being eliminated.
had mistakenly divided his force, send anyone with even a mild interest in the The value of SSI's Battle of Antie
ing half to seize the Federal garrison at Civil War. The simulation is easier to tam may ultimately be that you'll de
Harper's Ferry.) Although the North is understand than many others of its cide to visit the library or even the
overwhelmingly superior in numbers, kind. Included in the manual—which battlefield to learn more about this bat
the South can overcome seemingly offers a thorough treatment of the bat tle's significance in one of the most im
hopeless odds, thanks to errors made tle—are organizational charts for both portant periods of American history. In
by the Union command, which the pro sides, and the complete order of battle. that light, it's more than just another
gram simulates rather effectively, and A colorful plastic laminated topo game.

by careful, tactical planning. graphical map of the battlefield is in —George Miller

Each turn, consisting of several cluded, and you'll find yourself
Strategic Simulations, Inc.
phases of action as you command your referring to it often as you plan your 88i StlerUn Road
forces against the computer or a human strategy, looking to take advantage of Building A-200
opponent, advances the clock one hour. the roads for troop movements and the Mountain Vkw. CA 94043
Many options are available, and much hills for positioning your artillery. At $49,95
is to be considered as you command the end of the game, occupation of sev
your troops. Should you press the at eral key road intersections is worth bo
tack? Or maybe it would be best to
allow the men a chance to catch [heir
nus points, and you'll be using the map
to locate these crossroads, then dis
Leader Board:
breath as fresh troops are brought up
from the rear. Is now the right time to
patching your troops to seize control or
defend them.
The Pro Golf
launch a counter-attack? Many factors, including rate of fa
The simulation is quite involved. I tigue, resupply, disruption of troops, Simulator
was surprised to discover that as 1 com and so on, are used to determine the
manded my forces through the battle outcome of a clash. And each encounter Golf can be a game of simple beauty,
hours of 6 a.m. to 5 p.m., I used as much is resolved down to the man. You'll played on quiet mornings when the
(or more) time as the actual battle: Each sense a feeling of overwhelming de dew is still thick on the greens. Or it can
time I played a complete battle, 1 spent spair as the casuality rate climbs higher be one of the most frustrating experi
at least 12 hours. Fortunately, a save by the hour. Occasionally you'll feel ences, where clubs fly farther than the
option is included, and available often yourself reeling from a report that a di ball.
during the game. The computer is a for vision lost somewhere in the smoke Leader Board, from Access Soft
midable opponent, and will prepare and noise of the battle has lost over a ware, makers of the popular Beach-
Head and Beach-Head 11, can duplicate
either definition of golf quite nicely.
This golfing simulation for the Commo
dore 64 will either make you grin as
you sink that 45-foot putt, or make you
howl with anger as you slice a dozen
balls into the water beside the fairway.
This is a compliment, a high compli
ment, on the game's realism. It's so
much like the real game that you're
tempted to play from an electric golf
Three levels of play—novice, ama
teur, and professional—and four differ
ent 18-hole courses make Leader Board
a game you can stick with instead of
discarding after a couple of afternoons.
A driving range is also available—use it
before you begin serious play, if only to
sharpen your shooting skills.
Plug a joystick into port 2, load the
game, and you're ready to start. Up to a
foursome can play Leader Board (each
player takes his or her turn with the
joystick). Enter players' names, choose
the course, the number of holes you'll
play (up to the entire 72), and the game
Leader Board puts every decision
and move in your lap, from selecting
the right club to hitting the ball at the
right moment. Using the joystick, you
decide in which direction to hit, then
swing away. Depending on the difficut-
ly level, you may have to take the wind
into consideration. A combination of
pressing the fire button, holding it, then
50 COMPUTE! s Gazette June 1986
Have your C-128* look
as smart as i Tho Cominand Conta
consolidates all thosH

it works... I '■■•■-,
with the Command Center, a space
saving cabinet specially designed lor the
C-128 Personal Computer System. Just
install your keyboard and disk drives, set
your CRT on top, and you've got Built-in teal urea include ftovta
Commodore value with the look ot a much strip, fen and phons p{ug.
more expensive system.
It will untangle your wires and unclutter
your desk. And look at all it includes:
■ Built-in AC Power Strip with surge
protection and line noise filtering.
■ Built-in Drive/CPU Cooling Fan.
■ Phone/Modem
telecommunications switch.
■ Master A.C. Switch with power C-128 e a rocfsore/) TijQetrark W Commodore Busnoss Machines

indicator light.
Free 30-day trial offer and one year KETEK, P.O. Box 203. Oakdale, IA 52319
warranty. Order your Command Center YES! Rush me a Command Cenlor lo Namo
today. Write; KETEK, PO. Box 203. complete myC-128 system I may
Oakdale.lA 52319. enjoy il lor up lo 30 days and return il
tor a lull relund Enclosed is my clieck
or money Order (or SI 53.45 ($149.95
For faster service, call plus $3.50 lor shipping and handling).
1-800-626-4582 toll-free.

pressing again controls your backswing fairway or green, and even balls which (One interesting note about this
and wrist snap, Bending the hall flying. hit the flag. Sound effects add lo Leader game's copy protection: The disk itself
You can swing as hard or soft as you Board, letting you hear the thock as the is not copy protected, so you can easily
want, even hook (make the ball curve club meets the ball and the splash as the make a backup copy. However, a piece

left) or slice (make it curve right) ball hits water. of plastic with a very small resistor
around Ihose doglegs. Once on the Score is kept as in real-time golf. (often called a dangle), which comes
green, where you can use your putter, Color-coded birdies, eagles, bogies, and with the program, must be inserted into

you have to read the break, or how the pars are put on the leader board shown the cassette port in order for Leader
ball will curve, as well as the slope. at the end of each hole. You can see at a Board to work.)
Again, you control the amount of pow glance the present position of each play Tee up a ball, ask your imaginary
er you put into the swing. If you're on er, even while you're playing a hole. caddie for a club, and plant your feet
firmly in the grass.
target, you'll hear a comforting Ihunk as The only thing missing from Leader
Swing and watch it fly. Leader
the ball lands in the cup. Board is sand traps. The only hazard is
All this makes Leader Board a game Board is fun, a lot of fun, and as addict
water, which is all over the place. Is
ing as the real game. Best of all, there
worth playing. What makes it worth re lands, peninsulas, and narrow necks of
are no green fees.
membering, and playing again and land are the only way to the green. One
—Gregg Keizer
again, is its graphics. This game is sim more thing I'd like to see in the game:
Access Software, Inc.
ply amazing—there's no other word for You can't tell where the green actually 2561 South 1560 West
it. With no disk access, the screen starts since it's the same color (green) as Woods Crass, UT 84087
changes from scene to scene, showing the fairways. S39.95
your present perspective of the pin. Hit
the ball into the water and a small
splash appears. Your golfer's swing
(each player's character wears different Votalker Speech Synthesizer
colored shirts and pants—only male
figures for some reason) is something Over the years VotrflX has built a repu so even if you've never seen a Votrax-
you have to watch to appreciate. It's so tation for producing high-quality brand speech synthesizer, you've prob
smooth that you could use it to improve speech synthesizers. One point in their ably heard the sounds made by one of
your real game. And when the ball favor is that they design their own their speech chips.
leaves the tee, the golfer lifts his head to speech chips; their engineers aren't lim Until recently, their products have
follow the ball! ited to what's currently available, Vo- been somewhat high-priced for the
Shadows beneath the flying ball, trax chips can be found in a variety of Commodore market. A year ago, 1 ex
balls which bounce as they land on the other companies' speech synthesizers. perimented briefly with a Votrax

COMPUTED Gazette June 1986 51

synthesizer which, with the proper You can access the SPEAK com voice speed. They talk at ore rate, peri
cable, would work with a Commodore mand in both immediate and program od. If you have to listen to more than a
64, an Apple, an IBM, or several other modes. The Votalker takes words or paragraph or two, the words start to
computers. The suggested retail price phrases inside quotation marks, as well drag. According to a Votrax representa
was in the $300 range, more than what as numbers, string variables, and nu tive, most blind people can understand
you would have paid for a 64 at that meric variables. Arrays are also accept extremely fast speech, faster than a
time. Votrax gave you Rolls-Royce ed. SPEAK is as flexible as the BASIC sighted person could follow, possibly
quality at Rolls-Royce prices. PRINT command. because blind persons aren't distracted
The recently released Votalker car Nine volume settings allow you to by visual cues. So reading through (or
tridge for the 64 is not only an excellent program a shout, a whisper, or some listening to) a long document can be
speech synthesizer, it also costs less thing in-between. Four pitches can be vastly speeded up with a simple turn of
than $100. It has the Votrax quality employed to modify the tone, very im the Votaiker's rate knob. Those of us
you'd expect, at an affordable price. To portant when you want to emphasize a who can see a computer screen might
put it simply, the Votalker is a great val certain word or phrase: Do you like an consider a speech synthesizer a novelty
ue. It has the standard features found chovies? Do you like anchovies? Do you (Listen, Mom, the- computer can talk!),
on other speech synthesizers—and like anchovies7. . But a computer that can't talk is pretty
more. It's compatible with both the 64 The inflection of the Votrax voice, useless to a blind person. And a typical
and the 128 (in 64 mode). like most other speech synthesizers, is slow-talking speech synthesizer takes
The Votalker fits into the expan best described as a monotone with a too long to read through even a short
sion port and, like most cartridges, allo slightly Scandinavian accent. But judi story. The adjustable rate is a valuable
cates 8K of memory for its own use. cious variations of pitch and volume feature of the Votalker, especially for
Programming speech is simple. Type can make the voice sound much more sight-impaired computer users.
SPEAK "HELLO. I AM A COMPUTER." natural. In addition, a knob on the side There are several other options
and it pronounces the words inside of the cartridge can be adjusted to affect available. You can choose to have shift
quotation marks. It's good at recogniz the rate of speech. Youcanspeakfastlike ed characters ignored (if you're in up
ing our strange spelling conventions al:ederalExpressad, or. speak, very, percase-graphics mode) or pronounced
and translating them into properly spo slowly. The knob controls the overall (if you're in upper/lowercase mode). In
ken words. Once in a while it will make speed; if you want slight pauses inside a some cases, you might want punctua
a mistake, which can be corrected by a sentence, you can insert various punc tion marks to be spoken-—the word
creative misspelling. The word "don't" tuation marks (a comma is a short pause, "comma" instead of a .short pause.
sounds too much like "dawnt," for ex while a period provides a longer pause). Turning on verbatim mode gives you
ample, so you have to type "doant" to Many speech synthesizers don't this choice. In character mode, every
get the proper pronunciation. make any provision for controlling the word is spelled out. You won't hear the
word "hello," you'll hear the letters H-
E-L-L-O. This can be very useful when
you're double-checking a program you
typed in from a magazine. These op
Commodore Compatible tions can be joined with echo mode,
and only .... where everything printed to the screen
$139.00 is also spoken by the Votalker.

The Votalker speech chip is

phoneme-based rather than word-
based (for example, the word "hat" is
made up of three phonemes: an H
sound, a short A, and a final T), so an
infinite number nf words can bo spo
ken. Some word-based speech synthe
sizers have a limited number of
words—usually around 200—that can
be pronounced; if you ask for an alien
word, they'll ignore it. Because it pro
nounces individual sounds, the Votalker
is more flexible than some other speech
FSD-1 5'/4" Disk Drive
The FSD-1 Disk Drive is a versatile and efficient disk dnve built for the
As a bonus. Votrax includes a disk
Commodore series ol personal computers. This disk dnve is lully com
patible wjlh me Commodore 64 computer and directly replaces I he containing Trivia Talker I, a trivia Q and
Commodore 1541 Disk Drive, giving much better performance in terms A program written in BASIC. (An up
or data loading and writing speed and memory bufler sjzs graded version, Trivia Talker 11, which
offers clearer sound, is available sepa
To order call toll free rately for $39.95.) It vividly illustrates
Special Features
1-800-356-5178 one of the many applications for speech
Full fi mnnlh warranty Visa and Mnslurcarr) aro wulconirj Allow in a computer program. Questions
Slim 11nu (.unMriJciPtrn (low profilo] S')0O:.hii)|ji'ii| *irul IihipxJ I iiiij Of mail your don't just print to the screen, they're
All vniif<l chassrs ardor wilh chuck or money ordei to
Solid Hale power supply
also spoken. Shades of leopard}/. You
Dunl sn'inil port with chaining can personalize the questions with the
Editor program. You might write a
5'A inch industry standard formal.
PdsiIivb Pnvcr lock (ohminatiTn "pop question that asks "What is the most
Emerald Corn portents International
oul" protilom)
P.O. Boi Mil embarrassing thing that ever happened
Eurjane, OB 97440 to Uncle Greg," followed by four an
Humurnbor, rio safes Ian in Oregon Tel: 901-883-1154
swers. You could create a range of
52 COMPUT&'s Gazofto June 1966
games: silly quizzes for a social gather
ing to serious educational programs (a
history or spelling game for schoolchil Super Graphix
dren, say).

There are a few deficiencies which,
while not major, should be mentioned.
The trivia game runs too slow, probably
because it's written in BASIC. After an
swering a question, you must wait for
the score to be updated and the new Super Graphix
question to be printed. It's sluggish— - wetec '—* For
but it's free, so why complain? The doc
umentation covers the necessary points
for programming the Votalker in It . . .
BASIC, but barely hints at what's nec
essary to write machine language pro
grams that can speak. Some coverage of
memory usage would have been nice.
These quibbles don't detract from It Is!!!
the overall quality of the Votalker. This
speech synthesizer does more than GRAPHICS and FONTS plus an 8K BUFFER for the ultimate In performance and
most others. The price is reasonable. speed. The XETEC Super Graphix Interface for Commodore Computers now
And, if you're looking for some ready- offers a new high In technology with these leatures:
made software, the trivia game is fun. • 8K Builer Standard • Capable ol Storing 2 Additional Fonts
—Todd Heimarck ■ 10 Printing Modes • Correct Graphics'Tent Aspecl Ratio for
• 3 Internal Screen Dumps all Major Printers
• Extensive Command Channel ' B Aclive Switches with Changes
1394 Rankin
Troy, Ml 4SO83S99.95 (Votalker with Trivia
. Reset Button to Hal, Printing Constantly Monitored
• Internal Fonts Support Super-script.
from Buffer
Talker I) Subscript. Underlining, Bold-face and
$39,95 (Trivia Talker U) tt - Switch Settings on Label for
Choice ol 9 Pitches
Quick Reference
■ Correspondence Quality Font Built-in

Suggested list $99.95 • Includes Lifetime Warranty

COMPUTED GAZETTE £^^y , Inc. / 3010 Arnold Rd. / Salina, KS 67401 / 913-827-0685
Subscription Order Line
In IA 1-800-532-1272



It,* COUU0DOF1E 04 (gm^

n III*-Jiny trail Sopri<«r i*MttC

difiQ ana"*. Urrjaii

ua.P.O Bc(1fl222 Dept 11.Piilidorgri PA15Z36 [rurtt ift b4lh d
or caM (413K355-7T27 US ard Canada add 52 50 infi rvfnaiin9[M00loreignr for e«n game □ rVAR SEARCH
onJrird PA reiirlnci Bttl !a> Vie Mailer VK 20. CQMMODOflE i] ATAHI 400. BOO. MUMP VAHrj moflfl l illation n1 WWH

Cjnidi OvKt M«T*r CjrO *nr1 \f>aa »hO^ CBnl turf Ik JJDOO. PC "SCO Tip,, oi &*k taltt
1J0CO oLui rjoiliO* iiJ ti*ndim
lUBf "~r" CUfprQ^uciF Frflfl /(pliTtmrnC it «ljI| riWuf1'* Of^«- r,iju.r,m.nt. VlC-20'lQ* "-r«. »TABl 400 hlluilrtltd manual and Inboard r
for JO diy rtirrarm period D*il*r n"injifni invUflLl pw Eiii-- id'.- re 'Vic- i:.f i coirurandad Po* fhildfan undar 17

COMPUTEf's Gazottit June 1986 53

And you thought the 64 could display only eight save it to disk as STAR.
It's a two-step process to run
sprites. This short machine language game puts
Star Dragon. First LOAD"16",8,
16 on the screen. Or does it? then type RUN and press RETURN.
You'll be prompted to enter a start
Sprites, those movable object use this 16-sprite feature in your ing address. Enter 49152. After a
blocks you create through a series own games. moment, 16 sprites will appear on
of POKEs, are one of the most daz the screen. While they're on the
zling game elements available for screen, type LOAD"STAR",8,1,
Head First
the Commodore 64. You can create then press RETURN. Finally, when
You need to type in and save two
sprites of any shape, color them, the message READY appears on the
programs to play Star Dragon. First,
move them, make them collide, screen, enter SYS 49392, press RE
even hide one behind another. But enter Program 1—a BASIC loader
TURN, and the game begins. If that
you can't have more than eight on which puts the 16-sprite routine in
seems too complicated, use Pro
the screen at any one time. memory—and save it to disk. (See
gram 3 to perform all these steps
But with a bit of fancy dancing instructions below if you're using
automatically. (When using Pro
in machine language (ML), you can tape.) Use 16 as its filename. Next,
gram 3, you must omit the {CLR}
make it seem that there are more enter Program 2, the game itself.
in line 100 of Program 1, as well as
than eight sprites. "Star Dragon," Since it's written entirely in ma
the PRINT"{CLR}": in line 290.
an arcade-style game for the 64, chine language, you'll need
Otherwise, the boot program will
uses a short machine language rou "MLX," found elsewhere in this is
not work properly.)
tine which temporarily moves all sue, to type it in. After loading and
The procedure is a bit different
eight sprites to another location on running MLX, answer the prompts
if you're using tape. It's necessary
the screen. Temporarily is the key for the starting and ending address
to load the data for Program 2
word here, for the ML routine, list es with:
before starting the 16-sprite ML
ed as Program 1, "16," moves the Stalling Address: C0F0 routine because the sprite routine's
Ending Address: C79F
sprites for only 1/60 second, then raster interrupts will disrupt tape
returns them to their original posi Use MLX to type in the Star loading. The easiest solution is to
tions. As you'll see later, it's easy to Dragon data from Program 2 and create a modified version of
54 COMPUTED Gszatta June 1986
>ver the
JVUF illU thrill

with COMPUTE! Books'

40 Great Flight Simulator Adventures
•Maneuver around the towers of the Vtorld Trade Center.
•Sightsee the Hudson River.
•Practice night flying and aerobatics.

40 Great Flight Simulator Adventures

Charles Gullck

40 Forty exciting, customized flight simulator scenarios put you in the

pilot's seat as you fly over bridges, around skyscrapers, and land

at mysterious airports. Flight Simulator (IBM PC) and Flight Simu
lator II (Apple II, Commodore 64, Atari) are two of the most popu
lar games/simulations for personal computers. With this book, you

FLIGHT can experience flight adventures from the moment you load the
program. Parameters set up each flighi and a running commentary

SIMULATOR describes what you'll see (and where to look to see It}. Ranging
from the simple and straightforward to the advanced and even

mystical, these 40 flights will open a new dimension to an already
outstanding program.
89.95 ISBN 0-87455-022-X

Note: Flighi Simulator from Microsoft Corporation and Flight Simulator II

from Sublogic Corp. are required in older to use this book. The book Is
designed to enhance the piogiams.

. COMWT1! Boom *EKCM

Please send me copies of 40 Great Flight Simulator Adventures at 69.95 each.

(ISBN Mo. 0-87455-022-X}

All orders must be prepaid in U.S. funds.

To order this exciting adventure guide, mail
NC residents add 4.556 tax the attached coupon with your payment to
$2.00 shipping and handling COMPUTEI Books, P.O. Box 5038,
charge per book. F.D.R. Station, New York, Ny 10150. Or call
Total amount enclosed toll free 1-80O34&6767 (in NY 212-887-8525.)

D Payment enclosed {check or money order)

□ Charge D Visa D MasterCard □ American Express



City St.iU: Zip

Please allow 4-6 weeks for dellveiy.

COMPUTE! books are available in the U.K., Europe, the Middle

COMPUTE! Publicationsjncffl
Ono of lie ABC PuOtuwnfl Cor"Da
East, and Africa from Holt Saunders, Ltd., 1 St. Anne's Road,
Eastbourne, East Sussex BN21 3UN, England.
Program 1. When typing in that vanced programmers may want to (half the old value of 344).
program, replace lines 100 and 290 use it in their own games. Just in Another difference is that the
with those shown below: clude lines 100-240 and 300-410 collision registers (53180-53183)
from Program 1 in your program, contain only the value for those col
and you'll have 16 sprites to work lisions occurring at the moment the
R",l,l with instead of 8. register location is checked, instead
290 POKii5317a,255;POKE:53179,25 The routine in Program 1 of maintaining a value until read as
5:POKES3281,0:SYS 49392 moves the sprite registers from is the case for the normal collision
their normal locations to addresses registers. Note that collisions be
Then use MLX to type in Program
53170-53247. Take a look at the ta tween sprites 0-7 and sprites 8-15
2. When you've entered all the
ble below for the new register loca cannot be detected. For example, if
data, save it immediately following
tions if you're programming with sprites 1, 5, 8, and 14 are all in the
the modified Program 1 on tape.
16 sprites. You POKE values to same position, then the collision
Now, to run Star Dragon you need
these new locations just as you do between sprites 1 and 5 can be de
only load and run the modified Pro
for locations 53248-53294 when tected, as can the collision between
gram 1,
using the normal eight sprites— sprites 8 and 14. However, there is
The trail of star-like sprites, the
with a few exceptions. no provision for recognizing the
Star Dragon, slithers and slides
One major difference is in the collision between sprites 1 and 14
across the screen. The Dragon Gun
locations that control horizontal (x) or sprites 8 and 5.
at the bottom of the screen is your
position. In the normal eight-sprite The sprite data pointers
only defense.
system, visible horizontal positions (53232-53247) perform the same
Move the gun back and forth
range from 24-344. This requires a function as locations 2040-2047 in
across the screen by pressing the +
nine-bit value for a horizontal posi the eight-sprite system: They point
key to move left and the — key to
tion—eight bits for each sprite in to the 64-byte block of memory that
move right. Hitting the CTRL'key
the even-numbered locations defines the sprite's shape. For ex
fires the gun. (A fourth key, SHIFT-
53248-53262, plus a bit for the ample, Program 1 loads these
LOCK, pauses the game for those
highest bit of each sprite's position pointers with the value 11 (line
times when your fingers tire.)
in location 53264. Those familiar 270), indicating that the sprite
The object of the game is sim
with programming sprites know shape data is found at 11 * 64 =
ple: Hit the dragon's head, [f you
that this causes a problem when 704 (see line 260).
hit anywhere else on the dragon,
ever a sprite crosses the "seam"—
the shots just ricochet. Unfortu The only real drawback to
the point on the screen where the
nately, these bouncing bullets de using this ML routine is that the
horizontal position value changed
stroy your gun as well as the sprites become partially transpar
from 255 to 256. The 16-sprite rou
dragon. Don't let the dragon touch ent. However, this isn't noticeable
tine avoids this problem by divid if the sprite is on a dark back
the gun, either—its poisonous
ing the x-position by two. Thus, the
barbs will ruin your weapon. You ground, such as gray, blue, or black.
sprite now disappears completely
have three guns at hand. Lose all Notice that Star Dragon uses a
off the right edge of the screen
three and the game's over. black background.
when the value POKEd into loca
Scoring is straightforward. The
tions 53184-53199 exceeds 172 See program listings on page 101.
first and second dragons of each
level are worth 20 points when
eradicated. The third is worth 60
points. Star Dragon has ten levels,
Sprite Registers For 16-Sprite Routine
with a total of 30 dragons.
Location Location Function
Hex Decimal
16 Candles, 16 Sprites
CFB2 53170 Sprites 0-7 multicolor off/on bits
The key to Star Dragon is what ap CFB3 53171 Sprites 8-15 multicolor off/on bits
pears to be 16 sprites. Actually, CFB4 53172 Sprites 0-7 x expansion bits
there aren't more than eight on the CFB5 53173 Sprites 8-15 x expansion bils
screen at any one time, but since CTB6 53174 Sprites 0-7 y expansion bils
CI-B7 53175 Sprites 8-15 y expansion bits
each group of eight is shifting every
Ci-BS 53176 Sprites 0-7 sprite display priority
1/60 second, a speed much too fast CFB9 53177 Sprites 8-15 sprite display priority
for our eyes to follow, it seems like CFBA 53178 Bits to activate sprites 0-7
there are 16. It's something like a CFBli 53179 Bits to activate sprites 8-15
CFBC 53 ISO Collisions between sprites 0-7
movie, which displays 24 still
CFBD 53181 Collisions between sprites B-15
frames a second. Each individual CFBE 53182 Sprilcs 0-7 collision with background
frame doesn't move, but put them CFBF 53183 Sprites 8-15 collision with background
together at that speed and the illu CFCO-CFCF 53184-53199 Sprites 0-15 x (horizontal) position
sion is movement. CFD0-CFDF 53200-53215 Sprites 0-15 y (verticil) position
CFF.O-CFEF 53216-53231 Sprites 0-15 color registers
The machine language routine
CFF0-CFFF 53232-53247 Sprites 0-15 data pointers
listed as Program 1 wedges itself
into a new raster interrupt address.
It's entirely relocatable, and ad
Fly Faster ana Farther
with COMPUTE!'s
40 More Great Flight Simulator Adventures
This follow-up to the popular 40 Great Flight Simulator
Adventures brings you 40 more exciting, suspenseful
40 flight simulator scenarios to help you get the most
enjoyment from your Flight Simulator or Flight Simu
MORE lator II software,

40 More Great Flight Simulator Adventures

GREAT Charles Gulick
Microsoft's Flight Simulator IBM PCI and Subloglc's Flight Simulator It (Ap

FLIGHT ple IIF Commodore 64, Atari! are two of the most popular software pack
ages today. They put you in the pilot's seat, letting you experience the
thrill of flight. Now, 40 More Great Flight Simulator Adventures, the sec
SIMULATOR ond such guide, brings you more dazzling flights drawn fronn both fact and

ADVENTURES Now you can fly where no one has flown before, with the author as
your flight instructor, He helps you explore the unknown regions of flight
simulation—taking you through cities, over mountains, under bridges—as
you explore America From the air. Complete parameters and instructions
. !■-.onnitrjrti'b«d* r*j at each step make flight easier and more exciting than ever before.
S9.95 ISBN 0-87455-043-2

Note: The Flight Simulator program itself is not included and must be pur
chased separately.

To order any COMPUTE! book, call toll free 800-346-6767 (in NY 212-887-8525).
Or mail In the attached coupon with your payment. Include S2.00 shipping and
handling per book.

r ~l
Please send me copies of 40 More Great Flight Simulator Adventures at S9-95 each.
(ISBN 0^87455-043-2)
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L. .J
COMPUTE! books are available in the U.K., Europe, the
COMPUTE! Publicationsjnc. Middle East, and Africa from Holt Saunders, Ltd,, I St,
Parr 0' *9C Cony^ar Magaz:nei. >nc
Oio o' IM A3C PutJi'lfi'no Ccrioan-*! Anne's Road, Eastbourne, East Sussex BN2I 3UN, Eng
»3fr Tin Av«iua. 611 f oor New YS'k, NY
'■ . ■■ ■ -- V .'I
land and in Canada from McGraw-Hill, Ryerson Ltd-* 330
Progress Ave., Scarborough, Ontario, Canada MLP 2Z5.
John Krutch

The computer has a significant lead in

How do your wits match up against your comput this match, although it has just missed
er's? You might be in for a surprise. A challeng guessing this player's move.

ing machine language game for the 64, Plus/4, 16,

will be a screen message informing
and VIC-20. you to type a command to activate
the game (for the 64, SYS 49152; for
Children sometimes play a game Behavior Patterns the Plus/4 and 16, SYS 15560; and
called "Matching Pennies." The "Predictor" saves the choices you for the VIC, LOAD "PREDICT. OBJ"
rules go like this: The first player make, as well as the response {left ,8,1 and then SYS 6892). (Note to
covers a penny with his or her or right) you give after any particu VIC users: When typing in the pro
hand. The second player has to lar pattern of moves. The response gram, be sure to have a disk in the
guess which side of the coin the you most likely chose in previous drive. The program creates a separate
first player picked, and place a pen similar situations is the one that machine language program that can
ny showing heads or tails. If the will be predicted for your move be loaded and run with the commands
two coins match, the second player when that pattern reoccurs. (You above, because the VIC's memory is
guessed correctly and keeps both. If can test this for yourself by entering too small to store all the data neces
the pennies are different, the first any repeating pattern of moves; the sary for the program.)
player wins both coins. program will very quickly notice When you first begin the pro
The key to guessing correctly is the pattern and predict your gram, you see two corridors, one
to find a pattern in the first person's response.) near the top of the screen, the other
choices. To win as the first player, Predictor gets smarter after the near the bottom. Your moves are
you should either pick heads or first dozen or so moves, as the com recorded in the upper area; the low
tails randomly or look for a pattern puter becomes aware of your choice er one displays the computer's pre
in the second player's guesses. patterns. If you play a fast game by diction of your move.
"Predictor" is a variation on making random choices as fast as You can make one of two
matching pennies. The play is sim you can, you probably won't do moves: left or right. To move left,
ple—there are only two possible very well—it's difficult to truly ran press the left-arrow key—the far
moves. Just choose to go left or domize your pattern of choices like left key on the top row. To move
right—the computer will predict this. The best way to beat Predictor right, press the DELete key— the
each move based on its assessment is to proceed slowly, thinking out far right key on the top row. (Note:
of your previous moves. The first your moves and attempting to de Plus/4 and 16 users should use the
one to reach 100 is the winner. Your ceive the program. ESCape and DELete keys for mov
job is to try to randomize your But there's a catch. If you find ing.) A square appears on the left or
choices enough so that the com yourself falling into a certain series right side of the screen when you
puter makes the wrong predictions. of moves, you might recognize your make a choice. At the same time, a
Although you might think your own pattern. But breaking out of square appears in the computer's
computer is easy to beat, you're one pattern could easily put you corridor to show its prediction. If
likely to be surprised. into a new {just as recognizable) the computer matches your move, a
The computer always plays the pattern. noise sounds and a point is award
part of the guesser; that is, it tries to ed to the computer on the score-
match your choice of left or right. If board at the left center of the
it made this prediction randomly, Getting Started screen. If the computer guesses
you'd give Predictor a 50/50 There are three versions—separate wrong, a pleasant musical tone
chance of being correct. But Predic programs—of Predictor; one ver sounds, and your score will be in
tor doesn't play to tie, it plays to sion for the 64, one for the Plus/4 cremented by 1. The first to reach
win. By analyzing your past moves and Commodore 16, and one for 100 points wins, after which you're
for patterns, it should have better the VIC (with disk only). After typ prompted (Y/N) to play again.
than a 50 percent chance of being ing in the program, save a copy. To You'll find your computer a canny
correct. You could call it a primitive play, load and run the program. opponent and a good prognosticator.
form of artificial intelligence. When it's through loading, there See program listings on page 104. W
58 COMPUTED Gazette June 1986
COMPUTE! Books Supports
Commodore Computer Users
COMPUTE Books is dedicated
to bringing you top-quality,
reliable, and understand
able tutorials, applica
tions, games, reviews,
product information,
and programming aids.
Whether you have a
Commodore 64, 128, VIC-
20, or a new 128 or Amiga
COMPUTE! has the books
you need to get the most
from your computer,

Look over this collection ot bestselling

computer titles and choose the ones you
want lor your favorite Commodore
computer. To order any of these out
standing Commodore titles, call toll-tree COMPUTEI's VIC-20 and Commodore
1-800-346-6767 (in NY 212-265-8360). 64 Tool Kit: Kernal
Dan Heeb
The invaluable reference guide to the Kernal
COMPUTEI's Personal Accounting
routines on the Commodore 64 and VIC-20 for
Manager for the Commodore 64 beginning to advanced programmers.
and 128 429 poges
Roland A Frechette $ 16.95 ISBN 0-942386-33-7
A complete small-business/home accounting system
with 13 support routines, from income and expenses
to property and investments. Programming the Commodore 64:
$ 12.95 ISBN 0-87455-014-<? The Definitive Guide
Raeto Collin West
An encyclopedic, thorough reference guide which
The Amiga: Your First Computer covers the Commodore 64 in its entirety.
Don McNeill
609 pages
Everything a beginner needs to know to get started
quickly with the Amiga, including setting up the sys
$24.95 ISBN 0-942386-50-7
tem, selecting software, and learning about the
hardware. COMPUTEI's Commodore 64/128
$ 16.95 ISBN 0-87455-025-4 Collection
COMPUTED V1C-20 Collection Some ol the best games, applications, and utilities
Edited from COMPUTE! Publications lor the Commodore 64
More than 70 never-before-published articles. and 128 in 64 mode, plus special sections detailing
games, utilities, applications, ond tutorials for the the advanced features ol the 12a. A disk is also
Commoaore VIC-20. available which includes programs m the book
338 pages 285 pages
$ 1 2.95 ISBN 0-87455-007-6 $ 12.95 ISBN 0-942366-97-3

COMPUTE! PublicationsJnc.® COMPUTEI books are available In the U.K., Europe, the
Middle East, and Alrlca Irom Holt Sounders, Ltd., 1 SI. Anne's
Road, Eastbourne, East Sussex BN21 3UN, England.

Switcheroo Kevin Mykytyn and Mark Tuttle

Just when you think you've won the game, your space in the direction you choose.
Note that the last piece in a row or
opponent pulls a switch—and you've got to de
column wraps around to the first
vise a whole new plan. An exciting two-player position. For example, if a row con
strategy game for the 64. A joystick is required. sists of orange, orange, yellow, or
ange, and yellow (OOYOY), a shift
We're all familiar with games joystick right, to the arrows icon, if to the right will cause the row to be
where players take turns placing you'd rather shift the pieces of a yellow, orange, orange, yellow, and
pieces on a board or grid until row or column. orange (YOOYO). None of the
there's a winner. Tic-tac-toe is If you decide to place, push the pieces outside that row or column is
probably the most widely known joystick left. The square icon turns a ffected.
game of this kind. "Switcheroo" yellow or orange, depending on If an illegal move is attempted
falls into this category, but it adds a whose turn it is. Then push the fire (trying to place a piece on an occu
few unique twists that make it quite button to activate the circle icon. A pied square, for example), the circle
challenging. tone sounds and the circle begins is returned to the center square of
The object of Switcheroo is blinking. With the joystick, move the grid and you must start your
simple. You must get five of your the circle to the square where you turn over. This feature can come in
pieces in a row—horizontally, ver wish to move a piece. Press the fire handy, however. If you decide you
tically, or diagonally—while block button again to put it in that position. want to shift instead of place, you
ing your opponent's attempts to do can make an illegal move and start
the same. That sounds easy, but your turn over.
getting it done is a serious exercise
in strategy. At any point in the How To Win
game, a player may shift the pieces As you become more experienced
of one row or column by one space,
at Switcheroo, you'll develop some
effectively changing the complex
winning tactics. These hints should
ion of the game.
help beginners. At the start of a
game, placing is generally more
Place Or Switch? valuable than shifting. After all, the
After typing in the program, save a goal is to position five in a row, and
copy. To play, load the game and you can't win the game unless
type RUN. You're first asked if you you've placed at least five pieces on
Both players have placed all their
wish to use one or two joysticks. pieces. The only way to win now is with the board. Also, if you shift a lot
Press the 1 or 2 key. If you're using some fancy shifting. while your opponent places, you'll
just one joystick, make sure it's end up owning a distinct minority
plugged into port 2. If you wish to shift a row or of the pieces.
Now the game begins. Player 1 column, first push the joystick Defensive play usually pays
controls the yellow pieces, while right. The arrows icon turns yellow off. If you can block your opponent
player 2 controls the orange ones. or orange. Press the fire button to by placing (rather than shifting), so
The screen displays a 25-square (5 activate the circle, then move to a much the better. As the board fills
X 5) grid with a circle in the center. square in the column or row you up, shifting becomes more impor
Below the grid are two icons (sym wish to shift. Press the fire button tant. It's rare that a game will be
bols), a square and a four-directional again. Finally, push the joystick up, won by placing. Usually, the victor
arrow. Move your joystick left, to down, left, or right—in the direc will force a position where a shift
the square icon, if you want to place tion you want the row or column to wins the game.
a square on the board. Move the shift. Each piece is moved one See program listing on page 103. <&
60 COMPUTED Gazette June 1986
Famous Smith Corona National Brand


Below Wholesale Cost Prices!!!
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• 80 character print line at 10 CPI • 1 Line Buffer, 2K Buffer on 160 CPS Plus LQM
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120CPS:132Bvies(l Hoe) Form iTypo Character Sat
130/160 CPS Plus LOM:2K Fonlold, Cut Sheet, Roll (optional) 96 ASCII
No. of Char. In Char. Sot Max Pppnr Width 11x7 International Char.
96 ASCII Plu$ International 11" Una Spacing
Graphics Capability Food Ing Mat hod 6/8/12/72/14* LPI
Standard 60, 72, 120 DPI Friction Feed Std.: Tractor Feed Std. Character Spacing
Horizontal 72 DPI Vertical Ribbon 10 cpi normal: S cpi elongated normal: 12 cpi
Pitch Cassette — Fabric inked ribbon compressed: 6 cpi elongated compressed;
10, 12. 16.7. 5. 6, 8.3, Proportional Spacing Ribbon Ufa 16.7 cpi condensed.' 8.3 cpi elongated
Printing Mothod 4 million characters condensed; 5 12 5 cpi elongated proportional
Impod Dot Matrix Cartridge Ribbon — List $19.95. Sale *«.«.
IBM $89.00 Apple $59.00 Atari «59.00 Commodore S39.95

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Cashiers Check. Money Ordvr or Personal Chech Allow )4 days
delivery. 2 to 7 dayi lot phono orders 1 day express mail1 Prices & 22292 N. Pepper Rd., Barrington. Illinois 60010
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• Paperboclc Writer 64 $39.95 Adventure Program • 340K 1571 Disk Drive 5259.00
• 10" Comstar 10X Printer $148.00 • Voice Synthesizer $39.95
• 14" Color Monitor S149.95 •12" Monitor 579.95


COUPON wilh every COMMODORE t*
You poy onlv S139.95 when you order the You pay only $289.00 for the C13H computer and
powerful 84K COMMODORE 64 COMPUTERI LESS we include the C12B Wordwriter Wordprocessor
MONITOR no ibIII This coupon allow* you
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COUPON we pack wilh your computer that allows far the CI IS computer is only JI79 05
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computer colt is S39.951' 34OK 1571 COMMODORE
COMMODORE 64 Double Sided. Single Disk Drive far C-123 allows
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ContuUoni IW.95 119 95 J39.95
Boies ol 10 $44.50 (891 ea.|. 10 Bo»es ol 10 Easy Io use. Just plug into your Commodore 64
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14" COLOR MONITOR 1144.93 Praf luatc {ip'aBd ill** 1] 159.95 119.95 111 95 telephone jusl push one key an your computer*
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33392 N. Pepper Rd.. Barrington. Illinois 60010
moil! i'i !■ ■ . h. Availobilily subject fo change without notice.
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Simon Edgeworth

Set the solar system in Whether you're new to stargazing Type in "Solarpix" using the
or a veteran astronomer, this "Automatic Proofreader," pub
motion with this series
easy-to-use demonstration of the lished regularly in the GAZETTE,
of astronomical simula planets and comets is fun to then type RUN. In the first part,
tions for the 64. You watch. The program is divided Sun and Planets, you can watch

which simulates the movement of once. The sun is stationary at the

of Halley's and other the planets around the sun; Sun, center of the screen. Select the
Earth and Moon, which shows innermost and outermost planets
comets, and look
how the phases of the moon are you'd like to see, and a year from 1
through a file of fasci created by its orbit; Comets, which to 2000. Press G to set them in mo
nating facts about our shows the path of Halley's and tion, + to increase the speed, — to

key properti Elapsed time is displayed in years

planet and the sun and moon. on the right side of the screen.
64 t.uVftiil ■ . (,,1-wi,- September 19BS
Lunar Lore Facts And Figures
The second menu selection, "Sun, The last part of Solarpix provides
Earth, and Moon," shows how the some interesting facts about the so
moon's orbit around the earth lar system. From the menu, you can
causes its different phases. The select a planet, the sun, or the
earth is shown orbiting the sun, moon, and view all the facts about
while the moon orbits the earth. it; or you can select a characteristic,
The distance between the earth and such as mass or temperature, and
the moon has been magnified by 30 compare the values for all the nine
to make it visible. In the top right planets plus the sun and the moon.
corner of the screen, the current ap Because the distances from the
pearance of the moon is illustrated. planets to the sun are so hard to
The elapsed time in days is dis visualize, I've added "Drive Time,"
played to the right. You can control which shows the amount of time it
the display using the G, S, +, and would take to drive from a given
- keys as in the first part. planet to the sun while traveling at
The moon takes 27.3 days to 55 miles per hour. For the moon,
orbit the earth. However, it's 29.6 the drive time is given for travel
days from one full moon to the from the moon to the earth.
next. If you watch the display care Masses are given in units
• Letter Duality. Daisy Wheel
fully, you can see why this is—the equivalent to the weight of the • Can be interfaced with virtually all com
moon actually has to complete earth because the values in tons are puter systems including IBM, Apple and
Commodore, with the addition of a printer
slightly more than one orbit around too large to comprehend (the earth
interface (not included],
the earth to reach the same position weighs about 6,588,000,000,000,
Manuiacturer's closeout ol excess inven
relative to the sun. 000,000,000 tons). Densities are tory is the reason for Ihis liquidation. Add

Because the moon's orbit is compared with water (notice that this letter quality prinier to your present
computer system at a fraction of normal
slightly tilted, the moon, earth, and Saturn is less dense than water).
cost This printer uses standard 96 char
sun are normally never exactly Temperatures are average surface acter printwheel and easy-load ribbon

aligned. On the rare occasions temperatures. Moons are listed in cartridge. Quiet operation. Uni- and bi
order of distance from their planet, directional prinhng of fully lormed upper
when they arc, an eclipse occurs. If and lower case letters, numerals, symbols
this happens at full moon, we see a starting with the closest. Moons list
at 13 cps. ASCII character codes. 10, 12 or
lunar eclipse. If it happens at new ed as "X" have not yet been named. 15 characters per inch or proportional
For the amateur astronomer, spacing. Line feed spacing o! 1/48"
moon, we see a solar eclipse,
minimum. Friction feed. Takes 13" max
here are a few technical details. In
imum paper widlh. Prints 12" wide. Four-
Solarpix, all orbits are assumed to positton impression control. Produces
Comets be on the same plane. For Pluto, original and four lightweight copies.

The third menu selection shows however, true elliptical motion is Approx. 21 lbs, 19Vi" x UW x 5". 110V AC.
what the orbits of comets look like. simulated. The planet screen is ori Ore Year Limited Factory Warranty!
Planets and comets move in ellipti ented with Pluto's aphelion on the Mfr. List Price s550.00
cal orbits, which look like flattened right, and the positions of the plan
circles. The extent to which the cir
cle is flattened is called its eccentric
ity, ranging from zero (circular) up
ets are calculated from their actual
positions on October 27, 19S4. All
of the graphics screens show views
Price Now At $169
-11013 1.10 f 5h<p.

lo almost one. The eccentricities of from ecliptic north. Credrtcard cualumera Can
order Oy phono, 24 U>ura !■-
the major planets range from Venus If you have any questions a day, 7 days a week

(almost zero) to Pluto (.25). A com about Solarpix, you may write to Toil-Free: 1-800-328-0609
Your cfieck is fteico^w1
et with an eccentricity of one or the author at: P.O. Box 26, West Hd delays m orders p,i:d b. cftech-

more would leave the solar system. Upton, MA 01587. Please enclose a Sales outsme commeniai U S are sudiecl lo special
CondiHons Ptoaw coll of *rid <O mature

Enter a value between zero and self-addressed stamped envelope.

C O MB. Diruct Markming Corp. Jiem H-1244
.96 and press RETURN. Here are See program listing on page 108. <E 146Q5 28rh Avo N . Minneapolis MN 55441-3397
Send_ TOWA Lutlu' Qufllily Prmlarjs] llnni H 1244
the names and eccentricities of 4919-007 di alfiO tBDh p1n& S9 each for shipping

some comets: Faye (.56), Finlay handling ijMimlosolII ff^sulunfB eh!i1 fi%snlo5U< Alluw3 4
wer^foi delivery Sorry, no COO orders }
(.70), Enke (.85). To see a simula D My chuck or money urilur is enclosed (Nu delays in
processing orders |imd by oftnhi l^ank*; lo TcleCheck.)
tion of the orbit of Halley's Comet, Charge in my D MasiurCnirrt. □ VISA- ,
enter .96R. The R stands for reverse, Ac_-[ Nu tip -——L

because Halley's Comet orbits in the


opposite direction of the planets.

Subscription Order Line Cut
Notice that the speed of a plan Su»

et or comet varies as it moves 1-800-247-5470

around its orbit. It moves slowest In IA 1-800-532-1272
when it's furthest from the sun, and aWaNI>Bi Direct Markiting Corp.
fastest when it's closest to the sun. Authorized Liquidator
14606 28th Avenue North
Mlnn&apolit. Minnoioin 5&441-3397
A Little More Speed

If you've discovered a clever time- Note line 40, where the re list of variables in memory. This
saving technique or ti brief but served time-keeping variable can be accomplished by putting
effective programming shortcut, TIMES (abbreviated as TI$) is set to "unnecessary" initialization state
send it to "Hints & Tips," c/o zero. The related variable TI is ments for those variables near the
COMPUTE!'* GAZETTE. // we IISC it, checked in line 80. This is a stan start of the program. In some cases,
we'll pay you $35. dard way of timing the speed of a saving a few microseconds won't
section of a program; set the clock make a noticeable difference in pro
to zero immediately before the rou gram execution. But the next time
Faster Variables tine, and then when the routine has you have to sort a list of 500 items,
finished, PRINT the value in the jif the time saved could be significant.
Robert L Raymond fy clock. {A "jiffy" is 1/60 second.) Here's another idea for speed
If the program added the two num ing up a program: Try the two pro
As numeric variables are defined, bers only once, the times would be grams above without the index
their names and values are stored in too small to measure. By perform variable after NEXT. That is,
memory just after the end of the ing the addition 1000 times, we're change line 70 to a NEXT with no
BASIC program (except on the 128, able to get a good average time. variable following. You'll discover
where variables are kept in a sepa This first program takes about that programs run faster when you
rate section of memory). BASIC seven seconds to run on the 64— omit the variable after NEXT.
methodically puts together a list of VIC times will be somewhat faster,
all variables that have been used so Plus/4 and 16 a little slower. A 128 Faster Functions
far. When a new variable occurs in in SLOW mode will be slower than
a program, its label and value are other Commodore computers, Luis Fernando Carballo
added to the end of the list. while in FAST mode it will be faster
Whenever a BASIC program than all of them. In mathematics, a function is a pro
needs to use a variable for any pur Now change lines 50-70: cedure that takes one or more num
pose, it must find that variable on bers as input and returns another
50 FORA=1TOH!00
the list. Starting at the beginning of 60 B=B-t-C number as its output. Squaring a
the list, BASIC moves forward 70 NEXTA number is one example—insert the
through memory until it finds the The program now runs in less number 12 and the square-a-
variable it's looking for. Since the than four seconds on the 64 (other number function returns the an
list is built as the program runs, the computers will vary slightly, as swer 144 (12 times itself).
variables defined first are first on There are at least two ways to
the list. square a number and, as we'll see
The two programs are almost
These first few variables are al exactly the same. What makes the below, one is significantly faster.
ways the fastest to be executed in a First type in this short program and
second program faster? The three
BASIC program. If you define a variables in the loop are defined run it:
variable early in the program, it's
early in the program. They're the 10 ti?="000000"
near the beginning of the variable first three on the variable list. In the 20 FOKJ=1TO1000
list, and BASIC will find it quickly first example, the variables X, Y,
30 A=53«53
when it's needed later in the and Z were 24th through 26th on 50 Al=.TI:PRItJTAlf " JIFFIES " ,A1 /
the list. If you perform more tests, 60:"SECONDS"
The following two programs il you'll find that the alphabetical or
lustrate this principle: It's a fairly straightforward
der makes no difference. So if X, Y,
and Z are defined first, they'll be program which multiplies 53 by it
10 A=0;B=0:C=0:D=O:E=0;F=0:G=0
:H=0:I=0 the fastest variables. You could also self 1000 times. A 64 takes seven to
20 J=0:K=0:L=0:M=0:N=0:O=0:P=0 try other mathematical operations eight seconds to finish the calcula
in line 60—multiplication, division, tions. Now change line 30, so the
30 £>=0:T=0 :U=0 :V=0 :W=Q :X=0:Y=0 program looks like this:
:Z=0 and so on—to find out how much
40 TI$="000000" faster the early variables are. 10 TIS="000000"
50 FORX=1TO1000 The lesson for programmers is 20 FORJ=1TO1000
60 Y=Y+Z 30 A=53l2
clear: Your programs will run faster
80 A1=TI:PRINTA1; "JIFFIES",Al/ if you arrange to put heavily used 50 Al=Tl!PRINTAl;"JIFFIES",Al/
60;"SECONDS" variables near the beginning of the 60;"SECONDS"
66 COMPUTE'S Gazette June 1986
The fastest, easiest, most
powerful way to use your C64!

Graphic Environment Operating System

GEOS brings the power of a graphic quality graphic images using the 14
interface to your C64. Icons, pull different graphic tools and shapes.
down menus and windows make Paint or fill in 32 different patterns.
creating and managing information Zoom in for pixel editing or display a
preview of the full page. Add titles or
easier than ever.
snappy captions in different fonts,
All your file handling is done on the
GEOS deskTop. Load in any disk
styles, or point sizes. ORDER
and view its contents as icons. If you geoWrite is an easy to use, graphics 800-443-0100x234
like, sort the files alphabetically by based word processor. Insert, copy,
name, or by the last time you move, or delete. Choose from five GEOS Diskette mckiQ« QaikTop, diskTjrbo. geo Paint, anrj
modified them. It's up to you. different fonts in several different gee Write 159 95 CA reudenl* add 6 5* la* ($4 50 US/7 50
Foreign shipping anrj handling ) US FurdS only,
styles and point sizes. Bring in a
Want to edit a file? Copy or move it picture from geoPaint, if you like. □ Check or Money Order □ VPSA O MutO'cnrd

to another disk? Print or Delete It? Best of all, what you see on the
Simply point at the Icon or filename screen is what you'll get in the final Ac el* Eip Date.
and then select a menu function. output. Compose, arrange and re
arrange for that picture perfect Ma me .

File access is also dramatically presentation.

improved. Seconds after selecting
the icon on the deskTop, your GEOS There's also a few desk accessories, Cily. Slate. Zip .

application will be loaded and you'll for that little extra help when and
Signature .
be ready to work. That's because the where you need It. Available from
integrated dlakTurbo software any GEOS application, they include
improves 1541 disk drive an alarm clock, a notepad, a four S*nd lo
Order FVocomng
performance 5 to 7 times (on both function calculator, and photo and PO Bon 57135

reads and writes!) text albums (for collecting pictures Haywftrd, CA 9*545

and phrases to paste into other weeM for delivery

The high performance doesn't stop applications).

there. GEOS also includes two
mudon.' M and CM mr iradcmarks nl Commodon"
integrated applications. geoPalnl is GEOS is the beginning of a "whole ironics. Lid. GEOS, CEOS Desktop, groPllntj
a full featured, easy to use graphic new world" of products for the C64. ritp, diskTurho, and Hcrkdcy Soil work s tin-

editor. Produce any number of high Watch for new applications. maiks of Berkley Soli works.
This program performs the
same calculation, but uses the up-
arrow (exponentiation) operator.
One thousand times through the
loop, figuring out 53 squared, takes
a Commodore 64 nearly 55 sec

onds, about seven times longer
than the other program. Squaring a
number is common in a variety of
programs that handle statistics, use
trigonometric functions (angles), or
draw hi-res graphics. Clearly, it's Samuel Ford
preferable to avoid the up-arrow in
favor of multiplying. Another factor
is that because of the way numbers If you have a monochrome monitor, the 16 colors
are stored in memory, multiplica of the Commodore 64 or 128 can be used to add
tion is slightly more accurate than
exponentiation. It's not usually a visual excitement to any program. You'll be sur
significant problem, but it's a sec prised at how this clever technique livens up
ond reason not to use the up-arrow.
your display.
When you've got a choice be
tween two approaches to a prob
Each of the 16 colors available with in the same order, but given as
lem, it's not always a matter of
a Commodore 64 or 128 is only a CHR$ codes. If you print a few
personal preference. In this case,
keypress away. But these colors are characters in each of the colors,
multiplying a number by itself is so
of value only to those with color you'll find that some of the shades
much faster than raising it to the
monitors. Those of us with black are the same. There seem to be
second power that il would be al
and white televisions or mono eight distinct levels of light: six
most foolish to pick exponentiation.
chrome monitors see no reds, blues, shades of green (or amber or gray)
This is not to say that you should
or yellows—just greens or ambers between pure white and pure black.
never use the up-arrow; raising a
or grays. We don't get hues, we get Now for the surprise: Type in
number to the 1/3 power is the best
shades. the program that accompanies this
way to find a cube root, for example.
It seems that Commodore's de article. You'll see an effect that's
But if you need to square a number,
signers did not arrange the colors in impossible on a color monitor.
you'll save time if you simply multi
any particular order—at least none (Again, Commodore 12H owners
ply the number by itself.
that I can recognize. As an example, should add the statement BANK 15:
You can speed up the above
type in this two-line program and at the beginning of line 10.)
programs even more if you insert
notice how the shades appear to be What the program does is print
variables into line 30. Try defining
scattered. (Commodore 128 users a short message in a box at the cen
a variable B = 53 in line 5 and then
should add a BANK 15: statement ter of the screen, each time in a dif
change 30 to A = B*B or A = Br2.
at the beginning of line 10.) ferent color. But, since the colors
The programs will run a little faster
10 I'OKE 5328D,0:E'OKE 53281,0
are arranged in the "green-scale"
because BASIC doesn't have to fig
20 FOR A-0 TO lftPOKB 1024 + A, order, the message appears to give
ure out that the characters "5" and
I6D:1'OKE 552% I A,A:NEXT off a smoothly pulsating glow. You
"3" add up to the value 53. When B
could do the same kind of thing
is predefined, BASIC can look up This is the Commodore-
with the box itself, perhaps cycling
the value in variable B and act di assigned order of colors. There
colors opposite the message.
rectly on that number. <B doesn't appear to be any signifi
There are some fascinating
cance to the order. But, if you look
possibilities with the application of
closely, you'll see that they can be
this technique. For example: Using
rearranged, placed in order of in
the data for the "green-scale" given
tensity. Let's try that. Here are a
as POKE codes, you could design a
couple of DATA statements that
COMPUTED define what we'll call the "green
sprite that slowly flickers onto the
screen, or have two sprites that col
GAZETTE scale."
lide, flash brightly, then fade.
TOLL FREE 100 REM " DATA FOR COLOR 1'OKES Since, when using the multicolor
mode, all colors of a certain bit pair
Subscription 101 DATA 0,6,9,11,2,8,4,14,12,10,5,3,15,7,
change color when the appropriate
Order Line 110 REM " DATA FOR CHR3 COLORS color register is altered, you might
1-800-247-5470 make a hi-res picture with flicker
111 DATA 144,31,149,151,28,129,156, ing candles and shimmering fires.
In IA 154,152,150,30,159,155,158,153,5
There are lots of possibilities that
1-800-532-1272 The data in line 101 are the 16 can give your monochrome moni
colors arranged in order of intensi tor a whole new look.
ty. The data in 111 are the 16 colors Sec program listing an page 102. w
68 COMPUTE'S Gazette June 1986
Quick Key
lames Nakakihara

saved the program from MLX.)

This handy Commodore 64 utility can dramatically
After the load is complete, type
reduce the time required to type in BASIC pro NEW and press RETURN before
grams, including those from the GAZETTE. It adds you attempt any other BASiC oper
ations. (This is necessary to reset
automatic line numbering, single key entry of
important BASIC memory locations
any BASIC keyword, and even a numeric keypad. and prevent an OUT OF MEMORY
error message.} To activate the new
Do you ever get tired (if all the typ SHIFT-Z within quotes produces features, type SYS 49152 and press
ing required to enter a BASIC pro the normal graphics character for RETURN. You won't notice any im
gram? If so, "Quick Key" may that key combination. mediate changes, but now anytime
provide welcome relief. By pressing Quick Key also provides for you correctly enter a Quick Key
an alphabetic key along with either automatic line numbering and in command, you'll get the message
SHIFT or the Commodore key, you cludes an added special feature to QUICK KEY OK!. Use the Quick
can have an entire BASIC keyword simplify the process of entering Key commands as you would any
printed for you in just one key DATA statements. And a numeric other BASIC command in direct
stroke. No more typing all five keypad is provided for speedy nu mode. However, the new com
characters for PRINT; just type merical data entry. mands cannot be used within a
SHIFT-A. It's as easy as using ?, but program.
has the added advantage of being
Typing It In
compatible with the gazette's
"Automatic Proofreader" program. Since Quick Key is written entirely Using The New Commands
If you'd prefer some combination in machine language, it must be en Quick Key adds the following new
other than SHIFT-A for PRINT, tered with the "MIX1 machine lan commands. Notice that each must
that's no problem. Quick Key guage entry program published be preceded by a + sign:
makes it easy to change the key def regularly in GAZETTE. Be sure you
+ AUTO increment D. Activates
initions to suit your personal needs. have read and understood the di
automatic line numbering. After
But what if you need to type rections for using MLX before you
you type in the first program line,
one of the special graphics charac begin to enter the data for Quick
the line numbers for all succeeding
ters produced by using the SHIFT Key. When you run MLX, you will
lines will be provided automatical
and Commodore keys? Quick Key be asked for the starting and ending
ly. Each new line number is the
is designed to avoid that sort of addresses of the Quick Key data.
sum of the previous line number
conflict. Since you almost always The correct values are:
plus the specified increment value.
type the graphics characters as part Starling address; C000 The optional parameter D, if used,
of PRINT statements—and since F.nding address: C2B4
will cause the BASIC keyword
you rarely type BASIC keywords DATA to bo printed following the
Now you can begin entering the
within PRINT statements—the line number. This is useful when
Quick Key data. When you're fin
single-stroke keyword entry feature entering a long series of DATA
ished, be sure to save at least one
is disabled while typing within statements. When used in conjunc
quotes. For example, if you activate tion with the numeric keypad, this
When you're ready to use the
Quick Key and type SHIFT-A, feature can save you a lot of time if
new commands, load the Quick
quote (SHIFT-2),'SH!FT-Z, you you have many numeric DATA
Key routine with LOAD "QUICK
should see: lines to enter.
KEY",8,1 for disk, or LOAD
PR I NT" ♦ For example, to have Quick
"QUICK KEY",1,1 for tape. (In
The SHIFT-A outside quotes pro place of QUICK KEY, substitute Key increment by 10, just type:
duces the keyword PRINT, but the whatever name you used when you i AUTO 10

COMPUTED Gazelto June 19S6 69


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Then type the first program line you'd prefer to have SHIFT-P pro tivate it.
and press RETURN. Quick Key will duce PRINT, then enter the It's also possible to permanent
provide the next line number—the following: ly modify Quick Key's default val
first line number plus 10—followed + KEYS l',153 ues for the keyword function. If
by a Space, !f you want the keyword there's some key definition that you
To cancel the one-stroke key
DATA to follow the line number, particularly dislike, this will save
word entry feature, enter + KEY
you from having to use +KEYC or
alone and press RETURN. This
+ AUTO 10 D + KEYS to change it every time you
does not destroy the key defini
use Quick Key. First, load and acti
To skip a range of lines, use tions, but simply sets or clears a
vate Quick Key. then use +KEYC
either SHIFT-RETURN or the cur flag. To reenable easy keyword en
and +KEYS to set up the keyword
sor keys to get to an empty line, try, again type +KEY with no pa
definitions you prefer. Save a copy
then type the line with the next de rameters, then press RETURN.
of Ihe modified version by entering
sired line number. Automatic line Thus, the + KEY command func
this line, followed by RETURN:
numbering will resume with the tions as a toggle, switching the key
next line following the new line you POKE 43,0:POKE 44,192:1'OKE 45,181
word entry feature off if it was
just entered, [-'or example, if you're previously on, or on if it was previ
using an increment of 10 and have ously off. Tape users should change the ,8 in
just typed line 590, but want the the SAVE command to ,1. Be sure
+ NUM. Activates the numeric
next line to be 1000 rather than 600, to use some different name for this
keypad feature. The keypad is set
you should press SHIFT-RETURN version; keep your original copy as
up as shown in the accompanying
when the 600 is provided and type a backup. After the save is com
figure. Most keys that are not part
in the desired line 1000. Automatic plete, you'll need to turn your 64 off
of the numeric keypad are disabled
line numbering will then resume and back on to reset important
to prevent typing mistakes. How
with line 1010. BASIC pointers.
ever, the comma, period, colon, mi
To cancel automatic line num See program listing on page 107.
nus sign, INST/DEL, RETURN,
bering, use either SHIFT-RETURN
and SHIFT keys remain active, as
or the cursor keys to get to an emp
do all cursor control keys. The D BASIC Keyword Tokens
ty line, then enter +AUTO (with
key also remains active so that it
out parameters) and press
can be used with the easy keyword Default assignments:
entry feature (SH1FT-D prints
pears to act like a regular RETURN, Key SHIFT Token Commodore Token
DATA). To exit the numeric keypad
but any data on the line will not be
and reactivate the full keyboard, A PRINT 153 AND 175
acted upon or entered by the B KND 187 REM 143
press the RUN/STOP key.
computer.) C CLOSE 160 199
D DATA 131 DIM 134
+ KEYC letter, token. Redefines a Numeric Keypad Configuration E END 128 D1ZF ISO
Commodore key combination to F FOR 129 ASC l'JH
print a particular BASIC keyword. G GOTO 137 GOSUG 141
H GET 161 RUN 138
The table below shows the stan T Y U
I IF 139 INPUT 133
dard keyword definitions for all RUN/STOP D F G H I I INT IB! INPUTo 132
Commodore-letter key combina C V B N M
tions. This command lets you L LIST 155 I-OAD 147
M MIDS 202 LEN 195
change any of these to whatever become: EXIT D 0
N NEXT 130 NEW 162
other keyword you prefer-. The let DEL ,
O OPEN 159 OR 176
ter parameter should be one of the P POKE 351 PEEK 194
alphabetic characters A-Z, and Q ON 145 PRINT* 152
token should be the code number One word of caution: If you're
5 SPC{ 166 5AVE I-JH
corresponding to the desired BASIC using the numeric keypad, be care T THEN 167 TO 164
keyword, also found in the table at ful to avoid the keyboard lockup U SYS 158 STEP 169
the end of this article. (The key bug (discussed in "Gazette Feed V VAI. 197 VERIFY 149
word code, or token, is the one-byte back," September 1985) which W RIGHTS 201 LEFTS 200
X TAB( 163 SIN 191
value that BASIC uses internally to plagues many older 64s. With the
represent a keyword.) keypad active, there is no apparent Z CMD 157 CI.R 156
For example, to program the escape method short of turning off
Commodore-Z key combination to the computer. Exercise extreme Not used but also available:
print POKE, type caution when deleting characters at
+ KEYC Z,15! the bottom of the screen, especially Keyword Token Keyword Token

after a scroll. ABS 182 ATN 193

and press RETURN.
CONT 154 EXP isy
+ OFF, Disables Quick Key and re
FN 165 FRF 164
+ KEYS letter, token. Redefines a stores the normal BASIC vectors. NOT 168 FOS 165
SHIFT-lctter key combination to As a safeguard, always turn Quick SGN 180 5QK 186
print a chosen BASIC keyword. The Key off before running any pro STOP 144 STKS 196
TAN 192 USK 183
parameters are the same as for the grams. When you need Quick Key
WAIT 146
+ KEYC command. For example, if again, just enter SY5 49152 to reac
72 COMPUTED Gazelle June 1986
Infocom's Trinity, a new puzzle-oriented A complete system, including Compu
RAM Expansion For 128 all-text adventure game for the Com tereyes and a video camera, is available
Commodore Introduced two RAM modore 128 that combines fiction with for $349.95. Newsroom Compatibility
expansion modules for the Commodore history. Software costs $15. The Newsroom pro
128 that provide an additional 12HK or Suggested retail price is S39.95. gram is purchased separately (S49.95)
512K of memory for data or program Infocam, Inc., 125 CambridgePark Dr., from Springboard Software, 7808
storage. The Commodore 1700, with Cambridge, MA 02UO. Creekridge Circle, Minneapolis, MN
128K of additional memory, and the 55435.
Circle Reader Service Number 238.
Commodore 1750, with an extra 512K, Digital Vision, Inc., U Oak St., Ste.
each plug Into the 128's expansion port, 2. Needham, MA 02192.
similar to an application or game car Circle Reader Service Number 240.
tridge. Commodore 64/128 Assembler
The 128's BASIC 7-0 contains key And Editor
words, such as FETCH, STASH, and The Rein?/ Assembler/Editor, from Nu- Dvorak Keyboard Programs
SWAP, that let programmers have easy Age Software, is a machine language Prelco has released new products for
access to the expansion memory. In assembler and full-screen editor with the Commodore 64 and 128 which are
CP/M mode, the 128's operating sys versions for the 64 and 128, both on the based on the Dvorak keyboard layout.
tem lets the expansion modules serve as same disk. The source editor allows full DV Switcher \s s ROM kernal kit that al
RAMdisks, or scratch disks, for tempo use of all resident BASIC commands. lows you lo run Papi-rClip, SpeedScript,
rary storage of user files. With a RAM- The company states that the program Multiptan, Superbase, and other pro
disk, the CP/M user is able to load and will assemble a 45K source file into a 7K grams using the Dvorak keyboard. The
save files at up to one megabyte per machine language program in 16 sec kit includes a modified ROM kernal, a
second. onds. Rebel is RAM-based, with options switch to select the new ROM or the
The Commodore 1700 sells for to assemble to memory, disk, screen, or Qwerty ROM, and key covers with both
$199, and the Commodore 1750 for printer. Labels are supported and the markings. The new ROM changes your
S299. Each module comes with a diag symbol table can be printed after as keyboard from the standard Qwerty
nostic test and demo disk. sembly. Source files can be linked. layout to the faster Dvorak layout.
CommodOTt Business Machines, The 128 version in 80 columns The $39,95 price does not include
Computer Systems Division, 1200 Wilson provides an onscreen command sum the hardware installation, which must
Dr., West Chester, PA 19380. mary and split-screen editing. The 64 be carried out by an electronic techni
Circle Reader Service Number 236. version features renumbering, page cian (installation voids remaining Com
flipping, and hexadecimal and ASCII modore warranty).
conversions. DV Typer is a Dvorak typing tutor
64 And 128 Mouse Suggested retail price is $29.95. and keyboard conversion program for
A two-button mouse controller for the Nu-Age Software, 2311 28th St. N.,
64 and 128 computers is now available St. Petersburg. FL 33713.
from Commodore. The mouse, priced
at $49, plugs into one of the joystick
Circle Reader Service Number 239.
for your Commodore 64 and 128
ports. You control the direction of the The ROBO-TROLLER1" from AfiftE is a ccmp'ele
cursor on the screen by moving the Video Images robolics expo n maniocs lab Controls up !o J maiois
wilh 005nion feedback sensors. Plug-compalible
mouse across any flat surface. The two Digital Vision has announced software wilh MiUQn-BratUay's ROBOTIX1* compuiBT-
buttons let the user control a variety of that lets its Computereyes video acqui controt&d Ratal Arms. Votvcta, Manipulators. 10

features depending on the software used. sition system for the Commodore 64 which you enach sensors Eottwjro and uw*b gu'de
.ii low you (o program re poa' asro met -a ns at Develop
Commodore Business Machines, work with the popular Newsroom you' own programs and rotate eiperirnanls1

Computer Systems Division, 1200 Wilson newsletter-printing program from

All RGBOTROLLER"' sets incJude inierface uniib a
Dr., West Chester, PA 19380. Springboard Software. Computereyes oplical leecback sensor assomoiias, soUware, cables,

Circle Reader Service Number 237. is a slow-scan device that plugs into the and users guide ROBQTIX11- includes * motors and
all mechanical elements.
I/O port and connects to any standard
video source to provide black and white
Historical Fiction For The 128 images. The complete package includes $89 95 {+ U P & H)
You escape bomb-threatened London a disk, owner's manual, interface mod American Ri>hcil St Kite trunks
through a mysterious door and find ule, and a one-year warranty. J2ft M«odi Sirrei, Wat I ham, MA 02154
(617) H9J.0J2S
yourself on a magical journey that takes The Newsroom Compatibility Soft
you from the Siberian tundra to a tropi ware allows users to create their own
cal island, from deep underground to images with Computereyes and use
the depths of outer space. Finally, you them with Newsroom to compose and
arrive in the New Mexico desert min print newspapers, newsletters, and
utes before the world's first atomic ex announcements.
plosion, code-named Trinity. This is Computereyes is priced at $129.95.
COMPUTE'S Gazette June 1986 73
the Commodore 64 arid 128. The 128 guide ($5 postage and handling). Un Spelling & Reading Primer have suggest
version includes autoboot of DV Typer satisfied users are requested to erase the ed retail prices of $39.95 each.
and use of the Paper Clip 128 word pro disk. EduWare Services, Inc., 185 Berry
cessor with Dvorak. DV Typer retails for Electrosharp Telecommunications, St., San Francisco, CA 94107.
$36.95. P.O. Box 2831, Orcutt, CA 93455. Circle Reader Service Number 246.
Prelco, 14202 Galy St., Tusttn, CA Circle Reader Service Number 243.
Circle Reader Service Number 241. 64 Word Processor/Database
New From SourceView Software Resource Group has begun
Source View Software has released sev shipping Brown Bag Software, an inte
128 Database Software eral new programs for the Commodore grated word processor and database
Bouncing Dog Software has released its 64 and 128. Math Pop Quiz for the Com manager for the Commodore 64. {An
first product for the Commodore 128, modore 64 uses graphics, color, and Apple II version is on the flip side of the
Data Master 128. This program allows sound to teach addition, subtraction, disk.)
you to develop multivolume data sets multiplication, and division to children The program lets you easily incor
of up to 26,000 records, search the files at various levels of ability. porate information from your databases
using a wildcard, create mailing labels, PC Home Checkbook for the 64 lets into letters, reports, and other docu
and generate reports. Help screens may you keep record of checkbook transac ments. Up to 20 of these merges can be
be activated from anywhere within the tions, including deposits, checks writ done within any one document. Editing
program without losing the data with ten, automatic teller activity, and bank features of the word processor include
which you're working. charges. It is designed for home use and global search and replace, headers,
Data Master 128 is priced at $29.95. provides a statement for any time span trailers, footers, and deletion by charac
Bouncing Dog Software, P.O. Box you specify. For the Commodore 64. ter, word, line, and paragraph. The data
6753, Minneapolis, MN 55406. PCSccure for the Commodore 128 base manager lets you create your own
Circle Reader Service Number 242. is a datafile encryption program which templates or use the ones provided.
uses a key-driven code to protect your The suggested retail price is $59.95.
files from unauthorized users. It is writ Software Resource Group, Inc.,
Telecommunications Software ten in machine language. 15100 El Camino Grande, Saratoga, CA
Electrosharp Telecommunications has Suggested retail price for Math Pop 95070.
released a new telecommunications Quiz is $19.95, $39.95 for PC Home Circle Reader Service Number 247.
software package for the Commodore Checkbook, and $49.50 for PCSecure.
64. The program uses menus and help SourceView Software International,
screens; supports ASCII, XMODEM, 835 Castro St., Martinez, CA 94553. Equation-Solving On The 64
and Punter protocols; has a 34K capture Circle Reader Service Number 244. Balance! is an interactive program that
buffer; converts BASIC listings inlo teaches students about solving equa
runnable programs and Commodore tions. By working with graphically dis
ASCII to regular ASCII (and vice versa); Computer-Assisted Writing played linear equations on a balance
has full-screen editing and 40/80 col Woodbury has added two new titles to beam, students can literally see the
umns; includes auto-dia! features; the Playwriter Series for the Commo equation-solving process, and better
works at 300 and 1200 bits per second; dore 64. Castles & Creatures, for grades understand it.
and the keyboard can be customized. five and six, and Mystery!, for grades The program is aimed at beginning
The package is sent free of charge seven to twelve, help youngsters develop algebra students, advanced students
to anyone who sends a self-addressed, their writing skills and create a book. who want to review the basics, and par
stamped disk mailer, if satisfied, users Each package includes a word-process ents and teachers looking for more ef
are asked to remit $25, which entitles ing disk, special computer paper, a fective ways of teaching basic math
them to all future upgrades, technical hardcover binding, and colored stickers concepts.
assistance with telecommunications for illustrating the book. Developed by the New York Insti
problems, and a telecommunications Retail price for the package is tute of Technology, the program strives
$39.95, and $9.95 for refill packs. to teach what an equation is and how it
Woodbury Software, 127 White Oak works, how and why an algorithm
Ln., CN 1001, Old Bridge, NJ 08857. functions, and other aspects of working
Circle Reader Service Number 245. with equations.
Balance! is available for $49.
HRM Software, 175 Tompkins Ape,,
Math And Spelling Helpers Pleasantville, NY 10570.
Eduware Services has released Com
Circle Reader Service Number 248. Of
A SIMPLE LOW COST modore 64 versions of two of its educa
tional software series. Algebra 1, 2, and
3 programs help students with first-
year high school algebra by using defi
nitions, explanations of algebra rules, GAZETTE
sample problems, and practice problems.
Spelling & Reading Primer helps TOLL FREE
luprpmlpl. cic J
Dlmilrti Id emit' 0' rlgmjuillfy IciT. contro children from ages four to eight learn to
Jlne jpHlng. (wilrol mMQIni jn>rt more
read by watching pictures with words
Order Line
'..■ |. i H.I. ' !.."■■■■ ..'■!

mlomliabTe TO All p*mT«i

hu[ pcnvtrulmnv driven hfm control
on the screen and playing a matching
game. In the spelling part of the pro
mrmfccilng 1-800-247-5470
gram, youngsters can receive coaching
SIMP LICIT*-HOMI SOFTWARE on how to spell words or practice with In IA
out help. 1-800-532-1272
Algebra 1, Algebra 2, Algebra 3, and
74 COMPUTE'S Gazolta Juno 1986
64 AutoBoot Maker
Rene Suarez

"filename",8,l and press RETURN.

Here's a Commodore 64 boot-making program
Replace filename with the name of
with a twist: It's compatible with most commer your autoboot, and don't forget the
cial accelerators for the 1541 disk drive. ,1 after the 8. The target program
automatically loads and runs, (if it
Unlike most other computers, the Preparing An Autoboot doesn't, one reason may be that it
Commodore 64 does not automati loads into the same memory area as
Type in 64 Autoboot Maker and
cally boot (load and run) programs the autoboot itself-—locations
save a copy, then run it. First it asks
from disk. After loading a program, $02A7-0303.)
for the name of the target program
you must type either a RUN or SY5 Note that you must repeat the
(the one you want the autoboot to
command to start it up. However, procedure to create the same auto
load and run). Since Autoboot
you've probably used commercial boot file on another disk.
Maker looks for the program on
software that automatically loads disk, insert the correct disk in the Sec program listing on page 100. <ffi
and runs when you enter a state drive when you enter the filename.
ment such as LOAD"BOOT",8,1. Next, enter a name for the auto
Wouldn't it be nice to run your own boot. Of course, this name should
programs this way? be different from the original file
Such programs are said to au name. For example, if the target
toboot because everything is auto program is named LASER, you could
matic after you enter the LOAD call the autoboot LASER/BOOT. COMMODORE
command. In effect, they pull At this point, you must enter the
themselves up by their own boot memory address where the program Commline - 64
straps; hence the term. Since auto- begins. If the target program is
boots require less typing, they're BASIC, press RETURN without en BBS
ideal for frequently used programs tering a number (BASiC programs 10 Message Bases
or programs intended for people always start in the same place). If the 10 Discussion Boards
who aren't familiar with the com target program is machine language, Private E-Mail
puter. The only catch is that auto- enter the memory address where it Xmodem File Transfer
Auto Validate
boots can be very tricky to write. normally begins. The address may
Auto Message update
And though there are programs be entered in decimal or hexadecimal Supports Ihe 1660 Modem
that construct them for you, the re (a hex number must begin with the $
Allow) Weeks For Delivery
sulting package may not be com symbol).
patible with the popular accelerator Finally, you have the option of And Much Much More
programs for the 1541 disk drive. making the autoboot disable the Mastercard & Visa Accepted
"64 Autoboot Maker" gives RUN/STOP and RESTORE keys. CALL
you the best of both worlds—-an (Warning; With these keys disabled, 1-800-237-4120 ext. 55
autoboot that works with most ac you may not be able to break out of (Florida residence coll)
celerated drives and normal drives, the autobooted program without
1-800-282-4938 ext. 55
too. (Unfortunately, it won't work turning off the computer.) Enter Y if
with the "TurboDisk" accelerator you want them disabled and N if you
published in the July 1985 issue of don't. Once this is done, the disk
the GAZETTE.) You can make an au drive spins for a short time and the
toboot for any BASIC or machine status of the drive appears on the
language program, and even dis screen.

able the RUN/STOP and RE To test the newly created auto

STORE keys if you like. boot package, simply type LOAD-
COMPUTE'S Gazatte June 1986 75

Help Screens

latter Siddiqui the page in memory. The 64 version CTRL-cursor right to page forward,
flashes the border color to signal or CTRL-cursor up. In the 128 ver
Here's an easy way to include up to that the page has been saved. The sion, use the up and down arrow
eight help screens with your BASIC 128 version changes the border keys to page through the help
ami machine language programs. For color. After a help screen is saved, screens. To exit the help screens,
the 64 and 128. A disk drive is you can clear the screen and design press CTRL-DEL (64 version), In
required. the next one. the 128 version, press the HELP
Up to eight screens can be cre key again. When you return to the
Many powerful programs include a
ated following these steps. After the help screens, you'll see the most re
lot of commands and options, In
eighth one is finished, a new pro cently viewed screen.
some cases, it's difficult or impossi
gram—HELP.EXE—is created on Running certain machine lan
ble to remember them all. And pag
your disk, and your help screens guage programs—or pressing
ing through a magazine article or
are saved into a file called HS. You RUN/STOP-RESTORE—will pre
manual for the documentation can
may find that you need less than vent Help Screens from operating.
be awkward and inconvenient.
eight help screens. In the 64 ver If this happens, type SYS 679 (64
"Help Screens" offers an elegant
sion, just press CONTROL-D after version) or SYS 5728 (128 version)
solution. By following a few simple completing your last screen. In the to re-activate Help Screens.
sleps, you can create up to eight
128 version, press SHIFT-ENTER. See program listings on page 106. <m
help screens for a program.
It's a good idea to save your
Begin by typing in and saving a
help screens on the same disk as the
copy of the program. Although
program they'll be used to support.
most of the program is written in
For example, if you've created help
machine language, you can save, LIMITED TIME ITS HERE NOW
screens for a program named "File-
load, and run the program as if it
a-way," insert the disk that con
were BASIC. The machine lan
tains "l:ile-a-way" and run "Help
guage is stored in the form of
DATA statements. Program 1 is for
Screens". The "HELP.EXE" and
"HS" files will then be on the same THE MANAGEMENT
the 64; Program 2 is for the 128.
When you type RUN, the ma -198S
chine language routines are POKEd In Action
into memory and the screen is To use Help Screens, Commodore
cleared. When the flashing cursor 64 users should enter LOAD Under$40
returns, you're ready to begin creat "HELPER.EXE",8,1. Commodore
ing your help screens. 128 users should enter BLOAD For Commodore 64 and 128K
Press the CLR key to erase the "HELPER.EXE" then type SYS Fjrsi time offered at this price
screen, then type in the information 5632.
you want displayed on the firsl help Help Screens works with all
screen. (Do not press RETURN BASIC programs and most machine Powerful • * + * NOT
while you're working on this language programs. Always load Easy To Use $39.95 *♦♦ COPY
screen. If this key is pressed, a SYN Help Screens (HELPER.EXE) first.
TAX ERROR will result, and your After HELPER.EXE is loaded, it
screen will be destroyed.) Use the loads the HS file which contains For Sample Send S3.00
cursor keys to move the cursor to your help screens. Enter NEW, then (postage & handling) to:
any position on the screen. Use the load the program for which you
cursor keys to move around the created the help screens. Your help National
screen. Be careful to avoid scrolling screens are now available—and Advancement
the top line off of the screen. only a keypress away. If you're Corporation
When you've finished the help using a 64, press CTRL-H. If you're 3001 Heohill Are. • BldgS, Suile tO8,'113
screen, press CTRL-I; (press F while Cosia Mesa. CA 92626 • (714] 640-5988
using a 128, press HELP. Page one
holding down the CTRL key). If (the first one created) is displayed
you're using the 128 version, press when you first access the help
also available at
S59.95 tor IBM PC, XT, AT
the ENTER key on the numeric screens. Commodore 64 users can
keypad. Help Screens then stores flip through the pages by pressing
IBM PC. XT. JT st mdemarts

76 COMPUTEIs GazBlte Juno 19BG

SpeedScript-80 For The 128
Todd Heimarck, Assistant Editor

Palch I
Now 128 owners with an 80-column monitor can Sterling Address: 2A4E

run the popular SpeedScript word processor for Ending Address: 2A5D

the Commodore 64. Very little typing is required Patch 3

Starting Address: 315D
because the program patches into an existing copy Ending Address: 31A4

of SpeedScript version 3.0 or higher. Patch 4

Starting Address 3-14?
Ending Address: 346C

Without a doubt, the SpeedScript That's the bad news. The good
Palch 5
word processor is the most popular news is that, if you already have a Storting Address: C00O
program ever published by COM copy of SpeedScript for the 64, ver Ending Adufress; C137
PUTE! Publications- Version 1, in sion 3.0 or higher (from the March
After saving these five pro
cluding both a VIC and a 64 1985 COMPUTE!, the SpeedScript
grams to disk, go back into 128
program, was printed in the Janu book, or the January 1986 COMPUTE!
mode—turn your computer off and
ary 1984 issue of CO^PUTEVs GA DISK), you have to type in only a
then on. Enter the machine lan
ZETTE. The upgraded and improved few hundred characters to upgrade
guage monitor with the command
version 2.0, with a help screen and to a full 80 columns. Compare that
MONITOR (or press f8). Insert the
custom characters, was included on to (he roughly 7-8K you'd have to
disk containing SpeedScript Into
the inaugural GAZETTE DISK in May enter for a brand-new program.
your drive and type the following
of the same year. Version 2.1 can be "SpeedScript-80" patches into
monitor load command, substitut
found in COMPUTEI's Second Book the main program to provide an 80-
ing the appropriate filename for
of Commodore 64. column screen display. It must be
Version 3.0 (with separate pro run on a 128—in 64 mode—
grams for 64, VIC, Apple, and because it takes advantage of the
128's 80-column chip (yes, the 80- SpeedScript will be loaded into
Atari) appeared over several
column screen can be accessed in the 1 28's memory at address
months in our sister magazine COM
64 mode). It won't run on standard $02801. Normally, SpeedScript
PUTE! in the spring of 1985. The ma
64s because they lack the 80- loads at S0801, but that part of
chine language source code for 3.1
column chip. memory is not available for use by
was published separately in the
programs in 128 mode. Now load
SpeedScript books for Commodore,
Installing SpeedScript-80 the first four patches:
Atari, and Apple. Version 3.2 was
You'll need to begin with a working L "PATCHES
included as a bonus on the January
L "I'ATCE12",8
1986 COMPUTEI DISK. Individual version of SpeedScript 3. If you're
L "PATCH3",8
disks containing SpeedScript 2.0, not sure which version you own, L "PATCH4",8
3,0, 3.1, and 3.2 are still available. look at the top (command) line. If The 80-column patches are in
there's no number, you have ver
serted into the program and you
sion 1 or 2. If it says 3.0, 3.1, or 3.2,
SpeedScript For The 128 can now save the results:
you have the correct version.
The ideal 128 version would take S ■TEMP",8,02801,04009
Kirst, go into 64 mode by typ
full advantage of the machine's fea This is only a temporary file,
ing GO 64. Load and run "MLX,"
tures: 40- or 80-column output, ac the machine language entry pro which you can scratch when you've
cess to the numeric keypad and finished creating SpeedScript-80.
gram published elsewhere in this
other keys (perhaps an alternate You're almost there. Now type X (to
issue, and type in the following
character set toggled by the ALT eXit to BASIC) and enter GO 64.
programs (save them as five sepa
key), and two large text areas of from 64 mode, type the following
rate files):
about 60K each. lines:
Patch I
As you may have guessed, this St,irtinS Address: 2H9E LOAD "PATCHS",8,1
is not the full-featured 128 version. Ending Address; 2935 NEW

COMPUTE.'s Gazelle June 1986 77

2. Store a 0 in $D601, which is tage is cancelled out. Twice as
SYS 49152
sent to register 18 ($12), as we set much screen memory slows things
Insert the disk on which you up in step 1. down, and twice the speed returns
want to save SpeedScript-80 before 3. Store $13 in SD600. Register things to normal.
entering SAVE "SPEEDSCRIPT80" 19 ($13) holds the low byte of the From BASIC, you can go into
,8. This file is the new 80-column address where we'll POKE (note FAST mode by typing POKE
version of SpecdScript; the patches that for the 8563 chip the high byte 53296,1. To go back to normal,
are no longer needed. comes before the low byte, just the POKE 53296,0. This works in both
opposite of a typical 8502 machine 64 mode and 128 mode (to be safe,
How To Run It language address). issue a BANK 15 command before
You have to follow specific instruc 4. Store a 0 in $D601. Now, you use this POKE on the 128). Of
tions to load and run SpeedScript-80: registers $12-$13 point to location course, BASIC 7.0 has the FAST
$0000. This is not $0000 in the command, so the POKE isn't really
1. Turn on your 128 in 128
128's memory map; it's a location necessary in 128 mode.
in the 8563's private memory.
2. Type GO 64, press RE
5. Store $1F in $D600. Register
Slight Changes To The
TURN, then answer Y to the ARE
YOU SURE? question. The com 31 (SlF) will hold the character to Command Set
puter will switch to 64 mode. be POKEd to screen memory. Three commands are no longer
available when you run Speed
3. From 64 mode, LOAD 6. Finally, store a 1, the screen
code of the letter we're putting in Script-80: CTRL-L (change letter
the top left corner, in $D601. From color), CTRL-B (change back
4. Switch the display from 40 ground color), and CTRL-X (ex
to 80 columns. register 31, it will be transferred to
the 80-column screen memory ad change two transposed characters).
If you hold down the Commo dress in registers $12-$13. An RGB monitor is required to see
dore key to go straight into 64 mode 80 columns in color. And the rou
For machine language pro
when you turn on the machine, tine to fill attribute memory (which
SpeedScript-80 won't work correct grammers who want to try this, is something like color memory, but
ly. Starting out in 128 mode forces there's one more thing to keep in it also controls flashing and under
mind. After storing the register
the computer to initialize the 80- lining) would have required an ad
eolumn chip. Among other things, number in $D600, you have to wait ditional patch. The CTRL-X option
for the high bit ($80) of $D600 to be
the character set is loaded into 80- was deleted because a small section
column memory. set before storing a value in $D601. of memory was needed for one of
This can be done with the BIT in the new 80-column subroutines.
struction followed by a BPL. When
How It Works In addition, because there is
the high bit is turned on, you can more information on the screen, the
A Commodore 128 in 64 mode is store the appropriate value in SD601.
not a perfect Commodore 64. It has disk directory command (CTRL-$)
Screen memory for the 80- lists the filenames in two columns.
some extra capabilities, like access column screen starts at $0000, and
to the 80-column chip. This means you can see up to 50 file
it takes six POKEs to get a character names on a single screen. Unfortu
The 8563 chip in the 128 pro there. SpecdScript is built to deal
vides the 80-column screen in 128 nately, the way the screen wraps
with a screen size of 40 x 25 charac around puts half the number of
mode and has two handles in 64
ters, and a lot of time goes to updat blocks per file on the right-hand
mode: You can PEEK and POKE lo ing the screen. Theoretically, the
cations $D600 and $D601. Address edge of the screen. To fix this would
80-culumn screen should take more have required another patch, which
SD600 controls which internal 8563 time. would have taken away one more
register is PEEKed or POKEd, while
SD601 contains the value read from SpeedScript command. Also, the
FAST-64 Mode characters have to be POKEd to 80-
or written to the register.
You can make the 128 work twice column memory, so there's no easy
The 8563 80-column chip has
as fast as usual in 128 mode by typ way to scroll the screen when you
its own I6K of dedicated memory,
ing FAST. The 40-column screen is have more than 50 files on a disk. If
and you can reach it only through
disabled, but the computer's speed you attempt to display a long direc
the two memory locations at
doubles from 1 MHz (1,000,000 in tory, the extra characters go past
$D600-SD601. Between the two
struction cycles per second) to 2 screen memory into attribute mem
control locations and the 16K of
MHz (2,000,000 instruction cycles ory. Again, writing a screen scroll
memory, though, are 36 internal
per second). routine would have meant another
8563 chip registers. To POKE the
Within 64 mode, you can ac patch.
value 1 (we'll use the A character)
cess the FAST mode by sacrificing Apart from these four changes,
to the first memory location for the
the 40-column screen. Since we're all SpecdScript commands remain
80-column screen (address $0000
POKEing the 80-column chip, this the same. Documents created in 40-
in the 8563's 16K bank), you have
isn't a problem. The 8563 has twice column SpecdScript can be loaded,
to perform the following POKEs:
as much screen memory, so it edited, and saved with Speed
l.Store$12in$D600. Register should take twice as long to update Script-80. And the printing and for
18 ($12) holds the high byte of the the display. But if the computer matting commands are unchanged.
address where we'll POKE. works twice as fast, the disadvan See program listings on page 101. <Q>
78 COMPU7E>s Gazelle June 1986
A Guide To
Commodore User Groups
Part 2
Joan Rouleau

Plus/1 Orphanage, P.O. Boi 9201, Albuquerque,
NM 87119
New Mexico Commodore User's Group, P.O Box
37127, AlbuquOnplB, NM 87176
The Northern New Mexico Commodore Users
Croup, 2725 Camiim Cimarron, Santa Fe, NM
The second half of the user group guide includes states 8751) I
Taos Area Commodore User's Group, P.O. Bos
N-W and countries outside the U.S. The U.S. groups are 3089, ftoj, NM 87571
listed by state in order of ascending zip code. Aviation and Computer Enthusiasts (ACE), 1220
Birch Dr., Las C races, NM 88001
When writing to a user group for information, The Southern New Mexico Commodore User's
Croup. P.O, Bo* 4437, Uni. Park Brch, Las
remember to include a self-addressed envelope with postage CniMft NM 881)01
that is appropriate for the country to which you're writing. Commodore Users Croup of Roswell (CUCOR).
304 E. Country Clurj Rd., Rccwcll, NM 88201

New fork City VIC-20/C-6J User Croup
(Citigroup). 436 £ 69th St.. New Voik. NY
Tri-County 64-User Group, 22 Jackson Village, 1O021
Rutheiford, NJ 07070 Kids' Computer News User Group, St. Hilda's
Pathfinder Commodore User Group, i'.O. Boi Commodore Link Users Group, 308 Palisade and St. Hughs school*. 619 W. 114ih St., New-
683, Fremont. NE 68025 Ave., Union City, NJ 07087 York NY 10025
Pathfinders 61. 2133 Clarmar St.. Fremont. NE Commodore Crew User Croup (CCUC1, 304 Bom New York Commodore Interest User Croup
68025 St., 5ecaucus, NJ 07094 INYC1C), 380 Kivcrsidi- Dr. 7Q. Hew York, NY
Greater Omaha Commodore User Croup, 2932 Commodore Software Exchange, Bon 281, 10025
Leawood Dr., Omaha, NE 68123
Pumpton Plains, NJ 07J44 HCHS C-f>4 User Croup, 71 E. 94lh St.. New Yoik.
Riverrity Commodore Club, -11)07 N 101st. lnfo-64 c/o Video Dynamics, Ltd.. 16 VV. Ridge- NV 10128
Omaha, NE 68134 wood Ave., Ridgewood, NJ 07450 Metropolitan Life Insurance Users Group. P.O.
Lincoln Commodore User's Group. P.O. Bos Commodore User Group of Hiiisdalc (CUGOH), Boi biB, New York, NY 10159
30665, Lincoln, NE 68503 23 Palm St., Hillsdaie, NJ 07642 Commodore Computer Game Masters of the
Lincoln Commodore Users Group. P.O. Box Commodore 64 Beginners Group, 680 Leigh Bronx & C.A.T. Productions, 4526 Monticcllo
30655, Lincoln, NE 68503, atln: Secretary Terrace, Westwood, NJ 07675 Ave,, Bron<, NY 10466
Mid-Nebraska Users of Commodore IMUC), L & L Commodore 64 User Group, One LongSlreOi Bronx-64 Users Group, I'.O. Bin 47 Cornell Sta
3220 W, 13, Apl, 9, Grand Island, NE 68802 Rd., Manatapan, N| 07726 tion, Uranx, NY 10473
The Alliance Commodore Computer Club, 726 NJ Commodore 64/Compuler Users Croup, 11 miWife Terminal Club, Box 555-R, Co-op Cily
VV. 16th St., AllUnK NE 69301 Cheerful PL, Highland*, NJ 07732 Statian, Bronx, NV 10475
I'lalle Valley Commodore Users Group Commodore User Group of Matawan New Computer Literacy and Programming (CLAP), 7
(PVCUC), Box #283, MinsUre, NE 69356 Jersey, 112 Old Bridge Rd.,, Nj 07747 Turtle Dr., Ossining. NV 10562
NEVADA Jersey Shore Commodore Users Group Inc., P.O. ESUG, 52 Underbill Rd., Ossining, NV 10562
Box 441, Navesink, NJ 1)7752 I'risco's Users Croup, 41 Sunset Dr., Ossimng, NV
S.O.G. Commodore User Croup, c/o IC Electron
Morris Area Commodore User Gioup, 12 10562
ics, 4011 W. Charleston Blvd., Las Vegas, NV
Farview Ave., Randolph, N] 07869 Commodore User Group of Westcheslcr, P.O.
Silver Stale Computer Users Group, I'.O. Box South Jersey Commodore Users Group, P.O. Box B.m 1230, While Pbins, NY 106U2
81075, Las Vegas, NV 89180 4205, Cherry Hill, NJ 03034 Highland Tails Commodore Users Group, 8 Kno<

89406 Rancocas Valley Commodore Users Group, P.O. Kd, Highland Mit, NY 10928
C.A.T.F.U.N., P.O. Box 2155, Fallon, NV 89406 Bos 505, Ml. Laurel, NJ 08054 Commodore 64 User Group of Orange County,
Plus/4 Software Exchange User Croup, 493 Hoi RCA Commodore Users Group (RCACUC), 432 Box 238, RD 1, Now Hampton, NY 10958
Springs Rd. °3, Cjrson City, NV 8971)1 Hemlock Ln., Mt. Holly, NJ 08060 Hockland County CPU (C-64 Professional
Cumberland County Commodore Users Group. Users) Group. 98 West Central Ave., Spring
NEW HAMI'SHItti-. 1976 N. East Ave., Vineland. NJ O8360 Valley, NY 1U977
Commodore Help And Information Network Bordentown Area Commodore Users Group. Commodore SIG, Computer Club oi Rockland,
(CHAIN Gang). Jim Anderson, P.O. Box 438, P.O. Box 381, Bordentown, NJ O850S P.O. Box 233. Tallman, NY 10982
Belmont, NH 03220 Plasma Physics Lab User Group. Princeton Great Neck Commodore User Croup. 30 Grace
Morudnock Users Croup (MUGI for Commodore University, P.O. Boi 451, Princeton. NJ 08544 Ave.. Gieat Neck, NV 11021
Owners. 135 Liberty Ln., Keene, NH 03431 Commodore Computer Collection Club, 72 Pine Long Island VIC Enthusiasts. 17 Picadilly Rd..
Developers of Interesting Software for the Dr., Roosevelt, NJ 08555 Great Neck. NY 11023
Commodore 64/128 IR1SCI, 34 Naves Rd., Southern Ocean County's User Group (SOCUC1. Brooklyn Commodore User's Croup, 1735 E.
Hampton. NH 03842 54 Shining Way, Toms River, N| 08753 13lh St., Apt.7N, Brooklyn, NV 11229-1950
64 Users, P.O. Box 878. Rochester, NH 03867-0009 Southern Ocean County's User Group ISOCUG), Academy of Aeronautics C-M Users Group, Air
54 Shining Way, Toms River, N] 08753 craft Technology Dept., Academy of Aero
C-64 Easl Brunswick Useis' Group (CEBUG). 346 nautics, La Guardia Airport, Flushing, NY 11371
Commodore 64 Users Group of America, 114
Ryders l.n.. East Brunswick, NJ 08B16 (membership limited to those attending
Lake Ave.. Clifton, NJ 07011
Commodore E. Brunswick Users Group aiademy)
Commodorc-IBM-Apple Users Group, 5 Peach Commodore Craiy, 123-07 85 Ave., Kew
(CEBUG), 9 Kings Rd., E. Brunswick, Ni 0BH16
Tree Dr., Monlviilp, NJ 0704S
Somerset U6ers Group. 49 Marcy St.. Somerset. Gardens, NY 11415
NJ 08873 D-HUG, 78-23 9M Ave.. Woodhaven, NY 11421

COMPUTE!'! Gazelle June 1986 79

Commodore Users Group d! Greater New York Carolina Commodore Computer Club, P.O. liox WESTCOM 64 Commodore 64 Users Croup of
L9D-25 Woodhull Aw.. Hollta, NY 11423 2664, Kaicigh, NC 27602-2664 Western Cincinnati, 385'' Chatwood Cl., Cin
Sea-Glen Commodore User's Croup (SGCUG) Commodore Research Triangle User Group, cinnati, OH 4524S
For Kids Only, 67 Todd Dr. North. Gk-n Head, 2213 Wlninger Dr.. Raleigh, NC 27603 Chillkothe Commodore User Group (CCUCI. 9
NY 11545 Raleigh Area Commodore Enthusiasts, Presi Ash Rd., Chllllcothfl, OH 45601
Bay Shore Users Group. Mowbny St. C.ife, 82 W, dent, 904 Davidson Si.. Raleigh. NC 27609-5547
Main Si., Bay Shore. NY 11706 OKLAHOMA
Carolina Amiga Club. HOB Collcton Rd., Raleigh,
Micro-Hut Users Croup, 62 li. Main St., ii.w NC 27610 Commodore Users, I'.O Box 1055. Guthrie, OK
Shore, NY 11706 73044-1055
VIC-20/C-64 User Group, Rt. 3, Box 351,
H.N.Y. Commodme User Croup. 71 Head of Neck Lincotntun, NC 28092 Greater Oklahoma Commodore Club. 1401 N
Rd.. Bellpart, NY 1171,1 Salisbury Compute, l!i 1, Box 349U, Salisbur\'. Rockwell, Oklahoma City, OK 73127
Hrenlwood-Bayshore VIC/64 User Group. Tub. NC 281-14 Greater Oklahoma Commodore Club. P.O. Box
Lib. 2nd Ave, & 4th St.. Brrntu-ood. NY 1171" Cleveland/Gaston Commodore User's Group 96751. Oklahoma City. OK 73143
Bay Shore/Brightwaters Commodore 64 Users (CCCUG). Rt 2, Box 234-C. Shelby. NC 2S150 Commodore Users of Bartlesville. 1704 S. Osagc,
Group. c/o Bay Shore/BrightwatiTs Public Commodore Users Group of Fayetteville Bartlesville. OK 74003
Library, 5 Souili Country Rd.. Briehtivaters. NY (CUGOF), P.O. Box 41601, Fayetteville. NC Tulsa Area Commodore Users Group. 7B04 N,
nriB" Z8309 117lh F. Ave.. OwfUK), OK 74055
1.IVICS Commodore UlBi Croup, 20 Spydau Wilmington Commodore Users Croup. 21(14 Stillwatcr Commodore Users Cioup, 3124 N.
l.n., EW Sel.uiki'l, NY 11733 Wisi.Ti.t Dr., Wilmington, NC 28101 Lincoln, Still water, OK 74075
MI-64, 4 Euex PI.Ice. |ericho. NY 11753 Wilmington C-128 Users Group, 409 R.L, Muikogce Commodore Users Group. 309 S.
Associated Commodore Enthusiasts (ACE), 94 Himeycuit Dr., Wilmington, NC 2S403 MeljjS, Fort Gihsun, OK 74434
Mallard Rd., Levlrtown, NV 1175ft Down Bui Commodore Users Group, 117 Keith Osage/Kay Commodore User's Group
V1C-20 Commodore 64 User Croup. P.O. Box Dr., Havelock, NC 28532 (OKCOM), 300 Woodburv Rd.. Ponca City, OK
2S0, Lmdenhurst, NY 11757 Greater Onslow Commodore User's Gioup, 127B 74601
Club 64, 174 Maple Ave., P.itchogue, NY 11772 Henderson Dr.. Jacksonville, NC 2S540 OREGON
Rlveihead Commodore Club. 11)6') Ostnandet Unifour Commodore Users Group, P.O. Bo< Amateur Radio Croup. I'.O. Box 626, Mul.ill.i, OK
Avo., Rlverhead, NY 11901 9324, Hickory, NC 2KMB-9324 97038
Mohawk Valley Commodore User Croup, p.o, Commodore bi User Croup, P.O. Dm 1635, Ban Muunt Hood Community College Commodore
Box ,143, Trlbw Hill. NY 12177 ner Elk. NC 28604
Users Group. 2340 Hatitnv Ave., Tmuldale, OK
Scheneciady Commoilnre Users Croup, "7 Cen Ashevillo-Huntombe User Group (A-HUC), P.O. '17060
ter St., Kear. Scotia, NY 12302 Itox 1557M, Asheville, NC 28813 Astoria Commodore User Croup, Rl .1, Box 75,
Hudson Valley Commodore Club, P.O. BOX 2190,
Kingston, NY 12401 NORTH DAKOTA Astoria, OR 97103
Central Dakota Commodore Club, Bob MacLeod, Commodore Beavorion User Croup, 2001 NL
CM] Commodore Club/Computer Metropolis
102 East Capitol A\e.. Bismarck, ND 5H501 Hyde, Hillaboro, OH 97124
243 Main St., New Pallz, NY 12561
Commodore Owners Resource Exchange
Orange County Commodore Users Group
(CORE) (For 64/12fi), I'.O. li™ 17580. Portland,
(OCCUQ, P.O.Bm 515, Vails Gale, NY 12584 Central Oh io Commodore Users Group, P.O. Box OR 97317
Tri-Slalc Comnmdure User Group (TSCUCI. 18129, Colombfli, OH 4322B-O229 Salcm C-64 Users Croup, 3795 Saxon Dr. 5., Sa
P.O. Box 70S, I*nrt iervis, NY 12771 Commodore Club of Central Ohio (CCCQ), P O. le m, OH "7302
Adirondack C-M Users Croup, P.O. If™ 9'1, Blur Box 292392, Columbus, OH 43229 Albany-Corvallis Users Croup, SOD South 19th,
Mountain Lake, NY 12N12 Marion Ohio Commodore User Group Philomath, OH 'J7370
I'lallsburgh Commodore Users Group, 61 1!. (MOCUC), 775 WolflnEer Rd., Marion, OH Yamhill County Commodore Users Croup, 9273
Main St., MurriBonvllle, NY 12963 4 3302 Gopher Valley Rd , Sheridan, OK 97378
Canastota Users of Commodore Computers Bowling Green State University UserGioup.519 Lane County Commodore User's Group. P.O,
(CUCCO). 220 Ltmb Aw.. ConastOU, NY 13032 Kidgc =1R, Bo^linj; Green, OH 43402 Box 11316, Eugene, OK 97440
Central New York Commodore Users Croup, South Toledo Commodore Computer Club P O Pacific Northwest Commodore U*er Group, P.O.
B037 Morgan Kd., Liverpool, NY 13088 Box 6086, Toledo, OH 4361-1 Box 2.iio, Roaeburg, Oi; 97470
64 Club, P.O. Box 2394, Liverpool, NY 13089 Commodore Computer Club of Toledo (CCCTI Springfield Commodore User's Croup. 5324 B
Oswcgo Commodore User Group, (ill Culkin P.O. Box 89(W, Toledo, OH 43h23 5L,Springfield, OK 97478
HjII, State University College, Oawego, NY Cummodore llammondsville Users Croup of United States Commodore Users Group, P.O.
13126 Ohio ICHUGO). P.O. Box 7. S.R. 213. 6M642, Box 2310, Roseburg, on 97470
The Commodore Computer Club of Syracuse. HammDndaviUe, OH 43930 Caveman Commodure Computer Club ICCCCI.
P.O. Box 2232, SyrBCUH, NV 13230 Basic Hits User Group. 5564 Wallace Blvd., N 5S63 Lower River Hd.. Grants Pass, OR 97526
Utica Commodore User Group. MIDI Slom Ave Rldgevllle. OH 44039 Klamath Commodore 64 Uier Group, P.O. Box
L'lica, NY 13501
Northeast Ohio Commodoie User Group, P.O. 7654, Klamath Fails. OR 97602
Commodoie Users Group of Massena (COMA), Box 718. Mentor, OH -14061-0015
Star Tech Syittnu, 69 Main St., Manena NY PENNSYLVANIA
Commodore Preference Users Connection (CPU
1.1662 Heaver County Area Commodore User's Group
Connection). P.O. Bm 42032. Brook Park, OH
Northern New York Commodore Home User 44142 IBCACUGI. Secretary, 112 Spruce Dr., Menace,
Group INORNY-CHUG1. PO. Box 226. Nor Akron Ana Commodore User Group, Km. ii-201, PA 15061
wood. NY 13668 A-K 64 User Group. 1762 Fairmont St., New Ken
HO W Bowery, Akron. OH 44308
North Country Commodore Club. 1607 1-ord St., Youngstown C-64 User's Group, 209 N. Pearl, sington, PA 15068
Ogdensburg, NY 1366^ Columbian, OH 44408 South Pittsburgh Commodore Group, 24117 Pa
Chenango County Commodore Helpers & Users OI28 Users Group, 416 Shields Rd., YounesKnvn, Ave.. West Mifflin, PA 15122
Group (CC-CHUCI. P.O. Bos487. Norwich, NV OH 44512 United Users Incorporated ATTN:Commodore
13815 Akron Area Commodore Users Group, 4140 Division. 1931 Rockledge St.. Pittsburgh, PA
64 Soulhtowns User Group, 504 SonunervUle Rd., Eastiynn Ave. NW. Massillon, OH 44646 15212
Tortawanda, NY 14150 Commodore Users Group, 702 Park Ave. NW. Greater Pittsburgh Commodore User Group
Commodoie Buffalo User Croup ICOMBUGJ. New Philadelphia, OH 44663 1560 On-hard View Dr., Pittsburgh. PA 15220
199 Dale Dr. Toiwwanda. NY 14150 Akron Area Commodore Club (AACC), 1443 Pittsburgh Commodure Group. 2015 Garrick Dr.,
North Buffalo Commodore Users' Group, 309
Wendy St.sBS, Canton. OH -14701 Pittsburgh, PA 15235
Commonwealth Ave,, Buffalo, NY 14216 Ford and Commodore Together (FACT), P.O. Belli? Commodore Users Croup, 5'12 Arbor l.n.,
The Niagara Falls Commodoie Club. 2405 Wil Box 84f5, Canton, OH 44711 Pittsburgh, PA 1533ft
low Ave., Falls, NY 14305 C.A.M. Area Users Croup, 334 Fairvievv SH, Foundation for the Advancement of Computer
The Rainbow International C-64 Users' Group, North Canton, OH 44720 Technology (FACT), Microcomputer Division,
947 Harrison Ave., Niagara Rills. NY 14.105 1255 lirinkerton Rd., Greensburg, PA 15601
Mid-Ohio Commodore User's Club, 21 Highland
Geneva Commodore Users Croup, 84 Pleasant Dr,, Butler, OH 44822 United States Commodore Users Croup, 1255
St., Geneva, NY 14456 Brinkerion Rd.. Gtseniburg, PA 15601
Gallon Commodore User Group, 080 Bucvrus
Commodore & VIC iEnlhuHiasis (CAVE1, P,O, lid,. Gallon, OH 44833 Westmoreland Computer Users Club (Com
Box 10, HoltOfflb, NY 1446'! modore Section), P.O. Box 3051, Grueiisliurg,
Commodore EHe Hay Users Group (CEBUG),
Commodore Users G ro u p of K oc h i1 uI e r P.O, BOJi 1461, S.indusky, OH -l-lfl/O I'A 15601
icucoH), p.o. Box 23463, Roche*Ier, NY Cincinnati Commodoie Compulei Club, Box Blltlei Commodore 64 User Group, P.O. Box
Uh'J2 2408, Butler, PA l MM) I
450, Owensvllle, OH 45160
Finger Lakes Area Komputcr Bxparta (FLAKES), Castle Commndores Computer Club, R.D. "1,
The Cincinnati Commodore Computer Connec
R6 Wesi Uki- K<j., Hammondsport. NY 14840 tion, Slh Beecher St., Ctndnnall, OH 45206 BoxaiOA, Edlnburg, PA 16116
Commodore Computer Users Group of Ithaca, North Coast Commodore Users Group Frie. P.O.
UCOM-64, 340 Tangeman University Center, Mail
202 Bridge St., Ithaca, NY 14850 Box 6117, Erie, I'A 16512-6117
location 136, University of Cincinnati. Cin
NORTH CAROLINA cinnati, OH 45221 B.A.S.I.C., 515 E. 26th Ave.. Alloona, I'A 16601-
Triad C-61 Users Group, !'(). bTT, 10833. Greens Southwestern Ohio Commodore Users Croup
(SWOCUG). P.O. Box 46644, Cincinnati, OH Cen.l'.U.G. (or Commodore, RD «!, I(C «17.
boro, NC 274114
15246 Howard. I'A 16H41

80 COMPUTEIS Giaeuo June 198G

Capitol Are* Commodore Club, PO. Box J33, Rock Hill Commodore User Group (RHCUG). Trl-Stale Commodore Users Group, P.O. Box
565 ScaWbark Circle. Kock Hill, SC 297.10 89TI, Amarillo, TX 79114-8971
Lemoyne, PA 17013
Blue Juniata Commodore Users-Group, 107 Beaufort Technical College User Group. Center Commodore Users of Tesas (CUT). 5509 Har
Washington Ave., Lewistown, FA 17044 For Slaif And Curriculum Development. P.O. vard, Lubbock, TX 79416

Central Area Bulletin Board System? (CABBS1 Box 12SS, Beaufort, SC 29902 Abilene Cursor Control. P.O. Box 6261, Abilene.
User Group. 4205 Ridgeview Rd., Hamburg. TX 7960B
1'A 17112 Commodore Users Group of Ward Cnunty, 2902
Sioux Falls User Group, 4201) S. Louise. Suite 304, W. JUi Si., Monahiins, TX 79756
While Rose Commodore Users Group, 160
Sioux Fall), SD 57106 Commodore User's Group of Odessa ICUGO).
dm Ave,, Red Uon, PA 17356
V1C-M User Club, 60B W. 5th, Pierre, SD 57501
Southern York County Commodore Users P.O. Box 12491, Odessa, TX 79768
Port 64 User Group, 929 I emnwn St., Rapid City, Tl I'aso Commodore User Group (El'CUGI, 173h
Group. 2,13 W. Forrtti Ave., Shrewsbury. I'A
SD 577111 Dflart Mardn Dr., El PaSO, IX 79936
1 736 1
CUBBB Commodore Users Group, 5UU Dlllcr TENNESSEE UTAH
Ave,, New Holland, PA 17557 Dungeons pnd Dragons User's Group. Rt 1, BOX lioosevelt Are.! Commodore I ntliutiasts
Wwl Branch Commodore Users Group, P.O. Box 28A. Cumberland City, Erin, TN 37050 (RACE), IICR Ru* 30. Neolfl, UT K4O5.1
995, Wllllarnaport, pa 17703 Clarksville Commodore Users Group, P.O. Bos Utallllisin Commodore Users Club, .173 ll.isl 65(1
Ccn.P.U.G. for Commodore, Box 102. Sfllona, PA 403, St. Bethleham. TN 37155 North 97-3, Roosevelt, UT K40hh
17767 Springfield Commodore Computer Club, Rl. I, Cache Valley Commodore Users Group. 396 S.
ABC Chips, Uhlgh Valley Medical Cenler. 3159 Box Ihb, Sprlngjldd, TN 37172 Rosewood Dr.. Hyrum. UT S4311'
Mlddletewn Rd., Bethlehem, pa 1H017 Commodore Association of the Southeast [■ifth Dimension C-64 Users, 7095 W 96110 N,
Lehigh Valley Commodore User Group. 2228 (CASE!, P.O. B<n 110386, Nashville, TO 37211 Trementon, UT 84337
liaker Di, AJIentown, PA 18102 Nashville Commodore User Group, P.O. Bo* Wasatch Commodore Users Group (WACUG1.
Wyoming Valley Commodore Users Group, 14 121282, Nashville, TN 37212 P.O Bo< 4028, Ogden, UT 8-14(12
Second Ave,. Kingston, PA 18704 Commodore Computer Club, P.O. Bo* 96, Estill Payson Area Commodore Users Group (1'AC).
Ingersol Rand Commodore Computer Users Springs, TN 37330 P.O. Box 525, S.ilcm. L'T S4O53
Croup (IRCCUCI, 402 S. Keystone Ave., Sayre. Fort Washington 64, 213 Holly Ave., 5. Plltsburg,
Kwing Commodore Users Croup (Trenton NJ). Clioo Choo 64, SOS Valley Bridge Dr.. Chatta Chjmplain Valley Cammcidnrc Users <.rnup. t<
528 Sugarttee Kd., Holland, i'A IM966 nooga, TN 37415 \\.\yi.ut, South Dudlngton, VT D54O1
Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) Com Trl-Cities Commodore Club, Vickie Davis, e/o Gmon Mcmntain Commodore Utpctji (iroup
modore Users Group, 1712 Aidenn Lair Rd., Computer Comer, 114 SprIngbrookDr.,John*an (GMCUGh P.O. Uox 6UH7, Rutland, VT
Dresner, PA 19025 (Noltidptn to nil ftderal gou- City, IN 37601
tnwtni mplaytes and their famiiiesj Greeneville Computer Home Users Group, Rl. 8,
Fort Washington 64, 20-A Lumber lack Circle, t'enlAT Commodore User Group, 1447 HSL
Bo* 138-T, Greenuville, TN 37743
Horsham, I'A 19044 MWR, Km. 5E3, AFRec. Services, Pentagon, VA
Metro Knoxville Commodore User Club, 7405
LDwerbucks User Group, 251 Makefield Kd , 20330
Oxmoor Rd., Rl. H20. Knoxvillc, TN 37931
Morrisvllle, PA 67, 19067 McLean C-64 Users Croup. 7426 Eldorado St..
Memphis Commodore Users Club, Dwlnhl
SUH-64 User's Group, P.O. Box 5420S, Philadel McLean, VA 22012
Campbell, P.O. Box 34095, B.irtlelt, 'IN 38134
phia, PA 19105 WAC-6-1, 9206 Annhun! St.. Fairfax, VA 22031
Naval Air Development Center Commodore Memphis Commodore Users Club. P.O. Bn\
Capitol Area Commodore Enthusiasts. 6512 Tru
User Club. 912 praaei Rd., Eidenhelm, I'A man Ln., FalU Church. VA 32043
34095. Memphis. TN 3B134-U095
Capitol Area Commodore Enthusiasts (CACI-I.
Raleifih-Hartlelt Hackers CUB, |ames PairicL
Main Line Commodore Users Group (MLCUG), 3457 Gatewood Dr., Memphis, TN 38134 607 Abbotts Ln.. Falls Church. VA 22046
1046 General Allen Ln., West Chester. PA 193(12 Washington Area Commodore User Group. P.O.
Old Hickory Commodore Users Group. 25 Coatl
Worldwide Commodore User Groups—Norris- Bq> 93. Mounl Vernon, VA Z2121
Cove. Jackson, TN 38305
town Chapter. 110 Miami Ave , Nonistown, PA Dale City Commodore Users Group, Inc., P,O.
TBXAS Bm 2265, Dale City, VA 221930265
Worldwide Commodore Users Group (Inter CnmmodDre Users Club, P.O. Do> 110«h7, Arlington Victims (20/64), 5521 Harvey Ln.,
national Headquarters). P.O. Box 337, [IHic- Carrollton, TX 75011 Alexandria, VA 22204
Bell, PA 19422 Irving Commodore Users Club, P.O. Box 165034, Ftanconla Commodore Users Group, 5924 Dove
COMl'STARS, 3770 Worthlngton, Collcgevllle, Irving TX 750 lo Dr.. Alexandria, VA 22310
I'A 19426 Sherman Commodore Useis Group ISCUG), B27 Ereduricksburg Commodore Club, 313 William
Upper Huxnionl CG4 Users, 120h Cowpath Rd., W. Sean, Denison, TX 75020 St., Frederidaburg. VA 22401
llatfield, PA 19440 Society of Computer Owners and P.E.T. Enthu Shenandoah Valley Commodore Users Gruup,
P.C.U.C, C. lihoads, 1338 Lynn Dr., PottStOWfl, siasts (SCOPE), P.O. Box 3095, Richardson, TX at 3, Box 625. Front Royal, VA 22630
PA 19464 7 50 S3 Commodore 64 Computer Users Group of Rich
Worldwide Commodore User Groups — The Users, 209 AltaVista, Rockwall, TX 7S0B7 mond, PO. Box 9078, Richmond, VA 23225
Pottstown/lioyertoivn Area Chapfer, R.D. *1, FED 64 Computer Club, 1100 Commerce St., Dal The Richmond Area Commodore Enthusiasts
Washington Rd,. BechtelsvUle, PA 19505 las, TX 75242 ITRACE1, 2920 Pinehursl Rd, Richmond, VA
Heading Commodore Users Group, 1020 Pear Si., l.ongview Users Group, P.O. Box 92H4. Long- 23228
Reading. PA 19601 view, TX 75608 Peninsula Commodore Users Group, P.O. lion I.,
Commodore Users of Berks (CUB). 2455 Me- Mid-Cities Commodore Club, P.O. Bui 157H. Hampton, VA 23666
Kinlev Ave,, West Lawn, PA 19609 Bedford, TX 76021 NASA Commodore Users Group, 713 York IVar
BiStone Users Club, P.O. Box 386. Mexia, TX wick Dr., Vorktown, VA 23692
RHODI; ISLAND 76667 Commodore Users of Franklin, 1201 N, High St.,
Newport Computer Club (RD, P.O. Box 1439, Heart of Texas Commodore Home User Group Franklin, VA 23851
Newport, Rl 02840-0997 (HOT CHUG), 2100 M. New Kd.. Waco. TX Commodore Users Group, Rt 2, Box 278B,
Hurrillville Commodore Users Group, 28 Cherry 7i.71l) Boydtcm, VA 23917
farm Rd., Harrisville. Rl 02859 Commodore Houston User Group (CHUG). P.O. Henry County Commodore Computer Club. Kt
Narragansett Commodore Users Group, EPA Box 612. Tomball, TX 77375 9, Bo* 61, MarHruwHle, VA 24112
Environmental Research Lab, South Ferry Kd., The Woodlands Commodore Users Group, 3 K.A.C.E, Commodore 64 Users Group, 4362 Blue
NunganMft HI 02SS2 Splitrock Rd., The Woodlands, TX 77380 bird Ln., Salem, VA 24153
Commodore Connection, P.O. Box 929, Woon- Meadows User Group (MUC>, 11923 ScOIWdale, Lyncliburg User Croup, Rt. 2, Box 1H0, Lynch-
wicket, Rl 02893-0929 MoadOWS, TX 77477 faurg, VA 245U1
li.i. Commodore Users Group IR1CUG), 4 Mnwiy Our Gang, 201 Stanford, Late JaekflOn, TX 77566 Piedmont Users Group, 135 Boverly Rd, Dan
Ave., Johnston, Rl 02919 Commodore Brazos Users Group (C-bUG), P.O. ville, VA 24541
SOUTH CAROLINA Box 9622, College Station, TX 77840 Central Virsinia User Group C-64, Rt 3 Box 451,
Commodore Kids of America, Rt. tf. Box 2W.K
Crossroads Commodore Users' Group, 417 Irm.i Hurl, VA 24561
Dr., Victoria, TX 77901 Commoilnre Hilltop User Group (CHUG), Rt. 3.
Sumler.SC 29150
BilllnUI Interlace Languages Limited (KILL). Box 301 B. Cedar Bluff, VA 24609
Commodore Computer Club of Columbia. P.O.
Box 2775, Ciyce/W. Columbia. SC 29171 P.O. Box 592, Adkin?, TX 78101 Bit* &i Bytes, Box 625, KichlamK VA 24641
Spartanburg Commodore Users Croup Interface Computer Club, 7532 Triple Oaks. San WASHINGTON
(SPARCUG), PO. Box 319. Spa run burg. SC Antonio. TX 78263
Commodore Users of San Antonio, P O. Box 64 E/T, 117-1 S3 PI. SW, Bothell. WA 98012
380732, San Antonio, TX 7S2S0 Commodore Computing Exchange, 16821 FirM
Charleston Compulei Society, PO Box 5264. N.
Corpus Christi Commodores, P.O. Boy 6541, Ave. SE. Boihell. IVA 98012
Charleston, SC 29406
B.I.B.S., 5PO 786, Charleston, SC 29424 Corpus Christi. TX 7R411 Pacific Northwest Commodore Club. 17214 3rd
Commodore User Group of Austin, P.O. Box Ave. SE. Bothcll, WA 9S012
The Executive Touch IETK 522 Broadway, Myrtle
49138, Austin, TX 78765 While River Commodore 64 User's Group, 2649
Beach. SC 29577
Top of Texas Commodore (TOTCOM1, Box 2851, Warner Ave. W. =69, Enumdaw. WA 9H022
COUCH. 10(3 Oak Park Dr., Mauldin, SC 29662
IMmpa. TX 79066-2B51

COMPUTEFs Gazelle June 1986 81

C64 Maple Valley Users Group. 25605 Si: 224ih Coulee County Commodore Club, 501-1/2 Si, VICdore User's Group Beryl Bayliss, P.O. Box
St.. Maple Valley, wa 98038 Cloud St., LnCrOSSa, Wl 54603 128D, Inghan 4S5O. Queensland, Australia
Honeywell Commodore Users Club. Honeywell Eau Claire Area CBM 64 User Group, Rl.5, Box Cairns Commodore User Group, Waller Kindt.
Inc. MSD. 5303 Shilshole Ave. NW. Seattle. WA 179A. Eau Claire. Wl 54?01 P.O. Box 209. \T. Cairns, Queensland 4870,
98107 Chippewa Valley Commodore User's Group, Australia
NW Commodore User Group, 2565 Dexter N. CO, Box 116, Chippewa Falls, Wl 54729 Soutbporl Commodore Computer Users Group
"203. Seattle. WA 98109 Clintonville Area Commodore 64s True User (SCCUG1, Box 790. Southport, Queensland.
PSACi:, I S()[» Taylor Ave. N,. Seattle, WA 98109 Support (CACTUS), 56 Pearl St., CJInlonville, Australia 4215
U.W. Commodore User Cioup, P.O. Box 75009. Wl 54929 Commodore Computer Users Group (Totvns-
Seattle, WA 98125 Pond du Area Commodore Users Club, 1504 villi), I Paxtcin St., Townsville 4810, Australia
Anacnites User Croup, Jim Cook, 1010 5th St., Shi-llry Ct.. Norlh Fond du, Wl 549.15 VIC-Ul'S Computer Users Group, P.O. Box 1103.
Arucories, wa 98221 BOQTHgOOn, Western Australia 6154 or P.O. Bos
WYOMING 178, Nfdland;., Western Australia 601)9
University Place Commodore Home Users
Central Wyoming User's Group, P.O. Box 1428.
Group (Ul'CHUG), 7836 Warren Dr. NW, Gig BELGIUM
Harbor, WA 98265 Rlverton, wv 82501
I ' Club C-6J & '."iniii'.iiii'li" c/Q
C-64 Diversity, 4416-126ltl PI. NE, Marvsville,
OUTSIDE THE U.S. TnmrliT, RO. Box 41, B-lOm Dnissds, Ed
WA 9S27Z
Skagll Computer Usms Forum (SCUF), 29119 ItKAZII.
Mmiitii Dr.. Mounl Vermin. WA 98273 Associacao de Usuarios de Micro-computadores
UTOPIA. Army Education Center, APO NY 09035
Club 64, 6735 Tracyion Blvd. NW, Bremerton, WA Pessoiis. Pedro Paulo Rocha, eslr da Canoa
AMhorn Hytes-A-Bii, General Delivery. Det 3, Kl
401. 22600 Rio de Janeiro. Brazil
7SS Commodore 64 Users Croup. Mjkah Air
TFW [USAF). APO NY 09069-5000
Forte Slation, Neah Bay. IVA 98357 Overseas Commodore User's Croup. SFC Carroll CANADA
P. Daniels, P.O. Box R-72. APO MY 09102
Olympic Peninsula User Group IOPUG), 836 Alberta
Commodore User Group, Ronald S. Clement.
Weal Sixth St.. PWI Angeles. WA 9B362
APO San Francisco. CA 96213 Calgary Commodore Users Group, Lloyd E. Nor
Marstcken Commodore 64 User Croup. 714 Ryan man, 14751 Deer Ridge Dr. SE. Calgary, Alberta,
Ave.. Sumner. WA 98390 Users Group. Gary Goenlher, Box 958 NSGA.
Al'O NY 092-10-5363 (group mteU in Italy! Canada T2J 6A8
World Wide User Group (Military Personnel
20/64 Users Group of Yokota. P.O. Bo» 2553, l.clhbridge Commodore C-64 Users Group. P.O.
Only), P.O, Box 98682. Tacom*, WA 98-198 Box 825-246. MacDermotl Rd,, GulhurM, Al
Al'O S.m Francisco, CA 96328 (group meels in
CUM Users Cioup. 803 Euclid Why, Centralia, berta. Canada T0I. 0V0
WA 98331 Central Alberta Commodore 64 User Group
Commodore Users Club of Yokosuka Japan.
Lnngview Commodore Users Group, 62b 26th
DM3 Box 156 FPO Seattle, WA 90762 AtUI: D. ]■. ICACUG), Dale Butterworrh, Box 304,
Ave., Lungview, WA 98632
VLcklAnd faroup nwett, in fttpanl Toreslburg, Alberta TOB 1NO
Noitli Forty Commodore User Croup, 2903 Flor Hinion Computer Club, K. Barilett, Box 2431,
Commodore Zama Users Group, c/o I.TC David
ida St.. Long view, WA 98632 Ilinton, Alberta, Canada 10E 1C0
Chinn, liQ USAR] 1G, APO San Francisco
Spokane Commodore User Group, 310 Ray Medicine Hat Commodore Users Group, P.O.
96343-0054 igroup meets in lupin)
mond, Spokane, wa 99206 Box 764, Medicine Hat, Alberta, Canada T1A
SEMBACH AB Commodore Users Group, James
Spokane Commodore Users Group. I\O. Box 7G7
Poucher, Box 2499, APO NY 0913"
13201, Spokane, WA 99213-3201 Commodore User Croup Randy R. CoulU, Din
Stuttgart Local Users Croup. B CO, ID Ml Bn
Tri-Cities Commodore Computer Club (TC-3), 1584, Slave Lake, Alberta, Canada T0C 2A0
(Al£|. Ai'O NY 09359 (group mttll in IVrsf
1926 Pine St., Rkhltnd, WA 99352
G mutiny)
Blue Mountain Commodore Users, 550 S 2nd British Columbia
Ztvtibiuecken Commodore Computer Club,
Ave., Walla Walla, WA 99362-3149 Cassiar Commodore Club (CCC), P.O. Box 685.
Thomas A. Ricker. 200th TAMMC, P.O. Box
Casstar, British Columbia, Canada V0C 1E0
WEST VIRGINIA 235. APO NY 09052 (group meets in IVfSI
Kelowna Commodore Users Croup (KCUC), 195
Hluefield U9er Croup 20/64 (BUG). P.O Box Germany!
Mars Rd.. Kelowna, British Columbia. Canada
1190. Bluefield. WV 24701 Eifel Commodore Users Group
OUTA SYNC. 203 Ughlner Ave., Lewfoburg, WV (BilburR/Spangdahlim/Pruem), MWR Di
International Commodore Users Group. 22559
2ITO1 vision, APO NY 09132 group mrtIS in West
liinch Ciea., Maple Ridge. Brilish Columbia,
Ceople Addicted to Computers Klub (PACK!, I" Gtrmany) Canada, V2X 7H5
Silo Sq.i Levvlaburg, WV 24901 Baumholdcr Commodore Users Group, lim
Heaver Valley Commodore Club. Box 495. Mon-
The I2S Sociely, 17 Silo Square, LBwiabunj WV S«nl*l, IIHC 2/6S Armfir Regiment. APO NY
trow, British Columbia. Canada V0C 1P0
24901 (19034 (snup netto In West Gi'wuwy)
Commodore Computer Club, P.O. Box 91164,
Kanawha Valley Commodore Computer Club, Mannheim Commodore Users Croup. John Pip
West Vartcuuver. British Columbia, Canada V7V
P.O. Ben 252, Ounbar, WV 25064 kin, UHT Rest, llih ACR Box 101, APO NY
09146 fctQUP meets in West Germany)
Tri-State Commodore Users Croup, P.O. Box
2501, HunHngtOn, WV 25725-2501 H.U.C. 64. Bo. 10, 61st M.F. Co., APO NY 09165 M.intfob.i
Weil Virginia Statewide Users Group. Bm 511, (group mem fn Hmmu, W?s! Germany) Commodore Concepts Users Group (CCUG), Box
KIKyih, WV 25859-0050 CIZZMO'S, e/O Wes Knapp, Box 3517, APO NY 23SA, Stcinbach. Manitoba, Canada RQA 2A0
Thr bi Croup, BOX 205, Mabscolt, WV 25871-1)2115 (19009 Igroup metis in Weil Germany) Mjniloba Users Croup {MUG). 34 HurnlmxHi
C-64 S'rn^rimmers o( America. Kl. 1, Box 139A Commodore Computer Users Group Heidelberg. Oi'sont, Winnipeg, Manitoba, Canada R2|-3A1
Meadow Bridge, WV 25976 Robert IL Jjcquoi. P.O. Box, Gen. Del., APO NY
09102. 06223-5614 Igroup meets In Wetl New Itrunswick
Commodore Home User's Cioup (CHUG). 81
G Fundy C-64 Users Croup, P.O. Bo* 9, Rothesay.
Lynwood Ave., Wheeling, WV 26003
New Brunswick. Canada E0G 2W0
Hkins Area Commodore Users Croup, P.O Box ARGENTINA
2381, Elkins, WV 26241 Club USR[64| Cordoba, Calle Montevideo 281,
The Commodore Group, 320 Dunkin Ave.. Piso 5. Dpto "D". 5000-Cordoba, Republkj Barrie User Group. P.O. Box 1028, Barrie. Ontario,
Bridgeport, wv 26330 Ar^eiutna Canada L-1M 5E1
Northern Wesl Virginia C-64 Club, 228 Gr.ind Brainpton User's Croup (BUG'64), PO. Bos 384,
St., Morgan I own, WV 26505 AUSTRALIA Brampton, Ontario, Canada L6V 2L3
Commodore Computer Users Group (Ql.l)l Inc., Shop-Taker Programming Guild, 25 Krontenac
WISCONSIN P.O. Box 274, SprinKivoi>d Q 1127. Brtlbane, Ave., Brantlord, OntJno. Canada N3R SB7
Coninmdore Hobbyist* Involved [n 1'ersiinal Atutnllfl PET Educator Group (P.E.C.), 101 Diinc.ui Mill
Systems (CHIPS), P.O, Box 100b. WeM Bend, Geelong Commodore Computer Club, c/o 15 Rd,, Suite G7, Don Mills, Ontario, Canada M3B
Jocaranda Place, Belmont 3216. Geelong, 1Z3
Milwaukee Area Commodore Enthusiasts AusEralia
TRACK 36 Users' Club, 491 Kenilworth Ave.
(MACE), P.O. Box 183, Grccndale, Wl 53139 The Griffith Computer Association, c/o Sec North, Hamilton, Ontario, Canada LSH 4T6
Waukesha Area V1C-64 Enthusiasts (WAVE), retary, P.O. Box 425, Griffith 2680. Australia London Commodore User Club ILCUC), 28
P.O. Box 641, Waukesha, Wl 53186 LismoreC-64 User Group, Jnhn Griinmond. Rich- Bjrrel Cr., London, Oniario, Canada N6E 1T5
Commodore Users of Systems, Software & Hard mnnd iiill Rd., Woilongbar, Via. Lismore. New Midland Commodore Users Group, I'.O. Box 3rti,
ware (CLSSHr, 4(125 2Kt St., Kacine, Wl 53405 South Wales, Australia Midland. Ontario, Canada
Jancsville Area Commodoic Users Group, P.O. Australian Computer Education Association. User) Croup of Mt. Fores! (UGMF), 597 Oakview.
Bin 185S. Jinesvllle. Wl 53547 [>O Box 194. Corinda 4075, Old Australia Cresent, Box 262, Mt. r'orest. Ontario. Canada
Madison Area Commodore User Group, P O. tkix Ifedland Commodore Computer Group. Juhn NOG 2L0
1305, Madlion, Wl 53701-1305 Noblct. 10 Barker Court, Port Hedland 6721, The B5 Commodore Club. 3939 =6 Highway, Mt.
Commudpie and VIC Enlhusiasts (CAVE). CO. WeMern Australia Hope. Ontario. Canada LOR UV0
Box 33, Criviw. Wl 54114 Queensland Users Aiding Computer Kids C64 North Bay Users Group, 790 Laurentian Ave..
Kewaunee Si Brown County Computer Club 1KB (QUACK). |im Harford. 2 Jane Court. Nambour.
North Bay, Oniario, Canada P1B 7V2
Triple Cl. Ri. 2. Kewaurtee, Wl 54216 J560, Queensland, Australia
The CreatWhite North Computer Club, 35S
COMM-E1AY64, P.O. Box 1152. Green Bay, Wl Class of H. c/o Robert Wheeler, 37 Kuran St., Gnnvffle St.. Orillia. Ontario. Canada IJV 2K?
54305 Chi'rmiside. Queensland 4012. Australia
Durham C64 Club, 1322 Naples Si., Oshaiva, On-
Inrlo, Canada L1K 1)6
B2 COMPUTE's Gazette June 1986
Tuesday User Group (TUG), Box 17S7, Port Peny. MALAYSIA
On la rio, Canada LOB INO Commodore Users Exchange (CUE), P.O. Box Lima Commodore Club, Monte Grande 109 =508.
St. Calhiiines C-64 Junior Group, 32 Kilbourne 152, 25710 Kuantan, Pahang. Malaysia Lima 33, Peru
Si., St. Caiharines. Ontario, Canada L2M 3E4
Niagara Commodore Users Croup, 15E Neilson
Club Commodore del Surede, P.O. Bo» 1272-A, Society of Commodore Users Users of Metro Mi
Ave., St. Catherines, Ontario, Canada L2M 5V9
Alberto Marin Hdez., Merida, Yucatan, Mexico ni la, P. A. Wong. 29A Scout Loiano, Quezon
Niagara Commodore Users Group. 12-44
Commodore 64 User"! Group, APDO 86. Calle City, Philippines
Queenston St.. St. Catherines. Ontario, Canada
L2R 2Y9 Zaragoza 414, Puerto Vallarta, lallsco. Mexico i*ui:rto rico
St. Thomas Users Computer Club (STUCC), 39 48300 South Commodore Users Group, c/o lelix
Oivaissa St., St. Thomas, Ontario, Canada N5P Club Herra'Tec C64, Alain Bojmal, Vicente Tanats, ]r., Campos "22, Ponce, Puerto Rico
1T1; or 30 Forest Ave., Si. Thomas, Oniario, Suarez 25. O6100. Mexico, D.F. 00731
Canada NEW ZEALAND Carolina Computers Club, 16 St. 35-24, Villa
Sarnia Commodore User Group, 1276 Giffel Rd., Carolina. Puerto Rico 00630
East Coast Bays Commodore User Group, P.O.
Samia, Ontario, Canada. N7S 3K7 Box 35-034, Browns Bay, Auckland 10, New
Sault Commodore Computer Club. 560 Old
Coulais Bay Rd.. Sault Ste. Marie, Ontario, Can Commodore League ol Riyadh. P.O. Box 17447,
New Zealand Commodore Users Group, Inc..
ada P6A 5KB Riyadh 11484, Saudi Arabia
P.O. Box 5223, Welleqley Si., Auckland. New
Dlskmasler Club, 1326 Hastings Crescent, Sud- SWF.DI-N
bury, Ontario, CinicU P3A ZRJ Hokltlka Commodore Computer Users Group, Computer Club Sweden, Hans lin^lrom, P.O.
Anthrax Commodore Users Group, 2360 Wcsron 185 Scwell St., Hokilika, New Zealand Box 7040, S-103 86 Stockholm, Sweden
Rd.. Suite 102, Toronto, Ontario, Canada M9N
Marlborough Commodore Users Group, 32 Worldwide Commodore 64 Genealogists, (ohann
Rousehill St., Rcnwick Marlborough, New H. Aadde, Dalkarrslcdcn 49, S-162 24
Toronto PET Users Group Inc. (TPUG), 1912A
Zealand Vaellingby, Sweden
Avenue Rd., Suite 1, Toronto, Ontario, Canada
Nelson Commodore User Group, Peter Archer,
P.O. Box B60, Nelson, New Zealand 54/79362
C-64 International User Group, Programm Ex
NETHERI.AN1) ANTILLES change Service, P.O. Bo* 18, 5604 HendscWken,
Club Commodore Champlatn. P.O. Bos 52Z,
Comiac-Software User Group 64/128. jarrod CH-Switzerland
BoudiiTville. Quebec, Canada Bernadina, Inaguaweg 12, Wiliemstad, Curacao. Computer Anwendcr Club, Postfach 194. 8029
Club Logl-Com. 745-76 Avenue, Grand'mere,
Netherland Antilles Zurich, Switzerland
Qurboc Canada C9T 2B7
Commodore 64 User Group, I.udwin Statie,
Evalualion Club For The C-64, TRS-SO, And Ap WEST GERMANY
Caracasbaaiweg "94. Curacao. Netherlands
ple II. 7145 Cannes "2, Montreal, Quebec, Can Commodore Club, Wandcl M, |oh-Machem STK.
ada HIS 21*9 8D, D-645 Hanau-7, (Vest Gennany
Saturn Software User Group 64, |ason Shepherd,
C128/64 User Group, Ferrari Rudi. Postfach 40 02
Saskatchewan Prof. Kemkampweg 21'. Netherland Antilles
09, D 5000 Koeln -10, West Germany
C.U.G.S., 1635 Fleet St.. Regina. Saskatchewan. NORWAY User Group, Ferrari Rudi, Posllach JO 02 09. D
Canada S4N 5S2
Anthan s M Uier Group, lion 1Mb, tHUl Moiac, 5000 Koeln 40, West Germany
The POKEfs Club, Box 75. St. Louis, Saskatch
Norway UTOPIA, Dana Talley or Sonja l.udwick, Olgastr.
ewan, Canada SO] 2C0
#146, 7900 Ulm. West Germany
Prince Albert Commodore Users Group, P.O. PAKISTAN
Box 246J. Prince Albert. Saskatchewan, Canada Commodore Computer User Club, Atln: Khalid WEST IND1LS
S6V 7G3 Khanani, P.O. Box 6121, Karachi-2, Pakistan Caribbean Commodore Computer Club, Jim
Saskatoon Commodore Users Group, c/o Vera Lynch, P.O. Box 318, St. ]ohns, Antigua. West
Heinle, P.O. Bos 1944, Saskatoon, Saskatch Indies OJt
ewan. Canada S7K 3S5
645 North of 60, P.O. oox 54JM, Whitenorse, vu-
kon, Canada VIA 5H4

Columbia 64 Group, C/O Rodrigo Chaves, P.O.
Box 6713, Cali. Columbia, South America

MIDTJVDSK Computer Klub (M.C.K.),
?gstrupvej 86, 8BO0 Viborg, Denmark
R.D.-C-M Users Group, David Braverman, (_cn-
Iro Ed. d< Bonao. Ave. lose Marti, Bonao,
Dominican Republic
ENGLAND BACKUP PROTECTED • Includes fast loader, 12-second
R.R. M Owners Club, Tom Lomam, 17 Creystoke SOFTWARE FAST.
Drive, Bilborough. Nottingham, Nottingham- Requires a Commodore 64 or 128
shite, England, Nottingham 289467 From the team who brought you
computer with one or two 1541 or
COPY II PLUS (Apple), Copy II PC
FINLAND 1571 drives.
User's Club ot Fl 1, c/o Maui Pohtola,
(IBM) and COPY II MAC (Macin
Tclctotkimuslaitoksen, Mikrotietokonekerho. tosh) comes a revolutionary new Call 503/244-5782, M-F, 8-5:30
Kiviaidankatu 2 F, 00210 Helsinki 21. Finland copy program for the Commodore (West Coast time) with your $$ 2HE
Commodore Micro Amiteurs, Matti Aarnio, 64 and 128 computers. in hand. Or send a check
Unnustajankj 2B7, SF-02940 ESPOO. Finland • Copies many protected (Or $39.95 U.S. plus $3 s/h, $8
1K1-LAND programs—automatically. (We overseas.
ClubM, S5 Upper Drumcondra Rd., update Copy II64/128 regularly to
Ireland handle new protections; you as a $39.95
registered owner may update at Central Point Software, Inc.
Computer Club tordenons. Dr. Giuseppe any time for $15 plus $3 s/h.) 9700 S.W. Capilol Hwy. #100
Genovesl, Centro Cultural? A. Moro, via • Copies even protected disks in Portland, OR 97219
Travorsagna 4, 33084 Cordenons (PN) Italy
under 2 minutes (single drive).
Institute of High Technology Users Group, Via
Monti- Napoteone 9, 20121 Milano, Italy
I.G.C.S., Salvalore Innalmi, via Pentone 5, 00173,
• Copies even protected disks in
under 1 minute (dual drive).
Rome, Italy
Commodore 64 Computer Users Group of Rome,
• Maximum of four disk swaps on Software
a single drive.
c/o Pluchinotta Via di S. Agnese 22, 00198,
Rome, Italy
Software Computer Club, e/o Magliola Andrea, Backup utilities also available for the IBM, Apple II and Macintosh.
This product Is prmldod tor the purposs of ongOltng yov to mukg .ith.var copfas onfy
Via Q. Sella n. 13. 13060 Valdengo (VC), Italy
Arrays In The Next Dimension

Michael S. Tomczyk 1 2 3 4 5

Gll,l) G(l,2) Gil.3) G(l,4) G(l,5)

Let's pick up where we left off last
100 150 200 250 300
month, with our discussion of ar
rays. In BASIC programming, an
array is an efficient way to handle a can C(2,2) C<2,3) G(2,-I) G(2,5)

large number of items. An array is a

-100 -150 -200 -250 -300
group of items usually arranged as
a table of numbers and words. Each This program sets up the table the computer PRINTs only the re
item has its own code name and lo- (type NEW, then enter and RUN sult of the calculation.
cation In the table. this example):
Arrays are sometimes consid 10 DATA 100,150,200,250,300,-100,-150, Array Notation
ered an advanced concept and ex 200, 250, - 300
Let's try some simple exercises so
cluded from many BASIC hand 15 DIM G(2,5)
we can get used to working with ar
books. This is unfortunate because ray notation, which is very similar
30 FOR X-I TO 5:PRINT SPC(1)"G1"X;
arrays are not that difficult to under :NEXT:PRJNT to working with numeric and string
stand and they're extremely useful 40 1:OR X 1 TO 5:PRINT C(1,X>; variables (covered in recent months
and important programming tools. :NEXT:PRINT
in this column). A numeric array
So let's continue our discussion. 50 FOR X-l TO 5:READ G(2,XI:NEXT
60 FOR X-l TO 5:PRINT SPCfl)wG2" contains numbers only. The name
If you think of DATA as a list of of the array is usually a letter of the
information, then arrays are groups 70 FOR X = 1 TO 5:PRL\T G(2,X); alphabet like A, B, X, or N. The no
of information. It helps if you think :NEXT;PRINT tation for one item from the array
of an array as a group, even if the ar
First, we put all ten numbers in looks like this: A(3). The A is the
ray contains only one item. You can name of the array, and the (3) rep
a DATA list, and then DIMension
also think of an array as an arrange resents item number 3. Try this
an array two columns deep by five
ment of boxes or containers, or as a example:
rows wide, and READ and PRINT
table of rows and columns. Each box
the first five numbers as G(l,l), 10 FOR X = l TO 10:A(X) = X:PRINT
has a name like G(l), and it may be
G{1,2), G(l,3), G(l,4), and G(l,5). A(X):NEXT
empty or contain one item of infor
Then we READ and PRINT the sec This line uses a FOR-NEXT
mation, as in this one-dimensional
ond five numbers as G(2,l), G(2,2), loop to count from 1 to 10—on each
G(2,3), G(2,4), and G(2,5). loop, the number from 1 to 10 is in
C(l) G(2) G13) C(4> G(5)
The- SPC(1} statement inserts serted where the X's are. On the
one space in front of the G numbers first loop, A(X) = X becomes
100 150 200 250 300 so the positions line up. The PRINT A(l)= 1 which means position A(l)
statement at the end of lines 30, 40, in the array is defined as the num
There's one row of five boxes,
60, and 70 is needed because of the ber 1. Next, the computer PRINTs
or columns, in this array, numbered
semicolon in the earlier PRINT A(X), which is A(l) the first time
G(l) to G(5). The first box, G(l),
statement in those lines. through the loop—which is the
contains the number 100, G(2) con
Each item in an array can be number 1. The NEXT statement
tains the number 150, and so on.
moved to another location, rede tells the computer to go back and
Here's a program you could use to
fined, changed, used in a calcula redefine X as 2, then 3, and on up to
fill up the boxes with the numbers
tion, or displayed individually, in 10. So A(l) equals one, A(6) equals
shown, and display them. Type it in
subsets or in tables. For example, 6, A{10) equals 10.
and RUN it:
try adding these two lines to the A string array contains string
10 DATA 100,150,200,250,300 previous program:
30 FOR X 1 TO S:READ G(X):NEXT information like words, phrases,
30 rOR X 1 TO 5:I'RJNT SPC(1)"C" SO PRINTrl'RINT C(U>"MULTII'L]ED sentences, graphics symbols, and
X;:NEXT BY"G(2,1)"IS"G(1,1)'G(2,1) so on. The name of the array looks
40 PRlNTiFOR X- I TO 5:PRINT G(X); W G(1,1)-17:PRINT C(l,irC[2,l)
like a string variable because it uses
Line 80 shows how you can a dollar sign, like this: N$(4). The
You can also have two-dimen multiply numbers in an array using N$ is the name of the string array,
sional arrays which you might visu their row and column numbers. and the (4) represents item number
alize as rows and columns of boxes Line 50 redefines G(l,l) as 17 and 4 in the array- Type NEW and press
like this: multiplies it by G(2,l). Note that RETURN, then try this example:
to COMPUTE'S Gazelle June 1986
10 PRINT CHRSH47) 10 PRINT CHRS(147rTYPE 10 LOAN loop to READ the names of the
20 FOR X = l TO 1O;PR1NT"ENTER AMOUNTS & PRESS RETURN" months from the DATA list into the
MS array. On the first cycle, the
30 PRINT CHRS(147):FOR X-l TO 10: 10:PRINT"$"N(B)"TIMES 9% computer READs JANUARY from
FRINT'YOUR WORDS ARE: EQUALS"N(H)\09:NEXT the DATA list and defines it as
NS("X")"NSIX):NEXT MS(1) in the MS array. Then the
You can also let the user define
computer PRINTs the message in
Line 10 clears the screen. Line the size of the array (which is L):
20 uses a FOR-NEXT loop like the
quotation marks. The INPUT state
10 PRINT CHRS(147)"TYPE THE ment displays a question mark and
previous example. The numbers NUMBER OF NAMES YOU WILL waits for one number to be typed
from 1 to 10 arc inserted wherever ENTER":INPUT L
in, which is defined as S(l) in the S
you see an X, so "WORD NUM 20 DIM N$tL):PRINT CHRSU47)
30 FOR X-l TO L:PRINT"ENTER array. Finally, the NEXT statement
NAME NUMBEH"X;:INPUT tells the computer to go back and
1, then 2, 3, and so on. The INPUT
N$(X):NEXT repeat the process—MS(2) and
statement makes the computer dis 40 PRINT CliRS(I47):THE NAMES ARE
S(2), MS(3) and S(3)—until it
play a question mark and wait until ":FOR D-l TO X:PRINT NSlXliNEXT
reaches 12, which is the upper limit
you type in a word or phrase (or
of the loop. At this point, the 12
even a number), then defines what
Using The DIM Statement months are safely tucked away in
you typed as an item in the string
So far, most of our arrays have in the M$ array and the 12 sales num
array. The first item you type be
cluded ten or fewer items—but you bers are stored in the S array.
comes N$(l), the second item be
may have noticed that in cases Line 50 adds the sales figures
comes NS(2), and so on.
where the array had more than 11 for each month, stored in the 5(X)
Line 30 clears the screen and
uses another FOR-NEXT loop to cy items, and when we set up a two- array, and stores the total in the
dimensional array, we used the variable called SALES.
cle through the ten words and dis
DIM (DIMension) statement. Line 60 begins with a PRINT
play them next to their string array
names. Notice we went outside Your computer automatically statement which merely displays a
quotation marks to display the first sets up an array with the name you blank line on the screen (used for
X—because X is a variable and vari give it—such as A(X) or N$(X)— positioning and spacing). Then we
ables are always displayed outside when the array has 11 or fewer PRINT the message shown inside
quotes. We also displayed the sec items, but if you want to put more quotation marks, followed by the
ond NS(X) completely outside than 11 items (numbered 0-10) in variable SALES.
your array, you must use the DIM Line 70 is similar to line 60, ex
statement to tell the computer how cept here we divide the total SALES
much space in memory to reserve by 12 to get the average sales per
Putting Information Into Arrays
for the array. The DIM statement month.
If you know how to define a vari
tells the computer to make room for
able (like A = 14:PR1NT A), then
an array. Type NEW, then try this
you know how to define the ele
example: Kt/Vl! You can use a full word like
ments in an array—with a few SALES as a variable name to help you
variations. 10 DIM SU2):DIM MSI12I
20 DATA JANUARY.FEBRUARY keep track of what's going on in yoUT
First, you can use a FOR-NEXT
,MARCH,A1'RIL,MAY,]UNE,JULY, program, but the computer sees only
loop to put a series of consecutive AUGUST the first two letters, so SALES is inter
numbers into an array, like this: 30 DATA SEl'TEMItER.OCTOBER,
preted by the computer as SA. You
10 DIM Q(2SI:I:ORX-1 TO 25;Q{X)-X;
may get unexpected problems that are
PRINT Q(X):NEXT difficult to figure out if your program
You can use the equal sign to S(X):NEXT has two or more variables with the
50 FOR X = l TO 12:SALES = same first txvo letters. For example,
define specific array elements, like
this: you should not use both SATURDAY
THE YEAR WERE S"SALES and SALES in the same program be
10 MS(1>-"ZORICK":M$(2)-
"HEDRICK" 70 PR]NT:PRINT:'AVE:RAGE MONTH cause the computer sees both words us
20 PRINT M$(I>" IS "MS(2)" IN LY SALES FOR THE YEAR WERE the same variable SA. An additional
DISGUISE." $"SALES/12 problem to avoid when using long
variable names is accidentally in
You can define an array by Line 10 begins by DIMension-
cluding a BASIC keyword within the
using DATA statements, like this ing two arrays. The first is a numer
name. For example, the variable name
(note in line 10 how we put a com ic array named S which will contain
ma in a DATA list—-enclose it in 12 numbers. The second is a string SAND contains the BASIC keyword
AND, which is not allowed—an error
quotes): array called M$ which will contain
12 words. Remember, you need to message will result.
KNEW ,H1M,WELL use the DIM statement when you
100 FOR Q -1 TO 8:READ YS(Q):NEXT have more than 11 items in your There are many more nuances
200 FOR Q-1TO3: PRINT YStQ); array. involved in using arrays. Next
Lines 20 and 30 contain a month, we'll explore this topic fur
You can let the user INPUT ar DATA list with the names of the 12 ther and look at one of the best ap
ray elements, like this: months. Line 40 uses a FOR-NEXT plications for arrays. W
COMPUTED Gazette Juno 1986 85

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Each month, computers gazette division of opinion on this, even which tells the drive which space is
tackles some questions commonly among the Commodore users at free and which space is occupied.
asked by Commodore users. If you COMPUTE! Publications. Some The drive reads this map into mem
have a question you'd like to see an people swear they've had disks ory—memory within the disk drive
swered here, send it to this column, ruined because of identical ID num itself, not the computer. The drive
c/o COMPUTERS GAZETTE, P.O. Box bers, while others say they use the refers to the map when new data is
5406, Greensboro, NC 27403. same ID number on every disk and to be saved, Each time you add or
have yet to lose a file. delete information on the disk, the
• I own a Commodore 128 in theory, at least, here's how drive updates the map and writes it
and*would like to know how to ac identical ID numbers could cause a to the disk.
cess the 280 chip through BASIC problem. When you first format a If you swap two disks that hap
without using the CP/M software disk, the NEW command requires a pen to have the same ID number,
supplied with the system. diskname and ID number: the drive may not be aware that
BASIC 2.1): you've inserted a different disk. It
/»• We've seen a novelty pro OPEN 15fi,15,"NEW0;di$kname,id" might continue to use the map from
gram that POKEs a short Z80 ma :CLOSE 15
disk 1 when writing to disk 2. As a
chine language program into BASIC 7.0: result, some existing information
memory, enables the Z80, runs the HEADER",/ijAmmr.>",/irf
on disk 2 may be overwritten or
program, and returns to 128 mode. Diskname can be any legal Commo scrambled. If each disk has a differ
But without CP/M, you can't print dore filename up to 16 characters ent ID number, this shouldn't hap
to the screen or to a printer, you long, and id any two numbers, let pen. To be safe, you can issue the
can't input from the keyboard, you ters, or diameters. The NEW com Initialize command (OPEN 15,8,15,
can't access any peripherals. All you mand can be abbreviated to a single "I0":CLOSE15) to force the drive to
can do is move numbers in memory. N. Examples: read the BAM.
So there's no practical way to OPEN 15,8,15,"N0:BASICPROCS,T8" In actual practice, most Com
access the 280 chip from 128 :CLOSE IS modore users say they rarely, if
mode—but you really wouldn't HEADER :'BASICPROCS",IT8
ever, experience disk problems
want to, anyway. A central process This would assign the disk- which could be attributed to dupli
ing unit is pretty useless without an name BAS1CPROGS and the ID cate ID numbers.
Operating system, and the Z8()'s op number T8 to the disk. (Important:
erating system is CP/M (Control Use this command only on a blank ^ Is it possible to connect
Program for Microcomputers). or scratch disk, because it irretriev Commodore 64 and VIC-20 com
Without an operating system, a ably erases any existing infor patible joysticks to a Commodore
chip is like an automobile engine mation on the disk.) During the Plus/4 or 16? If so, what connec
without a transmission or steering formatting process, the ID is written tions would I have to make?
mechanism. If you want to access to every sector on the disk.
the Z80, there are several good lan
guages, including BASIC, available
Commodore disk drives use the A.• Yes, it's possible, but you'd
ID numbers to determine when a have to rewire the joystick and find
on disk for CP/M. different disk has been inserted into the correct plug connector to fit the
the drive. You've never had to speci Plus/4's and 16's joystick ports.
^ The rationale behind the fy an ID number when saving a file This wouldn't be a difficult job for a
need for separate ID numbers on because the drive checks it for you. technician or electronics hobbyist,
disks escapes me. I believe it to be It's important for the drive to but finding the right plug probably
true, but don't understand why. know when a different disk has won't be easy.
The bottom line of explanations been inserted because it must al We seem to remember seeing
given me is that if you change ways keep track of available space advertisements in European com
disks and both have the same ID, on the current disk. When you save puter magazines for converter
the drive thinks it has the same a program or write to a file, the plugs that let you use a regular joy
disk. But what is the drive com drive has to know where the empty stick with a Plus/4 or 16, but can't
paring IDs against? I never save space is on the disk. Otherwise, it recall who made them. Perhaps
using an ID. might overwrite existing data. Ev some of our European readers
ery disk contains a map, called a could suggest a source. vb
/\» Actually, there seems to be a block availability map (BAM),
I COMPUTE''^ Gaiotte June 1986
Thanks For The Memory

Todd Heimarck to the expansion memory and then sary with some commercial soft
Assistant Editor transferred to a new disk. A word ware, use "U0>M0" instead. Piles
processor could put roughly 50,000 aren't written to the second side un
We welcome Todd Heimarek as the words in the expander for a spelling til the first side is full, so it often
new "Horizons" columnist. Todd is checker. And CP/M recognizes the doesn't matter whether the 1571 is
the gazette's Assistant Editor. extra memory as disk M:—you can in mode 0 or mode 1.
Charles Brannon, author of the col copy your favorite commands to Now, imagine that you're
umn since October 1983, is writing a the memory pack, for almost in working on a program in 64 mode
new column, "AmigaVieiv," which stantaneous execution. and the disk drive is acting like a
debuted in the May issue of our sister 1541. The disk has been formatted
magazine, COMPUTE!. —Ed. A Few Quirks Of The 128 with two sides, but it's mostly emp
ty, so it makes no difference that
And 1571
Computer memory is like money. the 1571 is accessing only one side.
Two months ago, "Gazette Feed
No matter how much you have, After scratching several files, you
back" included a short program for
you can find a way to spend it. validate the disk with OPEN 15,8,
setting up custom characters on the
Four years ago, 1 bought my 15: PRINT#15, "V0" (the same as
128. The beginning of the program
first personal computer, a VIC-20 the COLLECT command in 128
with an 8K expander and a Datas-
performs a GRAPH IC1 followed by
mode). This isn't really necessary,
GRAPHIC0. The intention is not to
sette. This system was replaced first but it shouldn't do any damage.
set up a hi-res screen, but to move
by a 64 and 1541, then by a 128 and Validating makes the disk drive
1571. The price of each computer, the start of BASIC memory up by
read through the directory and pro
9K, to reserve a portion of memory
not counting peripherals or soft tect any disk sector currently being
for the character set.
ware, was in the $250-300 range used by a file, so existing files won't
and yet each offered three times i recently used this technique
be overwritten by new files. After
more usable memory for BASIC to create some custom characters.
scratching several programs, I'll
programs, from 12K (expanded Then, needing a sprite shape, I often validate the disk, to be safe.
VIC) to 39K (64) to 120K (128). typed the SPRDEF command to en Here's the problem: Validating
Although each new machine able the built-in sprite editor. while the disk drive is in 1541 mode
included new hardware and soft Upon returning to BASIC, the turns a double-sided disk into a sin
ware features, my primary reason screen was completely blank and gle-sided disk. Sending the
for upgrading was the extra memory. the keyboard seemed to be dis "U0>Ml" command won't let you
The mure memory you have, the abled. The 128 wasn't completely regain the second side. A flag in
more powerful your programs. locked up; pressing RUN-STOP/ byte 3 of track 18, sector 0 identifies
When I've told friends that I RESTORE put things right again. A double-sided disks. Since the vali
plan to buy the 512K expander for little experimentation in the ma date command writes a new Block
the 128 as soon as it's available, chine language monitor revealed Allocation Map (BAM) on that same
their first question is usually, "Why the problem. Apparently, the sprite sector, it must write the single/
would you want that much editor clears the entire hi-res graph double flag at the same time. In oth
memory?" ics area (where the custom charac er words, in 1541 mode, it acts just
Here are a few ideas. The 512K ters were located). You can test this like you'd expect a 1541 to act,
could hold 64 hi-res screens at by drawing a simple shape on the If this situation should happen
8,000 bytes each, so you could de hi-res screen and then going into to you, here's a program to turn
sign 64 frames of full-screen anima the sprite editor. When you quit, try your disk back into a double-sider:
tion. Or you could save 8192 sprite looking at the hi-res screen.
The next is a quirk of the 1571. 10 OPES'15.8. 11 :OF>EN2,B, 2 , " = "
shapes there—1024 shapes for each
20 PRINT* 15, "Ul";2;0;I(i:0
of the eight sprites. By changing If you go directly into 64 mode by
3O PRINT!15,"B-P";2;3
shapes twice a second, you could holding down the Commodore key 40 PRINTB2,Ci!RS|12a) ;

produce an eight-minute cartoon. when you turn on the 128, the 1571 50 [=RINT«15, "U2";2;0;19:0
More serious applications will work as if it were a single-sided
could include up to 512 help 1541. You can convert it to a 1571 Pay close attention to the
screens. Or a single-swap disk by entering OPEN15,8,15, "U0> punctuation—the commas and
backup program. A 1571 disk holds Ml": CLOSE15. To force it into semicolons should be typed just as
340K, all of which could be copied 1541 mode, which might be neces they're listed, W

COMPUTES Gazelle June 1986

My Favorite Robots

Fred D'lgnazio enough, real computer-robot kits Zenith and Fordham Radio.)
Associate Editor can be found. One of the best places At the top of the Movit line is
to start is Capsela. The Capsela kits the WAO (Wise Argent Orb) for
I'm writing a book inspired by The have four virtues: They're easy to $100. You can assemble WAO from
Learning Company's bestselling find (they're carried in Toys 'R Us its 100 parts in two to three hours—
game Robot Odyssey. The book is set stores nationwide), easy to assem with no soldering. Once it is assem
nearly 30 years in the future in the ble, versatile (allowing you to build bled you can program WAO with
year 2014, and is titled Escape From many different kinds of machines), up to 27 commands on its onboard
Robotropolis (Blue Jay Books, Fall and inexpensive, costing as little as computer/keyboard or on a 64 or
1986). It's the story of teenager $12 for a starter kit (with no motors 128 using the WAO's RS-232 port
Homer Tierce's journey through an or computers) and ranging up to the (and a $40 computer interface).
underground city inhabited by ro computerized, motorized Capsela WAO has a pen mechanism which
bot "Guardians" from another 2000 (S85) and Capsela 5000 can be programmed to draw Logo-
planet. ($120). like graphics, including circles,
Writing this book has helped The parts in a Capsela kit are stars, spirals, and letters.
me speculate about how computers large and "friendly" looking, which After you've adopted and as
and robots might evolve over the makes them especially attractive as sembled an entire family of Movits,
next 30 years. One great danger 1 a beginner kit for a young child or a you'll be looking for a new chal
see is that they could become so technophobic adult. Their varied lenge. My recommendation is a Fis-
easy to use that no one except the and fantastic shapes are guaranteed chertechnik robotic computing kit
experts will need to understand to inspire any child's creativity and for the VIC-20, 64, or 128. The kit is
how they work. As a result, we'll be imagination. And, at the high end, relatively expensive ($200), but the
placing major and minor decisions the Capsela 5000 lets you program price includes a power supply and
affecting our lives in the hands of your robots on a handheld, wireless computer interface.
"smart machines" which we do not remote unit from up to 20 feet. Your A Fischertechnik kit is a low-
understand. One way in helping to robot can have up to 17 functions cost way for an older child (ten and
avoid this fate is to begin to acquire and your program can have up to up) or a school group to iearn about
a basic understanding of how these 94 commands. the basics of computers and robot
machines work by building com Capsela is a wise choice be ics. With the help of the excellent,
puter and robot kits. cause it features a family of ma clearly written manual you can
chines all built from similar parts. build ten different robotic devices,
Kits This gives you a wider choice of kits including a plotter, a machine tool,
A decade ago, during the early days and robots, and enables you to be a sorting system, an automated
of personal computing, there used come familiar with all the parts the Towers of Hanoi puzzle, a solar
to be a variety of computer kits on first time you build a kit. As a result, tracker, a robotic traffic light, and a
the market. But now, in the late all succeeding kits become much teachable assembly-line robot. The
1980s, there is little demand for easier to assemble. kit's parts are as finely made as in
starter kits with 4K of memory Once you and your children dustrial parts for a factory, yet they
when you can buy a 16K Radio have built a couple of Capsela ro are relatively large, "friendly," and
Shack Color Computer for under bots, you'll be ready to tackle the easy to manipulate.
$70, already assembled. And far Movit family of robots from OW1. If you're looking for a local Cap
more powerful computers (like the Like Capsela, the Movits come in sela dealer, call Jill Cooper of Play-
64 and 128) are not much more all shapes and sizes and are inex Jour Inc. at 212-243-5200. For more
expensive. pensive (as little as $25). Unfortu information about the Movits, talk to
There are plenty of robot kits nately, the Movit pieces are much June Morioka at 213-638-4732. To
on the market, mostly marketed as smaller and less easy to manipu find the Fischertechnik ilcalcr closest
"construction set" toys for kids. late, so they're better suited for old to you, call Fischer America at 201-
the problem with most of them is er children (ages eight and up). And 227-9283. <B
that they have no computer inter the Movit kits are not as available
face, no motors, and no sensors— as the Caps