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February 1986 ©
Issue 32, Vol. 4, No. 2
02220 S3.75 Canada


Also In This Issue: Commodore 128

Machine Language For Memory Map
m'U"%\ Beginners: Exploring All the key
The 128's Monitor
Computing For
Families: Homework
Disk Editor
128 Update: An
Lexitron Improved CP/M
Examine and alter any byte
on a disk with ease using
An exciting word game And More this powerful utility. For the
with some twists, plus Commodore 64, Plus/4,
and 16.
skill level options. For
the Commodore 128,
64, Plus/4, and 16.

Commodore 128
Disk Commands
A tutorial packed with tips,
shortcuts, and lots of how-
to information to help you
get the most out of your
128 and disk drive.

A fast and flexible file manager loaded with
features. For the Commodore 64.
7U86 2220
(No I.D. required for half-elves.)

When the Going Gets Tough,

the Bard Goes Drinking*

LJ nd the going is tough are magic, the Bard is ready

X X in Skara Brae town. to boogie. All he needs is
The evil wizard Mangar a band of loyal followers:
has cast an eternal winter a light-fingered rogue to
spell. Monsters control find secret doors, a
the streets and dun couple of fighters
geons beneath. Good to bash heads, a con
citizens fear for their jurer to create weird
lives. What's worse, allies, a magician for
there's only one tavern magic armor.
left that serves wine. Then it's off to com
But the Bard knows bat, as soon as the Bard
no fear. With his trusty finishes one more verse.
harp and a few rowdy Now whnt's a word that
minstrel songs he claims rhymes with "dead ogre?"


4 classes of magic user, including 128 color monsters, many Full-color scrolling dungeons.
wizard and sorceror. 85 new animated. All challenging. 16 levels, each better than the
magic spells in all. one before. 3-D city, too.

The Bard's Tale



Specs: \G0% machine language, 400K wurth on I dub MK RAM minimum, enhanced for IJ8K Now available fur Apple IE family fur 544 95. CM & 12S for £39 9i
To orders Visit your retailer or call <flO0) 227-6703 I In Calif sail (fiOO) M2-7979| for VISA or MuMerCard orders To purchase by null, lend check or money order to Electronic
Arts, FO Bos 106. Half Moon Rjy, CA 9410° Add SI for iniured ihtppbtJI l»d kiiullinii AlUm 1-4 wnia for delivery The Bjrd'l Tale It worth the wzh
Apple 1^ .i irjdcm^rV of Apple CompUICB Wn.irdiy « <» Weltered (r.nk-rnjrL (if Sir-leth Software, Iric Ulllfflfl is .1 re^rered trndi-nurk of Rithatd OlnlOIl The Bard^T-fle and
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nft r n..... c... u.i. . ri ojjim
Along With Your Favorite

Here's a great new way for you and your friends to For fun throughout the Christmas holidays, order our
have fun with your Commodore 64™ or 128™. Our Christmas Carols, too! The disk contains 18 favorites,
exciting Party Songs disk features 18 classics you'll including 0 Come All Ye Faithful, Joy to the World,
love to sing. They are loaded with humor and Jingle Bells, Silent Night, What Child is This?, and
nostalgia—just right for when friends gel together. more.

For sing-along fun, the lyrics appear In easy-to-read As always, you can trust John Henry Software to bring
verse on your TV or monitor. Play just your favorite you quality software at the lowest price. We specialize
song or set your computer to play them all. in prompt delivery and guarantee our product.

If you've seen our Christmas Carols, then you know Don't wait, see your dealer, or call us today!
Toil-free number;
Party Songs will be a treat. Your computer's vast
musical capabilities are used to their fullest to create 1-800-223-2314
lively music in three-part harmony. The colorful and In Ohio call S13B98-7660
entertaining graphics make every song a visual delight.

$15 each
Both for only
• Auld Lang Syne • I've Been Workin' on the Railroad $28.95
• Oh My Darling Clementine • Blow the Man Down
• For He's a Jolly Good Fellow • Bill Groggin's Goat
• HaiilHaiMTheGang'sAIIHere! • My Wild Irish Rose
• My Old Kentucky Home • Turkey In the Straw Please send me:
• My Bonnie Lies Over the Ocean • Goober Peas Party Songs disk's) at $15.05 aach
• Red River Valley • Oh! Susanna • Dixie Christmas Carols ciisk(s) at $15,95 each
• The Yellow Rose of Texas • Yankee Doodle Christmas Carols and Party Songs at $20.95
Aiki S i.OO 'or |io3to[i« oiid hantfllnfl. Ohio 'aaldunla add 8% sbIhsIsi, Foreign
• Who Threw the Overalls in maora. axcapt Canada and APO, adit ja.00 lor Air Mall. Plaose pay (n U.S. lunOs.
Mistress Murphy's Chowder?
(.; Chack or monoy order enclosed iJ Visa □ MasterCard
Acct. # : Exp. Dafe .

John Henry Software
ciijAi i iv r. nun Mm '

Send lo John Henry Software. P.O. Bo* 745, Vandalia, Ohio 45377.
Some Historic Breakthroughs
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As CompuServe.
But then, some historic business associates—anywhere in ultimate in interactive excitement.
the country —in constant, conven And there are board, parlor, sports
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72 channels for "talking"
with thousands of other Movie Reviews keep that big
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It turns that marvel of the 20th
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something useful. unforgettable, and the friendships
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is an information service. on all sorts of topics. There are and businesses.
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stocks, bonds, funds, issues and In case you ever get lost or con
options. Five years of daily com fused, just type in "H" for help, and
Grower's Academic American modity quotes. Standard & Poor's. we'll immediately cut in with instruc
Encyclopedia's Electronic Edition Value Line. And more than a dozen tions that should save the day.
delivers a complete set of encyclope other investment tools.
Besides, you can either ask ques
dias right to your living Site II facilitates business tions online through our Feedback
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today's homewort. It's with demographic and sales Service Department.
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The College Boaid, operated by the National and Canadian business need a CompuServe Subscription
College Entrance Examination wires provide continuously updated Kit, a computer, a modem to connect
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Washington Post, pleasant surprise. stores, electronic equipment outlets
USA TODAY Update, Although CompuServe makes the and household catalogs. You can also
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tions and more. You get low start-up costs, low usage puters and modems sold today.
can find out instanl ly what Congress charges and local phone-call access
did yesterday; who finally won the in most major metropolitan areas. i D Please send me addilional information.
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lets you tell us wha: to watch for. We'll Informal ion Services, $nc.
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In fact, if you know
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INVEST WISELY you already have the Signature __

Comprehensive investment help know-how you'll need Name

just might tell you more about the to access any subject Address.
slock you're looking at in our system. That's because it's Oly
than the company's "menu-driven;1 so beginners can Slate .Zip.
Chairman of the Beard simply read the menus (lists of
knows. (Don't know who options) that appear on their
he is? Chances are, we
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screens and then type in their
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too.) CompuServe gives you com Experts can skip the menus and RO. Box L-477
plete statistics on over 10,000 NYSE, just type in "GO" followed by the I Columbu5rOhio43260 pri-602 I
AMEX and OTC securities. Historic abbreviation for whatever topic An HiR Block Ci>rr*.any
Emyfun ,in<J ELECTRONIC "«1 L an 1 ruBmirk > a C«n|w$*f v*.
trading statistics on over 50,000 they're after. Incorporated TravflUhoppeMi a vervlce morli DP TWA.
You could be one.
Play Elite- it's totally stunning.
Elite is Britain's 1985 Adventure Game
of the Year, an interstellar mind-game with
incredible 3D Vector-Graphic space flight
Take command of your Cobra MK III
combat craft, trade with alien cultures on over
2000 planets in eight galaxies. Pick your
destination on the starmap, checking out the
computer's 4-wayviewscan-and you're ready
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As a rookie you start with 'Harmless'
status but with the right stuff and combat skills,
you'll win ratings of Average' to 'Dangerous' -
with your ultimate objective to become one of
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It's big, it's fast and it's here now for the
Commodore64'"and 1281" complete with
Manual, Novel, Control Guide, Ship
Identification Chart, Keyboard Overlay and the
opportunity as the US competition winnerto get
flown to London. England to try for the Elite
World Championship.
It's so addictive it's been called "the Game
of a Lifetime".
Be dangerous.



FIREBIRD HOTLINE S3: 201 934 7373

February 1986 Vol. 4, No. 2

Beyond the 1541: Mass Storage lor the 64 and 128 Selby Bateman 22 128/64
The Well-Connected Computer: Using Commodore 64 Peripherals on the 128 Kathy Yakal 34 128/64
128 Update; An Improved CP/M Kathy Yakal 38 128

Heart of Africa Lee Noel, Jr 68 64
Hardball David Florancs 68 64
Silent Service: The Submarine Simulation George Miller 72 64
WbrdWrlter 12S Harvey Herman 72 128
Super Huey Reed Mulsh 75 64
Also Worth Noting 75 64

Kicker John Krause and Mark Tunis 42 64t
Lexitron Ron Wilson 44 128/64/4-4/16

BASIC Magic: Understanding Device Numbers Michael S. Tomczyk . 60 64/+4/16/V
Machine Language for Beginners: Exploring the 128's Monitor Richard Mansfield . 65 128
Snapshot Clayton R. Newman . 78 64
Commodore 128 Memory Map: Important Locations Jim Butterlietd - 80 128
Disk Editor Kevin Mykytyn . 90 64/+4/16
Hints & Tips: Disk or Tape? Joseph Celentano . 92 128/64/+4/16/V
Power BASIC: Blink Mode on Commodore Machines David Sanner . 93 64/+4/16/V
Custom Labels R. E. Metzler, Jr . 97 64/+4/16
Mini-Filer Kevin Martin . 99 64
Disk Commands on the 128 Todd Heimarck 101 128
The Nbw Automatic Proofreader Philip I. Nelson 108 128/64/+4/16/V

The Editor's Notes Richard Mansfield . . 6
Gazette Feedback Editors and Readers . 10
Simple Answers to Common Questions Tom R. Halfhill ... . 48
Horizons: Emulating the Amiga Charles Brannon . 50 64
Computing for Families: Homework Helpers Fred D'lgnazio . 54
User Group Update . 58
News & Products 105
Bug-Swatter: Modifications and Corrections 122

program listings
How to Type In COMPUTERS Gazette Programs 107 •
MLX: Machine Language Entry Program 110 64

Advertisers Index 144

t All Commodore 64 programs in this issue work on trie Commodore 128 in 64 mode.
*=Generalr V=VIC-20, 64-Commodore 64. +4=Plus/4. 16-Commodore 16. 128-Commodore 128

CUMri'Tl:!* Ci\7-I~-TTt-1-,>! miinllily liv COMPUTEI I'llNliJIIonv Im . Poll Offl»BO*W06.CtWn>btm>. Ml'37-IIU USA. Phone: 1919) 27S-9MW hillloil.ll (iflirt's <lti! located
.11314 WhI WfcndovM Avenue, Gmoniboro, NC 27408. Donwiic Subscription* Illwun. Hi. POSTMASTER: S*ndirfdrui chtngM to COMPUWt GAZETTE. P.O. Bin 11W5H, [).■■.
MuLni'v ]A FD9tUl Sorund d.i" .lj'filn.iluin prn<!m>! nit Grttnsburo, NC 274D3 BTMJ Jdillmmjl in.iilinjf Dffk«>i I ■ rt11 r*' inrm-nfv n^nilKhl COMPUIFI I'uhlkjllons, Inc All
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COMWJIEI I'ubllHilojn, Inc.. Onf at lh» AML Publishing Compinlci: ARf I'ubllihlng, I'ftsWenl, llnbtll (.. Hunnn; I3J0 Avunoeoi Amencjsr \cw Ynik. S'iiv York 1IM19. ,l|
The brains of Commodore comput The 128 wasn't radically differ ties—everything from unscratch to
ers since day one—the 6502/10 ent like the Amiga. It attempted to selective disk-copy—are included
chip powering the PET, CBM, Su- revive the tired CP/M operating with the machine. Machine lan
perPET, VIC, 64, Plus/4, 16, and system, and it seemed odd, a bit guage programmers will appreciate
now the 128—is a doomed technol monstrous, with several configura the dozens of internal hooks, doz
ogy. This chip has had immense tions including, somehow, an entire ens of vectors, which make custom-
popularity. It was the microproces Commodore 64 stuck inside. ization much easier. BASIC
sor inside Apples and Ataris, too. Would all that 64 software really programmers will revel in the many
But it's a twilight chip now. run right? Would the new disk new commands and easy to use
Looming over the horizon, a drive be faster and less prone to disk instructions. Even SHIFT/
much bigger and faster chip, the breakdown than older drives? RUN has been sensibly changed
68000, runs the new generation Would an 80-column screen be from cassette to disk addressing.
machines: the Apple Macintosh, readable? It's a computer construction
Atari ST, and Commodore Amiga. These and other doubts that set, and the owner has the pleasure
But as often happens, the end clouded the introduction of the 128 of participating in the design of his
of an age produces its finest flower. have all but disappeared in the face personalized computer. That fact,
Commodore's 128 is arguably the of surprising public and critical ac the great amount of 100 percent
flower of the 6502 era. Bach's mu ceptance of the computer. It's sell compatible 64 software, and its
sic, likewise, was nothing new. It ing very well. And, possibly more speed account for the sudden emer
was thoroughly baroque in style at significant for its long-term success, gence of the Commodore 128 as the
a time when baroque was losing out people who use it love it. low-end personal computer to
to the emerging popularity of the It's multifaceted without be watch in early 1986 and perhaps
classical style. But few would dis coming clumsy, and all the features beyond.
pute the power and grandeur of are fully developed and thoughtful Sources inside Commodore es
Bach's compositions. ly integrated. And because it has timate that a quarter of a million
Just as Bach summarized and got many software and hardware 128s will be sold by the end of
best exemplified the Baroque age in switches, you can arrange things 1985, and this is responsible for
music, the 128 takes the 6502 chip the way you prefer. There are putting Commodore in the black.
to its limits. It is an economical switches for a 40- or 80-column By contrast, the Amiga has report
computer, efficient and twice as fast screen, warm reset, and dozens of edly sold less than a tenth as many
as its predecessors, and yet also escape sequences from the key units. Both machines came out of
enormously flexible and well- board. You can quickly erase to the the starting gate at roughly the
designed. It's really several com start of a line, to the end of the same time, but the dark horse is
puters in one, and it offers just screen, to the end of a line, and so leading the race at this point.
about everything a BASIC or ma forth. This multiplicity of ways to
chine language programmer could erase is symbolic of the many levels
ask for. of control the 128 offers. If you
When the 128 was first an don't like the block cursor, switch it
nounced, it was clearly a dark to an underline. If you don't like a
horse. More than one pundit de flashing cursor, switch it to a steady Richard Mansfield
nounced it as an impossible ma state. Senior Editor
chine to market. And consumers You can easily program the
were lukewarm, too, following the function keys to perform useful
notable silence that greeted the ar tasks at a single keypress. Programs
rival of the Plus/4 and the Commo can be made to run at double speed
dore 16. The market for the home by switching to FAST mode. Win
computing dollar had grown se dows can make the screen more at
verely restricted. Who would want tractive. Programs can be loaded
to buy another eight-bit computer? and run with a single command. In
And most importantly, the Amiga fact, just turning on the computer
was attracting all the attention be can boot up a configuration for the
cause it was the new age computer, system from a prepared boot disk.
a technological giant step forward. Disks with a variety of useful utili
6 COMPUTEVs Gazette FebWBry 19B6
A Printer For All Reasons
Search For The Best High Quality Graphic Printer

If you have been looking very long, you have machine will do it automatically, through easy priming when new, but quickly starts to fade.
probably discovered thai there are just loo commands right from your keyboard. Do you To keep the printers output looking consis
many claims and counter claims in the printer sometimes want to emphasize a word? It's tently dark, the ribbons musi be changed quite
market today. There are printers thai have easy, jus! use bold (double sirike) or use italics often. The SP-1000 solves this problem by
some of the features you want but do not have io make ihe words stand out. Or, if you wish using a wide {'A") ribbon cartridge that will
others. Some features you probably don't care lo be even more emphatic, underline the print thousands of pages before needing re
about, others are vitally important to you. We words. You can combine many of these modes placement. (When you finally do wear out
understand. In fact, not long ago, we were in and styles to make the variation almost end your ribbon, replacement cost is only SI 1.00.
the same position. Deluged by claims and less. Do you want to express something that Order #2001.)
counter claims. Overburdened by rows and you can't do with words? Use graphics with
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all ihe facts — prove or disprove ail the claims variable line spacing of 1 line per inch to infin When shopping for a printer with ihis quality
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ever had a letter or oihcr document that was
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Our Objective Was Simple just a few lines too long to fil a page, you can (single sheet or fanfold tractor),
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We wanted to give our cusiomcrs the best or replace and reship to the buyer within 72
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The Results Are In The Bottom Line

The search is over. We have reduced the field Be sure to specify the order # for the correct
lo a single printer that meets all our goals (and version printer designed for your computer.
more). The printer is the SP-1000 from Seiko-
dia, a division of Seiko (one of ilie foremost Commodore C-64 & C-128, Order «200,
manufacturers in the world). We ran this graphics interface & cable built in.
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Standard draft printing at a respectable 100
Standard Parallel with 36 pin Centronics con
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able 12 (horizontal) by 9 (vertical) character
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We also have interfaces and cables for many

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vice at 805/987-2454 for details.
One of our highest concerns was about print
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The character matrix in NLQ mode is a very wide. The tractors are adjustable from 4 to 10 (air). Other foreign is S70.00 (air). California
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looks like it was done on a typewriter. You can Any size to 10" in width. In fact Ihis unit is so checks, and charge cards. A 14-day clearing
even print graphics using ihe standard advanced, it will load your paper automati period is required for checks.
graphics symbols built into your computer. cally. Multiple copies? Absolutely! Use forms
The results are the best we've ever seen. The (up lo 3 thick). Do you want to use spread Dealer inquiries invited
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With the SP-1000 your computer can now or send order xo:
SP-1000 is rated at only 55 dB. This is quieter
print 40, 48, 68, 80, 96, or 136 characters per
line. You can print in ANY of 35 character than any other impact dot matrix printer that
we know of and is quieter than the average of

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have the standard Pica, Elite, Condensed and
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scripts. Never again will you have to worry Most primers have a ribbon cartridge or a 1071-A Avenida Acaso
about how to print H,O or X:. This fantastic single spool ribbon which gives nice dark Camarillo, CA 93010
COMPUTE! Publications,lnc.£
Jules E. Thompson, Inc.
National Sales Representatives
One of the ABC Futliitiing Companies
1290 Howard Avenue, Suite 303
Burlingame, CA 94010
Sales Offices, Jules E. Thompson, Inc.
New England 617-720-1888
Mid-Atlantic 212-772-0933
Southeast 919-275-9809
Publisher James Casella
Midwest 312-726-6047
Founder/Editor in Chief Robert C. Lock
Texas 713-731-2605
Director of Administration Alice 5. Wolfe Pacific Northwest 415-348-8222
Senior Editor Richard Mansfield Northern CA 415-348-8222 /**~^\
Managing Editor Kathleen Martinek Southern CA 213-378-8361 ftABCJ)
Editor Lance Elko Arizona 213-378-8361
Assistant Editor Todd Helmarck New Mexico 213-378-8361 Audit lutui

Production Director Tony Roberts Colorado 303-595-929') at Ct/cnlitlnu

Editors COMPUTEI Publications, Inc., publishes

Tom R. Halfhill, Editor, COMPUTE! Magazine; Stephen Levy, COMPUTE! COMPUTEI Book) COMPUTEI'* GAZETTE
Editor, COMPUTE! Books Division; Gail Cowper, Production
Corporate Office:
Editor; Ottis R. Cowper, Technical Editor; Charles Brannon, 324 West Wendover Ave., Suite 200, Greensboro, NC 27408
Program Editor; Selby Bateman, Features Editor
Mailing Address:
Assistant Editors
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resident in said authors. By submitting articles to computevs
Data Processing gazette, authors acknowledge that such materials, upon accep
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tance for publication, become the exclusive property of COMPUTEI
Publications, Inc. No portion of this magazine may be reproduced
Accounting in any form without written permission from the publisher. Entire
Paul J. Megliola, VP, Finance & Planning; R. Steven Vutter, contents copyright © 1985, COMPUTEI Publications, Inc. Rights to
Director, Finance & Planning; Karen K. Rogalski, Financial Analyst; programs developed and submitted by authors are explained in our
Staff: Jill Pope author contract. Unsolicited materials not accepted for publication
will be returned if author provides a self-addressed, stamped en
velope. Where programs are included in an article submission, a
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tape or disk must accompany the submission. Printed listings are
Waddell, Jane Wiggs
optional, but helpful. Articles should be furnished as typed copy
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author. COMPUTEI Publications, Inc., assumes no liability for errors
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in articles or advertisements. Opinions expressed by authors are
Ken Woodard, Director of Advertising Sales; Patti Stokes, Production
not necessarily those of COMPUTEI Publications, Inc. COMPUTEI
Coordinator; Kathleen Hanlon, Administrative Assistant
Publications assumes no responsibility for damages, delays, or fail
Sales Representatives ure of shipment in connection with authors' offer to make tape or
Jerry Thompson 415-348-8222 disk copies of programs published herein.
Ed Winchell 213-378-8361
PET, CBM, VIC-20, Commodore 64, Plus/4, 16, and 128 are trade
Harry Blair 919-275-9809
marks of Commodore Business Machines, Inc., and/or Com
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Address all advertising materials to: modore products, COMPUTEI Publications, Inc., is in no way asso
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324 West Wendover Ave., Suite 200, Greensboro, NC 27408 subsidiaries.
You don't have to know much totals, and integrates this information
about accounting or computers to onto your Form 1040, 1040A or
prepare your own taxes. With Swiftax 1040EZ.
Timeworks' easy-to-operate, menu- Prints your tax information directly
driven program, you'll complete your onto tax forms as well as blank paper.
1985 Federal income tax Prints itemized lists of
returns quickly and pain dividends, interest, etc.,
lessly. And, our easy-to- that are too long for the
use manual provides standard forms.
the information you'll Prints amortization
need to keep your returns schedules, summarizing
accurate and up-to-date. yearly principal and
interest payments.
Features: Guides you
A new program disc
through every step of the
and manual can be ob
tax preparation process
tained for one additional
with full user prompts, and
year at a nominal charge.
instructs you on which
Swiftax. One more
forms you must complete.
powerful productivity tool
Automatically checks
from Timeworks to help
your tax alternatives, such
you keep your business
as income averaging, etc.,
and calculates the lowest
(and your life) in order.
Now at your favorite
amount of income tax you must pay.
dealer. Suggested retail price: IBM/
Sets up a unique Taxpayer File,
enabling you to make changes to your
Apple-$69.95, Commodore 64 and
completed tax return, at a later date.
Includes the most commonly Available for IBM*, PC* and
used supporting schedules - A,B,C,D, PCjr*; Apple* family;
G, SE, W, and Form 2441 - stores the Commodore 64* & 128*

Other Timeworks Programs: Sylvia Porter's Personal

Financial Planner • Sylvia Porter's Personal Investment
Manager ■ Word Writer ■ SwiftCalc ■ Data Manager 2 ■ The
Evelyn Wood Dynamic Reader ■ The Money Manager s
Business Systems ■ Sideways ■
"Rog stored Trademarks ollrtomational Business Mach'rws Corporation A^ple C&npulcr
Inc and Cffrmodoro Computer Systems
CT984 T'moworks. trie All rignis reserved
More power for your dollar.
Editors and Readers

Do you have a question or a problem? number, but its vatue doesn't mailer. On twice. Finally, the tape read/write head
Have you discovered something thai the 64 and the VIC, the value relumed by might be dirty. Many record stores have
could help other Commodore users? this function is the same as the number in tape recorder cleaning/demagnetizing
Do you have a comment about some location 211, the current cursor column. kits which will work just as well on a
thing you've read in computed ga On the 64, POS returns a value from Datassette.
zette? We want to hear from you. 0 lo 79. Values from 40 to 79 indicate the
Write to Gazette Feedback, computed cursor is on the second physical line. On
gazette, P.O. Box 5406, Greensboro, the VIC, POS gives you a value from 0 to Listing Conventions
NC 27403. We regret that due to the 87. Since each logical line contains 22 I typed in one of your programs and
volume of mail received, we cannot characters on the VIC, the first physical came across a line that looked like this:
respond individually to program line would have values from 0-21, the PRINT "(<15 +>)"
ming questions. second from 22-43, and so on.
Admittedly, the POS function has What command is this?

few uses. You might find it helpful in a Scott Collins

Commodore In Spanish program that handles text. Suppose In the monthly section called "How to
I work with a children's home in Costa you've used a modem to download a text Type In Gazette Programs," you'll find
Rica and would like to help the children file and wanted to print the file to the our listing conventions. Each of the vari
get started using computers. I'd like to screen. To prevent words from wrapping ous graphics characters and control codes
buy some Commodore machines if I around and being split at the end of a line, is listed in a certain way to make it easier
car find any programs written for use you could have your program check the to type in our programs.
by Spanish-speaking people. current cursor position using POS. If the The brackets, [< and >], mean you
F. Brooks Herman value were greater than 30 or so, you should hold down the Commodore key (at
Although Commodore does not produce would print a carriage return (CHRS(13», the lower left corner of the keyboard),
any software for Spanish-speaking people, like this: IF POS(0)>30 THEN PRINT while typing the character inside. So
Sigma, an exclusive Commodore distribu CHR$(13>. [<+>] would mean hold down the Com
tor based in Mexico City, has translated modore key and press the plus key. The
into Spanish many of the most popular number 15 means you should press it 15
Commodore software titles, and has de The Dreaded LOAD ERROR times. Using [<15 +>] uses much less
veloped other programs in Spanish. Also, Recently, while saving a program to the space than it would take to print [<+>]
one source at Commodore noted that other Datassette, 1 ran out of tape. Now I can ]
local distributors in Central and South not load it without getting a LOAD
America have translated or written Span ERROR. Please suggest any and all
ish software. A Sigma representative can methods that might work to retrieve
supply more specific information about this program.
these local distributors. You may contact Alan B. Callander Scorekeeping
Sigma by phoning 52-5563-4144 (the first When a program is saved to tape, it's actu I'm having trouble incrementing scores
two digits—52—are Mexico's country ally saved twice. When you load the pro correctly in a game. If a player answers
code), or by writing Sigma, Holbein #257, gram, the first copy is stored in memory a question correctly, I use these lines:
CP03810, Mexico DF. and the second copy is used as a sort of 56 IF AS = "T"THEN70
checksum to compare the programs, If the
first copy made it onto the tape, you may
A Use for POS be able to recover it with the following
It seems that the POS function gets little 70 PRINT SC + 10
or no attention from books or maga Simon Yates
1. Attempt to load the program from
zines. Can you explain POS and in
tape. You're almost correct. But the variable SC
clude some program examples?
2. When it Stops with the LOAD must be incremented. If SC starts out as
David L. Swain
ERROR, enter POKE 45, PEEK(831): zero, PRINT SC+10 would print 10. But
The POS(K) function returns the current POKE 46, PEEK(832): CLR. printing ten more than SC isn't enough-
cursor position within the logical screen it doesn't change the value in SC. The
3. list it. If it seems to be intact, save
line. A logical screen line can be one or score has not been updated. The next time
it immediately to a new tape.
more physical screen lines. On the 64, for line 70 executes, it would again show the
example, a BASIC program line can con If these steps don't work, try moving value of 10. Change line 70 to:
tain up to 80 characters. The 80 characters the Datassette away from your monitor or
70 SC = SC + 10: PRINT SC
would take up two screen lines, but would television. Magnetism from these sources
be considered only one logical line. sometimes interferes with programs as Now before the score is displayed, the
The number after POS (in parenthe they're loaded from tape. Tapes sometimes value in SC is increased by ten (think of
ses) is a dummy argument that's ignored slip within the casing, and it may help to SC=SC+10 as "the new value of SC be
by the function. You have to include a fast-forward and rewind the tape once or comes the old value plus ten"). Of course.

10 COMPUTE."s Gawffe February 1986

SubLOGic Scenery Disks expand the potential flying environ individual Scenery Disk price: $19.95
ment of Flight simulator il and Microsoft Flight Simulator. western U.S. (Disks 1-6): $99.95
Twelve separate Scenery Disks cover the entire continental -Coming Soon-
United states. Each disk covers a geographical region of Eastern U.S. (Disks 7-12): $99.95
the country, and includes the major airports, radlo-nav See Your Dealer...
aids, cities, highways, rivers, and lakes located in that region. or write or call for more information. For direct orders
Enough detail Is available on each disk for either visual or please specify which disk or disk-set you want. Enclose the
Instrument cross-country navigation. correct amount plus $2-00 for shipping ($6.00 for the slx-dlsk
A STAR Scenery Disk (available dth quarter 1985) covers a set) and specify UPS or first class mall delivery. Visa, Master
smaller area with a relatively dense amount of scenery. Card, American Express, and Diners Club cards accepted.
STAR Scenery Disks are primarily Intended for visual flight
Commodore 54 Is a trademark of commodore Electronics Ltd,
sight-seeing. They include buildings and landmarks, as well ISM k a reflistered trademark of International Business Machines Corp.
as detailed renditions of all major airports In the area.
For the Commodore 641M and IBM PC®

713 Edgebrook Drive
Champaign IL 61820

OrdBr Line: [800)637-4983

in Kf 1 in in™, A'nfca tiM la . ii |

I I Jjj
you can increment by any value you the modifications are the same for both with the black and white bars are one form
choose, or decrease the score for incorrect programs. of bar coding. Theoretically, you could in
guesses by changing the plus sign to a mi To slow down the falling characters, terface a 64 and a bar code reader like the
nus sign as part of another routine in your you need to increase the value of the vari grocery stores use, but a light pen would
program. able S in line 90. This variable is used in not be suitable for such a purpose. Bar
the delay loop at the beginning of line 210: code readers send and receive light. They
FOR TD-G TOS.NEXT TD. This loop also interpret what the bars mean, based
Strange Radiation? starts at the FOR statement and ends at on the patterns of tight and dark on the
I have a Commodore 1702 color moni the NEXT. The value of G is always 1 in label.
tor. When I turn the monitor on and the program, while S can range from 1-28. A light pen is a much more simple
hold the back of my hand to the screen, Say S is equal to 28. The index variable TD device. Light above a certain threshold
the hairs on the back of my hand tingle would count from'1 (the value of O to 28 triggers a light-sensitive phototransistor
and stand out straight. Is this radiation (the value of S). inside the light pen. So the pen sends one
that would be harmful to a person? This type of loop, where the NEXT of two signals to a 64: Either it's receiving
What causes this, and should I be immediately follows the FOR command, is light or it's not. It can't distinguish
concerned? often used to create a delay in a program. shapes, and without a strong light source
William E. Noice The program pauses while TD counts can't even make out patterns of light and
from G to S. The higher the value ofS, the dark on a printed page. You certainly
No need to don your radiation suit—al
longer the delay. couldn't use a light pen to read printed
though eerie, what you're describing is an
So, to slow the speed of the charac programs. A couple of years ago, a regula
effect caused by static electricity, and is
ters, you need to increase the value of S. tion bar code reader was announced for
perfectly normal. It's no more dangerous
We could substitute a higher number for the 64, at a price over $100. Unfortunate
than the finely feeling you might get from ly, the company that planned to make it
28 in the equation for S in line 90. A simi
rubbing a balloon on your head. Your doesn't seem to be in business anymore.
lar approach would be to add a variable,
monitor's electron guns shoot electrons at
say DE, to this equation which could be
the surface of the glass, making areas of
set at the beginning of the program. To do
the screen light up, and giving it a static Address Unknown
this, add a line 5:
charge. When you touch or move your
5DE = 28: REM SET DE-100 OR I have a machine language utility pro
hand near the screen, the hairs pick up
GREATER FOR YOUNGSTERS gram that needs a SVS to activate it. To
some of that charge. The individual hairs
make a long story short, I've lost the
have the same charge, and like charges re And change the equation in line 90 to
starting address and now the program
pel, so the hairs move as far as possible read S = DE - 3*VAL(BS). is useless. I do have the starting and
from the others. As written, the program would be set
ending addresses, but the starting ad
This charge on the screen is also a up for your older children. If your three-
dress is not the one to activate this pro
powerful dust magnet, which is why TV year-old is playing, change DE to 100 or
gram. Is there a way for the computer to
and monitor screens get dirty so quickly. higher in line 5 to suit his or her playing
find the correct address or should I just
You can eliminate the problem by using ability. Furthermore, if you like, you could
scratch my favorite program?
an anti-static cleaner. Also, static elec even customize the program so that it
Gil Cabral
tricity is only significant in dry weather. would request the name of the player and
If there's moisture in the air, the electrical adjust DE accordingly. Typical starting addresses are 49152
charges slowly drain away, instead of (SC00O), 52224 (SCCO0), 828, and 2061.
building up. You could try to guess the address, but
You may also encounter static elec A Second VIC Joystick? that could be extremely tedious. There is
tricity when you walk across a carpet and no easy way to solve your problem. You
I recently bought The VIC-20 Program
ground yourself by touching a metal ob can use the following program to print out
mer's Reference Guide. It says that a sec
ject. Although the voltage may be high, ond joystick can be plugged into the the starting address of any PRC (program)
the current is insignificant, so stalk elec user port. How is this done? file, but you indicate that you already
tricity is harmless to you. However, semi Pierre Roc he fort know that number. Even if you don't know
conductor materials, including most of machine language, looking at the program
It's possible to add another joystick with a disassembler could lead you to the
your computer's circuitry, are especially
through the User Port (the 12-pin slot right place, fust follow all fMPs and jSRs
sensitive to the high voltage of static elec
used for modems), but unfortunately there within the program. If the program clears
tricity. A good spark between your finger
isn't the space to give complete details. the screen right away, look for statements
and the joystick port is enough to zap sen
The gazette published the information a that clear the screen, such as LDA
sitive components. That's why it's a good
couple of years ago in the April 1984 arti
idea to touch a metal object to drain any #$93/JSR SFFD2.
cle "Tankmania: Adding a Second joystick
static electricity you may have accumu 10 INPUT "PROGRAM'S FILENAME";F$
to the VIC." A few dozen April '84 back is
lated before you touch any computer 20 OPEN 1,8,8,F$ + ",P,R": GET#1,AS:
sues are still available, and we're for
equipment or a ROM cartridge. GET#1,BS
warding information on how to order.
,ASC(A$ + CHRS(O)) + 256 ' ASC(B5
Speed Control + CHR$(0))
Bar Coding For Programs 40 CLOSE 1
My older children like the program
"Character Assassination" from the I'd like to use a light pen to record the
June 1985 issue. However, it moves too programs in the GAZETTE. Running a
light pen across each program line Gazette Programs For The 128?
fast for my three year old and 1 haven't
figured out how to slow down the fall would end errors and be very fast. It Do you plan to publish programs for
ing characters. How would 1 do that? would be the same way some stores re the 128?
Michael Schultz cord prices when you purchase John C. Discasey
That program was published with both a Yes. We began covering the 128 in the No
Daryl J, McKinnon
VIC and 64 version. You didn't specify vember issue with "Exploring 128
UlMch computer you own, but fortunately The Universal Price Code (UPC) stickers BASIC," which included several short

12 COMPUTE'S Gamte February 1986

. as innovative in form as it is
.n content. If they're all as goad as
Mindwheel, we have a lotto look

"Technically and artistically, it

represents the'wave ofthepresent'
in interactive fiction"

"... blazes a whole new frontierin

computergame design'.'


Mindwheel, Essex and Brimstone. MINDWHEEL survival. You are the adventurer
Fascinating stories, compelling Every mind that has ever hsen who must travel through four You're t!fa;captain of Int
characters, intriguing ideas, rich continues to exist for eternity. unusuallypowerful minds in
language, a maelstrom ofconstant Somewhere in this web ofmental search ofthe mysterious Wheel rescue mission. EyepWote you
change - allthe elements ofthe energy is the key to civilization's of Wisdom. face the deadl?BiinisfsrPgople
best SciFi and fantasy. Combined and the vile Volfc/itm, you Ve got
with the interactive possibilities your own crew to deal with - as
you 've always wan tedin 3 great unlikely 8 bunch ofmisfits as ever
text adventure.
VI HKI"Q"< NftrlfL-
sailed the Sirus sector.
Electronic Novels are written
byprize ■ winningpublisheda uth ors. BRIMSTONE
They're not "computer versions" Youplaythepart ofSir Ga wain,
of existing novels—they're stories proud Knight ofthe Round Table, in
conceivedespecially for this new a mystical quest for truth, chivalry,
medium. and a little peace end quiet. All
In the world ofElectronic you've got to contend with is the
Novels, you have a lot more to do entire Underworld and every
than "Go south "and "Kill dragon'.' monster, ghost end demon known
You'll find that each character to medievalsorcery.
has a mindof his own, andnothing
stays the same forlong because BEGIN WITH A BOOK
everything happens in res! time. So Set the stage and introduce your
just because that room was self to the characters with the
empty the last time you enteredit, graphic, hardboundbook included
don't expect it to be empty this with eachprogram. Just whan
time. Everythingyoudo-or fail fo things startgetting good, you'll
do—affects everything else that switch to your computer—andnow,
happens. The surprises never end.
synapse l you're at the center ofthe action!


OrnnuiuinuKlmh Mismuit n I Inlriri/I hnmilt! Aic'i femvfw. I" t !3Si tr$4ntuitf Scltrirt. It
programs. Last month, we featured "Pro screen because the cursor temporarily sult. In the operation that you mention,
gramming Music and Sound on the 128," changes the character color as it blinks. the errors in representing 178.56 and
which also included several programs, Here are the starting locations of 181.92 are small in comparison to the size
and a 128 version of the program "REM screen and color memory for all 8-bit of the numbers. But the result of the oper
Highlighter." Also beginning with that is Commodores: ation, — 3.35999997, is much smaller
sue, we began publishing 128 programs— Screen Color than either of the operands. The error,
with an autobooting menu—on the ga while still not very large, appears bigger
VIC (unexpanded) 7680 38400
zette disk. Elsewhere in this issue, you'll by comparison.
VIC (3K expansion) 7680 38400
find "Disk Commands on the 128," and if In some programs, you can increase
WC (8K+ expansion) 4096 37888
you scan therighthand column in the Ta 64 1024 55296 precision by avoiding fractions. The oper
ble of Contents, you'll notice several arti Plus/4 3072 2048 ation (17856-18192)/100 will give a
cles and programs which cover the 128 (in 16 3072 2048 more accurate answer to the problem. But
128 mode). And for next month's issue, US 1024 55296 notice thai the answer in your example is
we've planned several other 128 items. only 3/100,000,000 away from where it
should be. If you were to plot the result on
Many of the programs we publish are
What's Wrong With The 128? a screen, you wouldn't be able to see the
from readers like yourself. The vast major
error on the best display in the world.
ity of submissions we've received in the I was talking to another 128 owner who
past several months have been for the said that it has a problem with simple
Commodore 64, Lately we've seen an in subtraction:
Keeping On Schedule
crease in submissions for -the 128, al
PRINT 178.56-181.92
though the number received is still very I often need to work with dates and
small. Although we plan to increase our schedules in programs 1 design for my
coverage of the 128—with tutorials and My math says that's wrong. This work. The programs have become cum
programs—we recognize that the majority represents a big problem in programs bersome as they keep track of 30 or 31
of our current readership own Commo that require accuracy. Are there defec days per month, and the extra day in a
dore 64s and that the 64 programs pub tive 128s? Have others experienced this leap year. What advice can you give me
lished work on the 128 in 64 mode. problem? Maybe I should sell my Com with regards to manipulating month,
modore and buy an Apple or some oth day, and year? Adding specific amounts
er brand. of time to a calendar date, for example,
Don A. Goshorn or notifying someone in six months that
Color Memory they're due for a procedure.
This problem is not limited to Commodore
I've got a program that picks a random computers. Most other persona! comput
Dr. Donald Izzi
position on the screen and POKEs a 102
ers will give the same result; in fact, if you The calendar we use isn't very logical,
there. The screen should fill up with
subtract those two numbers on an Apple, from a programmer's point of view, but
checkerboard patterns, but the patterns
the answer is the same. The answer is not there's not much you can do to change it.
only appear where characters are. But if to buy a more expensive computer. Limi Most of the time, the months alternate be
I move the cursor around the screen, tations in our system of expressing num tween 30 and 31 days, except for Febru
the checked characters are there. Why? bers cause the kind of problem that you ary's 28 days—29 in leap year—and fitly
Greg Lado mention. and August, where there are two 31-day
Information about the screen display is BASIC stores numbers in binary (base months in a row (it seems that both Julius
stored in two places in memory: screen 2) notation. In general, it's just as good as and Augustus Caesar wanted 31 days in
memory and color memory. Screen memo any other format for storing numbers, but their namesake months). Both December
ry stores the codes representing charac there are some oddities which show up if and January have 31 days, but we can ig
ters, and color memory stores the color of you try to convert nonintcgers—numbers nore that if the program handles years as
each character. When you PRINT a char containing fractions—back and forth be separate entities.
acter, the computer effectively POKEs the tween different number bases. To simplify scheduling, try to avoid
screen code of that character to screen Many numbers, indeed most of them, using months and dates. Instead of two
memory and also POKEs the current cur can't be expressed exactly in decimal (base variables (one for month, one for day of the
sor color to color memory. When you 10) notation. Some of these, like the geo month), give each date a number 1-365
POKE a character to screen memory, you metric constant n, are irrational numbers during normal years, or 1-366 in leap
should also POKE the desired color into which can't be expressed exactly in any years. For example, February 3 would be
the corresponding location in color notation. A rational number (any number day number 34. The day number can be
memory. which can result from the division of two kept in a single variable. Here's a three-
The problem is that you're not POKE- integers) can always be expressed in some line subroutine you can incorporate into
ing to color memory. On early model 64s, base. For instance 3'h is a rational num your program:

color memory is set to white when you ber, since it is the result of dividing 10 by
clear the screen. Then Commodore 3. Although it can be represented exactly 10 INPUT"DATE (MM,DD,YY)M;MM,D
changed the ROMs so that color memory in base 3 (as 10.1), any attempt to write it D,YY:GOSUB500:PRINTDAY:GOTO
is set to the background color. The current in decimal (base 10), as 3.33 or
500 AD=30:DF=-30:FORJ=1TOMM:DF
ROM version sets color memory to the 3.3333333333, will be incorrect by some
=DF+AD+U«3) iAD=61-AD-(J-fl
cursor color. To find out which ROM ver amount. ) iNEXT
sion you have, type PRINT PEEK The same problem appears when 510 IF(YYAND3)AND{MM>2)THENDF-
(65408). The first version has a 170 stored translating decimal numbers into binary. DF-1
in this location, the next version 0, and Many decimal fractions have no equiva 5 20 DAY-DF+DD:RETURN

the current version 3. When color memory lent binary representation. Since Commo
is set to the background color, characters dore BASIC stores a number in five bytes It's general enough to work on any
won't appear when you POKE to the of memory, the error in the translation Commodore computer. Whenever you
screen. This indicates that you probably will be small, but occasionally noticeable. need to find the day number, assign
have version 2. You can see the characters It is most often seen when an operation on month, day, and year values to variables
when you move the cursor around the two large numbers produces a small re MM, DD, and YY and then COSUB 500.

14 cOMPUTEi's Gazette Febmaiy 1986

Shake, battle & role.
Warm up your Commodore* and $&\ ready for in Tbi> Lords of Midnight. Choose your rote. Capture
full-screen graphic action. the source of Doomdark's power or
Save tho industrial world from going off the "- r conquer his forces in battle.Over 32.000
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L_ J
The day number is returned in the vari sign is sufficient to mark that it's a string. is always in action. There are no in-
able DAY. You can delete line 10, which is In your program, the line which between times when a voice is temporar
intended to illustrate how the subroutine caused the error looked like this: ily off. Accordingly, there is no way for the
works. PRINT DEC("N$") SID chip to simultaneously make another
Once you have the day number, sound using that voice.
The error occurred because you put
planning ahead is a matter of adding a But in some songs, not all instru
the variable name inside quotes, in effect
certain number of days. Add seueii lo the ments play at the same time. It may be
asking for the decimal value of the two
current day number for next week, add 28 that the drummer never hits the snare
characters "N" and "$". Remove the quo
for four weeks (approximately a month), drum while the bass drum is sounding. Or
tation marks from NS and your program
and so on. Six months would be 26 weeks maybe a violin and a clarinet take turtis
should work as you intended.
(half a year), or 182 days. playing phrases. In these situations, one
Most people prefer lo think in terms SID voice can play the part of more than
of month and day, so here's another rou Extra Voices And Sprites? one instrument. For example, you would
tine that converts back again, from day define the envelope of voice two to sound
I know it's possible to make more than
number to month and date. Before you like a piano, play a few notes, change the
eight sprites appear using an interrupt-
GOSUB 600, assign values to the vari envelope to a saxophone, play some more
driven routine. Is it possible to make
ables DAY and YY. The year must be in notes, return to a piano sound, and so on.
more than three voices sound simulta
cluded because day 60 is February 29 in
neously using the same method?
leap years, but March 1 in other years.
Chris McNeil
Day numbers from 60 on will differ, de Escaping Errors With RESUME
pending on whether or not it's a leap year. It's not possible to have more than three I own a Commodore 16 and would like
voices sounding at the same time because to know what RESUME does and how
10 INPUT"DAY,YEAR";DAY,YYiGOSU the audio signal is a lot different from the to use it.
B600:PRINTMM,DD,YYiGOTO10 video. The V1C-U chip is responsible for Rob Ragona
600 AD=30iDF=-30:MM=OjYA='( (YYA video output. It draws the screen line by
ND3)>0)-1 RESUME is used to return to the main
line from top to bottom. It also takes care
610 DG=DF+AD-(MM=2)*YAjAD=61-A part of the program after an error-
of adding sprite shapes when it gets to the
D-(MM=7):IFDG<DAYTHENDF=DG handling routine has been called. Nor
:MM=MM+1:GOTO610 lines they occupy. So sprites only affect
mally when an error occurs in a BASIC
630 DD=DAY-DF;RETURN the output of the VIC chip while part of
program, the program is stopped and an
the screen is being drawn. They're local
error message is printed. Although this
The month and day are returned in phenomena. If you tell the video chip to
can be very useful when debugging a pro
the variables MM and DD. Again, line 10 put a sprite at the top of the screen, it does
gram, it can be very frustratitig when a
provides a way of testing the routine and so and then forgets about that sprite until
program crashes because of user input.
can be omitted from your program. it's time to redraw the screen.
The TRAP statement traps errors by
These two routines do not include It takes time for a television tube to
transferring execution of the program to a
any error checking. The first subroutine, put the picture in place, and machine lan
line specified whenever any BASIC error
for example, would accept March 35 as a guage is a lot faster. So a machine lan
occurs. For example, TRAP 100 tells the
valid input, treating it the same as April guage program can fool the V1C-1! chip
computer go to line 100 after an error has
4. Also, it doesn't handle dates before 1901 into thinking that a single sprite is in
happened. It's common to put the TRAP
correctly, because the year 1900 was not a more than one position, using a raster in
statement at the beginning of a program,
leap year. terrupt technique. It's like setting an
before any errors have had a chance to
alarm: You ask the computer to let you
show up. TRAP by itself, without a line
know when the top part of the screen is
Rules For Using Variables number, turns off error trapping.
being drawn. When the video chip gets to
The error handling routine can do
I get an ILLEGAL QUANTITY error the top line, the interrupt is triggered and
many things when an error has been de
when I try to use DEC inside a program your program takes over. It puts the ap
tected. The number of the error message is
to convert a number from hexadecimal. propriate values into the sprite registers.
contained in the reserved variable ER,
But DEC works fine in direct mode You then set the alarm for the middle of
and the number of the line where the error
(outside of a program). Any the screen. When mid-screen is reached,
occurred is in EL. Text for error messages
suggestions? the interrupt is triggered again and your
is stored in the reserved array ERRS, so
Mark Todd ML routine puts entirely new values into
the full error message can be printed with
the sprite registers. Although there are
Because you included a program listing, the statement PRINT ERRS(ER) " IN"
still only eight sprites in the VIC chip,
we were easily able to spot the error. But EL.
some of them are drawn more than once,
first a little background: Once the error handling routine is
giving the illusion of more than eight
The BASICS in the 128, Plus/4, and finished, program execution is returned to
16 (but not the VIC or 64) contain the DEC the main body of the program with the
The fundamental limitation to this
and HEXS functions. DEC converts a hex RESUME command. This command can
technique is that only eight sprites can be
string to decimal, while HEXS converts a be used in three ways:
in the process of being drawn at any one
number lo a hexadecimal string. You must
time. Two different versions of the same
use strings, because hex numbers can con RESUME returns the pro
sprite can't overlap. Since sprites are rela
tain the letters A-F. The following exam gram lo the line
tively small, this isn't a big problem, but it where the error
ples illustrate two acceptable forms of
gives us some idea of the problems that occurred
show up if we try to do an equivalent trick RESUME line number returns the pro
with the SID chip. gram to the line
B$ - "30FF": PRINT DEC(BS)
As long as the computer is turned on, specified
A string literal should be enclosed in the VIC chip is sending out a continuous RESUME NEXT returns the pro
quotation marks. Note that both instances signal. Sprite shapes are only a fraction of gram to the line
of 30FF are inside quotes. A string vari that signal. The SID chip, which makes immediately after
able, on the other hand, should not be sur sounds, can be turned on or off. And when the lint where the
rounded by quotation marks. The dollar one of the three SID voices is turned on, it error occurred

18 COMPUTE'S Ga/ette February 1986


You've captured the gold in Summer action with the joystick, animating your
Games* anil Summer Games IP1. Now player for style and rhythm. You choose
it's on to the Winter Games'. And what the country you want to represent.
an incredible setting—a completely Listen to its national anthem. Then it's
realistic winter wonderland featuring practice, training and learning a win
Sevan action-packed events. ning strategy for each event. Now the
At the Ski Jump you control your Openiny Ceremony and the competi
form in mid-air, knees straight, leaning tion hegins—against your friends or
forward. I lot Dog Aerials challenges the computer. Will you be the one who
your courage and your sense of humor. takes the gold at the Awards Ceremony?
In Figure Skating you leap into Double Will your name be etched amongst the
and Triple Lutz jumps—wow the crowd World Record holders?
with a perfect Camel into a Sit Spin. The quest for the gold continues...
It's timing and style that counts. Free And it's all here—the strategy, the
Skating lets you choreograph your own challenge, the competition, and IWS IKTuulrukt

routines. In Speed Skating it's you payeantry of Winter Games! mljMr ji [Ijn Mpjfmu dv>Jet

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All of this fun and excitement is
easy to learn and play. You control the Strategy Gamesfor theAction-GamePlayer
The following program uses the error You Can't Write To ROM you type the word SYSTEM, the computer
trapping commands to screen out bad user finds the command SYS in the first part of
I was trying to get into ROM and stum
input. the word and treats the remainder of the
bled across the undocumented com
word (TEM) as a variable. SYS transfers
mand SYSTEM. Sometimes it makes
10 TRAP mo control to a machine language routine;
the screen act as though I pressed RUN/
20 PRINT "ENTER TWO NUMBERS TO BASIC is temporarily disabled while a
SYS is in effect. Since you probably have
30 PRINT "THE FIRST NUMBER locks up the computer. Could you ex
not defined the variable TEM, a SYS is
DIVIDED BY THE SECOND IS";C plain what this word means? Also,
40 END could you tell me how to change ROM?
performed to address 0. The contents of
100 IF ER-20 THEN PRINT "1 this section of memory changes frequent
I'd like to have the computer print
CANNOT DIVIDE BY ZERO"r ly, so the results are unpredictable.
"HELLO. I'M READY." when I turn it
RESUME; REM ER = 20 MEANS Try typing this: TEM - 64738:
DIVISION BY ZERO SYSTEM. In this case, the variable TEM
George McNinch
110 PRINT ERR$(ER)" IN LINE"EL : has been defined, so the computer is sent
REM IN CASE OF OTHER ERRORS SYSTEM is not a new command. When to location 64738 (the cold start routine on
the 64).
The answer to your second question
is no, the computer's ROM cannot be
Safeguard your latest software by changed directly. ROM stands for read
making a backup with only memory. You can read it, but not
write to it. It's possible to change the way
BASIC works, however. The ROM cannot
be changed, but you can copy the ROM
into the RAM and tell the computer to
fetch its information from RAM instead of
Vtersfon 3.3 ROM. Bit 0 of location 1 determines
whether ROM or RAM is used at locations
40960-49151 (where BASIC is located).
The following program copies ROM
into RAM (line 10), selects RAM at loca
tion 40960 (line 20) and changes RAM to
alter the READY message (line 30). The
word READY has been changed to
with HOWDY.
10 FOR A = 4096D TO 49151: POKE
20 POKE 1,PEEK(1) AND 254
30 N$-"HOWDY": FOR A = l TO
LEN(N$): POKE 41B47 + A,ASC
(MID$(N$,A,1»: NEXT

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20 COMPUTE! s Gazeffe February 1986

Fly the unfriendly skies.

You're in the cockpit of a dream machine — game in history. It has the most awesome,
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a bad dream for the poor sap whose tail you're high-speed animation you've ever seen on your
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'- '■;■■: .■-,■: :■!

Selby Bateman, Features Editor

A 3.5-inch microdisk drive for the 64? A hard disk storage system for the
128? The continuing evolution of personal computers is causing major shifts
in the kinds of data storage devices being used. There are signs that
even the familiar 5-1/4-inch floppy disk may eventually
go the way of punch cards and paper tape
storage methods. Here's a look at what's
Why tape recorders? The
headed your way in the emerging microcomputer industry
Commodore market. It's difficult to believe that the borrowed ideas from mainframe
64 and the 1541 are almost four computer systems, and tape storage
years old. At the Consumer Elec proved to be a natural—inexpen
tronics Show (CES) in January sive and dependable. The problem
onsider the 1541 disk drive: 1982, Commodore introduced its with tape storage is its speed.
It's been called a "toy," a new 64K computer at a suggested A tape recorder is a sequential
"lumbering hippo," and "the retail of $595, a breakthrough in access device. That is, the magnetic
albatross of the Commodore price and power. Commodore also information is read sequentially
64." Business users impatiently de introduced a companion for the 64: from the tape as it passes in front of
ride its slow operating speed. Alter the 1541 drive, a direct descendant a stationary read/write head. To
native devices and software of earlier drives used with the VIC- get to a particular program on the
speedup schemes have been of 20 and PET computers. tape, several other programs may
fered by other manufacturers. And When first released, the 1541 have to slide by the tape head
even defenders of the 1541 have sold for almost $600. But prices before it reaches the one you want.
been known to drum their fingers dropped swiftly, just as they did for On the other hand, a disk drive
waiting for it to load data at a rela the 64 itself. Soon, a 1541 could be is a random access device. The
tively slow 512 bytes per second. bought for $399, then $299, and read/write head moves across a
Yet despite the insults hurled $250. Today, a new 1541 can be spinning disk, much like the stylus
at the 1541, one Commodore purchased from some vendors for of a record player moves across the
source estimates that as many as as little as $149, and used 1541s fre face of an album. The result is a
three-quarters of the five million quently are available for $99. much more efficient means of data
64s and VIC-20s sold worldwide But for many 64 users, the access than a cassette tape. Al
are used with 1541s (or the earlier 1541 was not their first storage de though the 1541 is slower than oth
1540 drives). The slow but relative vice. Commodore's Datassette tape er computers' disk drives, it is much
ly inexpensive 1541 became anoth recorder, a digital cousin of the faster than a Datassette.
er salvo in the continuing battle to common audio cassette tape re Despite its slowness, the
bring down prices and spur con corder, was offered at even less Datassette and some third-party
sumer sales of computers. expense.
cassette recorders introduced
COMPUTE'S Gszarts February 1986 23
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« Once one of KEYMASTER's KEYS has
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Frequent updates of 25 to 50 additional KEYS will be
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disk drive (no soldering required), SHADOW High and low track limits • Track and sector display
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Command recorder shows commands that Half track Indicator
Being tliti best utility available today, it will were sent Io1541 while program was Abnormal bit density indicator
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Because of the Shadow's unique abilities, we Shadow-scan any disk, then read exact list of: display of precisely what track you are
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thousands of computer users to
data storage in the early years of the
Commodore 64 and the VIC-20.
Commercial software was usually
offered in both tape and disk format
(and frequently in plug-in ROM
cartridges). But during the past year
and a half, virtually all commercial
software vendors have forsaken
tape versions of 64 software. The
thousands of commercial programs
available for the 64 are almost all
on disk. And at Commodore, stacks
of Datassettes sit boxed and ready
with no place to go. Technology has
rendered them obsolete.

m computer as inexpensive as the

uu64 had to have a disk drive in
the same price range. To cut costs,
Commodore equipped the VIC and
64 drives with serial data transmis
sion ports, much slower than the
IEEE parallel ports used in the earli
er PET disk drives. Adding to the
problem, Commodore engineers
reportedly had to slow very slightly
the original data transfer speed of m \ [ "T i
the 1540 (designed for the VIC) in
order to make the new 1541 drive
compatible with the 64—an engi
neering concession to marketing The BCD/5.25 disk drive from Blue Chip Electronics is one of several Commodore-
plans for the computers. compatible drives for the 64 that offer faster speeds than Commodore's 1541 drive.
A serial connection moves only
one bit of data at a time, rather than
multiple bits sent simultaneously in
a parallel connection. Further slow the 64 or 128, or CP/M mode. ducer has copy-pro tec ted disks in
ing serial transfer between the 64 A number of companies have such a way that the program checks
and the 1541 is the fact that the VIC produced Commodore-compatible for the ROM (Read-Only Memory)
and 64 (and Plus/4 and 16) require disk drives in an attempt to im routines to be found in the 1541
the computer's main microproces prove on the 1541. The BCD-5.25 drive. Since the other disk drive
sor to disassemble a byte of infor drive from Blue Chip Electronics, makers are forbidden by copyright
mation into its individual bits, add the Indus GT from Indus Systems, law from copying Commodore's
several controlling bits, and then the MSD SD-1 (single drive) and 1541 ROM exactly, they have slight
send the information. This takes ex SD-2 (dual drives) from MSD Sys differences in the way they operate.
tra time for the microprocessor. A tems, the Enhancer 2000 from The Sometimes, these differences are
special-purpose hardware serial de Comtel Group, and the Clone II enough to make the software fail to
vice could accomplish this much disk drive from HBH Sales Corp. load properly. Although most of
faster. are among the best known of these the drive manufacturers do exten
That's exactly what Commo alternative disk drives. As a group, sive testing of commercial software
dore has done in the new 128 com they offer considerably faster oper before releasing the drive, new pro
puter and its 1571 disk drive. ating speeds and a variety of extra tection schemes arrive every day.
Special hardware takes care of most features. But for many users, the prob
communication handling (the first But, as some GAZETTE readers lem of commercial software incom
CIA chip takes on extra work), free have discovered, these "Commo patibility is not sufficient to keep
ing the microprocessor from these dore compatible" drives aren't al them from using these faster and
chores and thus increasing the ways "1541 compatible," a big often more reliable drives.
speed of transfer. Commodore calls difference when it comes to loading Another way around the
this serial fast mode as opposed to and using some commercial soft 1541's weaknesses has been of
the 64/1541 slow mode. As 1571 ware. There are even a few com fered by several software manufac
owners know, their disk drives can mercial programs that won't load turers: cartridge- or disk-based
actually work at different speeds, on the 1571 in 1541 mode. Com programs which speed up the data
depending on whether it's in 1571 patibility problems usually crop up transfer rate between the computer
mode for the 128, 1541 mode for when a commercial software pro and the disk drive. Among these

26 COMPUTE!ls Gazette February 19B6

InM'cftgon !
Outilda Michiyan 1-80Q-I45-J3W
- I ■j-


o 'i.t.i



Your Commodore 128 or 6
In Tnxnt

You want the very best software you con find for your
Commodore 128 or 64, right?
FRANKLIN WINTER You want integrated software — word processing,
Conmlling A Soles
database ana spreadsheet applications — at a sensible
■ price. But, you also want top-of-the-line features. Well,
our Paperback 128/64 software goes one better.
64, you'll find all the features you
then some. And Paperback 128/64 is
, _u won't even need the reference guide.
On-screen and in memory instructions will have you up
and running in less than 30 minutes, even if you've never
used a computer before.

The price? It's as low as you'd expect for a line of

software called 'Paperback'. Suggested Retail Price for
the 64 Software is $39.95 (U.S.) and $49.95 (U.S.) for
the 128. Any of the 64 products may be upgraded to
their 128 version for $15.00 (U.S.) + $3.00 shipping and
handling. (Available to registered owners from Digital
Solutions Inc. only.)

Paperback Writer 128 or 64, Poperback Planner 128 or

64 and Paperback Filer 128 or 64... Solutions at
sensible prices from Digital Solutions Inc.
International & Distributor enquiries to:

Serious software // Digital P.O. Box 345, Station A

that's simple to use. // Solutions Wilbwdale, Ontario

Canada M2N SS9
'/. Inc. 1-416-221-3225

Paperback Writer ?28 and 64 are now available tn French.

are the Fast Load cartridge from |T]ne of the fastest growing trends an LCD laptop portable computer,
Epyx, the MACH-5 cartridge and UJin the data storage area is the which could be used with an exter
disk from Access, the 1541 Flash! move toward 3.5-inch microfloppy nal 3.5-inch drive. Although the
hardware adapter from Skyles, and disks, adopted for Apple's Macin laptop portable has been shelved
the Kwik-Load! disk from DataMost. tosh and for the new 520 ST from for the time being, Commodore is
The GAZETTE has also offered its Atari and the Amiga from Commo said to be looking at the 3.5-inch
own quick-load programs for the dore. Encased in rigid plastic, these drive for use with the 64 and/or
64, "TurboTape" and "TurboDisk" disks are more rugged, faster, and 128. With the 64's immense base of
in the July 1985 issue. pack more data per disk (usually 5-1/4-inch software, why bother
A less common approach to about 400K single-sided, 800K with 3.5-inch media? Certainly,
storage devices for the 64 has been double-sided) than most standard software companies would have to
taken by Entrepo of Sunnyvale, 5-1/4-inch disks (approximately see a potential for a large installed
California, maker of the Quick Data 174K on a 1541 unformatted disk). base of 3.5-inch drives before con
Drive (QDD). The QDD is a stringy Industry rumors are that IBM may verting their products to that for
floppy system, a high-speed cassette soon adopt the 3.5-inch standard mat. But, as the 3.5-inch trend
tape in a small wafer. As with a cas continues to gather speed, some de
sette tape player, like the Datas- velopers feel there may be an
sette, the QDD is a sequential emerging market for that type of
access storage device. But the tape storage device. Apple's decision to
is a continuous loop; it doesn't have offer a 3.5-inch disk drive for the
a beginning and end, so it doesn't Apple II computers, which also
have to be rewound to the begin have a huge base of 5-1/4-inch
ning, it just fast-forwards until the software, may help Commodore
program is found. Programs can decide in favor of releasing the
load considerably faster than a reg
60 single-sided drive.
Commodore is also holding off
ular cassette tape—and even the
1541—because data is transferred on the release of the previously an
at a faster rate. To the computer, the 1541 disks to hold nounced 1572 dual disk drive for
QDD acts more like a disk drive the 128. No price had been an
than a tape drive. nounced, but the 1572 was to fea
Although Entrepo has been the information ture two 5-1/4-inch drives for 64,
transferring a number of third-party 128, or CP/M modes. Each of the
commercial software programs on stored on one drives would read double-sided,
single-density disks with up to
wafers for use with the QDD, soft
ware vendors aren't likely to sup 340K (formatted) memory in 128
port this format unless a large 10-megabyte mode, and double-sided, double-
enough installed base of QDDs density disks with up to 410K (for
makes it worthwhile. Still, at a sug matted) memory in CP/M mode.
gested retail price of $84.95, the hard disk. One company. Blue Chip Elec
QDD offers an innovative, relative tronics, plans to make and sell a
ly inexpensive data storage system 3.5-inch drive for the Commodore
for Commodore owners. (For more 64 as early as the first quarter of
information on the QDD, see the 1986. Called the BCD/3.5, the
November 1985 "Horizons" drive will work with the 64 and
column.) with the 128 in 64 mode, according
Another Commodore drive, for one or more of its new comput to John Rossi, president of Blue
the SFD-1001, is actually an older ers, which would give this format Chip. To be priced at under $100,
model PET disk drive that can be an even greater boost. During 1985, the BCD/3.5 is supposed to carry
used with your 64 or 128 (in 64 Apple Computer announced a 3.5- 250K per disk and let you copy pro
mode). Priced at under $400, the inch drive to be used with its Apple grams from the 1541 5-1/4-inch
SFD-1001 is a one-megabyte double- lie and He computers, as well. format to 3.5-inch format. Prices for
sided, double-density parallel drive Will Commodore also offer a 3.5-inch disks and drives will be
that requires an IEEE parallel inter 3.5-inch disk drive for use with the dropping across the computer in
face and a Commodore PET com 64 and/or 128? So far, company of dustry in 1986, says Rossi, especial
puter cable to work with your 64. ficials have been against the idea, ly if IBM adopts such a drive, as
These drives are no longer in pro concentrating their efforts on get expected.
duction, and were first built by ting the new 128 and Amiga com Blue Chip is also planning an
Commodore for the PET comput puters out. But, from a technical alternative to the 128's 1571 drive.
ers, so they're not meant to run 64 standpoint, Commodore could Although still in prototype stage at
commercial software made for the market a 3.5-inch drive for the 64 or this writing, the unit is tentatively
1541. However, Progressive Peri 128 tomorrow, say several sources. called the BCD/128, will sell for
pherals and Software has acquired At last summer's CES show in under $200, and will operate in all
the marketing rights to the remain Chicago, Commodore announced three 128 modes—64, 128, and
ing stocks of these drives. to the press its intention to market CP/M.

28 COMPUTE! & Gazette February 1986

■}■ 1

A Mew Dimension in Fun

Easy aircraft control, coupled Flight
with unexcelled omnidirec
tional visual (plus audio)
scenery Disk
references and ballistic
power, provide the speed and
aerobatic maneuverability
that add up to pure fun.
Engage in a wide variety of
combat scenarios (land-based 713 Edgebrook Drive
Ch.-impnignlL 61820
F-16 or carrier-based F-18), or |ZI7|]S9-M8;Tele..M699S

fly over detailed United States Order Line: (BQD) 637-4983

scenery at Mach 2.
Another company planning a
replacement for the 1571 is World
Disk Drives of Laguna Hills, Cali
fornia. The company originally
planned to market a 64-compatible
disk drive, the Mirage, but shelved
the idea and switched to the poten
JoJt Jhs QxmmodoA£ 64 dnd 128 tial market for 128 drives. Tenta
tively called the CXT-1281, the
drive is to be sold for just under
$300, and operates in all three
BCD/5.25 Disk Drive ($179) 1541 Flash! ($99.95) modes. In addition, the drive is
5-1/4-inch 64-compatible disk drive; Hardware-based quick load system for planned to read single-density
works in 64 mode on 128. 64 and 1541. CP/M disks (such as those on Os-
BCD/3.5 Disk Drive (under $100) Skytes Electric Works borne computers) as well as the
3.5-inch disk drive for Commodore 64. 231E South Whisman Rd. double-density CP/M disks which
BCD/728 (tentative name) (under $200) Mountain View, CA 94041 the 1571 drive reads. The unit is
5-1/4-inch disk drive for Commodore Indus GT (S349) also expected to come with a built-
128. Commodore 64-compatible disk drive. in parallel printer interface that fea
Blue Chip Electronics, Inc. Indus Systems tures full Commodore graphics and
2 W. Aiameda 9304 Deering Ave. conversion from Commodore
Tcmpe, AZ 85282 Chaisworth, CA 91311 ASCII to standard ASCII.

Clone II ($499) To be marketed as a part of the

Kwik-Load (519.95)
Commodore compatible disk drive. Disk-based quick load program for 64 CXT-1281 (possibly for an extra
HBH Sales Company and 1541. charge) is a ROM configuration
225 West Main Datamosl, Inc. program which will let the drive
Collinsville, /L 62234 19821 NordhoffSt. automatically check for what kind
Northridge, CA 91324 of CP/M disk is installed (Kaypro,
Commodore 1541 ($199)
Osborne, etc.). Once classified, the
Disk drive for the 64. Lt. Kernel ($1595)
10MB and 20MB hard disk drives for drive will configure the keyboard to
Commodore 1571 ($299)
Commodore 64. emulate the appropriate computer's
Disk drive for the 128.
Fiscal Information, Inc. keyboard commands. The drive
Commodore Business Machines
P.O. Box 10270 should be available by the time you
1200 Wilson Dr.
Chester, PA 19380 Daylong Beach, FL 32020 read this.

CSI IOC ($1595) MACH-5 ($34.95)

10MB hard disk for the 64. Cartridge- and disk-based quick load Ror the maximum in data storage,
Computer Specialties, Inc.
program for 64 and 1541. IS personal computers need the ca
P.O. Box 1718 Access Software, Inc. pacities of a hard disk, which can
Melbourne, FL 32902 925 East 900 South hold 10, 20, even 100 megabytes
Salt Lake City, UT 84105 (MB) of information. To put things
CXT-1281 (under $300)
Quick Data Drive ($84.95) in perspective, it would take 60
Commodore 123-compatible drive.
"Microwafer"'-based stringy floppy drive single-sided 1541 disks (or 30
World Disk Drives
for 64. double-sided 1571 disks) to hold
23501 Ridge Route Dr.
Bldg. D Entrepo, Inc. the information stored on one 10-
Laguna Hills, CA 92653 1294 Lawrence Station Rd. MB hard disk.
Sunnyvale, CA 94080 Commodore was scheduled to
Enhancer 2000 ($199)
SD1 ($200) announce a hard disk for the 64 at
Commodore 64-compatiblc disk drive.
Commodore 64-compatible disk drive. last summer's CES show, but held
The Comtel Croup, Inc.
SD2 ($434) back at the last minute. At this time,
P.O. Box 15485
Santa Ana, CA 92705 Commodore 64-compatible dual disk according to one Commodore
drives. source, there are no plans to market
Fast Load ($39.95)
MSD Systems, Inc. a hard disk for either the 64 or the
Cartridge-based quick load program for
10031 Monroe, Suite 206 128. Again, according to several
64 and 1541.
Dallas, TX 75229 sources, marketing considerations
Epyx, inc.
SFD-1001 (under $400) won out over technical capability.
1043 Kiel Ct.
Sunnyvale, CA 94089 One-megabyte double-sided, double- Two companies that do sell
density parallel drive; requires IEEE in hard disks for the Commodore 64
terface and PET cable to work with 64. also plan to sell hard disks for the
Progressive Peripherals and Software, Inc. 128 in all three modes.
464 Kalamaph St. Fiscal Information, Inc., has re
Denver, CO 80204 leased an improved version of its
Lt. Kernel hard disk drive for the 64
(and 128 in 64 mode). Up to 16 64s
can be linked with the Lt. Kernel,

30 COMPUTED Gazarta February 19B6


Zzzz Gates of Dawn

Featuring instantly drown animated Now. for the fiisr time, GATES OF DAWN will
graphics, joystick driven icons and classic release you into the world of the drearn. You
text input. This unusual adventure takes must irovel through these timeless passoges as
the kniqhr of a bygone age. Much of what you
you inro the dream world of Sleep. You see wilfnot be os ir appear and conversely
wonder through the 50 weird and much will happen that you cannor always see.
wonderful • Let this Arcade Adventure fake you into The
locations World of Dreams and Beyond
seeking • 64 Screens of Mysrery and Challenge
• Atmospheric Sound
on escape
• Marvellously Detailed Graphics and
from your Animation

Mti5t(!rtroni( Internationol InL 731 IB Grove Road, Frederick, Maryland 21701 Tel: (301) 695 8877
Fiscal Information's $1595 U. Kernel is a 10-megabytc hard disk drive for Hie
Commodore 64 and 128 computers.

which comes in 10MB or 20MB ver for many home users, that's chang For more information
sions and is 43 times faster than the ing. For example, a new hard drive
about the Clearinghouse,
1541. Priced at $1595 for the 10MB for the Atari 520 ST computer
please fill out and mail back
single unit, the new Lt. Kernel car should be available for around
ries its own self-contained DOS $699 by the time you read this. As
the coupon below.
(disk operating system) and uses technology changes and prices
none of the 64's RAM. The unit drop, it's possible to see hard disks
connects to the computer's car for the 64 and/or 128 in that price
tridge port and transparently im range during 1986.
plements all of the 1541's DOS The power and range of data
functions. storage devices are changing as per
Hard disks have been used sonal computers become more so
with 64s in a variety of areas, pri phisticated and new technologies
Yes!! would like to know more about UMI
marily for bulletin boards, retail emerge. Among the advanced stor
Article Clearinghouse. [ am interested in
stores, police department data age options already in use with electronic ordering through the following
bases, and software development some computers are hard disk system(s):
houses, says Lloyd Sponenburgh, drives with removable cartridges, □ DtALOC/Dialorder D ITT Dialcom
director of hardware development and the Bernoulli Box, a flexible- QOnTyme aOCLCILL
for Fiscal Information, Inc. Al disk system with the power of a
D Other (please specify]
though the present Lt. Kernel hard drive that's based on a novel p p
I am interested in sending my order by
doesn't support the 128 in CP/M air-cushion technology. On the ho
and 128 modes, the company hopes rizon is a growing array of optical □ Please send me your current catalog and
to have it working in all three disk media that use low-power la user instructions (or the systemls) 1
modes by early January, Sponen sers to read digital information checked above.
burgh says. from compact discs. Many com
Computer Specialties, Inc. puter experts agree that this laser-
(CSI) has a hard disk for the Com driven technology will one day
Institution /Company.
modore 64, the CSI IOC hard disk supercede the magnetic media we
drive system, a 10MB drive which use today.
also sells for $1595. The CSI IOC For Commodore owners, it's
works in both 64 and 128 modes, not time to think about throwing Ad dre ss

can be linked to as many as eight away all the 5-1/4-inch disks. But City State

computers, and has an intelligent with data storage formats such as Phone ( )
backup function which lets the hard the 3.5-inch disk and hard drives
drive know what kind of backup moving into the personal computer Mail to: Univtrsily Microfilms International
300 North Zeeb Road. Box 91 Ann Arbor. Ml -18106
drive is attached. marketplace, the future of the 5-
Although hard disk drives 1 /4-inch floppy disk may be a short
have generally been too expensive one. •
32 COMPUTED Oazotle February 1986
I . ' 14 f^m \

TWO PLAYER By Roger and
ACTION Bruce Carver
war niru' drama ol
the j^iird winning game
Beach-Head continues
with Bcach-Hud il, The
Dlciator Sd ft.- Back."
Beach'Head II ;■•'.; allied
forces agdlnnl Ihe cruel
dictnlor, who escaped the
i in-tioii ill the fortreu
:imi Ded Into the tropical
fun- .1 with portion) ol hit
aimy and prisoner*
caplured during the land
battle. Tin- player muM
locate and penetrate the
heavily aimed aanrtuary,
capture the dictator, and
bee (he prisoner*.


mi \cn hkAir £> RaiDOVERmOSCOW

"The grophicj are remarkable —it's "Raid Over Moscow Is acHon gaming
CARTRIDGE FAST LOADER olmwi like walching a John Wayne at its finest —readsrlc graphics, superb
- • '< ; ■ -y •" ■ up lo 500% :^-:^r Open and clow pi.nter channels mi Movie." sound e//ecls and highly chal/enging
Full hvlp menu at the much of a kuy a sinolc kty
—Computer Game? (ests a/skill."
EtiminiEp \bQ~t dnk dnve tattle. Diuibiuand rej enable [catui^i wiihou
Pilni screen (hifch dumplo prinreif. Iuruing of! computer —Home CompuDng & Video Newi
Reitdr? basic program (aid) Compelibfe wlch all popular pnniers
Llir dull dlr#cmty wiEhoui erasing Sena dm command (©,.
progrflm in memory Load vlrlunlCy 95% of all mUwaie,
Pduw or vnil fiord dlrfdary Eisiliiy win copy proitidcd gsmei.
EhvcuIf jhort hand load com mauds py p
from directory. i noi diiiurb rnm
A uly rim any b»lc progiem.

Compatible with your Commodore 64/128 and 1541, Indus GT, $34.95 $39.95
Enhancer 2000 or Tech 16. . \i,vi 4SK Cnmmodart 64/12B


For mail orders, enclose check or money order, plus $2.00 shipping and
handling, and specify machine version desired. Order by phone on Visa,
MasterCharge or C.O.D. by calling 801/298-9077.
■=u=- Software Incorporated
ACCESS SOFTWARE, INC. 2561 So. 1560 W. Woods Cross. UT 84087
Using Commodore 64 Peripherals On The 128

The Weil-Connected Computer

Kathy Yakal, Peripheral compatibility Joystick Ports
Assistant Features Editor between the Commodore Control ports 1 and 2, as they're la
64 and 128 is not as sim beled on the 128, read the signals
ple an issue as it was be sent to the computer by either
If you're considering tween the VIC-20 and 64, though, switches or potentiometers (a po
in most cases, the peripherals are tentiometer is like the dimmer
buying a 128 and have
interchangeable. The only real switch in an overhead dining room
already spent a lot of problems arise if you want to take light fixture). These signals are sent
money on peripherals full advantage of the 128's special out from joysticks, paddles, track
features, like its 80-column screen balls, graphics tablets, light pens,
for your Commodore
and CP/M capability. and Commodore's new mouse,
64, you may be con One of Commodore's prime which is like an upside-down
cerned about compati objectives in designing the 128 was trackball.
"to maintain hardware and soft There was a bit of an outcry
bility. Will your old
ware compatibility with the 64," when the Plus/4 and 16 were re
printer and monitor according to preliminary technical leased because the machines' joy
and disk drive suffice? documentation. With millions of stick ports were not compatible
active 64 users out there, and hun with existing joysticks. But any of
For most applications, dreds of popular software packages the above that you might have pur
the answer is yes. and peripherals in place, that cer chased for your VIC or 64 will work
tainly makes sense. on the 128.
With one exception, the ports
and switches on the 128 are identi On/Off Switch
cal to those found on the 64. Start This has the same function as the
ing at the lower right side of the 64, to turn on the computer. There's
128, let's move around counter also a reset switch (not available on
clockwise and have a look at which the 64) that works basically the
peripherals work with the 128. same as the on/off switch.

34 COMPUTEl's Gezene February 19B6

(Hi. I'm from Balcimore. Where's the pharaoh?)

Africa, 1890
Up that river lies You have inherited
the African a madman's diary
Adventure of your ... and his dream to
imagination. find the tomb of
The mysterious Dark an ancient pharaoh.
Continent. Where the
Ancient songs still sung
mighty Kilimanjaro
by tribal historians contain
towers over the Source of
clues to the hidden tomb
the Nile. Where the
of a fabulously wealthy
Congo snakes through
pharaoh. The madman's
steaming jungles and the
last feverish words drive
scorching Sahara sun
you onward: "I now know
bleaches men's bones.
it docs exist. I am so
Africa. Where legends
close, but so near death.
of secret treasure drive
If you hear no more from
men mad with desire.
me, men warn those that
And where an adventurer
follow: this is not a journey
can still find glory and
for the weak of spirit
gold...or a lonely death
or dull of mind. Come
far from home.
prepared!'—H. Primm,
May 21, 1889

n ■ aia tinat m c*ns(

«n - i«» FM, - i»»

V"l KB n ..".■I
PJ u_ ■■P*^ 4 mm 'SJ»
---1 MM 4 IS W«J

r^ on ^ "'■--■■
5 Mfl(»
n fi 1 *
I 1
|;« ii ■ami
1 -B nan* ■ in nni
in fftj

T«< KlVf* Sllf

tHWAI DOTion ?> tenlmat.i

A Living Map of Africa Follow Your Dreams Decipher Native Clues

11 million square miles sniffed inlo your com Set your course and go for it. The computer Local myths will help, if you can get iho na
puter. Navigate 17 rivers. Hack through jungle automatically maps your progress and keeps tives to talk. Enter their huts. Learn their cus
and swamp. Sail to ten cities. Learn the ways your journal. If you get losi, it can rell you toms. Pass out some bribes. The chief might
of 22 tribes. Explore savannah, deserts and "The River Nile!' What it won't say is "about tell you, "Look where the sun rises over the
mountains. It's all geographically accurate. to gei sucked over the Kabelega rails!' Childless Waters!' Now try to figure it out.


Specification!: Available no* for Commodore 64 & 12S Inftnirtly pbnblc because the compui" hides rhe 10mb and Treasure in new places each iimt you sian. How lo nnlcn Visn
your retailer or call 8O0-227-6701 for direci VISA 01 MaslcrCaid orders (in CA cill 8M-632-79?O|. The Jitm price is $32 95 To buy by mail, send check or money order 10
Electronic Am. PO. Box 306. Half Moon Bay. CA 9401° Add S4 for thippinR ard hjndlinB Allow J-4 mb for delivery All EA prcducti purehjled direci have a l4-<lav "Jaiisfict.on
or your montv bacli" guarantee. For a compleie catjlof, lend 5(K and a srlf-addreiscd enielupc [o Electronic Am. 275S Campus Dr. San Maieo CA 94401
Power Supply Port combination of computer/disk monitor. To switch from 40 to 80
You can't use the original two-pin drive. The new protocol on the columns, you unplug the 40-col-
VIC-20 power supply on a Commo 1571 makes a combination of the umn input before inserting the 80-
dore 64 (although the newer VICs 128/1571 very fast (and it's even column plug (or, if you have a
use the same seven-pin plug as the faster when the 128 is in CP/M Commodore monitor, you can use
64), and you can't use a 64 power mode). Combinations of 64/1541, the front connections for 80-col-
supply on a 128 because of their 64/1571, and 128/1541 all yield umns and the rear connections for
different voltage and current re relatively slow transfer speed (300 40, and flip the switch on the back
quirements. The power supply is characters per second in 64 mode, of the monitor to go between the
not really considered a peripher as opposed to approximately 2000 two screens). Microvation's 40/80
al—it's a standard accessory that in CP/M mode). Switch ($14.95) consists of a small
comes with the machine. Also, the 1571 can read dou switch box with three cables run
ble-sided disks, where the 1541 ning out. One plugs into the moni
Expansion Port cannot. This may cause some soft tor, and the other two connect to
Again, this is not really a peripheral ware incompatibility in the future if the 128: one into the video port and
port, since it's most often used for developers create software that one into the RGBI port. By flipping
cartridge-based software. Many uses both sides of a disk. the switch on the interface, you can
cartridges are auto-booting, mean switch between 40 and 80 columns.
Video Port
ing you plug it in, turn on the com (For more information, contact
This port, which sends a signal to
puter, and it boots itself up without Cardco, 300 S. Topeka, Wichita, KS
either a composite or a mono
a RUN or SYS command. 67202, or Microvations, 8920 Arctu-
Though the 128 automatically chrome monitor, is wired exactly
rus Way, San Diego, CA 92126.)
starts out in 128 mode, it can detect the same on both the 64 and 128.
Unfortunately, there is no
the presence of a cartridge for the Whatever you're using now with
practical way to get 80 columns if
64 and switch into 64 mode, allow
your 64 should work fine on the
you're using a television set.
ing the cartridge to auto-boot. 128.
Commodore's 1660 modem User Port
Voice synthesizers, some of
also connects to the audio pin on This port is used almost exclusively
which plug into this port, could be
this port in order to emulate touch- for plugging in direct-connect mo
considered peripherals. There ap
tone dialing sounds. It works with dems. The compatibility situation
pears to be no problem using them
both machines. looks good here, as long as you are
on the 128.
telecommunicating in 64 or 128
Low/High Switch
Cassette Port mode.
This switch is the same on both But the original release of
Two types of peripherals can be
computers. It simply lets you CP/M for the 128 does not support
plugged into this port: the Commo
choose which channel, 3 or 4, will telecommunications. This is not a
dore 64 Datassette and certain
receive a signal if you're using a TV problem with the hardware, but
printer interfaces which draw pow
for video display.
er from one of the pins. A VIC or 64 with the software. The upgraded
Datassette is compatible (but not RF Port CP/M release has reportedly cor
the cassette drive designed for use If you don't own a monitor, this is rected this, and includes a terminal
with the Plus/4 and 16) as are the where you plug in your television. program called MDM730, which
printer interfaces. The cable that plugs into the should be compatible with all Com
TV/computer switch box plugs in modore modems. (For further infor-
Serial Port mation, see "128 Update: An
here on both the 64 and 128.
This port is also used for printer in Improved CP/M" on page 38.)
terfaces, as well as for disk drives. RGBI Port
Both the 1541 and 1571 disk drive This port does not exist on the 64.
have two ports on the back: One re On the 128, it sends out two sig Though compatibility should
ceives the cable running from the nals. Both allow for 80 columns, create very few problems as
computer, and the other can act as a one in monochrome (black and you upgrade to a 128, you may run
substitute serial port for additional white) and one in color. into some annoying minor prob
disk drives or printers. If you have If 80 columns in monochrome lems. For instance, some software
both a printer and a disk drive, you is good enough for you, you can packages require you to plug a don-
plug the disk drive cable into the se continue to use either a composite gle (a small plastic box used for
rial port of the computer and the monitor, like the 1701 or 1702, ora copy protection) into the user port
printer cable into the back of the monochrome monitor. But if you before running the program. Be
disk drive. The disk drive, in effect, want 80 columns in color, you'll cause of the differences in the plas
relays commands from the printer need an RGBI monitor like Com tic casing of the 64 and 128, it may
to the computer and vice versa. modore's new 1901. be difficult to plug in the dongle.
Compatibility does not appear to be At least two companies have But remember, the 128 was de
a problem, although you may have manufactured monitor cables that signed to allow 64 owners to up
to turn off your printer before give you 80-column capability. grade without having to sink a lot of
powering on or resetting the 128. Cardco's C128/80 ($9.95) is a sin money into new peripherals, and
However, the speed of your gle cable that connects the 128's Commodore's plan appears to have
drive will vary, depending on the RGBI port to the video-in plug on a been successful. a

36 COMPUTE'S Gazeffe February 19B6

hy settle
hen you can have Mo?

Mltey Mo turns your Commodore 64 COMMODORE of keystrokes. Not so with the other
Into a telecommunications giant. modem. And only Mitey Mo lets you
It's the best-performlng modem store daia to review or print it later.
Auto Dial/Answer YES YES
with upload/download. AutoRedial YES NO Mitey Mo has just one switch,

Mitey Mo is being hailed as Smart 64 Software YES NO the Smart 64 software does the rest.
"the best price/performance com Fund ion Keys With the other modem you'll have
munications package available!' Programmable YES NO to remember to check three switches,
Upload/Downloa d otherwise you may be answering
Its software has received the endorse
Text&X-Modem YES NO when you mean to be originating,
ment oi the U.S. Commodore Users
VT-52/VT-100 Emulation YES NO Mitey Mo is half the size of the
Group, which gives a money-back
Menu Driven YES NO other modem. The very latest tech
guarantee to members. It is truly the
28K Software Buffer YES NO nology allows miniaturization and
industry standard, and no wonder. Easy-to-Use Manual YES NO increased reliability as well. Mitey
It's the most user-friendly modem you
Bell 103 Compatible YES YES
can buy—it will take you online Mo is so reliable, we gave it a full
Multiple Baud Rates YES YES
faster and easier than anything else. three-year warranty The other
Cable Included YES YES
Mitey Mo opens up a world of modem gives 90 days, then you're on
Single Switch Operation YES NO
your own.
practical and exciting uses for your Wbrranty 3 years 90 days
C-64. It lets you send and receive Not only will you find Mitey
Mo mighty useful, you'll find it
electronic mail, link up with commu Some mighty Interesting features -
mighty reasonably priced. When
nity bulletin boards, play computer ours and theirs. Yours to decide.
you buy it, you'll get S15 of
games with people in distant places,
CompuServe access time and 2
tap into library resources, and
hours ol PlayNet free, as well.
much more. All at your convenience. numbers sequentially. But suppose you dial
See your dealer or call us
Until Mitey Mo. Commodore's a number and find it's busy Mitey Mo has "auto directly to order your Mitey Mo.
1650 Automodem was Ihe obvious redial"-it hangs up and redials immediately
choice when you went looking until it gets through, With the other modem
for a modem for your computer. Like you have to redial each time - and somebody
Mitey Mo. it has "auto with auto redialing can slip in ahead o! you.
answer"— it receives Mitey Mo is menu driven. It lists the things
dala while unattended. you can do on the screen.
And both modems are Select a number and you're
"auto dialers"— on your way Since Auto
you dial right on modem isn't menu driven,
the computer's you'll be hunting through
keyboard. But the manual a lot.
that's about With Mitey Mo, your
where the simi computer's function
larity ends. Computer Devices Int'l
keys are program-

!345-A2Doolittle Drive
Mitey Mo mable-youcan
San Leandro.CA 94577
can dial up to 9 save yourself plenty ("115)633-1899
128 Update:

An Improved CP/M
Kathy Yakal, Assistant Features Editor with the 128 (Digital Research
CP/M Version 3) includes the oper
ating system and a few utilities to
Commodore 128 owners Developed in 1975 by Gary Kildall get you started. However, Commo
who may have been frus for Intel's 8080 microprocessor, dore offers, for $20, two more
trated by certain limita CP/M became the first disk-operat CP/M system disks and a large
tions in the original CP/M ing system (DOS) available. Kil- System/User's/Programmer's
software for their machines should dall's company, Digital Research,
Guide to CP/M which details how
be able to get a significantly im later upgraded CP/M for the Zilog to use and program that operating
proved version by the time they Z80 chip. In those days, most com system. (You can get this by send
read this. puters used one of the two chips, so ing in the CP/M card that comes
Commodore is planning to re software written for CP/M ran on
with your 128.) This extra infor
lease an upgraded CP/M for inter most microcomputers. In fact, mation can be extremely helpful,
ested 128 owners which will, many early sales of the 6502-based
especially if you want to do any
among other things, allow down Apple series were attributed to the
loading of CP/M files for use in the availability of a Z80 plug-in card The difference between Com
128, storage in the 1571 disk drive, that let Apple owners run the sub modore 64 or 128 software and
and hard copy printouts. Commo stantial library of CP/M programs. CP/M software is like the differ
dore sources indicate that the new Obviously, there's been a lot of ence between Apple software and
CP/M version will offer Commo CP/M software out there for a long IBM software; the programs are
dore RS-232 compatibility, will time, both commercial packages configured to run within operating
work with a new Commodore (many of which are business- systems based on different micro
Xmodem terminal program, and oriented) and public domain pro processors. There are word proces
will also make the keyboard scan grams. Much of it, but not all, runs sors, games, educational pieces,
ning function slightly quicker. on the 128. spreadsheets, and software for
Final details had not been many other applications, but they
nailed down by Commodore at were written for another operating
press time, but indications are that The Commodore 128 is not the system, so will only run on a ma
the upgrade will be free (or perhaps first Commodore product that
chine that uses it. You can run
for the cost of the disk itself and can run CP/M. Commodore sells a
PaperCHp on both an Apple and a
shipping/handling charges) to package for the 64 that includes a Commodore, but you have to have
those who have purchased 128s. Z80 microprocessor on a cartridge
the right version for your computer.
Owners can receive the upgrade by and the CP/M operating system on
calling Commodore Customer Sup disk.
port. One source indicates that Some CP/M software has been
What works on the 128?
Commodore may even place the designed for it, but there are prob
That's the big question. The
new CP/M telecommunications lems. CP/M requires heavy access
best way to find out is to test a vari
program in the public domain. to disk, so running it on the rela ety of programs, and the 128 has
One of the reasons for the up tively slow 1541 means a lot of hardly been available long enough
grade stems from the original down time for the user. Also, most
to do extensive testing.
CP/M's lack of any telecommuni CP/M-based computers use a 64-or
Commodore has released a list
cations capabilities. A tremendous 80-column screen, as opposed to
of commercial packages that will
amount of CP/M software is in the the 64's 40 columns. And since the run in CP/M on the 128. The list—
public domain and available 1541 disk drive can't read a CP/M with product name, company, for
through online bulletin boards, disk, you're pretty much limited to
mat, and description—includes:
making telecommunications access just programming the Z80 chip, and
not running commercial software. • WordStar (MicroPro) Osborne I
almost a necessity for people who
The 128 is a more suitable CP/M format recommended; a word
want to do more with CP/M.
machine because of its 80-column processor.
For those relatively new to
CP/M on the 128, CP/M stands for screen and fast 1571 disk drive. • SuperCalc (Sorcim) Osborne I; a
Control Program for Microcomputers. The CP/M disk that comes spreadsheet.
38 COMPUTE'S Gazette February 1986
■ ■•■>'.-" ■'•->■-


And That's What It's All About '^ ■ V- '■'■'-,■■■■

fhc Connection
A. Universal Parallel Printer Interface
Fof The vie BO" ft Commodnr.- 6t'

Press RESET Once To Clear Buffer

or Press Twice To Start Selftest

"The Connection"'" modes: an emulation mode (imitates

A Fully Intelligent Parallel Commodore 1525 printers) and a trans
Printer Interface for parent mode (information goes straight
Commodore- Computers through—no interpretation]. Fora
suggested retail price of only S69.95
Now, TYMAC provides a parallel printer
(non-Epson) orS73.95 (Epson). TYMAC
interface designed exclusively for Com TYMAC backs "The Connection" with
gives you the best printer interface avail
modore Computers, including Commo an outstanding reputation in the com
able foryour money.
dore 64'\ Commodore 128". Plus/4"1. puter field since 1973. TYMAC tests
With The Connection."you can exe
Commodore 16"* and VIC20'. TYMAC's every product 100% before it leaves
cute standard print commands (OPEN.
The Connection" gives you complete the factory to guarantee flawless per
PRINT*, and CLOSE) and create
control over your printing capabilities formance and the best value foryour
finished documents and graphics to
and offers you top-notch quality, un money. Each -Connection" comes with a
your own specifications. Various options
equalled by other interfaces of its kind. full, one-year warranty. For information
include column tabbing, dot tabbing,
The Connection" is compatible with and literature about The Connection,"
graphic repeat, dot addressable
virtually all Commodore software. write or call TYMAC today. Or contact
graphics, and more. Full printer self-test.
The Connection" makes your invest your local computer retailer to purchase
LED status indicator, printer reset
ment in a printer interface worthwhile. The Connection."
switch, skip over perf, margin set, and
The Connection" simply plugs Into the
programmable line length give you
serial disk port to ultimately produce
maximum flexibility for optimum per
refined, finished documents. TYMAC
formance. The Connection" also fea
has applied leading computer technology
tures a 2K buffer. "The Connection" is

to equip "The Connection" with two
compatible with any parallel printer that
is equipped with a standard Centronics
interface, including Star, Riteman,
Smith-Corona/Epson, Panasonic, BMC- Established In 1973
80, Mannesman Tally, Olympia/Okidata, TYMAC CONTROLS CORPORATION
Canon/C. Itoh, NEC/Seikosha, Gorilla 127MainStreet Franklin,NJ07416 201-827-4050
Banana/and Universal.
tymac is i rtg«lued. trjOtmirk ol Tymac Conlrols Corporation
Commodore. Com mod q re 64 Commodore t2B. Pfoui. Connnodorj irj. and
VIC 20 a'p rpg'stered wadmdrks of Commoorjra ElBtirgn.cs l'mii*d
• dBase II (Ashton-Tate) Osborne I who will let you do some checking around the nation. Many online
and Kaypro IV; a database. before you purchase the program. information services, like Compu
• Spellguard (Sorcim) Osborne I; a Serve and The Source, have Special
spelling checker. If you don't regularly use CP/M Interest Groups (SIGs) online that
• Electric Webster (Cornucopia) Os software on a different com offer public domain software.
borne I; a word processing aid. puter at work or home, and don't Remember, however, that the
want to spend money just to see initial release of CP/M for the 128
• Punctuation Style (Oasis Systems)
what's available, you still have ac doesn't "recognize" modems,
Osborne I; a word processing aid.
cess to thousands of CP/M pro which means you can't telecom
• Grammatik (Aspen) Osborne I; a
grams in the public domain. If municate while operating in CP/M
writing style analyzer.
there's a CP/M user group in your mode. As mentioned above, the ad
• Disk Doctor (SuperSoft) Osborne I; area (or a user group for a specific dition of telecommunications capa
a utilities package for recovering CP/M machine, like Osborne or bility is one of the changes that
lost files from damaged disks. Commodore has announced for the
Kaypro), you might want to attend
• MBasic (Microsoft) Osborne I; a a meeting to see what's in their li new CP/M version.
BASIC programming language. brary. Local newspapers and other In the meantime, there are pro
• The Perfect Series (Commodore) community service publications grams on CompuServe and several
Developed for the 128; several pro often list meeting times for such ac BBS's that make it possible to copy
ductivity packages. tivities; you could also check with programs downloaded in 64 or 128
• Turbo PASCAL (Borland Interna the computer science department of mode to CP/M format. (One such
tional) Kaypro IV; a Pascal pro a local high school or college to see board in the Atlanta area can be
gramming language. if such a group meets. reached at 404-995-0182.) The pro
In addition, there are hundreds cess involves downloading one of
• Zork (Infocom) Format uncertain;
of CP/M bulletin board systems these conversion programs, then
a text adventure series.
across the country. To find one in downloading a CP/M program
There are certainly many other your area, call the Peoples' Mes while in 64 or 128 format on a regu
programs that will work. But dis sage Service, an electronic bulletin lar disk. After disconnecting from
covering what will and won't be board, at (619) 444-7006 (Pass the network, you load the conver
compatible can be a bit frustrating. word; PAMS) and either search in sion program, and it will copy the
One way to go about finding even your area code or download the list downloaded program to a CP/M
more programs is to find a dealer of CP/M bulletin boards from disk in CP/M format. a

Enom the designers of ELTDON



Turn your Commodore 64*
Electrosound64 Battle against 101, yes 101
into a powerful synthesiser insane levels of marauding
-50 preset sounds aliens. Traffic lights, ducks
- 24 percussion sounds and half eaten fish are
- 8 octaves all part of this wonderful
-5 types of modulation, tongue-in-cheek shoot-em
compete with 35 page down game.
PRICE: U.S. $15.00
PRICE: U.S. S30.00 CDN. $20.00
CDN. $40.00

'Commodore 64 is a trademark ol
Commodore Electronics Lid.

No. of Copies
No. of Copies

^m mm mm bm bbi bbi an bh wm* bbi bh ■■ ■■■ m mm mm mm hh mm bbi bbi m
Help your children learn the basics
of computer programming with these 0-87455-038-6
$14.95 0-67455-032-7
two new entertaining and educational
Si 4.95
books from COMPUTE!.

Each book contains easy-to-follow Inslructlons, programming examples, quick reviews, and
colorful Illustrations, Written In COMPUTEI's clear, easy-to-understand style, the books offer
hours of entertainment while helping kids (and adults) learn to program in BASIC.

If you're acquainted with BASIC, you can easily write your own games and applications on
Atari's ST or Commodore's 128 computers. Over 30 sections—all with Instructor notes,
lessons, assignments, and lively illustrations—entertain and amuse as you learn to use
these powerful computers. COMPUTEI's Kids and the Atari ST and COMPUTE!'& Kids and the
Commodore 128, In the bestselllng series from author Edward Carlson, are gentle
Introductions to programming your new computer. Clear writing and concise examples,
both trademarks of this series, make It easy for anyone—child or adult—to learn BASIC

_ _e and other books ..

at your local book store or computer store. Or order directly from COMPUTE!.

To order, call toll (roe In Ihe US 1-800-344-6767 (In NY 212-265-8360) or mall Ihe attached coupon wilh
your payment io COMPUIEI Books, P.O. Box 5038. F.D.R. Station. New York, NY 10150.
Please send me Ihe (allowing COMPUTE! books. My payment Is enclosed.

COMPUTeVs Kids and the Commodore 128, (032-7) $14.95 each

COMPUTE!'* Kids and the Atari ST, (038-6) $14.95 each
ALL ODD EDS NC residents add d,5% soles tan
MUST BE snipping and handling per book
PREPAID IN (In U.S. and surface mall. $2.00 per
U.S. FUNDS book: airmail, i'j CO per book.)
Toial amount enclosed
D Payment enclosed (check or monev order)
D Charge □ MasterCard D Visa □ American Express
Account No. Exp. Date

State Zip
Please allow 4-6 weeks loi delivery.

L. .J
COMPUTE! books ate available In the U,K,, Europe, the Middle
COMPUTE!" Publicationsjnct
On* ot rr» ABC PuMmmg Componlst
East, and Africa from Holt Sounders, Ltd., 1 St. Anne's Road.
SIS 7'n Avenue, stn Ft™, N»w ten. N* 10015 Eastbourne, East Sussex BN21 3UN. England and in Canada from
Holt. Rinehart. & Winston, 55 Homer Avenue. Toronto, ON M8Z 4X6.
John Krause and Mark Tuttle

Defense is just as important as of When the ball comes near one of

fense in "Kicker," a two-player soc your men, press the fire button to
cer simulation in which each player kick the ball in the direction of your
controls nine men. You need quick opponent's goal. (The game is de
reflexes to protect your goal and to signed so that you can kick the ball
drive the ball toward your oppo only in the direction of your oppo
nent's goal. nent's goal. You can't accidentally
The game is written entirely kick the ball into your own goal.)
in machine language. Kicking the ball requires split-
"MLX," published second timing. Holding down the
frequently in fire button won't do. You must
COMPUTED press the fire button at the moment
GAZETTE, the ball comes in contact with your
is required player. Otherwise the ball will con
to type it in. After tinue past your player. Remember,
loading and running selecting a row will not allow you to
MLX, answer the prompts kick the ball. You must activate the
for starting and ending row by pressing the fire button.
addresses with 0801 and When a tow is inactive (the fire
0E28, respectively. Type in button is not pressed or you do
Kicker and save it to tape or not control that row) the
There's no disk. To run it, type LOAD men are represented by
"filename",8 (disk) or LOAD three dots. Use the row
such thing as "filename",l (tape) and RUN. \
luck in this
Speed And Endurance
fast-paced two- Plug a joystick in each port. Before
player soccer beginning play, you must select a
speed. You're prompted to press S,
simulation for M, or F (Slow, Medium, or Fast).
Slow is the recommended level to
the Commodore
start with so that you can get a good
64 and 128 (in 64 feel for the game, although the me
dium speed is probably the level
mode). Two joysticks you'll choose most often. Here, the
speed is competitive and your Player 2 (red) is about to be scored on
are required. again in "Kicker."
wrists may last for the entire game.
The Fast level should be attempted
only by diehard Kicker fanatics.
Player one, the blue team, and of men nearest your goal to block
player two, the red team, control shots by your opponent. The scores
three rows of three men each. But of both players are displayed at the
each player can access only one row top of the screen. After each goal, a
at a time. Move the joystick up to bell sounds and a red or blue light,
select the top row, down to select representing the color of the scoring
the bottom row, or leave it centered team, flashes in the goal area. The
for the middle row. ball is placed in the center of the
After choosing a row, you can field at the beginning of the game
move the joystick left or right to and after each goal. The first player
shift the entire row and get your to score nine goals is the winner.
men into position to kick the ball. See program listing on page 114.

42 COMPUTEIS Gazette February 1986

'■'■■ ''"'■■■ '■■'■". •■■ j.

accept the
challenge of ten acrobatic
jet maneuvers — including
precision Rolls and Loops, high
performance immelmans,
and the death defying
inverted Ribbon Cut! AcroJet
Is a sophisticated, advanced
flight simulator that provides all
the excitement and thrills of flying
your own BD5-jet!
Challenge yourself —
challenge your friends!
One to four players can
compete in this

£- P

Experience the reality of these

AcroJet is now available for Commodore
other great simulations from MicroProse:
64/128 computers for a suggested retail
of $34.95. Coming soon for the Apple II
family, IBM PC/PC Jr., and Atari XIVXE.
Call or write for specific machine
availability, and for MC/VISA orders.

Dai Ing Attack Helicopter Exiling World Wir II You are In Command —
Action In [he Submarine Action Dinn Bien Phu To
AH-64 APACHEr in Ihe Pacific I Ihe Fair of Eolgonr


are rog I Blared Trademarks ol Commodore
Business Inc., Atari Inc., Apple Computer Inc.,
nnd Intnrnntlcnnl Business Machines inc., 120Laketront Drive Hun! Valley. Maryland 21030 301-667-1151

Actoiet and other exceptional simulations from MicroProse are avallaoie at Sears, I! van, and mtier fine distributors of computer software
■ ■

Ron Wilson

more difficult. Besides forward

Like a bowl of alphabet soup, the "Lexitron"
spellings, words are also formed in
screen appears to be just a jumbled mass of let their reversed spelling order (from
ters. Can you find the ten hidden words before right to left or bottom to top). Level
3 is the most difficult, with words
time runs out? A challenging game with three
speiled diagonally and both for
skill levels for the Commodore 64,128, Plus/4, ward and reversed diagonal words
and 16. A joystick is required. being formed. You might want to
stay clear of level 3 until you've
If you enjoy the hidden word played a few times.
games often found in newspapers After you've selected a skill
and magazines, you'll like "Lexi level by moving your joystick to the
tron." But unlike the ones done appropriate number, press the fire
with pencil and paper, Lexitron button. The screen will clear for a
adds a few twists. There's a time few seconds while the game words
limit, and you can select one of are being selected and hidden. But
three difficulty levels. don't leave your seat—the timer
The game is written entirely in starts as soon as the game appears
BASIC for the Commodore 64 and on the screen.
128 (in either 64 or 128 mode). Using your joystick, move the
An example of level 2 play. Note that cursor to the word you've found,
After typing it in, be sure to save a
the words found are in reverse spelling
copy. If you're planning to run it in and press the fire button on each
128 mode on the 128, add this line letter until you complete the word.
to make sure the POKEs go to the
640 SOUND1,A,3:SOUND2,A-3,3:!JE Each time a correct letter is regis
right bank of memory: tered, the time level, which moves
Be especially careful when typing from top to bottom, is pushed back
in the DATA statements in lines toward the top. Avoid guessing let
Plus/4 and 16 users should substi ters by trial and error. Wrong en
1200 and 1210. These lines hold the
tute the following lines in the 64 tries only reduce the amount of
word pool from which Lexitron
version: time.
All valid game words are at
140 VOL8
150 SC=3322:C[>=-1024;3C=G5301:
Up, Down, Left, And Right least six letters long. This rule is in
W=241 :BL=241 : SIi=652B6 :CS= To play Lexitron, load it and type force so that accidental (and some
255 RUN. Be sure to have a joystick times humorous) letter combina
160 Z«1339.sA1-0iA2-6iA3-2iA4-5
plugged into port 2 (port 1 for the tions do not cost you time and
41S J=JOV(1)iRETURN Plus/4 and 16 version). First, you'll effort. You'll often see words like
480 SOUND 1,262,10:SOUHD 1,453 be asked to select one of three skill MAN, CAR, SEE, or TRY, but Lexi
levels. Level 1 is the easiest, with all tron does not recognize them. Also
540 SOUND 1,453,10:SOUMD 1,263
,20 the hidden words spelled left to be aware of letter additions. For ex
630 FORA=130TO5OOSTEP2O right or top to bottom. Level 2 is ample, Lexitron may choose and

44 COMPUTEVs Gazette February 1986


Destination: The 19th Century

Slip any one ol ihese game Holiiday. Imagine all the best soldier. Beginner, Intermediate and Japan, Your goal: To conquer the world any
disks into your computer, and westerns you've ever read about Advanced Games are provided so way you can — through subversion,
you'll be transported back in time or seen....this action-packed wargamers of all 'eve Is can try espionage, or sheer military muscle.
lo ttie 1800's, to relive three of game lets them come true! their hands at rewriting history.
To pick up these tickets to the past, you'll
the most exciting periods of BATTLE OF ANTIETAM" brings COLONIAL CONQUEST spans the need to see your time travel agency today.
that century.
back one fateful day, September late 1800's and early 1900's that (It's cleverly disguised as your local software/
SIX-GUN SHOOTOUT" will take 17,1862, when the Gray and the marked the Age of Imperialism computer or game store.)
you back to the wild, wild West, Slue clashed so fiercely that it This fun and easy-to-play game It there are no convenient stores near you,
where you'll recreate the famous came to be the bloodiest day of of global domination puts you in VISA & M/C holders can order our lime
gun battles of such heroes/out Ihe Civil War, This grand-tactical charge of one of six colonial machines directly by calling 800-227-1617,
laws as Billy the Kid, the Earp simulation Is so detailed, combat powers - the U.S., Great Britain, int. 335 [tall Ir.fs] In California, call 800-
brothers. Bat Masterson and Doc is resolved down to the Individual Germany, France, Russia, and 772-3545. ext. 335.
Please specify computer format and add
$2.00 for shipping and handling.
To order by mail, send your check to:
Road. Bldg. A-200, Mountain View. CA
ANTIETAM 94043. (California residents, add 7% sales
tax.) All our games carry a "14-day satisfac
tion or your money back" guarantee.

©1985 by
Simula I ions,
All rights
C-W (Gmmodore 6J). ATARI, and APPLE are trademarks ot Commodore Electronics, Ltd, Atari. Inc. and Apple Computer. Inc, respectively
new line—1220—and remember COMPUTE!'* Gazette
that all words must be at least six Subscriber Services
letters long. Be sure the last word in
Please help us serve you belter. If you
the list is FOE (the word END in
need to contact us for any of the reasons
code). This signals to the program listed below, write to us at:
that it's reached the end of the word COMPUTE!'* Gazette
list. You might want to consider P.O. Box 10957
using words with the letters X, Z, or Des Moines, IA 50340

the Q-U combination. A sharp or call the Toll Free number listed below.
player can spot words with those Change of Address. Please allow us 6-8
weeks to effect the change; send your
letters in seconds.
current mailing label along with your new
When time has expired, the computer If you find that Lexitron is too address.
displays the hidden words In black. easy or too difficult, you can change Renewal. Should you wish to renew
the value .009 in line 330. This con your Gazette subscription before we re
hide the word AMERICA, but by trols the timer. Raising and lower mind you to, send your current mailing
chance the letter following could be ing this value will change the label with payment or charge number or
call the Toll Free number listed below.
an N, thus AMERICAN. Lexitron allotted time, thus the difficulty of
New Subscription. A one-year (12-
may not recognize the extra N. the game. A value less than .009 rnonthl U.S. subscription to COMPUTE'.'s
(such as .007) makes the game easi Gazelle is $24 (2 years, S45; 3 years, S65.
Easy Modifications er, and, conversely, increasing the For subscription rales outside the U.S.,
value makes it more difficult. see staff page). Send us your name and
The Lexitron vocabulary words are
address or call the Toll Free number
coded so that players cannot list the There are a few strategies to
listed below.
program and get an illegal sneak consider when playing Lexitron.
Delivery Problems. If you receive dupli
preview. If you wish to add your For instance, in some cases it's not cate issues of COMPUTED Gazette, if you
own words to the program, the to your best advantage to enter a experience late delivery, or if you have
code is simple. Each letter repre word as soon as you find it. If you problems with your subscription, please
have trouble finding some of the call the Toll Free number listed below.
sents the letter which alphabetical
ly follows. For example, the letter A hidden words, Lexitron sometimes COMPUTED Gazette
is coded as B. ABACUS wouid be provides a clue by flashing a word
at the bottom of the screen. 1-800-247-5470
coded as BCBDVT. If you decide to
In IA 1-800-532-1272
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Each month, computers gazette case, AUXILIARY), and start the dore 64 into the composite input.
tackles same questions commonly recorder. The Amiga monitor even has sepa
asked by Commodore users. If you The Commodore 64 puts out a rated composite video—that is,
have a question you'd like to see fairly pure audio signal, but it can separate chroma and luma inputs—
answered here, send it to this column, be improved if your stereo system similar to the rear connections on
C/o COMPUTE!'* GAZETTE, P.O. Box includes an equalizer. You can filter the Commodore 1701, 1702, and
5406, Greensboro, NC 27403. out any high-frequency hissing or 1902 monitors.
whistling, and boost the bass. If However, at this writing (early
your equalizer and cassette deck are November) the Amiga monitor is
connected to the amplifier/re nearly impossible to obtain. We
I've hooked up my Com
ceiver's tape monitor loop, you can hear that Commodore is redesign
modore 64 to a stereo system by
even capture this equalization on ing it to include twin speakers and
attaching one end of a length of
tape. audio inputs for stereo sound. The
audio/video cable to a five-pin
If you really want "stereo" Amiga computer has true stereo
DIN plug which connects to the
sound from your 64, you can route sound output, but the current
audto/video jack on the back of
the computer's audio output Amiga monitor has only one speak
the 64. With this type of hookup,
through an outboard stereo synthe er and a single audio input.
is it possible to record any music
sizer. These synthesizers are gener
from the computer onto cassette?
ally intended for converting TV
A friend told me that if you con
audio into simulated stereo, but
^ I use an excellent-quality,
nect a stereo cassette deck to the small color TV with my Commo
they'll work with nearly any audio
amplifier, you can record any dore 64. When the computer and
signal. We've also produced some
sound produced by the computer TV are turned on, there is con
rather bizarre sounds by sending
in stereo on a cassette. I have stant movement of vague images
computer audio through special-
many music programs for my 64 on the screen—a rippling effect
effects devices made for electric
that I'd love to record on tape. like a curtain, first from one cor
guitars, such as stereo chorus box
ner, then another. Can you help
es, phase shifters, and fuzz
You can indeed record any me solve this irritating problem?
computer sounds from your 64 on
tape with this setup, but they won't Assuming that your TV is in
be in stereo. The Commodore 64 V£» Is it possible to use the good order, this sounds like a com
audio output is monophonic. To Amiga high-resolution monitor mon case of RFI (radio frequency
make sure the computer sound is and disk drive with the Commo interference) from the computer.
recorded on both stereo channels of dore 64 and 128? All computers emit RFI to some de
the tape, though, you should split gree, and TVs vary in their suscepti
the 64's audio output with a Y- /\» The Amiga color monitor bility. Even disk drives and other
adapter (available at nearly any works with the Commodore 64 and peripherals emit RFI, because they
electronics store, such as Radio 128, but the disk drive does not. contain computers, too. You can ex
Shack). Plug the two ends of the Y- The Amiga monitor that was periment with several solutions:
adapter into the left and right auxil shipped last fall appears to be an Move the TV further away from the
iary inputs on your stereo amplifier enhanced version of the Commo computer and peripherals; make
or receiver (TAPE INPUT or TAPE dore 1902 monitor introduced for sure the cable connecting the com
MONITOR jacks also work). At this the 128. It has all the features of the puter and TV is the shielded type
point, the amplifier/receiver sees 1902—including digital RGB (red- and is no longer than necessary;
the computer as just another signal green-blue) input and composite collapse the TV's rabbit-ear anten
source, like a turntable, tape deck, video input—plus an analog RGB na when using the computer; and
tuner, or compact disc player. To input for the Amiga. That means it plug the TV and computer into wall
record computer sounds on cas will work with virtually any per outlets which are wired on separate
sette, follow the same procedure sonal computer on the market. circuits. You can also buy RFI filters
you use for taping records or any You'd plug a Commodore 128 into which plug in between the TV's
thing else—switch the selector on the composite input (for 40 column power cord and the wall outlet.
the amplifier/receiver to the signal mode) and digital RGB input (for 80 None of these things may help, but
source you want to record (in this columns), or you'd plug a Commo they're worth a try. ■
48 COMPUTED Gazelle February 1986
Get more out of your Commodore with


More fun Children will iearn and

develop new skills with States


r ^
p p
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i .1 I
« r ■
* ' ■ " -
1 ,
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Quickfind, Word Hunt, Disk
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You'll profit from comprehen
Gazette each month. Just
sive reviews of everything from
type in the programs and
data-quality cassette tapes to
watch your screen explode
software to graphics plotters
with colorful new computer
and modems. Virtually any
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thing that's compatible with
your Commodore is reported
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With this kind of expert help,
More challenge every computer purchase you
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Ready to tackle more ad
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More programs
PUTE's! Gazette, you'll learn Programs to help you balance
how to use tape and disk files, your checkbook, store your Order now
how to program the function addresses, keep tax records,
All you do Is mall the postpaid
keys, writing transportable manage your personal busi
card bound Into this Issue. But
BASIC, how to make custom ness. You can create your
don't delayl Subscribe now to
graphics characters, new own programs and games,
start receiving every issue of
ways to enliven programs with improve your word processing,
COMPUTEI's Gazette.
sound, one-touch commands spreadsheets, and data base
for the 64, how to use ma management, ioad and run For Faster Service
chine language, speeding up faster with 64 Searcher, Call Toll-Free
the VIC-20—and much morel VIC/64 Program Lifesaver, 1 -800-346-6767
Emulating The Amiga

Charles Brannon each section would be a different the ball spins to the left or to the
Program Editor color. And by rotating just the col right. So rotating the ball, as on the
ors, by changing the colors of the Amiga, uses only a small part of the
From what's been written about the slices, the colors seem to move 64's total processing power. A slow
Amiga, it would seem obvious that around the ball, making the ball ap language like BASIC is plenty fast
the Commodore Amiga is "better" pear to rotate. This technique is not enough to move the ball, with ma
than the Commodore 64, but the new, nor is it limited to computer chine language doing much of the
gap that seems to'separate the 64 graphics; movie marquees and work in the background.
from the Amiga may not be so wide neon signs can give the impression The sound effect is particularly
as you think. When you're looking of movement when selected lights interesting, and credit is due to our
at any new computer, beware of are turned on and off. resident SID chip expert, Phil Nel
"show off" demonstration pro On the 64, color rotation nor son, assistant editor of COMPUTE!
grams. Very often these programs mally doesn't make sense. If you magazine. He created a sound ef
are contrived examples of the com draw something green, it is green. fect that combines the low pitch of a
puter's power. You may remember To change a green box into a blue pulse wave with the sharp sound of
the early claims and demo pro box, you'd have to overwrite the white noise to get a combined
grams made for the 64 that claimed green box with a new blue box, re sound that's an effective boom. The
you could get up to 64 sprites on the drawing the entire shape, or at least SID filter is employed to accentuate
screen. With very tricky program changing sections of color memory. the bass and filter out the hiss of the
ming, that's true; but almost no Even in machine language, redraw white noise, giving a deep, en
software for the 64 uses more than ing large shapes can be too slow for closed boom, as if a large ball really
eight sprites. smooth motion. However, some was bouncing in a small room.
One of the Amiga's powerful colors on the 64 are indirect. If you However, not all SID chips sound
features is its hardware-assisted POKE to the background color, for the same, particularly where the fil
memory move circuitry, the blitter. example (POKE 53281,1), the back ter is concerned. If your boom
The blitter can move any piece of ground color instantly changes— sounds bad, you may want to
memory to any other place, even you don't have to redraw the change the last two numbers in line
modifying the data as it's copied, screen. The two additional colors in 240 from 245,47 to 0,15 to disable
while the main processor, the multicolor mode, and all sprite col the filtering.
68000, continues to work. This ca ors behave the same way. If you The Amiga demo seems to
pability is stunningly demonstrated change a sprite color register, the make the claim that rotating a large
with an Amiga program called sprite's color changes instantly— object smoothly is something in
"Boing," which animates and ro you don't have to redefine a sprite herently possible only on the
tates a huge checkered ball. to change its color. Amiga. Although Amiga's "Boing"
"Boing" has become a symbol of If the Amiga can do it, so can is certainly more sophisticated, I
the Amiga, with the bouncing the 64. My program, called think the 64 program admirably
checkered ball featured prominent "Bounce," is an attempt to emulate competes. The underlying trick,
ly in many ads. the Amiga "Boing" demo. Seven color rotation, although more pow
Moving a large object like the sprites are used to draw the ball, erful and subtle with the Amiga's
ball is impressive, but the way the and the eighth is used for the ball's 32 color registers as compared to
ball smoothly rotates on its axis is shadow. Each of the first seven just eight sprite color registers,
the truly amazing part. By looking sprites is one wedge of the ball. The works well on both machines. So
at the graphics screen before the colors for the ball are defined in line when an Amiga fan (and I'm one)
program was finished initializing 300 of Program 1. The pattern cre shows off his computer and at
the ball, I realized that Boing ates a red ball with two thin white tempts to denigrate the 64 or 128,
"cheats." It doesn't actually rotate bands. Program 2 rotates the colors just remind him that all computers
the ball using multiple shapes or during the interrupt (in the back are more or less equal—some are
some kind of high-speed 3D trigo ground) while BASIC runs. It lets just different than others.
nometry. Although only two colors BASIC simply POKE to a horizontal
are used for the red and white register and a vertical register to in Typing In "Bounce"
checkered ball, the ball is divided stantly move all eight sprites to any Program 1 is the main program that
into dozens of colored slices. It's as new location. A speed register con loads in the machine language
if you took an orange and separated trols the rate of rotation, and a di (Program 2) and the sprite shapes
it into thin sections. The peel of rection register controls whether (Program 3—which is not actually
50 COMPUTERS Gazotto Fe&uary 1986
a program). Type in Programs 2 JR 240 DATA 0,50,245,47 Program 3: Sprite Shapes For
DG 250 FOR 1=0 TO 7:POKE 2040+
and 3 with MLX. Use a starting ad I,248+I:NEXT:REM SELECT
dress of C00O and an ending ad SPRITE SHAPES MLX is required to type this program
dress of COEF for Program 2, and DR 260 POKE 53271,255:POKE 532
in. See instructions in article.
save it to disk as "SPROT.OBJ". For
UBLE-SIZE 3E00:00 00 00 00 00 00 02 00 80
program 3, use 3E00 for the starting BF 280 FOB 1=0 TO 7:READ C:POK 3E08100 06 00 00 0C 00 00 1C B2
address, 3FFF for the ending ad E 53267+1,C:NEXT:REM RE 3E10:00 00 18 00 00 38 00 00 70
dress, and save it as "IMAGES". To 3E18:38 00 00 38 00
HJ 290 POKE 53269,255:REM ENAB 3E20:00 3B 00 00 18 00 00 1C 87
start the demo, just run Program 1. LE ALL SPRITES 3E28:00 00 0C 00 00 06 00 00 3E
It automatically loads the other pro FK 300 DATA I,1,2,2,2,2,2,lllH 3E30:02 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 AD
00 00 FF B4
grams. Tape users will have to EM LAST NUMBER IS SHADO 3E38:00 00 00 00 00
W'S COLOR 3E40:00 00 00 00 C0 00 01 C0 85
change the eights to ones in lines 3E48:00 01 80 00 03 80 00 03 32
120 and 130 and make sure the pro 0 THE RIGHT 3E50:80 00 07 00 00 07 00 00 0A
grams are saved in the correct KR 320 SYS 49152:REM IT ROTATE 3E58:07 00 00 07 00 00 07 00 DG
S 3E60T00 07 00 00 07 00 00 03 D9
order. 00 92
FF 330 X1=70:Y1=66:X2=249:Y2=1 3E68:80 00 03 80 00 01 B0
If you want to use this bounc 98:X=Xl:Y=(Y2-Yl)/2+Yl: 3E70:01 C0 00 00 C0 00 00 00 A3
ing ball in your own program, ex XD=2:YD=2 3E78:00 00 00 00 00 00 00 FF F4

periment with the color table in line PX 340 POKE XP,X:POKE YP,Y:POK 3E80:00 00 00 00 20 00 00 20 IE
E DIR,I-254*(XD<0):REM 3E8B:00 00 60 00 00 60 00 00 92
300. If you change it to 0,9,9,9, 3E90:60 00 00 E0 00 00 E0 00 0D
0,9,9,11 you'll get something that CREEN
3E9B:00 E0 00 00 E0 00 00 E0 35

looks like a basketball. You can use 3EA0:00 00 E0 00 00 E0 00 00 BC

3EA8:60 00 00 60 00 00 60 00 1C
the variables defined in line 180 to T POSITION ACCORDING TO
3EB0I00 20 00 00 20 00 00 00 36
control the ball. SYS INIT starts the 3 EBB:00 00 00 00 00 00 00 FF 35
ball rotating; SYS OFF stops the ro =-XD:GOSUB 390:REM BOUN
3EC0:00 00 00 00 IB 00 00 18 16
3EC8:00 00 IB 00 00 18 00 00 A8
tation and disables the special inter CE-REVERSE DIRECTION AN
3ED0:18 00 00 18 00 00 18 00 0B
rupt. POKE a number from 0 to 255 3 EDS:00 18 00 00 18 00 00 18 34
into XP (X-position) and YP (Y-po- 3EE0:00 00 18 00 00 18 00 00 CO
3EE8il9 00 00 18 00 00 18 00 23
sition) to change the position of the Cli-REVERSE DIRECTION
3EF0:00 18 00 00 18 00 00 00 34
ball. POKE DIR with either 1 for RQ 380 GOTO 340
3 EF8 :00 00 00 00 00 00 00 FF 75
QA 390 POKE5427 6,64:POKE542 90,
left-to-right rotation or 255 for 3F00:O0 00 00 00 04 00 00 04 A2
12B:POKE54276,65:POKE54 3F08:00 00 06 00 00 06 00
right-to-left rotation. And POKE 290,129:RETURN
00 5F
3F10:06 00 00 07 00 00 07 00 10
SPEED to control the rate of rota 3F18:00 07 00 00 07 00 00 07 97
tion, from 0 (fastest) to 3 (slowest 3F20:00 00 07 00 00 07 00 00 9B
usable speed). 3F28:06 00 00 06 00 00 06 00 16
Program 2: Machine Language 3F30:00 04 00 00 04 00 00 00 CF
For Bounce 3F38:00 00 00 00 00 00 00 FF B6
3F40:00 00 00 00 03 00 00 03 D9
Program 1: Bounce MLX is required to type this program 3F48:80 00 01 80 00 01 C0 00 B4
in. See instructions in article. 3F50:01 C0 00 00 E0 00 00 E0 67
PA 100 REM BOUNCER VI.0 3F58:00 00 E0 00 00 E0 00 00 76
KP 110 IF PEEK(49152)=76 AND A C000:4C 0D C0 4C 36 C0 01 FF 7E 3F60:E0 00 00 E0 00 00 E0 00 IF
=0 THEN SYS 49155:GOTO C008:64 64 00 00 00 78 A9 00 0A
3F68:01 C0 00 01 C0 00 01 80 30
(SPACE]140 C010:8D 0E DC A9 IB 8D 11 D0 14 3F70:00 03 80 00 03 00 00 00 D7
MS 120 IF A=0 THEN A=1:LOAD "S C018iA9 01 8D 1A D0 A9 FF 81) DC 3F78:00 00 00 00 00 00 00 FF F6
PROT.OBJ",8,I:REM LOAD C020tl2 D0 A9 4D SD 14 03 A9 55 3F80:00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 FE
3F8B:40 00 00 60 00 00 30 00 8D
PK 130 IF A=l THEN A=2:LOAD "I C030:C0 8D 0C C0 58 60 78 A9 El
3F90:00 38 00 00 18 00 00 1C F9
MAGES",8,1iREM LOAD SPR C038i31 8D 14 03 A9 EA 8D IS 91 3F9B:00 00 1C 00 00 1C 00 00 00
ITES C040:03 A9 00 8D 1A D0 A9 01 EE
3FA0:1C 00 00 1C 00 00 IB 00 IF
JS 140 POKE5 3280,11;POKE53281, C04B:9D 0E DC 58 60 A9 FF 8D 6C
3 FAB:00 38 00 00 30 00 00 60 17
C050:12 D0 A0 0C AD 08 C0 99 ac
11 3FB0:00 00 40 00 00 00 00 00 37
FC 150 PRINT"{CLRj£4 3{DOIM) G058:00 D0 AD 09 C0 99 01 D0 93 3FB8:00 00 00 00 00 00 00 FF 37
{5 SPACES}fRVS)E30 Y|" C060:B8 88 10 F0 AD 0B C0 18 80 3FC0:00 00 00 00 FF 00 03 FF 4 5
C068:69 04 8D 0E D0 AD 09 C0 42
BK 160 F0RI=lTO21iPRINT" 3 FC8:C0 07 FF E0 0F FF F0 IF F0
C070:18 69 04 BD 0F D0 EE 0C 57
3F FF FC 33
C078iC0 AD 0C C0 CD 06 C0 90 EB
C080:61 A9 00 8D 0C C0 AD 07 BB
C088:C0 30 2C AC 0A C0 D0 0B C6
E0 0C
C090:AD 2D D0 8D 0B C0 A0 06 C9
(30 SPACES)(HOME)":POKE 3FF0:03 FF C0 00 FF 00 00 00 09
C09B:8C 0A C0 B9 26 D0 99 27 65
53281,12 3FF8:00 00 00 00 00 00 00 FF 77
C0A0:D0 B9 25 D0 99 26 D0 99 3A
XA 180 INIT=4915 2iOFF=4915 5:SP
C0A8:88 8C 0A C0 D0 34 AD 0B 9C
C0B0:C0 8D 27 D0 4C E2 C0 AC 04
C0B8I0A C0 D0 06 AD 27 D0 8D 23
C0C0:0B C0 B9 28 D0 99 27 D0 BD
C0C8tB9 29 D0 99 28 1)0 C8 C8 04
C0D0:8C 0A C0 C0 06 D0 0B A0 69
C0DB:00 BC 0A C0 AD 0B C0 SD 73
QD 200 FORJ=0TO24:POKE54272+J,
C0E0:2D D0 A9 01 8D 19 D0 4C 31 Subscription Order Line
0:READ X:POKE54272+J,X: C0E8:31 EA 00 00 00 00 00 00 BD
SA 210 DATA 0,4,3,12,64,10,0 In IA 1-800-532-1272
AH 2 20 DATA 0,0,0,12,64,12,0
XC 230 DATA 0,4,0,12,128,12,0

COMPUTE! S Gazefta February 1986 51

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Homework Helpers

Fred D'lgnazio There are new homework course. She can do everything that
Associate Editor helpers that supplement the more a homework helper does, with file
familiar writers, spellers, and filers. cards, paper, and a pencil. And she
As the parent of a fifth-grade They help children with the biggest can do it less expensively, too.
daughter, I've learned thai home writing problem of all: getting start Homework helpers are not a
work can be a real chore. It's a ed. The programs coach children necessity, but they can add a lot to
chore that often ends with me who panic when they see that emp your child's homework experience.
shouting and Catie crying. Or vice ty page—or screen—by asking First, they are so practical and so
versa. them questions, offering sugges much fun that they act as a power
Let's be honest: Homework is tions, and helping them organize ful incentive for her to start her
work. But it can also be fun. One their ideas and information into an homework earlier and work on it
way to improve the homework outline. Later, the programs help harder. For example, Catie hates
done in your house is to use home children convert their outline into a studying for tests for which she has
work helpers, kid-style "productivi rough draft report. They encourage to memorize facts. But recently,
ty" programs that run on popular children to go back and rewrite sen using test-generator programs,
computers. tences, change words, and check she's begun studying for tests days
Probably the most familiar spelling and punctuation, until they in advance, on her own, without
homework helper is the word pro have a final draft they can be proud prodding from her parents. That's
cessor. It teaches children that writ of. Other homework helpers assist because these programs make the
ing is rewriting. It frees children children in solving word problems studying process more active and
from the laborious mechanics of in math, researching their reports, more playful. They force Catie to
writing, and lets them concentrate and studying for tests. And don't use her mind to organize the infor
instead on creating, reshaping, and worry about the programs doing mation, then they playfully orga
clearly expressing their ideas. the homework for your child. They nize the information in all sorts of
Word processors have been help with some of the mindless, ways and ask her questions about
joined by some other powerful boring parts of homework, but they it.
homework helpers, including data make your child think harder than Last, and most important,
base programs and spelling checkers. she ever has before. homework helpers teach valuable
When you shop for a homework To help your child with re skills that 1, for one, never mastered
helper for your child, look for one search, some of the filing programs until 1 got to college, I was too busy
that's a member of a family of come with databases in all sorts of trying to memorize facts, like the
homework helpers that allow mate subjects, including the physical and names of the fifteenth-century ex
rial created with one program to be life sciences, language arts, U.S. plorers who sailed for Spain, and
used by another program. For ex government, and U.S. history. Your when Emily Dickinson was born.
ample, a child can create an outline child can use the databases like Are these the most valuable skills
of major ideas for a report with a fil electronic encyclopedias. But she that homework should be teaching?
ing program. Then she can feed the has to know what questions to ask No!
outline directly into a word proces and how to organize her infor The most important skills
sor. After she's converted the out mation before the computer will re homework can teach are self-
line into a report on the word veal a single fact. discipline, responsibility, and vita!
processor, she can run it through And some of the new general- thinking, learning, and communi
the spelling checker. purpose programs help a child cations skills that we can carry with
As a parent, 1 was worried that study for a test by encouraging her us into our adult lives. Homework
if the computer corrected my to isolate the most important facts helpers enable children to focus on
daughter's spelling errors, she'd in a lesson and organize those facts these skills. And once children
never learn to be a good speller. But into questions and answers in prac have internalized them, they can
the better spelling checkers antici tice tests that she takes and the tackle any subject—with or without
pate this worry. Instead of automat computer scores. These "test- a computer. 9
ically correcting an error, they offer generators" can be used in any
several possible spellings and make subject.
the child choose the correctly Why should your child use a
spelled word, then type it into the homework helper?
computer. She doesn't need one, of

S4 COMPUTER'S Gazette February 1986


These titles will help you unleash the power inside your computer. Whether you're an
experienced programmer learning a new language or a beginner just starting out, these
books will show you, clearly and quickly, how to get more than you ever thought
possible from your computer.


The Amiga: Your First Computer Introduction to Sound and Graphics on trie
Dan McNcill Atari ST
Written in a lively and entertaining style, this book teaches Tim Knight
everything a beginner needs to knew to get started quickly The ST, Atari's powerful new computer, is an extraordinarily
with the Amiga from Commodore. You'll learn about setting impressive sound and graphics machine, Easy to use, the
up the system, some of the most popular types of software, ST can produce color graphics and sound. You'll find
and details about the hardware. thorough descriptions of the computer's abilities, and the
ISBN 0-87455-025-4 information needed to create a complete sound and graphics
$16.95 system. This is the perfect introductory reference to sound
and graphics on the Atari ST.
Using AmigaDOS
ISBN 0-87455-035-1
Arlan R. Levitan and Sheldon Leemon
A comprehensive reference guide and tutorial to the
powerful AmigaDOS—the operating system underlying the
Workbench and Intuition—this book offers information LEARN C
useful to every Amiga owner. AmigaDOS, the alternative to
the icon-based Workbench, lets you control the computer
From BASIC to C
directly. Using AmigaDOS defines and illustrates all DOS
Harley M. Templeton
commands, and shows you how to create file directories,
access peripherals, and run batch file programs. You'll learn This introduction to C takes you by the hand and shows
why the system prompts you to swap disks, and how to how to move from BASIC to this increasingly popular
avoid "disk shuffle." The screen- and line-oriented text language. BASIC programmers will find this approach
editors, both overlooked in the user's guide which comes designed just for them. Early chapters discuss C language
with the Amiga, are explained in detail. Numerous examples equivalents for common BASIC statements and the
and techniques show you how to use AmigaDOS to make similarities and differences between BASIC and C. Later
operating your computer even more convenient. A full chapters teach everything you need to know to write, debug,
reference section details each DOS command, giving you and compile programs in C.
easy access to the complete AmigaDOS. ISBN 0-87455-026-2
ISBN 0-87455-047-5 S16.95

Visit your local bookstore or computer store to purchase any of these new, exciting books from
COMPUTE! Publications. Or order directly from COMPUTE!. Call toll free 1-800-346-67S7
(In NY 212-285-8360) or mall your check or money order (Including $2.00 shipping and handling per
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COMPUTE! books are available in the U.K., Europe, the Middle East, and Africa
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Lyco Computer
Jersey Shore, PA 17740

56 COMPUTE'S Gazelle February 1986

.S233 CARDCO JUKI SG-10 $208
J09J, CITIZEN JLfcr 6100
32 K BUFFER (C 64)
KB S3? S»':al a 5
3M 6100 TrstlO' 119
uf20 33' 6ioo Sneet Ft r 208 1091 233
spoio (10/20)
Juki 6300 757 3131 (NEWI
1092 373
GPiSOAT Ian) 22!
LP3D0 Laser P
opsmcd hratKtf 15/25 LEGEND 1093
:»O036i Tow
Atari! 439 3>5i Leila 426
til'/MAP |F8I 439 222 JK Buirer 65
8 inmate 10 179 1385 . ... 296
EPSON limale 20 CALL 1&5
F«85 <Fte*| 333 182 .214 249

ueo 212 192 348 DIGITAL DEVICES EXPSOO 29b

C. ITOH FK1B5 [Newt 484 193 563
BUFFER n r«p^.oo
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155QSp- 93P 566 64K BUFF EH 125
SQKO0 (Haw) 1565 645
SUfWlM '69 B4P
HomewrtP 10 133
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1759 SD10 336
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COMPUTEfs Gazette February 1986 57

User Group Update
Commodore User Group or Matawan New
When writing to a user group for information, please remember to enclose a [ersey, David Hablcr, 112 Old Bridge Rd.,
Matawan, NJ 07747
stamped, self-ad dressed envelope.
Send typed additions, corrections, and deletions for this lisl to: NEW YORK
Associated Commodore Enthusiasts (ACE),
COMPUTE! Publications Keith Duggan, 94 Mallard Rd., LevitLown, NY
P.O. Box 5406 Schcncclady Commodore Users Group. Bill
Greensboro, NC 27403 Pytlovany. Center St.. Scolia. NV 12305
Attn: Commodore User Croups OREGON
Caveman Commodore Computer Club (CCCO,
Ken Crouse, 5863 Lower River Rd., Grants Pass,
User Group Notes OH 97526

The new address for the Personal Touch Commodore User Group of Hoxie and Commodore Users Group of Ward County, Jan
Walnut Ridge is c/o Larry Simmons, 503 Kaylynn Dr., Walnut Ridge, AR 72476. Rodgers, 2902 IV. 4th St., Monahans, TX 79756

Also listing a new address is the Stone Mountain Users Group (SMUG VIRGINIA
Peninsula Commodore Users Group, P.O. Bo* L,
64/128): P.O. Box 1762, Lilbum, GA 30247. Hampton, VA 23666
The Auburn Commodore Computer Club's new address is: 337 Racetrack
St., Auburn, CA 95603. C64 Maple Valley Users Croup, 25605 SE 224th
The new address for the Clearwater Commodore Club is P.O. Box 11211, Si., Maple Valley, WA 98038
Arlington Commodore Users'Group, 4416136th
Clearwater, VL 33516.
Place NE. Marysville, WA 98270
A new user group is forming called Meeting C-64 Users Through the Mail. Skagil Computer Users Forum (SKUF), P.O. Box
Contact Kirby Herazy, 51 Thornhill Dr., Danville, IL 61832. 2128, Mi. VflrnOn, WA 98273
The Commodore Club of Central Ohio (CCCO) has a new address: P.O. University Place Commodore Home Users
Group (UPCHUG), 7722 30th St. W., Tatoma,
Box 292392, Columbus, OH 43229. WA 98466
Also listing a new address is the Commodore Users Group of Odessa
(CUGO): P.O. Box 12491, Odessa, TX 79768. Rlucfield User Croup 20/64 (BUG), P O. Bo*
The University of Washington Commodore Users Group can now be 1190, Blueiield, WV 24701

reached at P.O. Box 75009, Seattle, WA 98125. WISCONSIN

The Coulee Country Commodore Club has a new address: 501 1/2 St. Chippewa Valley Commodore User's Group,
Gordon Groseth, 206 1/2 N. Bridge St.. Chip
Cloud St., La Crosse, WI 54603. pewa Falls, WI 54729
The Satnia Commodore Users Group (formerly the Samia C-64 Users
Group) can now be reached c/o Lloyd Windover, 1276 Girfel Rd., Sarnia, On
tario, Canada, N7S 3K7.

New Listings C.l.P.E. M/128 Commodore User Group, Chuck
Urampton User1! Group (BUC'64), P.O. Boi 384,
Brjmpton. Ontario, Canada L6V 2L3
Bajile, 730 Pincherry Ln., Port Richcy, FI. 33568
Club Commodore Champliin, Claude Hebert,
HAWAII P.O. Box 522. Bouchervllle, Quebec, Canada
20/64 Hawaii. John Voders, P.O. Box 23260,
Commodore Club South, P.O. Bo* 324, Pinson,
Honolulu, HI 96822
AL 35126 Computer Club Cordcnons, Dr. Giuseppe
ILLINOIS Genovesi, Centro Culturale A. Moro, via
Chicago B-128 Users Group, Norman Deltzke. Traversagna 4. 33084 Cordenons (FN) Italy
Latitude 64, Mark Hall, P.O. Box 83217, Fairbanks,
4102 N. Odell. Norridge, IL 60634 I.G.C.S.. Salvatore Tnnaimi. via Pentome 5. 00173,
AK 99708
IOWA Rome, Italy
3C Users Group, Drew Page and Mark Frana, 1008 MALAYSIA
West Orange County Commodore User* Croup,
Allison SI., Charles Ciiy, IA 50616 Commodore Users Exchange (CUE), P.O. Bo*
P.O. Bo* 6441, Buena Park, CA 90622
B-1I8 Users Croup, 701 E. North Ave.. Sulie C, MICHIGAN 152, 25710 Kuanian. Pahang, Malaysia
Lompoc, CA 93436 Copper Country Computer Users Group, Risto S. WEST GERMANY
Fleasanton User Group (PUG), Andreas Vuorinen. P.O. Box 196, Dollar Bay, Ml 49922 Mannheim Commodore Users Group. John Pipkin,
Benamou, 3120 Cranwood Ct, Pleasanton, CA MINNESOTA HHT Regt. 1 lth ACR Bo* 101, APO NY 09146
94566 Minnesota Commodore Users Association C64/128 User Group, Fen-ari Rudi, Postfach 40 02
DELAWARE (MCUA). P.O. Box 32219, Fridley, MN 55432 09. D 5000 Koeln 40, Wes! Germany
Lower Dellwire Commodore Computer Club Rochester Commodore User's Group, David Zweibniecken Commodore Computer Club, Lt
(LDCCC), P.O Box 882, Rehoboth Beach, DE Moertel, 3526 6lh Avc. NW, Rochester, MN Col. George Kamilis, 200th TAMMC Box 114,
19971 55901 APO, New V<!rk09O52 m

5B COMPUTED Gazette February 1966

COMPUTE! Books Supports
Commodore Computer Users
COMPUTE Books is dedicated
to bringing you top-quality, H iWfj
reliable, and understand
able tutorials, applica
tions, games, reviews,
product information, Programming
and programming aids. the
Whether you have a COMMODORE
Commodore 64, 128, VIC-
20, or a new 128 or Amiga,
COMPUTE! has the books
you need to get the most
from your computer.

Look over this collection ol bestselllng

computer titles and choose the ones you
want for your favorite Commodore
computer. To order any of these out
standing Commodore titles, call toll-free COMPUTED VIC-20 and Commodore
1-800-346-6767 (In NY 212-265-8360). 64 Tool Kit: Kernal
Dan Heeb
COMPUTEPs Personal Accounting The Invaluable reference guide to the Kernel
routines on the Commodore 64 and VIC-20 (or
Manager for the Commodore 64
beginning to advanced programmers,
and 128 429 pages
Roland A. Frechette $16.95 ISBN 0-942386-33-7
A complete small-buslness/home accounting system
wlih 13 support routines, trom Income and expenses
to property and Investments, Programming the Commodore 64:
$12.95 ISBN 0-87455-014-9 The Definitive Guide
fiaeto Collln West
An encyclopedic, thorough reference guide which
The Amiga: Your First Computer
covers the Commodore 64 In its entirety
Don McNeill
609 pages
Everything a beginner needs to know to get started
quickly with the Amiga, Including setting up the lys- $24.95 ISBN 0-942386-50-7
tem. selecting software, ond learning about the
hardware COMPUTEI's Commodore 64/128
$16.95 ISBN 0-87455-025-4 Collection
COMPUTED VIC-20 Collection Some o( the best games, applications, and utilities
Edited Irom COMPUTEl Publications tor the Commodore 64
More than 70 never-before-published articles, and 128 in 64 mode, plus special sections detailing
games, utilities, applications, and tutorials lor the the advanced features ot the 128. A disk is also
Commodore VIC-20 available which includes programs In the book.
338 pages 285 pages
$12.95 ISBN 0-87455.007-6 $ 12.95 ISBN 0-942386-97-3

COMPUTE! Publicotionsjncffi COMPUTEl books are available In !he U.K.. Europe, (he
Middle Easl, ond Africa Irom Holt Saunders, Ltd., 1 St. Anne's
Road. Eastbourne, East Sussex BN21 3UN, England.
Understanding Device Numbers

Michael S. Tomczyk er to print the word HELLO. When with the commands shown in the
you're finished using the device, you chart above.
must dose that file with CLOSE 1. The device number for tele
Last year, we set two goals for this
column: to provide a beginner's in communications modems is 2, but
troduction to common BASIC com Using Device Numbers With we'll leapfrog modems for the
mands, and to show how variables Tape Or Disk meantime.

work. You probably already know how to

This year, we continue to ex save and load programs to and from Reading The Keyboard
plore BASIC "magic" from a begin your tape or disk drive. The stan To get input from the keyboard,
ner's viewpoint, but our emphasis dard formats are shown here: you normally use INPUT. Another
is going to shift slightly to include way is to open a file to the keyboard
Function Command
the use of your disk drive and using a device number of 0, and use
Save program on tape SAVE' 'filename"
printer. INPUT#. It's best use is to eliminate
Load program Itom tape LQAD"filename'
The reason for this shift is be Save program on disk SAVE"filename", the question mark which appears
cause computers are no longer sim Load program from disk LOAD"filename' automatically when you use the IN
ple hobby machines, or even Load directory from disk LOAD"}",8
PUT command.
learning machines. They've be {then LIST)
For example, let's say you
come system machines—and this wanted the user to type in a long
The device number for a tape
system includes your disk drive and drive is 1, but if you type a LOAD list of numbers opposite a list of cat
printer as well as your computer or SAVE command all by itself egories or items. You might want to
and video screen. eliminate the question mark and
without any device number at the
So let's start with some intro end, your computer automatically use, instead, a colon or dollar sign.
ductory programs to get you assumes you're using tape. That's Here's a quick example:
started. because tape was popular before
10 OPEN 1,0
disks, and thus cassettes inherited
Opening And Closing the "default" mode. DGET CALCULATOR":PRINT
Channels You should also use a ,1 at the 30 PRINT "RENT S" ;
To send information to your print end of the command if you're load
er, disk drive, modem or even the ing a machine language program 60 INPUT#1,B:CLOSE lsPRINT
computer screen, you have to open and you want to make sure it relo 70 PRINT:PRINT"YOUR FOOD AND R

a channel using the OPEN com cates itself to its original memory ENT"
mand and the proper device location.
number. The device number for a single
Here are the most common de disk drive is 8, although it's possi
Line 10 opens file 1 to the key
vice numbers used by Commodore ble to "daisy chain" or link several board (device 0).
computers: drives together, which may be
Line 20 uses CHR$(18) to print
Device Number
numbered 8 to 11. Many experi
the title line in reverse characters,
enced programmers connect differ
Keyboard 0 uses CHR$(147) to clear the screen,
Cassette Recorder 1
ent disk drives to their computers
then prints the title and a blank
Telephone Modem 2 and give each drive its own device
Screen 3 number, from 8 to 11.
Printer 4-7
To reiterate, you don't need to Line 30 prompts the user to en
Disk 8-11 ter the monthly rent,
use a device number if you're sav
Before communicating with a ing or loading programs on tape— Line 40 uses INPUT#1 instead
particular device, you must first but you need to include the number of the familiar INPUT command.
open a file to that device. In a com 8 at the end of your disk commands. INPUT#1 displays the number
mand like OPEN 1,4 the first num The newest Commodore com which is typed in immediately at
ber is the file number and the second puters—the 128, Plus/4, and 16— the end of the PRINT statement in
is the device number (device 4 is the contain an improved BASIC which line 30—but without displaying an
printer). The PRINT# command is includes special disk commands INPUT question mark. Dropping the
used to send characters to a particu- such as "DLOAD". They do not re question mark allows the user to
lar device. In our example, quire a device number, although all type the number right next to the
PRINT#1,"HELLO" tells the print- Commodore computers will work dollar sign.

60 COMPUTE'S Gazette Fabruary 1986


Everything vou neeti for successful,

entertaining, and challenging
programming on your Amiga, Atari
ST, or Commodore 128 computer.

Each hook Is carefully written In

COMPUTE'S lively, understandable
style to help even beginning
programmers learn the Ins and outs
of their personal computers.
COMPUTED ST Programmer's Guide
Editors of COMPUTE!
Complete and comprehensive, yet easy to understand,
COMPUTEI's ST Programmer's Guide is a must-buy for any
Atari ST owner. The technical staff of COMPUTE! Publications has
put together a reference guide to programming that takes (he
COMPUTED 128 Programmer's Guide reader through every aspect of this newest Atari personal
ISBN 0-87455-031-9
computer. Logo and BASIC, the two programming languages new
Editors of COMPUTE! 464 pages
available for the machine, are explored in detail. From
Written and compiled by the most technically proficient authors in programming concepts to writing programs, the scores of ready-to-
consumer computing today, the technical staff of COMPUTE! type-in examples show just what can be done, and how to do it
Publications, this guide to the powerful Commodore 128 computer Advanced features of this new-generation computer, such as GEM
contains a weafth of information for every programmer. Explore and TOS, the ST's user interface and operating system, are
BASIC 7.0 through countless hands-on examples and sample illustrated as readers write their own applications. Valuable
programs. Learn how to create dazzling graphics and sophisticated appendices provide Information programmers need, including GEM
sounds in both BASIC and machine language. See how to program VDI opcodes and a list of ST resources.
peripherals, such as disk drives, printers, and modems. Enter the
world of CP/M, just one of the three modes of the 128. There are
even chapters introducing you to machine language programming
and the computer's method of managing memory. CQMPUTEI's COMPUTEI's Amiga Programmer's Guide
126 Programmer's Guide includes numerous appendices covering 0-87455-028-9
everything from error messages to memory maps. Edited
$16.95 Covering AmigaDOS, BASIC. Intuition, and the other important
programming tools which accompany the new Amiga, COMPUTERS
Amiga Programmer's Guide is a clear and thorough guide to the
inner workings of this fascinating, new-generation computer. The
Look for these new books at a great speed of its 68000 microprocessor, coupled with the
versatility of the Amiga-specific graphics and sound chips, makes
bookstore or a computer store near you. the Amiga one of the most powerful computers available today.
Or order directly from COMPUTE! Books. Written by the technical staff of COMPUTE! Publications, the most
technically knowledgeable authors in computing today, this book is
Call toll-free 1-800-346-6767. In NY call your key to accessing the Amiga's speed ant) power.
212-265-8360. $16.95 (March Release)

COMPUTE! books are available in the U.K., Europe, the Middle East, and
COMPUTE! Publicationsjnc.(ffl
Or« of fr» ABC Publishing Comoooiej
Africa Irom Holt Saunters, Lid., 1 St. Anne's Road, Eastbourne, East
Sussex BN21 3UH. England.
Line 50 prompts the user to en Sending Information To Your Here's a quick example:
ter the amount spent on food. Printer 10 PRINT CHRS(147)"PRINT DISPL
To open the channel to your print
mand to accept a second INPUT, EN."
er, type OPEN 4,4. The first 4 is the
called B, again without a question 20 OPEN 4,4iPRINT*4,"PRINT#4 S
file number and the second 4 is the ENDS INFORMATION TO THE PRI
mark. Next, we close our keyboard
device number. NTER.-iCLOSE 4
file and print a blank line (merely
for aesthetics). To program your printer to
Line 10 uses a PRINT com
Lines 70-90 print a blank line, print on paper, use the PRINT#4
mand to clear the screen and dis
then a final message, which uses command, followed by a comma
play a message on the screen.
the INPUT numbers typed in by the and the information or variables
Line 20 opens file 4 and device
user. As you can see, variables A you want the printer to print.
4—the printer. Next, we use
and B can be added together just PRINT#4 works like the PRINT#4 and a comma to send a
like the numbers they represent, PRINT command, except that it message to the printer, thus a mes
and as always, variables are posi sends information to your printer sage is printed on paper. Finally, we
tioned outside quotation marks. instead of to your computer screen. close the printer file.

A Simple Subtotal Machine

IF THERE'S SOMETHING STRANGE Here's a more advanced program
PREVENTING DISK COPYING which acts like a simple adding ma
chine. The numbers you want to
call add are displayed on the screen and
also on your Commodore printer.

DISKBUSTERS The totals are automatically entered

both places as well. To see how it
works, type the program exactly as
shown, then run it and enter the
numbers you want to add and press
RETURN after each number. The
result gives you a running total:

10 OPEN 4,4


60 B»A+H
70 GOTO 40

jranorr , .
To break out of this program,
Disk Back-up Copying *f\
which uses the GOTO to loop back
to itself, hold down RUN/STOP
and press RESTORE at the same
make back-up copies of your newest software. This is the SUPER- Last but not least, if you'd like
FAST Disk Copier that ZAPS thru copy protection! Average copy
to save this program on disk, leave
time is only .i-4 minutes. Includes unique Power-Pack feature
the program in your computer's
for to Ugh disks. Has copy capability not available until now, and
memory, cursor down to a blank
even copies other copiersII DISKHUSTERS will help you insure
the safety of your software investment, and it's both C-64 and line and type the following:
C-128 compatible! SAVE"SUBTOTAL FROGRAM",8

WE AIN'T AFRAID OF NO DISKS!! To bring the program back,

type NEW to erase your computer's
memory, then type: LOAD"SUB-
To order by phone call TOTAL PROGRAM",8 and press
ONLY (805)569-1644 Next month, we'll take a look
$29.95 Operator 10 at two commands which are often
Qntef hy nhimc. V15A/MASlEHCAKD/COL>or send Check of Money Order ,ind include shipping
used to create disk-based programs:
charges, CA UCBielKI add 6X Idi1 13 50 ship USA addresses; UPS an 15 50, COD add 5-i.OO to DATA and READ. a
< (iniim' US only. Canada £7.50, .ill olhrr tounln« £10.00 and must include LT.S certified
nnini'v order only,

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rtinngn- Returned Goods Subject la a Restocking Fes.
Exploring The 128's Monitor

Richard Mansfield • Go, like SYS, starts the execu- can save any section of memory to
Senior Editor tion of an ML routine, which disk or tape, even the screen. If
should end with a DRK if you want you've tried to save machine lan
Let's take a look this month at a to reenter the monitor. guage programs on the VIC or 64
special feature built into the new without a monitor or assembler,
• Hunt is particularly useful for
Commodore 128 which makes life you know how useful a built-in ML
tracking down ROM locations that
easier for ML programmers. The save command is (S "NAME",08,
you might want to use. If, for ex
several early Commodore ma 1000,2000).
ample, you know that a 64 ROM
chines—the PET, 8032, and Super-
routine to print out numbers starts • Transfer sounds better than it
Pet which preceded the VIC and
with PHA:TAX, you could request a is. It allows you to move any sec
64—all had a doorway to ML called
hunt for this pattern of bytes in 128 tion of memory to another location.
a monitor. Open this door and you
ROM and find out where to JSR. (H Unfortunately, most ML isn't re
go down below BASIC, down into
1000 2000 48 AA would look for locatable (JSR's, etc., still target
the computer's engine room where
PHA:TAX.) their old addresses). The best way
you can get close to the micro
• Jump, which is undocument to relocate ML is to use an efficient
processor and the computer's
ed in the System Guide, performs a assembler where you can simply
JSR to an ML routine. It does the change the start address and reas
The VIC and 64 did not come
same thing as Go, with one excep semble at the new location.
with a monitor (though you can
tion. If you jump to a routine that The monitor also allows you to
buy add-on monitors or find moni
ends with RTS, you return to the change the values in the registers
tor programs like Supermon and Mi-
monitor. But if you Go to the same (to set up a test); to directly modify
cromon in books). Nonetheless, it's
routine, the RTS sends you back to the bytes in memory (not too useful
nice to have a resident monitor, a
BASIC. unless you're typing in a "hex
permanent, easy passageway into
the heart of the machine. • Load loads a file from tape or dump" type listing from a book or
On the 128 you just type disk. magazine); and to directly type in
MONITOR or press f8 and you're • Memory goes through a speci mnemonics (very useful when you
in a different world, with new fied range of memory and prints the want to insert a BRK, NOP, or test
prompts and new commands. numeric and character values there values). Possibly the most valuable
Here's a rundown of the various in. This can be used both for locat tool in the monitor is the disas
commands; ing special areas of ROM like the sembler. Like BASIC'S LIST com
• Compare takes a look at two BASIC keywords or for checking mand, a disassembler will display
separate sections of memory and that your ML program is working the fundamental source code of any
prints the address of any locations correctly by looking at its buffers, ML and then you can directly modi
which differ. You might use this to pointers, etc. after a BRK in a run fy it, and test it again. There's also a
see if two programs differ or to ning program. mini-assembler, but unless you're

quickly determine which version is • Registers shows you what's creating a very short ML routine,
the more recent. (Each command is currently in the Accumulator, X,
it's far better to stick with more ef
a single letter. Compare, for ex and Y registers as well as the pro
fective assemblers.
ample, is activated with: C 1000 gram counter (where you were in
Some of the facilities of the
monitor are more valuable than
2000 8000 which prints out differ memory when BRK took effect) and
ences in memory between 1000- others, and it would have been nice
the status register. The registers are
2000 and 8000-9000.) automatically printed on screen
to have a single-step trace function.
But when you're trying to hunt
• Fill fills a range of memory when you enter the monitor. It's
down those elusive bugs in an ML
with a specific vaiue. It's sometimes quite useful when debugging to see
program, there's nothing like hav
used to lay down a zone of zeros in, where you hit a BRK and what's go
ing a good, built-in monitor only a
say, the second cassette buffer, pri ing on with the registers. This is the
function key away. In fact, on some
or to running a commercial pro equivalent of inserting STOP in
computers the monitor is called,
gram. Then, you can go back and your BASIC programs and then
simply, the debugger. m
look at the blanket of zeros and asking for variable values with ?
quickly see which locations are be VARIABLENAME so you can try to
ing used by the commercial pro locate where things are going awry.
gram for storage. • Save is very valuable. You

COMPUTE'S Gaiette February 1986 65


Revolutionary now loclinalofly enables yirtitsl slorngo ol BIOS Dylesol hiflh spaed HAM
Wan mite ciolect ana In/oul Bwrichn, Ihc KEEPER aoda now (llmanjlons In your
computing capability DflSiQneJ To' I tie Conir^oOOT CM .inj G-l 2H

• Waho Auto Start Cartfldrjesot Your Own Programs • Inaiaul Program Recall
- Built mSollwareWkHS Use EASY • May BeUseOQveranrJ

S39 95
• Copy BASIC or Machine Language Programs • Guaranteed for i Year


Hern, al last, is a program that will protect your software programs Ircm unauthorised Gfvo your labels l+iu pfofessionai touch. With Hi ReZ Grnphlca make your own design or use
duplicating 1 to 1 million copies can be p'otucled fail and easy oneour eopremade labels witn easy to use on screen editor You can Insert up To In roe lines
ol text then choose me picture you wanT la pul an trie le't hand side ol ifie label Then you
• Specially designed lor me C-64 ana 1541 Disk Drive
can print oul as many labels as you want. This nfl£ got to be Ihe neatest label program out
■ Completely encrypts and protects your programs
'■■■■■■ and it's only O/N ■* QC
■ Fully compatible with almost alt machine language and basic programs — can oven
support chained programs J24(
■ Contains a special Isalute -'■ '■ protMcls your :■ I'.m Irom being "hrohen '
• Incorporates all the latest techniques in program encrypTlon nnd protection

■ Each ayaturn has been specially prepared and is unique from all olnar Systems — only
you are able to make working duplicates Of your own protecled programs.
• Simpie and easy lo use — entirely menu <J«ve with prompts m
• Will stop virtually all software copiors from duplicating your programs
• FjsI and reliable pjoiecllcn routine does not lake away any „■ -at; .- space Irom your
di5* — all G64 blocks are available for use.

• Easy to follow alflp by Stop Inslrucllons aie included on Ihe disk.

• A mu*1 lor ali pTogrflmmefS wtio tlo nol want their programs to be in public domain'

EvonTbe"'nfbblers"can"i copy them Not ewnn 'Dis^ Maker, "MiMer Nibbles. "Copy If. "Ultra
Byte or "Foal Hacfcom The lime to protect you dtakisonly 5 {fiv«) seconds and each Mastnr
'Wow works with Print Shop
Lock makes a dillcronl protecllon scheme Only.

•24 95
•Dirt M.fc.JM bm1i SOQ95 'Al$o available — Ifie x rated Giapfiic package lor Me 6* sntf

■Mlstar NIBtiles7". Full Circle fc^ yvur print shop There's $Q Hi Re* p'rtufes

"Copy II™, Cetiual Point Sollware

■Ultra Byl9TM,UllrflBjt8
"Fflat HachemTWL Basement Boys Sotlware 1541 M.A.S.H.
No* you can service your awn 1541 ■■--■:■.. using |J -" MASH. Save Dig bucks on repair
bills. Rale the perlormance o> your -drive. Test and adjust RPM's TesT and adjusf -head ■align

TOOL BOX ment Step by step Instructions irin I anyone canloMow. Payn Ioj iLsell tr>e fir si lime you use
It loadfu^t .i mlsljflhnwmy Mrtwe Noknowiodgonf elflclronicsiuntcfssafy AH you needs is a
This disK has over 100 routines, some ol (hem are rouUnea ror proleciion ^mooiri ->cieiunfj
modom routines, and sound and color routings; ooolmaher. paddJo and pystlch, read to'-
aulo i'm auto answer. They r.nn easily Do incorporated inlo all Ol your programs. II is
aisofutiy documenied WiihihisdJsh alone you could bu'fd your own piogram. This drsk^as
a lor of tricks thai ate used in commercial soltware

S19 95 Kowyoucanlog all ol your flisl<s inio a neaT tiling system. Automatically record disk names
and program titles. Allows you to quickly scan what you've got. Sorts Utfes. paints packet


covers: alore up to t600 disH directories on one disk. Search quickly through you' entire disV
collecllon lor a misplaced program Works wilh one drive or two Fast, easy operation This

This is the best package anywhere! program In a muat lor everyone! c - nQr

it absolutely the easiest terminal program available anywhere
' ■-■;. .k', with Ihe 1660, and '■'.• - ■ .■ ,. Modem • Auto dial [with auto rccJialf
• New primer and mid western prolocat ■ ?9K storage butler
• Printer dump • Save lo disk
- DOS commands access from menu • Standard ASCII upJdown loadrng SUPER LOAD
- Phone booh • 3QD71200 Baud
Tills Is an nicpNgni easy to use pToo/ram Tor a very reasonable price. A cartridge bawd p rog rim tn« Allows Ihe u« Mo custom ire ihe computer will power up
U»r has tho option to coma up to a menu of Ihe disk or define his/her own loading
THE MODEM: procedures
Aulo dial. jiuTo answer. 300 Saud modom that is l i compalibie with Gommadori 1&50
modom. so all our soMware will iun wJtti if menu mode allows one bultom loading and running ol programs.
allows usar ioioad programs automatically from tha power up at age.
fcad wedge lirsi, chunoe colora, (hen ■> ■ i application without loucnlng the keyboord.
So wfty Ouy lust another tetmtnat program w/wn you can gel & moaem. loo'?'
can boused lo load up multiple uliNiiea in a row without Typing (hem in evary Time
resei switch included To provide easy rgloading of next program

300/1200 BAUD
Modem tor Tho C64
With C.wHI.r.n
fiQ 00 S19 95
Mtaiaga ... Is a unique graphics integration package which allows you tucuntimjously eJis v .■ 'u ■■ Hi ■■ !■'''■■ Uplo lollies' may be stored in memory and displayed from ' to 59
seconds each

Mrtunago , . , can use Prrnt Shop "Screen Manic' fUes, FIendraw files, Ooodle1, Koala PainTer. and more' Miang* ., . even comes with a Screen N4aker'progratn lo create your own message hlesr
Use M*t»rj«... for advertising displays, titles tor horne videos, art shows, elc .., Message^- even piays background music to accompany displays and you can create your own music fib* with
■ he 'Music Maker' program

Alta included .■■■ 'Graphic Aids1 ulilitles for convtrtlofi of dlfleranl llle Iyp«, including conwnlon of KojiIb Piinlw liiei lo Doodle' or Print Shopl

The price for all this? Just IS? including shipping and handling
* Actual number of Utcs anpEUdent on tile complattty

66 COMPUTE'S Gazette February 1986

amed by Jim Drew

MAGNUM LOAD is a new raplacBmonl KERN A L (Operating system) MOM rlup lor y. n i ■■.'
modor fl5or T2Bcompulanhai ,,■;' road arid verify cwoorams up Io6 rime* faater than before. PHJIOD II
The laoo i.-u-.i'-': ' it-■ :■■■■! removed (torn ifre old ct->;> and In their place have own pur a,
Muiic Shoe....
hiflh speed loader, filgt> speed verify, anddJak drEvj/nonead-rattre routine. Unlik* iho older
ciMrldoe lasl loaders no poda are UoO up at ihe roar of f>e computer, (he acrofin is not HI I etiti IK015 Bui do 101 no Ga las y
blanked during loadino and there *i no w.,n nrniNMr on i r i =- - expansion port. For mairtnium OnllBlO Fool ball
convenience and per lor ma nee. iha chip is installed ■. i ■ ■■ ■ uv In tho circuit f'o.nii Goner ally a
.- ■L ■ ■ '■ " ;i !■ u;. r. . :i ^ .;,.■<■< :'. -1 r :.j i; ■-< in., n ri'., ■:<: occa si anally some aoldw-
Ing may be required. Now you can give your 1541 Oisfc drive "1571 speed "
Rather im.i - give you more ■.■ = .1 ;■:'■■ n claims about how many times faster out POM cnin is
;c iM" '■..,.-.-< cartridge versions, a .'-•• can son cnajt la supoiigtf Hstln 01 Combo Version
MEASURE loading,,^. >rogu ••FaliscJloioadalall

'■'■-■■ ■ WffJffffffff/fffff/fffA
D-CODER Top Secret Stuff I and Top Secret Stuff II
Pfoyrtmotf by Jfn* Orow
1i*n*ta\B$ any machine languagi program Into i acJv Fnrj'r.ff ilo
■ M.p v> -.; ■ I- .i11 1 ■ of ■ 1 'i command. Are both collections ol 20 programs pec disvotie [that wortis out lo aboul *1.00 per program!)
Mpkaa completa noiailona of all il : .ti.:m: niflmory 1. .ii.iv ■. 1 ■-,■.-.: by tno proof am lhat help you explore and enhance your Commrxfors 6* andfor 128 and 1541 diskdrive. New
(SID, VIC, MOS, KERNAC, elcj you cen unlock many sac/ats lorrnoiry hnown only To lop machine language programmers by
using ihese sophisticated tools.' II you nave ever bOfln curious about trce inner workings of
Gkvos yau 1hr«9 ways >' accessing proQra
your computer system. nov# is your chance lad<g In and find answers with the help of these
f. WIK md *nd Hit programt from OlSK
programs, ""r-.... ■_/,■-,--- of programs have goltert rawe reviews trom actual users, and
2 Will r»d and Mat program* from MEMORY we are sure [hef you, too. will be pleased.
3, Direct UBtr Input (Irooi migirln*ih elcj
The programs Include on each ddkitte are lltltd bolow
> Can be used to local? end ^(imm .mv m&chlnq 1 1 ;>■ program'a i r " r
• Can be uv :\ to flftsHy break apart machine language '.•>'•'!< '>'-'•- 'or study and Ihw Dock (vlflw/'BOdir disk ■ ■■ i .. RAW Tail :ii.-.r ■,.-■:.■.I,., him,
Sync CUoc''.f ■ '■ ■ ■ :■■ Cop) IAOOO-IFFFF "!-■-.'■■ ROMS)
lmb#da*d Tract Numb*r Creator Olipliy G C If (All BBC (or t
• Printer option lor complete hard copy Idlings! gJ Q95
DUk MiMpulallon System UnWrll* Prolncl ((XaKSIIs)
You no longer need to bm an EGGHEAD to read Machine Language.
3 Vlnute Copy {backup program) Lfnnvw Piogram

Diskette Matcher {compare sectors} Wadgt. Stood
Unscratch A Fl's {recover file) Smoalti Scroll (messages up scree
View BAM Tblock ailocallon map} KdiIi Dump ■■■!■ i1 i p^d scieen dun
: PERFECT COMPANION PROGRAM TO DECODER! 1M1 ReatUWrHs Teal Dl>* Manipulation Syi1«n
Vj Tnck fisadw Dlik Erntr (20 -'■■!■' clean ..[-■■
Allows you to •■■liy mtk* chang** In machine Itnguagt programs , , right on Hi* til Spill 5cr»n (mQ screen coloisl
Sync Makor Dlak Proltcncm Syittm n.lup1. coplosl
• Rewrite ability allows code lo bo altered arid then rowrtdan dlroclly to the di
Devlct Number Change (disk drlve> Writ* Proltci (dlsksliel
• Features sector-by-nector scrolling ,i- ••'■\X-.\, ■.*.■ ■-:■ ■ ■';■■ ■ !'■.;■!,', ol machine
EledTOnlc Aria Backup Bool Makar ■.■-■.i ' BASIC prog
Drive Mon :■'.'■.■ drive .■■ i lanltorj Wade* - J C ooo
of ASCI' leit equivalent tor easy spoiling ol embeOtfed text strings' DLiktiti Fife Log (stan-end address) Dlakmatenai II |I

Handy relerencv display ot alL > '-1, language com.mar.ds and thelc ML numerical Write Protect Sensor Teat NO Or..a Ratils I
equivalents' Repair A Track {recover; 3 rimti Disk Oil
Fiat Format mi; seconds) Monitor Isnt f'M
ByEa splitter Tot easy splitting of decimal $ "I Q Vj Track FoimaEtai
nto raw byte-high byte lormatJ I 7


Third Edition! Now Available!
II you'ro tlwl of being harassed Oy pnjttcivd loitwtrt and too many copy programs. ■' ■ ■ WAR GAMES AUTODIALER
InfsLsLnflboofcloryoul This 72* page manual covers ihegamuHrorri'egalrlraslD protection
1r Auta Dlil >iii ffutomaiically dial a set of numbers you choose
nelbodd to step-by-slip bach up pfocedu'es. Now you can learn bolh now to proltcl *nd
unproteel software! Tne techniques covered include copying cartridges 10 rape or disk, tape 2- ABvlew Numberi will review numbers tnal .■.■■■■■ answered by a
protect lonh and dlsV protect Ion. Disk prolecllfmcovers error numbers 20,2\2Z, 23.57 and 29
plui aJngle Track formatElno, header modMFcallon. deader swapping, fiall Irach reading and 3. Siv* Numben wlir save numburs where 3 computer answered,
writing, raadJng and modified btt denaitles, formairtng illflgal traclusgctors, sync wrMlr>g and * Hardcopy of Humbert will pnnl out list of numbers where a com
rnt-ri1 if-i Third ■ 1 ' ■ txplalntL tarl) ho* lo d*iK( nod how Id writ* them wilh . ■ ' put or answered
5. LOAD Number* will load in numbflri to continue wrtere i\ Jell ol1
IL Contlnui wJir pick up dialing whero It was Interrupted.

Book A Dial ol all Programs _..<:,

TRACK TRAP' The 1541 Disk Expander! • 300.1200 Band
> RemoTe acCBBB tot sysop
• Supplement to the Software Protection Handbook • - 2 lovflls ol Security feu up antf
■ 7 rooms {road and write} with 4 ?
The most unusuel and innovBUve protection analysis tool lor JTiu i : ■ ,.^i' — Not For
Btglnnin — This system expands yoi» 1541 drivo giving capablM lyot her wise Qf\}y pCr3S\ble
'oi pfotMttonil dFik dupXcallon eQukpment Now you can creile or annlyre eiolic forms ol • Aulo message cycling
disk protection. "DOS Kingi' Take Hotel' — Enura tracks of dala can be read and vvrUTan • Pilnlor opllon
wllhout regard lo 'alandard1 sync ond format. You are nol longer limited id sector by sector
Bearcnaa. Whaloirack raadouta reveal hidden data even wharr ail or mom o'ttio aeclora havo Plus 1 iii- or .v BBS with all three (3}pfOtlcalsXmotjQm,
O*en "iiMid Uncovers and writes data under errors, pulse coded sync or data, hlddun data '■' .'. I ll',li:r J!..1 ■'^! \;'ir\ .-, ill.. ' ■■ --^ UJl/d£JAn

and jcri"ir, codas, '"i !!■; " track '.-• ■■■.'■■■ and more' 'ir. " _pr ■'" ■ '■' i' ".r.iV ro.i"r '.-<■ road
t', (.^"."j1 i n ol the track Trap system mclrjcling necPSSflry so'twaTe and
Don't be fooled by cheap rmUaNon*. Tnis is Hie
sv9 documentation.

compiafiansive syalem availaDIO any where. Now at a
Track Trap disk expanded manual.,. °W '°W """' ■_

Enclose Cashiers CfiBCk, Money Order or

Personal Check. Allow 14 days lor delivery.
2 lo 7 days (or pfione orders. Canada orders
musl be In U.S. Dollars. VISA — MASTER
CARD — C-O-D. Box 1080, Battle Ground, Washington 98604
PfOfliams fix C4< H <K S 5 H O" »ll oftfbis
Phone 000-541-1541 • BBS 206-687-5205. Alter HouisComnuleMoCornDgWlOriWring

COMPUTE!'! Gazette February 19B6 67
you fail, you die, lost like Primm him case, it's more critical than usual be
Heart of Africa self, a man whose mettle could not cause your resources are limited, and
match his vision. you can carry only what will fit into
You've found it! The fabled tomb of In that case, you'll want to play your pack. You're helped a little by the
Pharaoh Ahnk Ahnk is lost no more. again. Although the African continent ability to cache supplies anywhere, but
Had he not perished in the search, your remains the same (it's geographically hindered severely by the perishability
mysterious benefactor, Hiram Primm, accurate), the locations of the tomb and of foodstuffs in the African heat. There
would have reveled in the secrets of valuable commodities are shifted for are also some strange and terrible afflic
those popular and efficacious Egyptian every game, as are messages and clues. tions awaiting you, but surely you're
embalming fluids. As for you—-wall, Marvellous surprises may spring up at not the type to turn back now.
perhaps you can content yourself with any time, but remember—pestilence, This game is a real pleasure to
immeasurable wealth and the undying disease, treachery, and disaster will also play, especially when fate turns evil
celebrity of your discovery. And—just strike in an equally unexpected manner. and the only hope is your own fierce re
maybe—begin to forget the harsh tra Although it wouldn't be fair to give solve to get to the tomb. A full game can
vails of your journey. away too many specifics or details of be played in about three-and-a-half
The legendary tomb is your goal in game strategy, there are some general hours, and it can be saved at just about
Heart of Africa, a delightful new offer features of the program that bear any point, making it considerably more
ing from Electronic Arts. The game is a mentioning. manageable than its predecessor.
successor to Ozark Softscape's Seven In the end, it is a hopeful game,
Cities of Gold, and the two share a and certainly not for conquistadors. Vi
strong superficial resemblance. Overall miinc it cinot . olence will avail nothing, except for
game mechanics are similar. In both, rta. - some suitably sardonic screen messages

the player must traverse territory repre or possibly your own demise. In a time
sented by thousands of screens of m
K B 1 UlfJIS *03B
of very real drought and famine in Afri
scrolling maps. Success is measured by
the extent of your discoveries and the w
_i i-H 1 nancy ca, it's useful to be reminded of the long
history of this great continent. Admira
wealth you amass, and by your ability -t an f 1 bly and entertainingly, Heart of Africa

L'.U ,
SOU an it
Mfli » ua'f.
to manage your resources and master also reminds us that the role of the "civ
- '
the logistics involved in exploring vast ilized" explorer need not be one of
and dangerous regions. I THtf bloodshed and plunder. This is a game

f jc(* n.*l-c , (HArtTUM HiaJDJL

Beyond this, the differences be fit £Ji AU7TCFI

of wonder and discovery.
come significant. Seven Cities of Gold is —Lee Noel, Jr.
a game of conquest and greater scale. Electronic Arts
Violence against the natives is an indis Most crucial of all, you must im 2755 Campus Drive
pensable tool, and you have 60 years in merse yourself in the native cultures to Sun Maleo, CA 94403
which to dominate two uncharted con survive. The ability to resupply de 532.95 (disk)
tinents and their inhabitants. In real pends largely on the friendliness of
time, it may take 15 hours and several your relations with the Africans. Deal
sessions before you and your small ing diplomatically with the tribes and
army are suitably rewarded by the hyp
ocritical court back home in Europe.
their various customs and languages is
the key to tracking down the legend of
Heart of Africa offers satisfaction on Ahnk Ahnk. You'll explore cities and
an individual level. It's 1890, about 20 villages, enter buildings, and talk di Growing up around baseball was lots of
years after Stanley's famous search for rectly with individual natives. And fun. Being the batboy for my home
Livingstone, when you arrive in Cairo— you'll see all this in detailed, close-up town's minor league team, I learned
totally alone, as you will be throughout graphics. Several geographical aids are lots of things about the game that casu
the game. All you've got to go on are available to you, but you must remem al onlookers never pick up. Upon see
vague rumors about the tomb, and the ber to include them in your pack before ing Accolade's Hardball for the first
meagre funds provided for you from you set forth. As a further boon to the time, the memories started to flow.
Primm's will. And you've only got five weary traveller, the computer provides Chasing fly balls, picking up bats, steal
years to complete your quest. you with a constantly updated diary of ing signs, watching a pitcher's "stuff,"
During that period, you'll need to events and clues, all described in ornate standing in as a practice batter for the
cover thousands of miles, meet and talk late-Victorian prose. This record, like players—it all came back. This is where
to numerous different tribes, finance the other features, is accessed through I learned to appreciate the art of pitch
your trip, figure out where the elusive joystick control of icons and multiple ing and the art of batting, and the feel of
tomb lies, and stride carefully through a screen windows. It's fast, flashy, and those days of my youth returned as I
continent as rich in peril as it is in mys very easy to use. looked at that screen for the first time. If
tery. It's a difficult balancing act, made As with all Ozark Softscape games, there's a better baseball simulation on
worse by a severe shortage of time. If there's a lot of trading involved. In this the market, 1 haven't had the pleasure.

68 COMPUTE!1* Gazette February 1986


Star's made-for-Commodore*
printer needs no add-ons. Just plug
Now you can it into your computer and go to
own a sophisticated, work. It's made at a price that can't
affordable printer that's made be beat.
just for your C-64™ You've got the computer. Now
Here's a dual-mode Star printer get everything out of it. Get the Star
that delivers 120 cps draft and 30 that's labelled "C." There's no better
cps near-letter-quality. With out mate made for a Commodore.
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And it's the best-selling printer
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i c r o n i < %

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Countdown to Shutdown S14. Master Composer D S23.95 Painter *21.99


lunOling .r'-'r?w 'NVS res-denis »H0 JosiitJIt't sales lax'Puces and availability art subject 10 cngngc wilhout
notice'All laclory rresn merchandise witlf rrunuficluid s *)rrant» Dealers Vi'ticomc Call lor irtev gnce
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Fans of baseball will love this soft screen technique has been implement Numerous screens are available
ware package for the Commodore 64. ed to give a more panoramic view of the during the game. Your primary battle
Play a friend or the computer. Use the field. Finally, this package approaches a station is the conning tower, where you
joystick to choose the home field ad level of realism unreached by the base can view the radar and sonar plots, use
vantage and which type of game you'll ball software I've seen to date. This the periscope to direct attacks, view the
play. On defense, you can choose your makes it fun not just the first few times, instrument panels, and receive reports
pitcher. Some pitchers have plenty of but over and over again. Like real-life from Damage Control. Use the various
offspeed stuff, some have plenty of baseball, the variations are endless, and charts of the Pacific to plot your course
hard stuff, and some have a mixed bag each game is different. and plan your maneuvers to intercept
of tricks. They're all good if you know the elusive enemy convoys.
A highly recommended buy for
how to work over the batters. Hint: A
baseball fans. Accolade's Hardball is a
high earned run average (ERA) doesn't
well-conceived, well-written, and fine
necessarily mean the guy can't get bat
ly constructed piece of software.
ters out.
—David Tloraacc

Accolade Entertainment Software

20863 Slivens Creek Blvd.
Cupertino, CA 95014
S29.95 (disk)

Silent Service:
ill » ST331 3rd Bill ■■ The Submarine Sometimes you'll feel absolutely
Simulation overloaded with information, and the
fate of your sub relies on your prompt
Once you start, you can pitch the decision. A wrong choice could send
you to the bottom.
ball anywhere you like, and your catch A unique blend of action and strategy
er has the inhuman advantage of not al make Sid Meier's Silent Service an excit Excellent graphics and meticulous
lowing passed balls or wild pitches. ing game for the Commodore 64. Take attention to detail make Silent Service a
There is also the option to change other command of various classes of World fascinating diversion you'll return to
players too, and a high batting average War II submarines and see if you can time and time again.
doesn't always mean automatic base survive the War in the Pacific. —George Miller
hits. Once the ball is hit, the defensive
Unlike many other strategy games, MicroProse Software
player nearest the ball will begin to you can be playing this one within min HOLakefront Dr.
blink. That player is the one currently
utes of starting the program. The in Hunt Valley, MD 21020
under joystick control. After fielding
structions are detailed, and the $34,95 (disk)
the ball, throw it to the base or player historical simulations are accurate; but
desired: right and fire button for first,
you can learn while you play, without
up and fire for second, left and fire for
having to spend hours just memorizing
third, or down and fire for home. The
the rules or the game.
copy I reviewed seems to give the de
Choose the Torpedo/Gunnery
fense an advantage, so take your time
Practice scenerio for a training mission Word Writer 128
and get those batters out. On offense
before stepping up to Convoy Actions,
you can swing the bat anywhere in the
realistic simulations of actual subma
strike zone, inside, outside, high or low. Two of the 128's three personalities, the
rine attacks on convoys. You'll even
There are also steal and bunt options. 64 and CP/M modes, have lots of soft
have to contend with many of the prob
Practice hitting the ball with smooth ware available. I tried several of my fa
strokes, and soon you'll be knocking
lems faced by the captains and crews of
vorite 64 programs, and they worked
the long ball. famous WWII subs.
fine in 64 mode. Likewise, some well-
This package has practically every Once you've mastered the basics, known CP/M programs, designed to be
thing you could want. Hardball's supe you can change the reality levels of the used on Epson and Morrow computers,
game. Set up the program for limited performed flawlessly. However, the 128
riority as a baseball simulation is
visibility, for instance. Or, have the mode seems to be somewhat of an or
apparent for several reasons. First, pre
convoy you're tracking take evasive ac phan, without much software to exploit
viously published baseball software has
tion, make some torpedos duds, and in its additional memory or other features.
resigned us to managing or playing. In
this game we get to do both. We have crease the skill level of the enemy In time, this will change, and the 128
destroyer escorts in the convoy. Then mode will have its share of programs.
the manual skills of fielding, pitching,
and batting simulated, and, if things
after moving in to attack range of a con One package, available now, is Time-
voy only to be driven off or sunk by an works' word processor Word Writer I2S.
look bleak (or unusually good), we can
attack of seven or eight destroyers you
instantly become Connie Mack and This program is designed to work
weren't expecting, read the section of
change the players around to our liking. with the 128 only in 128 mode with 80
Second, the unusually clear and precise the manual on strategy, and try again.
columns and either a 1541 or 1571 disk
graphics provide an excellent view of When you're ready, embark on a drive. It comes on a copy-protected disk.
the field from two of the best perspec War Patrol. Set sail for up to 60 days of To use 80 columns, you must have a
tives, right behind the pitcher and high adventure on the high seas searching monitor hooked up to the RGB port on
above home plate. A clever divided- for and destroying convoys. the 128. (I got a very sharp display using
72 COMPUTE'S Gazette February 1986
With NRI training at home, you can...

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There is still plenty of room for you to get in on Ihe Most importantly, you'll understand tlie prin Send for free NRI catalog
action—Ifyou get the proper training now. ciples common to all compute is. Only a person Let others worry about computers taking
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CityfS1*l*r7pD AeerM.IK Dj in* National HomaSruGy Caunc.i 153-026 '
"secrets" that quality you for a now career. You'll
an 80-column monochrome monitor
and a homemade cable.)

NTEED I tried the program right out of the

box with only a peek or two at the man

ual. Immediately I was able to write a
short letter which was mailed the next
day—and it used only a small fraction of
the 64K available for document storage.
Any problems—if, indeed they were
VIZASTAR for the C128 VIZAWRITE CLASSIC for C128 that—were due to my being used to an
other word processor. A novice user will
Vizastar, the integraled spreadsheet, This is the new word processor from love Word Writer 128, as many of the
database and graphics program that Vizastars author. Kelvin Lacy and is
program options are described by pull
has the Commodore 64 world raving, the successor to Omniwriter, which he
down menus (a la Macintosh), diminish
is now available (or the C123. II boasts also wrote. All Ihe features o(
ing the need for constant reference to
80 columns, and has over 40K ol free Omniwriter are there, plus many
memory in the spreadsheet. Those significant enhancements, like auto the manual.
who already own Vizastar 64 will be paginalion, on-line help, pull-down Word Writer offers many of the op
pleased to know that your existing files menus, lull-function calculator and tions of "full-featured" word processors:
can be read by Vizastar 128. Also, you more. Up to 8 newspaper-style' move and copy text, search and replace,
can upgrade to ihe 128 version. Call variable-width columns can help with
insert and delete, word wrap and for
us lor details and pricing. newsletters.
mat, indent and tab, page numbering,
chaining, centering, form letters, and
Three dillerent proporiionally-spaced
■The only olher comparable product would merges.
"near letter quality" fonls are also
be Loius 1-2-3 for the ISM PC; noihmg in
built-in lor use with Commodore or Other notable features include an
the C64 world comes even close to the
lea lures ol vizastar" Epson compatible printers. You can 85,000-word spelling checker, a built-in
merge almost any olher word calculator (with results you can insert in
AHOY July B5
processor file directly into Vizawrite,
your text), utility programs (single disk
"I lound Vizastar would do anything Lotus including Paper Clip and Omniwriter.
1-2-3 could, and Ihen some. It's my
copier and file converter), printer config
Nalurally, it is also compatible with
Commodore choice to become the slandard uration programs (which work with
Vizastar. At all times, what you see on
against which the others will be judged."
the screen is exactly the way it will be most popular printers), and technical
INFO 64 Magazine, Issue #7 printed out. Vizawnte can do support from a toll-free hot line. Word
"Vizastar is an exceptional package I hat mail-merges and has an integrated Writer is also integrated with Time-
rivals the features ol programs such as 30,000 word spelling checker that you works' Data Manager 128 and SiviftCalc
Loius 1-2-3 and Oilers C64 owners the kind can expand yourself. 128.
ol integrated software previously only
available lor higher-priced systems.'
For the most part, I have no hesita
RUN Magazine. June 1985 PROGRAM SPECIFICATIONS tion in recommending this program. A
beginner will appreciate its easy-to-
"I scrutinized, lasted and experimented with Both Viza write and Vizastar are
leam format, and it does most of the
Vizasiar eilensively. bul could find no written in 100% machine language
things you'd expect a good word proces
weaknesses whatsoever. It is me most and run in Ihe 128s FAST mode,
comprehensive, mosl flexible, most powerful sor to do. However, Word Writer seems
making it lightning fast. They require a
and easiest lo use integrated software
C128 wilh 80 column color or to be an odd mixture of a pre- and post-
package I've worked wilh.* formatting word processor. The format
monochrome monitor. Both come with
Commodore Microcomputer, Sepl'Oct 1985 command does not ieave you with ex
a cartridge, a diskette, a backup, and
"I use an IBM PC al work wilh Lotus 123. I a reference manual. Vizastar also actly what you get on the printed page.
feel Vizastar is just as good and in includes a 50 page tutorial book. Both Furthermore, the command even for
someways bottor than 1-2-3." work with 1541 or 1571 disk drives. mats after carriage returns, so lists can
Sieven Roberson. NC. End User appear askew unless you disable this
"I have used Muliiplan and Superbase: both feature around the list.
are good pieces of software, but are There are some features found on
inadequate when compared lo Vizaslar." Vizastar 128 is priced at S119.97. more expensive word processors not in
Jim Malhews, WA. End User Vizawrite's price is S79.97. Vizastar 64
cluded with Word Writer; headers, foot
XL8 is now available for $119.97. We are
"So good, I bought a second C64 and ers, and the ability to alphabetize lists or
so positive you will be satisfied with our
Viraslar lor my office. A wild bargain!
programs thai we oiler a 15-day
calculate numbers in columns or rows. It
You've saved me from having to Buy IBM
money-back guarantee. Try it Risk-Free. does, however, include all the standard
and Loius"
Call us today or send a check or money features, and more, of the most popular
Philip R easier, MA End Usei
order. VISA.MC accepied. word processors. (And the pull-down
menus are a real bonus.)
If you're looking for dedicated 128
Calif, residents add 6.5% Sales Tax.
software, take a good look at this pro
Add PSH: UPS-S4; COD'Canada-$7. gram. You can't go wrong—Timeworks
will buy you another program if you
find a better one in 90 days, an unusual
SOLID STRTESOFTURRE and commendable offer.
—Harvey Herman
1125 E. Hillsdale Blvd., Suite 104
Timeworks, Inc.
Foster City, CA 94404-1609 444 Lake Cook Road
(415) 341-5606 Decrfield, 1L 60015
• Dealer Inquiries Welcome • S69.95
Rescue mode—Military personnel you and on the ceiling oi ;he chopper.
Super Huey are lost in a mountainous region. You There are 29 instruments: everything
try to locate them, and, if possible, pick from a magnetic compass and artificial
up the injured and return to the base. horizon to malfunction lights and direc
Aircraft simulations have become one
of the most popular kinds of computer Combat mode—There is a secret de tion finders. This setup of helicopter in
sert installation that could be a security struments and screens is the best I've
games available. They're sometimes re
threat. You're to determine the enemy's seen, and makes excellent use of the
alistic enough to make you feel you're
ground and air strength to decide if attack 64's great graphics capabilities.
actually flying. Now, Cosmi has intro
duced one of the first helicopter simula engagement is feasible. You'll battle Control is exercised by joystick and
tanks and helicopters using your air
tors for the Commodore 64. The game typed three-letter codes to the com
craft's rockets and machine guns.
is Super Huey, and it puts you behind puter. Moving the joystick and pressing
the controls of the Huey UH-1X, an ex the fire button maneuvers the helicop
perimental high performance aircraft. ter. This is a little difficult in combat
You start at your own airbase, then when the fire button can either launch
select from one of four missions: Flight missiles or fire machine guns (which
Instruction, Exploration, Rescue, or ever are currently in use). So it's not
Combat. You select your option by en possible to fire and move at the same
tering three-letter codes into your on time. It would have been helpful to
board computer. have available another key for firing,
Flight Instruction mode— By fol but this is only a problem in combat
lowing the instructions on your heli mode. The chopper's computer is also
copter computer screen, you control important since it controls over 20 dif
everything from engaging the engines ferent functions. The manual provides
to flying around your territory. You are good documentation and contains brief
in total control of the aircraft, but the explanations of conventional helicopter
computer leads you through take-off controls and the theory of autorotative
and flight via instructions on your heli After you've selected one of these landing.
copter computer screen. modes, enter POW (power) into the —Reed Huish
Exploration mode—Your task is to computer. The screen gives a view from COSMI
map out the general terrain and un the cockpil, including front window, 415 North Figaeroa St.
charted territory to find major geologi two side windows, and two floor win Wilmington, CA 90744
cal features and other significant dows to the sides of your feet. Instru $19.95 (disk)
landmarks. ments are displayed both in front of

modore 64 game players a complex and

intriguing race against time. The game
uses a system of icon-based graphics
which help you ferret out secret docu
ments from NATO files and then move
punch, but are slow and ungainly in a about London seeking the nuclear de
Panzer Grenadier fluid battle. Infantry can assault enemy vice. The final episode is text-based and
You command a regiment of the elite requires you to defuse the bomb itself
armor, but at a terrible cost. Pinning
Grossdeutschland panzer grenadier di using information you've gathered ear
down the Russian units, whether
vision as it battles its way across the lier in the game. The Fourth Protocol is
you're advancing or holding fast, is vi
steppes, rivers, woods, and cities of no simple game. You'll have to break
tal. Ignore the enemy and his fire can
Russia in SSI's newest World War II codes, sift clues, read maps, and judge
throw your regiment into disarray.
combat simulation. Designed by Roger good information from bad. Even if
Panzer Grenadier is a fast-paced re
Damon, the creator of Fields of Fire, this you've read the book, there are plot
creation of combined arms combat in
one-player game, available for the twists that make this a challenging
the Second World War. Game play is
Commodore 64, shares much of the contest.
easy to learn and the action is nonstop.
same mechanics and game flavor. Mov
It's all here for the armchair general. Bantam Electronic Publishing
ing and firing your motorized infantry,
666 Filth Ave.
tanks, mortars, artillery, and combat Strategic Simulations, Inc.
883 Stierlin Rd., Building A-200
New York, NY 10103
engineers is as easy as moving the joy S34.95
Mountain View, CA 94043
stick and pressing the firebutton. Sever
al game phases let you observe the
battlefield, fire your weapons, and The Dolphin's Rune:
move your troops. Enemy reactions, all The Fourth Protocol
computer-controlled, are interspersed The fate of the free world is in your
A Poetic Odyssey
with your decisions. hands. A British traitor is helping to car An undersea world of poetry and mys
Five scenarios, from gaining and ry out a Soviet plan to explode a nuclear tery awaits the player of The Dolphin's
defending a bridgehead to defending a bomb in Great Britain—and blame it on Rune, Mindscape's new adventure,
city against a massive Soviet counterat the Americans. As intelligence agent available for the Commodore 64. The
tack, provide a variety of combat prob John Preston, you've got to unravel a player controls a dolphin who glides
lems. Deciding how and where to trio of deadly puzzles before the plan through a colorful sea in a quest for po
attack—or defend—can mean victory can be implemented. etry fragments. Sound easy? Far from it.
or annihilation. Based on the book of the same The poetry fragments are cryptically
Your forces fight with real capabili name by popular author Frederick For- encoded in hieroglyphics and lie in a
ties. Tiger tanks pack a devastating syth, The Fourth Protocol offers Com sea bed, which can only be reached

COMPUTE'S Gazette February 19B6 75

after the dolphin has had a vision; vi
Easy Curves COMPUTEI's Gazette
sions come only after entering and ne
Subscriber Services
gotiating an elusive color current.
1) Insert your COMAL disk in drive'.
Meanwhile, the dolphin must surface Please help us serve you belter. If you
2) Type LOAD "C64 COMAL'",8
periodically for air, avoiding sharks and need to contact us for any of the reasons
3) Type RUN (atari* COMAL)
tuna nets along the way. For those with listed below, write to us al;
4) Type AUTO (turn on auto line#'B)
5) Enter the program lines ehown below a lot of patience and a knack for cryp COMPUTED Gazette

(COMAL indent! lines for you) tography. The Dolphin's Rune offers an P.O. Box 10957
6) Hit RETURN key twice when done Des Moines, IA 50340
aesthetic and challenging adventure.
7) Type RUN or call the Toll Free number listed below.
Change of Address. Please allow us 6-8
0010 setup vreeks to effect the change; send your
0020 curve current mailing label along wilh your new
0030 paint'it address.
0040 add'words Renewal. Should you wish to renew
0050 // your Gazette subscription before we re
0060 proc setup mind you to, send your current mailing
0070 black:=O; yellow:=7
label with payment or charge number or
0080 background black call Ihe Toll Free number listed below.
0090 pencolor yellow
New Subscription. A one-year (12-
0100 setjraphic □ //hi re( screen
month) U.S. subscription to COMPUTE!'!
0110 hideturtle
Gazette is SZ4 (2 years, $45; 3 years, S65.
0120 endproc setup
For subscription rates outside the U.S.,
0130 //
see staff page). Send us your name and
0140 proc curve
address or call the Toll Free number
0150 moveto 110,0
listed below.
0160 drawto 110,199 Mindscape
0170 for row:=0 to 10 step .03 do Delivery Problems. If you receive dupli
liii Dundee Rd.
cate issues of COMPUTERS Gazette, if you
0180 drawto 110+99*Bin(row),row*20 Northbrook, II 60062
0190 endforrow experience late delivery, or if you have
0200 ondproc curve problems with your subscription, please
0210 // call the Toll Free number listed below.
0220 proc paint'it
0230 fill 120,20
COMPUTEI's Gazette
0240 fill 100,90
Are you resourceful and quick enough
0250 fill 120,180
0260 fill 100,198 to be a Masterblazer, skimming your In 1A 1-800-532-1272
0270 endproc paint'it Rotofoil across the playing grid as you
0280 // push another Plasmorb toward the
0290 proc add'words goal? That's the essence of Bui(blazer
0300 pencolor black from Epyx, now available for the Com
0310 background yellow modore 64. Originally created more
0320 plottext 120,1 BE,"comal li a" than a year and a half ago by Lucasfilm COMPUTED Gazette is
0330 plottext 16,90, "prog rammers"
0340 plottext 120,30, "paradi»tn
Games Division for Atari computers, looking for utilities,
the translation to the 64 is every bit as
0350 endproc add'words
good as the original.
games, applications
Ballhlazcr offers a split-screen play
educational programs,
ing field that shows a first-person view and tutorial articles. If
as you go head to head with another
you've created a pro
player or with the computer. The object
of the game is for you to capture the ball gram that you think
(Plasmorb) in the magnetic field sur other readers might en
rounding your Rotofoil car and then
score goals by pushing or shooting the joy or find useful, send
Plasmorb through a goal at the end of it, on tape or disk to:
Notice how £asv_ graphics are in COMAL. the field. Simultaneously, your oppo
Lines 70-100 set up the icraen colors.
Lines 1E0-190 draw on the screen.
nent is trying to steal the Plasmorb with Submissions Reviewer
his Rotofoil.
Lines 230-260 fill (paint) whole ports. COMPUTE! Publications
Even putting text on the graphic screen Everything, from the music and
i) easy. See lines 320-340. All this i • graphics to the game play itself, is first P.O. Box 5406
standard and built in as part of COMAL. rate. Ballblazer has been a long time in Greensboro, NC 27403
Plus a full turtle graphics system. Now coming for the 64, but the wait was
you know why there nre 100,000 user*. worth it.
Please enclose an SASE
Epyx Computer Software
* If you don't have COMAL yet, order a
10« Kiel Court
if you wish to have the
Programmer's Paradise Paekafte-iiQ flR
It includes the complete COMAL system Sunnyvale, CA 94089 materials returned.
Suggested retail approximately $30-40 Q
plus over 400 pages of information. Add Articles are reviewed
tS more to get our 20 interactive lesson
Tutorial Disk. Add J2 shipping. Vi«o/MC within four weeks of
or US funds check accepted. Send to;
COMAL Users Group USA
6041 Monona Drive, Room 10*
Madison, WI 53716
phone 608-222-4432
PRINTERS Printer Interfaces PRINTER SC-100.. . 169
DatiShaiD W
Legend 1080 2U9
SD-10 ...339 SH-15 Call
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BUFFERS Commodore
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SUPER PRINTER PACKAGES Epson Call XHi!i:5<i|H'J GitpNc U-Bull
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Panasonic 1091 & Legend 1080 &
Legend 808 169 MODEMS 64K 99.95
Panasonic 1090... 199 WtilHdge M/AD 49 95 MJ-10 .... 179
G-Wiz 308 G-Wiz 269 Panasonic 1091... 245 total Tele Modem .. 4995 Teknika
If Xelec Super Graphic is desired Powertype 309 Mighty Mo -6995 While lupplleslait MJ-22 .... Call
IKQ Modem (995
add $10 to package. Buy the Print Shop for
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O M M O O R 6 4 SOFT W

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Home Pak-D ^34 95 and availability and availability Fleet Svslam (1/ 44 95 Ultima IV 3795
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Bungling Bay Q ... ..2095 Fast Graphics • Graphic Sprite and NEW 64/128 VERSION Fleet System il-D 14 55
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disk. You're asked for a filename—
for the entire group of screens—
and whether you're using tape or
disk. (Tape users: you must enter a
filename, since pressing RETURN
with no input aborts the com
If you wish, you can copy only
part of the screen. To do this, posi
tion the cursor at the start of the

section you want to save and press
CONTROL-R The cursor changes
color. Now move the cursor to the
position after the last character you
want saved and press RETURN.
When these fractional copies are
Clayton R. Newman printed, they're returned to the
screen in the same location from
which they were saved.
If you're working with graph
ics, you may often want to change
This clever utility can store up to 56 different
the screen location or redefine the
screens in memory and instantly retrieve any one character set. Snapshot will work in
for display. For the Commodore 64 and 128 (in 64 either case, but remember that
screens are printed to the same
mode). screen location from which they
were originally copied. You could
Here's a program that can be a real mode, several SYS commands are
set up several screens ahead of time
boon to programmers. "Snapshot" required.
and scroll through them by chang
is a machine language utility that To use it in immediate mode,
load Snapshot by typing LOAD ing screen locations. But remember
stores whatever you have on the
" filename",%,\ (disk) or LOAD that all screen locations use the
text screen, including colors, into
same color memory, so if the screen
the unused RAM which underlies 'filename", 1,1 (tape), then NEW
and SYS 49444. Then, create or dis
being printed has different colored
BASIC. It can store and retrieve up
characters than the screen currently
to 56 screens. And you can save the play the screen you want copied.
When the screen is ready, press displayed, the colors on the current
screens to tape or disk. It crunches
CONTROL-C. Snapshot copies the screen will change too.
the information for the screen, stor
screen to memory and asks you for The program mode commands
ing up to 255 empty spaces or re
a screen name. All Snapshot screen are very similar to immediate
peated characters in only three
names must be two characters long. mode. The format is SYS 51000,
bytes. command, name. For example, to
Any two characters, except aster
Since Snapshot is written en print a screen named AB, use SYS
isks, may be used. If you choose a
tirely in machine language, it works 51000,P,AB (P is for Print). You can
name that's already been used, the
fast. It can print a screen more than use a string variable for the screen
old screen will be replaced by the
twice as fast as the equivalent name, as in SYS 51000,C,A$. Array
new one. Use the IN5T/DEL key to
BASIC PRINT statements, and far variables cannot be used, so if you
make corrections when entering the
faster than POKEing data to screen want an array of screen names you
name. If you decide not to save the
memory. must assign the array variable to a
screen at all, just press RETURN
with no name and it will cancel the regular string variable: A$ = B$(20).
Two Modes For loading or saving, add T (tape)
command. This escape works with
"MLX," the machine language en all commands.
or D (disk): SYS 51000,S,///enflwe,
try program (found elsewhere in To recall a screen, press D. Do not use quotes for the file
this issue), is required to type in CONTROL-P and enter the two- name. Also, you don't need to SYS
Snapshot. After loading and run character screen name. CONTROL-I 49444 (the command that activates
ning MLX, answer the prompts for displays an index or directory of Snapshot) in program mode.
the starting and ending addresses your screen names. To delete a
with C124 and C983, respectively. screen, press CONTROL-D and en Making It Useful
After typing it in, save a copy. ter the name. To delete all of your Snapshot has numerous applica
Snapshot can be used in either screens, enter an asterisk (*) as your tions. One is displaying back
program or immediate mode. The screen name. (Individual screen grounds for arcade games or text
commands are slightly different in names should not contain an aster adventures. By using a redefined
each mode. (See the accompanying isk.) character set, very complex screens
table for a list of commands.) Im CONTROL-S and CONTROL- can be drawn, rivaling high-
mediate mode uses the CONTROL L are used to save and load the en resolution screens. Many commer
key to input commands. In program tire group of screens on tape or cial games use screens drawn this
78 COMPUTEI's Gazette February 1986
way. One advantage of Snapshot is sented in half a byte, two color screen, it also changes the back
that it uses a maximum of 1509 locations are crunched into each ground and border colors to those
bytes to store a screen while a high- byte to save space. This means that that were saved. If you use extend
res screen uses 9000 bytes. Another a screen which is mostly empty ed background color mode, it will
use for Snapshot is for menus, in space, repeated characters, or the print the extra background colors. It
structions, and title screens. same color, uses much less space also saves the extra colors for multi
Snapshot is transparent to than a screen with a complex color characters. Sometimes, how
most BASIC programs. This means image. ever, you might not want these
you can use it in immediate mode If you run out of memory, changes. To disable this feature,
to copy screens of programs while Snapshot will display an error POKE 50620,1. To reenable it
they're running. message. You can extend your POKE 50620,0.
Snapshot saves the screens in Snapshot memory by lowering the Program 2 demonstrates a little
RAM underneath the BASIC ROM of what Snapshot can do. The pro
top-of-BASIC pointer in locations
at 40960-49151, providing 8192 gram sets up the screen, and then
55 and 56. Type POKE 56.PEEK
bytes of storage, enough to store six Snapshot quickly displays several
(56)-4*X:CLR where X is the num
screens using the maximum size of screens, simulating animation.
1509 bytes peT screen. The mini ber of kilobytes of added memory.
mum size for a whole screen is 27 When Snapshot prints a See program listings on page 119.
bytes. There is enough room for
327 screens this size, but Snapshot
can only handle up to 56 screens at Snapshot Commands
a time.
Immediate mode Program mode
The reason that different
Copy CONTROL-C SVS 51000,C,scrcen name
screens require different amounts
Print CONTROL-P SVS S1000,P,screen name
of memory is that Snapshot com
Delete CONTROL-D SY5 51000,D,sereen name
presses the screen as it is saved. Copy fraction CONTROL-F not available
Any screen character repeated Index CONTROL-I SYS 51000,1
three times or more is represented CONTROL-L SYS 51000,Uitoname,D (or T)
CONTROL-^ SYS S1000,S,filoname,D (or T)
as the character code along with a
count of how many repeats. Color Disable changing special color registers: POKE 50620,1
Reenable: POKE 50620,0
memory works the same way; how
ever, since 16 colors can be repre


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COMPUTEf's Gazatto February 19B6 79
Commodore 128 Memory Map
Important Locations
Jim Butterfield

Here's an abridged memory map that shows key locations of the Commodore
128 in 128 mode. Included are decimal and hexadecimal addresses, and brief
descriptions of the functions of each location.

Memory Map

This memory map applies to the Commodore 128 Hex Decimal Description
when used in the 128 mode. In 64 mode, the ma All Banks:
chine's map is identical to that of the Commodore 64.
There are 28 pages (256 bytes each) of overhead 0000-0001 0-1 I/O port, similar to
before the start of BASIC. The following list shows
some of the more important locations. 000F 15 Type: FF=string;
00 = numeric
0010 16 Type: 80 = integer;
00=ftoating point
"Bank numbers" as used in the BASIC BANK com 0015 21 Current I/O prompt
mand and the built-in machine language monitor's
addressing scheme are misleading; in fact, they're
0016-0017 22-23 Integer value
more correctly called "configuration numbers." Bank 002D-002E Pointer: start-of-
0 shows RAM level 0, which contains work areas and BASIC (for bank 0)
the user's BASIC program. Bank 1 also shows RAM, Pointer: start-of-
002F-0030 47-48
this time (for addresses above hexadecimal $0400) variables (bank 1)
level 1, which contains variables, arrays, and strings. 0031-0032 49-50 Pointer: start-of-
Other "banks" are really configurations, with various
types of ROM or I/O overlaying RAM. Thus, bank 15 Pointer: end-of-
0033-0034 51-52
(the most popular) is ROM and I/O covering RAM arrays
bank 0. Bank 14, however, is ROM and the character
0035-0036 53-54 Pointer: string-
generator overlaying RAM bank 0. Architecture is set
storage (moving
so that addresses below $0400 reference bank 0 only.
Other bank switching (more complex than the simpli
0039-003A 57-58 Pointer: limit-of-
fied 16-bank concept) is accomplished via storing a memory (bank 1)
mask to address $FF00, or calling up prestored masks Current BASIC line
003B-003C 59-60
by writing to $FF01-FF04.
003D-003E 61-62 Textpointer: BASIC
work pointer
0041-0042 65-66 Current DATA line
0043-0044 67-68 Current DATA
0047-0048 71-72 Current variable
0049-004A 73-74 Current variable Position of cursor on
address screen line
0063 99 Accum#l: exponent 236 Row where cursor
0064-0067 100-103 Accum#l: mantissa lives
0068 104 Accum#l: sign O0FA-O0FF 250-255 UNUSED
006A-006F 106-111 Accum#2: exponent, 0100-0IFF 256-511 Processor stack area
and so on 0100-013E 256-318 Tape error log
0070 112 Sign comparison, 0100-0124 256-292 DOS work area
Acc#l versus #2 0125-0138 293-312 PRINT USING work
0071 113 Accum#l low-order area
(rounding) 0200-O2A0 512-672 BASIC input buffer
007D-007E 125-126 BASIC pseudo-stack 02A2-02AE 674-686 Bank PEEK
pointer subroutine
0090 144 Status word ST 02AF-02BD 687-701 Dank POKE
0091 145 Keyswitch IA: STOP subroutine
and RVS flags O2BE-02CC 702-716 Bank compare
0098 152 How many open subroutine
files 02CD-02E2 717-738 JSR to another bank
0099 153 Input device, nor 02E3-02FB 739-763 JMP to another bank
mally 0 02FC-02FD 764-765 Function execute
009A 154 Output CMD device, hook
normally 3 0300-0311 768-785 BASIC links
009D 157 I/O messages: 0312-0313 786-787 Unused
'all, 64=errors, 0314-0315 788-789 IRQ vector
0=nil 0316-0317 790-791 Break interrupt
0OAO-0OA2 160-162 Jiffy Clock vector
high/medium/low 0318-0319 792-793 NMI interrupt vector
OOAE-0OAF 174-175 Tape end adds/End 031A-032D 794-813 Kernal vectors
of program 032E-033D 814-829 Kern a 1 iinks
0OB7 183 Number of charac 033E-0349 830-841 Keyboard matrix
ters in filename shift vectors
0OB8 184 Current logical file 034A-0353 842-851 Keyboard buffer
00B9 185 Current secondary 0354-035D 852-861 Tab stop bits
address 035E-0361 862-865 Line wrap bits
OOBA 186 Current device 0362-036B 866-875 .Logical file table
OOBB-OOBC 187-188 Pointer to filename 036C-0375 876-885 Device number table
OOCO 192 Tape motor interlock 0376-037E 886-895 Secondary address
00C8-00CB 200-203 RS-232 input/output table
buffer addresses 0380-039E 896-926 CHRGET subroutine
00CC-00CD 204-205 Keyboard decode 0386 902 CHRGOT entry
pointer (bank 15) 039F-03D1 927-938 Subroutines to fetch
OODO 208 Number of charac from RAM banks
ters in keyboard 991 Accum#l: Overflow
buffer 65280 W///M MMU configuration
O0D1 209 Number of pro register
grammed characters FF01-FF04 65281-65284 MMU load configu
waiting ration registers
00D3 211 Key shift flag: 0 = no Bank 0 (BASIC programs):
shift 0400-07E7 1024-2023 40-column screen
00D5 213 Last key code: 88 if memory
no key O7F8-O7FF 2040-2047 Sprite identity area
00D6 214 Input from screen (text)
from keyboard 0800-09FF 2048-2559 BASIC pseudo-stack
O0D7 215 40/80 columns: 0AO0-OA01 2560-2561 Vector: BASIC restart
0 = 40 columns 0A05-0A06 2565-2566 Bottom- of-memory
00D9 217 Character base: pointer
0 = ROM, 4-RAM 0A07-0AO8 Top-of-memory
OOE0-OOE1 224-225 Pointer to screen pointer
line/cursor RS-232 receive
OOE2-O0E3 226-227 Color line pointer pointer
O0E4-O0E7 228-231 Screen margins: RS-232 input pointer
bottom, top, left, RS-232 transmit
right pointer
00E8-00E9 232-233 Input cursor log RS-232 send pointer
(row, column)

Keyboard buffer size
0A22 2594 Key repeat: 128 —all, res)
=none 4000-FBFF 16384-64511 BASIC RAM mem.
OBOO-OBBF -3007 Cassette buffer, also (hi-res)
used by disk auto- Bank 1 (BASIC variables):
boot programs 0400-FBFF 1024-64511 BASIC variables,
(CP/M or otherwise) arrays, strings
OCOO-ODFF 3072-3583 RS-232 input, output Bank 14 Same as Bank 15, below, except:
D0O0-DFFF 53248-57343 Character generator
0EO0-OFFF 3584-4095 System sprites
4096-4351 Programmed key Bank 15 :

lengths and 4000-CFFF 16384-53247 ROM: BASIC

definitions DOOO-D030 53248-53296 40-column video
1I7A-117B 4474-4475 Float-fixed vector chip 8564
117C-117D 4476-4477 Fixed-float vector D400-D41C 54272-54300 SID sound chip 6581
11E9-11EA 4585-4586 Light pen values, X D500-D50A 54528-54538 MMU 8722 memory
and Y setup registers

mt m
1200-1201 4608-4609 Previous 54784-54785 80-column video
number chip 8563
1202-1203 10-4611 Pointer: BASIC state R18-19 Video address,
ment for CONT low/high
1204-1207 4612-4615 PRINT USING char R31 Video data,
acters (,.$) read/write
4616 Error type ER D800-D8E7 55296-56295 Color nybbies (40
1209-120A 4617-4618 Error line number EL column)
210-1211 4624-4625 End of BASIC (Bank DCOO-DCOF 56320-56336 CIA 1 (IRQ) 6526
0) DD0O-DD0F 56576-56591 CIA 2 (NMI) 6526
4626-4627 BASIC program limit DFO0-DF0A 57088-57098 DMA controller
[FF00] EOOO-FEFF 57344-65279 ROM: Kernal
4632-4634 USR program jump FF05-FFFF 65285-65535 ROM: Transfer,
4635-4639 RND seed value Jump Table



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The Commodore Software Association Is a world Members may purchase any program from our

wide software organization specializing in the dis Commodore 64/128 software catalog for Only $3.00
tribution of owner/user written software for the per program — no tricks, no gimmicks. Programs
Commodore 64 and Commodore 12B computers. are on diskette. There are no additional charges, the
We are the lowest cost organization specializing in price of $3.00 per program Includes postage, hand
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How many programs are available? den Help, Golf Handicapping, Weather Forecaster, Football Rating,
We currently nave more than 1000 programs in our Com Autocypner, Basketball Statistian, Home Inventory, Loan Amortiza
tion, Phone'Address List, Financial Math, Depredation Schedule,
modore software library. Most are in our up-to-date Com
Stock Trends, Bonds, Handicapper, Personal Banker, Mortgage
modore catalog. The list grows daily as submissions pour in
Spreadsheet, Letter Writer, Budget Management, W-2 Form, 1040
from around the world. Members will receive regular catalog Form, Annuities, Paycheck, Regression, Bowling Records, Sec
expansions. tional Properties, Equations, Corivensions, Chi-Square, Crossover
Programs are categorized as follows: Network, Digital Logic Simulator, Factorial, Row Chart, Fitter De
GAMES, MUSIC, EDUCATIONAL, sign, Electronic Solution, Bisection, Simpson Integration, Polyhedra
BUSINESS/FINANCIAL, HOME/PERSONAL, Coordinates, Statistical Analysis, etc., etc., etc.
TECHNICAL. — A very small list when compared to our catalog!
How do I get a list of programs?
Membership entitles you to our extensive software catalog
with listings categorized by type of program.

What else does membership provide?

Membership entitles you to our newsletter REMarks. It con MEMBERSHIP ... $15.00
tains hints, program reviews, problem solvers and tips that I have enclosed a check or money ordertor $15.00. This entitles
make using your Commodore easier and simpler, and ex me to your newsletter, your extensive software catalog and
pand its capability. programs for only $3.00 each.

Do t have to be a programmer to benefit?

Not at all. However, rf you do program and want to submit a
program to our software library, we have a generous soft
ware submission system.

What does it cost to join? City .

Only a low membership fee of $15 per year. That entitles
you to our newsletter, plus all the benefits mentioned above, State. Zip.
and quality programs for only $3 each. What's more, we'll COMMODORE SOFTWARE ASSOCIATION
mail out membership materials the very same day that we
P.O. BOX 83655
receive your membership fee!
Deal 1 (Order Now)
(Order Now)
Commodore 64 Commodore 64

Com. 1541 Disk Drive Com. 1541 Disk Drive
Com. 803 Printer 13" Zenith Color Monitor

'407 457
• C128 Disks 7Tea.* PLUS FREE S49.95 Oil Barons •340K 1571 Disk Drive SW9.00
Adventure Program •Voice Synthesizer $39.95
• Commodore Graphics Printer 599.95
• 13" Zenith Color Monitor S149.95 • 12" Amber Monitor (59.95




COUPON with every COMMODORE (,■'. I
You pay only 5139.95 when you order the powerful COMPUTER, DISK DRIVE, PRINTER, We expect a limited supply lor Christmas. We will ship
e4K COMMODORE 64 COMPUTER' LESS the volue oi MONITOR ne toll! Thii coupon allowi you on a first order basis. This oil-new revolutionary I20K
the SPECIAL SOFTWARE DISCOUNT COUPON we pock loSAVE OVIR tllOQFF SALE PR1CESI! computer uiss all Commodore 64 software and
wilh your compuler thai allows you lo SAVE OVER ccce»ories plut all CPM program* formolled for the
1250 oil sallworo sale prices1 ' Wilh only $100 ol disk drive.
savings applied yournelcompuTorcosI It 139.95 f I (Example!) List $349.00. SALE lilt.IJ.

Get these 51* Double Sided Floppy Disks speciolly
Hume LIU Sala
Double Sidled. Single Disk Drive for C-12S allows you
designed for the Commodore 12B Compulor (1571 Disk Coupan
to u^e C-128 mode plus CPM mode, 17 limns faster
Drive). IM\ Certified Ufatlmo Warranty Popeibach Writer bt S91-00 139.95 SI9 95
Paperback Doroboie 64 S6? 00 131.95 11' 95
than 1541. plus runs oN 1541 formats
Automatic Lint Cleaning Liner included- 1 Boh of 10 -
Paperback Dictionary 11'.95 til.95 110 00 List $349,00. SatflSJM.OtL
19.90 [99' eo.). 5 Bo«es ol 10 - $44.50 (89' do,], 10
Thff Pnni Shop 511 95 137.95 126.95
Bo»esof 10-S79.0C1791 on.)
Ha Hey i Protect S3» 95 SIS 95 13' 95
P roc tic ok {tpreod ihttr) IJ9.9S S19.9S 111.95 SUPER AUTO DIAL MODf M tll.t*
Programinan Rcluranc* 11'.95 116.95 112.50 Eaay ro u»#. JuiT plug into your Commodore 64
computer and you're ready lo iranimil and rtcviv*
Nine PrllKM nAihbf 132 95 S24.91 til 95
Vou poy only SU9 9S when you Older this 13' ZENITH SuperBo*lSunday mttugai. (antr la ui* than dialing your ttlephont,
130 00 H9.9S 117 95
COLOR MONITOR. LESS Ihe value ol ihe SPECIAL Flip £ File, Disk Filer 13'.95 114.95 III 95 juir puih one key on your eompuitrF includet
SOFTWARE DISCOUNT COUPON we pock with your OeJuxe Tape Ca&strte (plui 189.00 S'i-95 S3! 95 thclutlvv *aiy To u» progrom lor up and down
monitor ihar allows you to save over S250 ofl software FHEE gome) loading is printer and diik drivit, t*it In U.S.A.
sole prices' ! With only 1100 ot savings applied, your Pro Joystick 119.95 S13.95 510 00 Li»i $99,00, SALXtn.H.
Computer Care Kir iHM S!9 95 131.95
net color monitor tost is only S49.95. 06 Colors).
Dull Cover 1 S 95 S 6 95 1 1 60
Injured Engine S39 95 %V 95 S21 95
Pitllop II (Epy*|
139.95 122 95 H9.95
SO COLUMN For Corriniodora-6d compulori. Ji.ii plug il in and you
Munt Call 159.95 SM.M 112.95
COMMODORE GRAPHICS PRINTER iit.ti Flit Ww« (by 139.95 S!9 95 S31 95 can program words and sentences odjusl volume and
CBdnvrilBfl piTcK. moko falking advcnlurc gofnBl. iound oclion
You poy only S99.95 when you O'dor Ihe 803
gamo* ondtuitomiiod lolk/os' i FOR ONLY J)9.9Syoj
Commodore Graphics Printer. 60 CPS, Dot Matrix, Bi- (See over 100 coupon items in our catalog)
Directionai. Pnnly B%" full siie poper. Plug in direct tan odd TEXT TO 5PEECH, iuit lypo a word and haar
Write or call for ,ouf compuler lolk - ADD SOUND TO 70BK11 SCOT7
inierfacs included! LESS Ihe uatue of the SPECIAL
(Disk on:, i Lisr SS9.00. SALE13t.fl
printer thai allows you to SAVE OVER S25O off
software sale prices'1 Wjth only SIOO of savings
applied your net pnnler cost is 2£RO! 13" AMBER MONITOR 131.45
Your tho ■} of green or amber icroen manilor, lop
quality. column* x 2i linos, eoiy la mod/ onli.

4 SLOT EXPANDER & 10 COLUMN BOARD JJI.9S glaro1 PLUS 19.9S lor connsthng coble. Com-6J or
Now you progrum SO COLUMNS on tho screen at one VIC-SO. Lilt HI" ■ SALE tS9.11.
timei Converts your Commodo'e 64 to 00 COLUMNS
when you plug in the 90 COLUMN EXPANSION
BOARD' i PLUS i slot e«ponder! Computer Clubs PRINTER/TTPEWRITER COMBINATION IJ«.«
"JUKI" Superb leller quality. doisy wheel
We Offer Big Volume Discounts printer, typewriter combination. Two machine) in one
— \uif a flick o* rhe iwilch. 12" extfo large carriage,
CALL TODAY! typewriter keyboard, oulomolic margin tonirol and
lelocole hey. drop in couelte ribbon' (90 day
This PAPERBACK WRITER 61 WORD PROCESSOR is Ihg warranty) temronici paroJIaJ or RU32 serial port buill
linesl ovollobln (or ths COMMODORE 6' computer' in (Specify), liit 134'- ■: SALE (»t,fl. ILId.Qly.)
DISPLAYS jo or B0 COLUMNS IN COLOR or blotk and AH PiDlecPa i produf H tatty a minimum 90 doy wqrranty.
while! Simple lo operate. powerluL tgul ediling, if anything foili wifhiri 10 dflyi from ihe dole ol pLUthcue. 11" RGB & COMPOSIIE COLOR MONITOR
complete cursor ond Insert/delete key controls line limply sand your product to u$ via United Parcel Service
Mull be usad to gel 80 columns In colar wilh fi[
ond poragraph insertion, automatic deletion, prepoid. Wo will IMMEDIATELY send you a itplocemeni of
column campulers (CI28 ■ JGM - Apple).
centering, morgin settings ond output 10 oil printers' no charge wiai United Parcel Service propoid. Thiswotronty
provi'i once i iii—. in. ' We Lor* Our Customers*
(Add $14.50 shipping)
■ (99 00. SALE M».«. Coupon S29.95. ListS399.t». SfllE I1H.9S.

0 a.m. ■ 8 p.m. Wookdays
9 a.m. - 12 noqn Saturdays

Add 510.00 For inipping. hondling ond insuronce. Illinois residenls

pleose add 6". ta. Add S2O.O0 for CANADA. PUERTO RICO. HAWAII
AlASKA. APOFPO orders. Conodian orders musl be in U S dollars
Enclose Caihier* Check Manny Order o' Personol Chock Allow U
days <or dolivery. 2 (o 7 dayi for ptiono orders, I doy express moil! Box 550, Borringlon, Illinois 60010
312/382-5244 to order
List $399.00 10" Printer List$599.00 \SV3" Printer
T Yoar Warranty

'169 $239
00 120-140 CPS 00
E Premium Quality
10" Comstar I0X - This Bl-directional lfii/z" Comstar ISX - Has all the
Tractor/Friction Printer prints features of the 10" Comstar 10X plus a
standard sheet B*A"xii" paper and wider 1BH" carriage and more powerful
continuous forms or labels. High electronics to handle large ledger
resolution bit Image graphics, business forms! (Better than FX-I0O).
underlining, horizontal tab setting, true The 15^4" Comstar 1BX also prints on
lower descenders, with super scripts and standard size paper and continuous
subscripts, prints standard pica, forms and labels. Fantastic value.
compressed, expanded, block graphics, (Centronicsparallel Interface.)
etc. Fantastic value. (Centronics List $699.00. Sale $239.00.
parallel Interface.)
List $398.00. Sale $189.00.

List $499.00 10" Printer I Yoar Warranty List $699.00 15%" Printer

E $I99
10" Comatar 160+
High Speed - This
150-170 CPS
High Spood $289
Hi';" Comstar 160+ High Speed - This

Bi-directional Tractor/Friction Printer Bi-directional Tractor/Friction Printer

combines the above features of the 10" has all the features of the 10" Comstar
Comstar 10X with speed (150-170 cps) 160+ High Speed plus a wider 15^"
and durability. Plus you get a 2K buffer, carriage and the heavy duty electronics
96 user definable characters, super required for today's business loads. You
density bit Image graphics, and square can use large ledger business forms as
print pins for clearer, more legible print well as standard sheets and continuous
(near letter quality). This is the best forms and labels. This is the best wide
value for a rugged dependable printer. carriage printer In the U.S.A.
(Centronics parallel Interface.) (Centronics parallel Interface.)
List $499.00. Sale $109.00. List $699.00. Sale $289.00.

Lifatimo warranty*
List $599.00 10" Printer List $599.00 10" Printer

165-185 CPS
$259 00
High Spaed a Letter Quality
$259 00
With the flip of a switch you can go into

10" Comstar 2000 — The ultimate printer

has arrived! This Bi-directional the letter quality mode which makes all
Tractor/Friction Printer gives you all your printing look like it came off a
the features of the Comstar 160 plus typewriter. Turn in term papers, do
higher speed (166-180 cps), 2JS6 articles or Just print programs. Have the
downloadable characters, proportional best of letter quality and speed In one
setting, external dark printing mode and package. Fantastic printer (Centronics
a *llfetime printhead warranty. PLUS ... parallel interface.)
List $599.00. Sale $258.00.

• 15 Day Free Trial — I Yoar Immediate Replacement Warranty

' ' — Parallel Interfaces ■—-
Commodore-64, VIC 20 — $39.00 Atari — $69.00 Apple II, II +, He — $59.00
Add 110.00 (S14.5O for I5W Prininrs) for shipping, handling and
inuuuiice. Illinois resldWs please add 6% tax. Add $20.00 lor
Canadian ardors musi be in U.S. dollors. WE DO NOT EXPORT TO
Endow Cashiers Check. Monuy Ordar or Personal Check, Allow 14 22292 N. Pepper fid.. Barringlon, Illinois 600)0
days lor delivery, 7 to 7 doys tor phone orders, I doyeipresi mall I
VISA —MASTERCARD —CO.D. NoC.O.D. to Canada. APO-FPO. 312/382-5244 to order
Economy Model or C-128 Cadillac Quality
We have the lowest prices!
^ECONOMY DISKS For use with Commodore 64, Aiari. Apple.

Good quality S'/t single sided double density with hub rings
Bulk Poc 100 Qty. 59 ' eo. Total Price $59.00
Box w/ sleeves 10 Qty. 79 ' eo. Total Price 7.90

-A- C-128 Computer Disks iV

CADILLAC QUALITY (Double Sided, Double DeniltyJ SpecifIcally designed for use with C-12S
* Each disk certified ■ Free replacement lifetime warranty * Automatic dust remover • Works with IBM PC
For those who want cadilloc quality we have the C-128 Floppy Disk. Used by professionals because they can rely on C-128 Disks lo store
importont data and programs without fear of loss! Each C-128 disk is 100% certified (on exclusive process) plus each disk corries on
exclusive FREE REPLACEMENT LIFETIME WARRANTY. With C-126 disks you can have the peace of mind without the frustration of program
loss oiter hours spent in program development.


Some floppy disk manufactures only sample test on a botch bosis the disks they sell, ond then claim they ore certified. Eoch C-129 disk is
individually checked so you will never experience doto or program loss during your lifetime!


We are so sure of C-128 Disks thot we give you a free replacement warranty against failure lo perform due to faulty materials or
workmanship lor os long as you own your C-128 disk.


Just like o record needle, disk drive heads musl travel hundreds of miles over disk surfaces. Unlike other floppy disks ihe C-126 smooth
surface finish saves disk drive head wear during the life af the disk. (A rough surface will grind your disk drive head like sandpaper).
The lint free ouiomatit CLEANING LINER makes sure the disk-killers (dust & din) are being constantly cleaned while the disk is being
operated c_ J2$ Digk$ Qre definifety the Cadillac disk in the world
Just to prove it even further, we are offering these super LOW INTRODUCTORY PRICES
1 Box of 10 - $9.90 (99< ea.) 5 Boxes of 10 - $44.50 (89* ea.) 10 Boxes of 10 - $79.00 (79C ea.)
All disks come with hub rings and sleeves in on attractive package.


Everyone Needs A Disk Drive Doctor
• 60'/. of all drive downtime is directly relaied lo poorly
maintained drives.

' [' i-i ■ .Ili- ii ■ti.'.i .'tich week regardless ol use.

' Drives oro sensitive lo smoke, dusl & oil micro porticles.
■ Systematic operator performed maintenance is the best
way of ensuring error tree use of your computer system.


Improper maintenance can cause costly
read/wrile errors on your disk drive. Regular
cleaning of heads is essential tor maintaining RSI-COMPLETE PERSONAL COMPUTER CARE KIT1
high quality operation and eliminating expensive The RSI Complete Personal Compuler Care Kit contains everything you need la
downtime and repairs. The RSI Smorlcare Dry properly maintain your compuler system. This eosy to use kit makes necessary
Process Heod Cleaning Kit provides proper compuler care quick and inexpensive. In one convenient package you will gel ail
maintenance without Ihe mess. Simply insert Ihe the necessary products: 514" Dry Process Head Cleaning Disk (Good for 15
cleaning disk into the drive and activate for 30 thorough cleanings): Anli-Stalic Sproy (Eliminates static build-up. For use on
seconds. This kit contoins 1-open ended disk carpels, clothes, paper, gloss, hard surfaces, ond olher moleriol): Screen-
jackol and 2 cleaning pads, good for a totol of 30 Terminal Cleaner (Removes smoke, dust, and other conlaminonls on compuler
screens ond keyboords): Lint-Free Cloths (Non-scratch, non-obrasive. used for
cleanings. Applicable for both single and double
cleaning and opplying sprays lo computers}: Foam Covered Swobs (use lo clean
sided drives,
those hard to reach places such as keyboards, etc.). GREAT VALUE FOR THE
List 529.95. Soletl4.9S. Coupon $12.95.
MONEV!! List SJd 95. Sale t2?.»S. CouponS24.95,

Add S3 00 for shipping handling ond insurance Illinapv rendenli

jileoi. add t% tu>. Add IS.00 io< CANADA. PUERTO RICO. HAWAII.
ALASKA. APO-FPO ofden. Canodion o.deri mull be In U.S. dollars.
Enclose Cashiers Chech. Manny Ordnr a' Personal Chech AHow 14
days for dslivflry ? lo 7 days fo< phone ordeit I day eypreu moll!
22292 N. Pepper Rd.. Borringlon, Illinois 60010
No C.O.D.'O Canada. APOFPO.
312/382-5244 to order
Color Monitor Sale
Home Computers VCRs Modular TV Tuners Video Games

Excellent Color Reproduction The ZVM 131
& Special "Green Screen
Only" Option 95 Sound Of Quality
The output sound level is
True color reproduction is LIMITED externally reguloled by a
achieved by a Zenith QUANTIT IKS user-adjustment volume
designed state-of-the-ar! control. Use the Zenith
integrated circuit chip that quality sound system to
processes the composite monitor the modern audio
video signal. A custom capabilities of the computer
Zenith analog RGB direc! generation.
drive gain control integrated
Easy-Ta-Reach Front Access
circuit allows user-
preference for the
adjustment of picture drive ZVM I31's 13" diagonal
and black level. Zenith's display screen can exhibit
unique "Green Screen Only" impressive graphics and
feature eliminates all other intensely clear copy. Easy-
colors so lhat to-reach front access user
monochromatic text controls (picture, black
material moy be easily level, color level, tint,
displayed in green on the sharpness, audio volume,
black face screen. background noise control)
make display adjustment
Constant Intensity Character
simple and fast. An LED
Definition Quality power on indicator notifies
Quality circuitry design generates the user when the monitor is
crisp lines, pure colors, and sharp operable.
character definition for easy-to-
Multiple Monitors On
read displays. DC-coupling
permits the video display to Compatibility Chart A Single Computer

retain its color balance from ZVM 131 -Accessible by Computer Interfaces Via The composite video "loop-thru"
a single dot to o full screen Many Popular Systems feature permits a single
Apple II Composite
of data. Even when room The ZVM 131 is designed Aplut 3000 RGB
composite video source to drive
lighting changes, o "special to interface with most Apple III RGB several monitors at the same
light sensor" automatically personal computers, IBM PC RGB time. This allows easy display
Commodore 138 RGB. Composite possibilities for multiple
adjusts the display VCRs, video discs, video Commodore 64 Composite
brightness. games and modular TV Commodore Vk-JO Composite
viewers in business and
tuners that have either Tl 99/4 Composite educational applications. No
List $499.00
composite video or RGB Atari BOO Composite more crowding around a single
Sale $139.95 direct drive outputs,
Atari 1100
Atari 1400
terminal. Everyone enjoys a
clear, unobstructed view of
Connection Cables RGB Cable — $19.95 Composite — $9.95 important data.
C13B. Aplus 3000 (Specify) Commodore. Aplus 3000. Alori (Specify)

This Is The Best Value Of The Century

Add 417 SO lof shipping, handling and insurance. Illinois resident!
please add 6% lax. Add I35.DO lor CANADA. PUERTO RICO, HAWAII.
ALASKA APO-fPO orders. Canodion orders must be in U.S. dollars
Enclose Cashiers Check Money Order or Personol Chick. Allow 1* We Love Our Customers
days tor delivery. 2 to 7 days for phone order*. 1 doy eipiess moil1 22293 N. Pepper Rd., Borrington, Illinois 60010
No COD. to Canada. APO FPO 312/382-5244 to order
CO MMODORE64 $139"

COMMODORE 128 $00000


Deal 1 Deal 2
Commodore 64 Commodore 54 C128 Computer
Com. 1541 Dish Drive 1541 Disk Drive $289.00 *
13" Znilh Color Monitor

C128 1571
PLUS {REE 5 U ■. Gil PLUS FREE S43.95 Oil
Disk Drive
Burc■■' ftdvcilurl- Banns Adventure S259.00 *



(Expires 4-1-86) CM«

To Introduce you to the C128 computer we are offering you the finest word processor mode, Word
Writer II with Spell Checker by Timeworks. When you apply the $69.95 value word processor to
your purchase price of the Cl 28 ot $289.00 your net coit It only 9219.05. (1 coupon p«r family)

MM C1M Word Writer with I).000 word Spall Chockar — An 80 column professlonol word processing syitam lhat Includos o
spoiling chscker and a buill in calculator. Eosy la use bscauso of Iho full icroon formal, you can vi»w ths document on your screen
oi ll will appear when printed. Pull-down menui moan thai the uior doesn't hove to momoriie commands. You press a key lo
aciivote o Word Writer feature and the program guldai you ihrough lit proper use with logical and oosyto-lollow prompts. The
program has boon designed to interface with Tlmework's Daia Manager 3, a dotobaie program and Swiltealc, a spreadsheet.
Contains oil the features you'll need for everyday word processing, plus more sophisticated feotures such os document chaining,
form letter printout, page separations, horizontal and verticol scrolling ond much more. (Disk) List 169.95.



■k Commodore C12S Computer 1389.00. This oil-new revolutionary 128K computer uses Commodore 64 computer software,
CPM Software, plus new odvanced C-128 software. You pay only $2B9 for rhe C 12a computer! L«m the value of the Spaclai
Software Discount Coupon (see page 14 of our 64 page catolog) we pock with your computer that allows you to Save
Over 1250 off software sale prices! ! With only $100 of savings applied your net computer cost is S1B9.00. PLUS FREE
$69.91 Word Processor. "
* 340K 1571 Commodore Dilk Drive (254.00. Double Sided, Single Disk Drive for C-128 allows you to use C-128 mode plus
CPM mode. 17 limes (aster than (he 1541. plus runs Commodore 64 software. You poy only $259.00 for the 340K 1571
Commodore Disk Drive. Leu the value of the Special Software Diicount Coupon (see page 14 of our 64 page catalog)
we pack with your Disk Drive fhat allows you lo Savo Over *250 off software sole prices! With only $)00 of savings
applied your net Disk Drive cost is only $159.00.

Add SID.00 for shipping, handling and insurance. Illinois residents

pleose odd 6% tan. Add S20.00 for CANADA, PUERTO RICO. HAWAII.
ALASKA. APO-FPO orders. Canadian orders must be in U.S. dollars.
Enclose Cashiers Check. Money Order or Personal Chock. Allow Id We Love Our Customers
doys for delivery. 7 to 7 doys lor phone orders. I day express moil!
22292 N. Pepper Rd.. Barrington. Illinois 60010
NoC.O.D. to Canada. AF'OFPO 312/382-5244 to order
Commodore 64 Commodore 64
List $99.00

$09 95 ( Telecommunications
Coupon $24.95 LoWGSt-PriC& th&A. Coupon $24.95


Complete Auto Dial

Telecommunications Package
'The only telecommunications package you will ever need.
(Exclusive. Easy To Use Features)

• Only Good Color Graphic Database Service in the U.S.A. (C-64)
Viewtron Software Plus First Hour FREE (See the Protecto Software Catalog On-Llne) $9.95 value

* 300 Baud Modem * Auto Dial • Auto Answer * Upload & Download
Reach Out and Access Someone
• Educational courses * News Updates and Information
• Financial Information • Popular Games • Electronic Shopping
• Banking at Home • Research and Reference Materials

The Complete Telecommunications Package offers you all this plus ...
• Auto Log-on * Stores on Disk Downloaded Files
• Dialing from Keyboard • Reads Files from Disk and Uploads Text or Program Files
• On-line Clock • Selecl Any Protocol (access almost any computer or modem)
• Capture and Display High Resolution Characters • Plus Much, Much More
• Download Text, Program or Data Files ^^ ^^^ ^^^^ —^ ^^
_ ^ H^ fl m 95 Coupon $24.95
List S99.00 Sale ,^m ^W
We are so sure this is the only telecommunications package you will need we will give you 15 days Free Trial.
Viewtron Membership sold separately — $9.95.

Add S3 00 tor shipping, handling and insurance Illinois residents

please add 6% to-. Add S6.0O for CANADA. PUERTO RICO. HAWAII.
ALASKA APO-FPO orders. Canadian orders musi be in U.S. dollar*
Enclose Cashiers Chech Money Older or Personal Check Allow U
32292 N. Pepper Rd., Borrington. Illinois 60010
doys for delivery. 7lo7doysror phone orders. 1 doy express mail1
VISA — MASTER CARD C.O.D 312/382-5244 to order
NoC.O.D loConodo APO FPO
Disk Editor
Kevin Mykytyn, Editorial Programmer

For more advanced readers, here's a utility that don't need the ninth number. As
you finish a section of memory, you
offers power and flexibility unavailable with can type M without a memory loca
BASIC. With a few commands, you can easily ex tion to see the next section. When

amine and alter any byte on a disk. For the Com you're ready to save, use this syn
tax: S "filename",8,2EE0,3650. To
modore 64, Plus/4, 16, and 128 (in 64 mode). use Disk Editor from BASIC, LOAD
"filename",8,1 and then SYS 12000.
You probably use your disk drive or sector. But these commands are
mainly for saving and loading difficult to use.
How To Use It
BASIC programs, occasionally dab "Disk Editor" makes it easy to
To use Disk Editor effectively, it's
bling in sequential and relative examine and alter any byte on the
important to understand how a disk
files. BASIC provides simple com disk. Since it's written entirely in
is organized. A Commodore disk is
mands for using each type of file: machine language, "MLX," pub
divided into 35 tracks, each con
SAVE, LOAD, PRINT#, etc. When lished frequently in COMPUTEI's
taining a number of sectors (see
you type SAVE, for example, you GAZETTE, is required to type it into a
table 1). Each sector contains 256
don't have to worry about what in 64 (Plus/4 and 16 users should see
bytes. A disk has a total of 683 sec
structions to give the disk drive to below for instructions). After load
tors, but only 664 are available for
ing and running MLX, answer the
make it write your program on the data storage because the directory
prompts for starting and ending ad
disk. BASIC works together with occupies all 19 sectors of track 18
dresses with 2EE0 and 364F, re
the Disk Operating System (DOS) (track $12 in hexadecimal).
spectively. Type in Disk Editor and
to automatically perform ali the Disk Editor begins by reading
save it to disk. To run it, type LOAD
necessary tasks. track $12, sector 0, and displaying
"filename" ,8,1 and NEW. Then in
The disadvantage of using sert the disk you want to edit and the 256 bytes in that sector. {All
these simple commands instead of type SYS 12000. Note: Before using numbers in Disk Editor are in hexa
accessing the disk directly is lack of one of your regular disks, test Disk decimal for better screen format
control and power. For example, Editor with a new disk containing ting.) The editing cursor appears in
DOS has a scratch command, but copies of a few programs. If you've the upper-left corner. Move it
not an unscratch command. So if made a typing error when entering around the screen with the cursor
you accidently scratch a file, there's the program, it could ruin programs keys. The sector currently being
no way to bring it back, even on the disk. displayed is indicated at the top of
though all the information is still on If you're a Plus/4 or 16 owner, the screen along with the track
the disk. And DOS has the ability to you don't need to type in MLX; you number and the current byte num
lock a file so that it can't be can use the built-in machine lan ber within the sector. Notice how
scratched, but no command is guage monitor. Enter MONITOR to the byte number changes as you
available for using this feature. enable Tedmon and then use the move the cursor. Press the HOME
Accessing the disk directly memory display command: M key to quickly position the cursor at
gives you much more power and 2EE0. Now type in the hexadecimal the upper-left corner.
flexibility. DOS has several low- listing, omitting the ninth number on To make a change, move the
level commands for this purpose. each line. The first eight numbers cursor to the desired byte and type
The Block Read and Block Write are the ML program in hex form, in the new value. This doesn't
commands enable you to change the last is a checksum used by MLX. change the actual byte on the disk.
the contents of an individual block Since you're using the monitor, you When you've made all the changes
90 COMPUTE!1! Gazette February 19B6
you want on that sector, press tween ASCII and screen code for and sector numbers of the first sec
CTRL-W to write the sector to the mat. SpeedScript and some other tor that the file is stored. You can
disk. word processors store text as screen view the contents of the file by po
To display another sector, codes, while East/Script saves docu sitioning the cursor on byte 3 and
press + and type the new track ments as ASCII codes. pressing CTRL-J. Press CTRL-J
number at the top of the screen. CTRL-S displays the normal again to jump to the next sector in
Press — to change the sector num directory. Hold down SHIFT to the chain, and so on.
ber. The INST/DEL key allows you pause the scrolling. To exit the pro
to correct mistakes. Then press gram, press CTRL-X. It also closes Recovering A Scratched File
CTRL-R to read the sector and dis all files, and initializes the disk.
If you should accidentally scratch a
play it on the screen. If a track or
file, you can unscratch it with Disk
sector number is outside the range Changing The BAM Editor. Follow these steps:
shown in Table 1, Disk Editor prints
Bytes $4-8F of sector 0 are the
ILLEGAL TRACK OR SECTOR and 1. Don't save anything to the
Block Allocation Map (BAM). The
cancels the CTRL-R command. disk with the scratched file; you
BAM is divided into 35 groups of
may overwrite the sectors contain
four bytes each, one group for each
ing the program or data.
Table 1: track. The first byte of each group is
2. Load Disk Editor, insert the
Number of sectors per track the number of free sectors on that
disk to be altered, and SYS 12000.
track. Each bit in the other three
Track Number of sectors 3. Display track $12, sector
bytes represents a sector on the
1-17 track. If a bit is on, it means the sec $00. Press CLR/HOME to go to the
tor is free. If it's off, the sector is top and then CTRL-J (to get to the
25-30 first track of directory entries).
31-35 used.
Track $12, the directory, con 4. Switch from hex to ASCII, to

Disk Editor checks for errors tains all the information about how look at the filenames, which should
on all commands. If an error occurs, the files are organized on the disk. be at locations $05, $25, $45, and so
a message is printed and the com By changing a few bytes in this on. If the file to be unscratched is
mand is aborted. Press any key to track, you can perform some neat not in the sector, press CLR/HOME
continue. tricks. Sector 0 contains the Block to go to the first two bytes and then
Allocation Map (BAM), and the CTRL-J, to jump to the next sector.
To quickly get to an adjacent
sector, hold down SHIFT and press other sectors store the directory en 5. When you've located the
+ or —. Pressing + with SHIFT tries and are linked by the first twg correct directory entry, look three
displays the next highest sector, bytes in each sector. bytes to the left—$02, $22, $42, etc.
and pressing — with SHIFT dis Bytes $2-1F of sector 1 contain A $00 in this location marks a
plays the previous sector. information about the first file in scratched file. Change it to $82 to
Another way to move around the directory. Byte 2 is the file type. make it a program file, $81 for a se
the disk is CTRL-J (Jump), which A value of $82, for example, indi quential file.
uses the number under the cursor cates a PRC file. By setting bit 6 of 6. Write the sector back to the
as the track and the number in the the file type, you can lock the file to disk with CTRL-W and exit with
next byte as the sector. This is keep it from being scratched. Sim CTRL-X. To make sure the BAM is
handy for jumping to chained ply change the 8 to a C and remem correctly updated, you should vali
ber to write the sector to the disk date the disk with the line OPEN
A program on disk is stored not with CTRL-W. If you display the di 15,8,I5,"VO". This process may
in sequential sectors, but in sectors rectory with CTRL-$, you should take some time, but when it's done,
scattered about the disk. To link all see a < character next to the file the file has been restored.
these sectors together, the first two type, indicating a locked file.
bytes of each sector contain the Bytes 3 and 4 contain the track See program listing on page 113. ffl

track and sector numbers of the

next sector in the chain. The last
sector is flagged by a zero in the Table 2: Disk Editor Commands
first byte. The second byte contains
the number of bytes used in the sec CTRL-A Alternate between hexadecimal and screen
CTRL-J Jump to track and sector under cursor
tor. To jump to a chained sector,
CTRL-R Read track and sector at lop of
press HOME to put the cursor on
CTRL-W Write to track and sector at top ol sc
the link bytes, then press CTRL-J. CTRL-X Exit program.
When examining sectors con CTRL-S Display directory (SHIFT to pause).
taining a BASIC program or a text SHIFT-Commodore Toggle between screen code and ASCII
SHIFT-+ Display next sector.
file, it's helpful to display the bytes
Display previous sector.
as screen code or ASCII characters. Set track number.
CTRL-A toggles between screen Set sector number.
codes and hexadecimal format. INST/DEL Delete a character when entering track or sector number.
HOME Position cursor at upper-ieft corner.
When you're in screen code format,
Cursor keys Move cursor.
pressing the Commodore and
SHIFT keys together toggles be
COMPUWs Gazelle February 1986 91
Disk Or Tape?

Joseph Celentano Since the program has to be (the printer), PEEKing 186 will re
loaded into memory from disk or turn a 4 since the printer was the
// you've discovered a clever time- tape, you can PEEK 186 at the very last peripheral accessed. If you then
saving technique or a brief but beginning of the program to find run the program, it may attempt to
effective programming shortcut, whether the user has a Datassette load or input from the printer,
send it to "Hints & Tips," c/o or a disk drive. This could be the which is not possible. You can
COMPUTE!'* GAZETTE. // ive use it, first line in your program: avoid this situation by choosing a
we'll pay you $35. Due to the vol 10 DV = PEEKU86) default value for DV and changing
ume of items submitted, we regret it only if PEEKing 186 returns cer
If you plan to load another pro
that we cannot reply individually tain values:
gram later, use LOAD "filename"
to submissions. 10 DV-ll EE = PEEK(186): IF EE>7
,DV. To read from a data file, add
You've probably seen programs in OPEN l,DV,DV-l,"filename" at 10DV = 8:EE = PEEK(I86): 1F(EE = 1)OR
COMPUTBI's GAZETTE which need to the appropriate position in the (EE>8) THEN DV = EE: REM DISK

access files on disk or tape. The pro program. DEFAULT

gram may be listed in two parts; the The advantage to PEEKing 186 If you ever trade original pro
first program loads and runs the to find the current device is that you grams with friends or contribute to
second. Or the program may store can write a single program that can a user group library, you'll find this
important information in a data file. access files on either disk or tape, method of checking for the current
The article about the program based on the device from which the device number quite handy. <3B
usually has a section that says program was loaded. And you don't
something like "This program was have to bother the user with (D)ISK
written for a disk drive; if you own OR (T)APE? prompts. WITH YOUR COMPUTER
a Datassette, you'll have to make This technique is especially WALLSTREET MICROSCOPE
the following modifications," fol helpful when you own more than
Available lor; Commodore-64;
lowed by several lines that must be one disk drive. You can write pro
Apple II'. II E. II C: IBM and Compatibles
changed to make it work with tape. grams that will work without modi
• Slocks Judged by 10 Criteria
Why not make such programs fications on any one of the drives.
• 5 By Price (Cap Gains Potential)
universal by having the program Most software, whether commer • 5 By Financial Stability (Safety)
adjust itself for tape or disk? We cial or public domain, defaults to • Criteria Values May Be Sel Sy User
need a way to figure out what kind device 8, which means you don't
Eight Computer Programs
of storage device is attached to the often get to use your other drives. Thorough Documentation
computer. We could include a line You'll occasionally run into Comes Complete With
that prints (T)APE OR (D)ISK? and problems, though. If you load a 1500 Company Data Base

then GETs an answer from the user. program from device 8 (a disk $135.°°

That's one solution; here's another: drive) and then list it to device 4 lUpdates Available By Subscription!
Location 186 on the VIC, 64,
and 128 keeps track of the current COMPUTED Gazette is looking ■ Search Capsbailltles • Market Averages
• Single or Batch • Graphics
device number. The Plus/4 and 16 for utilities, games, applications
use location 174 (if you own either educational programs, and