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A Buyer's Guide To Commodore 64 Languages

January 1986 ©
Issue 31, \fol. 4, No. 1

02220 $3.75 Canada


Complete Inside: A BASIC compiler that can make your
Commodore 64 programs run up to 50 times faster!

ower BASIC:
Print Maker
Design your own screen,
then this program will
convert it to a BASIC sub
routine. For the 64, Plus/4,
16, and VIC.

Programming Music And Sound On

The Commodore 128
With the powerful BASIC commands of the 128,
making music is easier than ever.

Also In This Issue:

The Fast Assembler Horizons:
An efficient machine Another Look At C
language assembler for
the 64. Disk Disassembler Face-Off
If you like competitive, fast-
Software Reviews action games, you'll like
this one-on-one hockey
And More simulation for the 64. For
71486 02220 one or two players.
All you need to do this

.:■■_::.' : ■:

fix an engine write a novel learn lo fly

do your banking siuay asirology organize o daia base

ell a sfo-y fcrecGst win a gc!d medu

O IPH5 Commodore (fearoibci

*C'/*"iia refl(UereairaoerrK]ncoTDioirul»ewa(tli j
* ADOt* II a r*flltfer« uodomor* of Apple COnlOJIc
rake a birthday card compose o song design a dream house

master logic painl a picture leam to type

o froo improve your chess follow the stars

When it comes to personal computers, you want [he smartest

you can own. At a price that makes sense.
Feature for feature, the new Commodore 128'" system
outsmarts its competition, it comes with a powerful 128K
memory expandable to 512K, more than enough to start with
and stay with for years. An 80-column display lets you see
more of your spreadsheets and word processing. And with its
64,128 and CP/M® modes you have easy access to thousands
of educational, business and home programs now available,
it also has a state-of-the-art keyboard with built-in numeric
keypad to execute complex tasks with little effort.
The new Commodore 128. From the company
that's sold more personal computers Ihan IBM® or
Apple.® Look for it at a store near you. And discover
the personal computer that does more for you. At f he
price you've been waiting for.


A Higher Intelligence

Some Historic Breakthroughs

Don't Take As Much Explaining
As CompuServe.
business associates—anywhere in ultimate in interactive excitement.
But then, some historic
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CB Simulator features
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72 channels for "talking"
with thousands of other Movie Reviews keep that big
CompuServe, on the other hand.
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makes a considerably more civilized
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MAKE PHI BETA KAPPA stocks, bonds, funds, issues and In case you ever get lost or con
Options, Five years of daily com fused, just type in "H" for help, and
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College Entrance Examination wires provide continuously updated Kit, a computer, a modem to connect
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In fact, if you know
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fly over detailed United States OrWUm (Bon(637«a3

i >|4fiNnn,Mfilu lt<rtiv.Hii

scenery at Mach 2.
January 1986 Vol. 4, No. 1

The Commodore 64's Other Languages Selby Bateman 20 *
A Buyer's Guide to Commodore 64 Languages 28 *
The Natural Approach to Computer Languages Selby Bateman 34 ■
Languages of Convenience 40 *

Soundchaser Keyboard and MacMusIc Arthur B. Hunklns 52
S'More Todd Heimarck 52
Operation Market Garden and Kampfgruppe Neil Randal! 55
Stunt Flyer David Florance , 55
Fast Tracks George Miller , 57
Keys to Responsible Driving Gregg Keizer , 57
Also Worth Noting 58

Space Arena Bryan Files 48 64T
Face-OH Kevin Mykytyn and Mark Tuttle 50 64

The New MLX Ottls Ft. Cowper 64
BASIC Magic: Using That New Disk Drive You Got (or Christmas Michael S. Tomczyk 128/64/+4/16/V
Hints & Tips: The Power of SYS 64/V
Machine Language for Beginners: Blanketing Memory Richard Mansfield 64/V
Sprint: A Compiler for the 64 Robert A. Stoerrle 64
The Fast Assembler Yves Han 64
Programming Music and Sound on the 128 Philip Nelson 128
BASIC Backup John Ft. Hampton 64
Power BASIC: The Printmaker Manu Gambhir 64/+4/ 16/V
BASIC Windows Wayne Amett 64/+4/16
REM Highlighter Don A. Ellis 128/64/+4/16/V

The Editor's Notes Robert C. Lock 6
Gazette Feedback Editors and Readers 10
User Group Update 70
Computing for Families: Smart Power Tools—A Peek inside the Black Box Fred D'lgnazio 117
Simple Answers to Common Questions Tom R. Halfhlll 118
Horizons: Another Look at C Charles Brannon 119
Bug-Swatter: Modifications and Corrections 120
News & Products 121

program listings
How to Type In COMPUTEI'a Gazette Programs 123 *
The Automatic Proofreader 124 *

Advertisers Index 160

t All Commodore 64 programs in tfils Issue work on the Commodore 128 in 64 mode.
*=Gerwal, V=*VIC-20. 64=Commodore 64, +4=Plus/4, 16=Commodore 16. 128=Commodore 128

COMPUTE'S GAZPTTHis published monthly by COMPUTE Publications, In;.. Posl Office Bo* S406. Grernsboro, NC 27403 USA Phone' (919) 27S-9SW Editorial office* are localed
Jl 324 West Wendover Avenue, Grwnsboro, NC 2740S, Domestic Subscriptions: 121mm, (21. POSTMASTHK: Sendaddress chinges to COMPUTH!sGAZETTE, P.O. Bo* 10958, Dm
Molnes, IA 50930. Second class application pending al Greemboro, NC 2740.) and iddjttofl*] mailing officei. Entire tonlents copyright OI985 I'y COMPITIO Publication!, Int. All
nRha mervtd. ISSN 0737-3716. ....
COMPUTE Publics lions. Inc. One hi :\w ADC Publllhlng Compinln: ADC Tubllihing, 1'mldenL Robert C. Burton: 1330 Avenue ell Ihe Amcriras; New York. New Votk 10011. Mil
This represents the first time in the promise of funds and staffing and the same loss of industry-impacting
history of our publications that the many things not so readily personality that Creative does.
we're printing the same set of Edi available to us at COMPUTBI without This is a rather significant time,
tor's Notes in both COMPUTE! and in a McGraw-Hill behind us. both for my own personal reflection
computes GAZETTE. The reason for Creative Computing, undur of what we here at COMPUTE!/
this change of heart is a rather mas David Ahl's leadership, was at one ABC Publishing have accom
sive set of announcements—at least time the premier magazine of con plished, and on times past. We will
massive to me. In the space of two sumer computing. Time and assure you here and now that
weeks, we've learned that two of changes in the market eventually COMPUTE! Publications is and
our major competitors have chosen led to David's decision to sell to continues to be quite successful,
to close up shop. Creative Comput Ziff-Davis Publishing. Again, time quite ptoud of our place in the mar
ing magazine and Popular Comput and changes in the market have led ket, and quite determined to contin
ing magazine are both reportedly to their apparent decision to close ue to provide you, our readership,
ceasing publication with their De up the magazine. with alt* of the many services that
cember issues. To understand the Popular never seemed to estab have enabled us to grow and flour
significance of news such as this, lish its market niche with the clarity ish, even during these particularly
you have to be aware of a bit of the once demonstrated by Creative. It difficult times for the industry.
history and folklore of our industry. was always a junior introductory
COMPUTE! was first published as a magazine that never seemed to
fall 1979 quarterly issue. At that bridge the gap between first time
time, the largest, most successful buyer and BYTE, its very successful
publications in the industry were parent. Perhaps Popular is the best
BYTE magazine, Creative Comput example of that portion of our in
ing, Interface Age, Kilobaud Micro dustry that carne to rely on a mas Editor-In-Chief/Founder
computing, and Personal Computing. sive influx of new computer buyers
Popular didn't come along until the for growth. When, seemingly sud
fall of 1980. I remember my deter denly, our market dropped from
mination to someday catch up with 300 percent growth per year to 20
Creative Computing magazine in cir percent, the bottom fell out for
culation. But before we could pur many.

sue 100,000 or even 50,000, we had I applaud the immeasurable

to pursue 5,000, and it took many contribution to the personal com
months for us to achieve that goal. puting industry made by Creative
I remember too the twinge of Computing and its founder David
jealousy I felt when McGraw-Hill, Ahl. I regret the demise of Creative
then owner of BYTE and publisher and the demise of Popular as well
of die new Popular Computing an even though it doesn't represent
nounced in a flurry all of the many
expenditures being made in the
launch of their newest magazine. I
was even approached about the po
sition of editor-in-chief with a

6 COMPUTEIs Gazette January 1986

Sylvia Porter, and the editors of Sylvia Porter's Personal Finance Magazine, now combine with all the computer tools
you'll ever need to help manage your money on a day-to-day basis and plan your financial future, too. In Sylvia Porter's
style, without complicated financial jargon or "computerese".


Your Personal Financial Planner For Your Financial Future:

Helps you track your day-to • You'll be led step-by-step through a
day financial data, then com series of questions regarding your life
bines this information with your and lifestyle, your financial goals, and
future financial objectives to your current financial condition. Your
produce the most comprehen answers will enable a computer
sive and easily-understood finan to determine and print a summary
cial planning program available. of the amounts you must save each
year to meet your financial
For Your Day to-Day objectives - in both real and inflated
Affairs: • Helps you plan for protection
• Maintains your electronic check' against major medical adversities
book and credit card system. and other financial setbacks.
• Writes your checks and balances i Each program interfaces with
your checkbook. (We even built in a others in this series. Your
calculator and memo pad for you.) information can be
• Prepares and monitors your budget. incorporated into letters and
• Classifies and tracks your taxable reports produced by
income and expenses. Timeworks1 Ward Writer.
• Calculates your net worth and gener • Everything is integrated. You
ates customized personal financial need to enter data only
statements. once.

• Tracks your financial assets - and your

insurance policies. Available for Apple, IBM
• Graphically generates supplemental data, and Commodore computers.
such as percentages, ratios and charts,
• You get our Toll-Free Hotline and our Cus Moderately Priced - from your
tomer Technical Support Team at no charge. favorite Dealer or contact
• You get Timeworks' Money Back Guarantee Timeworks for the Dealer closest to you.
(Details in each package.)
Next in this integrated series:
Your Personal Investment Manager.

Other Timeworks Programs: The Evelyn Wood

Dynamic Reader ■ Wford Writer with Spell
Checker Data Manager 2 • SwiftCalc with
Sideways ■ Business Systems ■ Swiftax
Cave of the Word Wizard ■ Wall Street

More power for your dollar.

TIMEWORKS, INC., 444 Lake Cook Rd.. Deerfteld, IL 60015, 312-948-9200
C IW4 Sylvia PwiaS Parana! Finance Msgu™ Co a Timemris. Inc Air ngitt* r
Address al] advertising materials to:
COMPUTE! PublicationsJncflS Patti Stokes, COMPUTERS GAZETTE
324 West Wendover Ave., Suite 200, Greensboro, NC 27408
Or* of Hie />8C Publishing Companies
Sales Offices, Jules E. Thompson, Inc.
New England 617-720-1888
Mid-Allan tic 212-772-0933
Southeast 919-275-9809
Midwest 312-726-6047
Texas 713-731-2605
Pacific Northwest 415-348-8222
Publisher James Casella
Northern CA 415-348-8222
Founder/Editor In Chief Robert C Lock
Southern CA 213-378-8361
Director of Administration Alice S. Wolfe
Arizona 213-378-8361
Senior Editor Richard Mansfield New Mexico 213-378-8361
Managing Editor Kathleen Martinek Colorado 303-595-9299
Editor Lance Elko
Assistant Editor Todd Heimarck COMPUTEI Publications, Inc., publishes
Production Director Tony Roberts COMPUTE! COMPUTEI Book! COMPUTED GAZETTE

Editors Corporate Office:

Tom R. Halfhill, Editor, COMPUTE! Magazine; Stephen Levy,
324 West Wendover Ave., Suite 200, Greensboro, NC 27408
Editor, COMPUTE! Books Division; GailCowper, Production Mailing Address:
Editor; Ottis R. Cowper, Technical Editor; Charles Brannon, Post Office Box 5406, Greensboro, NC 27403
Program Editor; Selby Bateman, Features Editor Distribution Center
Assistant Editors 500-A Radar Road, Greensboro, NC 27419
Gregg Keizer (Books); John Krause, George Miller, (Technical); Telephone: 919-275-9809
Philip Nelson (COMPUTE! Magazine); Kathy Yakal, Assistant Office Hours: 8:30 AM to 4:30 PM Monday-Friday
Features Editor; Joan Rouleau, Research/Copy Editor; Ann
Davies, Copy Editor; Mark Tuttle, Submissions Reviewer President Robert G. Burton
Editorial Programmers Vice President, Finance ft Planning Paul J. Megliola
Patrick Parrish (Supervisor), Tim Victor, Kevin Mykytyn
Programming Assistant
David Florance
Administrative Staff Subscription Orders
Executive Assistant, Debi Nash; Julia Fleming, Iris Brooks, Jan COMPUTED GAZETTE
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Production TOLL FREE

Irma Swain, Production Manager; Janice Fary, Art & Design Subscription Order Line
Director; Lee Noel, Assistant Editor, Art & Design; De Potter,
Mechanical Art Supervisor; Terry Cash, Carole Dunton, 800-334-0868
In NC 919-275-9809
Dabney Ketrow (Publications), Debbie Bray (Books); Harry Subscription Rates
Blair, Illustrator
(12 Issue Year): US (one year) $24. Canada, Mexico and Foreign
Associate Editors Surface Mail $30. Foreign Air Mail $65.
Jim Butterfield (Toronto), Harvey Herman (Greensboro),
Fred D'Ignazio (Roanoke)

Customer Service
The COMPUTE)'* gazette subscriber list is made available to carefully
Philippa King, Customer Service Manager; Gail Jones, Dealer screened organizations with a product or service which may be of
Sales Supervisor; Judy Taylor, Customer Service Supervisor; interest to our readers. If you prefer not to receive such mailings,
Dealer Sales Staff: Rhonda Savage, Liz Krusenstjerna; please send an exact copy of your subsrription label to: computers
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Receptionist, Anita Arm field
Authors of manuscripts warrant (hat all materials submitled to
Lonnie Arden, Warehouse Manager; Staff: Howard Ayers, COMPUTE! s gazette are original materials with full ownership rights
David Hensley, Larry O'Connor resident in said authors. By submitting articles to compute!'!
gazette, authors acknowledge that such materials, upon accep
Data Processing tance for publication, become the exclusive property of COMPUTEI
Leon Stokes, Manager; Chris Cain, Steve Bowman, Assistants Publications, Inc. No portion of this magazine may be reproduced
in any form without written permission from the publisher. Entire
contents copyright © 1985, COMPUTEI Publications, Inc. Rights to
Paul J. Megliola, VP, Finance & Planning; R. Steven Vetter,
programs developed and submitled by authors are explained in our
Director, Finance & Planning; Karen K. Rogalski, Financial
author contract. Unsolicited materials not accepted for publication
Analyst; Staff: Jill Pope will be returned if author provides a self-addressed, stamped en
Credit velope. Where programs are included in an article submission, a
Staff; Sybil Agee, Pat Fuller, Doris Hall, Linda Miller, Mary tape or disk must accompany the submission. Printed listings are
Waddell, Jane Wiggs optional, but helpful. Articles should be furnished as typed copy
(upper and lowercase, please) with double spacing. Each article
page should bear the title of the article, date, and name of the
Caroline Dark, Promotion Assistant
author. COMPUTEI Publications, Inc., assumes no liability for errors
Advertising Sales in articles or advertisements. Opinions expressed by authors are
Ken Woodard, Director of Advertising Sales; Patti Stokes, Production not necessarily those of COMPUTEI Publications, Inc. COMPUTEI
Coordinator; Kathleen Hanlon, Administrative Assistant Publications assumes no responsibility for damages, delays, or fail
Sales Representatives ure of shipment in connection with authors' offer to make tape or
Jerry Thompson 415-348-8222 disk copies of programs published herein.
EdWinchell 213-378-8361 PET, CBM, V1C-20, Commodore 64, Plus/4, 16, and 128 are trade
Harry Blair 919-275-9809 marks of Commodore Business Machines, Inc., and/or Com
Jules E. Thompson, Inc. modore Electronics Limited. Other than as an independent supplier
National Sales Representatives of quality information and services to owners and users of Com
1290 Howard Avenue, Suite 303 modore products, COMPUTEI Publications, Inc., is in no way asso
Burlingame, CA 94010 ciated with Commodore Business Machines, Inc., or any of its

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Editors and Readers

Do you have a question or a problem? First, find a volunteer to be the club 64? I have heard that Commodore had
Have you discovered something that librarian. The best place to start in setting some problems with the early 64s and
could help other Commodore users? up a program library is with your group 1541s and later upgraded them; should
Do you have a comment about some members. You may find quite a few who 1 wait until the bugs are worked out
thing you've read in computers ga have written programs they're willing to before buying a 128 or 1571?
zette? We want to hear from you. share. Or you could sponsor a contest and Jeff Knott
Write to Gazette Feedback, computed award prizes to the best programs. Some
You can use single-sided disks, disks con
GAZETTE P.O. Box 5406, Greensboro, members may have downloaded programs
taining 64 programs for example, with the
NC 27403. We regret that due to the from a bulletin board system (BBS) or oth
1571. Also, nearly all commercial soft
volume of mail received, we cannot er online information services. You could
ware for the 64 zvorks fine with the 1571.
respond individually to program also correspond with other user groups
So far, we have found only one disk that
ming questions. that have already built up libraries to see
does not load on the 1571 fit does load into
how they went about it, or offer to trade
64 mode with a 1541). The problem seems
public domain disks and newsletter sub
to be the copy-protection method, and the
scriptions with them. Some user groups
Changing Grays software publisher is working on a new
put their nezvsletters in the public do
On my black and white television, my version that will load correctly.
main; you can reprint articles from these
VIC displays black characters on a You can use a 1541 and a 2571 Hi the
publications in your own newsletter.
white screen, while- the 64 shows white same time, but they can't both be device
Commodore's national user group co number eight. There are two switches on
characters on a black screen. If I buy B
ordinator, Pete Baczor, may be able to give the back of the 1571 that control the de
64, is there a way to change the screen
you some guidance. He may be reached vice number, and it's quite easily done.
to black characters on a white back
c/o Commodore Business Machines, 1200 And the 1571 does work with a 64, but it
Wilson Dr., West Chester, PA I93S0. won't be able to work at the faster speeds.
A. R. Brink
The Toronto PET User Group (TPUG), We haven't heard of any bugs or me
On a color TV or monitor, you would see probably the largest Commodore user chanical problems with the 1571. There is
that the VIC's screen is white with blue group in the world, offers associate mem talk of a planned minor ROM revision for
characters and the 64 is blue with light berships, which allow groups to order in the 128, though. On the first versions,
blue characters. Your black-and-white expensive public domain software from its when the CAPS LOCK key is down, the
television displays these colors as white, huge library. Annual dues for an associate letter Q displays an unshifted Q rather
black, or shades of gray in between. A sin membership are S25. Write to TPUG, Inc. than the ball character (SH1FT-Q). Also,
gle POKE to 53281 Will change She 64's Membership Information, 101 Duncan LOCATE and some other graphics com
screen to one of the 16 colors (numbered Mill Rd., Suite G7, Don Mills, Ontario, mands work with +xand +y, but not —x
0-15) available. For example, POKE Canada M3B IZ3. and -y in the "relative to the pixel
53281,1 changes the background io Program distribution among mem cursor" option. Neither of these is a seri
white. To change the character color, hold bers can be handled in several different ous problem.
down either CTRL or the Commodore key ways, depending on the size of the group.
and press one of the keys numbered 1-8. If your group is large enough to support
Another way to do the same thing is to its own BBS, members can call in and Disk Storage
POKE 646 with a number from 0-15. download programs, as well as upload is it OK to store disks in the box they
Characters on the VIC screen can programs that they wish to contribute. came in or should they be kept apart?
have any of the eight CTRL colors, black This will require some extra maintenance Does a disk containing programs emit
through yellow, but not the other eight. time for the system operator (sysop). Many any magnetic field that could affect other
groups ask members to bring blank for disks nearby?
matted disks to meetings and have a copy R. Gumula
Finding Public Domain Programs ing session before or after the main
You shouldn't have any problems storing
Our user group would like to trade meeting. Or the group could supply its
disks together in one box. There's no
information and noncopyrighted pro own disks and prepare them before each
chance that a disk will scramble data on a
grams with anyone who is interested. scheduled meeting. Orders could be taken
neighboring disk.
Can you give us some suggestions on at each meeting for the next month's disks.
starting a library of public domain
programs? Fading Away
Randolph Scott Zimmer 128 Compatibility Questions On a game 1 am creating, I have an en
When a software author puts a programin 1 have some questions about the 128 gine sound that is constant; it has to
the public domain, it means people can and the 1571 disk drive. Will 1 be able to play all of the time. 1 tried it on the 64
make copies for themselves or others. User use single-sided disks with the new and the sound gradually goes away. On
groups often collect public domain pro drive? Can I use my 1541 as a second my VIC, I could turn on a sound and it
grams and offer them at no charge to their drive without hardware or software would play through the whole game.
changes? Does the 1571 work with a Justin Luton

10 COMPUTERS Gazette January 1986

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Sound on the Commodore 64 is made up of cay end Immediately, and sustain starts at seven. In general, any negative number
four parts: attack, decay, sustain, and re 100 percent of the volume you selected. means the hunter should move left (sub
lease (the "ADSR envelope"). The gate bit When the gate is turned off, the release tract one column) and a positive number
of a voice controls when the sound is period is zero and the note stops. means to move right (add one to the col
turned on and off. It helps to visualize the umn). The same logic determines whether
ADSR envelope: the hunter should move up or down.
The BASIC program below for the
VIC and 64 uses the Kernal plot routine at
location 65520 (on all Commodore com
puters) to place two shapes, an asterisk
and a ball, on the screen. To use this rou
tine, POKE 782 with the horizontal posi
tion and 781 with the vertical position;
then SYS 65520.
On the Plus/4 and 16, eliminate the
POKEs in lines 200-210 and change the
GATE GATE TIME first SYS to SYS 65520.0XX and the sec
ond to SYS 65520,0,B,A. On the 128, make
the same changes and add BANK15 at the
beginning of 200.
You move your character with the
Listen To Disk Loads cursor keys. The ball follows closely be
ON Foi anyone interested in hearing "Turbo- hind and catches you if you stop. The SGN
When the gate is turned on, the at Disk" (July) in action, all you have to do function in line 180 converts negative
tack begins—the sound gets louder. It in is POKE 54296,15 and turn up the vol numbers to —1, positive numbers to +1,
ume. Each beep represents a disk block and leaves zero alone. This number is
creases in volume gradually or suddenly,
depending on the number you POKEd into being loaded, although they go by too added to the hunter's current position to
the attack/decay register. The larger the fast to be counted. There's a slight make it move up or down, left or right.
pause each time the read/write head
attack number, the longer it takes to reach 100 Xl=10:Yl=IOiAl=2O:>HslO
the peak. The peak volume is the loudest moves to the next track and then the
110 PllINT"lCL.R)"
beeping resumes. You can also listen to
the sound will be during the cycle; it's de 120 AS=" ":DS=" ":X=OX:Y*OY:A=
termined by the number you POKE into a standard load (without TurboDisk),
the volume register. Next, the decay be which is much slower. 130 A? = "*":BS = "Q":X=X].:Y=YliA=
Eric Fern Al jB=B.1:GOSUU200:OX = X1 :0Y=
gins and the sound gets softer. The length
of the decay varies according to the num You've discovered something called cross 140 GETKS:IFK?="[Up)"TUENYl=Y1
ber in that register. talk. It's similar to talking on the tele -1
Here's where some people might get phone and hearing snatches of another 150 ifks="£down)"thi;nyi=yi+i

confused. Attack, decay, and release are conversation. As you noted later in the 160 Ib'KS=" {RIGHT) "THEHX1=XI+1
all time periods—how long it takes to 170 IFK5""lLEFTj"THUNXl"Xl-l
letter, shielding the sound chip would
complete one phase of the ADSR envelope. L80 T=(T=0): IFTTHENA1»AI+SGH(X
prevent it from picking up signals from 1-A1 ):B1=B1+SGN(Y1-B] )
Sustain is not a time, it's a volume level, a disk loads. L9(5 FOKA=lTO50iNEXT:GOTO 1 20
fraction of the peak volume. The sound 230 i'OKE782,X:POi;E781, Y:SYS65 5
you create will continue at the sustain
level until you turn the gate bit off. Then Playing Tag 210 POKH7fi2,A:POKt;7ai,B:SYS655
the release phase begins and the note I've been trying to make one character 20:I'UINTQS; : RETURN
gradually (or suddenly) fades. home in on another character on my
The key to solving your problem is VIC-20.1 think it's called artificial intel
the sustain value. An envelope with an at ligence, Could you explain how it works New 128 Error Messages
tack five, decay five, and sustain zero and maybe include a program? I just bought a Commodore 128 and
looks like the figure below. The sound Mike Baluch have a question. If I try to draw a circle
peaks and then goes away. A zero sustain without the hi-res screen on, I get a NO
means the note will level off at volume Making one character chase another GRAPHICS AREA error. I've seen
zero (no sound). doesn't require anything as complex as ar Commodore 64 programs that draw a
tificial intelligence. It can be done with hi-res scene and then switch it on after
fairly simple math. it has been drawn. 1 am writing a game
The screen of your VIC has 22 col and want to display the instructions
umns and 23 TOWS, The position of a char while the hi-res screen is being drawn,
acter can be described by which column then enable the hi-res screen. Is this
and row it occupies—the "x" and "y" co possible?
ordinates. The top left corner is (0,0) and Phil Gaylord
the bottom right is (21,22). (The same
principle applies to 40 and 80 column You can draw on a hidden hi-res screen on
screens of other Commodore computers.) the 128, Plus/4, and 16 if you establish a
The hunter and prey characters each graphics area first. To do that, put the
have their own x and y positions, which GRAPHIC command somewhere near the
GATE TIME you would store in a variable. If you sub beginning of your program. The two state
ON tract the hunter's x-coordinate from the ments GRAPHIC 1: GRAPHIC 0 are
But if you set sustain at 15 (the maxi prey's, you'll get a number that tells you what you need. You might also want to
mum') and put zeros in attack, decay, and how the hunter should move. Say the prey clear the hi-res screen either with a
release, the envelope will act like the tone is in column eight and the hunter is in col SCNCLR or by adding a ,1 (GRAPHIC
generator on the VIC. The attack and dc- umn 15. Subtract to get a result of minus 1,1). The GRAPHIC I statement turns on

12 COMPUTE'S Ga2ette January A986

- ■:-'■

7 \K

~~m £~~\ ^

attic & role.

Warm up your Commodore' and gcit readv 'or irt The Lords of Midnight. Choose your role. Capture
fijtl-screen graphic action. the source of Doomrlark's power or
Save Ilia industrial world From going off !>>t; . conquer his forces in battle. Over 32.000
deep end of Ihe Ridifcr scale in Quake Minus :; different panoramas ensure n challenge,
O/w.Stopllw lerrorisis from triggering a Visit your software dealer. Ask lo see the
mnssivouarlhcinnkciind lopplingcivtli/alton; ': new Beyond Lino from Mindscape. And
lit Sh,nitwlin\ Ambassador Kiyxix has,;1' v. discovernmphics, advciituro^jxc.iteinenl.and
hrrii kidn.ippi'd.Yoii hnvi'hul UX) rea!-tlm'e 1 fiin that's beyond Ixjtiel.
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then riijslroy I he evil Zofl ;ind his slaiship.
I inbarkonaquosl tcdofeat Doomdark

Mirtrfscape, Inc. :UI4 Dundee Road, Northbrook, Illinois6(10621-«X)-2?1-9B84. (In Illinois 1-800-SM? 7315)
t 1j»KMj'H|'h il|V, l«l .M'ii,ihi'. IV .i-m'.i C i'^M^^.iini. I u PliA^d llKAf^lldri n W'lM -iili-i'iili'in.iU ■ -i.;.i,T'■ ip I . ininicn JiVi- iL. .i 1f,irl<'li|.jrfi i iHLi)nni» in- I'um
1T0150 s NEXTiNKXTiFORX=12T02 To send a line to a printer, you must first
the hi-res screen ami sets up the graphics
area. And GRAPHIC 0 sets the screen STKl'-L open a channel to the printer and then
60 POK£S+24,X+32;FOKU=1TOIU«:N
back to text. To turn the screen back on, PRINT* the line to it:
add another GRAPHIC I later in the 10 OPEN 1,4.7
program. 70 POKES+24,32lFL=liGOT.Ol0 20 l'RINT'THIS LINE GOES TO THE
One thing GR/\PHIC does is carve U)t) HEM C MAJOR DATA 16,IS1),25 SCREEN"
out a protected area of memory for the hi , 30 , 4 2 , fj 2
res screen. Try this simple experiment.
,49,47,107 -10 PRINT#1:CLOSE 1
Turn on your 128 and enter PRINT
FRE(O), FRE(1> to see how mud! memory The three numbers after OPEN are
you have in banks zero and one. Now type the logical file number, the device num
GRAPHIC I: GRAPHIC 0 and then Get Rid Of READY ber, ami the secondary address. The logi
I'RINT FRE(O), FRE(l) again. You 1 recently purchased an SC-10 printer cal file number can be any integer up to
should see that bank zero, wheraprograms with a G-VVU interface. It works j;reut, 127 and is used after the PRINT* state
are stored, has 9K iess memory than but I wonder if you can tell me how I ment to identify which peripheral should
before. The hi-res screen needs 8K for the can g« rid of that "READY." that al- receive the information. Commodore
bitmap and IK for color memory. vv.iys appeals when it's through printing. printers are usually device number four,
BASIC programs are normally stored Luis A. Mata and the secondary address of seven means
at (hexadecimal) address S1COO. Setting the characters will be printed in upper-
up a graphics area moves the beginning of The commands for listing a program to the and lowercase rather than uppercase and
BASIC up to $4000. leaving room for the printer are OPEN 4,4: CMD 4: LIST. If graphics. To print graphics characters,
you prefer upper/lowercase listings, change the secondary address from seven
hi-res screen at $20O0-3FFF and color
memory at S1CUO-IFFF. change the first statement to OPEN 4,4,7. to zero, or just leave it off (OPEN 1,4).
Hither way, when it's finished, enter PRINT" can send data to tape or disk
PRINT#4: CLOSE 4, files, modems, or printers, making it more
Can You Strum A 64? The reason the READY prompt ap versatile than LPRINT, which is limited
pears is fairly simple. OPEN paves the to printers-
Is it possible to make the 64 sound like
way for communications to the printer.
a playing a chord? How can 1 du
Usually LIST or PRINT sends characters
plicate an open D ur open C chord?
to the screen, but CMD reroutes all output Commands
jercmy Baer
to the previously opened channel to the 1 purchased a Commodore 128 a couple
The 64's SID chip is capable of playing printer. When you list a program to the of weeks ago and was ijuite anxious to
three voices simultaneously. You can't screen, the READY prompt always follows run some programs on it, so I picked
precisely duplicate the notes of the open the listing (BASIC treats READY as an your program "Litter Patrol." I received
guitar chords you mentioned because an error message that means there have been a SYNTAX ERROR in line 510 because I
open D requires four strings (notes) ami an no errors). So when CMD diverts the list began the line without spaces, like this:
open C five. And even though the SID ing to the printer, it also diverts the IFHTANDC-215. Is the 128 more
chip is capable of myriad sounds, it cannot prompt. sensitive to spacing?
truli/ simulate an acoustic string instru Don't blame the printer or the inter Kenneth H. Smith
ment like a guitar. Acoustic string instru face, blame BASIC. The solution 11 to altei
ments have a unique sound quality the way BASIC works. The following pro Your 123 isn't more sensitive; that line
created by resonance (a sustaining or re gram—for the 64 only—changes the error would cause trouble on a VIC, 64, Plus/4,
echoing quality caused by sound bouncing vector so it won't print READY terror or 16. The problem is that you've acci
within the wooden body of a guitar, for ex messages are disabled as well). After load dentally placed a hidden command in the
ample) and overtones (harmonic sound ing and running this program, enter SYS line. TAN is a BASIC function that figures
frequencies higher than the original 828 to turn off the prompt and SYS 828 to out the tangent of an angle. The computer
frequency). turn it back on again. interprets HT ANDC correctly, but sees
You can play three-note chords with HTANDC as containing the keyword TAN.
the SID. A D chord contains a D, fjf, and :NKXT:PHINT"[CI.R]SVS 828 TO
This type of problem is often difficult to
A, and a C chord contains a C, E, and G. detect because the line looks correct.
You could program each voice to play one 20 DATA 162,131,160,164,173,85 BASIC programs are stored in memo
of these notes. And you can roughly simu ,3,73,1,141,05,3,208,4,162, ry in tokenized form. Each keyword
late a strumming sound by very slightly 139,160,227,142,0 (PRINT, POKE, etc.) is turned into a one
30 DATA 3,140,1,3,96,0
staggering the time intervals between or two byte token before it's put into mem
each of the notes played. Here's a short ory. Tokenizing 'ins two advantages. First,
program that pla\/s two chords (to select a a great deal of memory is saved—instead
chord, delete the REM C MAJOR or REM Translating Other Dialects Of BASIC of five bytes for the five letters P-R-I-N-Z
D MAJOR from one of the DATA state only one is needed. Second, when a pro
In many books about printers I've seen
ments!. We've tried to get as close to an gram is executing, it's much faster for the
the term LPR1NT. What does this mean
acoustic guitar sound as we could. BASIC interpreter to find one or two byte
and how can I use it in my programs?
tokens than it is to find whole keywords.
10 S=54272:FOR X=STO5+24:POKEX Scott Petoff
As soon as you press the RETURN
Some versions of BASIC include the usual key, the line is tokenized. All keywords are
PRINT statement for displaying text on changed to their corresponding tokens ami
U:POKLS+6,247 the screen as well as a separate LPR1NT any non keyword data is stored as ASCII
33 POKES+12.0:POKES+13,.!47:POK statement for sending text to a printer. text.
LS+19,0:POKKS+J0,24 7;POKES* Since TAN comes before AND in that
Punters are sometimes called "line print
ers," hence the origin of the term LPRINT, line from "Litter Patrol," it is tokenized
40 [|OKES+11,16:POKES-H8,16:R=5
4 266:FORX=ri'03:R=R*7:REAI)HF There's no single command like first. The solution is to break up the line
,LFiWKEft,HF LPRINT in Commodore BASICs, though, with a space between the T and A.
50 POKEK-1 ,LF:l'0Kt:K+J,17:FOHU = so you can't use it in your own programs. Here are a couple more examples of
54 COMPUTERS Gazotto January 1986
(Hi. I'm from Baltimore. Where's the pharaoh?)

Africa, 1890
Up that river lies You have inherited
the African a madman's diary
Adventure of your ... and his dream to
imagination. find the tomb of
The mysterious Dark an ancient pharaoh.
Continent. Where the
Ancient songs still sung
mighty Kilimanjaro
by tribal historians contain
towers over the Source of
clues to the hidden tomb
the Nile. Where the
of a fabulously wealthy
Congo snakes through
pharaoh. The madman's
steaming jungles and the
last feverish words drive
scorching Sahara sun
you onward: "I now know
bleaches men's bones.
it does exist. I am so
Africa. Where legends
close, but so near death,
of secret treasure drive if you hear no more from
men mad with desire. me, then warn those that
And where an adventurer follow: this is not a journey
can still find glory and for the weak of spirit
gold...or a lonely death or dull of mind. Come
far from home. prepared!'—H. Primm,
May 21, !889

A Living Map of Africa Follow Your Dreams Decipher Native Clues

11 million square miles stuffed inio your com Set your course and t'<> for it. The computer Local myths will help, if you can get the na
puter; Navigate 17 rivets. Hnck through jungle automatically maps your progress and keeps tives to talk. Enter their huts. Learn their cus
and swamp. Sail to len cities. Learn the ways your journal. If you get lost, it can tell you toms. Pass out some bribes. The chief might
of 22 tribes. Explore savannah, deserts and "The River Nile." What it won't say is "about tell you, "Look whete the sun rises over the
mountains. It's all geographically accurate. to get sucked over the Kabelega Falls'' Childless Waters'' Now try to figure it out.


Specifications: Available no*1 for Commndore 64 &. 128. Infinnely playable because ihe computer hides ihc inmb and creasuie in new places each time you start How to orderi Visit
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one of the appendices of the bonk that sound like a typewriter. Well, I don't
embedded keywords: HEADER"DISK
came with your computer. On the 64 and know machine language. Would you
1",IF1 contains IF, which confuses BASIC,
128 (40-column mode), you would POKE please write it for me?
and B=TOR127 contains TO (as in FOR
2024,1 to put the letter A in the corner. Masoud Keshmiri
|-I TO 5).
Note that you must use screen codes (also
The following program adds both clicking
listed in an appendix) and not ASCII codes
and speed control to anything that's
Emulating BSAVE when POKEing to the screen.
PRINTed on the 64. It's a short machine
Another way to put a letter on the
How do you save a section of memory language program that goes into the cas
screen at that location is by inserting a
to disk as a program file? sette buffer. After typing RUN, you can
Steve Lefcort character. Whenever a character is insert
control the speed at which characters are
ed, the characters to the right are pushed
printed by POKEing location 2. The high
Saving a section of memory can be useful for to the right. The general idea is to print
er the number, the slower the printing.
many things. Text screens, tii-res screens, the corner character at the second to the
For the fastest printing, POKE 2,1. For
sprite data, machine language, and charac last position, cursor left, and then push it
extremely slow printing, POKE2,255. To
ter sets can all be saved to disk or tape and into the corner with the shifted INST/
make it sound even more like a typewriter,
later loaded by another program. DEL key. This program illustrates this
have your own program change printing
Many computers have a command to method,
speeds now and then, maybe every word
save a section of memory (the Commodore
10 PRINT"SCLR)'"; :FQRA=1TO24:FO or two.
128 uses the command BSAVE). The 64
does not have such a command in BASIC. EXT
But you can use the following short Mi 20 F0RA=lTO39:PRINT11*11; :1JEXT:P
20 DATA 120,169,93,141,38,3,16
program which emulates BSAVE: RINT"{Lt:FT) [ INSTJ'";
30 GOTO 30
10 FORA=705TO761:READ[i:POKi:A,Ji 30 DATA 3,169,0,160,23,153,0,2
On the 128, Plus/4, and 16, it's pos 12,136,16
PRINT"DATA ERROR" sible to turn off screen scrolling altogeth 40 DATA 250,169,15,141,24,212,
20 DATA 32,253,174,32,158,173, 169,1,141,5
er. In direct mode, press the ESCape key
32,130,183,166 50 DATA 212,38,96,72,138,72,15
and then "M" to turn scrolling off, and
30 DATA 34,164,35,32,1B9,255,3 2,72,166,2
ESCape L to turn it back on. Escape has 60 DATA 160,0,136,208,253,202,
40 DATA 2,168,32,186,255,32,24 the ASCII code 27, so within a program 208,250,169,10
1,2, 165,20 you would PRINT CHRS(27);"M" to turn 70 DATA 141,1,212,169,32,141,4
50 DATA 133,251,165,21,133,252 off scrolling. One more may to do it is .212,169,33,141
,32,241,2,166 iTA 4,212,104,168,1434,170,
POKE 248,255 (POKE 2025,255 on the
G0 DATA 20,164,21,169,251,76,2 34,76,202,241
Plus/4 and 16), To enable scrolling POKE
70 DATA 174,32,158,173,76,247, 248,0 (POKE 2025,0 on the Plus/4 and
183 161.
Scratching The Unscratchable
To save a section of memory type:
How do 1 delete a disk file that i've
SYS 705,'''filename", device number.start 128 Calculator Mode named "*" by mistake? If I follow the
address,end address + l 1 have a numeric keypad that plugs into normal procedure, the entire disk will
For example, the text screen could be my 64.1 use it to enter programs with a be scratched. It cannot be renamed
saved to disk with SYS 705,"SCREEN",8, lot of DATA statements by program either.
1024,2025. This saves screen memory ming one key (the period) to type Moshe Politis
only; you'd have to handle color memory DATA and redefining the plus key as a
comma. But the program that does this The asterisk is a wildcard, so using OPEN
separately. The screen could then be load
on the 64 will not work on my new 128. 15,8,15,"S0:*" would indeed scratch
ed from a program with the following
Any suggestions? every file on the disk. (This is one tech
Donnie D. Shanholtz nique for quickly clearing everything from
10 IF A-l THEN 30 a disk. Another is to reformat the disk
20 A = l: LOAD "SCREEN",B,1 You could load the program into the 128 without the two-letter ID.)
30 REM REST OF PROGRAM and disassemble it with the built-in moni The way to scratch the asterisk file is
tor, but it might take a long time to rewrite to use the olher wildcard, the question
it. Here's a better suggestion: mark. OPEN 15,8,15,"S0:?" will scratch
Pushing And POKEing The 128 already has a built in nu every file with a one-letter name. Ij you
How do you put a character in the very meric keypad and the function keys di have other one-letter files you wish to
botlom right corner of the screen? rectly above it are redefinable. To make it keep, rename them with a longer name
Ryan Wiihm easier to type in DATA statements, define (two or more characters) before the
one function key to print a comma and and scratch.
Whenever something is printed on the one for the word DATA with KEY 1,","
screen, the cursor moves to the next posi and KEY 3,"DATA". The same idea can
tion on the screen. So when the cursor is at turn your 128 into a calculator. Define Organizing Files
the last column on the bottom line, print one key as PRINT, and define two others My reference books don't explain how
ing makes the screen scroll up to make as ' and / (for multiplying and dividing). to use index files with relative files.
room for more characters. Most of the time
Could you shed some light on the
this is an advantage, but when you want
to create a title screen with a border, this
Sound Effects For PRINT George Trout
feature can be very annoying.
There are a couple of ways to solve A while back, you had a program that Relative files are superior to sequential
the problem and put a character in the slows down printing, like the Apple's files in some applications because they
corner. Probably the easiest way is to SPEED command. You suggested that give you random access to records. To
POKE this location with the character you readers who know machine language read record 50, for example, you would
want. Look at the screen and color maps in could add a clicking sound, to make it position the disk pointer and then GET or

16 COMPUTE'S Ga;etffl January 1986

Get more out of your Commodore with


More fun Children will learn and

develop new skills with States
8c Capitals Tutor, Wordmatch,
Munchmath, Wordspell, Con
i'ft -vff '"" nect the Dots, Aardvark
Attack, and Alfabug. Comput
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Menu, VIC Timepiece, The
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Skydiver, Snake Escape, De
mon Star, Cyclon Zap, and Oil More buying
Tycoon are just a few of the
ready-to-run games you'll find guidance
exclusively in COMPUTER'S You'll profit from comprehen
Gazette each month. Just sive reviews of everything from
type in the programs and data-quality cassette tapes to
watch your screen explode software to graphics plotters
with colorful new computer and modems. Virtually any
game excitement. thing that's compatible with
your Commodore is reported
on in COMPUTED Gazette,
With this kind of expert help,
More challenge every computer purchase you
make can be the right one!
Ready to tackle more ad
More programs
vanced projects? In COM-
PUTE's! Gazette, you'll learn Programs to help you balance
how to use tape and disk files, your checkbook, store your Order now
how to program the function addresses, keep tax records, All you do is moil the postpaid
keys, writing transportable manage your personal busi card bound into this issue. But
BASIC, how to make custom ness. You can create your don't delay! Subscribe now to
graphics characters, new own programs and games, start receiving every issue of
ways to enliven programs with improve your word processing,
COMPUTE'S Gazette,
sound, one-touch commands spreadsheets, and data base
for the 64, how to use ma management, load and run For Faster Service
chine language, speeding up faster with 64 Searcher, Call Toll-Free
the VIC-20—and much more! VIC/64 Program Lifesaver, 1 -800-346-6767
move items 732-1000 up a notch in the The machine language section of the Pro
INPUT the information there. With a se
quential file, you'd have to read all of the array: FOR f=1001 TO 732 STEP -1: grammer's Reference Guide calls some
49 previous records before reaching the A(l) = A()-l): NEXT. Then A(732) operation codes (opcodes) "Future Expan
50th record. =■ 1001 wraps things up. sion," which means they're currently un
To alphabetize or otherwise sort a defined, but may be defined sometime in
relative file, you could read all the records the future. Nevertheless, if you include
into memory, organize them, and then them in an ML program, the unimple-
PRINT In Machine Language
write them all back to disk in alphabetical mented opcodes actually work as instruc
What's the bust way to display a large
order. But sorting that way uses up a lot of tions.
amounl of text, like instructions to a
memory. It also takes a long time to read When a chip like the 6502 or 6510
game, in machine language? I would
the entire file and then write it back to fetches an instruction from a machine lan
think there would be an easier way
disk. An index file is often a faster way to guage program, it keeps track of where it
than loading a number for each leller is with an internal register called the pro
handle sorting.
and storing it.
As a simple illustration, imagine that gram counter (PC). If the PC points to
David Di'Haai
you've put four customer records into a 49152, the number held in 49152 is fed
relative file: Then are several ways to display strings into the processor as an opcode, an in
to the screen in a machine language pro struction to perform an operation. The
1. Smith, shirt, $10
gram. As you noted, loading a register eight bits of the number trigger switches
2. Jones, shirt, 512
with a screen code and storing to screen inside the chip. Similar instructions have
3. Farley, shoelaces, $5
memory is one, but remember that you similar binary numbers: STA absolute has
4. Olson, belt, $20
have to store to color memory as well. You the opcode $8D, while STA absolute in
Each record contains thrse fields; can also load the accumulator with the dexed by X is S9D. There's a difference of
name, item purchased, and price paid. To a single bit. Likewise, SIX absolute is S8E,
ASCII value of a character and fSR SFFD2
create an alphabetical list of customer just one bit away from STA absolute lop-
(the Kerna! routine for outputting a char
names, you would initially read all the code SSD).
acter). For long strings, you could use a
names into a string array and create a nu The unimplemented opcodes, some
loop like this:
meric array of pointers to the string array: times called quasi-ops, follow similar pal-
Before After C002 LDA SC400.Y terns, based on which bits are on or off.
Sort Sort C005 JSR SFFD2 The number S8F, for example, performs a
All) 1 3 COOS INY logical AND of the Accumulator and X
C0O9 CMP #$00 register and then stores the result in an
A(2) 2 2
C00B HNK SC002 absolute (two byte) address. In most cases,
A(3) 3 4
C00D RTS quasi-ops make the processor try to do two
A(4) 4 1
Put the ASCII values of the charac instructions simultaneously.
The relative file remains scrambled, ters into memory starting at location The problem with using these op
with Smith, fones, Farley, and Olson—in codes within a program is that newer re
SC40O and insert a 0 right after the mes
that order. But the array holds the index visions of the 6502 family of chips may not
sage. The Y register is both a counter for
numbers for the sorted list: 3 (Farley), 2 support these instructions, so you can't
the loop and an index to the table.
(Jones), 4 (Olson), and 1 (Smith). The'four Here's one more ML solution. Fre depend on them working in future com
numbers 3, 2, 4, and 1 would then be writ puters. Also, most aren't very useful. It's
quently when you want to do something
ten to a sequential file. You could create not likely that someone would need an in
that BASIC does very well (like PRINT),
several index files, one for alphabetizing struction that ORs the accumulator with
it's convenient to use the routine built
names, one for the subfile of people who the number SEE, ANDs the result with
have bought shirts, and so on. another number, ami transfers the result
routine can be found at these locations:
This may seem to be a lot of extra to the X register.
work, but it pays off when you're working Commodore 64 SAB1E 43806
Quasi-ops are sometimes used by
with large files. Say you've got a list of VIC 20 SCB1E 51998 software companies as a means of soft
1000 names in a relative file and an index Plus 4/16 S9O88 37000
ware protection, since standard disas
file, with 1000 pointers to the records in Put the text string that you want semblers will not translate these
the relative file. Now you add a new re printed into memory. The string can con instructions properly. A comprehensive
cord (number 1001) to the relative file. To tain up to 254 characters and must end list of the unimplemented opcodes is con
update the index file, read the index num with a 0. Next, load the accumulator with tained in the appendices of Programming
bers into an array and do a binary search. the low byte of the address of the text the VIC and Programming the 64 (both
Find the 500th number on the list— string ami the Y register with the high available from COMPUTE! Books). W
the middle of the alphabetized list. Let's byte. Then call the routine with a fSR in
say A(500) is 321 and that record =322 in struction. This routine can print any of
the relative file is a customer named "Li/- the ASCII characters, including control
ons." If the new record is "Stanley" you COMPUTED Gazelle is looking for
codes like color changes or cursor controls.
know that, alphabetically, the new record utilities, games, applications educa
is in the second half of the list. With one tional programs, and tutorial articles.
comparison, you've eliminated half the If you've created a program that you
list. It's not necessary to read through the Future Expansion think other readers might enjoy or
entire list, you just divide the list in half a I've got a question concerning the use find useful, send il, on tape or disk
few times and decide if the name there is of the unimjilemented 6502 opcodes in lo: Submissions Kevietwr, COMPUTE!
too low or too high. (For more on this machine language programming. Ex Publications, P.O. Box 5406,
method, see "Quick Search" in "Hints & actly what do these opcodes do when Greensboro, NC 27403. Please en
Tips," July 1985.) they are encountered in a program? close an SASE if you wish to have
After about ten comparisons, you Does the microprocessor carry out an the materials returned. Articles are
might discover that customer 1001 (Stan instruction? ! would like to know if any reviewed within four weeks of
ley) belongs between 731 and 732 on the one has published a list of these opcodes. submission.
alphabetical index list. So, you have to Dennis Wilson
18 COMPUTE'S Gazette January 19B6
*.,« innovative in form as His
in content. I/they're ail as good as
Mindwheet, we have a lot to look

"Technical!/ and artistically, it

represents the 'wave otthe present'
in interactive fiction''

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L E C T R 0 N I.C NO

Mindwheel, Essex and Brimstone, MINDWHEEL survival. You are the adventurer
Fascinating stories, compelling Every mind that has ever been who must travelthrough four j
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characters, intriguing ideas, rich
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Changs-all the elements ofthe
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Electronic Novels are written
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Youplay the part ofSir Gamin,
They're not "computer versions"
proud Knight of the Round Table, in,
ofexisting novels- they 're.stories
a mystical guest for truth, chivalry,
conceivedesp ecially lor this new
and a Hule peace and quiet. All
In the world ofElectronic you 've got to contend with is the
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Novels, you have a lot more to do
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You'll find that each character . to medieval sorcery.
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stayslheseme forlongbecause BEGIN WITH A BOOK
ever/thing happens in real time. So Set the stage and introduce your
self to the characters with the
just because that room was
graphic, hardbound book included
empty the last lime you entered it,
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a 8/I0DIHBIIW sptrmne couPAir

UIM1HHIII Bfiusmttt im( MM « ki,IUIi Hi ttsll Uiiiima Cem/MtliHt H IIU PCiPCIHK,' tnl Out Ittwut nmliatit In mat aUmiliM iluf Von Ptiuni- f'""f ■"«*.! It 17 fat Daw.
One or your first discoveries as a Commodore hat's a sure way to start1 a't
64 owner is the presence of a programming argument? Try criticizing;
computer programmer's
language called BASIC built into your favorite language. ■',
computer. Each time you turn on the system, Logo, C, Forth, Pascal, COMAL,
BASIC is ready to go—an easy to use, general- PROMAL, and.a.handful of other pro
gramming language's for your Commo
purpose programming language. But BASIC is dore 64 all have their own cheering
not the only programming path for your sections and their critics, Each of these1
Commodore, and often it's not the most languages represents to one degree or an
other a step away from the native tongue
efficient. For a few extra dollars, you'll find of your computer—machine language, a
plenty of other languages that do a lot of binary-based language of ones and
things differently—and often, very well. zeros—and toward a more English-like

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F or
take you several machine language
Look at a few testimonials: every operations to accomplish what
"Logo is the most misunder could be done in BASIC or another
stood language in the history of high-level language with one com
programming," says author and programming mand, the computer doesn't have
teacher David Thornburg. "Logo is to translate the machine code. It
based on Lisp, the premiere lan
guage of researchers in artificial in
language, you' acts on it directly.

telligence, and it has all of the

The great majority of people who
capabilities of that language." find supporters learn to program on their own
"(The C language} trans
start with BASIC. After all, it's built
portable, and that's one of the rea
sons it's so popular. It produces o would never into your Commodore, making it
immediately accessible. BASIC,
very efficient code. Things that you
which stands for Beginner's All-
couldn't do with BASIC, you can ise anything else. purpose Symbolic Instruction
do with C and not have to resort to
machine language," says Arnie £:■■■y 6—■ Code, was created at Dartmouth
College in the early )960s for the
Lee, president of Abacus Software, prefer a very structured program express purpose of teaching begin
which markets Super C, among ming environment, such as Pascal, ners to program. There are many
other languages for the 64. while others like the flexibility of a variations of BASIC now, some
"(Forth) is a language that's less structured language. Both fac built into personal computers and
optimized for high performance, tors have a great deal to do with the others available on cartridge or disk.
for programs that need to be espe
popularity of a programming lan If you have a Commodore 64, your
cially quick or small," says Martin guage. computer has Commodore BASIC
Tracy, president of MicroMotion So there's no single best lan 2.0; the Plus/4 and the 16 have
and author of Mastering Forth. "It's guage; some are just better, or more more commands in a BASIC version
really a developer's language. The appropriate, for certain types of 3.5; and the 128 has the richest
novice can rapidly learn it, but it's
programs or programming styles. Commodore BASIC, version 7.0.
not as natural as other languages." An important consideration in (For a closer look at these BASICs,
"By using COMAL, you get some cases is the time it takes a pro see "Exploring 128 BASIC" in the
what BASIC should have had; you
gram to run versus the time it takes November 1985 gazette.)
get the structures that are very use
to write the program. Certain BASIC 2.0 doesn't contain
ful, and you get a turtle graphics benchmark tests do show measur commands to let you directly con
system that you would have able differences among languages, trol the excellent graphics and
bought Logo for—all in one sys usually based on speed and effi sound capabilities of the Commo
tem," says Len Lindsay, president
ciency of operation. But there's a dore 64. To remedy that, there are
of the COMAL Users Croup USA. tradeoff; speeding up a program programs, either cartridge or disk-
"(PROMAL) is the most pow often means spending more time based, which extend BASIC by add
erful and innovative programming working on it. ing new commands. Simons' BASIC
language and development system For every programming lan and the Super Expander 64 are two of
available for the Commodore 64."
guage, you'll find supporters who the best known of these extensions.
says John R. Segner. president of
would never use anything else. Simons' BASIC adds 114 commands
SMA, creators of PROMAL.
There are even user groups for most to assist with high-resolution graph
of the major languages, some with ics, sprites, program debugging, and
Can all of these endorsements thousands of members. Most of music and sound effects. If that
be correct? Is there a best lan these languages are called high lev many new commands seems daunt
guage, or are they all equally good? el (some, like Forth or C, are consid ing, try the Super Expander, which
The answer to that has to do ered mid-level); that is, they are adds 32 new words to BASIC to aid
with two general principles which more removed from machine lan in programming graphics and
programmers soon learn: What's guage, and closer to human lan sound. Also included are ten differ
considered the best programming guages. Your computer doesn't ent instrument sounds, and a sprite
language depends on what you're really understand any of these editor. One of the newest and most
trying to program and your own high-level languages. It must inter powerful BASIC extensions for your
personal programming style. Some pret them, changing the symbols 64 is Cardco's S'inore, which brings
languages are better at producing into machine code, which it then the 64's BASIC almost to the level of
fast-action arcade-type games with uses directly. the 128's powerful BASIC 7.0. {See
colorful graphics, sprites, and mu Machine language is not a pro the review of S'more elsewhere in
sic. Other languages may be more gramming language in the same this issue.)
appropriate for educational pro sense as BASIC or other languages. Despite the great success of
grams and teaching purposes. Still While it may seem more difficult to BASIC, not all programmers agree
others may be better equipped to learn than most high-level pro that it's the best language to learn
handle payroll systems, inventory gramming languages, machine lan first. David Thornburg, a supporter
programs, and related business guage is popular because of its of the Logo language, has found that
software. And some programmers power and speed. Although it may his computer science students have
24 COMPUTE'S Gazelle January 1986
% 1

You've joined an elite pilots, do battle with enemy saucers and destroy enemy
Rescue Squadron, flying to gun emplacements.
the hostile planet Fractalus We supply the Long Range Scanner, Dirac Mirror
to confront the ruthless Shield and Anti-Matter Bubble Torpedoes ... YOU
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The mission is a treach of Fractalus await you.
erous one for. as everyone twininntmi

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... for the merciless Jaggi onslaught must be stopped
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Rescue on Fractalus! is a rescue and space action MCOMPUTSRSOFTWARE
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1043 Kiel Ct., Sunnyvale. CA 94089
Valkyrie Fighter through the canyons and around the
mountain peaks of the planet Fractalus to rescue fellow StrategyGamesfor theAction-GamePlayer
an easier time learning other lan throughout the world. A good
guages if they've never been ex espite the source of information on Logo is the
posed to BASIC. Len Lindsay, a National Logo Exchange, P.O. Box
COMAL language supporter, says 5341, Charlottesville, VA 22905.
that BASIC'S weaknesses led to the great success of Pascal
creation of COMAL. And others Another programming language
complain that BASIC has evolved
into an unstructured, inefficient lan
BASIC, not all which has had a major impact in
schools, especially at the university
guage which teaches poor program
level, is Pascal. Named for French
ming habits. Nevertheless, millions programmers
mathematician Blaise Pascal, the
of people have learned how to pro
language was created in the 1970s
gram in BASIC and enjoy its relative
simplicity, ease of use, and general-
agree by Niklaus Wirth of Switzerland as
a medium for the teaching of struc
purpose capabilities.
tured, organized programming.
Whatever your final opinion of
It has evolved since then into a
BASIC, as a Commodore owner you
general-purpose language that's
have several other languages avail
also used extensively for business
able to you. Each of them has a
and scientific programs. Pascal is
faithful following, some numbering
taught in hundreds of high schools
into the thousands. But, you'll have
and universities, and the Scholastic
to purchase whatever new language
Aptitude Test (SAT) advanced-
you try, either on disk or cartridge,
placement test in computer science
and then load it into your computer
fuzzy.' But the fact is that Logo is not is based on Pascal. There are several
with each use. Most programmers
warm and fuzzy. It has a warm and Pascal software packages available
believe that's a small price to pay,
fuzzy component, but Logo is also a on disk for the Commodore 64.
considering the enjoyment of learn
chainsGW—you can do some pretty PILOT
ing a new language and the results
extraordinary things with Logo."
of programming. PILOT was developed in 1968 at the
Logo contains a number of
Logo University of California at San Fran-
commands, called primitives, which
Logo has become one of the most cisco Medical Center by John Stark
a programmer uses to create pro
popular programming languages in weather to serve as a computer-
grams. But these primitives can also
the field of education since its devel aided instruction (CAI) tool. PILOT
be combined to create brand new
opment by a team of computer sci (Programmed Inquiry, Learning, Or
commands, allowing you to extend
entists headed by MIT professor Teaching) was planned as a pro
the language in ways which you
Seymour Paper! in the 1960s. Pa- gramming system for nonprogram-
can't with a language like BASIC
pert and his team wanted to create a mers — sometimes called an
(which offers only defined func
language which would be easy authoring system—for develop
tions, a limited sort of extensibility).
enough for children to learn, but ment of teaching resources and
Another aspect of Logo is its modu
would be expandable enough to de testing.
lar programming structure, which
velop power and depth. A part of lets a programmer break down vari It was to be used by teachers
the language contains easy to use ous parts of a program into separate and administrators who were not
graphics commands, called turtle expected to have programming
components. This also makes Logo
graphics {so named because the first knowledge. Therefore, the language
easier for teachers as they try to ana
use of the language controlled the is simple to use and particularly
lyze their students' programs. As a
movements of a small robot that re good for screen displays and for the
result of this and of Logo's similarity
sembled a turtle). However, the full to some advanced languages, some kinds of True-False branching re
Logo language is based on LISP (for computer science teachers recom
quirements used in testing. Conse
LISt Processing), a very powerful mend Logo as a first language rather quently, it's not meant to be as
high-level language especially suit than BASIC. sophisticated in the areas of compu
ed for text manipulation and analy Commodore Logo is a fairly tation and file-handling. Commo
sis and used in artificial intelligence powerful version of the original dore markets a version of PILOT for
research. the 64.
Logo, and has commands which let
Although most references to you control the 64's graphics, in Forth
Logo emphasize the language's suit cluding its sprites, as well as the SID As with Pascal, there are several
ability for teaching children with its sound chip and other features. versions of Forth for the Commo
turtle graphics, Logo supporters Commodore Logo comes on a pair dore 64. Developed in the 1960s by
point out that the language is really of disks, one of which contains the Charles Moore, Forth was meant to
very powerful. "What happened language and the other a collection be a jump ahead of the third-
with Logo was that people said, 'Oh, of more than 50 utilities and demon generation computers of the time—
a language for learning—so Logo's for strations. There is also a 350-page a "fourth generation" language.
kids,' " says Thomburg, author of a manual. "Fourth" reportedly became
half-dozen books on Logo. "(Com Logo's widespread use and "Forth" because Moore's IBM com
puter dealers) said 'I can go sell that popularity have encouraged the puter would allow a maximum of
as a kid's language; it's warm and growth of a variety of user groups five characters as identifiers.
26 COMPUTE'S Gazene January 1986
SUMMER GAMES' to know why people are wild over
Want some great play action? This WINTER GAMES. Seven events give
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A Buyer's Guide To
Commodore 64 Languages
Language Publisher Price Comments

Aila Training Course Abacus Software, P.O. Box 7211, Grand 559.95 Comprehensive subset of Ada language
Rapids, Ml 49510 on disk.
BASIC Lightning Oasis Software, 377 Oyster Point Blvd., S39.95 BASIC extension and graphics
Unit 15, San Prandsco, CA 94080 development system on disk.
COMAL 0.14 and COMA!. Users Group, USA, Lid., 6041 0.14 Version for 0.14 Version includes demonstrations
COMAL 2.0 Monona Drive. Madison. VV1 53716 SI 1; 2.0 for and interactive tutorial on disk, plus
$H9.95 reference book; 2.0 is full COMAL
implementation on cartridge.
C Power Pro-Line Software, Lid., 755 The $99.95 C compiler; includes book with disk.
Queonsway East, Unit 8, Mississauga,
Ontario, Canada 1.4Y 4C5
C-64 Forth/79 Performance Micro Products, P.O. Box $69.95 Follows 1979 Forth standard; on disk.
370. Canton, MA 02120
Enhanced Forth Accel em tod Software, Inc., P.O. Box Price not Follows FIG-Forth standard: on disk.
129, Slation A, Scarborough, Ontario, available
Canada M1K 5D9
Forih-64 Language Abacus Software, P.O. Box 7211, Grand $39.95 Forth language, follows 1979 Forth
Rapids, MI 49510 standard and parts of 1983 standard.
Kynn Paaatt ICyan Software, Suite 183, 1650 Union $49.95 Pascal language on disk with tutorial
Street, San Francisco, CA 94123 manual
Logo Commodore Husiness Machines, Inc., $73.95 Disk-based Logo.
1200 Wilson Drive. West Chester, PA
Master Forth MIcroMotfon, 12(177 Wilshire Blvd. $100 Follows the Forth 1983 standard;
*506, Los Angeles, CA 90025 includes graphics system.
Nevada COBOL Commodore, 1200 Wilson Drive, West $55.95 For experienced COBOL users; used
Chester. PA 19380 with Commodore CT/M cartridge.
Nevada Fortran Commodore, 1200 Wilson Drive, West $55.95 For experienced Fortran programmers;
Chester, PA 1938(1 used with Commodore CP/M cartridge.
PILOT Commodore, 1200 Wilson Drive, West S55.95 Educational language on disk.
Chester, PA 19380
PROMAl. Systems Management Associates, 3700 $49.95—end-user On disk.
Computer Drive, P.O. Box 20025, version; $99.95—
Raleigh, NC 27619. developer's
Simons' BASIC Commodore, 1201) Wilson Drive, Wfesl S34.95 BASIC extension on cartridge.
Chester, PA 193B0
The Sixty Forth Elcomp Publishing, Inc., 2174 West $39.95 Forth compiler on disk.
Foothill liivd.. Unit E, Upland, CA
Super C Language Abacus Software, P.O. Box 7211, Grand $79.95 C compiler on disk.
Compiler Rapids, MI 49510
Super Expander 64 Commodore, 12(10 Wilson Drive, West $29.95 BASIC extension on cartridge.
Chester. PA 19380
Supcrforlh 64 Parsec Research, Drawer 1766, $59.95 Follows 1979 Forth standard.
Fremont, CA 94538
Superforth 64 + Parser Hcsearch, Drawer 1766, $99 Forth language, plus expert systems
Artificial Intelligence (AD Fremont, CA 94538 development module.
Super Pascal Abacus Software, P.O. Box 721!, Grand 559.95 Pascal language development system,
Rapids, MI 49510 also includes graphic toolkit an'd fast
UItniBASIC-64 Abacus Software, P.O. Box 7211, Grand $42.95 on disk; BASIC extension on disk or cassette
Rapids. Ml 49510 $39.95 on cassette tape.
Video BASIC-64 Abacus Software, P.O. Box 7211, Grand $39.95 BASIC extension adds more than 50
Rapids. Ml 495111 graphic, sound, and utility command*.
White Lightning Oasis Software, 377 Oyster Point Blvd., $49.95 Forth language on disk; includes BASIC
Unit 15, San Francisco", CA 94080 1 .ightning.

28 COMPUTE!'* Gazelle January 1986

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build from ftwetn iiun-1 Give «n pnipertin QabtU "iUci shift" mranJkf Ej»ji[m' PFpe ailiniiurM included A r«l bargain'

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Cataloffue Offcn 2755 Campus Drive, San Mateo, CA 94403.
Like Logo, Forth is an extensi for the 64, the earlier COMAL 0.14 and FORTRAN were both created
ble programming language, but on disk and the fully implemented in the 1950s, the former to handle
with quite a different approach from COMAL 2.0 on cartridge, both from business programming tasks and
most languages. It's considered a the COMAL Users Group USA, Ltd., the latter as an aid to scientists and
mid-level language, somewhere be 6041 Monona Drive, Madison, WI engineers. The Commodore 64 ver
tween the high-level languages like 53716. sions are aimed at experienced pro
BASIC and machine language. grammers, and must be used with
Forth, like Logo, is extensible. the CP/M (Control Program for
Words from its command vocabu Created in 1972 by Dennis Ritchie, Microcomputers) cartridge. Accord
lary can be used to define other the C programming language has ing to Commodore, both the CO
words which in turn become part of become very popular, especially BOL and FORTRAN disks are
the vocabulary. You're essentially within the last few years. Its power compatible with CP/M 3.0, which
writing your own computer lan and transportability from one com is built into the 128.
guage based around Forth. Like Pas puter to another have made it the Also for the 64, Abacus Soft
cal, Forth separates programming language of choice for much of the ware sells a package called the Ada
into structured modules. applications programming for Ap Training Course, an introduction to
First used to control the move ple's Macintosh, Atari's 520 ST, and a programming development sys
ments of a large telescope, Forth's Commodore's new Amiga. (See "C: tem used extensively by the De
development over the years has re Language of the Future?" in the Oc partment of Defense. Although it
sulted in several different standards. tober issue and "Horizons: Another would be impossible to implement
Each standard represents a different Look at C,"elsewhere in this issue. the entire Ada system on a 64, the
stage of evolution in the continuing But there are also at least a couple package is useful for its structured
growth of Forth. of versions available for the Com programming techniques and its in
The popularity of Forth is prob modore 64 as well. It's popular troduction to Ada and to compilers
ably best expressed in FIG, the Forth among software developers for two (utility programs which translate
Interest Group, a California-based reasons: C programs usually run high-level language into machine
non-profit support organization faster than programs written in code).
which has a membership of over other languages (except machine Although there are literally
5,000 Forth users worldwide. For language), and once a program has hundreds of different programming
more information, contact FIG at been written, it can be translated languages and variations of lan
P.O. Box 8231, San Jose, CA 95155. fairly easily to run on other guages, those available for the
A FIG hotline is staffed to answer machines. Commodore 64 will give you an ex
Forth-related questions at (408) 277- F-ROMAL cellent introduction into the major
0668. And the FIG Tree is an on-line categories of programming lan
PROMAL (PROgrammer's Micro guages and development systems
computer database which offers
Application Language) is a recent
Forth information through your beyond BASIC.
addition to the languages available
computer at (415) 538-3580. {Once For more specific information
for the 64. This high-level language
connected by modem, hit the RE on languages for your 64, see the
is structured in ways similar to C
TURN key twice to start.) accompanying chart, "A Buyer's
and Pascal, and emphasizes sim
Guide to Commodore 64 Lan
COMAL plicity, power, and speed. Created
guages." q
When Borge Christensen of Den by Systems Management Asso
mark created COMAL (COMmon ciates (SMA), PROMAL is meant to
Algorithmic Language) during the appeal to a wide range of program
early 1970s, he was seeking to re mers who have at least a working
knowledge of BASIC or another COMPUTE!'* Gazette is
place BASIC as the major program
high level language. In addition to looking for utilities, games,
ming language in schools and
the "end-user" version of PRO applications educational
homes. He reportedly wanted to
keep the interactivity of BASIC but MAL, there's a developer's version programs, and tutorial articles.
add to it the structure of Pascal. The for those who wish to create profes If you've created a program
sional quality programs and market that you think other readers
resulting language has continued to
gain popularity in both Europe and might enjoy or find useful,
in the U.S., especially in schools. send it, on tape or disk to:
COMAL is generally regarded as a In addition to the languages al Submissions Reviewer
language easy to learn and use, with ready mentioned, there are sev COMPUTE! Publications
a structured form that makes teach eral other packages for the
P.O. Box 5406
ing the language less confusing. Commodore 64 which you may
The editing capabilities are exten Greensboro, NC 27403
wish to investigate. Commodore
sive, and programming is modular. sells versions of two programming Please enclose an SASE if you
The most popular versions of languages used primarily in busi wish to have the materials
COMAL are -for Commodore com ness and science, Nevada COBOL returned.
puters since the language is particu (COmmon Business Oriented Lan Articles are reviewed within
larly suited for the Commodore's guage) and Nevada FORTRAN four weeks of submission.
features. Two versions are available (FORmula TKANslator). COBOL
30 COMPUTE! s GbzbUb January 1986
HSR" %:


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9 Mi
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MH iiS%

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L ._-__------------1
Selby Bateman, Features Editor

How would you like to converse with your computer

just as you do with another person? No special
programming languages with unfamiliar commands,
statements, and symbols—simply conversational
English. Researchers in the fields of artificial
intelligence, expert systems, and robotics are working
toward that goal. They're still a long way from
achieving it, but the results so far are changing the
way we think about and use computers.
34 COMPUTE'S Gazette January 1986
At an automated factory, always stay beyond reach. Others ware was written in an extension of
a plant manager uses feel that natural languages will one the Fortran programming language,
ordinary English day be the dominant method of called Slip. Other versions, some
phrases to type in the computer-human communication. watered down from the original,
day's orders to a roomful of com New menu-driven user inter were later written in Lisp and also
puter-controlled robots. He keys in faces, with easy to understand sym in BASIC.
quotas, suggests adjustments for bols, or icons, are being imple Weizenbaum reportedly cen
several specialized robotic arms, mented extensively to help the tered the original Eliza on two com
and reprograms the work assign average person use computers in ponents of operation: a parser,
ments of a group of the machines. applications ranging from 24-hour which breaks down each sentence
The factory's computer system money machines to information ki to determine word meaning, and a
translates the English commands osks and library catalog systems. script system, or a list of rules for
into machine code, asks for clarifi New-generation computers like the discussing particular subjects. Al
cation on one order, and soon the Apple Macintosh, the Atari ST, and though the program didn't under
robots are at work. the Amiga from Commodore fea stand English, it seemed to under
At a nearby hospital, a doctor ture graphics-based interfaces rath stand based on a simple technique
races to diagnose a sick child, using er than text-based operating system
a computer-based expert system. commands which intimidate many
Engaging in a written dialogue with beginners.
the computer, she types in the But a real natural language
symptoms and notes relevant fac must go beyond menus and icons,
tors in the youngster's medical his
tory. The diagnostic program replies
It should allow interactive conver
sations between the user and the
The promise is
with a battery of related questions computer system. And that has
and then suggests several diagnoses proven far more complex than re that millions of
for the physician to consider. searchers initially thought.
In a schoolroom across the city,
a computer quizzes a student on a people may one
history lesson, then answers ques One of the first efforts in natu
tions that the student asks. Spotting
a weakness in one area of the stu
ral language research came
just after World War II, when com
day be able to
dent's understanding, the computer puter scientists built machines to
program suggests several readings
to be completed before the next
translate one language to another. control computer
A translation machine looked up
lesson. each word in a built-in dictionary,
In these situations, individuals found what was supposed to be its environments
with no programming background foreign language equivalent, and
are communicating with computers then altered the syntax of the mes
in ordinary English as they direct sage to correspond to the new through ordinary
actions, solve problems, and search language.
for answers. The examples repre But the limitations of such a
sent three of the most promising primitive syntax-based system soon language. __^_
areas of advancement in using ordi became apparent. For instance, the
nary English language to communi English-language phrase "The spir
cate with computers—-industrial it is willing but the flesh is weak,"
robotics, expert systems, and inter when translated to Russian by one
active databases. Such scenes may of the early machines, reportedly of template, or pattern, matching.
well be common within a few years became "The vodka is strong but Eliza was only a trick, not an ex
thanks to recent developments in the meat is rotten." ample of a true natural language at
artificial intelligence research and Undaunted, a handful of scien work. Weizenbaum never meant to
the continuing improvements in tists at Stanford, Yale, M.I.T., Cal suggest that it was an example of
computer hardware and software. Tech, and a few other universities artificial intelligence, and the pub
While natural language re developed artificial intelligence re licity given to the program at the
search has gone on for more than search centers to carry their efforts time surprised him.
40 years, the subject remains a beyond the early attempts. They've Versions of Eliza are still avail
complex and controversial one. The continued their work, and their de able for the Commodore 64. And a
complexities of human language, bate, through the years. new program, Racter from Mind-
including the use of common sense Computer pioneer Joseph Wei- scape, Inc., for the IBM PC, Apple
and context to differentiate mean zenbaum developed one of the II, and Macintosh computers, goes
ing, continue to elude researchers most publicized natural language even further along the same lines
seeking to codify those rules within simulation programs at M.I.T. in by generating poems and prose
a computer system. In fact, there 1966. Called Eliza, the program monologues in addition to what
are those who believe that a true seemed to understand English seems to be an interactive dialogue
natural language for computers will statements and questions. The soft with the user.

COMPUTE!'* Gazette January 1986 35

Left Brain.

Rational. Functional. Precise.

Introducing the OKIDATA 120, the logical printer for your
Commodore' computer.
Cet results fast. With a utility mode that zips through letters
and reports at twice the speed of any Commodore printer.
Switch to the enhanced mode. And print your most important
ideas with typewriter clarity. Or illustrate your rationale with the
120's bit image graphics for high resolution charts, graphs and
Stay on target With a self-inking "Clean Hands" ribbon
cartridge. And Okidata's famous full year warranty on parts,
labor and printhead.
The OKIDATA 120. At $269", it's the only Commodore-
compatible printer that makes sense.
For more information, call 1-800-OKIDATA (in New Jersey
Get the OKIDATA 120 609-235-2600). Mt. Laurel. NJ 08054.
at these fine stores:
Advantage Computer
Accessories (Canada)
Childworld/Childxvn's Palace
Consumers Distributing ®
David Wds
Electronics Boutique'
Games & Gadgets
Fred Meyer . an OKI AMERICA company
Lionel/Kiddie City/ We put business on paper.
Uonel liaywoiid
Montgomery Ward
(at participating stores)
S. E.Nichols Cranraodoa' is a registered trademark of Gimmudore Business Machines, Inc.
Service Merchandise OKIDATA is a registenii trademark of Oki America. Inc.
UK] DATA-Marque deposes de Oki America. Inc.
Toys 'R Us "M;mufacUiri'r's su&b.'stt'd retail price.

Right Brain

Buy Now!
$15 Manufacturer's
rebate on OKIMATE 10.
Offer good from October 1,
1985 through January 31,
1986. See the following par
ticipating stores fur details.
Advantage Computer
Accessories (Canada)
Arthur's Jewelers
Best Catalog Showrooms
Childworld/Childrcn's Palace
Effervescent. Colorful. Outrageous.
Consumers Distributing
Meet the OKIMATE 10, the $208* color printer that takes
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your Atari" or Commodore" computer over the rainbow! David Weis
Dazzle 'em. With brilliant printing in over 36 eye-tickling Dolgins Catalog Showrooms
colors. Reds, greens, golds and blues that breathe life into Electronic Doutiquc:/
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overhead transparencies. EUman's
And when you're forced to work in black and white, the Evans
OKIMATE 10 prints crisp, dean reports and papers—at 240 Federated
Fred Meyer
words per minute. You can even add spice with wide, bold and
Fred I'. Cattas
fine print c.c. Murphy/Murphy Mart
Everything you need for color printing comes with the G.I. Joe
OKIMATE 10 and its Plug 'n Print package. Including a data Great Western
cable, Learn to IMnt and Color Screen Print software diskettes, Catalog Showrooms
a color ribbon cartridge, a black ribbon cartridge and paper. J. Triesman
So c'mon, print on the wild side. With the OKIMATE 10 Jafco Catalog Showrooms
Personal Color Printer from Okidata. LaBdJes Catalnfi Showrooms
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For more information, call 1-800-OK1DATA (in New Jersey
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609-23S-2600). Mt. Laurel, NJ 08054.
Mcijers (Michigan only)
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(at participating stores)
S.E. Nichols
Scars, Roebuck & Co.
^k an OKI AMERICA company (at participating stores)
Service Merchandise
We put business on paper. Stereo Village
"Manufadurur's suajusled nrlai! price. Atari is ;i registered trademark of Atari, Inc. Toys 'R Us
Commodore is a rciystt'red trademark of Commtidore Business Machines. Inc.
OKIDATA is a registered trademark of Oki Ami-nca. Inc. Videolami
OKIDATA-Marque deposes dc Oki America. Inc. Witmark
OKIMATR and Plug 'n Print are trademarks of Old America, Inc. Wizards Electronics
To run Plutf 'n !*nnt software, the Commodore fi4,138 anil PLUS 4 require disk drive.
Atari requires disk drive and a 48K memory Zayre
botics through hands-on activity.
Teachers can use the system to
teach everything from simple pro
gramming to robotic fundamentals.
And engineers will find a variety of
sophisticated options which follow
in miniature many industrial robo
tic operations.
"We're presently manufactur
ing the interface for FischerTechnik
of West Germany," says Amaro.
"But in addition to that, we've writ
ten the software. The original prod
uct they're releasing uses BASIC.
What we've done is transform the
whole system into what is not only
a very powerful educational tool,
but the language we're using is
presently being introduced into the
robotics community industrywide."
Based on the programming lan
:■'■'• guage Forth, PaRCL uses English
words written in a simple syntax.
With the 249-piece construction set
Using a natural language catted PaRCL, Commodore 64 owners program this Fischer
Tichnik robotic computer kit. and the PaRCL language, you build
ten different projects and learn to
use reversible motors, gears, digital
Natural language research has For example, by the early and analog inputs, outputs, posi
evolved along several differ 1990s, more than 100,000 robots tion sensors, lamps, and switches.
ent lines over the years, moving are expected to be used in U.S. fac A dual-axis robot arm simulates in
away from the idea that a natural tories, according to estimates by the dustrial processes physically and in
language can be based primarily on Robot Institute of America, an in the operating language.
defining words and changing a sen dustry support association. Can The robotics kit is being mar
tence's syntax. To really work, a some or most of those robotic work keted through retail stores in the
natural language must not only be ers be controlled by people who U.S. by Fischer America, a division
able to handle the words, grammar, don't know computer programming? of Fischer International, which has
and syntax of human language, but "That's pretty much the trend extensive experience with industrial
also the meaning as it shifts from coming out of the laboratories pres robotics. The system is also available
the context of one application to the ently in robotics applications," says directly through Parsec Research
context of another. It must also be Allen Amaro, chief executive officer (P.O. Box 1766, Fremont, CA 94538).
able to distinguish metaphors, logi of Parsec Research in Fremont, Cal
cal connections between statements, ifornia. "They want the average op
the plausibility of statements, and erators to be able to control the One of the most practical appli
hundreds of other factors. To do all robotics configurations. And in or cations in natural language
of that, some researchers believe it der to do that, you have to have a development is the area of com
may require a mammoth knowl natural language front end." puter databases. Originally found
edge base of the way the world Amaro's company has recently on mainframe systems, newer
works and thousands of rules. It been involved in just such a natural microcomputer database programs
may also require a computer pro language robotics project, one that have been developed that let non-
gram which can generate its own Commodore 64 (and Apple II and programmers create the environ
rules—learning as it goes along. IBM) owners can take part in as ment they need for virtually any
Limited though they may be, well. The FischerTechnik computer type of database. That is, you type
commercial natural language sys robotics kit is a $199 package of in your query, in English, and the
tems have been on the market since precision electromechanical parts, database translates the words into a
the late 1970s. Their purposes and computer software, and interface computer language, gets the answer,
levels of use vary greatly, however, which lets you build and program and displays it on the screen. If you
from robotic controllers to "smart" your own robotics experiments. wish to redefine or restructure the
databases. The promise behind The robotics laboratory is of database, the system lets you do
such research is that millions of fered with a new natural language that without having to know a com
people who have no desire or apti program, called PaRCL (pro puter language.
tude for learning formal computer nounced "parkul"), with which you The most powerful natural lan
languages may one day be able to program your robotic experiments. guage systems are still tied to main
contro! computer environments The system gives nonprogrammers frame or supermini computers, espe
through ordinary language. a chance to learn the basics of ro cially to those with large database
38 COMPUTE! s GazBtte January 1986
Wejust Made Designing¥)ur Own
Computer Game Much Easier.
-James Levy, Chairman/CEO Activision, Inc.

Here's Your Tool Kit:

■ ■■ O '* 1 'IIMII JEJI &!■
■ ■■ 0 6
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IH « t gram


SpriteMaker 77!e Editor

"(GameMaker is)...designed for everyone who has MusicMaker. A little musical introduction for
ever wanted to build his own computer game, but never your creation? How about some background music
had the time to learn assembly language!' or a grand finale? You can create it all.
—Rk Manning/Louisville Times The Editor. This is where you bring together all the
components you created with SceneMaker, SpriteMaker,
There's no question! Now is the time to turn that
SoundMaker, and MusicMaker. All the commands
great game idea of yours into a real piece of computer
needed to make a game program are listed for you.Just
software. With GameMaker, Garry Kitchen brings
choose the ones you want to use, put them in order,
you the single most powerful computer game design
and presto! Your new game is off and running.
tool ever offered. But he didn't stop with just power.
He put all the tools of his trade together and then The Design Contest
made them more accessible than ever before for owners If you've always thought you had some great ideas
of the Commodore 64/128 and the Apple H series for games (and you know you have), there's never
computers. GameMaker includes these incredible tools: been a better time or a better way to get them on a
SceneMaker. Create the background scenes disk. Because you can enter the GameMaker Design
for your game. Either use scenes that have been pre Contest, and, if your game is judged to be the best,
programmed or create scenes of your own. we'll publish it! And that will make you a published
SpriteMaker. Create the characters or objects that software designer. Has a nice ring to it, doesn't it?
move in your game. Use full animation to Published... Software... Designer. Design
make them life-like. You can select from the most exciting and creative computer
many pre-programmed sprites or you can game you can imagine and send it to us.
create almost any kind you can imagine. All the rules and information for this
SoundMaker. Smashing, blasting, singing, unique contest are in specially-marked
whooshing and a whole lot more can be GameMaker packages. Gentlemen—and
created, or you can select from a variety of ladies—start your minds.
commonly-used effects already created Garry Kitchen's GameMaker:
for you.
rra TheComputerGameDesignKif

ACTIVISION The Next Generation.


ni rtgBnul njJnruik .if Apple Gmputn

A Language Of Convenience: to use with macros, but not quite as

Keyboard plug in the name of the appropriate

macro and the assembler automati
With macros, even a nonpro-
grammer can customize a piece of

Macros cally inserts the proper code.

A different sort of macro is
software in many ways. Let's say
that your word processor has a
built into the Commodore 128 and four-step, eight-keystroke com
As a computer user, you may have Plus/4. Press the f3 key and the mand sequence to redefine the mar-
seen certain commercial productivi word DIRECTORY appears. A disk gins—top and bottom, left and
ty programs available which use directory automatically prints to the right. A macro might be pro
templates, or preprogrammed forms. screen. You could type DIRECTORY grammed to do that for you with
There are form letlers for word pro yourself, but why press nine keys one or two keystrokes, if you also
cessors, budget forms for spread (plus RETURN), when a single key want to have the right edge of your
sheets, address file forms for does it all? Programmable keys can text justified, that could be added to
databases, and so on. A growing save a lot of typing time. the same macro. With the right soft
number of programs offer these This approach is also being ware, almost any word, phrase,
preset templates to free you from used regularly in sophisticated ap sentence, paragraph, or larger com
having to set up your own. plication programs to save repeti bination of characters can be made
In most cases, templates can be tive or time-consuming steps. For into a macro.
customized even further to suit example, Lotus 1-2-3, a popular in Or, suppose you regularly log
your personal needs. And many of tegrated productivity package for on to one of the major telecommu
the commercial templates let you IBM and other MS-DOS computers, nications services like Compu
achieve customized forms without offers users the option of setting up Serve. Rather than go through the
having to alter the actual code in keyboard macros. Frequently re log-on procedures of dialing the
which the original template is writ peated procedures or commands number, giving your identification
ten. It can be done with a few key can be assigned to one or two key number and then your password, a
strokes. strokes. Thereafter, when that pro macro can be made to do all of that
Related to customized tem cedure is needed, you have a with one keystroke.
plates are much more powerful and shortcut to save you time. The popularity of these key
flexible tools, macros, which have The problem for many people board enhancers is reflected in the
gained popularity as many high- in setting up macros on Lotus 1-2-3 number of stand-alone macro mak
end commercial programs become is that the system is not a simple ers now on the market. Products
more complex. But the term itself one to get used to. The options are like SuperKey, ProKey, SmartKey,
originated in the world of computer plentiful, and the result is that mak Keyworks, and others are in growing
programming. ing macros can become like learn demand, especially in the business
Machine language program ing a small programming language. environment where repetition of
mers often use shortcuts called In fact, numerous magazine arti procedures is necessarily frequent.
macroinstructions (or "macros" for cles—and even books—have been The programs are usually loaded
short) to speed up their program devoted to explaining the advanced into the computer prior to the load
ming. A macro is a preprogrammed customizing features of 1-2-3. Other ing of an application, such as a
group of assembly language micro productivity software such as spreadsheet. They reside in memo
instructions. By using macros, a SuperCatc, VisiCalc, and dBase II ry behind the application program,
programmer avoids writing and re also have macro capabilities. providing keyboard shortcuts to
writing often-used routines. Simply They're generally easier than 1-2-3 just about any function you need.

systems. And these commercial of natural languages come from within the same sentence construc
natural language packages still cost Japan's Fifth Generation computer tions. But much more work must be
thousands of dollars. One example project. This massive government- done before any of these capabili
is the Artificial Intelligence Corpo backed effort to move beyond to ties are achieved.
ration's (Waltham, Mass.) Intellect day's so-called fourth-generation Despite the setbacks and slow
program, which lets you ask ques computers includes a strong com progress associated with natural
tions of a database system in ordi ponent of natural language re language interfaces for computers,
nary English, then converts the search. The goal is to have systems hardware and software manufac
query into the program's language. which will contain as many as turers realize the long-range impor
Another commercial natural lan 20,000 rules and a hundred million tance of advances in this field. In
guage system is Themis from Frey data items from which to draw. It's order to involve the bulk of the
Associates of Amherst, New hoped that these computers will be population in computing, the ma
Hampshire, a program which al able to make inferences from their chines themselves must become
lows you to add words easily to its knowledge bases, fill in gaps be easier to use, iess intimidating, and
base vocabulary in addition to sup tween logical statements, create more productive. And one of the
plying a natural language interface. their own data indexes from exter most important steps in attracting
Some of the most optimistic nal sources, and differentiate these people is more plain talk be
expectations for the development among different possible meanings tween computers and humans. <bi
40 COMPUTE!'! Gazette January 198G
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P.O. Box 30901 Portland, OR 97230-0901
The New MLX
Enhanced Machine Language Editor
For The Commodore 64
Ottis R. Cowper, Technical Editor

This significantly improved version of COMPUTED sometimes necessary to reconfigure

memory before using the old MLX.
GAZETTE "MLX" utility will help you enter ma
chine language program listings without typos. Hexadecimal Checksums
It's more foolproof than the old MLX and is easier Type in and save a copy of the new
MLX. You'll need it for all future
to use, too—especially for beginners. The new
machine language programs in
MLX is required to enter all Commodore 64 and COMPUTEl's GAZETTE, as well as ML
128 (in 64 mode) machine language programs pub programs in our companion maga
zine, COMPUTE!, and COMPUTE!
lished in COMPUTED GAZETTE, beginning in this books.
issue. When you're ready to enter an
ML program, load and run the new
MLX. It asks you for a starting ad
Since its initial publication in the with 18 keystrokes, as opposed to
dress and ending address. These
December 1983 issue of COMPUTEl's only six bytes of data in 21 key
addresses appear in the article ac
GAZETTE, our "MLX" machine lan strokes when using the original companying the MLX-format pro
guage editor has helped thousands MLX. This means you can enter
gram listing you're typing. If you're
of readers type in dozens of ML machine language programs with
unfamiliar with machine language,
programs with a minimum of prob 40 percent less typing.
the addresses (and all other values
lems. MLX detects most common ■ A more sophisticated check you enter in MLX) may appear
typing mistakes as they're made. sum scheme. Transposition errors strange. Instead of the usual deci
However, your growing appetite that could slip past the original mal numbers you're accustomed to,
for high-quality programs is lead MLX are caught by this version. these numbers are in hexadecimal—
ing us to publish longer and longer Typing mistakes are now virtually a base 16 numbering system com
listings. Lengthy programs demand impossible. monly used by ML programmers.
a more efficient entry system, so
• A buffer (reserved area of Hexadecimal—hex for short—in
this month we're introducing a new
memory) that holds the data you cludes the numerals 0-9 and the
MLX with important enhancements:
enter instead of direct storage in letters A-F. But don't worry—even
• A much more compact for memory. This means that you'll if you know nothing about ML or
mat. With each line of a new MLX never again have to worry with hex, you should have no trouble
listing, you enter eight bytes of data those bothersome POKEs that were using the new MLX.

42 COMPUTE's Gazette January 1966

hy settle for less
■ ■■; :::■■/„■■■■

lien you can have Mo?

Mltey Mo turns youi Commodore 64 COMMODOEI ol keystrokes. Not so with the other
Into a telecommunications giant. modem. And only Mitey Mo lets you
It's the best ■performing modem Auto Dial/Answer YES YES store data to review or print it later.
with upload/download. Auto Redid YES NO Mitey Mo has just one switch,
Smart 64 Software YES NO the Smart 64 software does the rest.
Mitey Mo is being hailed as With the other modem you'll have
Function Keys
"the best price/performance com to remember to check three switches,
Programmable YES NO
munications package available:' otherwise you may be answering
Its software has received the endorse YES NO when you mean to be originating,
Text & X-Modem
ment of the U.S. Commodore Users VT-52/VT-100 Emulation YES NO Mitey Mo is half the size of the
Group, which gives a money-back Menu Driven YES NO other modem. The very latest tech
guarantee to members. It is truly the 28K Software Buffer YES NO nology allows miniaturization and
industry standard, and no wonder. Easy-lo-Use Manual YES NO increased reliability, as well. Mitey
It's the most user-friendly modem you Bell 103 Compatible YES YES Mo is so reliable, we gave it a lull
can buy—it will take you online Multiple Baud Rates YES YES
three-year warranty The other
faster and easier than anything else. Cable Included YES YES
modem gives 90 days, then you're on
Mitey Mo opens up a world of Single Switch Operation YES NO
your own.
practical and exciting uses for your Warranty 3 years 90 days
Not only will you find Mitey
C-64 It lets you send and receive Mo mighty useful, you'll lind il
electronic mail, link up with commu Some mighty Interesting features— mighty reasonably priced. When
nity bulletin boards, play computer ours and theirs. Yours to decide, you buy it, you'll get S15 ol
games with people in distant places, CompuServe access time and 2
tap into library resources, and hours of PlayNet free, as well.
much more. All at your convenience. numbers sequentially But suppose you dial See your dealer or call us
Until Mitey Mo, Commodore's a number and find it's busy. Mitey Mo has "auto directly to order your Mitey Mo.
1650 Automodem was the obvious redial"- it hangs up and redials immediately
choice when you went looking until it gets through. With the other modem
for a modem for your computer. Like you have to redial each time - and somebody
Mitey Mo, it has "auto with auto redialing can slip in ahead of you.
answer"—it receives Mitey Mo is menu driven. It lists the things
data while unattended. you can do on the screen.
And both modems are Select a numberandyou're
"auto dialers" - on your way. Since Auto
you dial right on modem isn't menu driven,
the computer's you'll be hunting through
keyboard. But the manual a lot.
that's about With Mitey Mo, your
where the simi computer's function
Computer Devices Int'l

larity ends. keys are program
1345-A2Doolillle Drive
Mitey Mo mable-you can San Leandro, CA 94577
can dial up to 9 save yourself plenty (415)633-1899
After you enter the starting you can return to the command with the value in the ninth column.
and ending addresses, MLX offers menu by pressing RETURN.) When The formula (found in lines 370-
the option of clearing the work you begin typing a listing, you 390 of the MLX program) catches
space. Choose this option if you're should enter the starting address almost every conceivable typing
starting to enter a new listing. If here. If you're typing in a long list error, including the transposition of
you're continuing a listing that's ing in multiple sittings, you should entire numbers that the original
partially typed from a previous ses enter the address where you left off MLX could miss. If the values
sion, don't choose this option. typing at the end of the previous match, you'll hear a pleasant beep,
it's not necessary to know session. In any case, make sure the the data is added to the workspace
more about this option to use MLX, address you enter corresponds to area, and the prompt for the next
but here's an explanation if you're the address of a line in the MLX list line of data appears (unless the line
interested: When you first run ing. Otherwise, you'll be unable to just entered was the last line of the
MLX, the workspace area contains enter the data correctly. listing-—in which case you'll auto
random values. Clearing the work After you enter the address, matically advance to the Save op
space fills it with zeros. This makes you'll see that address appear as a tion). But if MLX detects a typing
it easier to find where you left off if prompt with a nonblinking cursor. error, you'll hear a low buzz and
you enter the listing in multiple sit Now you're ready to enter data. see an error message. Then MLX re
tings. However, clearing the work To help prevent typing mis displays the line for editing.
space is useful only before you first takes, only a few keys are active To edit a line, move the cursor
begin entering a listing; there's no while you're entering data, so you left and right using the normal cur
need to clear it before you reload to may have to unlearn some habits. sor controls. (The INST/DEL key
continue entering a partially typed The new MLX listings consist of now works as an alternative cursor-
listing. nine columns of two-digit num left key.) You cannot move left be
When you save your work with bers—eight bytes of data and a yond the first character in the line.
the new MLX, it stores the entire checksum: If you try to move beyond the right
contents of the data buffer. If you most character, you'll reenter the
C000:A9 0C BD 15 DO A9 FF BD 17
clear the workspace before starting, line.
C008:3B 63 BD 3C 63 A9 01 8L> C6
the incomplete portion of the listing C010:01 53 A9 00 8D 33 63 20 7D
To make corrections in a mis
is filled with zeros when saved and C018:0U CS 20 Cl CB A9 FF 81) 43 typed line, compare the line on the
thus refilled with zeros when re screen with the one printed in the
loaded. If you don't clear the work You do not type spaces be listing, then move the cursor to the
space when first starting, the tween the columns; the new MLX mistake and type the correct key.
incomplete portion of the listing is automatically inserts these for you. During editing, RETURN is active;
filled with random data. Whether You do not press RETURN after typ pressing it tells MLX to recheck the
or not you clear the workspace ing the last number in a line; the line. You can press the CLR/HOME
before you reload, this random data new MLX automatically enters and key to clear the entire line if you
will refill the unfinished part of the checks the line after you type the want to start from scratch, or if you
listing when you load your previ last digit. The only keys you need want to get to a line number
ous work. The rule, then, is to use for data entry are 0-9 and A-F. prompt to use RETURN to get back
the clear workspace feature before Pressing most of the other keys to the menu.
you begin entering data from a list generates a warning buzz.
ing, and not bother with it afterward. To correct typing mistakes Other MLX Functions
At this point, MLX presents a before finishing a line, use the
The Display data option lets you re
menu of commands: INST/DEL key to delete the char view your work. Unlike the original
acter to the left of the cursor. (The
Enter data MLX, the new MLX calculates and
Display data cursor-left key also deletes.) If you
displays checksums for each line.
Load data mess up a line really badly, press
Thus, a quick way to check your
Sav« file
CLR/HOME to start'the line over. typing is to compare the reverse
The RETURN key is also ac
video checksums on the screen
You no longer have to remem tive, but only before any data is with the data in the rightmost col
ber SHIFT command keys as in the typed on a line. Pressing RETURN
umn of the printed listing. If the
original MLX. Instead, just press the at this point returns you to the com values match, you can be confident
letter of a menu option. These com mand menu. After you type a char
that the line is entered correctly.
mands are available only while the acter of data, the new MLX disables
When you select D, you'll be
menu is displayed. You can get RETURN until the cursor returns to
asked for a starting address. (As
back to the menu from most op the start of a line. Remember, you with the other menu options, press
tions by pressing RETURN with no can press CLR/HOME to quickly ing RETURN at this point takes you
other input. get to a line number prompt. back to the command menu.) When
entering an address, make sure it
Entering A Listing Beep Or Buzz? corresponds to the address of a line
To begin entering data, press E. After you type the last digit in a from the listing. Otherwise, the
You'll be asked for the address at line, MLX calculates a checksum of checksums will be meaningless.
which you wish to begin entering the line number and the first eight You can pause the scrolling display
data. (If you pressed E by mistake, columns of data, then compares it by pressing the space bar. (MLX
COMPUTE'S Gazette January 1986

An all action large scale

Caught on the surface of a nuclear devastated
arcade adventure in which you'll need every
planet you have seconds to return underground
ounce of skill and courage to destroy the
before your radiation shield decays.
forces of evil.
In any other car you would stand no chance -
Traverse the Labyrinth, defy fireball breathing
in the Last V-8, survival is possible... Maybe!
dragons and release the city from its curse by
reuniting the 5 pieces of the Golden Talisman.
360° smooth scrolling, superb voice synthesis, 3
voice professionally composed theme music,
realistic life simulation.

" price of only $9-99 each. A

Inc 731 IB Grove Road Frederick, Maryland 21701 Tel: (301) 695 8877
finishes printing the current line load ends before the ending ad C00O.) In either case, you should al
before halting.) To resume scroll dress you specified when you start ways refer to the article which ac
ing, press the space bar again. The ed MLX. If you feel certain that companies the ML listing for
display continues to scroll until the you've loaded the right file, exit and information on loading and run
ending address is reached, then the rerun MLX, being careful to enter ning the program.
menu reappears. To break out of the correct ending address.
the display and return to the menu
• TRUNCATED AT ENDING An Ounce Of Prevention
before the ending address is By the time you finish typing in the
ADDRESS. This means the file
reached, press RETURN. data for a long ML program, you'll
you're trying to load extends be
The Save and Load menu op yond the ending address you speci have several hours invested in the
tions are straightforward. First, fied when you started MLX. If you project. Don't take chances—use
MLX asks for a filename. (Again, feel certain that you've loaded the our "Automatic Proofreader" to
pressing RETURN at this prompt right file, exit and rerun MLX, being type the new MLX, and then test
without entering anything returns careful to enter the correct ending your copy thoroughly before first
you to the command menu.) Next, address. using it to enter any significant
MLX asks you to press either T or D amount of data. (Incidentally, the
The Quit menu option has the
for tape or disk. If you notice the new MLX is included on this
obvious effect—it stops MLX and
disk drive starting and stopping month's COMPUTED GAZETTE DISK.)
several times during a load or save, enters BASIC at a READY prompt.
Make sure all the menu options
don't panic; MLX opens and reads Since the RUN/STOP key is dis
work as they should. Enter frag
from or writes to the file instead of abled, Q lets you exit the program
ments of the program starting at
using the usual LOAD and SAVE without turning off the computer.
several different addresses, then
commands, so this behavior is nor (Of course, RUN/STOP-RESTORE
use the Display option to verify that
mal. Disk users should also note also gets you out.) If you choose
the data has been entered correctly.
that the drive prefix 0: is automati this option, MLX asks for verifica
And be sure to test the Save and
cally added to the filename (line tion. Press Y to exit to BASIC, or
Load options several times to en
750), so this should not be included any other key to return to the
sure that you can recall your work
when entering the name. (This also menu. After quitting, you can type
from disk or tape. Don't let a simple
RUN again and reenter MLX with
precludes the use of @ for Save- typing error in the new MLX cost
with-Replace, so remember to give out losing your data, as long as you
you several nights of hard work.
don't use the clear workspace
each version you save a different See program listing on page 136. 9
Remember that MLX saves the
entire workspace area from (he
The Finished Product
starting address to the ending ad When you've finished typing all the
dress, so the save or load may take data for an ML program and saved
longer than you might expect if
you've entered only a small amount
your work, you're ready to see the
results. Unlike the original MLX,
of data from a Song listing. When this version keeps the data in a tem
saving a partially completed listing, porary holding area rather than in
make sure to note the address its final resting place in memory, so
where you stopped typing so you'll you must always save the finished
know where to resume entry when program with MLX and then reload - EXCELLEKT SOUND QUALITYI SOUNDS
you reload. it from BASIC with a standard LIKE TAPE!


Error Alert The instructions for loading ■ HECORD AND SPEAK IN ANYONE'S VOICE!
the finished product varies from ■ INCLUDES RECORDER/PLAYBACK UNIT
MLX reports any errors detected
program to program. Some ML pro HEADSET MIC AND ALL SOFTWARE DN
during the save or load. Tape users DISK.
grams are designed to be loaded
should bear in mind that the Com • COMES WITH DEMD PROGRAMS
and run like BASIC programs, so all • PLUGS INTO USER PORT
modore 64 is never able to detect
you need to type is LOAD "file - CAN BE PLAYED BACK WITH (EXCELLENT
errors when saving to tape. The SOUNOI OR WITHOUT |GDO0 SOUND]
name",% for disk or LOAD "file
new MLX also has three special 0R64CONNECTED
name" for tape, and then RUN.
load error messages: ■ MAKE |SELL?1 YOUR OWN TALKING PRO
(Such programs usually have 0801 GRAMS!
DRESS. This means the file you're ers must be reloaded to specific ad IMAGE WITH 0H64 UNIT] INCLUDES COM
trying to load does not have the PLETE SPEECH SYNTHESIZES. EOH ONLY
dresses with a command such as
S 19.95!
starting address you specified when LOAD "filename",8,1 for disk or Send S19 95 (oi Speech on Disk, Send
you ran MLX. If you feel certain LOAD "filename",].! for tape, then S99 00 lot OHM Digilal Recorder Una.
you're trying to load the right file, started with a SYS to a particular or send S4.00 lor Demo Diskette includ
exit and rerun MLX, being careful to memory address. (On the Commo ing lalkmg ala'in clock, talking games
andoltiers You'll be amazed1
enter the correct starting address. dore 64, the most common starting
• LOAD ENDED AT address. address for such programs is 49152,
This means the file you're trying to which corresponds to MLX address
PO BOX 166055 IRVING. TX 75016
46 COMPUTED Gazelle January 19S6
A Printer For All Reasons
Search For The Best High Quality Graphic Printer

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many claims and counter claims in the primer sometimes want to emphasize a word? It's tently dark, the ribbons must be changed quite
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about, others arc vitally important to you. We words. You can combine many of these modes placement. (When you finally do wear oul
understand. In fact, not Ions ago, we were in and styles to make the variation almost end your ribbon, replacement cost is only $11.00.
the same position. Deluged by claims and less. Do you want to express something that Order #2001.)
counter claims. Overburdened by rows and you can't do with words? Use graphics with
rows of specifications, we decided to separate your text — even on the same line. You have The Best Part
all the facts — prove or disprove all the claims variable line spacing of 1 line per inch to infin When shopping for a printer wilh this quality
to our own satisfaction. So we bought ity (no space at all) and 143 other software se and these features, you could expect to pay
printers. We bought samples of all the major lectable settings in between. You can control around SSOO or more. Not now! We sell this
brands and tested them. line spacing on a dot-by-dot basis. If you've fantastic printer for only $259.95! You need
ever had a letter or other document that was absolutely nothing else to start priming—Jusl
Our Objective Was Simple jusl a few lines too long to fit a page, you can add paper.
We wanted to find that printer which had all see how handy ihis feature is. Simply reduce
the line spacing slightly and ... VO1LA1 The No Risk Offer
the features you could want and yet be sold di
letter now Tits on one page.
rectly to you at the lowest price. We didn't We give you a 2-wcck satisfaction guarantee.
want a "close-out special" of an obsolete If you are not completely satisfied for any rea
product that some manufacturer was dump son we will promptly refund your purchase. A
ing, so we limited our search lo only those new 1-year warraniy is included with your printer.
printers that had Die latest proven technology. The warranty repair policy is to repair or re
We wanted to give our customers the bcsl place and reship to the buyer within 72 hours
printer on the market today ai a bargain price. of receipt.

The Resulls Are In The Bottom Line

The search is over. We have reduced the field Be sure to specify [lie order 8 for the correct
to a single printer that meets all our goals (and version printer designed for your computer.
more). The printer is the SP-1000 from Seiko-
Commodore C-64 & C-128. Order #2200,
sha, a division of Seiko (one of the foremost cable included
manufacturers in the world). We ran this
IBM-PC and compatibles. Order #2100, plus
printer through our battery of tests and it
8'cable #1103. S2fi.00
came oul shining. This printer can do it all.
Standard draft printing at a respectable !00 Standard Parallel with 36 pin Centronics con
characters per second, and with a very read nector, Order #2400, no cable
able 12 (horizontal) by 9 (vertical) character
We also have interfaces and cables for other
matrix. This is a full bi-directional, logic seek
computers not listed. Call Customer Service at
ing, true descender primer.
805/987-2454 for details.

"NLQ" Mode
One of our highest concerns was aboul print
Shipping and insurance is S10.00 — UPS with
quality and readability. The SP-1000 has a
Forms? Ves! in the continental USA. If you arc in a hurry,
print mode termed Near Letter Quality print
Your Letterhead? Of Course! UPS Blue (second day air), APO or FPO is
ing (NLQ mode). This is where the SP-1000
Do you print forms? No problem. This unit S22.00. Canada, Alaska, Mexico are 530.00
outshines all the competition. Hands down!
will do them all. Any form up to 10 inches (air). Other foreign is S70.00 (air). California
The character matrix in NLQ mode is a very
wide. The tractors are adjustable from 4 to 10 residents add 6% ta\. The above are cash
dense 24 (horizontal) by IS (vertical). This
inches. Yes. you can also use single sheets. prices — VISA and MC add 3% to total. We
equates to 41,472 addressable dots per square
Plain typing paper, your letterhead, short ship the next business day on money orders,
inch. Now we're talking quality printing. It
memo forms, labels, anything you choose. cashiers' checks, and charge cards. A 14-day
looks like it was done on n typewriter. You can
Any size to 10* in width. In fact this unit is so clearing period is required for checks.
even print graphics using the standard
graphics symbols built into your computer. advanced, it will load your paper automati
The results are the best we've ever seen. The cally. Multiple copies? Absolutely! Use forms
only other printers currently available having (up to 3 thick). Do you want to use spread For information call 805/987-2454
resolution this high go for $500 and more sheets wilh many columns? Of course! Just go
without the interface or cable needed to hook to condensed mode printing and print a full
up to your compuier. 136 columns wide. Forget expensive wide-car
riage printers and changing to wide carriage 1 -(aOOl 962-5800 USA ,- „ psT)
paper. You can now do it all on <i standard 1-1800) 962-3B00 CALIF. '
Features That Won't Quit
8'/j "wide page, and you can do it quietly. The or ■.(■ml order to:
Wilh the SP-1000 your compuier can now
SP-1000 is rated at only 55 dB. This is quieter
print 40, 48, 68, 80, %, or 136 characters per
than any other impact dot matrix printer that
line. You can print in ANY of 35 character
we know of and is quieter than ihe average of
styles including 13 double width and 3 re
fice background noise level.
versed (white on black) styles. You noi only
have the standard Pica, Elite, Condensed and
Consistent Print Quality
Italics, but also true Superscripts and Sub
scripts. Never again will you have to worry Most printers have a ribbon cartridge or a 1071-A Avenida Acaso
about how to print H2O or X1. This fantastic single spool ribbon which gives nice dark Camarillo, CA 93010
Bryan Files

The blue spaceship (upper icft) has

scored a hit, causing the other ship to
careen out of control into the path of an

This engaging two-player game, which could

Typing It In
have been titled "Indirect Aggression" for its Space Arena is written entirely in
unique design, features superior graphics and machine language, so you must use

playability. For the Commodore 64 and 128 (in 64 MLX, the machine language entry
program that appears regularly in
mode). Two joysticks are required. the gazhtte (a new, time-saving
version of MLX appears beginning
In a distant galaxy, a fierce war be Asteroids. Rotate the ship by mov this month—see "The New MLX"
tween two great empires has ing the joystick left or right. Push elsewhere in this issue). When you
reached a stalemate. The cost to the joystick forward to activate the run MLX, answer the initial ques
both civilizations has been high ship's thrusters, and press the fire tions as follows:
with no gain to either side. With the button to release a photon blast. Re
Starting Address: CD00
assistance of the Timelords, the two member that you have no brakes; to Ending Address: CFB7
sides have agreed to settle the dis slow down, you must turn the ship
After entering the program, save a
pute in a controlled environment— around and thrust in the direction
copy on tape or disk. To load the
a Space Arena. you're moving. Game options in
game, type LOAD "filename",8,1
Enclosed in this arena are four clude speed (1-3, where 1 is the
for disk, or LOAD "filename", 1,1
asteroids and a ship representing slowest and 3 the fastest) and time
for tape, where filename is the name
each side. Both ships are equipped limit (1-5 minutes).
you used to save the program. To
with photon blasters, which have There are two basic strategies
run it, type SYS49152.
the ability to push objects without to playing Space Arena. You can try
If you'd rather not type in the
damaging them. A ship is destroyed to push your opponent into an as
program, send a blank tape or for
only by a collision with an asteroid. teroid, or push the asteroids into
matted disk, a self-addressed,
The highest score within a given your opponent. The effect of pho
time determines the victor. One
stamped return envelope, and $3
ton blasts on asteroids is much less
point is given each time a pilot hits
(U.S. funds) for each copy. Outside
than on ships because the asteroids
the U.S., please don't send stamps
the opposing ship with a photon are heavier. A single photon blast
but include the extra cosl of post
blast. If the enemy's ship is de can send a ship flying across the
age. Please indicate that you want a
stroyed by running into an asteroid, screen, especially if the ship has to
copy of Space Arena. Send it to:
20 points are awarded. turn around before being able to
In "Space Arena," two people slow down. On the other hand, if Bryan Files
compete with their joystick- your opponent is faced with several 404 Eastbrook lane
controlled ships. The movement is OTaihm, MO 63366
fast moving asteroids, he may crash
much like the classic arcade game into one on his own. See program listing on page 130. O
48 COMPUTErs Gazelle January 1986

You Bet We Can!

Announcing The VOICE MESSENGER and EASY SPEECH For The Commodore 64 and 128.
YOU'RE NOT ALONE--ANYMQRE! [Or how to program your best Iriend) NOT JUST ALL TALK
Ever ask yourself why you spend so much time alone. Or, if only some- Welwyn/Currah along with Rist, Inc. are without a doubt the most
ore would talk to me. Thanks to Welwyn/Currah, you won'! have to innovative developers of computer speech technology. The VOICE MES
think about those things again with the new. exciting VOICE MES SENGER and EASY SPEECH system was designed for all possible appli
SENGER'" speech synthesizer and accompanying EASY SPEECH" cations: educational, entertainment, business and home utility. And can
text-to-speech system, immediately be put into use with most dedicated, menu-driven and
pre-existing software including: Infocom's™ "Adventure
Series", the C8S'" "Success with Math" educational series,
By simply plugging in the VOICE MESSENGER to your Com VOICE
and many, many more.
modore 64'" and 128'" home computer, it can really become
your best friend. The VOICE MESSENGER and EASY SPEECH TALK IS CHEAP! [Inexpensive, anyway]

system will say anything you want, letter by letter, in words, The VOICE MESSENGER and EASY SPEECH system is availa
sentences, or in conversational or story form. ble at a suggested combination retail price of under S70.00,
or may be purchased separately.
Unlike other types of synthesizers the VOICE MESSENGER To find out how you can turn your Commodore 64 or 128
and EASY SPEECH system has an allophone speech synthesizer that computer into your best friend, or to locate a store location nearest you
makes computer speech intelligible with an unlimited vocabulary that call: (313) 547-8300; or write: Welwyn/Currah, 104 West Fourth Street,
will speak to you clearly and understandably. Its text-to-speech con Suite 208-9, Royal Oak, Michigan 48067.
verts your typed copy into conversational dialog at the touch of the

Commodore 64 & 128 ars trademarks ol Commodore. Inc Inlocom is a trademark ot Infocom Inc.
© 1985 Weiwyti/Currali All Rights HtseivM
Voice MessErifltr 1 Easj Soeecti are Irademarlis or Wei* yny Cut rah £ Risl. Inc CBS is a IraSematk ol CBS Soilware
Kevin Mykytyn and Mark Turtle

Do you like fast action and competition? Whether

you play against a friend or your computer, this
colorful simulation of Air Hockey offers both. For
the Commodore 64 and 128 (in 64 mode). A joystick
is required (two joysticks for two-player game).

If you've played Air Hockey, you TURN). The one-player game pits
already know how to play "Face- you against your computer; the
Off." Based on ice hockey, Air two-player game is for two human
Hockey pits two players against opponents and requires two
each other, each trying to shoot a joysticks.
puck into his opponent's goal while Next, you're prompted to se
lect the speed (1-3). Speed 1 is the
slowest and 3 is the fastest. (It is
suggested that you play your first
game at the slowest speed, although
speed 2 is probably the one you'll
choose after playing a few times.) If
you selected a two-piayer option,
the game begins after you've select
ed a speed. If you chose the one-
player option, there's one more
prompt to answer: Skill Level (1-9).
This determines the intelligence of
The player on the right has missed the computer-controlled player. If
blocking the puck, which is headed you choose 1, the computer plays a
straight for the goal. pretty easy game. At 9, it's very
wily. With a speed of 3 and a skill
defending his own goal. A center level of 9, the computer is next to
line splits the playfield. Neither impossible to beat. You can move anywhere up to the
player is allowed to cross this line. When the game begins, you center line. (At slower speeds, one
The object of the game is simple: see a red puck, a cyan player on the strategy is to play along the center
The first player to score five goals left, and a yellow player on the line, like rushing the net in tennis.
wins. right. The cyan player controls the This keeps the puck in the com
puck to start. Contact with the puck puter player's territory most of the
Typing It In starts the game. (Notice that the time if you can react quickly
puck gradually slows down if it's enough.) Current scores for each
Face-Off is written in BASIC, al
not hit.) After each goal scored, the player are posted at the top of the
though a large portion of the game
player scored against gets control. screen. After nine pucks are used,
is in machine language (in the form
(You can knock the puck into your the game is over. You're then
of DATA statements). Type it in
own goal, which awards a point to prompted to press the fire button to
using "The Automatic Proofread
your opponent.) A total of nine play again, then to press up on the
er," elsewhere in this issue. After
pucks are placed per game. If you joystick to change play options or
you've finished entering the pro
wish to change the number of pucks, down to play with those of the pre
gram, save a copy on tape or disk.
change the value in line 510. vious game.
To play the game, load it and type
The two-player game has the
RUN. You'll see a message (READ
One Player Or Two? same rules. The cyan player, on the
after a brief pause, you'll see a
left, must use a joystick plugged
When playing against the computer,
into port 2.
prompt, 1 OR 2 PLAYERS. Press 1 plug a joystick into port 1. You con
or 2 (it's not necessary to press RE trol the yellow player, on the right. See program listing on page 135. O
feu could be one.
Play Elite- it's totally stunning.
Elite is Britain's 1985 Adventure Game
of the Year, an interstellar mind-gamB with
incredible 3D Vector-Graphic space flight
Take command of your Cobra MK III
combat craft, trade with alien cultures on over
2000 planets in eight galaxies. Pick your
destination on Ihe starmap, checking out the
computer's 4-way viewscan - and you're ready
for your first jump thru hyperspace.
As a rookie you start with 'Harmless'
status but with trie right stuff and combat skills,
you'll win ratings of Average' to 'Dangerous' -
with your ultimate objective to become one of
the Elite.
it's big, it's fast and it's here now for the
Commodore 64'" and 128™completewiih
Manual, Novel, Control Guide, Ship
Identification Chart, Keyboard Overlay and the
opportunity as the US competition winner to get
flown to London, England to try for the Elite
World Championship.
it's so addictive it's been called "the Game
Be dangerous.



FIREBIRD HOTLINE fit: 201 934 7373

upward compatibility," "continually
SoundChaser Keyboard And MacMusic expanding its features.")
Although early I'assport/Hal
Leonard literature announced Mac-
The SoundChaser-64 is a rugged, full- a musical Macintosh"—complete with
Music's compatibility with the Sound
size, four-octave musical keyboard, in joystick instead of mouse. (The 64 key
Chaser keyboard, MacMusic does not
terfacing with the Commodore 64's board isn't used at all.) Here are icons,
use SoundChaser. Indeed, MacMusic is
cartridge port, and designed for serious pull-down menus, boxes (windows),
now described as "the ultimate stand
applications. Although at $199 it is not clicking, and dragging, and "cut/paste/
alone composing program." Unfortu
inexpensive, it's one of the best Com copy/erase/paint/magnify" options
nately, joysticks are no substitute for
modore 64 musical keyboards on the inspired by MacPaint and Music Con
organ keyboardists. The value of both
market and well worth the price. In ad st ruction Set. SoundChaser and MacMusic would in
dition, the SoundChaser is driven by The well-designed hi-res screen is crease if they were made compatible. In
quality software. (Be advised, however, coupled with an innovative "visual mu
particular, the ability to enter musical
that the software may not work proper sic" notation which combines a vertical data through the superb SoundChaser
ly on some of the earliest model 64s.) musical keyboard graphic (for pitch)
would make the innovative and well-
The disk accompanying Sound- with a horizontal beat/time-line. Three
designed MacMusic a much more flexi
Chaser includes an instructional pro color-coded voices are drawn/brushed ble and viable arranging tool.
gram which clearly explains the (edited/erased) within this time/space —Art Hunkins
Monophonic and Polyphonic (three- block—an effective method for those
voice) play modes. (Written documen untrained in music theory and tradi
Passport Designs, Inc.
tation is a scant three pages, one of tional notation.
625 Miramontes St., Suite 103
which is installation instructions.) In Half Moon Bay. CA 94019
polyphonic mode, the voices all have SI 99
the same characteristics (waveform, en
MacMusic for Commodore 64
velope, etc.); there is a modest selection
Hal Leonard Publishing Corporation
of variable parameters and five preset (with Passport Designs, Inc.—Passport
instruments. Monophonic mode per Musicsoftxvarc)
mits substantial—even total—modifi 8112 W. Biuemound Rd.
cation of 13 preset sounds. Unfortu Milwaukee, W! 53213
nately, there is no way to save new $49.95
voicings. This is a considerable draw
back, particularly given the absence of
other software for SoundChaser. I hope
that a Load/Save option for voicings
will be added in the future.
The monophonic voices are a veri
table tutorial on how to get expressive 1 must confess to some difficulty The S'more cartridge changes a 64 into a
sounds from the SID chip. Richness is and frustration in trying to use the joy new, more powerful computer, one with
largely dependent on two-oscillator stick as a mouse (a real mouse would be more memory and a much improved
near-unison detuning, filter and oscilla easier). Otherwise, MacMusic is simple BASIC. Most of the additional com
tor modulation (LFO and ADSR). Sync to learn and operate. The short manual mands arc the same as, or similar to, the
and ring modulation are also imple is well-written, clear, and concise. commands found in the 128's BASIC
mented. Limitations include: the same Ten current pop songs are includ 7.0. You could say that S'more trans
ADSR for filter and amplitude envelop ed, as well as a choice of 13 instruments forms a 64 into a mini-128.
ing, a shallow depth of LFO modulation (bearing little resemblance to their When you first turn on a 64 with
(three half-steps maximum), and no names). While you are offered a menu S'more installed, the screen has a cyan
pulse LFO. of ten scales in any key, a major limita border, a white background, and a dark
Both monophonic and polyphonic tion of the current version of MacMusic gray cursor, which is much more read
modes offer excellent keyboard re is that you cannot create or modify in able than the 64's default blue on blue.
sponse: no delay, and rock-solid decod struments. (The "canned" instruments The power-up message announces that
ing. The three voices of polyphonic are nowhere near the quality of Sound- you have 61183 bytes free, half again as
mode correspond to the two lowest and Chaser's.) Although the program liner much as a normal 64. The best part,
the highest keys pressed. Overall, suggests that additional sounds may be though, is that there are more than 50
SoundChaser software is intuitively ac loaded (a pull-down menu includes a new commands. Plus, you have access
cessible, particularly to those with ana "Load Sounds" option), MacMusic it to several dozen new variables and ar
log synthesizer experience. self does not have this capability, (Per rays for handling the SID chip, the CIA
The MacMusic program will indeed, haps this is a future development to chips, screen and color memory, and
as its liner states, "make your C-64 into which the liner refers—"MacMusic's other memory addressing tasks.

52 COMPUTERS Gazelfo January 1986

S'mcire abounds in programming
aids. NUMBER renumbers a program;
DELETE removes a range of lines from
The Dam Busters:
a program; FIND shows you where cer
tain variables, numbers, or strings are
located; CHANGE performs a search-
The game that'll keep
and-replace; DEC and HEX$ make
translations between decimal and hex your Aston Martin
easy; and DUMP shows current vari
able definitions. KEY can program the
function keys with commonly used
statements. Turn on TRACE mode to
You won't be doing much cruising
follow the execution of a program. If
around in your Aston Martin
you make a programming error, EL, EH,
when you have the game that
and ERRS tell you the line number with
lets you reily one of the RAFS
the mistake, the error number, and the
most decisive World War II
error message. TRAP lets you set up
bombing missions. You must
error-handling routines within a pro
man seven different tactical
gram and, if you wish, RESUME to a
positions within the
line number after an error has occurred.
bomber Grasp control of the
Several new and enhanced disk
intricate and complex cockpit
commands have been added. MERGE
or you will perish. Don't kid yourself,
adds a program on disk (or tape) to the
this is a very difficult game.To be
one currently in memory, LOAD and
successful, you'll need the right stuff!
SAVE have been modified to default to
Your mission is to match the
disk. You can enter RUN "program
legendary raid led by Wing Commander Guy
name" to load and run a program from
Gibson on May 16th, 1943. Against incredible odds. British Lancaster Bombers
disk. RECORD simplifies access to rela
from his Squadron 617 successfully breached three dams, flooding the Ruhr
tive files. No longer is it necessary to go
through the OPEN 15,8,15 ritual to send
Valleyand virtually crippling J|-%» aI^m^J^1
disk commands; you just type DISK,
the Nazi war machine. ^fGwOIUd"
followed by the usual command for Fordeaier information contact: Accolade Inc. 20863 Stevens Creek Boulevard.
scratching, initializing, or whatever. Cupertino.CA 95014.14081446-5757 All rights reserved 0 1985
When the drive light starts blinking, Licensed from Sydney Development Corp. Canada © 1984.
you can read the error channel with In Canada exclusively, call Beamscope: 1-800-268-5535
S'more supports DO-LOOPs (in
cluding WHILE, UNTIL, and EXIT),
which are more flexible than FOR- Super Graphix
NEXT loops. And IF-THEN statements
can be followed by ELSE. There's
PRINT AT, for locating the cursor
before printing, and PRINT USING, for
| You
formatting output. Keyboard input is
improved by new commands like IN
LINE, INFORM, and GETKEY. There Super Graphix
are many more commands and fea b KCICS ' For
tures; S'morc has nearly all of the 128's
program control keywords and pro
grammer's utilities (and some very use
It . . .
ful ones that aren't available in the
128), but it lacks the new commands for Here
sprites, hi-res graphics, and music.
The cartridge comes with a well-
written 129-page manual, which in It Is 11!
cludes an explanation and at least two
programming examples for each new GRAPHICS and FONTS plus an 8K BUFFER lor the ullimate in performance and
command. As a bonus, there's a disk speed. The XETEC Super Graphix interface lor Commodore Computers now
with programs written in S'more BASIC oilers a new high in technology with Ihese features:
for programmers to study and use. The • 8K Butlor Slanda'd • Capable Ol Storing 2 Additional Fouls
manual notes that the disk should be ■ 10 Priming MorJos ■ Correct Graphlcs'Text Aspecl Ralio foi
backed up—it's not copy-protected— • 3 Internal Screen Dumps all Ma|or Printers
or, if you prefer, you can send S3 to . Extensive Command Channel * 9 Active Switc
Constantly Mori torod
Cardco for a backup. Included is a ver • Reset Button to Halt Printing lntGrna, ^ SupBQ|I Sjper.scripl,
from Butter
sion of the popular public domain ma Sub-script, Underlining, Bold-face and
• Switch Settings or Label (or Choice ot 9 Pitches
chine language monitor Mkromon, a Quick Reference
mailing list program, and more. There • Correspondence Quality Font Built-in
are also several interesting hi-res pic
Suggested list $99.95 Includes Lifetime Warranty
tures on the flip side (although you
have to remove the S'more cartridge to
get the program to work). ^.^=,=&= , Inc./ 3010 Arnold Rd. / Sallna, KS 67401 / 913-827-0685
with COMPUTE! Books' _
40 Great Flight Simulator Adventures
•Maneuver around the towers of the Vtorld Trade Center.
•Sightsee the Hudson River.
•Practice night flying and aerobatics.

40 Great Flight Simulator Adventures

Charles Gulick
Forty exciting, customized flight simulator

40 scenarios put you in the pilot's seat as you fly

over bridges, around skyscrapers, and land at

GREAT mysterious airports. Flight Simulator {IBM PC)

and Flight Simulator II (Apple II, Commodore

FLIGHT 64, Atari} are two of the most popular

games/simulations for personal computers.

SIMULATOR With this book, you can experience flight

adventures from the moment you load the pro
ADVENTURES gram. Parameters set up each Flight and a run
ning commentary describes what you'll see
Chart*! &*
(and where to look to see it). Ranging from the
and cJKKJ-nrk >j - v.ji Trrtna. cutfiin-jrefl
tfcjhl (caw** r*jl you »i mo n*c'i hHI simple and straightforward to the advanced and
even mystical, these 40 flights will open a new
dimension to an already outstanding program.
,-■ COMHIf (1 look. FUWcatoi

$9.95 ISBN 0-87455-022-X

Please send me copies of 40 Great Flight Simulator Adventures at S9.95 each.

(ISBN No, 0-B7455-022-X)

All orders must be prepaid In U.S. funds.

To order this exciting adventure guide, mail
NC residents add 43% tax
the attached coupon with your payment to
52.00 shipping and handling COMPUTE! Books, P.O. Box 5038,
charge per book.
F.D.R. Station, New York. NY 10150. Or call
Total amount enclosed toll free 1-800-346-6767 (in NY 212-265-8360.)

□ Payment enclosed {check or money order)

D Charge □ Visa D MasterCard D American Express

Name -


City State Zip

Pteoje allow 4-6 weeks (or delivery.

COMPUTE! books are available in the U.K., Europe, the Middle

COMPUTE! Publicationsjncfi
One ni the ARC Publishing Companies
East, and Africa from Holt Saunders, Ltd.. 1 St. Anne's Road,
Eastbourne, East Sussex BN21 3UIN, England.
The new keywords add punch to
BASIC and the additional memory is
certainly welcome. S'more is a valuable
The game that'll turn
addition to any programmer's library.
—Todd Heimarck
Cardco, Inc.
300 S. Topeka
Wichita, KS 67202
$69,95 (cartridge, disk, and manual)
your Ferrari into
a pinch hitter.
Stunt Flyer Baseball, so real and lifelike that you'll
bench your Ferrari! Thats Hard Ball,
Sierra's new action software. Stunt Fly quite simply the most real
er, puts you in the cockpit as you learn istic sports simulation game of
the skills of piloting a stunt plane. With all time. In just five minutes
a little practice, you'll be doing slow you'll see that all other com
rolls, hammerheads, half-loops, Immel- puter baseball games are minor
mans, and even the outside-inside Cu league compared to HardBall.
ban 8. As a beginner, you can watch an Youll swear you're watching
airshow to see how the pros do their the Saturday afternoon 'Game
stunts, before starting to fly your own * oftheWeek'on network
plane. Since all the pilots are experts, television!
don't expect to be able to do the stunts Hardball plays as a field-
as well as they do. You'll have to be action game ora manager-strategy
come a bona fide ace for that. game—or both. Watch curveballs actually
Practice makes perfect. First, get fa drop over the plate, listen to the umpire yell 'strike three"
miliar with your airplane, a Pitts Special or consult the managers screen for a key substitution. You can even
biplane, the most maneuverable of all position the infield and outfield to match jI/w^/^I/mJJ^1
stunt planes. Then start to practice your the batters style or game situation. jf\ CCvlUUv
stunts. The 47-page manual shows you
how to accomplish each maneuver, op For dealer information contact: Accolade Inc.. 20863 Stevens Creek Boulevard.
erate the controls, and take part in a Cupertino, CA 95014,(408] 446-5757 A!! rights reserved © 1985.
stunt-flyer competition. It also covers
In Canada exclusively, call Beamscope: 1-800-268-5535
the basic principles of aerodynamics
and shows you how to put together in
dividual moves to create an aerobatics
sequence. Operation Market Garden And
Start with the easy maneuvers, like
the slow roll. You'll get the hang of it Kampfgruppe
before long. Don't be discouraged at
first about crashing. Unlike real flying,
Strategic Simulations, Inc. has built its Holland, in September 1944. The larg
you can always get up and walk away
reputation on strategy war games for est combined-arms airborne operation
from your mistakes.
home computers. The company is pro in history, the Arnhem campaign was
The most enjoyable thing about
lific in the field, with games to simulate the Western Allies' most notable defeat.
Stunt Flyer is the competition part of the
battles from many different historical Kampfgruppe simulates small-unit bat
program. After some practice, you can
periods. But the sheer number of SSI ti tles on the Russian front, where the So
compete in various stunts, watch what
tles causes its own problem: How does viets and Germans were repeatedly
you did, and receive a score. If your fly
the company prevent all these games involved in action. It demonstrates the
ing is up to par, you'll hear the specta
from seeming alike? changes in equipment and tactics by
tors below applaud your efforts. If
One of the problems is that war- both Bides throughout the war. Both the
not—well, at least they don't boo and
gamers themselves are very unwilling Amhem campaign and tactical Russian-
Stiinl Fli/er is for those who like ex to experiment. We expect certain things front battles are traditional wargamc
citement in their software. There won't from our games—things like hexagon topics.

be any dull moments. The stunts are maps and lots of numbers—and if we
not easy to master, but that's the chal don't find them we insist that the game
lenge. Once you've improved, you can prove they weren't needed, SSI has
save the results of your compulsory se shown that it understands its audience.
quence score and freestyle flight to a Most SSI games use formats the player
"competition" disk and send the disk to will find familiar, while a few attempt
Sierra. The company is offering a $1000 to break new ground. Operation Market
prize to the best Stunt Flyer pilot, some Garden and Kampfgruppe, two of SSI's
thing that makes this piece of software latest releases, reflect these two
pretty realistic. concerns.
-David Florance
The subjects of the two games are
Siena On-line, Inc.
the first hint of the traditional. Opera
P.O. Box 485
Coarsegold, CA 93614
tion Market Garden deals with the cam
524.95 (disk) paign for a bridgehead in Arnhem, Operation Market Garden

COMPUTErs Gazette January 1986 55

Of the two game-systems, though. innovation, but there is nothing out of eludes four historical scenarios and an
Operation Market Garden is the more place, either. The game uses well-tested easy-to-use scenario generator. A wide
traditional. It uses a hex agon-cove red movement, combat, and supply sys variety of armored, artillery, and infan
terrain map and battaiion-sized units tems to simulate the campaign with re try weaponry is available to the players.
with lots of numbers. It employs a rigid spectable accuracy. It forces the player None of these features is innovative in
play sequence, where one side moves to use both strategic planning and tacti itself, but in the context of a swift-
and fights and then the other side cal finesse. And it does it nil without moving system, they are nicely done.
moves and fights. The detailed manual raising the gamer's ire, A thoroughly What is new is the way you, the
includes maps showing the progress of solid effort. player, control your battle units. Effec
the historical campaign, and charts Kampfgnippe illustrates SS!'s other tively, you order your units to move
demonstrating how the computer cal major concern—the innovative war- twice. A unit will follow its first order,
culates combat. The game is superbly game system. The game map is divided then, unless you have changed it, its
done, but it's also completely without into squares, not hexagons. The squares second order. If you .liter the orders, it
surprise, do not appear on the screen, so the map will obey, but only after a short (but
Operation Market Garden demon has a more natural appearance, and is often crucial) delay. The delay system
strates SSI's concern for the evolution easy to read. Units can move in eight di forces you to make a plan and stick to it,
of proven game systems. There is little rections instead of six. The game in- or suffer some degree of chaos. Units
fire automatically at enemy units; you
can control the range at which your
units fire, but not the actual target. This
IF THERE'S SOMETHING STRANGE procedure is both unusual and realistic.





Kampfgruppe allows you to play a

very specific leadership role. Rather
than command individual units, you
can give orders to those units' head
quarters. This system both reduces the
time-consuming problem of moving
each unit and adds a further degree of
realism. In effect, you give general rath
er than specific orders, of the type actu
ally given by higher-level commanders.
The game allows you to switch to a
unit-by-unit command if you wish, but
DISKBUSTIN' IS GONNA MAKE YOU FEEL GOOD! Now you can you will use this option less frequently
make back-up copies of your newest software. This is the SUPER- as you begin to master the game.
FAST Disk Copier that ZAPS thru copy protection! Average copy Both Operation Market Garden and
time is only :S-4 minutes. Includes unique Power-Pack feature Kampfgruppe are encouraging for the
tor tough Has copy capability not available until now, and company's followers. Thoroughly de
even copies other coplerel! DISKBUSTERS will help you insure signed efforts like Operation Market
the safety of your software investment, and it's both C-64 and Garden are always welcome in the war-
C-128 compatible! game hobby, while new directions like
Kampfgnippe are necessary if the hobby
WE AIN'T AFRAID OF NO DISKS!! is to grow. What SSI seems to need now
is a computer with greater graphics and
computing capabilities. With the new
To order by phone ca generation of personal computers now
appearing, SSI's games should soon of
ONLY (805) 569-1644 fer even better graphics, easier play,
$29.95 Operator 10 and greater realism.
—Neil Randal!
Onto by shone VISA/MASTERCARD/COD 01 -mil Clwck or Money Ordot and mclucic ihiBiiino
cnsrael. CA addrew arid 61 tax: S3 >0 ship USA srfilrcssps: UPs air i5.S0, COD add SJ 00 t» Strategic Simulations, Inc.
tontiniTiTal USonli. C.niiid.i $7 50: all othei counlr<i-- S10 00 jnd rnu't piuliidc- U.S. certified
885 Stierltn Rd., Bldg. A-200
Mountain Vim, CA 94043
Kampgniffe IS59.95)
soFtware Itox :nif>9 • Goleta • CA • 93130 Operation Market Garden ($49.95}
Fast Tracks: The
Computer Slot Car Psi 5 Trading Co.
Construction Kit The game
Thai's Tom Sneva Up ahead on the pole.
Bobby Kahal is outside on the first row.
iat'11 put your
Rick Mears is inside on the second row,
and here I am, starting in fourth, on the
outside of the second row. The green flag
BMW into orbit.
zoiU be out any second. Rahal is probably
going to accelerate hard and try to beat
Sneva into the turn. I'll just go with him
and try to take the lead coming out of the
second turn. There's the flag! Hit it hard
now! It's the 35th Century and you're trying to
You'll probably never be sitting on ^ captain Quasan-3CP Space Freighters
the starting grid at the Indianapolis 500 | on the edge of an eternal galaxy You
with Mears, Sneva, and Rahal, but Fast I don't have time to tool around in
Tracks: The Computer Slot Car Construc your BMW you're trying to outlast
tion Kit will put you on the toughest slot marauding space pirates who seem
car tracks around against the toughest to be reading your mind.
and smartest drivers you'll ever care to Its a long shot, but this
see. is to save the
The predesigned [racks are tricky starved-out inhabitants of the
enough. But they can get even trickier Parvin Frontier You hand-pick your own
as you design your own race course and crew from 30 possible candidates. Some will be human.
try to post the fastest time possible. Some will not. Make the right choice! Each candidate has his own special
Tight turns, narrow one lane straight skills and personality. If you can't manage
aways, overpasses, and oil slicks make them, you won't survive.
the course extremely demanding. Try to
pass at the wrong time, and you'll find Fordcaier information contact-Accolade Inc.. 20863 Stevens Creek Boulevard
yourself being bumped and spinning Cupertino.CA 95014.(4081446-5757 AH rights reserved © 1985.
off the track. Your 64 is not Mr. Nice In Canada exclusively, call Beamscope: 1-800-268-5535
Guy. Given the chance, it'll push you
off the track every time. Don't hesitate run it, without having to own a copy of his own track.
to bump back—you can gain two sec Fasf Tracks. The program even gives Activision has also announced a
onds for every car you force off the you credit for designing the track. Your "Dream Track" contest. Create the
track. friends can experience the challenge of most difficult and complex track imag
Fast Tracks includes more than 20 attempting to beat your best time, lack inable, then send it to Activision. The
different track sections for designing ing only the ability to modify or design winner, selected by Bobby Rahal, will
your own race course. The track sec a track of their own. receive an all-expense paid trip for two
tions are easy to position for your own An additional disk may be pur to the 1986 Indianapolis 500.
racing layout. Just use your joystick to chased from Activision which includes —George Miller
place the pieces. After completing your several other tracks, including a Bobby
track, the computer provides the land Rahal signature track. Here's a chance
2350 Bayshore Frontage Rd.
scaping and you're ready to race. Build to experience a race against one of the Mountain View, CA 94043
a really tough track, then challenge best. Try to beat Rahal's time around $29.95
your friends to beat your time on your

Keys to Responsible Driving

Learning how to drive is a rite of pas throughout the program, and graphi
sage in America. Almost every teenager cally displayed situations put you in the
takes some sort of driver's education driver's seat. You react, and your an
course in high school. Keys to Responsi swers, whether right or wrong, are
ble Drivitig, a package from CBS soft evaluated.
ware, is an interesting addition to this
Do you know what the sign for a
slow-moving vehicle is? Just how safe
This isn't a driving simulation—■ or unsafe is mixing alcohol and auto
hat's left for the the open highway. In- mobiles? Answers to these questions,
tead, this self-paced question and an- and scores of others, are included in
The most innovative feature of Fast wer program presents the general rules this program. Screen after screen shows
Tracks is an option that allows you to of the road, letting you move through you the proper way to make a U-turn,
make a disk copy of your track and give each chapter of instruction at your own or parallel park. What are the steps you
t to a friend who can then load it and peed. Defensive driving is stressed need to keep in mind when making a
COMPUTE!'* Gazolto January 1986 57
right turn—or a left turn? Keys to Re such organizations .is the National
sponsible Driving tells you. Safety Council, the American Automo
A pre-test and post-test show you bile Association, and Allstate Insurance
what you know before you begin, and Company, the only thing that Keys to
what you've learned after you're fin Responsible Driving doesn't include is a
ished. Scores are even kept in a record driver's license.
file which you can access at any time. —Gregg Keizer
Separate chapters cover such things as CB5 Software
handling and maneuvering a car, road One Fawcett Place
signs, city driving, highway driving, Greenwich, CT 06836
turning and changing lanes, as well as 579.95 (disk)
outlining the clangers of driving under
the influence of drugs or alcohol. ing booklet are included in this package
Two disks and a Guide to Safe Driv for the Commodore 64. Reviewed bv

Safeguard your latest software by

making a backup with
Cadpak-64 (Enhanced
Subtitled a "Computer Aided Design
Package with Dimensioning," Cadpak-
64 is a very good program for the cre
ation of high-resolution pictures and
graphics designs on the Commodore
64. The package lets you use either a
light pen or the keyboard to create the
images, and supports numerous dot-
matrix printers, both color and black-
and-white. A major plus for Cadpak is
its ability to produce accurately dimen
sioned output at every stage of the de
sign process. Documentation is very
comprehensive, although it can be a bit
confusing at times because of ihe two
different input methods covered. That
shortcoming is more than compensated
"E 3 BEST COPIERS AVAILABLE for by the excellent tutorials on the
ALL IN ONE SUPER PACKAGE disk. Cadpak is a typically thorough ef
fort from Abacus, and will be of interest
No hardware necessary, easy to use, NEW! MasterKey™ system makes to anyone wishing to create, store, and
Dlskmaker virtually 100% effective! print hi-res pictures.
Abacus Software
Copies new custom G.C.R. code protection, long data-block logic, no-sync P.O. Box 7211
data blocks, NEW wide head protection, and many other specialized Grand Rapids, Ml 45910
protection routines. Copies normal and protected disks, includes 3 $39.95
copiers - FAST copier, VARI-SECTOR copier, and AUTO-LOGIC NIBBLER.
Actually copies a full disk in only 2 minutes. Inexpensive module releases
keep you up-to-date. MODULES available by subscription or Individually. Temple Of Apshai Trilogy
only S49.95 ToorderCAu.805-687-1541 ext 64 For those as yet unfamiliar with the
for copier system Technical line 805-682-4000 ext 99 popular Apshai series of fantasy adven
ture programs for the Commodore 64,
Also available DiskMaker Too IK it . SUPER Disk Utility package. Ask this new release from Epyx should be of
for SPECIAL Combo offer with DIskMaker™. great interest. Even those who've
played one or more of the three games
Order bfpbane 24 hrt/7 <toytQtttntt tA%ft\*ritbP<:k/matey order Payable ro BASIX. Vlw, .v.nirjC.irfj R included in the trilogy may want to in
American Express Include card U and e*pr date* C.». modems add 6% tax, Allow Jj wtrki tor rleflrante
Of personal .ind to. thccki. Add 33-50 shJppfng/n.indflng for continental US. 35.50 for UPS air COD! vest in this combined package. Epyx
shipped 1Q 48 stttcj only, add 14,00, AK, Mi. APO, n*n add 37.50. Canada add 110,00. Other foreign
has taken The Temple of Apshai, The
orders add 5T5.OO and remit, certified US rundi only No credit card orden from outlldc Nonh AmcrJt*.
Ih'.ifrii & [JiitrlJuirrjrs Fnvlted & Supported. Upper Reaches of Apshai, and The Curse
of Ra-—all previously released separate
DISKMAKER PAYS FOR ITSELF THE FIRST TIME YOU USE IT ly—and placed them on one disk. The
colorful graphics have been noticeably
improved, the game play is faster, and
the accompanying manual is informa
iAbi State Street ■ Suite I54IA ■ Santa Barbara
tive and clear. An Apshai Command
Card provides a quick reference to all

SB COMPUTE! s Gazette January 19B6

Law of theWest:
The game that'll keep
your Porsche off
If you've ever wanted to strap on
the options within the game as well.
a six-shooter pin a tin star to your
There are 12 levels, 568 rooms, and 37
chest and match the exploits
different monsters for you to conquer.
of Bat Masterson orWyatt
Select a character, Imbue him or
Earp.then Law of the West is
her vs'ith varying levels of strength, con
your chance. Forget about
stitution, dexterity, intelligence, intu
gunning down Main Street in
ition, and ego. Then set forth. If you
your Porsche. Its the 1870s
create an adventurer you particularly
and you're the Sheriff of Gold
like, you can save the character for use
in later games. The program will record
town as there ever was.
all of the pertinent information—expe
You wont survive by blast
rience, fatigue, treasure, weapons, and
ing your way out of every sticky
strength—and let you take that charac
situation-some of the gunslingers are just too
ter to any of the three games. There is
fast. So, use your street smarts and get to know their
even a provision for you to bring to the
'bad guy" personalities. You've also got to keep the locals happy-
Apshai trilogy a character or characters
Rose, the saloon keeper the doctor, the "kid'and even your own depuly-
created on other computer game sys
theyre all valuable allies if you want
tems. This is a classic series of computer
to live to see another higl i noon
games made even better.
Epux Computer Software Kor dealer information contact Accolade Inc.. 20863 Stevens Creek Boulevard.
1043 Kiel Court Cupertino,CA 95OR14081446-5717. All rights reserved O 1985.
Sunnyvale, CA 94089 In Canada exclusively, call Beamscope: 1-800-268-5535.

riods of frantic movement and combat

Decision in the Desert are interspersed with relative calm, just
This World War II combat simulation like in the real desert war. You can se
blows the sands of North Africa across lect options within each scenario, set
your computer's screen as you become the level of computer competence, even
a German or British general fighting for display only those enemy units you've
your army's survival. Five scenarios brushed against. Decision in the Desert
cover the first two years of the war in may not put sand in your face, but it's
the desert, from O'Conner's raid the closest you'll come from this side of
against the Italians in 1940 to the final the screen.
assault on the El Alamein position in MtcroProse Software :,..■.',-,. i-.j /
1942. You command one army's divi 120 Utkefront Dr.
sions, regiments, and air squadrons Hunt Valley, MO 21050
while the computer controls the other. $39.95
that it's freeware—copyrighted soft
Sending orders to your units
ware which is intended to be copied by
through the keyboard or joystick, you
anyone who wants to use it. Fulop's
move, attack, and defend on a variety Actionauts company, Advanced Program Technol
of terrain, from the fortress of Tobruck
Software designer Rob Fulop calls his ogy (APT), is sending copies of Action
to the ridges of Alam Haifa. Plunge too
Actionauts a set of computer toys rather auts to user groups across the country.
far behind enemy lines, and you could
than a game. And, as such, the program The company requests that those who
get cut off from your supplies, endan
is an engaging experiment in creativity. use the program send in S3 to become
gering your army and tempting defeat.
You play with a "gravity grid" and a registered users and to get a copy of the
But take no risks—become a Rommel
group of programmable screen charac manual and a subscription to the "Ac-
or Montgomery in name only—and the
ters. These figures move around on the tioneer" newsletter. If you can't get a
enemy could pummel you from all
grid in any fashion you choose. The copy at your local user group, you can
program's editor lets you use a joystick order the entire package from ATP for
!n this strategic-level game, you
or the keyboard to instruct your set of $10. But note: Freeware is still copy
decide where to attack, and when.
Actionauts on what to do. Start with a righted software, not public domain
Whether to press your Italian infantry
simple game of tag (the user's manual material.
forward, even though they've suffered
shows you how) and then move on to Fulop, formerly a computer game
severe casualties, or husband your last
more complex constructions. designer with Atari and Imagic, was re
reserve of armor for that final counter
attack which could swing the battle. Pe- Actionauts is a special program in sponsible for such programs as Missile

COMPUTE!'* Gazelle January 1986 59

Command and Demon Attack. He's tive use of sound make Star Rank Boxing
brought the same talents to Actionauts, an interesting addition to any game
which is an inventive package at an un collection.
beatable price. Gamestar, Inc.
Advanced Program Technology (APT) 1302 Slate St.
467 Hamilton Ave., Suite 1 Santa Barbara, CA 93101
Palo Alto, CA 94301 S29.95 (disk!
Fret (through user groups)
$3 for documentation
$10 individually through APT Halley's Comet
This new package, a series of programs
written by Eric Burgess, Fellow of the
The Original Boston Royal Astronomical Society, is intend
too long, and the still-active volcano ed to help amateur astronomers keep
Computer Diet will end the search for you. track of Halley's comet, especially dur
No one ever said dieting is easy. But Like its predecessor, The Island Ca ing its 1986 appearance. !t could also be
Scarborough's Original Boston Com per features excellent color graphics and useful for instructors, as it includes a
puter Diet for the Commodore 64 can at sound. The treacherous island and its short teacher's guide in addition to the
least make the process easier and more surrounding waters come equipped with 12-page user's manual.
enjoyable. The program will also get quicksand, coconut bombs, swords, The on-screen introduction to the
you started on a balanced, nutritional sharks, snare traps, and even punji pits. programs sums up their features rather
approach to weight loss rather than a As you search, you set booby traps for nicely:
fad diet that might be unhealthy and your opponent while avoiding the is
could be unproductive in the long run. land's natural hazards and the traps set
This program helps you to find and to
for you. The split screen effect lets you
observe Halley's comet. It shows where
Developed by Dr. Leighton Read of the
see everything the other spy is doing at
the comet can be seen among the stars of
Harvard Medical School and several
the same time that he can see you. At
the constellations. It tells you what time
other medical researchers, the Boston
the upper levels of play, there may be the comet rises, is highest in the sky, and
Diet focuses on meal planning, food re
more than one island to search. Playing sets, for any day you choose, anywhere on
porting, goal setting, and solid nutri
earth. It plots the sky from any location for
tional advice. The program counts against the computer, you'll have to be
any time and date, and shows the comet
calories for you, offers feedback on the come very fast and tricky to win. Play
ing against another person, with simul
relative to stars, naked eye planets, sun
nutritional balance of your diet, and
taneous two-player action, is even more
and moon. It shows earth and comet mov
even has built-in "counselors" who
ing in their orbits, and their positions at
help guide your efforts. The 97-page fun.
any date. It provides physical details of
manual contains short chapters on Firs* Star Software
the comet and its historical passages
health, fitness, and proper diel. A sepa IS E. 41 St.
through the inner solar system. The pro
rate Food Reporting and Meal Planning New York, NY 10017
gram is optimized for the apparitions of
Guide shows you how to set up your $29.95 Utisk)
1759, 18iS, 1910, and 1986.
own schedule.
This is an easy-to-use, flexible, and This kind of program is not for
informative computer diet program. Al Star Rank Boxing everyone. 5ome of its material is fairly
though only one person can use the dry, and the time plots could be confus
package at a time, after you've pur This well-designed one- or two-player ing without interpretation. However,
chased the program you can buy addi game for the 64 allows you to create this software does an excellent and ac
tional disks for only $10. your own boxer, train him, then work curate job, and uses the 64's features to
your way up through the ranks. full advantage.
Scarborough Systems, Inc.
25 iV. Broadway Science & Technology Software Service
Tanytcwn, ny'wssi 13361 Frail In,
$49.95 (disk) Sebastopol, CA 95472
$49.95 m

Spy Vs Spy II: The Island COMPUTED Gazette is looking

Caper for utilities, games, applications
educational programs, and
Don't expect to master the elements of
tutorial articles. If you've created
espionage in one sitting with First Star
Software's Spy vs Spy II: The Island Ca a program that you think other
per. The action is fast, the dangers readers might enjoy or find use
many, and your opponent unscrupu ful, send it, on tape or disk to:
lous. The Island Caper, for the Commo Submissions Reviewer
dore 64, uses the same Simulvision Pre-fight training is important to COMPUTE! Publications
format—a split-screen feature for two fine tune your boxer for the upcoming
P.O. Box 5406
players or one player against the com contest. Spend too little time on road
Greensboro, NC 27403
puter—used in the first Spy vs Spy work, and you'll find your boxer tiring
game. In this sequel, you and the op early in the fight. Please enclose an SASE if you
posing spy are trapped on a tropical is With a joystick, you select punches wish lo have the materials
land while searching for the parts to a as you fight any of 19 ranked boxers in returned.
missile. Find and construct the missile bouts against the computer, or select a Articles are reviewed within four
before your opponent, and you can "dream match" against a friend. Excel
weeks of submission.
leave the island on a submarine. Wait lent animation and graphics, with effec
60 COMPUTERS Gazelle January 19B6

PPI Buffet «4 Different Type Faces & Reverse
Characters 'Includes Power Cord, Five Feel of Cable
and All Required Connectors 4435


S commodore SG1O 20995
Gemini SG10C
With Built-in Commodore interface Memorex ,895*Scotch . 1195
Gemini SG15 BASF . Maxell . 1195
; T.F.f f t I M-P.T.F'T-T I
'I VMi-'.J-'iViVrY
Powerlype (Letter Quality)
y 30995 Nashua -Allcr'3 Rebate
■S-Ht !■>
Gemini SR10/15 Call for Price
S commodore
Gemini SBto Call (or Price MONITORS
12995 BMC Color 144^5
Sharp Green . 6495
"c commodore
Sharp Amber . 6995
*1541, DISC
15995 PROGRAMMER'S Mighty Mo .
E commodore
BASIC TOOL KIT. Commodore 1660..

141M MONITOR 14995 Telesonic Call lor Price

E commodore
CHOICE Assembler D 27.95 Easy Sp«ll t) 19.95
803 PRINTER Eisv Tinince I. rv-D 19.95 Ldod-0 49.95
•FASTLOAD £»sy Calc-0 64.95 37.95

9935 •WINTER GAMES Easy Scfipl D

Actis Rec -0
39.95 General Ledgct 37.95
The Boss 12aB Accls Pay-D 3795 Neutral Zm( 01 20.95
•TEMPLE OF APSHAI TRILOGY Uagig OeSi-D 52.95 Spntemister DI 2B.95
The Bat 148B •JET COMBAT SIMULATOR StfEnt Buflir 24.95 BucMcM I) T 20.95
3-Way 19Ba •SUMMER GAMES I & II Sky Trmel 27.00 Mistc CnrriDOSer 23.95


Check, Money Order, MC or VISA accepted/No additional charge lor MasterCard and Visa/Cill fur shipping and handling inlonnallon/NYS msldenis ad applicable
sales tai/Prlces and availability are sub|sd In cDanpe without noilce'AI! Octory Iresti merchandise with manufacturer's warranty. Dealers Welcome. Call [or recent
price reductions and new lebale Information. Plus shipping and handling. No returns without return authorization number.


1-800-631-1003 1-800-221-2760 1,800-548-0009

OR 516-349-1020
Or Write: Computer Centers of America, 81 Terminal Drive, Plainview, NY 11803
Using That New Disk Drive You Cot
For Christmas

Michaul S. Tomczyk 1541 or 1571, into the drive. Turn OPEN 4,4 tells the computer
the locking lever or push-down de you're going to be working with the
Congratulations—you just got a vice to secure it. printer. CMD 4 directs subsequent
new disk drive for Christmas. Now commands to the printer, so the
you're trying to figure out how to Displaying The Directory LIST command sends the directory
use it. Don't panic—we're here to Now let's see what's on the disk. listing to the printer. The last line
help get you started, with a begin All disks contain a listing or directo closes the communication channel
ner's introduction to disk drive com ry of the programs or data files on to the printer.
mands for your Commodore 128, that disk. To call up the directory on
64, Plus/4, 16, and VIC-20. your screen, type the following and Loading A Program From
First, some terminology. Flop press RETURN: Disk
py disks are technically floppy disk* LOAD"S",8 To load the first program on a disk
ettes, but they're usually called
When the word READY ap (the one at the top of the directory),
"disks" or "floppies."
pears, type the word LIST and the type the following and press
You can buy all sorts of pro
directory will appear, displaying RETURN:
grams on disk, the most popular be
ing word processors, spreadsheets, the names of each of the files on the LOAD ,8 or

databases, games, and educational disk within quotes. In the loading DLOAD"*" (Plus/4, 16, and 128 only)

programs. If you buy a commercial instruction, the dollar sign stands The computer will whir as it
program in a store or through the for "directory" and the number 8 is searches for the program and loads
mail—such as a word processing the disk drive device number. Inci it. When the word READY appears,
program on disk—what you usually dentally, if you leave out the num the program is loaded.
get is a disk and a manual or in ber 8, the computer will think To start the program, type
struction sheet explaining the com you're using a tape recorder instead RUN, press RETURN, and the pro
mands associated with that program. of a disk drive and will tell you to gram begins. RUN works with
But disk drives aren't just for PRESS PLAY ON TAPE. BASIC programs. To run machine
commercial programs. You can also Also, if you're using a dual disk language programs, you usually
save your own programs—ones drive you can address directories in, have to use a different command:
that you write—on disk, regardless say, drive number 1, like this:
LOAD"*",8,1 or
of the "language" they're written LOAD"Si",B BLOAD"*" (rius/4, 16, and 128 only)
in — BASIC, machine language,
and then type something like SYS
Logo, and so on. You can also save
49152 instead of RUN.
data files—which are different from Kt/Vll // you have a Commodore
program files. An example of one is 128, Phis/4, or 16, you can use a
a text file, a document created with shortcut command to get a directory,
a word processor. lust type DIRECTORY and press RE
Kb/V1u You can use an asterisk (*)
lo had the first program from any
TURN. The 128 also has the CATA
Using A Preprogrammed Disk disk. Most major programs like word
LOG command, which works exactly
processors and spreadsheets have
First, we'll assume your computer like DIRECTORY. An even shorter
only one program on the disk, so using
and disk drive are already connect iliorlcut is to press the f3 function
the asterisk gives you a shortcut.
ed and both turned on, and we'll key, which is preset to print
also assume you're using a single DIRECTORY,
disk drive (as opposed to a dual
drive—two drives in one unit). If there's more than one pro
gram on the disk, load the program
A disk can be damaged {or the Prinling The Directory
information on it scrambled) if you you want by name, like this:
You can print your disk directory
bend it, overheat it, or touch it with on your printer for filing or refer
LOAD"jm>£r<i»i name",8 or

a magnet.) Never leave disks lying DLOAD"iirO£nwi name" (l'lus/4, 16, anil
ence purposes by using the follow
128 only)
around exposed where dust can ing commands:
collect. Disks are relatively fragile where program name is the name of
and should be handled carefully. the file as listed in the directory.
OI'EN 4,4:CMD 4
Insert a preprogrammed disk, LIST When the word READY appears,
perhaps the one that came with the ['HINTiHtCLOSE 4 type RUN and press RETURN.

62 COMPUTErs Ga;e:iB Januarv 1986

Christmas Carol
Here's a great way for you and your family to have fun
with your Commodore 64™ or Commodore 128™ this
Christmas. Our exciting Christmas Carols disk
features 18 o( your favorite holiday songs, with
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professionally-arranged music and entertaining
Fellow, Ohl Susanna, Yankee Doodle, and mare.
graphics. For sing along fun, the lyrics appear In easy-
to-read verse on your TV or monitor. Play just your
You can trust John Henry Software to bring you
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quality software at the lowest price. We specialize in
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• Angels We Have Heard on High • Deck the Hall Don't wait, call us today! Toll Free Number:
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• It Came Upon The Midnight Clear • Jingle Bells
th for only
• O Little Town of Bethlehem • We Three Kings
of Orient Are
- Jolly Old St. Nicholas
Joy to the World
• 0 Christmas Tree
Silent Night Please send me:
What Child is This? Christmas Carols dlsk(s) at S15.95 each
Up on the Housetop Party Songs disk(s) at 315.95 each
Christmas Carols and Party Songs at S28.95
Add $1.00 lor poslaoo nnd handling. Otiio resident .idtl Gr s sales lax Foielgn
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D Check or money order enclosed Q Visa D MasterCard

Acct. # Exp. Date

Name „


City State .Zip

Send lo John Hemy Software, P.O. Box 745, Vandalla, Ohio 45377.
Using A New Blank Disk of text. One page of 8V: X 11-inch
typing paper can hold 60 lines total,
One of the best uses for your disk
drive is storing programs that you but only 56 lines are used because
write. Since the blank disks you of the top and bottom margins. A
is the best typing buy in a store come unformatted, disk formatted on the 1541 drive
can hold about 165K of infor
you have to formal each one before
instruction you can put information on it. The mation. A disk formatted with the
HEADER command on a 1571 drive
reason the disks don't come already
program for formatted is that they can be used can hold twice as many kilobytes of
by many different disk drives memory because the 1571 can use

personal computing which store information in different both sides of the disk.
To save this program on a for
patterns on the disk. Formatting a
that I have seen!' disk means preparing it for use by
your particular brand of disk drive.
matted disk, type the following and
press RETURN:
Erik Sandberg-Diment In doing this, you must give the
The New York Times 1/8/85 SAVE"TEXTCALCULATOR",8 or
disk a disk name and an identifica
tion (ID) number. Examples of these 16, and 128 only)
Your computer productivity
are: "MAGIC, M2". In this ex
is directly proportional The program is automatically
ample, "MAGIC" is the disk name
to your speed at the keyboard. saved on the disk. To check it, try
That's why Typing Tutor HI'" and "M2" is the ID. The ID can be
listing the directory (LOAD"$",8
with Letter Invaders'"; any two letters or numbers. (Con
and LIST). To retrieve the program
sult your disk drive manual for
D Automatically adjusts to in the future, insert the disk in the
more specific information.)
your abilities and progress; drive and type: LOAD "TEXTCAL-
To format a blank disk, insert
□ Tests words, numbers, and the disk into the drive and type;
lull keyboard, as well as The program is now stored on
OPEN l,8,15,"N;rfisk":CLOSE 1
through a standard speed test; or your disk with the name you gave it
□ Features Letter Invaders, header "disk namf'.lid (Plus/4, 16, between the quotation marks in the
an arcade-style game that and 128 only) SAVE command. You can use any
lets you take an entertaining Now your disk is formatted program name you like, as long as
break while sharpening your and ready to accept programs or it's 16 characters or less. But don't
typing skills at the same time. data you want to store on it. try to give the same name to two
A word of caution: This proce different programs on the same
For the IBM PC, PC jr. XT, AT,
($49.95*); Apple II Series dure can also be used to erase and disk, the disk drive won't allow it (if
($49.95'), Macintosh ($59.95*); reformat an old disk, but if you do you saved two programs under the
and Commodore 64 ($39.95") that, any previous information stored name SPACEGAME and later tried
wherever software is sold. on the old disk will be complete!}/ to load one of them, the disk drive
('Suggested Retail) erased and lost, so be careful not to would have no way of knowing
erase a disk you want to keep. Also, which program of that name you
be sure to use a different name and wanted to load).
ID for each disk. This way each disk
has a unique identity—-and will Erasing A Program From A

Tutor m
prevent any confusion later. Disk
You can use the S (SCRATCH)
Saving Your Own Program command to erase an unwanted
On Disk program from a disk. For example,
OK, so you've formatted your blank to erase the program we just creat
disk and want to save a program or ed, type:
data file on it. With your disk in the OPEN 1,B,1S,"S;TEXTCALCULATOR"
drive, type the following program :CLOSE 1 or

(or any program of your own): SCRATCH'TEXTCALCULATOR"

(Plus/4, 16, and 128 only)
YOUR" Check the directory to see if it's
20 PRINT "DISK HOLD?" gone.
BYKRIYA SYSTEMSriNC. This should help get you start
SO PRINT "APPROXIMATELY" ed with your new drive. Again,
KM 024/60/56 your disk drive manual contains a
typing Tutor III. Leilcr Invaders, and
Kny.i Systems, Inc. arc Irademarka
60 PRINT "PAGES OF TEXT." lot of useful information. Once
owned by and licensed fiom Kriya This program calculates ap you're used to the techniques we've
Systems. Inc.
proximately how many pages of discussed here, study your disk
Simon & Schuster
1230 Avenue oi Iho Americas text can be stored on one disk, as drive manual. You'll find your
New York, NY 10020 suming each page will contain 60 drive is the most important device
characters on each line, and 56 lines you use with your computer. (JD

64 COMPUTE!'* Gazolle January 1985

PW 12816-i Diciionor



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2A hours ti riuy, 7it(iyi(i w-uek


In r64
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In Illinois

Your Commodore 128 or 64

You want the very best software you can find for your
Commodore 128 or 64, right?

You want integrated software — word processing,
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Wanner 128 database ana spreadsheet applications — at a sensible
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On-screen and in memory instructions will have you up
and running in less than 30 minutes, even if you've never
used o computer before.

The price? It's as low as you'd expect for a line of

software called 'Paperback'. Suggested Retail Price for
the 64 Software is $39.95 (U.S!) and S49.95 (U.S.) for
the 128. Any of the 64 products may be upgraded to
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Paperback Writer 128 or 64, Paperback Planner 128 or

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International & Distributor enquiries to:

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Paperback Writer 128 and 64 ore now available in French.

The Power Of SYS

If you've discovered a clever lime- ray variable, be sure to predefine all
5 DATA 233,1,176,2,198,96,133,
saving technique or a brief but 65,165,96,133,66,96
nonarray variables (like VP) before
effective programming shortcut, you SYS to the VARPTR routine.
send it to "Hints & Tips," c/o When you want to RESTORE Defining brand new simple (non-
COMPUTERS GAZETTE, // WB USB it, to a specific DATA statement, add array) variables moves all array vari
we'll pay you $35. Due to the vol SYS(685)xx to the program, where ables up a few bytes in memory.
ume of items submitted, we regret xx is a line number or a numeric You can see a variable's name
that we cannot reply individually expression. in the two bytes before the pointer
to submissions. Here's another BA51C improv (VP —2). If the example above re
er. It allows you to GOTO an ex turned a value of 2111 for the vari
More Control Over BASIC able A, you could enter PRINT PEEK
6 TOR H=»710 TO 718IREAD AiPOKE (2111-2) to find a value of 65 (the
David Whittaker H,A:NEXT letter A is CHR$(65)). POKE a 66
7 DATA 32,158,173,32,247,183,7
there and the variable A would dis
Putting information into DATA 6,163,168
appear from the program, replaced
statements and then READing
Put it at the start of a BASIC pro by the new variable B.
through them is one way of han
gram and when you want to send All simple variables use two
dling lists, whether they're num
the program to a calculated line bytes for the variable name and five
bers to tie POKEd into memory or
number, enter SYS(710)xx, where for the definition. Integer variables
information to be stored in arrays.
xx is a numeric expression that re take up two of five bytes, string
The READ-DATA combination turns a valid line number within
is sequential which means the com variables fill three of five (length
your program.
puter starts at the first DATA state plus a pointer to where the string is
ment and moves forward, reading actually located), and numeric vari
VARPTR For VIC And 64 ables use all five bytes (in floating
each item in sequence. It's like a se
quential file on tape or disk—you David Pancoast point format).

have to read the individual pieces How does knowing the ad

Some BASICS have a function dress of a variable help you with
of data in order. The seventeenth
called VARPTR, which allows you programming? First, it's very help
variable written to a file is always
to find the location of a variable in ful when you're passing infor
the seventeenth when you read the
memory. It may not sound like a mation to machine language (ML)
file. A Datassette has a rewind but
ton which allows you to go all the particularly useful command, but programs. If you know where a
there are some situations in which variable resides, you can POKE the
way back to the beginning if you
it's handy. information into memory, telling
wish to reread the file. The RE
STORE command is a similar sort BASIC itself has to find vari your ML routine where the value of

of rewind button for DATA state ables and their addresses, so it's not that variable can be found.

ments. It sets the pointer to DATA surprising that there's a built-in And if you're investigating
statements back to the beginning. ROM routine you can call on. Try floating point operations, finding a
You may encounter situations running the following program on a variable allows you to test different
where you want to start rereading 64: numbers—try adding one to the
from the middle of DATA state 10 A = 2: VP-0 value in the first byte of the variable
ments. The 64 doesn't allow you to 20 SYS 45195A pointer with POKE VP, PEEK(VP)
30 VP - PEEK(780) + 256*PEEK(782l:
RESTORE to a line number (al + 1 just to see what happens to the
though the Plus/4, 16, and 128 value of the variable.
do—you can enter RESTORE 50, VIC owners should substitute Advanced BASIC programmers
for example). SYS 53387A in line 20. To find the might want to devise a fast sorting
The following short machine location in memory of a variable, routine that swaps pointers rather
language program is the answer. put the variable name directly after than switching values (to avoid the
Add it to the beginning of your pro the SYS. After the SYS, locations delays caused by dynamic strings
gram and you'll have access to any 780 and 782 hold the low and high and garbage collection). Just re
line of DATA: bytes of the variable's address. member that new variables push
3 FOR H=>685 TO 709iREAD AtPOKE In this example, we're finding array variables up in memory, so
H,A:NEXT the location of the numeric variable you'd need to declare all variables
4 DATA 32,158,173,32,247,163,3 A. If you're trying to pinpoint an ar before starting the sort. O
66 COMPUTE'S Gazalte January 1986

1985 TAX
Fast and easy income tax preparation
• This is the 5th annual edition ■ thousands of repeal customers
• Includes Form 1040, Schedules A, B, C, D, E, G, SE. W,
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■ Works like a spreadsheet ■ all the lines affected by a change
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• Automatic tax computation.

• Data can be saved on disk and updated

• Also included: _________

A data base program to create and mainlain files of tax related

items (medical, car expenses, etc.) that can be used direct
ly by the lax programs.

• Can be used all year round. Also good for many other ac
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Price is tax deductible. C64 disk: S33 (+ SI.50 S8.H)

Flay the new family trivia
PROFESSIONAL VERSION - also prints data on IRS forms: game set to music!
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Previous customers prices: S22 and S30 for pro-version
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COMMODORE Enjoy these special features:

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Blanketing Memory

Richard Mansfield go up past 255, which resets it to 150 BCC LOOP

160 RTS
Senior Editor zero. Likewise, if Y holds a zero and
you DEY, it then holds 255. The
When you want to fill the screen In this case, we're going to ad
next DEY will make it 254 and soon
with a particular color or a special just the target address in line 90 on
background, or otherwise blanket a Since we're filling the first 256 the fly. In line 60 we stuff the start
section of memory with a particular bytes of the screen with @, it ing address of the screen into the
number, you need to send a large FFFF's on line 90 (notice that the
doesn't matter whether we start
number of contiguous bytes. It's STA $FFFF,Y never really happens,
with byte 0 and 1NY upwards or fill
easy to send up to 256 bytes by downwards from 255 to 0 using because the FF's are just temporary
using a Y offset like this; place holders until the screen ad
DEY. In our example, we're going
dress can be stored there). We set
down until DEY causes Y to once
10 *= 8G4 this up by loading the Accumulator
again hold a zero which will drop
20 .S
with the low byte (using the #<
30 .0 us through the BNE in line 80 and
S0400 command) of SCREEN and storing
40 SCREEN = we RTS (ReTurn) from this Sub
50 LDY #0 it into the low byte of the target val
60 TYA ue, then putting the high byte of
70 LOOP STA SCREEN,V To fill the entire screen, how
SCREEN into the high byte on line
90 DEYiDNE LOOP ever, we need more than a single
90 RTS 90. Don't worry about how this is
done. If you need to set up such a
Line 10 sets the start address to IB ■= 364 pointer, just define the target (line
864. After you assemble it, you can 20 .S 40) and initialize the pointer as we
test this little routine by typing SYS 30 .0
do in line 60, storing the low-byte
40 SCREEN ■ $0400
864. Line 20 causes the assembler directly before the high-byte.
50 LDY «0
to print the results on screen and 60 TYA The loop between lines 90-110
line 30 POKEs the program into 70 LOOP STA SCREEN,Y
sends our @ character to the ad
memory. (These are conventions dress that has been stuffed into the
used by the LADS assembler from 100 STA SCREEN+768,Y 0000 we originally typed, plus the
my Second Book of Machine Lan 110 DEY:BNE LOOP value of Y. So, as we did in the first
guage. Other assemblers will differ.) 120 RTS
two programs, we can fill a 256-
Line 40 defines the address of byte chunk of the screen at a time
This is essentially identical to
the screen on the 64. Line 50, the by counting down the Y register
the first program, but we've added
start of the program proper, puts a with DEY. The only difference this
some additional target zones in
zero into the Y register, and line 60 time is that we're not sending bytes
lines 80, 90, and 100. Since line 70
transfers the zero to the Accumula to SCREEN, we're sending to a re
will fill the screen from bytes zero
tor so we can print the @ symbol— placed set of FF's in line 90. The ad
to 255, we can fill the second block
which has a code value of 0—on vantage of this is that we can easily
using SCREEN + 256 and the third
the screen. Then in line 70 we start adjust this address to make it point
block with SCREEN + 512. You can
a loop which puts the zero into the to the next higher 256-byte chunk
continue adding 256-byte chunks
SCREEN address plus whatever num simply by raising the high byte (the
to SCREEN to fill as large an area as
ber is in the Y register. This addressing you wish. However, for really big two F's on the left in FFFF). The
mode is signified by NAME.Y and is high byte of a pointer address rep
jobs, there's an easier way:
very useful for this kind of repeti resents multiples of 256; the low
tive task. 10 *■ 864 byte represents single bytes. This is
Since we set Y to zero in line 20 .s similar to ordinary decimal num
30 .0
50, the first time through the loop bers like 12. If you raise the "high
40 SCREKN ■ SU400
we will store a @ character into ad 60 LDA #<SCREKN:STA LOOP+1:LDA digit," you get 22, then 32, then 42,
dress $0400 (SCREEN + Y), but we I>SCREf;tJ:STA L0OS>+2 etc. If you raise the "low digit," you
then DEY which makes Y become 70 LDY #0
get 13,14,15...etc.
255. It's important to realize that 90 LOOP STA ShTFF.Y So, in line 120 we INC the high
the Y and X registers and the Accu 100 DEY byte. In the instruction STA
mulator (like any other single byte) 110 BME LOOP
SFFFF,Y the STA instruction takes
120 INC LOOP+2
can only count up to 255. If you up one byte (that would be the ad
130 LDX LOOP+2
LDY #255:INY you will cause Y to 140 CPX *S08 dress of LOOP). The low byte is FF
68 COMPUTED Gazelle January 1986
UStfLdl!llL£! II


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Enough detail Is available on each disk for either visual or please specify which disk or disk-set you want. Enclose the
Instrument cross-country navigation. correct amount plus $2.00 for shipping ($6.00 for the six-disk
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A STAR Scenery Disk (available 4th quarter 1985) covers a
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STAR Scenery Disks are primarily Intended for visual flight Common ore 54 Is a traaemarkot commodore Electronics Lid.
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(tawpi in Imnais. Ala&a. ana Mttflii I
and the high byte is the second FF, we wanted to fill. We load the X 256-byte chunks, we look at the
located at LOOP + 2. (Addresses register (which is otherwise not be pointer to see if the high byte has
are stored backwards from the way ing used in this routine) with the been INCed up to 8. ECC means
we would read them. Thus, 04 00 high byte of the pointer and then branch-if-!ess-than, so until the
that we read becomes 00 04 when compare it to 8. Take a look at line high byte reaches 8, we'll branch
stored in the computer.) 40. You can see that we started out back to LOOP and continue filling.
We then need to see if we're with a high byte of 04 and a low
finished, if we've filled everything byte of 00. So, if we want to fill four

User Group Update

User Group Notes

When writing to a user group for The Commodore Computer Club of Pine Bluff lias a new address: P.O. Box
information, please remember to 1083, Pine Bluff, AR 71603.
enclose a stamped, self-addressed The Atlanta C-64 User's Group is now the Commodore User's Group of
envelope. Atlanta (CUGA), Donald Schwab, 633 Clairmont Circle, Decatur, GA 30033.
Send typed additions, corrections, The address for the Gold City User Group has been changed: P.O. Box
and deletions for this list to: 257, Ft. Knox, KY 40121.
The Alliance Commodore Computer Club also has a new address: c/o
COMPUTE! Publications Eugene Hansen, 726 W. 16th St., Alliance, NE 69301.
P.O. Box 5406 Another new address is for the Commodore Users Group of Massena
Greensboro, NC 27402 (COMA): c/o Star Tech Systems, 69 Main St., Massena, NY 13662.
Altn: Commodore User Groups The Chillicothe Commodore Users Group can now be reached c/o Roberl
May, 213 Terrace Dr., Chillicothe, OH 45601.
The new address for the VIC-UPS Computer User Group is: P.O. Box 178,
Nedlands, W. A. 6009, Australia.
A new users group is forming In Zurich, Switzerland. For more infor
mation, write: P.O. Box 130, CH-8062, Zurich, Switzerland

New Listings


Crimson Tide Users Croup (CTUG), Clark While. Southern Ocean County's User Group (SOCUC). SUB-64 User's Croup. Will Hines, P.O Bo< 542DS,
3722 37ih Si. E., Tuscaloosa. AL 35405 Trjnk Aiellci. Jr., 54 Shining Way. Toms River, Philadelphia. PA 19105
NJ 08753 Greater Pittsburgh Commodore User Group
Commodore Link Users Group, Dave (GPCUG). 1560 Orchard View Dr., Pittsburgh.
River City Commodore Club, P.O. Bo< 4298, N.
WeBtphali'n, 308 Palisade Ave., Union Cily, N| PA 15220
Litik> Hock, AR 72116
NEW MEXICO Commodore Connection, P,O. iiox 929, Wtx>n-
lirisiol Commodore Users Group IBCUG). Suit!
Commodore Users Group of Hoswell (CUCOR), socket, Ri 02895-0929
Conns, 38 Mint' Rd, Burlington, CT 06013
George Barry, 304 E Country Club Rd., Roswell,
Man a Sou Commodore Users Group (MSCUC),
916 E, 35lh Ave., Biadenton, Fl. 33508
Ctienango County Commodore Helpers & Users
Group 1CC-CHUC). P.O. Box 487, Norwich, NY
Kno< Commodore Club, 675 Arnold St., Gales- Club U5R|f>4] Cordoba. Calle Montevideo 281,
burg, IL Plsii 5. Dplo "D", 5000-Cordoba, Republics
Knighti of the Round Table, Charles Kenaud.
Carolina Amiga Club. P.O. Bo» 40114, Raleigh.
1724 Picrti? Ave.. Rocklord, IL 61103 CANADA
NC 27629
IOWA Central Alberta Commodore 64 User Group
OHIO (CACUG). Dale Buiterworth, Box 304,
Product Engineering Center Commodore Users
Commodore Club of Central Ohio (CCCO), 4368 Foreslburg, Alberta TOB IN'O
Croup IFECCUC). c/o Al Sorensen, 333 Joy Dr.,
Valley Quail N\. Columbus, OH 43081
Waterloo. IA 50701 MEXICO
South Toledo Commodore Computer Club. P.O.
Club Commodore del Sureste, P.O. Bo>. 1272-A.
Bo» 6086. Toledo. OH 43614
Alberto Mann Hdcz.. Mcnda, Yucatan, Mexico
C-128 Users Group, 416 Shields Rd.. Youngstown,
OH M512

70 COMPUTEfs Gazelle January I9B6

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470 Needles Drive
San Jose. CA 95112
|408J 286-7074
A Compiler For The 64
one-dimensional numeric arrays.
Sprint also supports a wide range of
functions, including LEFTS,
Robert A. Stoerrle VAL.

Typing In The Program

Here's a BASIC compiler that can make your pro Sprint is written entirely in ma
grams execute up to 50 times faster! Written in chine language and must be typed
using the new version of MLX (else
machine language, and extremely easy to use,
where in this issue).
"Sprint" supports most Commodore BASIC com After loading MLX, run it.
mands, statements, and functions. For the Com When prompted for the starting
and ending addresses, enter these
modore 64 and 128 (in 64 mode). A disk drive is values:
required. Starting Address: 8000
Ending Address: 9737
What's the chief complaint when it is executed. This slows down exe
Since Sprint is a very large pro
comes to Commodore BASIC? cution speed considerably. How gram (almost 6K of pure machine
Speed, or more precisely, the lack ever, a compiler translates the language), you may want to type it
of it. Yet the language itself is not entire program once—before execu
in more than one sitting. Be sure to
what earns BASIC its reputation as tion. So, when you run the pro
follow the instructions in the MLX
painstakingly slow; it's the way gram, it executes much faster than a
article to save your work between
that it's implemented. BASIC is in comparable interpreted program.
sittings, and always load up your
terpreted. Most faster languages are "Sprint" is a BASIC compiler previous work before typing
compiled. that supports a subset of BA5IC further.
Whether a program in a high- statements available on the 64. It
Once the program has been
level programming language is in supports most of the Commodore typed in and saved, it can be loaded
terpreted or compiled, each statements, including LET, FOR,
by the following statement.
statement has to be translated into NEXT, IF, POKE, PRINT, READ,
the machine language of the com DATA, and INPUT. It supports
puter. With an interpreter, this has integer numbers (but no fractions), To run it, type:
to be done every time the statement numeric and string variables, and SYS 32768

72 COMPUTE'S Gazelle January 1986

smaller expressions, and then put
Using Sprint should keep in mind when you're
writing a program. the results of these back together.
The first step, of course, is to write
For example, this expression:
the BASIC program you wish to Constants are data values used
in BASIC programs, such as — 1, SUM - A + X*Y + B + I'J
compile. You can do this with the
normal BASIC built into your 64. If 4353, and "HELLO". Sprint sup becomes the following.
you wish, you can test the program ports two types of constants: inte Ql - X'Y:Q2 = l'J:SUM - A + Ql + B
on the interpreter first by running ger and string. Integer numbers are + QZ
it. This will not always work, as limited to -32768 to 32767. How
5trings can be compared using
Sprint has a slightly different syn ever, numbers greater than that are
the relational operators as in regu
tax for certain keywords. allowed in POKE, PEEK, and SYS
lar BASIC. They can also be concat
When you're ready to compile statements. String constants are
enated (one string appended to the
the program, save it on disk (Sprint characters enclosed in quotes. The
other) using the plus sign. Note that
compiles a program from disk, not closing quote may be omitted if it's
the result of a string expression
from memory). Load Sprint and at the end of a line.
must not be longer than the number
type SYS 32768. You'll be prompt Sprint supports both numeric
of characters allocated for the
ed for the filename of your BASIC and string variables. Variable
program. When you enter it, Sprint names may be of any length, but
When an expression is as
will proceed to compile your pro must not contain any reserved words
signed to a variable, the LET may
gram. As the program is compiled, (words that are significant to the
be omitted.
each line will be listed to the screen, compiler, such as POKE and
followed by any error messages for THEN). Only the first 15 characters
the line. Note that you can stop the are looked at, however. Integer Sprint Keywords
compiler simply by pressing the variables may be terminated by a ABS INPUT RESTORE
STOP key. If the compilation fin percent sign (%) if desired, but all AND LEFTS RETURN
ishes with no errors, you can simply regular numeric variables are as ASC LEN RIGHTS

sumed to be integers anyway, since CHRS LET READ

type RUN to execute the compiled
program. However, if there are there are no floating point num DIM NEXT SCM
errors, you'll have to load the origi bers. String variable names must be END OR SPC
nal BASIC program (the source pro terminated with a dollar sign ($). FOR/TO/STEP PEEK STR$

gram) and make the necessary Strings are limited to ten char GET POKE SYS
changes. acters, unless specified otherwise. If
Sprint compiles programs you want to include more charac IF...THEN... REM
starting at the beginning and con ters, DIMension the string, as if it
tinuing straight to the end; it does were an array, to the maximum
not follow GOTOs or GOSUBs, or number of characters it will hold. Statements
evaluate IF/THEN statements. Be The maximum number of charac A complete list of the keywords
cause of this, you can't have condi ters allowed in a string is 253. available in Sprint appears in the
tional DIMs ('IF...THEN DIM...) or In addition to integer variables. "Sprint Keywords" table. Most
conditional FORs. Sprint is a two- Sprint supports one-dimensional keywords function the same as in
pass compiler—it scans the pro integer arrays. Subscripts may regular BASIC, except for the
gram twice. Once a program has range from 0 to 126. Arrays that are following:
been compiled, there's no need for not DIMensioned are assumed to
consist of 11 elements, numbered • DATA. The DATA statement
the compiler to be in memory in or
0-10. The format for assigning, has one small idiosyncrasy: Items
der to run the program; Sprint pro
reading, and dimensioning integer that include spaces must be en
grams are self-sufficient.
closed in quotes, or the item will be
After the source program is arrays is identical to that for inter
preted BASIC, except that the sub READ as if it doesn't contain a space
compiled, the object program (the
(YOU ARE becomes YOUARE.)
resulting code) will reside in memo script of a variable may not be
ry as if it were an ordinary BASIC another subscripted variable or an ■ DIM. The DIM statement can
program. You can run and save it, expression. It must be an integer only be used to declare one-
but if you type LIST, you'll see; constant or integer variable. dimensional numeric arrays. Multi
10 SYS 2061 Numeric expressions in Sprint dimensional arrays are not
may contain integer constants, vari permitted, nor are string arrays. A
This is another advantage of using a ables, arrays, functions, and opera string is dimensioned to the maxi
compiler—people can't easily LIST mum number of characters it will
tors. The operators supported by
or modify your program. Editing hold, like an array of numbers rep
Sprint are +, —, *, /, as well as the
can only be done on the source resenting each character of the
logical operators AND and OR, and
program. string. Only integer constants are
the relational operators =, <, etc.
Parentheses are not permitted. allowed between the parentheses
Constants, Variables, And Unlike interpreted BASIC, expres of variables in a DIM statement.
Expressions sions are evaluated strictly left to • FOR. This statement func
Sprint works much the same as reg right; there is no operator prece tions the same as in Commodore
ular Commodore BASIC. However, dence. To get around this, you must BASIC, but its syntax is somewhat
there are some differences you break up the expression into several more particular. The TO value, and
COMPUTE!s Gn;nrra January 1986 73
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74 COMPUTE'S Gazollo January 19B6

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COMPUTED Gflzorre January 1986 75

the STEP value, if specified, must [hose comparisons in the IF state • MID$. This string function
be either integer constants or inte ment. has two forms in Commodore
ger variables. Expressions are not • INPUT. Each INPUT state BASIC: MlD$(v$,x) and MID$
allowed. Also, every FOR state ment can assign input to just one (v$,x,y). Only the latter form is sup
ment must have one, ami only one, variable. In addition, all characters, ported by Sprint.
matching NEXT statement. except leading and trailing spaces, • ASC. In Commodore BASIC,
• GET. In Sprint, the GET state typed on the screen, are assigned to using this function on a null ("")
ment can be followed only by a the variable. This includes commas, string results in an error. This does
string variable. This shouldn't be a colons, and quotes. not occur in Sprint. Instead, a value
problem, as numeric GETs are of zero is returned.
prone to errors because of non- Functions
numeric keystrokes, and the VAL Sprint supports most Commodore Error Messages
function can be used to change the Functions that do not require float Sprint has many error messages
string to a number. ing point numbers. The arguments which make it easier to debug pro
• IF. This statement functions a of functions must be constants or grams. However, only certain types
bit abnormally when AND or OR is variables, not expressions. Also, of errors can be flagged during
used. Because expressions are eval note that functions may not be compilation. Sprint catches errors
uated without operator precedence, nested. For example, ABS(RND(0)) such as data type mismatches,
the following statement will not is illegal. The following functions NEXT without FOR, and so on.
work: work differently in Sprint than in Errors such as overflowing num
regular BASIC: bers and running out of DATA
• RND. The RND function al items cannot be flagged during
It would be evaluated as if it were
ways returns a number ranging compilation because they occur
IF(A = B ANDC) = DTHEN... during execution of the actual com
from -32768 to 32767, no matter
To get around this, you can use the what its argument is. To scale the piled program. In these cases it will
following modification, number down to size, you can di be harder, but not impossible, to
X - A=-B:Y = C = D:1F X AND Y vide, using the equation. debug programs.
Z-32767/upptt rango;N-RND<0) AND Sometimes, an error earlier in
The result of the comparison A = B, 32767/Z the program leads to another error
which is —1 for true or zero for The AND is necessary to insure that later on. For example, if there is an
false, is assigned to variable X. The no negative numbers result. Sprint error in a FOR statement, the com
result of C = D is assigned to Y. gets its random numbers from voice piler will act as if that FOR does not
Now X and Y can be substituted for 3 of the SID chip. exist. Because of this, the corre
sponding NEXT statement will cause
a NEXT WITHOUT FOR error mes
sage. You'll have to use your judg
Sprint Error Messages
ment to weed out these extraneous
BAD FILE—Sprint only reads GOTO or GOSUB attempts to messages. Note that you should
program files. This error results if branch to a program line that does never attempt to execute a program
the filename of a sequential file is not exist. with even a single error in it.
entered. This error may also hap SYNTAX—A misspelled key See the Sprint Error Messages
pen if program line has more than word, extra parenthesis, and so on. table for more details.
80 characters or a read error occurs.
DISK ERROR—The disk error likely that you'll ever encounter How Fast Is Sprint?
channel is checked prior to each this error, as up to 19 FOR/NEXT 1 ran several test programs through
pass. If there is an error, it is dis loops can be nested. the compiler to determine the speed
played and compilation is aborted. NEXT WITHOUT FOR —A of Sprint. Results varied according
DEVICE NOT PRESENT—The NEXT statement attempts to end a to the type of program. The com
disk drive is not connected to the loop which does not have a corre piled test programs ran 15 to 50
serial bus, or it is not turned on. sponding FOR statement. times faster than Commodore
BASIC. A program to sort 100 num
bers took over two minutes in Com-
ment that is legal in Commodore data was used where string data
modore BASIC, but the same
BASIC but illegal in Sprint was was expected, or vice versa.
program compiled by Sprint exe
cuted in only five seconds!
ILLEGAL FUNCTION USE— Eilher the STOP key was pressed or
For demonstration purposes,
A function was used where a state an irrecoverable error has occurred
I've included a sample program.
ment should have been used. (file not found, and so on).
Type in Program 2, "64 Doodler
ILLEGAL STATEMENT USE— MISSING COMMA Demo," and run it, noting the speed
A statement was used where a MISSING PARENTHESIS with which it executes. Now, save,
function should have been used. MISSING SEMICOLON compile, and run it again. Notice
NON-EXISTING LINE—A the difference?
See program listings on page 127. 0
76 COMPUTE'S Gazette Jarwaiy 1986
O PLAYER Roger and
ACTION Bruce Carver

Bench-Head conilnues
Beach-Head II, "The
Dictator Strikes Back."
Beach-Head II pits allied
forces against the cruel
tfalor, who escaped the
di-sfmcilon of 'If furiress
and (led Into thi' liu]rfcal
(oiesl with portions "f his
Brmy and prisoners
capiured during the land
balile. The player must '
(ocole and penctrale the . j
lieuvlly armed sanctuary;, 'i
, .11. the dictator, and; |
r tin! prison*1**-

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Here's a truly amazing machine language assem can now start programming—in
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bler" supports multiple statement lines, labels, BASIC Modifications And
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memory or to disk. Written very compactly, it oc The following changes have been
made to the BASIC interpreter:
cupies only about 2600 bytes, leaving the rest of
memory for your source code. It also adds to the • Structured listings. Spaces
between the line number and the
BASIC editor several new features useful to both first character on the line are not
BASIC and machine language programmers. deleted. This makes it possible to
indent lines and make listings easi
Symbolic label-based assemblers be copied to its matching RAM. er to read.
are the most convenient way to Even if you don't write pro • List pause. You can freeze a
write machine language (ML) pro grams in machine language, you listing by holding down the SHIFT
grams. The instructions are entered can still use the assembler because key or pressing SHIFT-LOCK. List
as source code and later assembled of the new features added to BASIC ing can be continued by releasing
into object code (the actual ML pro and the extra BASIC commands. the SHIFT key.
gram—-the numbers in memory). The assembler will execute a BASIC
• ASCII translations and
And rather than using memory lo program just like normal BASIC
hexadecimal/binary numbers. In
cations, you can name routines would.
arithmetic expressions, you can use
with meaningful labels. It's as if
hexadecimal and binary numbers.
you could enter GOSUB JOYSTICK Typing Instructions Hexadecimal numbers should be
You'll need a copy of "The New preceded by "$" and binary num
MLX" program (appearing this bers by "%". You can also use a
Saving Memory By Using The month for the first time) to type in character preceded by a single
BASIC Editor Fast Assembler. First type in MLX quote ('A is the same as ASC("A")).
You write your ML programs for and save a copy or two. When you You can also use this to find the val
"The Fast Assembler" (FA) with the run it, answer the prompts as ue of a BASIC token. For example,
64's BASIC editor. You save to tape follows: PRINT 'END will print the value
or disk as you would a BASIC pro Starling Address: 0801 128, which is the BASIC code for
gram, and listing it to a printer is ex Lndrtig Address: 1220 END. If you put a space between
actly the same as listing BASIC. After entering the FA, save it the quote and the character, the
The FA is an extension of the on tape or disk. To start up FA, first ASCII value of the space will be
BASIC interpreter especially de load it as if it were a BASIC pro taken instead of the character.
signed for writing programs in ma gram (don't use a secondary ad • Variable and function
chine language. Writing it as a dress of 1, just type LOAD names. The rules for variable and
BASIC extension kept the program "filename",% for disk or LOAD- function names have been changed
short (under 2600 bytes) because "filetiame" for tape). Then type a little bit. Instead of the first two,
many subroutines of the BASIC in RUN. The enabling SY5 is built into the first eight characters are recog
terpreter could be used. Some mod the first line of the program. The nized. FA recognizes NUMBER1
ifications have been made to BASIC screen will clear, and a message will and NUMBER2 as separate vari
to make writing programs easier. appear at the top of the screen, indi ables, while ordinary BASIC would
To do this, the BASIC ROM had to cating FA has been enabled. You consider them the same variable
76 COMPUTED GaznttO January 1986


Voice Communications coming In from all directionsi! "Stiporbl Try to remember this is only 3 game. Once again,
20 Aircraft In lha pattern, and now you have an MicroPros^ has really fulfilled Its slogan "The action is
EMERGENCY!! As "Kennedy Approach". YOU are Simulated, tha excitement is real!" RUN — Garoid Stone
In charge!! It's your job lo get all these aircraft and
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You'll really be glad when this shift Is over!! adds up to is engrossing, intense and frenetic tun."
"Kennedy Approach" is trie first "Speaking Power Play —lack Kammer
Simulation" that allows you not only to control the
exciting action in tde shies around some ol our "... last thinking Is more Important than last reflexes. This one
busiest airports but also 10 hear and communicate will drive you crazy." Boys' Life — Scott Stucky
with the simulation alrcrali using computer generated
speech. Fast action, great aircraft control simulation,
"This edge of the seat, nerve-racking "Kennedy Approach Is an addictive gem. A fantastic
and outstanding graphics and sound make "Kennedy
alr-trafllc controller simulation is one ot the speech sythesis system makes this simulation all
Approach" a must addition to your simulation software
most Intense games I've ever played. too real!" Creative Computing — Russ Lockv/ood
library!! SEE YOUR LOCAL RETAILER for "Kennedy
One ol the year's best!"
Approach". Available lor Commodore-64 and Atari
Family Computing — Jamie Delson
computers lor suggested retail ol only S34.95. For more
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Repair A Track 'recover 3 Times Disk Droe Head Speed
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S19 95 S1995
Third Edition! Now Available!
1} you're Ilrodof Deiny harasiej ^iv P'otflcled ioltwiaro jntl tpo many copy [>r<ic]rani5 IMen WAR GAMES AUTODIALER
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\. Auid Dial w-w auTorr.ancaiiy dial ■t oT numDers you choose
melfioOs \o slpp.oy-srep nac^ up procedures. Now you can Aaarn oorn nr)» to protecl and
unproioei soliwarei IIIb lecriniauesco™rod Incluan copying Bawiafla* Id law di uisk.lape 2. I:'■■.■!■■-•-• Nu.nt.- '. w\t\ feviow num i [hai we<e ariSwe'ed by a
piolection. and Olsk prDieclion Disk plOlecllon colors arrorrarmnersSO. 2'.21 aril 29
plus Miigte riacK formatting. neaOer modi'lcanon, header swapping "a" !"=■> leading ano 3. SiYfl htumbire will S3«e mirr.rjpr^ Ahem a ccmnutor answerc
ivnrinfl, reading and moditao nit flensiiies. lornialling Illegal (rocWseciors. sync wtrtinfj a nit
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mai«! The TWrO eOition Hiplilns iel!« don 10 deiae! snd no™ lo writ* Ihem wtlh mciudefl
fiul'.'f an^wrrcd '''/*'
&. LOAD Numbirt will loarl m n^umlmTfl to continue whers " IMi otf1
fi. Contlnwo *-iil cuck up dialing v-borif 41 wan interrupted S2995
BOOS 1 DtiKof Ml Programs
Tins nunua/doas nnl condons piracy
'TRACK TRAP' The 1541 Disk Expander!
Re mole access (m ^ysop
• Supplement to the Software Protection Handbook •
0' secuTrty To' ud i
7 rooms ,f«ac. jn« wriici mJl'i 4 secutiiy
TfiQ most unusual and innoyaTive.proir)rncnQnnlyr;iiliKji for Itio Commodore yul( - Npl For
Ecrret hhM lP
Beglnneii — Ttus syjilom e-yjodi youi 1541 Urneni.ingcipobiiKi'oii'nrftiseuiiiyposiioie
Open chalk
loi proFmlonit Oisl duplication couipmeni Now you can crealo or ani'yia b»o'ic (ormi ol
Ault? mrjss.n
Uisla proiecimn 'Q.O.S. Kings' T«K Npiol' - Enlire Ir^chs 0' data can tip road and wNlion

Primer option
wnnotii 'eqa'd ro ■sianilard aync a"d lorm^t Yau arc not lon^ut tirnltecJ lu aeclor ^y OBciOr
searchpi irjnore Hack readout* reveal tudrfen data evfln when jiioifJioslo' ihfliffcTots nave Pfus ^"Q only B05 w.ih an Itvucj [3>piotica!S> moOBni,
heen ora^ftrf. unco^e'u and wiles cau under errors, pulse todpd sync 01 aala. hidden cat a new punier qndmi1*cst lerm. 50 anyone can iii).'(to«r>
and access codes multiple track densities and more1 This supplemental manual covers the load
ccmDleie implementation ol Ihe iracK pap system inciuOinu rrecessaiy fioll*are ana
Don't oe !oQJ+-d by cheap i ous This is Ihe mosl
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P.O. Box 1080. Battle Ground, Washington 98604
Phone 800-54 VI541 • BBS 687-5305 Aiior Hours Computer lo Computer IBBS>
Software '•"' ■■ Invllird
(NU). Variables may contain but OLD 100;
110 LDA #65: JSR SFFD2: RTS
not be equal to BASlC/assembler If you accidentally type NEW, you
commands or mnemonics: LAND is can restore your program with this Remember that in the lines
a legitimate variable name, even command. It can also be used if above, the semicolon marks the be
though it contains the keyword you've installed a reset button. If ginning of a comment which, like a
AND. But variable labels starting you've assembled a program and REM, is ignored by FA. The tech
with TI or ST (reserved keywords) are testing it, sometimes your com nique in line 90 is valuable if you
are not automatically set to zero the puter locks up. Use the reset button think you may be adding some code
first time you use them. An excep and then enter SYS 4408 to restart at the beginning of the routine. As
tion to the eight character names is the assembler and type OLD to re listed, the subroutine called DIS-
that only the first two characters of store the source program. If your PLAY1 starts with LDA #65, but
array variables are significant. program has not destroyed the as later you could go in and add some
• Keywords. Because variable sembler or the source program, lines between 90 and 110.
and function names may contain everything will be there.
keywords, FA has to be able to de Three Passes To Assemble
Semicolon (;)
cide whether a keyword is a key Three passes are required to assem
This has the same function as the
word or part of a variable or ble source code (what you write)
REM statement. It need not be sep
function name. So the assembler into object code (an executable ML
arated with a colon from the pre
recognizes a keyword if it's fol program that the computer can fol
ceding command. For example:
lowed by a space or nonalphabetic low). But FA doesn't do it by itself.
character. For example, in PRINT You have to insert a loop that re
"OK" the keyword PRINT will be is the same as peats three times with BASIC
recognized as a PRINT command, 10X=0;SETXTOZERO commands:
but in A$ = "OK":PRINTA$, the 10FORPASS = 1 TO 3
The semicolon in the commands
keyword PRINT is recognized as
PRINT and INPUT is not treated as
part of the variable name . (Insert source code)
a REM statement but as a separator.
PRINTAS. You would have to in
sert a space (PRINT A$} if you
wanted to print the variable A$.
Using Labels As Variables If you use an invalid address
• REM and DATA. Capital let
And Addresses ing mode such as LSR (expr),y
ters in REM and DATA lines are Label names follow the same rules you'll see ILLEGAL ADDRESSING
listed as capital letters and not as as variable names. They can be MODE ERROR. Mnemonics can
tokenized BA5IC keywords. For ex used in arithmetic expressions like only be used in program mode—
ample, 10 rem AB lists as it is en normal variables. You can define a that is, in a program you execute
tered and not as 10 rem atnpeek as label in two ways: with RUN. If you entera mnemonic
normal BASIC would do. in direct mode, you'll see ILLEGAL
You can place the label name
just before the command to which DIRECT ERROR.
New BASIC Commands Also note that for Immediate
you want to refer. If more com
mands are on the same line, you Addressing, the argument can be
AUTO step value
an actual number or an arithmetic
This command turns automatic line must separate the label from the
expression with a value in the range
numbering on and defines the step commands with a colon.
0-255. Or you can substitute a
value between the line numbers. To Or you can label the current
string expression, in which case the
enter AUTO mode, type AUTO fol program counter: LABEL-
assembler takes the ASCII value of
lowed by the step value and press NAME = ". The asterisk {*) is a spe
the first character as the argument.
RETURN. Then enter a line with a cial variable which gives the value
If the string length is zero, the argu
line number. The next line number of the program counter. The
ment becomes zero.
prints automatically. To leave auto counter is the address where the
mode, move the cursor to an empty next instruction or datum will be
line and press RETURN. To turn placed. You can only read the vari
Assembler Commands
automatic line numbering off alto able *. You cannol assign a value to Assembler commands which write
gether, enter AUTO only. it with the statement * = expr. data to the output device can only
You can also use this command be used in program mode, other
Here's an example of using la
to delete part of a program. Turn wise you'll get ILLEGAL DIRECT
bels to mark routines in a program
automatic line numbering on with a ERROR. All assembler commands
(don't type this in, it's only a frag
step value of one. Type the number must be included in every pass.
ment of a program):
of the first line you want to delete ORG mtiiress,mo(te,device,miine
and press RETURN. Keep pressing This command must be used at the
RETURN until you've reached the 60 LDA $FF: BNE SKII'IT ; CONDI start of each pass. It does several
end of the section you want to de TIONAL BRANCH AHEAD TO things. First, it sets the origin
lete. Instead of pressing RETURN SKIPIT (ORG), the memory address for the
again and again, you can enter 70TYA
beginning of the ML program. It as
80 SKIPIT: LDX #4: STA S8000.X: RTS;
signs an initial value to the program
down until you've reached the last 9ODISPLAY1-*;THIS LABELS THE counter. It also sets the assembler
line to be erased. CURRENT I'ROGRAM COUNTER mode, which should be zero on the
82 COMPUTEI's Gazette January 1986

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first two passes and one on the sion will be placed in one byte. order. You must send the lines
third and last. ORG also sets the before the actual object code is writ
WORD expression,expression,...
output device and filename {if ten to disk. The address in the ORG
This has the same function as BYTE
necessary). command must be the start of BASIC
except that values of arithmetic ex
Not all arguments are neces pressions must be positive and less
RAM (2049).
sary. Also permitted are:
than 65536. The value will be UNSEND
ORG placed in two bytes in low/high If you load a program which con
ORG address format. sists of both BASIC and ML, the in
ORG address,mode
terpreter has to know where the
INCLUDE mime.device
Default values for the argu BASIC part ends. UNSEND places
This command assembles a file
ments are: a mark which the computer recog
from disk and inserts the resulting
address - 49152 (- SCOOO) nizes as the end of the BASIC part.
object code into memory or the out
mode - 0
put device. The file must be a nor
device -- 0 and no name
mal PRG file and may not contain
Example Programs
if you use a mnemonic or as BASIC commands which cause a 100 FOR [>ASS = 1 TO 3:PRIUT "PAS
sembler command before you've branch to another line or stop the S"PASS,
used the command ORG, you'll see program. Also not permitted are the
120 IF PASS=3 THfcN OKG SCO00,1
ERROR. CLR, NEW, and the assembler 140 LOOP: LDA TEXT,X:PRIHT TEX
The address assigns a value to commands SEND and INCLUDE. T,
150 liliQ tXIT
the program counter. Usually, you The file is opened with a logi
1.60 JSR St'FD2
use more than one pass to assemble cal file number of nine. The file is L70 1UX
the source program. Only during closed when the end of the file is 180 UNE LOOP
the last pass should the object code reached. The name is the filename
200 PRINT *
be written to memory or to the out you're including, and the device 210 TEXT: BYTE "EXAMPLE 1",0
put device. Mode tells the assem number can be 8-11 (use 8 if you 220 NEXT PASSsEND

bler when the last pass is reached. have a single drive). If you have
Zero means it's not the last pass, so only one disk drive and you assem Lines 110 and 120 show how
no object code should be produced, ble to disk, the file(s) for the com to use the command ORG. In every
and there's no range checking for mand INCLUDE must be on the pass, line 110 sets mode 0. But in
arguments and no checking for too same disk to which you assemble. pass three, line 120 sets mode 1.
large branches. All variables and labels are The object code will start at 49152
On the final pass, you should global, which means you can pass (hexadecimal SCOOO). Line 200
set the mode to one, which signals parameters to INCLUDE files so they prints the current value of the loca
the last pass, when object code is can work like macro-instructions. tion counter (').
written to the output device. Let's say you're writing a program You can assemble the program
Finally, you set the device that needs to access several differ with the command RUN. The pro
number of the output device and a ent disk files, and there are several gram will give the following
string expression which contains points in the program that use the output:
the filename if the object code is not Kernal routines SETLFS, SETNAM, PASS 1 0 4916S
written to memory. Zero means the and OPEN. You could write the PASS 2 4'J165 49166
output device is memory. Be careful source code that performs these PASS 3 4916b 49166
not to write to memory locations Kernal calls and save it to disk un
The first column is the pass
where the assembler is placed der the program name "OPEN" to
number. The second column is the
($0801-S121B) or where the BASIC be used later. Then, in the main
value of the label TEXT in the in
interpreter is placed (SAOOO-SBFFF). program, use INCLUDE "OPEN" ,8.
struction LDA TEXT,X in line 140.
A device number in the range When the source code is compiled,
The third column is the value the
8-11 means the output device is a the series of commands from the
label should have when the source
disk drive. If mode is equal to one, OPEN file are automatically insert
code is assembled. You can see that
the assembler will open a PRG file ed in the proper place in the object
only in pass three are these values
with the name specified in the argu code.
equal to each other. This is because
ment name. The logical file number
SEND striiigexpy the assembler defaults to zero-page
will be eight.
The command SEND may be used addressing. In pass one, TEXT has a
BYTE expressioit.expressiau,... only if the object program is written value less than 256 so zero-page
This command writes numbers or to disk. It's used to link object code addressing is assumed. This means
characters to memory or the select to a BASIC program. Stringexpr a two-byte instruction instead of
ed output device. It can have one or must contain a BASIC line with line three. The value assigned to TEXT
more arithmetic or string expres number. If you forget the line num will be too low, as you can see in
sions separated by commas. Arith ber, you'll get MISSING LINE pass one. In pass two, this value,
metic expressions must give a NUMBER ERROR. If you want to which is too low, will be used in as
positive value less than 256. The send more than one line, you must sembling line 140. The assembler
value will be placed in one byte. use SEND for each line, and you decides not to use zero-page ad
Each character of a string expres- have to send the lines in the right dressing, so TEXT is assigned the
84 COMPUT£'s Gazette January 1986
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your free catalog. Add $4.00 for shipping per order. Foreign orders add $12.00 per item.
Dealer inquires welcome - 1200+ dealers nationwide.
correct value. In pass three, the cor when the source program is assem passes. You must use another way
rect value replaces the previously bled. In this way you can make dif to define the passes. For example:
incorrect values during assembly. ferent object programs with one FIRSTPROGRAM
source program. lfJPASS = PASS + l:IF FASS = 4THEN
Another advantage of writing END
10 PRINT CHR$(147) the assembler as a BA5IC extension
is that you can assemble a program
12 DEF KM L(X)=X-256'FN H(X)
to the top of memory. Use the fol . Source code
30 PRIHT:PRINT" ENTER THE NAM lowing construction to do this:
100 POKE 56,PEEK<56)-4:CLR
(56)+ 4)
120 ADDRESS = 0:MODE=0 . Source code
70 INPUT" >";NS
Note that these are just exam
9B PRINT" PROGRAM." ples. You'd have to insert your own
100 INPUT" >";ADDRESS:ADDRt;SS= source code as indicated. To chain
ADDRESS-1 . Source code programs, you would load and exe
105 ;
110 FOR PASS-1 TO 3
cute the first program. It controls
115 ; 900 NEXT PASS the number of passes and loads the
120 ORG 2049 910 IF MODE = ITHEN END next program. The next program
130 IF PASS-3 THEN ORG 2049,1,
920 ADDRESS--TOPOFMEM-* loads the following program and so
8,NS 930 MODE-1:GOTO 130
135 i on until the last program, which
140 SEND "10 SYS"+STHS(LOADER) In this program, the source must load the first again.
code goes through six passes. Dur
155 ;
160 LOADER: ing the first three passes ihe loca Editor's Note: As a bonus, the source
I.DA #8:TAX:LDY #1
170 JSR SFF9A tion counter remains at zero. Mode code for the entire FA itself will be in
LDX IFN L(NAMB) 0 is used so the object program will cluded on the gazette disk for those
not be written to the output device. who want to study it or make modifi
210 JSR SFFBD The length of the program is calcu cations to it.
220 LDA #FN H(ADDRESS) lated and subtracted from TOPOF-
See program listing on page 132. •
MEM. This address is used in the
IPHA second three passes to assemble to

240 LDA »0:JMP the top of memory. MODE is set to
250 NAME: BYTE NAMES one so the assembler will write the


object code to the output device
during the sixth pass (actually pass DISK DRIVE FAN
The above example program three of the second time around}. FOR COMMODORE
shows how to use the commands Line 100 is used to reserve IK at the
SEND and UNSEND to write a pro top of memory for the object
gram that includes a SYS within a program.
BASIC line.
The main routine at 160-250
illustrates how to load another pro Large Programs
gram from an ML program. Note If your source program won't fit
that the lines up to 100 are BASIC; into memory, you can split your
they prepare the variables and de program and use the command IN
fined functions for use in the source CLUDE. For example: Designed to work wlih Commodore Disk
code. If you assemble the program 10 FOR PASS-1 TO 3 Drive Models 1540, 1541. SFD 1001, (Us
quiet C-100 Ian enclosure moves cool,
with the command RUN, you'll get 20 ORG ADDRESS
Illtered aii through Ihe lop vents ol the disk
a program that can load another ML 30 IF PASS = 3 THEN ORG ADDRESS,] drive cooling Ihe drive and thereby reduc
program from disk and execute it. ing ihe misalignment problems caused by
. Parl 1 of source code hoat buifd-up. A custom filter keeps room
The object code will be written to dust trom entering the disk loading open
disk. 90 INCLUDE "PART 2",B ing. This greatly increases the life span ol
the disk drives, and decreases the mainte
In line 140, the command 100 INCLUDE "PART 3",8
nance required to keep the drive function
SEND writes a BASIC line to the 110 NEXT PAS5:END
ing properly. Only $39.95 plus S2.50 for
output device by which you can The labels and variables used shipping and 115 vac
load and run the program as if it in the INCLUDE files will be global
were a normal BASIC program. variables, which means you can use Older,

Line 150 marks the end of the them in arithmetic expressions ev Chocks k
BASIC part of the object code. erywhere in the program. Only

The INPUTs in lines 50, 70, Another possibility is chaining 6-month warranty

and 100 permit you to enter the pa- the programs, but then you can't
rameters for the object program use a FOR-NEXT loop for the Uni-Kool (503)476-1660
909 Williamson Loop, Grants Pass, OR 97526
66 COMPUTE'S Gazane January 1986 ::-■■ l
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P.O. Box 7211 Grand Rapids, Ml 49510 • Telex 709-101 - Phone 616/241-5510
Programming Music
and Sound
On The 128
Philip Nelson, Assistant Editor

Anxious to unleash your new Commodore 128's Think for a moment how you
would structure a musical keyboard
sound and music capabilities? Here are some program like this. It requires that
practical examples of how to use the powerful you read the computer's keyboard,

new BASIC 7,0 commands in working programs. detect the pressing of certain keys,
and translate those keypresses into
musical notes. One way to do this
would be with a long series of indi
vidual IF tests (IF A$ = "X" THEN
One of the Commodore 128's most 40 If PS(X)<>"" THEM PLAY PS(X
PLAY "O3C" and so on). But that
welcome features is its ability to would be slow and inefficient. This
make music and sound effects with 50 GOTO 20 program takes a different approach,
simple BASIC commands. Corn? are GB DIM PS(256),TS(256):FOR J-l
using arrays that store the music
the days when it took hours of pro TO 3:SOUND J,0,0:tfEXT
data and simplify the keyboard-
70 PLAY "U15 X0 T7 S":TEMPO 15
gramming and multiple POKEs to 30 READ K,PS:PS(K)=PS:IF P$<>" scanning process as well.
create sound on a Commodore DONE" THEN 80 Take a look at lines 60-90, the
computer. Since your 128 System 90 HEAD K,PS:TS(K) = "T" + PS:IF P
setup portion. Both of the arrays
$<>"LX)HE" THEN 9H
Guide explains the basics of each (P$ and T$) are dimensioned with
11)1) PRINT CHR$(147)SPC{ 10)"
command, we'll look at some pro iRVS!(2 DOWNlMUSICAL KEYBO 256 elements, enough to hold all
grams that actually put them to ARD{OF*'1":PRINT SPC(12)"4
the possible keyscan values. Line
work. [SPACE15 6 7 8 9"
110 PRItJT SPC(11)"£ R T Y U I
80 stores a PLAYstring (O3C, O3#C,
{SPACEjO":PRINT SPC(12)"D etc.) in each element of the PS array
[SPACE)P G H J K" that corresponds to the keyscan
Musical Keyboard 120 PRINT SPC(11)"X C V B N M
value (23, 18, etc.) of a key that
The first program, "Musical Key C(7)"TUBEi"MIDS(TS(70), 2)i we'll use to make music. Line 90
board," is lots of fun to use and also RETURN creates a similar array for selecting
130 DATA 23,03C,18,03#C,20,031)
demonstrates how arrays can sim different instruments with the nu
plify your programs. It defines four meric keypad keys. (Actually, these
140 DATA 31,O3E,26,O3F,28,O3*f
rows of keys on the 128's keyboard ,29,O3G two arrays could be combined into
as musical keys, giving you two 150 DATA 39,O3#G,34,03A,36,O3# one, but we want to display the in
separate one-octave keyboards. By strument data separately.)
160 DATA 47,O4C,14,O4C,11.04HC
pressing keys 0-9 on the numeric ,17,040 After the setup portion is com
keypad, you can switch to any of 170 DATA 16,04#D,22,O4E,L9.O4F plete, the program loops continu
,2 5,04 > V ously through lines 20-50. The
the 128's ten predefined instrument
180 DATA 24,O4G,30,O4«G,27,O4A
voices. ,33,O4jA
statement X = PEEK(212) returns
190 DATA 32,O4B,38,O5C,256,D0N the value of the last key pressed.
10 GOSUB 60 E (Location 212 performs the same
20 GETKEY AS:X=PEEK(212) 200 DATA 61,0,71,1,68,2,79,3,6
function as location 197 on the 64
30 IF TS(X)<>"" THEN PLAY T? ( X 9,4,66,5
) : PRINT "[HOMEl"Sl'C(7)"TUNt: 210 DATA 77,6,70,7,65,8,78,9,2 and VIC-20. The statement FOR I = 1

88 COMPUTE'S Gazelle January 1986


Everything you need for successful,

entertaining, and challenging
programming on your Amiga, Atari
ST, or Commodore 128 computer.

Each book Is carefully written In

COMPUTE'S lively, understandable
style to help even beginning
programmers learn the ins and outs
of their personal computers.

COMPUTERS Atari ST Programmer's Guide

Complete and comprehensive, yet easy to understand,
COMPUTERS Atari ST Programmer's Guide is a must lor any Atari
ST owner. The technical staff ot COMPUTE! Publications has put
COMPUTERS 128 Programmer's Guide together a reference guide to programming that takes the reader
ISBN 0-87455-031-9
through every aspect of this newest Atari personal computer. Logo
Edited 300 pages
and BASIC, the two programming languages now available for the
Written and compiled by the most technically proficient authors in machine, are explored in detail. From programming concepts to
consumer computing today, (he technical staff of COMPUTE! writing programs, the scores of ready-to-type-rn examples show
Publications, this guide to the powerful Commodore 128 computer
just what can be done, and how to do it. Also advanced features
contains a wealth of information for every programmer, Explore of this new-generation computer, such as GEM and T0S. the ST's
both BASICS, 2.0 and 7.0, through countless fiands-on examples user interface and operating system, are illustrated, valuable
and sample programs. Learn how to create dazzling graphics and appendices provide information programmers need, including the
sophisticated sounds in both BASIC and machine language. See 68000 opcodes and a list of ST resources.
how to program peripherals, such as disk drives, printers,
modems, and mice. Enter the world of CP/M, just one of the three
modes of the 128.
There are even chapters on machine language programming and COMPUTERS Amiga Programmer's Guide
the computer's method of managing memory. As with all 0-87455-028-9
COMPUTE! books. COMPUTES 128 Programmer's Guide includes Edited
numerous appendices covering everything from error messages to Covering AmigaDOS, BASIC, Intuition, and the other important
memory maps. This book is a must for every 128 owner. programming tools which accompany the new Amiga, COMPUTERS
$16.95 Amiga Programmer's Guide is a clear and thorough guide to the
inner workings of this fascinating, new-generation computer. The
Look for these new books at a great speed of its 68000 microprocessor, coupled with the
versatility of the Amiga-specific graphics and sound chips, makes
bookstore or a computer store near you. the Amiga one of the most powerful computers available today.
Or order directly from COMPUTE! Books. Written by the technical staff of COMPUTE! Publications, the most
technically knowledgeable authors in computing today, this book is
Call toll-free 1-800-346-6767. In NY call your key to accessing the Amiga's speed and pewer.
212-265-8360. $16.95 (March Release)

COMPUTE! books are available in the U.K.. Europe, the Middle East, and
COMPUTE! Publications Africa from Holt Saunders, Ltd.. I Si. Anne's Road, Eastbourne. East
Ono 0' Th* AEC Publishing Companies Susshk BN21 3UN, England.
lets you see the keyscan value of NT( [FRQ-MI)/( (INT(RND(1)*10 190, which cause the program to
any key.) Lines 30-40 use the key- modify itself.
50 SOUND V,0,0:SOUND V,FRQ,100
scan value as an index into the T$ ,DI,MI,S,W
and PS arrays. The IF statements in 60 PRINT "SOUND"V"(LEFT),"FRO" 10 J= 1000
20 CMS = " 0123456789HS.XVOTUWHQ.
these lines will be true only for {LEFT),"100"[LEFT I, "DI"
those array elements in which we ,"W'lLEFTj,":GQTO 20 T7 1"
placed data; Every other element in 70 FOR J=l TO JiSOUND J,0,0:NE 30 PRINT"[CLR)(2 RIGHT}[RVS)12
the arrays is empty, containing XT:V0L 15:DIM K(256),T(256)
(2 DOWtJ)(2 RIGiiT) (RVSJE
nothing but a null string (""). Note :FOR J=l TO 255:T(J)=J
80 K(J)=J*150:NEXT:POKE 2594,1
that the arrays make it possible to 2S:PRINT CHRS(147)SPC(10)"
j Oft'} LAY { 2 SPACES) {RVSlQ
use a short, efficient working loop {DOWN)[RVS)l28 SOUNDMAKER
that doesn't slow the program as a (OFF)"
"P"ANDA$<>"Q" THEN 40
multitude of IF-' statements would. 50 IF AS="E" THEM 120
Since this program uses PLAY 60 IF AS="Q" THEN PRINT"|CLR)l
to make the actual notes, you may Whenever you press a key, the 0 J="J:POKE 208,2:POKE 842,
19:POKE 843,13lEND
wonder why there's a SOUND 128 executes a new SOUND com
command in line 60. The statement mand and displays it on the screen 80 RESTOREsPRI.1T " { DOWN) PLAYIN
FOR J= 1 TO 3:SOUND J,0,0:NEXT for reference. As you'll soon discov G SONG. PRESS ANY KEY TO QU
IT. "
immediately silences all 5OUNDs er, SOUND can create a dazzling 90 GET ASsHEAD PS:IF A$=""AKDP
that may be in effect from a previ variety of effects. All three voices S<>"F1NI" THEN PRINT P$:PLA
ous program (or your own experi are used, in 1-2-3 order, so if you Y P$:GOTO90
keep pressing keys, you'll hear as 100 PRINT "(DOWN]END OF SONG.
ments). When you're setting up a
sound program, it's prudent to reset many as three different sounds at KEY ASiGOTO 20
sound and music parameters to a once. The duration of each sound is HO REM MUSIC ENTRY ROUTINE

known state to avoid unwanted re limited to 100. If you want to hear 120 POKE 208,0:PRINT "{CLR)ENT
sidual effects. If you fail to take this individual sounds, wait until the
precaution, previous sound com current sound is done before press 130 PRINT "TYPE 'MENU' TO EXIT
mands (FILTER, etc.) may prevent ing a key.
Note the difference in the way 140 PSa"":INPUT "{8 SPACES)";?
your sounds from working properly.
5 I IF PS="HENU" OR PS = "" TH
Of course, pressing RUN/STOP- that SOUND and PLAY handle EN 20
RESTORE resets most sound pa volume. SOUND does not produce 150 X=B:FOR M=l TO LEN(?S);FOR
any sounds at all unless you have K=l TO LEN(CHS)
rameters, but that's not a very ele
gant solution. Thus, line 70 ensures previously set the volume to some 1)THENX=X+1
that various TEMPO and PLAY pa non-zero value with VOL (line 70). 170 NEXT K,M:IF X<LEN(PS) THEN
rameters are set as needed in this PLAY, on the other hand, sets vol PRINT"ILLEGAL MUSIC DATA"
program (filter off, maximum vol ume for itself with the U symbol,
180 PRINT "(CLR)";J;"DATA ";PS
ume, etc.). and pays no attention to VOL iPRINT "J="J+l":G0T0 120"
Although PLAY can generate commands. 190 POKE 208,4:POKE 842,19iPOK
The frequency of each sound is E 843,13;POKE 844,13:END
as many as three notes at once, the
128's BA5IC can only read one key determined by the ASCII value of
at a time. So this keyboard is neces the key you press. Keys with high
sarily monophonic. Machine lan values ('like Z, ASCl'l 90) create
guage routines are necessary to higher pitched sounds than those The music entry routine per
create a polyphonic (chord-playing) with lower values (like the space mits you to enter as many as 29
keyboard. bar, ASCII 32). Pressing SHIFT PLAY' symbols at one time (blank
pitches the entire keyboard higher. spaces are acceptable, although
The waveform and sweep direction PLAY ignores them). Consult the
128 Soundmaker for each sound are selected at ran 128 System Guide for an explanation
"Soundmaker" is the shortest of dom, while the minimum frequen of the various PLAY symbols.
the example programs, but it cre cy and step value are held within Before adding the PLAY string as a
ates the most complex effects, using reasonable ranges. DATA statement, the program
all three of the 128's voices simulta
checks every character in the string
neously. Type in 5oundmaker and Song Player to make sure it is legal. If you enter
save it to disk or tape (pay close at
This program demonstrates a sim a character that the PLAY com
tention to the punctuation in line
ple way to encode and play music mand does not understand (Z, for
60). When you run the program, it
on the 128. "Song Player" lets you instance), the program signals an
spends a few seconds in prepara
enter PLAY strings under program error and lets you try again. Note
tion, then invites you to press any
control, adding them to the pro that while the program can tell
gram as DATA statements with the whether a character is a legal PLAY
10 GOSUB 70 dynamic keyboard method. After symbol, it does not check for correct
2tf GETKEY AS : V=V-t-l : I F V=4 THEN entering your music, you can replay PLAY syntax: You are still responsi
it at any time or resave it along with ble for arranging the symbols in
30 W=INT(RND( 1 )*4) sDI-INT(RND(
1)*3):FRQ=K(T(ASC(AS))) the program. Pay special attention meaningful order. For example, the
40 MI-INT[FRQ/(9*(V*W+1)))lS=l to the punctuation in lines 60 and string "XUS#" contains legal PLAY

90 COMPUTEI's GaiBtta January 19B6

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COMMODORE 128 SD-10 S323
SD-15 S449
S79.99 POWERTYPE.. S299
iBcds daisywtteel

HGBi Composite Monitors
PACKAGE DEALS AVAILABLE Alternatives to the 1902
Technlen HJ-32 5269 00

CLOSEOUT PRICES ON C64,1541, and 1702 PACKAGES Panasonic 1300 SCALL

MPS-8Q1 PRINTER S100.95 HGBI Cable
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all packages work wilh C64 or C128


S*y£lllr SUPERGRAPHiX ..S274.95
WORDPRO 128.. .SCALL JANE S32.95 SG-10 & Xelec Supergraphd jr $254.95
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ar Powertype . S299 | MW-350 b ll Her . ...SJO.M
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Toorder by mail: Sund money ordur,c(jrliriB<1 chuck, personal Add SJ DC pei boi lllippufl COD C.ill lor ulnur ■,hi|>pin(( FOR MASTERCARD OR VISA. M.inuljLlurer £ warunty
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P.O. BOX 1006
characters but causes an error when
you try to PLAY it. If the PLAY COMMODORE
string is accepted, the screen flashes
briefly as the program adds the
siring as a DATA line, then the en
try prompt reappears. You can re PERSONAL
turn to the main screen by entering COMPUTER

MENU or typing R1ITURN without CALL FOR LATEST

entering any characters.
Music data is added beginning

with line 1000. Successive DATA
lines are entered as 1001, 1002, and
so on up through 63998. Do not de
lete or renumber line 63999; it con DISKDRIVE
tains a string that marks the end of
the music data. When you exit the
program by pressing Q, it automati SUPER SPECIAL PRICE
cally modifies line 10 to let you re-
save the program complete with the
new data. The next time you load
and run the program, all the data
will be there. Since this program
modifies itself as it runs, don't re
number it or alter any lines unless
you understand exactly how the dy
namic keyboard processing works.
As short as they are, these pro-
gram examples demonstrate a 1902 MONITOR
number of handy sound and music
techniques. It's often preferable to
only $289
use variables rather than literal val
ues in sound commands. SOUND
VOC, FRQ, DUR is just as valid as
SOUND 1, 11000, 100—and con
siderably easier to understand. And
replacing literals with variables lets
you change the sound dynamically,
just by redefining the variable. 1670 MODEM
Since the computer can often look ONLY $169
up a variable faster than it can inter
pret a literal, variables can also 1350 MOUSE
speed up a program somewhat.
PLAY accepts variables, too, so ONLY $4205
PLAY A$ and PLAY A$(23) work
EST. 1982
just as well as PLAY "C D E F". You
may also concatenate PLAY strings
and use other string operations
such as MID$, LEFTS and so on:
20 FOR J-ASC("1"J TO ASC["6"):

NEXT:NEXT 800-558-0003 414-351-2007
semicolon. One final reason to put
strings into variables is that it sim CALL 4U-351.20C7 TO OBTAIN AN HA- OR YOUR RETURN WILL NOT BE ACCEPTED
plifies debugging. If you're not sure WITHOUT NOTICE

screen to see what it contains. 3D
92 COMPUTERS Gazette January 1986
PACKAGES Microlazer Call
FOR C-E4 U-PrinH6K
SGIOSG-Wiz 279 Super Printer MODEMS PRINTERS Printer Bulfer...79
Panasonic 1091 . G-Wu .303 packages have no weslridge M/tO ....«.» U-Print-32K
Panasonic KHOSG-We .261 extra charges Toial Tele Modem....«95
Legend 1080 229 Legend 808 179 Printer Buffer...89
Legend I080S G-Wiz... 282 added when shipped Highly Mo 6995 Panasonic 1090. 199
1660 Modem 49.95
Citoh 7500AP 219 U-Prinl-64K
in Continental USA. Panasonic 1091...245
Epson Call Printer Buffer .. 99
INDUS GT Juki 5510 389 Powertype 309 Samsung Monilor Special
ForC-64 Toshiba 1340 ....559 l2liicflAmber 7995
12 IndiGteen 79.95
SG-1O 215 SD-15 449 Buy (he Print Shop lor 27.95 with
Data Share 49 95
14lnchCclor( 52 DOT). 179
SG-15 369 SR-1O Call CarOcoGt 44 95 the purchase of any printer. Monitor Shipping 110 DO
SD-10 339 SR-15 Call G-Wi2

0 M M 0 0 R 0 w

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Beachhead W-D 21.95
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2195 COMPUTER 1670 MODEM Kunj fal
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1902 RGBl MONITOR KiinpFu Ma^lfi'D .. ,!S95

INCLUDED 9 Princes of Am&er-rj L

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Accrolst-D 2355 Fleet Byitom II O W85 (or soilware ciders. 4S shinpin-a for hardware, minimum MCO tovslu Typinrj-D 1995 TIMEWOfiKS
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COMPUTE! Books Supports
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COMPUTE Books is dedicated
to bringing you top-quality,
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able tutorials, applica
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Whether you have a
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Dan Heeb
The invaluable reference guide Jo the Kernal
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Raeto Coiim West
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Dan McNeill
609 pages
Everything a beginner needs to know to get started
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COMPUTED VIC-20 Collection Some of the best games, applications, and utilities
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COMPUTE!' Publicationsjnc.® COMPUTEI books are available In the U.K., Europe, the
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A from
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Buy any two of these books and receive a , You pay $22.00 and save $3.90!
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Continues In the
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Yesl I want to save money while I enjoy COMPUTE! Books. To Order Call Toll Free 1-800-346-6767
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NC residents odd 4.5% sales tax
Add S2.00 per book tor shipping
City Total Paid

stare .Zip Please allow a-t weeks lor OsHvoiv

$3 CH!!



The Commodore Software Association is a world-wide software organization specializing in the distribution of
owner/user written software. Our purpose is to bring a wide range of quality software at the lowest possible cost.
How can you sell programs for only S3 each? * INCREDIBLY LOW PRICES *
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Any program submitted io us has to meet our high standards. includes postage, handling and all applicable taxes,
We reject any program thai does not meet high industry • DIVERSITY *
standards of quality and sophistication.
Hbtb ire frtft A FEW umple tills to wit your ippsUb MoiocrrKs. Meteor. ■:■ r F hsjhi. Space Patrol

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We currently have more than 1000 programs in our Commodore Battleground. Blackjack. Kuno. Kernel, Meincs. Mnth Tutor, Chemistry. Physics. Spanish.
64 software library. Most are in our up-to-date Commodore 64 Pianl Facts. Super Fly, Fireball, Preschool Learning Aids. European Geograoriy, Credit Card
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Only a low membership fee of $15 per year. That entitles you to
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You can enter new values for the
first four of these, or just press RE
TURN over the vaiues currently
After entering new values—or
keeping the current ones—you're
given a chance to do a backup.
Press C to continue, to start saving
the program. On disk saves, BASIC

BASIC Backup
Backup looks at the filename you
entered and attempts to scratch a
program by that name before start
ing the save. Scratching before sav
ing is preferable to the sometimes
unreliable Save-with-Replace
John R. Hampton option.
By pressing RUN/STOP at the
prompt, or when entering any pa
Regularly saving your BASIC programs is always rameter, you can return to BASIC
a good idea, but how many times have you lost a immediately. This way you can en
ter the utility simply to view the
program by forgetting? This utility serves as a time remaining, or to change one of
nifty reminder. You choose how often you'll the parameters.
When you exit the utility and
save—anywhere from one minute to over four
return to BASIC, the timer will con
hours (255 minutes). For the 64 and 128 (in 64 tinue from where it left off if you
mode) with disk or tape drive. didn't enter an interval. Otherwise,
it will be restarted using the new in
When you're writing a new pro ue programming or you can press a terval, or stopped if you entered
gram or making changes to an old few keys to save the program in OFF. You can then resume your
one, it's important to remember that memory. The timer is there to re programming, or CONTinue the
all your typing is stored in random- mind you to make another backup program that was running.
access memory (RAM), and a sim but can be used to time almost any When the timer finishes count
ple thing like a power failure could thing. I've even used it while cook ing down, it will signal you by
instantly erase it all. Therefore, it's ing hard-boiled eggs. flashing the screen's border colors
a good idea to periodically save your BASIC Backup is a machine twice every second. The flashing
work. language wedge that's POKEd into will continue even if a BASIC pro
memory by BASIC. After you've gram is running, and will not stop
If you're like me—and a lot of
typed in the program and saved it, until you reenter the utility to reset
other programmers—time becomes
type RUN. When it's finished, the or stop the timer by pressing CTRL-
unimportant when you're lost in
READY message will return. You fl. If you don't define a new inter
the depths of creation, and it's easy
should then type NEW to reset val for the timer, the flashing will
to let hours slip by without realiz
pointers. Now BASIC Backup is continue when you return to
ing it. What's needed is a small re
ready to use. BASIC.
minder. That's what "BASIC Back If you should have to reset
This utility can be used when
up" provides.
ever a program is not running by your BASIC program by pressing
holding down the CTRL key and RUN/STOP-RESTORE, 'you'll dis
Saving Programs Or able Backup. It can be restarted by
pressing fl. This pauses the timer
Cooking Eggs and displays current values for sev typing in and running this short
eral parameters: BASIC program (you may want to
BASIC Backup runs in the back
add these lines to the program in
ground, not interfering with the FILENAME: the name of the pro
program you're working on. It gives gram most recently saved
10 POKE 56334, PEEKI56334) AND 254
you a programmable timer and an DISK/TAPE: press D or T 20 POKE 788, 167:['OKE 789, 2
easy way to save programs. You VERIFY: an option to have the save 30 POKE 56334, PEEK156334) OR 1
can set it for any time from 1-255
verified; press Y or N Backup uses memory from ad
minutes, and then go on program
INTERVAL: the number of minutes dresses 679 to 767 for its interrupt
ming without thinking about
between saves; enter 1-255 routine, so your BASIC program
BASIC Backup. For example, if you
set it for 15 minute intervals, it REMAINING: the number of min cannot use these 89 bytes. The
waits 15 minutes and then starts utes left before Backup gives notice main portion of the utility resides
flashing the border colors. A blink (no input) underneath BASIC ROM, and
ing border is hard to ignore, in fact OVERDUE: the number of minutes should not interfere with your

it can be very annoying. To stop it, beyond the assigned Backup notice programs.

you can reset the timer and contin (no input) See program listing on page 139. ffi
COMPUTED Gazelle January 1986 97
(Order Now) Deal l Deal a
(Order Now)
CommoLiare 64 Commodore 64

$I39*S 289
Com. 1541 Dish Drive Com. 1541 Dish Drive
Com. 803 Printer 13" Zenith Color Monitor

*407 457 Le»* $30 FREE Software, your choke from

our catalog (See Catalog Page 13)

'C128 Disks 79'ea.* PLUS FREE $49.95 Oil Barons • 3.10K 1571 Disk Drive S2S9.00
• Commodore Graphics Printer $99.95 Adventure Program • Voice Synthesizer $39.95
• 13" Zenith Color Monitor S149.95 •12" Amber Monitor 559.95




You pay only SI39.95 when you order Ihe potverlul
COMPUTER. DISK DRIVE. PRINTER, We e.pctT o hauled supply to; Chmtmas, We w<
B4K COMMODORE 60 COMPUTER' LESS Ihe .glue o( MONITOR we (Dili Thii coupon allowi you on o fi-r4-1 order bons. Thu alt npw revoluiionary
Ihe SPECIAL 5QFTWARE DISCOUNT COUPON we pack lo SAVE OVER J35D OFF SALE PRICES!! EompuTor usei all Commodore 64 ^o'rwarc and
«ilh your compuler thai ollsws you lo 5AVE OVER occes^orifli plus oil CPM programs formoiii>d lor the
S?50 ot"t salrware kola prices' I With only $100 of diik dftvij i*M IJ0 fWf Softwarm. your tholce
savings applied your nc-l computer coil is 139 95' ' (Examploi) from our catalog (Srr Catalog Page 13)

Get these 5'j Double Srded Floppy Disks specially 34OK 1571 COMMODORF DISK DRJVE W.VHH.
designed for the Commodore 12fl Compuler 11571 Disk Hsfflt Llil %m 1* Cbu
Double Sided. Single Duk Drive lor C T 28 allows you
Drive). 100°; Certified lifetime Warranty Poperbail Wri lur 64 S'» DO S39 95 «9 95
To use C US mode pig* CPM mod* 17 lime* la*Ter
Aulomoiic Lml Cleaning Liner included- I Box ol ID - Paperbacl- Dai 3boi* ft* S6» DO Ol 9S 171 95
rhon tSdl plui run* oil 154T IrjrmaH.
Paperback On
S9 90 (991 eo.!. 5 of 10 - Sii.SO (89 eo.) 10 .ana,, S34 'J ill 15 SID oc
It* Pi.n. Shop 514 °S i)' 95 176 95
Boxes of 10. S79.00(79' eo.l
Hallpyi PiS|« 1 SJ» »i 95 S?* 9!
ProtiiLQlc |ipn acl vliufcti lit 9S
SS» °i Ill 95 SUPER AUTO DIAL MODfM (37.«
Proajommers F ■wfp.BnEP S?4 4b & Ib 95 (11 50 tosy Tn use Jusl jjug into your Commodore 61
Nine Flint,.* in Am bur S 24 93
compuler and you re ready to Ironsm.l and receive
You pay only 5149.95 when you n-der Ihis 13' ZENITH 121 9!
Supi-r Bo-I iU, id ay 530 00 SI' 9S S17 93 manage* Easier lo use ihan dialing your telephone
C01OR MONITOR LESS Ihe -olue ol the SPECIAL FI,pSl,l,-D,sk Piter lust push one key on your compuleri Includes
S3J »1 S14 95 11] 9!
SOFTWARE DISCOUNT COUPON wo pack wilh your Dtluni' Top*. C ■ *&eiit(plui S91 DO S44 9i 95 exclusive easy to uie program lor up ond down
monitor Ihol ollows you to save over £250 off software FPEi gome) loading to printer and dibk drives Bett in U.S.A.
sole prices1 I Wuh only S10Q o! savings applied your Pro Jc.slKk Sit »5 5 1? 95 510 M
liitSI39M. SBUtlT.95.
CompMer Car* Kii S»4 45 S3' 95
net color monitcr cost is only $49 95. (16 Colors! S24 9! ill) S 6 95 S 1 60
l.l|uii'd Engine S30 °S s;? 95 13* 95
PmPop II |E»i 1
13t »S 5 32 95 1)9 95
B0 COLUMN Stunt Call SSV "5 (|4 95 si: 95
For Commodore 61 campulers Jusl plug ii in and you
COMMODORE GRAPHICS PRINTER m.95 FilrWrilui [by S3?«S S3' 95 171 93 can program words and senrcncei od[usl volume and
You pay only 599.95 when you order Ihe 603
Cod>*inii] pilch, make talking odvoniurc gomet sound action
gomcbondcuitomued lolhiei" FOB ONI V SI9 95 you
Commodore Graphics printer 60 CP5 Doi Malfii. Hi- (See over 100 coupon items in oui catalog)
can add TEXT 1O SPEECH. |Ult lypo 0 word and hear
Directional Prinls 0'. full sue paper. Plug in dirett
Write or call lor ,out compuler lolk ■ ADD SOUND TO 7ORK 5COT7
inleilcce inducted' LESS Ihe value ol the SPECIAL

printer thai allows you la SAME OVER S25O otf [Disk or tape ) tist 5S9.00. SALE
soltwore sale prices11 Wilh only 5100 of savings
applied your net printer cos! is ZERO1 13" AMBER MONITOR tSf.9S
Your choice of green or omber slreen monitor lop
quality 80 columns * ?i linos easy to read anti

4 SLOT EXPANDER & ID COLUMN BOARD IV; r. glare1 PLUS S° 95 lor connecting table Conv6l or
Now you progroni 60 COLUMNS on the screen ai one VIC30 lilt 5159 00,
time* Converts yaur Commodore bt to 80 COLUMNS
when you plug in The
BOARD' i PIUS 4 slot expander i
JUKI Superb .-■'■■ quality. da^y wheel
We Offer Big Volume Discounts printer [ypowfifc combination, Jv,o rriochines in one
iu*i a Ui:k q\ ihe tw.tth. 1?" exUa large tccfiag'?
CALL TODAY! typewriter keybcaid ouTamaTit morgin control ond
relocate key drop <n crmetie nbban1 {90 doy
wo^oniyj ccnTronni paralfp! or RS737 ir?ngf porr bujli
(mesi available for ihe COMMODORE 64 computer i m(Spec^y) LiiiS3J9O0 SAH >J4* JJ. fLrd.O.y-l
DISPLAYS JO or BO COLUMNS IN COLOR or black and AM Preietio ■. produclt cti'iy a minimum 90 dny *-arroniy
white1 Simple lo operate powerful lext editing ll onyThjng lailt ^Mhirt 90 doyi Icom ih#daT« o* purchase 13" RGB & COMPOSITE COLOR MONITOR nS«F95
complete cursor and insert delple key conlrols line dimply tend yaur pfodutt 10 us via Parcel S«rvc«
Wuir t>« uit-d to gel 80 calumni in tafor wilh SO
ond paragiaph insertion automatic deletion pfepaid We will IMMtDiA:[L¥ kentl you a replncernont ot
colufnrk (omputpri {QM& • IBM Apple)
no charge wm Uiuied Parcel Service prepaid TM warranty
centering margin sellings and oulput to all primers ' Add SU.50 shipping)
piOues once again fho? rVelov* Our Cuttommn.
Lisl S9S 00. SALi »».« Coupon 529.95.

0am '8p.m. Weekdoyi

Add S10C0 lor shipping handling ond insurance Illinois residents

please add 6°. la.. Add $20.0C for CAMADA PUERTO RICO. HAWAII
ALASKA APO FPO orders Canadion orders musl be in II S dollars
Enclose Coihiprs Check Money Order or Personal Cheth Allow II
days lor delivery 3 lo 7 dop lor phone orders I doy e*ores5 mail I Bo« 550. Bornngton. Illinois 60010
312/382-5244 to order
List S399.00 10" Printer 1 Year Warranty
List$599.00 IS1/*" Printer

5 s
E $I79
111" Comstar ll)X
- This Bi-directional
120-140 CPS
Premium Quality
W/t" Comstar 1SX - Has all the

Tractor/Friction Printer prints features of the 10" Comstar 10X plus a

standard sheet 8&"xll" paper and wider 16%" carriage and more powerful
continuous forms or labels. High electronics to handle large ledger
resolution bit image graphics, business forms! (Better than FX-100).
underlining, horizontal tab setting, true The 15V6" Comstar 15X also prints on
lower descenders, with super scripts and standard size paper and continuous
subscripts, prints standard pica, forms and labels. Fantastic value.
compressed, expanded, block graphics, (Centronics parallel interface.)
etc. Fantastic value. (Centronics List SS99.00. Sale$239.00.
parallel interface.)
List $869.00. Sale S17B.00.

List $499.00 TO" Printer I Year Warranty

List S699.00 Printer


$ 00
E 229
10" Comstar nm+ High Speed - This
150-170 CPS
High Speed
E 289
lai/2" Comstar IHO+ High Speed - This

Bi-directional Tractor/Friction Printer Bi-directional Tractor/Friction Printer

combines the above features of the 10" has all the features of the 10" Comstar
Comstar 10X with speed (150-170 cpsi 1G0+ High Speed plus a wider 15%"
and durability. Flus you get a 2K buffer, carriage and the heavy duty electronics
96 user definable characters, super required for today's business loads. You
density bit image graphics, and square can use large ledger business forms as
print pins for clearer, more legible print well as standard sheets and continuous
(near letter quality). This is the best forms and labels. This is the best wide
value for a rugged dependable printer. carriage printer in the U.S.A.
(Centronics parallel interface.) (Centronics parallel interface.)
List $499.00. Sale $229.00, List $699.00. Sale$289.00.

Lifetime warranty*
ListS599.00 10" Printer List S599.00 10" Printer

165-185 CPS
$259 $259
s S
00 00
High Speed & Letter Quality

lfl" Comstar 20011 — The ultimate printer With the flip of a switch you can go into
has arrived! This Bi-directional the letter quality mode which makes all
Tractor/Friction Printer gives you all your printing look like It came off a
the' features of the Comstar ifiO plus typewriter. Turn in term papers, do
higher speed (165-185 cps), 256 articles or just print programs. Have the
downloadable characters, proportional best of letter quality and speed in one
setting, external dark printing mode and package. Fantastic printer (Centronics
a 'lifetime printhead warranty. I'LUS ... parallel interface.)
List S599.00. Sale 5359,00.

• 15 Day Free Trial — 7 Year Immediate Replacement Warranty

Parallel Interfaces
Commodore-64, VIC 20 - $39.00 Atari — $59.00 Apple II, II + . lie - $59.00

Add S10.00 (SM 50 (or 15' ," Printers) for shipping', hondlmg and
insurance. Illinois r£sldentl pleose odd 6*. lax. Add S70.00 foi
Canadian orders must be in U.5. dollars WE DO NO' EXPOS! TO
Enclose Coslnnrs Chock Money Order or Personal Check. Allow M 22292 N. Popper Rd., Barrington, Illinois 60010
duy\ lor dclivury 2 'o 7 days For phone o>dr>rs 1 dayeiprass mail'
VISA - MASTER CARD - C O.D No C O D. id Conoda. APO-FPO. 312/382-5244 to order
Commodore 64 Commodore 64
List $99.00 List S99.00

Sale Sale
Telecommunications ) §37^
Coupon $32.95 LoWGSt PHCG itythe U.S*A. C""P on S32.95


Complete Auto Dial

Telecommunications Package
'The only telecommunications package you will ever need.
(Exclusive Easy To Use Features)

dfrV I
• Only
Ol Good
Gd Color Graphic Database Service in the U.S.A. (C-64)
Viewtron Software Plus First Hour free (See the Protecto Software Catalog On-Line) $9.95 value

* 300 Baud Modem * Auto Dial * Auto Answer * Upload & Download
Reach Out and Access Someone
• Educational courses • News Updates and Information
• Financial Information Popular Games " Electronic Shopping
• Banking at Home • Research and Reference Materiols

The Complete Telecommunications Package offers you all this plus ...
• Auto Log-on " Stores on Disk Downloaded Files
• Dialing from Keyboard " Reads Files from Disk and Uploads Texf or Program Files
• On-line Clock • Select Any Protocol (access almost ony computer or modem)
• Capture and Display High Resolution Characters • Plus Much. Much More
■ Download Text, Program or Data Files jt» ^^^ ^^^^ ^^ m—
^ ^^ ^y 7WZ9 Coupon S3?. 95
List$99.00 Sale **& M
WearesosurG this is the only telecommunications package you will need we will give you 15 days Free Trial.
Viewtron Membership sold separately — 59.95.

Add S3 DO toi shipping handling a"d i"suio«ce Illinois residcnit

please arid 6*. io< Add 56 00 (or CANADA PUERTO RICO. HAWAII
A1ASKA APO FPO orders. Conodion orders must bt in U S doltars
LrKloie Coilners Cheik. Money O'dor □' Personol Criacl' AHom 14 22292 N. Pepper Rd. Bairington Illinois 60010
(jaysfordelivury 2fo?dayslorphoni? orders ldoye'prossrnoil1
VISA MASIEB CABD COD 312/382-5244 to order
NdCOD loConodo APO FPO
(Premium Quality) (Premium Quality)
* Built in Speaker and Beautiful Color
Audio Contrast

* Front Panel Controls High Resolution

Separated Video
■ For Video Recorders
Sharp Clear Text
■ For Small Business
Anti-Glare Screen
40 Columns x 24 Lines
* Apple - Commodore -
Supports 80 Columns
Atari - Franklin • etc. fltqwrci spend $11 '5 C I28toblp

List $32900
13" Color Computer Monitor
IBM, C-128,
Apple, Atari 5T
■C64/C128 connecting coble S9.95 Cm |a
Add SI 4.50 Shipping
Allows use of C-128 and C64 mode composite and 80 column RGB
mode. Must be used to gel 80 column*, in color with 80 column List S399.00
computers (IBM, C-128, Apple 8 Atari ST), (odd SI 4.50 shipping)
■ C128 RGB cable S19.95


(oddS14.50shipping) List $299.00

75 Day Free Trial - 90 Day Immediate Replacement Warranty


80 Columns x 24 Lines, Super Hi-Resolution 800 lines Green or Amber ^Q It? I V »
Super-Clear "Easy to Read" text with special antiglare screen! {ltd. Qiy.} List S249.00


80 Columns x 2d Lines, Hi-Resolution, crisp clear easy to
read tout with anti-glare screen! A MUST lor word processing, {ltd. Oty.l '~'st
Sale $8995
80 Columns x 24 Lines, easy to read up front controls {Ltd. Oty.)
List S159.U0
Sale $5995
■ C64, C128 connecting cable S9.95

Adi] SID 00 fo< ■lii|>i-»n-[j lianillmq and imuranco IFhnoit [•Mdtnl]

pleaii-add 6*. io. Add S?0 00 loi CANADA ru£R!OHtCO HAWAII
ALASKA Af*O FPO ordei* Canadian ordprv musl bv in U S doltori
We [jtj-ff Our Customers
Enclose Cashiers Check Money Order or Personol Criccli AIJow li
[Jays lar delivery 1 id 7 dayi. for phone otdff. I day pipn>^ mail ■ 22292 N Pepper Rd. Borrjngton. Illinois 60010

No C O D la Conodo AfO EPO 312/382-5244 to order

Economy Model or C-128 Cadillac Quality
We have the lowest prices!

*ECONOMY DISKS For use with Commodore 64 Atari, Apple.

Good quolity 5'/j' single sided double density with hub rings

Bulk Pac 100 Qty. 59 ' ea Total Price S59.00

Box w sleeves 10 Qty. 79 ea Total Price 7.90

C-1 28 Computer Disks vY

CADILLAC QUALITY (Double Sided. Double Density) Specifically designed for use with C-128
• Each dish certified * Free replacement lifetime warranty • Automatic dust remover * Works with IBM PC
For those ivho want Cadillac quality we have Ihe C-1 28 Floppy Disk. Used by professionals because they can rely on C-128 Disks to store
important data and programs without fear of loss1 Each C-12B disk is 100% certified (an exclusive process] plus each disk carries an
exclusive FREE REPLACEMENT LIFETIME WARRANTY. With C-129 disks you can hove the peace of mind without the frustration of program
loss after hours spent in program development.


Some floppy disk manufactures only sample1 losl on a batch basis the disks they sell, and then claim they ore certified Each C-128 disk is
individually checked so you will never experience dolo or program lots during your lifetime!


We ore so sure ol C-128 Disks that we give you o free replacement warronty against failure to perform due to faulty materiols or
work man ship for as long os you own your C-128 disk.


Just like a record needle disk drive heads must travel hundreds ol miles over disk surfaces. Unlike other floppy disks the C-128 smooth
surloce finish saves disk drive head wear during Ihe life of Ihe disk. (A rough surface will grind your disk drive head like sandpaper).
The lint free auiomotic CLEANING LINER makes sure the disk-killers (dust 8 dirt) are being constantly cleaned while the disk is being
operated c. J28 D/jfrj Qre dofiniicSy the Cadillac disk in the world

Just to prove it even further, we ore offering these super LOW INTRODUCTORY PRICES
1 Box of 10 - 59.90 (99( ea.) 5 Boxes of 10 - 544.50 (89* ea.) 10 Boxes of 10 - 579.00 (79C ea.)
All disks come with hub rings and sleeves in an attractive package.


Everyone Needs A Disk Drive Doctor
• 60°o of oil drive downtime is directly related lo poorly
maintained drives.
• Drives should be cleaned each week regardless of use.
■ Drives are sensitive To smoke dust & all micro particles.
' Systematic operator performed maintenance is the best
way of ensuring error free use of your computer system.


Improper maintenance coti cause costly
read write errors on your disk drive. Regular
cleaning of heads is essential for maintaining
high quality operation and eliminating expensive The RSI Complete Personal Computer Care Kit contains everything you need to
downtime and repairs. The RSISmorlcore Dry properly maintain your computer system, This easy lo use kit mokes necessary
Process Head Cleaning Kit provides proper computer core quick and inexpensive. In one convenient package you will get all
the necessary products: 5!." Dry Process Head Cleaning Disk (Good (or 15
mainlenonce without the mess. Simply insert the
thorough cleanings); Anti-Static Spray (Eliminates static build-up. For use on
cleaning disk into the drive and activate for 30
carpets, clothes, paper, glass, hard surfaces, ond other material); Screen-
seconds. This kit contains 1-cpen ended disk
Terminol Cleaner (Removes smoke, dust, and other contaminant? on computer
jacket and 2 cleaning pads, good (or a to'ol of 30
screens and keyboards): Lint-Free Cloths (N on -scratch, non-abrasive, used (or
cleanings. Applicable for both single and double
cleaning and applying sprays To computers): Foam-Coverod Swabs (use lo clean
sided drives. those hard to reoch ploces such as keyboards, etc.). GREAT VALUE FOR THE
List 529.95. Sale S19.95. Coupon SI2.9S. MONEY' i LislS44.95. Salo SI9.°5. Coupon S21.9S,

Add S3 00 lor iliipping handling ond insuronce Illinois rondwn's

plOOse odd 6". la. Add Si 00 for CANADA PUERTO RICO HAWAII
ALASKA APO FPO ordeis. Canadian orders mu5f bt in U 5 dollars
Entlon Coihieri Check Money Otdor or Persona! Check. Allow II 2229! N. Pepper Rd.. Barnnglon. Illinois 60010
dOfS lor dplbwery 1 la 1 da*> lor phone orders. I day oiprei* mail'
312/382-5244 to order
Not OD lo Canada APO rPO
Commodore 64


Deal I Deal 2 Commodore

Commodore G4 Commodore B4
Cl 28 Computer
Cora 1MI Disk Drive 1HI Disk Drive
Com. B03 Printer 13" Zeaith Color Monitor 5289.00 *

$407 $457 C128 1571

PIUS FREE S« 95 Oil I'l \.\Y:\ Disk Drive
Bartons Adventure Birrons Adienlure
$259.00 *



To introduce you to the C128 computer, we ore offering you YOUR FIRST S30 OF
SOFTWARE from our 64 page catalog FREE when you buy a 1— C128 Computer from
Protecto. Just send this coupon along with your order. Choose software worth S30 or
more at sale prices from our 64 page catalog and subtrocl S30 from the total.

(I Coupon per family] Software From Protectos 64 Page Catalog Only $ 3Q


Commodore CUB Computer $289.00. This all-new revolutionary I28K computer uses Commodore 64 computer software.
CPM Software, plus new advanced C-128 softwore, You pay only $289 for the C128 computer1 Leis the value of Ihe Special
Software Discount Coupon (see page 14 of our 64 page catalog) we pack wirh your computer Ihot allows you to Save
Over S350 off software sale prices! ! With only $100 of savings applied your net computer cost is $189.00. PLUS S30.00
Your Choice FREE Software."

340K 1571 Commodore Disk Drive S259.00. Double Sided. Single Disk Drive for C-128 allows you to use C-128 mode plus
CPM mode. 17 limes faster than the 1541, plus runs Commodore 64 softwore. You pay only S259.0O for the 340K 1571
Commodore Disk Drive. Less the value of the Special Software Discount Coupon (see page 1 4 of our 64 page catalog)
wo pock with your Disk Drive that allows you to Save Over 1250 off software sale prices! With only S100 of savings
applied your net Disk Drive cost is only SI 59.00.

Add SI0 00 lor whipping, handling and insurance. Illinois lesidenls

pleosc odd 6*. loi Add S20.00 lor CANADA. PUERTO RICO. HAWAII.
AlASKA APO-FPO Olden. ConadJan orders must be in U.S dollars
Enclose Coshiocs Check Money Order or Personal Check. Allow \i
We LiOVG Our Customers
doysflardelivary. 2io7doytfor phone orders. 1 doy express moil' 22292 N. Pepper Rd.. Harrington. Illinois 60010
NoC O.D. ToCofada APO-FPO 312/382-5244 to order

The Printmaker

Manu Gambhir to PRINT statements.) To move where 1 is the increment by which

about the screen, use the cursor you want the lines numbered. Any
This clever program converts a screen keys. (If you mistakenly hit the RE number from 1-255 is allowed.
you design with keyboard graphics TURN key, the computer will at Printmaker will append the new
into a BASIC routine—ami appends it tempt to enter the current line as a lines automatically to your pro
to your program. For the 64, Plus/4, BASIC statement.) gram. For example, if your BASIC
16, VIC-20, and 128 (in 64 mode). The entire screen (apart from program ends with line 850 and
the first line) will be encoded in you design a screen with Printmak
Wouldn't it be nice if you could PRINT statements. Since the last er and SYS with an increment of 10,
spend your time designing a screen character position on the screen, the appended code will begin with
and not have to worry about writ the bottom right location, is includ line 860 and proceed with 870, 880,
ing the program to produce it? ed, the screen {and your display) and so on.
"Printmaker" lets you do just that. will scroll up one line when you run After typing the SYS, the cur
It automatically creates code in the the BASIC program. If you wish to sor reappears and the screen (minus
form of PRINT statements from avoid this effect, delete the last the top line) is appended to your
whatever is on the screen and ap character (even if it's a space) in the program in the form of PRINT
pends these lines to the program in final PRINT statement created by statements. Type LIST to see the
memory. The PRINT statements in Printmaker. If your screen design results.
clude color control codes and calls for a character in this position,
See program listings on page 133. Q
REVERSE ON/OFF codes to repro it can be POKEd there in the BASIC
duce the screen exactly as it was program following the final PRINT
created. statement.
Printmaker is very easy to use. When you've completed your SOCCER
It's written in machine language, design, press the HOME key to get
but as a BASIC loader. There is only the cursor in the upper left corner of REAL
one rule to follow; The top line of the screen. Then type:
the screen may not be used. SYS 49152,1 (for the 64 and 128 in 64 3 UNIQUE INTERNATIONAL
Designing A Screen SYS 7169,1 <foi the VIC)
1) Eu'opean Club Game
SYS 15872,1 (for the Plus/4 and 16t
Type in the appropriate version of 2) European Cup
3) World Cud
Printmaker for your computer, and
be sure to save a copy before run
ning it the first time because the EACH ON TWO JAM PACKED
BASIC loader erases itself from
ing for utilities, games, MANUAL
memory. To use it, just load and
applications educational pro ■ Real Club in 31 National Leagues
run. The program is POKEd into a
safe location (49152 on the 64, grams, and tutorial articles. If " Real Player Selection

15872 on the Plus/4 and 16, and you've created a program that ■ Real SlndiLims/Team Colors

7168 on the unexpanded VIC}, out you think other readers might PLUS
of the way of BASIC. Now you can enjoy or find useful, send it,
Finance I Transfer Market:; / Schedule
begin writing your BASIC program, on tape or disk to:
Relegations / Promoiion / G'aphics
or you can load a BASIC program to
Submissions Reviewer Sound
which you wish to append your
COMPUTE! Publications
Ms lun. inlcmalive compelling
At this point, you're ready to P.O. Box 5406
Iruslrating. challenging
create your design on the screen Greensboro, NC 27403 ITS REAL1
using keyboard characters. All Please enclose an SASE if you
characters — numbers, letters, To order, remit $3d 95 (check or money
wish to have the materials order) and specify version
graphics—are legal. Colors are
available, too. (Plus/4 users should B & G ASSOCIATES
Articles are reviewed within
note that only the 16 primary colors P.O. Bo* 2571 • Liberty Park Station
tour weeks of submission. Spokane, Washington 99202
will work with Printmaker. Lumi
nance levels will not be translated
104 COMPUTED Gazelle January 1966

Star's made-for-Commodore'
printer needs no add-ons. Just plug
Now you can it into your computer and go to
own a sophisticated, work. It's made at a price that can't
affordable printer that's made be beat.
just for your C-64™ You've got the computer. Now
Here's a dual-mode Star printer get everything out of it. Get the Star
that delivers 120 cps draft and 30 that's labelled "C." There's no better
cps near-letter-quality. With out mate made for a Commodore.
standing graphics ability. Interface
cable. And friction and tractor feed.
All standard.
And it's the best-selling printer
for the best-selling home computer!

Commodore and C-£4 are trademarks of Commodofa Business Machines. Inc.

and/or Cammodara Electronics Ltd.
element of the array {starting with
element 0) contains one row of the
message. Substitute your own mes
sage, making sure that the number
of characters in each row equals the
width specified in line 100. Lines

200-210 fill the screen with charac
ters for testing purposes; be sure to
delete these lines before transferring
the subroutine to another program.

The program runs as listed on
the Commodore 64. Plus/4 and 16
owners should substitute these lines:

90 key 1,ci1ks{133):color 0,5,4

230 m'o031+40*b+c:kem upper le
Wiiyne Arnelt ft corner op window
This short subroutine creates screen windows and (UP!";:REM SET ROW NUMBER
livens up your BASIC programs. For the Commo 202,C-liPRINTBS(I):H=H+40I

dore 64, Plus/4, 16, and 128 (in 64 mode). 35H

POKK205.R-1 : PK1NT : PRINT"
Programs written in BASIC are The Universal Window 360 FORI-0TOH-1 ;POKt:202,C-l iPR

sometimes dull and predictable, but INTCSfl):NEXT

"BASIC Windows" is a short pro
they don't have to be. You don't Most of the time you don't
gram which can be included as a
need high-speed graphics and know what will be on the screen
subroutine in most BASIC pro
polyphonic sound in, say, a recipe when the window is called; since
grams. There are three main mod
filer, but you shouldn't fall asleep you want to retrieve the original
ules, and each can be tailored to
using the program either. Including display after the window is erased,
your specific needs. The program is
a few surprises in your programs the area that's to be overwritten has
only 26 lines long, and it contains a
can go a long way toward making to be "memorized." The first mod
generous number of REMs to ex
even the simplest ones more enter ule (lines 230-270) PEEKs each
plain each section. BASIC Windows
taining and fun to use. screen location within the window
Screen windowing is a trick you area, and stores the screen codes in
should have in your programming the S array (defined in line 120).
repertoire, and it's easy to include As each horizontal line is
in most programs. Windows are scanned and stored, one line of the
message boxes superimposed on a window is printed in its place. For a
small area of the screen. But they variety of messages, you iran design
don't disturb the contents of the the window in several different ver
rest of the screen. sions, and call whichever one you
Windows can present mini- need (scorebox, reminder, etc.). Try
menus to guide a user through a different colors, or let your program
program without switching back choose them randomly. You can
and forth between full-screen dis even use one color for the border
plays. You can use them to flash Screen windows can enhance your pro and another for the message by in
scores, time elapsed, or a funny gram presentation.
cluding color changes within the
comment to keep the kids interest PRINT statement.
ed in that math program they've puts a 5-line by 18-character win As soon as all five lines of the
been yawning over. Any brief mes dow in the center of the screen. If window are printed, part two of the
sage your program delivers to the you want your window to be a dif subroutine (starting at line 290) be
screen can be presented in a win ferent size, or you want to place it gins converting the stored screen
dow. When it's no longer needed, it elsewhere on the screen, you'll codes into printable strings (the C$
can just disappear, leaving the orig need to make some adjustments to array).
inal text in its place. the program. The height and width The third module waits until
Superimposing a bright win of the window can be changed by the fl key is pressed. Then it re
dow border and contrasting colors setting variables H and W in line prints the characters that were cov
onto the screen has far more visual ]00 to the number of rows and col ered by the window to their original
impact that squeezing a few words umns, respectively. The position of place on the screen. The original
into whatever display space is the window is specified in the next text color is also restored in line
available. And it's much less dis line. Set variable R to the row num 340. At this point, there's no evi
ruptive to your program than clear ber (1-25) and variable C to the col dence that a window ever appeared
ing the screen, printing a message, umn number (1-40). The B$ array on your screen.

and then reprinting the original defined in lines 140-190 contains

display. the message in the window. Each See program listing an page 740. W

106 COMPUTERS Gazotta January 19B6

Is Believing
i don't have enough time orspace to list all the good points!" -Noiand Brown, MiDntTtisonwAitEGAZETTt:

"This disk is fantastic!" -- Tom Lynch, THE USERS PORT

"Why all the enthusiasm? Because CONAL is a composite of the best features of the most popular
programming languages... the familiarity of BASIC commands with the structural programming
environment of Pascal and the turtle graphics of Logo." -- nark Brown, info 64

COMAL was just What I WclS looking for." -- Colin Thompson, RUN

Seeing is Believing. Take a look at what COMAL has to offer:

the complete COMAL0.14SystemforCommodore64THincludesthe
Tutorial Disk* (teaches you the fundamentals of COMAL), plus
the Auto-Run DENO Disk* (demonstrates 26 CONAL programs
including games, graphics, sprites and sounds),
all forjust $7.00!
You can add the reference book, COMAL from A to Z,
forjust $4.00 more.

"Everybody who gets it, likes it! (I'll guarantee it.]" - Len Lindsay, President, COMAt, Users Group

For more information or to place an order call

(608) 222-4432, Visa or Plaster Card accepted: checks or
money orders must be in U.S. dollars.
All orders pre-pald only ■ no C.O.D.
Send check or money order in US Dollars to:


6041 Monona Drive, #104, Madison, Wl 53716
phone: (608) 222-4432

'i>iuqrjm> will tomr-on 2 dkk.t or I double sided dl\k rjih di\k intludc\COPlAL.
( uinin jiu M \\ j 'i ..!■ i;; ..I i ■.in111■.■ ■ i■ ■ 11■ F.leUronic*
REM Highlighter
Don A. Ellis

If you headline routines in your programs with ory destroys itself when it's done its
REMs, here's a short and clever utility that helps
The disk version uses the dy
you find important sections of code more quickly. namic keyboard technique. It
It highlights REMs on your screen and your POKEs keystrokes into the key
board buffer, so that when the pro
printer. For the 64, 128 (64 or 128 mode), Plus/4, gram ends, the computer is fooled
16, and VIC. into thinking that certain keys have
been pressed. REM Highlighter first
Trying to find the REMark state loads the program to be modified,
ments in a crowded program listing so REM Highlighter itself is over
as it scrolls by is difficult, particu written (and lost). But several lines
larly after <i few late-night hours in of BASIC (63994-63999) have been
front of the screen. Like many other left on the screen. The 13s in the
programmers, 1 use asterisks (•*•), keyboard buffer are carriage re
but that's only marginally effective. turns, so the computer prints RE
Blank REM lines inserted to set off TURN over lines, adding them to
the comments and identify pro the program just loaded. The final
gram routines work better, but use line tells the program to GOTO
up both screen space and memory. 63995, and the program obliges by
REM Hi$lrfix>iter is handy for handling
jumping to the highlighter routine.
routines in your programs, li works on
A Better Solution When it's finished, blank lines
your screen and your printer.
numbered 63994-63999 are print
"REM Highlighter" automatically
N and P in line 28. Change N from ed on the screen. The dynamic key
tweaks another program, at no cost
198 to 239 and P from 631 to 1319. board is again used to press
to memory, so that REM statements
This utility is very easy to use. RETURN over the lines, erasing
on separate lines will be displayed
Load and run Highlighter and enter them from memory. You're left
in reverse, standing out sharply.
the name of the program you wish with the program with reversed
The adjusted program may be
to tweak. If you're using disk, that's REMs. You can now save back to
saved normally, and this version
all there is to it. If you're using tape, disk.
will retain its reversed comments
the process is a little less automatic,
when reloaded.
but still simple (see below for Using The Program With Tape
There are three disk versions of
REM Highlighter: Program 1 for the A special procedure is required for
Be sure to enter the program
64 and 128 (in 64 mode), Program 2 using Highlighter with tape. First
exactly as in the listing; it depends
for the 128 {128 mode), and Pro type in Program 4 and adjust it for
on precise screen layout to func
gram 3, the VIC version. Plus/4 the computer you're using (no
tion, so the spacing is tight. Com
and 16 users should type in Pro modifications are necessary for VIC
mon keyword abbreviations must
gram 1 but make this substitution or 64 owners):
be used; when you see an under
(because the keyboard buffer is in a Plus/4 and 16: In line 63993,
lined character, it means to enter it
different location): change the value of N to 239 and
with the SHIFT key held down.
6 N=239:P"1319:COLOHC,7,4 Save a copy before using the pro change P to 1319.
and change the values of variables gram because the program in mem 128 (128 mode): In line 63993,
change N to 208, change P to 842,
and change the PEEKs into 43 and
44 to PEEK(45) and PEEK(46).
Also, add the BANKO command to
the beginning of 63993.

It's necessary to append High

lighter to the program you wish to
tweak. To accomplish this:

1. Load the program you wish

to be highlighted.
2. Clear the screen; in direct
mode, enter the following line ex
actly (use abbreviations, no spaces):

?43;pE<43),44;pE(4J):a = pE(45) + pE(46)'

256 - 2:c = int(a/256):b = a- c'256:pO43,

Who needs this?


For the 128, use this line:

print45;poek(45(,46;peek(46):a ■ peekl'1624)
-!■ peekH625)*256 - 2:c - in(U/256):
When you can solve disk drive alignment problems
b ■= a - c*256:poke45,b:poke46,c in 60 minutes with the CSM program.
3. Load REM Highlighter. Disk drive alignment problems? Read What Computers Gazette
4. Using the values displayed Drive out of alignment again? had to say. (Oct., 1984)

(by step 2), POKE 43 and 44 with Tired of waiting two weeks or ".,. with 1541 Disk Drive Alignment Irom CSM
their original values again. On the more to get your drive fixed?? Software, you can lix it [trie disk drive]
128, POKE 45 and 46 instead. WE HA VE THE ANS WER 11 yourself In an hour or so and the program mill
pay lor itsell the lirsi lime you use it,.,No
5. Type RUN 63993. With Ihe 1541 DISK DRIVE ALIGNMENT PRO
technical expertise is required to accomplish
GRAM you can align Ihe drive yourssII in an hour
or so. No! only lhat, you can do i! al homo AND the alignment procedures, and the manual ac

How II Works no special equipment is required. Anyone with companying the program thoroughly
average mechanical skills can do II! ! describes Ihe procedures."
The routine in lines 63994-63998
works its way through your pro 1541 DISK DRIVE ALIGNMENT PROGRAM - VERSION 2.0 - $44.95 plus shipping

gram in memory, examining each

line to see if it starts with REM; if it NUMERIC KEYPAD NEW PRODUCT
does, and if the line has comments * SNAPSHOT 64tm *
FOR VIC and C-64
on it as well, the last space before 8 9 *
NO SOFTWARE SNAPSHOT 64 is a new ulilily backup program
the comments is POKEd with 18 REQUIRED
5 6 I thai literally takes a 'SNAPSHOT' of your com
{the code for reverse printing). puter's memory. This snapshot is then saved io
2 3 *
I disk with an autoboot so that it may be easily
Since only one byte is examined in WITH ALL SOFTWARE 0 * — loaded back in. It does all this aulomatically and
each non-REM line, <ind only a few easily.
in others, the process is very fast for KEYPADS COSTING $79.95 • EASY TO USE. TAKES ONLY 3-5 MINUTES
BASIC; most programs will take S64.95 plus shipping SIMILAR UTILITIES
less time than they take to load. ■ SOLD FOR ARCHIVAL PURPOSES ONLY
When the end of your program is •EXCLUSIVE FEATURE-ALLOWS YOU TO
new lines, and you're left with your FOR THE C-64 VOLUME II THEN RESTART THE PROGRAM. THIS IS A
original program—except now you Nol just a Ihird edition — a new and up-to-date
can see the highlighted REMs. manual covering tho latest advances In program
protection. Over 275 pages ol valuable informa- S49.9S plus shipping
The affected lines save proper
lion. Topics include:
ly as we've noted, and signal the
printer as well as the screen; so you • UNDOCUMENTED OPCODES FOR THE C-64 VOLUME I
can also print copies with reversed • GCR RECORDING
comments. You'll also notice that • CUSTOM DOS ROUTINES • THE PERFECT INTRODUCTION
any affected line appears one space
shorter since the 18 is a signal only • TIPS FROM EXPERTS ON $29.95 plus shipping
and takes up no display space. But PROTECTION. BACKUP & MORE
they will not withstand other atten • DISH INCLUDED
tion: If you change a line with <i 534.95 plus shipping Shipping S3.50 per Hem in U.S.; toieign oiaers extra

REM, or even press RETURN over

"e is a registered trademark ol Commodore Business Machines. Inc.
one of them, tht? BASIC interpreter
will not see the POKEd 18 and the Available through your local software dealer or call:
reversed display will not reappear.

See program listings on page 138. V CSM SOFTWARE, INC.

POST OFFICE BOX 563, CROWN POINT IN. 46307, PHONE (219) 663-4335
guage, published by COMPUTE!
Books), and other assemblers that
use source files in program format.
You'll have to make a few changes
before assembling, like adding a line
that gives the origin (the ORG com
mand in Fast Assembler, or the * =
command in LADS), for example.
In some cases, disassembling
from disk has a slight advantage
over disassembling in memory
since "auto boot" programs take

control of the computer by tamper
ing with memory pointers.
Once you run the program,
you'll be asked what kind of disas

sembly you want, from RAM or
from disk. If you choose RAM, you
enter a starting and ending address.
For disk disassembly, you must
Jeff Babuschak <ind Richard Rager name the ML file to be disassem
bled. Next, you answer the follow
ing questions:

1. List Hold—prints enough to

fill the screen and then pauses the
listing and offers an escape.
2. Screen—sends disassembly
to screen.

3. Save to Disk—sends disas

sembly to disk to create a source
This useful utility disassembles machine lan
4. Print—sends disassembly to
guage programs from memory or disk. The disas printer (check to see that your
sembly can be routed to the screen, to a printer, printer is turned on).
or to a disk file. For the 64 and 128 (in 64 mode). 5. Hexadecimal—prints num
bers in hexadecimal. If your answer
is no, the numbers will appear in
In BASIC, when you enter some gram. (See "Fast Assembler" else
thing like 20 PRINT "HELLO", the where in this issue.)
computer transforms the English- A disassembler is just the op When answering these ques
like commands which people can posite: It's a program that allows tions, you are not limited to one de
understand into numbers il will use you to list ML programs. It trans vice. You can have all the devices
later when the program is run. lates the numbers in memory or on working at the same time, with one
PRINT, for example, is not stored in disk into readable abbreviations for exception. When using the List
memory as five letters, but as the Hold command, you cannot send
ML commands.
single number 153 (the token for the disassembly to disk at the same
r'RINT). When you type LIST, the time because the saving process
numbers are converted hack into Follow The Menu would be slowed down entirely too
letters that spell out the command. Apart from a short ML routine much. (The program will refuse to
Machine language (ML) pro POKEd into the cassette buffer, allow both List Hold and Save To
grams are similar: The numbers In "Disk Disassembler" is written en Disk options.)
memory are operation cades-—op tirely in BASIC. There are no spe
codes for short—and each opcode cial instructions for typing it in or The Problem Of Messages
has a corresponding mnemonic—an running it. After saving a copy to Disk Disassembler attempts to dis
abbreviation that's easier to re disk, just type RUN. assemble every single byte in the
member than the number. For ex You can disassemble a pro ML program, which sometimes leads
ample, the opcode 169 followed by gram from memory or from disk. to some strange results. Let's say a
a 5 is equivalent to the instruction You can also create a source file for file contains a simple message like
LDA w5 (written as a mnemonic). making your own modifications to HI", a space and the letters H
To create a machine language a program. The resulting program and I. This message would be
program, you need an assembler. It (PRG) file is compatible with the stored in memory as the ASCII
converts the mnemonics into the "Fast Assembler," PAL, LADS (from numbers 32, 72, 73 (hexadecimal
opcodes—the runnable ML pro- The Second Book of Machine Lan S20, $48, $49).

110 COMPUTE! s Gazette January 19S6


Vizastaj, the integrated spreadsheel. This is Ihe new word processor from
database and graphics program lhal Vizastar's author. Kelvin Lacy and is
has the Commodore 64 wortd raving, the successor to Omniwriler, which he
Safeguard 64 Disks is now available for the C128. II boasts also wrote All ihe features of
80 columns, and has over 40K ol Iree Ommwnter are Ihere. plus many
• Renders Bit and Nibbler memory in Ihe spreadsheet, Those significant enhancement, like auto
Copiers Ineffective who already own Vizastar 64 will be pagination, on-line help, pull-down
pleased to know that your existing dies menus, full-function calculator and
• Software is Encrypted and
can be read by Vizastar 128. Also, you more. Up to 8 'newspaper-style
Protected on Each Disk
can upgrade to the 128 version. Call variable-width columns can help with
• For Commodore 64 us for details and pricing. newsletters.

Why should your valuable data or Three dilferenl proportionally-spaced

useful software program become The only oilier comparable pioduci would "near letter quality" fouls are also
be Lolus 1-2-3 lor the IBM PC. nolhing in
available in the Public Domain? built-in for use wilh Commodore or
Ihe C64 world comes even close to the
Epson compatible printers. You can
leatures ol Vizastar"
Call or write merge almost any other word
AHOY July B5
tor more processor file directly into Vizawhte.
information. "I lounfl Vi?astar would do anything Lotus including Paper Clip and Omniwriter.
1-2-3 could, and then some. It's my Naturally, it is also compatible with
Commodore choice to become Ihe slanflard Vizastar. At all times, whal you see on
against which ihe olMers will Bo nidged."
GLENCO Ihe screen is exactly the way it will be
INFO 61 Magazine. Issue *1 printed oui. Vizawnle can do
ENGINEERING INC. "Vizasiar is an exceptional cackage that
mail-merges and has an integrated
3920 Ridge 'Arlington His. !L 60004 rivals Ihe features of programs Such as
30.000 word spelling checker that you
(312)392-2492 Loins 1-2-3 and offers C64 owners the kind can expand yourself.
of integrated software previously only
available lor higher-pricotf systems.1"
Release the hidden musical talent
inyourCOMMODORE 64 or128with ■| scrulinned. tesied and experimented with Both Vizawnle and Vizastar are
wniten in tO0°b machine language
MUSIC MAGIC™ Vizastar extensively. Dul could lind no
weaknesses whatsoever M is ihe most and run in the 128s FAST mode,
Teach your computer to play your favorile comprehensive, most flexible, mosl powerful making il lightning lasl. They require a
songs and/Of compose your own music and easiesl lo use integrated software C128 with 80 column color or
package I've worked with " monochrome monitor. Both come with
Commodore Microcomputer. Sepl Oct 1985
a cartridge, a diskette, a backup, and
"I use an I9M PC al work with Lolus 123 I a reference manual. Vizasiar also
leel Vizastar is jusl as good and in includes a SO page tutorial book. Bolh
someways better lhan 1-2-3' work wilh 1541 or 1571 disk drives.
Sloven Roborson. NC End User

Hl nave used Multiplan and Sunerbase. boih RISK-FREE OFFER

are good pieces of software, bul are
hl res screen display of music as n plays inadequate when compared lo Vizastar" Vizastar 128 is priced al S119.97.
PHINTS music on many popular printers Jim Mathews. WA End User Vizawnie's price is S79.97. Vizastar 64
SAVE/LOAD1 APPEND songs lo/from disk Orive
XL8 is now available for S119.97. We are
TRANSPOSE songs ID any key "So good. I Coughi a second C64 and
SO positive you will be satisfied with our
SELECT TRAOITIONAL INSTRUMENT SOUNDS Vizastar for my office A wild bargain'
programs lhat we offer a 15-day
0' crefllfl your own sounds i*ilh You ve saved me Irom having to buy IBM
on-scoun displays of synlnnsizcr condors and Lotus" money-back guarantee. Try it Risk-Free.
Music notation educationally correct Call us loday or send a check or money
Philip Ressler, MA End User
■ Grcal companion (or music lessons order. VISA'MC accepted.
■ ON-SC'EEN COMMANDS lor Degmners ol any ago
■ VEBSATILITV for experienced musjcans
Calif, residents add 6.5°c Sales Tax.
■ Capacity lor more than 2000 notes per voice
Keyboard control Add P&H: UPS-S4. CODCanada-$7.
Optional joystick or KoalaPad" conlrol
100% machine language ' Dith only
Li it p'ico J30
Introductory oiler I2S
Iowa rosidenls aOO A% sales mi
Send check 0' money ordnr to
1125 E. Hillsdale Blvd., Suite 104
Dayline Software Foster City, CA 94404-1609
Dept. C (415) 341-5606
P O Boi 305
Ames. IA 50010 • Dealer Inquiries Welcome ■
Trid*rnjrll LQTlll


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When Disk Disassembler
reaches those three numbers, it
EXPAND wouldn't know that they're really
part of a message, so it would disas
YOUR semble them and print JSR 18760
(in hex, JSR $4948), because the
COMMODORE 64 number 32 is not only the ASCII
value for a space character, it's also
WITH A the opcode associated with the
3-SLOT CARTRIDGE mnemonic JSR. If a section of the
program starts to look funny, or
EXPANDER contains a lot of BYTE statements,
you're probably looking at some
— Eliminates wear on connectors sort of data table {ASCII or other
- Saves time when changing cartridges wise). It would take a much more
— Built in Reset button sophisticated program to figure out
— Holds up to 3 cartridges which parts of an ML program are
— Convenient access to cartridges the program and which parts are
There's one more thing to
Ate you tired of lurning your Commodore 64 computer upside down just to
watch out for: When you create a
insert or change a cortridge? Then you need the new Cartridge Expander
fiom Navarone. We hove been moking these units for the TI-99/4A home source file, JMPs, JSRs, and
computer lor over three years, and now have the same high quality product branches are followed by target ad
available for your Commodore 64. dresses. If you make any changes to
NAVARONE the source code, all addresses could
turn out to be wrong. To modify a
disassembled program, you'll have
to go through and replace any ad
dresses with labels and then place
TO ORDER: Sand Cashier's Check or M.O. or personal check (allow 10 days lo clear). to Navarone Indus
tries, Inc., 11836Judfl Court , 3CUB Dallas TX 752*3 or call 214-437-1 lie. For MASTER/VISA CARDS and the labels at the appropriate line.
C.O.O.'s add 3%. CA Residents please add 8.5% Sales tai. Outside US add SZOOtor Shipolng.
See program listing on page 125. a

BACKUP Cartridge
FAST made easy!
with COPY II 64/128 • Makes working copies ol all C64 program of
game cartridges — fufly automatic operation —
no confusing DIP switches or LED's —
no programming knowledge required.
From the team who brought you COPY II PLUS (Apple), COPY II PC ■ Copies onto disc or cassette _ either will hold