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Psych11 General Psychology: handout#2 In this schematic illustration of the psyche to an iceberg, only

Theories of Personality and the Filipino Character the smaller conscious portion is visible. It contains everything of
which we are aware at any given time, and contains only part of the
PERSONALITY is universally defined as the overall, stable and psychological life. For Freud, the conscious mind is unimportant.
distinctive patterns of behavior in responding to people and The personal unconscious constitutes the powerful drives
environment. that stay totally outside of awareness, but are responsible for all
important human behavior. It is the repository of motives, wishes,
DIFFERENT PERSONALITY THEORIES and the VARYING impulses, conflicts, desires, and processes.
DEFINITIONS of PERSONALITY The preconscious lies between the conscious and
unconscious. It contains thoughts, perceptions, and memories that
SIGMUND FREUD: Classical Psychoanalysis have minimal and emotional significance. It stores anything that can
(German, Sigismolo Froit) easily be made the focus of attention. For example, you may ask,
Personality is a closed energy system comprised of three (3) When is your mothers birthday?
internal psychological subsystems (Id, ego, and superego). It
has instinctual origins and operates at a largely unconscious level. The Three (3) Internal Psychological Subsystems:
Id the biological; seeks immediate gratification, and operates
according to the pleasure principle of seeking pleasure and avoiding
pain.
Ego the psychological; seeks safety and compromise, and
operates according to the reality principle of knowing what is true
and false.
Superego the sociocultural; seeks perfection, and operates
according to the morality principle, representing what is right and
wrong.

Pre-genital Personality Types under the Five (5) Psychological


Stages:
Oral-Receptive
Oral-Aggressive
Anal-Retentive
Anal-Expulsive
Narcissistic

Mature personality results only after psychological issues of boyhood


castration anxiety and girlhood penis envy are resolved through
proper identification with the same-sex parent.
Such introjections also resolve the Oedipus and Electra Complex
thereby fostering successful development of a superego.
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3. The Shadow unconscious part of the ego; receptacle for that
Mature genital personality controls uncontrollable sexual urges and which we want to forget, disown, or wish to remain out of sight, or
convert them into healthy desires of love and work. those we would rather not see in ourselves.
4. The Anima/Animus Anima is sum of beliefs and feelings of a
*Assignment 3.1* man with regards to women (and vice versa for Animus).
Research at least 10 of the many Ego-Defense Mechanisms 5. The Self simply the totality of the entire psyche.
according to Sigmund Freud. Write on sheet of Yellow Paper.
ALFRED ADLER: Individual Psychology
CARL JUNG: Analytical Psychology
Every person is the self-creative artist of his or her own
Personality is a life-long process of self-realization. personality, constructed between the ages of 3 and 5.

He believes in the collective unconscious, as opposed to To be human is to feel a constant sense of inferiority, thus
Freuds personal unconscious. The collective unconscious contains we compensate by striving for superiority or perfection.
archaic patterns of behavior called archetypes that are genetically
transmitted. We separate from the collective and become unique Two (2) Types of Personality according to Complexes:
psychological individuals. 1. Inferiority Complex a more exaggerated form of personal
weakness than average.
Personality types are a persons habitual attitude or characteristic 2. Superiority Complex an exaggerated from of over-
way. compensation, or the excessive craving for perfection.

Two (2) Personality Types (according to Jung): Both complexes arouse from social interest, the need to follow
1. Extravert outward psychic energy norms of a civilized society. This social interest must be nurtured by
2. Introvert inward psychic energy parents via encouragement of active cooperation starting from
within the family. Otherwise, a person may be unable to meet the
Four (4) Major Psychological Functions: three (3) unavoidable tasks of life: society, work, and love.
1. Sensing
2. Thinking Adlers Birth Order Theory:
3. Feeling Only Child Always the center of attention; never dethroned;
4. Intuiting spoiled and self-centered; finds it difficult to share or compromise;
very mature intellectually.
The Different Personality Archetypes: First Born Responsible for younger siblings; takes on the role of
1. The Persona the identity we hold and present to the outside a surrogate parent; leaders; overachievers; sets example for
world; career role; as mother father son; political identity, etc. younger siblings; authoritarian or bossy; very responsible and
2. The Ego center of consciousness; conscious self; the helpful.
distinguishing factor between the self and others. Second Born Independent and competitive, especially with the
oldest sibling; often initiates sibling rivalry as they struggle to be

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identified in the family; rebels if they are not getting equal treatment Human awareness is an important concept as it plays a role
with that of the first born; very expressive and creative. in on-going processes of self-evaluation and social comparison.
Middle Child Independent but good-natured; does not seek the
spotlight; feels forgotten but can deal with it; middle-child Other Determinants of Behavior:
syndrome develops; very good social skills. 1. Behavior is based on the past (antecedents).
Last Born Spoiled; never dethroned; what they want, they get; 2. It is influenced by its results (consequences).
irresponsible; rule breakers; very charming and adventurous. 3. It is dependent on how we are motivated (cognitive
factor).
JOHN B. WATSON: Behaviorism
Self-efficacy is a persons view of what he is capable of doing.
Personality is the end-product of our habit systems; the sum of People with high-perceived efficacy tend to try more, work more,
activities that can be discovered by actual observation of behavior persist longer, and are less anxious than those with low-perceived
over a long enough period of time to give reliable information. self-efficacy.

Habits are learned behaviors that are practiced regularly and ABRAHAM MASLOW: Self-actualization
require little voluntary control. It originates from a few innate
reflexes and the three (3) primitive emotional responses (love, rage, The personality syndrome is a structured, organized complex of
and fear). apparently diverse specificities (behavior, thoughts, impulses,
perceptions, etc.) having a common unity
Watson considers the environment as the most important
factor to influence personality. He guaranteed that he can turn a Maslow has set up a hierarchy of five levels of basic needs.
healthy infant into any type of specialist he might select. Beyond these needs, higher levels of needs exist. These include
needs for understanding, esthetic appreciation and purely spiritual
Individual differences are not significant to him. At birth, needs. In the levels of the five basic needs, the person does not feel
what differs is due only to structural and chemical variations. Thus, the second need until the demands of the first have been satisfied
Watson is more concerned with what is similar among people, or the third until the second has been satisfied, and so on. Maslow's
referring to it as our universal inborn behaviors. basic needs are as follows:

ALBERT BANDURA: Social Learning Physiological Needs


His view on personality development: An individual is born with only These are biological needs. They consist of needs for
reflexes and genetically influenced behavior potentialities. oxygen, food, water, and a relatively constant body
Actualized behaviors must be learned through reinforcement and temperature. They are the strongest needs because if a
modeling. person were deprived of all needs, the physiological ones
Behavior is learned through observations, even without prior would come first in the person's search for satisfaction.
reinforcement. Observational learning through modeling is central Safety Needs
to this process. Models show how a behavior is done, and the These are security needs. Adults have little awareness of
benefits that accrue from it, by performing it. their security needs except in times of emergency or periods
of disorganization in the social structure (such as widespread
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rioting). Children often display the signs of insecurity and the musician must make music, an artist must paint, and a poet
need to be safe. must write." These needs make themselves felt in signs of
Needs of Love, Affection and Belongingness restlessness. If a person is hungry, unsafe, not loved or
Maslow states that people seek to overcome feelings of accepted, or lacking self-esteem, it is very easy to know what
loneliness and alienation. This involves both giving and the person is restless about.
receiving love, affection and the sense of belonging.
Needs for Esteem THE FILIPINO CHARACTER
These involve needs for both self-esteem and for the esteem
a person gets from others. Humans have a need for a stable, The Filipino Characters Strengths and Weaknesses
firmly based, high level of self-respect, and respect from
others. When these needs are satisfied, the person feels self- Strengths:
confident and valuable as a person in the world. When these 1. Pakikipag kapwa-tao
needs are frustrated, the person feels inferior, weak, helpless a. Pakikiramay and bayanihan (in times of great need)
and worthless. b. Being hospitable to both Filipinos and foreigners
2. Family Orientation
a. Closely-knit family ties demonstrating deep love for
every member
3. Joy and Humor
a. An important coping mechanism that adds to the
Filipino charm and keeps our spirit going
b. Thus Filipinos have the strung capacity to survive and
are emotionally balanced.
4. Flexibility, Adaptability, and Creativity
a. Our great capacity to adjust and to adapt to
circumstances and any eventualities that come our
way.
b. We produce something from indigenous or any
material as a source of income
5. Hard work and Industry
a. Desire to improve ones standard of living and to live
a decent life
6. Faith and Religiosity
a. Deep faith in God and Allah
7. Ability to Survive
a. We are capable of surviving all the hardest and
Needs for Self-Actualization saddest times.
Maslow describes self-actualization as a person's need to
be and do that which the person was "born to do." "A
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Weaknesses 5. The educational system (use of English language and use of
1. Extreme Personalism foreign books)
a. Filipinos have a personalitic world view. It means that 6. Religion (preoccupation with the departure of loved-ones)
there is no separation between and objective task 7. The economic environment
and emotional involvement. As such, they are 8. The political environment
incapable of dealing with impersonal activities, such 9. Mass media
as rules and regulations and standard operating 10. Leadership and role models
procedures.
b. Kamag-anak, friends, compadre, and other
connections are given more emphasis on the delivery
of the work or service.
c. Nepotism, lagayan, cronyism, graft and corruption
2. Extreme Family Centeredness
a. We are excessively loyal to our families, forming
political dynasties or family factions, all against the
concern of the greater community.
3. Passivity and Lack of Initiative
a. We wait to be told what has to be done. We show
great reliance on the government or other leaders to
do things for us.
4. Colonial Mentality
a. Lack of patriotism or support and love of the
Philippines
b. Actual preference for things that are foreign
5. Kanya-kanya syndrome
a. Selfishness and other self-serving attitudes
generating envy and jealousy over those who have
and do more
b. Crab mentality: pulls one man down via tsismis,
intrigue, and destructive criticism.

Roots of the Filipino Character:

1. The home environment


2. The social environment
3. Culture and language (our use of English language)
4. History (which is colonial)