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Dr.

Zana Lita,
Ana Turani
Dr. Lisa
Morgan

Teachers Guide
Up the Ladder

A TEACHER TAKES A HAND (MSUESI T JEP DORN) OPENS A MIND,


(T HAP HORIZONT) TOUCHES A HEART. (T PREK ZEMRN)
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CONTENTS
I. ABOUT THE UP THE LADDER COURSE
1. Introduction For you, teachers
2. About the Up the Ladder course - Why this title?
3. Why teach English to young learners?
4. Understanding young learners
5. Basic principles of Up the Ladder
6. Features in Up the Ladder
7. General principles for teachers
8. The peaceable classroom, the IRE model
9. Ways to encourage good student behavior in the classroom
10. Activities and games
11. Classroom ethics
12. Eective Teaching
13. Four important notes for teachers
14. Introducing new vocabulary
15. Lesson Planning
16. The lesson planning format
17. Stages of the lesson

II. UP THE LADDER 3 COURSE STRUCTURE


1. Educational and didactic objectives
2. Overall objectives Language competences
3. Objectives by chapter
4. Analytical structure of the course
5. Oral Course
6. New items
7. Test models

III. UP THE LADDER 4 COURSE STRUCTURE


1. Aims of the course
2. Overall objectives
3. Objectives by chapter
4. Analytical structure of the course
5. Model Lesson Plan
6. Test model
For you, teachers
Nowadays Albania is open to the World and it is being integrated into the Eu-
ropean community. Therefore the English language is becoming more and more
an important vehicle to foster links and cooperation with the European commu-
nity.

Now our children travel to other countries, make new friends, discuss with
them about their culture and learn from the cultures of their peers in other
countries. English is the key to promoting these contacts and exchanges.
Given the importance of the English language the Ministry of Education and
Science has undertaken a major eort to respond to these new developments by
developing a new English language curriculum and introducing the textbook
reform called Altertext.
Learning English at a young age is important. But it is just as important for the
teachers to motivate children in learning the English language.

Up the Ladder makes English language learning an enjoyable experience for


young learners. It is up to you to make the learning environment conducive to
learning for your students. Its YOU who give life to the textbook and the entire
teaching process.

The Albanian government is supporting your eorts to make a dierence in Al-


banian education by increasing your pay and changing your working conditions
in order for you to carry out your loy mission. With your work YOU ARE
MAK- ING HISTORY.
You need to know that you are at the heart of the CHANGE process which is
tak- ing place in Albania. Albania is changing very quickly.

In order to help you in this process, we provide you with a modest Teachers
Guide.
Regardless of our endeavour to improve the quality of teaching by writing this
modest Teachers Guide, it is not our intention to tell you This is the only
way!. On the contrary, your daily teaching experience is priceless. This is the
reason why we call it a Teachers Guide and would like you to consider it as
complimen- tary to your own knowledge and curriculum materials. In this
Teachers Guide
you will nd a variety of activities and model lessons that will make your life
easier in teaching young learners.
Together, we will hopefully achieve the ultimate objective:

TO HELP OUR CHILDREN LEARN ENGLISH WELL

The Teachers Guide is in English and we believe this will give you an additional
opportunity to read and use the English language.

We would gladly welcome your constructive feedback in order to improve the


quality of the textbook UP THE LADDER.

We look forward to hearing your comments.

Dr Zana Lita, Ana Turani, Dr Lisa Morgan

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1. About the UP THE LADDER course
Why this title?

The learning process is like climbing a ladder. You have to go up various steps in
order to reach a certain learning goal. Therefore, through the Up the Ladder
course we would like to encourage the students to climb this ladder and to be
able to see the world.

Compared to the past, modern thinking on English teaching at the primary


level places greater emphasis on communication. This implies the use of English
for a meaningful purpose. This new emphasis is fully reected in Up the
Ladder! However, this is not to say that the teaching of language structures
should be neglected. Up the Ladder 3 is based both on language items and
communicative functions.

In the Up the Ladder Course for beginners the focus is on vocabulary and gram-
mar. The reading text is used as a means to use the new language material. In
Up the Ladder, in addition to vocabulary and grammar, a variety of activities
are provided to enable the students to understand and interpret the text by
using the language they already know.

The teachers expectation is to have a perfect textbook. There is no perfect text-


book for every student and for every teacher. In this regard the teacher has a
very important role to play: to use the course material (the textbook) in a way
that suits the students he/she is teaching. The paramount task for the teacher in
this process is to motivate his students. In this connection, Raymond Robertson,
an education specialist has said Schools need to look broadly at how they
motivate pupils. They need to provide clear positive incentives for good social
behaviour (1997).

The aim of this course is to prepare and encourage pupils to achieve a good
stan- dard of English in the rst year of learning at primary level. Up the Ladder
de- velops the pupils ability to understand and use Basic English through the
skills of listening, speaking, reading and writing. It is based on the fact that
children learn most eectively when the language and activities are motivating,
stimulat- ing and linked to their own world and experience.

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Up the Ladder comprises:
The Pupils Book
The Activity Book
The audiocassee/CD (Listening tape)
The Teachers Guide

The features of the Up the Ladder course are:

It focuses on the Albanian culture and context;


It integrates the four language skills: listening, speaking, reading and writ-
ing;
It includes cross curricular topics which intend to broaden your knowledge,
to enable you to understand other cultures, and discuss with your peers in
other countries about issues of common interest;
It aims at making language learning an encouraging experience for you and
your future.
It teaches values in order to help you become beer people. Each lesson
gives a message.

3. Why teach English to young learners?

Why is it important to teach English to children at this age?

Teaching English to children at this age has the following advantages:

1. The voice and sound production organs are still exible;


2. Children at this age have very sound listening skills, which enhances listen-
ing skills;
3. Children at this age have outstanding imitating skills and use a lot of mim-
ics;
4. At this age students are less shy, which is a characteristic for adults. This
allows them to feel free to communicate with the teacher and the other stu-
dents in class.
5. At this age children want to learn anything that is new; this explains their
active participation in the learning of foreign language;
6. This age is the most intensive period in the life of a child; it is the most
convenient to involve them in new challenges as is the learning of a foreign
language, which helps them develop intellectual skills.
7. By puing the children at the same start at a young age, the inequality
which exists as a result of cultural or family dierences in the
seings where children live, can be avoided.
8. At this age it is easier to enhance students future interests regarding the
English language and culture.
9. At this age children are curious to know what they are going to learn in
this subject maer. They want to entertain themselves by learning a foreign
language; at the same time they look forward to know how well they are

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doing in this subject area. They want to be able to speak English right a er
the class, thus imitating the adults when they speak English.

It is for these reasons that many countries such as Austria, Sweden, Norway,
Denmark and many others, has introduced the teaching of foreign language,
pri- marily English in the rst grade. The English course at this stage is meant
simply to raise the awareness of the students about the importance of English
and to set the background for the future steps of English language learning.

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4. Understanding young learners
For the teacher of young children, English cannot be thought of in isolation
from the holistic development of the child. To develop successfully the child
needs to be satised mentally, socially, physically, linguistically as well as
emotionally.
Children want to be mentally challenged; they want to take part in activities
which give them opportunities to move and develop their motor skills; they
want to use English in purposeful activities, which allow them to socialize in
the same way as they do when using their rst language; and they want to
measure their own linguistic progress.
The emotional needs of the children need to be taken seriously into account for
the childs development. Therefore, English Language Teaching, particularly for
this age SHOULD BE FUN.
You need to know that language is NOT important at this stage. Motivation is
much more important. This stage of learning will determine whether a child
will be motivated to learn or will ever learn English. Now children travel abroad
and meet children from other countries and they may have real opportunities
for con- tacts with other people through English.

4. Basic principles of UP THE LADDER


The authors of Up the Ladder have taken into account the following principles:
National dimension by enabling students to talk about their identity
when communicating with their peers from other countries;
European and regional (Balkan) dimension by providing students with lan-
guage and cultural information relevant to the students knowledge at this
level;
Linguistic progression so that the language material starts from easy to the
more dicult one;
An encouraging and enjoyable textbook for the students;
Acquaintance of students with other cultures given the level of knowledge
of this age groups;
Consideration of students knowledge in the Albanian language;
Teaching of values such as love of the homeland, respect for other people
by way of cultured communication, etc.);
Involvement of students in the learning process by way of pair and group
work activities;
Enhancing independent work of students. With regard to this the teacher
should make use of the exercises given in both the Students Book and the
Activity Book;

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Creating a pleasant atmosphere in the classroom by placing emphasis on
the MAIN teaching principle for this age group: TEACHING SHOULD BE
FUN. CHILDREN SHOULD LEARN WHILE PLAYING.

6. Features in Up the Ladder


The Up the Ladder course books for grades 3, 4 and 5 comprise:

1.Pupils Book
The colour Pupils Book presents the main teaching material. It contains twenty
ve items, eight oral course lessons and ve revision lessons. The Pupils Book
contains short stories, short dialogues, some language puzzles, oral exercises,
games, rhymes and songs. The new words are given at the end of each item.
Each item consists of two hours.
Aer every three items there is a revision lesson. A summary of all new words is
given at the back of the Pupils Book.

Every new item includes the following features


Read (this section includes the reading passage and is supported by an au-
diocassee.)
You and Me (this section aims to involve the pupils in practicing the lan-
guage in a dialogue. It is also supported by the audiocassee.)
Language puzzle/Game (vocabulary, grammar, or spelling exercise ),
Rhyme/ song.
New words (this section includes new vocabulary with an Albanian transla-
tion.)
Whats your mark? /Where are you on the Ladder? (This feature is
placed at the end of each review lesson and gives pupils an opportunity to
assess their own progress.)

2.Activity Book
The colour Activity Book contains writing exercises and activities, puzzles and
games designed to extend and practice language from the Pupils Book.

A variety of exercises are provided in the Activity Book to help pupils practice
the new language items through all four skills. Listening exercises are included
on the recording. In order to help the teacher with the recorded material if
he/she for some reason fails to get the audiocasse e, the text of the
audiocassee is pro- vided at the end of the Teachers Guide 4 and 5.
The reading and writing exercises can be done as homework. It is be er do the
homework exercises orally in class before they write them at home. In this way,
pupils can achieve good results which will add to motivation from an early
stage.

3.Cassette
The cassette contains recordings of the text, dialogues, listening exercises and songs.

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7. General principles for teachers
You should keep the following principles in mind when teaching young learners:

Listening and speaking come before reading and writing. The pupils
should be given plenty of opportunities to listen to correct English before
being asked to speak.
Lessons should be enjoyable and stimulating so that pupils want to take
part.
Pupils must be given every opportunity to use language for a real purpose,
so that the language is meaningful. In this way real communication takes
place. This is the aim of the activities.
Dont progress too fast. Go at the pace the pupils can manage, and give ad-
ditional practice where necessary.
Do not present too many language items at once: one new paern or about
four or ve words is enough for one lesson. Pupils should need to use the
paern or word for a real purpose.
Constant revision is essential. Revision has been built into this course every
three new items, but you should provide additional revision of anything
known to give diculty. A few minutes revision at the beginning of each
lesson is oen very valuable.
Grammar should not be explained. The aim is to teach pupils to use lan-
guage, not to learn about it.
Do not translate words or explain them unless it is unavoidable. Show the
pupils the meaning of words.
Be encouraging. Do not discourage or scold. Smile and give praise for try-
ing. Learning a new language can be stressful.
Speak clearly but naturally, and at a normal speed. Do not slow down. Do
not pause between words unnecessarily.
Make sure that all pupils are taking part.
Do not talk too much. The more English used by the pupils, the more suc-
cessful the lesson.
Do not continue an activity too long. Young children can quickly lose inter-
est.
Prepare your lesson. This will take only a few minutes using the brief teach-
ing notes. An unprepared lesson is seldom successful.
Give pronunciation guidance when it is needed and it usually is!
Do not ask pupils to spell out words. They learn words by using them
orally, and then reading and writing them.
Remember that teaching and testing are two dierent things.
Vary the activities to avoid boredom.
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Try to include some physical movement, e.g. children coming to the front,
following instructions and pointing. Young children, especially, do not like
to sit still.
Try to make your lessons interesting and enjoyable. The children will learn
more in a shorter time.

8. The peaceable classroom - the IRE Model


Teachers at all levels report that with each passing year there seems to be more bicker-
ing, ghting, teasing, name-calling, and other acts of unkindness among children. But
surveys show that children overwhelmingly prefer to be in a classroom that is caring
and cooperative, where they are safe physically and emotionally. So it is important to
create a classroom where the kids are nice to one another.
How can you establish what a peaceable classroom, a community based on cooperation,
communication, emotional expression, appreciation for diversity, and nonviolent con-
ict resolution? Its an achievable goal if you follow the three steps below and try some
of the activities adaptable to the grade you teach.

Step 1 INVOLVE
Actively encourage students to assume some of the responsibility for establishing a car-
ing community.
Set Standards
Engage students in establishing classroom standards by discussing: How would you like
to be treated in this classroom? How will you treat your classmates? Explain the word
peaceable and that it mans peaceful.
Ask students what would a peaceable classroom be like? How would students treat
one another in a peaceable classroom? Have students draw pictures illustrating life in a
peaceable classroom.

Step 2 - RESOLVE
As a class, get specic about the types of behaviors that contribute to a peaceable class-
room.
Complete T-charts
T-charts (a chart that looks like the T letter) are widely used in cooperative learning to
help children identify and learn social skills.
Create a class compact
Create a class compact is different from setting up classroom rules and consequences,
because the compact is a set of guidelines for how class members should treat one an-
other. (You can use the compact as a starting point for rule-setting, however, by asking
the class, What rules would help us maintain our class compact?)
Dont call each other names.
Call other students what they want to be called.

Step 3 - EVOLVE
Establishing a caring classroom parent community is an ongoing process that you can
keep alive by helping the children assess how theyre doing.

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9. Ways to encourage good student
behavior in the classroom
These are mostly suited for the younger students but can be adapted for older classes.
Classroom Rules
Work with students to come up with a set of classroom rules and conse-
quences.
Colour Cards
Have a pocket chart with all students names on it. Beside each name have a
pocket where either a red, yellow, or green card will be display. Red=some
sort of consequence decided and explained earlier.
Yellow = Warning
Green = Youre doing great.
Punch Out Card
Each child receives a pad of paper. Whenever they are performing well,
helping out, etc.., give them a punch with a one hole puncher. When stu-
dents reach a certain number of punches, they can pick from a box of priz-
es.
Class Points
Display a tally system of points on the blackboard. Every time students are
performing well, give them a point. When the class earns a certain number
of points by the end of the week, they get to do a class fun activity at the
end of the week.
Marble jar
If the class is doing well add a marble to the marble jar. When the jar is
lled, they get to do a class fun activity. Count the marbles regularly as a
regular math activity.
Positive Popsicle Sticks
Write out positive comments on popsicle sticks like great helper, super
eort, etc., and hand them out accordingly. When each student receives a
certain number of Popsicle sticks they can get a reward.
Good Behavior Chart
As a class, come up with a list of good behaviors. At the end of the day, go
through each one and ask the class how each was demonstrated in the
classroom during the day. Then, as a class thank the student who accomplished
it.
10. Activities and games
You can use the following activities to revise the vocabulary and story language from
the given texts.
A.
Pupils play in group of four. One group against the other one.
Each group makes one 10 by 10 grid. The pupils of one group may use dif-
ferent
coloured pencils.
Each group writes any word they know in their grid horizontally or
vertically. They score a point for each leer.
The grids are exchanged. Each group must write another word in the grid,
using
a leer from the existing word. They score a point for each leer.
When no more words can be entered the game is over. The pair with the
most
points wins.

B.
Divide the class into groups of two or four. Assign each group a unit from
the
Pupils book.
Pupils copy the story from that unit onto stripes of card. They create one
card for
each topic.
Pupils then shue the cards and put them in an envelope. They exchange
their
envelope with that of another group.
Each group puts the cards they have received in order. When they have
nished,
they check the order with the story in the Pupils Book.

C.
Food vocabulary
Pupils brainstorm all the food and drink they know. You make a word web
on
the board.
Divide the board into categories: Meat, fruit, vegetables, milk products,
drinks
Pupils write the words in the web under the categories. Pupils work in
groups.
Each group then produces a poster of the categories. They may illustrate it
with
pictures cut from magazines and drawings.

To revise CAN
Pupils stand in pairs. The pupils nearest you face the back wall of the class-
room;
the pupils furthest from you stand facing you.
Mime an action or sport and say I can The pupils facing you copy the
mime.
Their partner watches them and nishes the sentence the action that they
see.

Invite a pupil to take your place.

To revise descriptions of faces


Divide the class into groups. Stick a magazine picture on the board for each
group.
Think of a sentence describing each face. Write it in jumble order under the
picture. Each group must unjumble the description.
The rst group to give you a correct wrien version is the winner.

To revise question forms.


In pairs, pupils create a class questionnaire, using questions like:
How old are you? How many brothers have you got? etc.
They interview all the pupils in the class and make a poster presentation of
the results.

To revise short sentences and expressions from the lessons.


Divide the class into two or three groups. Groups line up in a single le.
Whisper a short sentence or expression to the rst pupil in each group. Say
GO! The pupil whispers the sentence to the pupil behind, and so on. The
last pupil in the group either calls out the sentence, or runs to the board
and writes it.
The rst group to nish with the correct sentence is the winner.

To revise he/shes wearing, clothes, possessives


The pupils sit in the large circle. Three pupils stand in the middle and the
pupils look at what they are wearing for sixty seconds.
The three pupils leave the room and exchange one item of clothing each,
including glasses, watches etc. They then return to the circle.
Ask: Whats dierent? Pupils put up their hands. Choose individuals to
answer. e.g.: Ben is wearing Enids sweater.
The rst three pupils to guess correctly and say the sentence correctly will
go
out of the room in the next round.

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To revise prepositions and there is/are.
Draw to empty rooms, with a table in the middle of each. Label these pic-
tures
A and B. Make a photocopy for each pupil.
In pairs, each completes one drawing of the room with named items (other
furniture and animals, or any other vocabulary group you want to revise).
Pupil a
draws on picture A, and pupil B draws on picture B.

Pupil A says where things are in picture A. Pupil B listens and draws the
items.
Then they change roles for picture B.
Pupils compare their pictures.

To revise Past Simple


1.
You will need cardboard in two dierent colours, scissors, buery clips
and a dice for each group of four pupils. It would also help to make a wheel
before the class to show the pupils.
Demonstrate how to make the wheel step-by-step with the pupils.
With a pupil, demonstrate how to play the game. Throw the dice. Your
partner moves his/her wheel so that the number you have thrown
appear on the outer rim.
He/ She must make a sentence with the verb in the past simple, e.g.: P:
See: I
saw my friend yesterday.

Other pupils in the group must agree that the sentence is correct. If it is,
the pupil scores the points indicated in the centre of the wheel. This pupil
then throws the dice and the next in the group moves the wheel.
A pupil may not repeat the sentence. They must ask you if they are not sure
whether a sentence is correct. The pupil with the most points at the end of
the
game is the winner.

2.
Write a list of known verbs in the present tense on the board.
Elicit the simple past form and write it next to each verb.
Pupils make a set of cards each; one card for each verb in the present tense
and
one card for the same card in the past tense.
Pupils work in pairs. Each pupil shues their two sets of cards. They take it
in
turns to place a card face up between them, then they say the word. If a
pupil
places a matching card on the pile (in the past or present tense), he or she
shouts

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Snap! and picks up all the cards.
The game continues until one pupil has all the cards.

To revise he/shes got and parts of the body.


You will need a sheet of A4 paper per pupil. Pupils play in groups of three.
The aim is to draw a monster between them, each drawing a dierent part.
The rst pupils in each group draw a head and neck, fold the paper pass it
on.
The second pupils in each group draw the body, arms and hands on the pa-
per they receive, then fold it and pass it on. The third pupils draw the legs
and feet on the paper they receive pass it on. One pupil from each group
opens up the paper and describes the monster: Hes got a big head. Hes got
four arms, etc.

To revise must and must not (road safety)


Ask pupils to tell you in their own language, what they know about road
safety.
Then explain that they are going to learn the English for the rules of cross-
ing the road.
Revise quickly and slowly by demonstration. Revise look and listen, then
teach look carefully, listen carefully.
Teach Look le/right. Look again, by demonstration.
Teach corner and cross (the road) using some pictures.
Read the rules to the pupils: You must stop at the corner. You . etc.
Ask a pupil to come to the front and mime the actions as you repeat the
rules.
Repeat with another pupil.

To learn new adjectives


Use objects, pictures and mime to teach new adjectives in opposite pairs.
Make sure the pupils understand that people and animals are old or young,
but objects are old and new.
Ask questions using the paern: Is my bag old or new/ is Andy a good or
a bad boy?

To learn comparison of adjectives


1.
Introduce taller and shorter.
Call two pupils to the front and say: Mimi is tall, but Sue is taller. Point to
the correct pupil as you speak.
Repeat several times then ask the class to guess the meaning of taller.
Prompt them to repeat the sentence.
Repeat with other pairs to tall pupils and several pairs to short pupils and
thin pupils.

2.
Call two tall pupils to the front.
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They should stand at opposite sides of the classroom.
Ask the class: Who is taller, Ann or Tom?
Let the pupils guess, using the paern. Tom is taller.
Then say Tom, stand next to Ann and ask the class again Who is taller, Ann
or Tom? Repeat with short or thin.
Repeat again, this time with the pairs of pupils siing in their seats until
the others have guessed.
Choose pupils to come to the front and ask the class the questions.

3.
Introduce This is old, but this is older, using two objects, one old, one very
old.
Repeat several times, and then prompt the class to repeat.
Call out pupils to hold the objects and say the sentence.
Repeat with short and shorter pencils, long and longer ruler, interesting
and more interesting book etc.
Demonstrate sad sadder, beautiful/more beautiful, etc. by asking pairs
of pupils to mime.

4.
Write a word on the board in bad writing, and the class Is this good or bad?
Write the same word again, this time in very, very bad writing.
Point to the words in turn, saying This one is bad, but this one is worse.
Repeat with good and beer.
Repeat again, this time with drawings.
Call out pupils to point to the pairs of words and drawings on the board
and make sentences about them.

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11. Classroom ethics
The following are some expressions you can you to encourage your students
when they are doing well.

Fantastic!/ I like that/ Youre right. / Thats it. / Excellent! / Great! /


Good for you! / Wow! / Thats beer. / Thats good. / Perfect! / Fine. /
Wonderful.
Teach your students not to be afraid to say:

I made a mistake. / I need help. / I am sorry. / I dont know.

Teachers, dont forget

Every time you use sarcasm with your children, you have created a VICTIM

12. Effective Teaching


The standards or components of eective teaching look at the common be-
haviors that promote eectiveness in the classroom. The components of eective
teaching are based on comprehensive research which identies the characteris-
tics that eective teachers share. There are six major areas for which to evaluate
teachers.

1. The qualities that an educator brings with him to the classroom which in-
clude: a) the skills the teacher has developed, b) the amount of education, c)
depth of their knowledge base, d) certication, and e) experience.

2. Teacher as a Person The teacher demonstrates caring through listening and


understanding, showing respect to the students, demonstrating fairness, and re-
spect through social interactions with the students, and being reective in
his/her practice. Teachers need to be enthusiastic about what they teach; this in
turn mo- tivates the students.

3. Classroom Management and Organization Eective teachers are well-pre-

19
pared and well aware of their teaching and learning environment. They are con-
sistent when managing student behavior and can do multi task. Eective teach-
ers have materials prepared in advance for lessons and are consistent with the
practical procedures.

4. Organizing for Instruction The teacher plans and prepares for lesson. This
includes following a consistent schedule, yet he remains exible for unseen oc-
currences, maintains momentum within and across lessons, and clearly explains
objectives in achievement and responsibility to the students.

5. Implementing Instruction The teacher uses several dierent teaching strate-


gies, makes connections to real world situations in their instruction, and is sup-
portive. The teacher uses hands on learning, a variety of questionings strategies,
and tries to have the students demonstrate the skills they have learned.

6. Monitoring Student Progress and Potential It is important that the teacher


monitors students and assesses their development and progress. Eective teach-
ers give homework that is clearly explained and relevant to the content that is
being studied in the classroom. Teachers monitor the students during work time
to make sure that they are on task and that they understand the objectives of the
lesson. The teacher is supportive and encourages his students. Eective teachers
are responsible, caring, and professional.

13. Four important notes for teachers


Always remember that the lesson notes are intended to be helpful, not to tell
you what you must do. You may follow them in detail if you wish, but you may
prefer to modify them to suit your own situation, or you may wish to teach a
topic in a dierent way altogether, using your own ideas. You can be such an
innovator in your teaching! You should be aware of the needs of your pupils and
go more slowly or quickly, or provide additional material or practice when
required.
Sometimes materials and activities may not be practicable for a particular class
at a particular time. If a model is to be made, for example, it may not be possible
for you to supply enough materials for all the class to make one. One alternative
would be for the class to work in groups. When this too is not possible, you
alone can make the model or carry out the activity, with the class watching and
joining in. Where even this is not possible, it will be necessary to fall back on the
pictures in the book.
Some teachers may feel that certain kinds of games may be unsuitable for some
classes. For instance in some schools of Albania, mainly in villages teachers have
to teach in adverse conditions: classes in bad conditions, no teaching aids, and
parents not being able to support the school. Rather, in some areas, mainly in
vil- lages it is not easy for a teacher to carry out activities in the class which
involve both boys and girls. For some parents with major prejudices this might
cause more trouble than good. In such a situation the teacher should consider
the cul- tural context and tailor his teaching to the needs and cultural
requirements of

20
that particular context.

The teaching notes give detailed advice on using the Pupils book and the Activ-
ity Book. They can oen be used for homework, however. The instructions are
usually quite clear, but if necessary a few minutes of class time may be spent in
making sure that the pupils know what to do.

14. Introducing new vocabulary


Learning words can be dicult and the pupils can forget them quickly. New
words are taught for a purpose, for the pupils to use in the game or activity that
follows, to act a play, to work out puzzles, to talk about themselves. You should
try to make the learning of new words enjoyable, and should provide plenty of
opportunity to listen to the words and practice them. An audiocassee would
be an ideal tool for this because a) it guarantees proper pronunciation if
recorded from a native speaker, and b) it less tiring for the teacher.
The following are some guidelines and suggestions that you may follow:

1. When introducing new words, always use real objects if possible, pictures
of the object, or the pictures in the book.
2. Teach only three or four words at a time. When these have been practiced
then add some more words.
3. It is important that the pupils have ample opportunity to listen to words
without being made to speak. They cannot be expected to produce sounds
until they can hear them correctly. They should not be asked to speak too
soon. For this reason, several listening discrimination activities are included
below.
4. Remember that it is dicult to remember new words. They have to be used
several times before the pupils can be expected to remember. They should
also be revised frequently in other lessons.
5. The vocabulary should be used, and not simply repeated or chanted.

Methodology
1. Introduce three or four of the objects only. Hold up, for example, a pencil
and say a pencil several times. Get the class to repeat it and individual
pupils to repeat. Do not insist on perfect pronunciation at this stage. Teach
the other two/three/four objects in the same way. If real objects are not
available, use pictures or the pictures in the Pupils Book. Hold up the Pu-
pils Book so that the class can see it, point to the picture, and tell the pupils
to point to it in their own books.
2. Give instructions, e.g. Give me a pencil, please, Genci. Show me a book.
Sarah draw a pear. Use the words that are being taught. You can ask the
pupils to come to the front. Remember to say Thank you, Ilir.
3. Hold up the objects in random, and the class says the correct name. Point
to individual pupils, who say the name. Then repeat the word yourself, so
that they hear the correct pronunciation.
4. Go round the class. Hold up one object at a time and in turn. Then repeat
21
step 4 using all the objects.
5. Teach the next three or four words, using steps 1-3. Then repeat step 4 us-
ing all the objects.
6. Use one or more of the listening discrimination activities. Then use one of
the game described in the games section to practise using the words.

Listening discrimination activities


1. Each group has a pack of cards with leers, numbers, pictures or words.
Alternatively they can have a selection of objects on their desks. The teacher
gives instructions: Show me B. Show me a bag. The rst group to hold up
the correct item wins a point.
2. Each group has a selection of objects. This time the groups can have dif-
ferent objects. Alternatively, a set of objects is placed on the teachers desk.
Give instructions to a member of one group at a time: Give me a pen, Jona.
Show me a lion, please. If the pupil is correct he wins a point for his team.
3. The teacher gives instructions to members of one team at a time. Stand up,
please, Bob. Tim, please draw an apple. Come here please, Ina. Go to Anne.
If the pupil is correct he wins a point for his team. This game can be used to
revise all the instructions learnt.
4. Name one member of each team. If there are four teams, place four pieces
of chalk by the blackboard. Give an instruction: Draw a car. The four chil-
dren come to the board and draw. The rst to draw the correct object wins a
point. (A point can also be given to the best drawing.)

Use of coloured pencils


The teacher uses coloured pencils to explain grammar such as: plural of nouns,
plural endings are coloured so that students can tell the dierence.

Use of music and songs in the classroom


Songs and music are helpful tools to make learning a pleasant experience for
the students. It also stimulates the right part of the brain to learn. Some
scholars, in a research carried out six years ago have found that a er listening
to Moxart, people score beer in the Intelligence test. Music helps to relieve
from stress. We should bear in mind that children, too, have their on stresses,
therefore using music in the classroom is very useful.

Use of drawings
Drawing plays a very important role in maximizing English language learning.
In preparing the didactic materials the teacher can make use of his own artistic
skills or can use students, even their parents thus involving them in the teaching
process. The teacher can use simple sketches carrying certain meanings.

Sketching on the board in class is something that most teachers do. As the
saying goes, a picture paints a thousand words. This is especially true in a
language learning situation, where a quick sketch can help students focus and
generate language related to the sketches.
22
The key to drawing quickly is the fact that humans usually ll in the missing
information. The dierence between happy and sad is one simple stroke -
the smile or frown. There are basically seven expressions which can be quickly
expressed in a few strokes of the marker or piece of chalk and cover quite a
wide range of situations.

Teaching the new rhyme


When using poems and rhymes you can give your students not only an
increased awareness and understanding of English speaking cultures, but also
great sen- sual, emotional and intellectual pleasure.

Use of games in English language learning


Whenever possible, the pupils should use English because they need to in order
to communicate. Language learning then becomes much more eective. The ef-
fectiveness is increased if the situation is enjoyable, or at least interesting. Lan-
guage teaching games can oen provide this kind of situation.

Interest can be increased by making the game a contest between teams. This re-
quires a lile organization at rst, for example, the class will need to be divid-
ed into groups of dierent sizes for dierent purposes, and each group given a
name, but this need only be done once, and the eort will prove well
worthwhile. The following is a selection of language teaching games which may
be used with younger children.

1. Guessing objects in a bag. The pupils can be allowed to feel the object, or
the teacher can put it in a hand and say What am I touching?
2. Guessing an object while blindfolded. Pupils like this but it tends to be
a lile slow since changing the blindfold from one pupil to another takes
time.
3. Guessing an object behind ones back. This is quick and easily organized.
A pupil stands with his/her back to the class. The teacher, or another
pupil, puts an object into his hand behind his back. He has to guess what it
is. Everyone enjoys the game and all the pupils watching learn as much as
the child doing the guessing.
4. Guessing a wrapped object. This has to be prepared by the teacher before
the lesson.
5. Guessing an object hidden on the teachers desk. This is useful in the early
stages. The teacher has some objects in her desk and she puts one on her
desk, hidden behind something, perhaps a large book. The pupil have to
guess which one. This is pure guessing because there are no clues.
Children like the game and it involves continual repetition of vocabulary and
structures ranging in diculty from Its a to There is a

Draw and guess. You or a pupil draws an object step by step. At any point a
pupil can guess what the object is. If he is right, he takes over and draws
something else. If he is wrong, the rst pupil continues drawing. This involves a
conversa- tion between two people which could be quite simple:
23
It is a ? No
It is a ? Yes

6. Draw and guess with circles, straight lines, etc. This is similar to the last
game but the person doing the drawing has certain restrictions. He may be
asked to use circles only, or straight lines, or to start with a circle and add
the rest of the drawing. This oen adds interest to the game and in fact
helps those who are not good at drawing.

7. Team drawing. This is a very popular game but it needs a certain amount
of space and may not be possible in some classrooms. The pupils are divid-
ed into two or more groups. One child from each group goes to the teacher
who whispers the name of the object. The child returns to his group and,
without speaking, begins to draw the object while the group watches and
tries to guess. The person doing the drawing can only say Yes or No. When
someone has guessed correctly, that pupil goes to the teacher for the name
of the next object.

8. I spy. This is an old favourite. The teacher or a pupil chooses an object and
says I can see a B. Either a leer or a sound can be used. The pupils have
to guess the object: Is it a .? Yes, it is./No, it isnt.

9. Think of something. One pupil goes outside and the class decides on an
object. It may be something in the classroom or it may be any kind of word
already taught, e.g. something we wear, what we do in the holidays, a food,
a means of transport, etc. The pupil outside returns and tries to guess what
the class has chosen. Clues may be given. Several dierent forms of dia-
logue may be used.

10. Memory game. The aim it to remember as many things as possible that
have been drawn on the board and then cleaned o, or covered by cloth af-
ter being seen for a short time, or moved from one position to another. The
language used can range from simply naming the object to conversations
like:

Whats on the desk? There was a and two ?


The book was on the table. Now its on the oor. (Per kohen e shkuar)

11. Number games. Game 11 can also be used to practise numbers. How many
s were there on the desk/board? Other number games are:

a. Desk tapping or hand clapping How many did you hear?


b. Guessing the number of small objects such as coins, beans, etc. which then are
counted to see who is nearest.
c. Guessing someones height, or the measurement of an object, which are then
measured to see who is nearest.
d. Team arithmetic, in which a member of one team supplies a calculation, e.g.
24
four and two, ve sevens, or a hundred take away seventy-ve, and then
calls upon a member of the other team, by name, to give the answer. The
rst pupil then says whether the answer is correct or not and points are
awarded.
e. Find a number. Various numbers are wrien on the board and when called
upon pupils have to go to the board and draw a circle around a chosen
number. This can also be a team contest.
f. Finger counting. Two pupils raise any number of ngers at the same time
guessing the total number of ngers for both children. When one is correct,
he wins a point. This can be played for numbers 1-10, 1-20 or 10 20.

12. Remembering lists. This is a dierent kind of memory game, very good for
consolidating new vocabulary. Each pupil repeats that the previous pupil
has said, and adds one more word.
Examples: This is my head. This is my head and this is my face. This is my head
and this is my face and this is my nose. This is my

13. Miming (acting without speaking). This can be used to practise such vo-
cabulary as occupation, animals, some objects, e.g. bus, train, plane, and
actions. The teacher whispers the word, or the pupil chooses it for himself,
and the pupil mimes it until someone guesses the word. This can be played
as a team contest. This kind of activity is useful for practicing the present
continuous tense: Is he speaking? No, he isnt . Also adverbs: How is he
speaking? He is speaking quickly.

14. Tom says. This is another old favourite useful for practicing commands and
requests. Various structures may be used. The teacher, or a pupil, gives or-
ders that begin with Peter says, Stand up. Sit down The class must obey
only those orders that begin with Tom says. Anyone who obeys another
order is out of the game. The last one is the winner.

A variation is for children to obey only those orders tat begin with, or con-
tain the word please.

15. Whats the time Mr. Lion? This is really a playground game. One pupil
is the lion. He walks away, the others follow, asking Whats the time, Mr.
Lion? He replies with various times: Four oclock. Half past three. A quarter
to six until he decides to say Time to eat you! He then turns and chases the
children who run away. The rst one caught becomes the lion.

16. Whose is this? Objects belonging to the children are collected and placed
in a bag or basket. The children have to identify them. They might be asked
to say to whom the article belongs or they might have to identify their own
objects in order to get them back. The activity can be used to practise the
names of objects and such structures as: Whose is this? Is this your
? Is it his or hers? Thats mine/his/yours/hers. May i have that
one, please? Its mine. It isnt yours.

25
17. Colours. This is another memory game used for practicing the use of co-
lours. A pupil is blindfolded or stands with his back to the class. He is then
asked questions about the colour of classroom objects. What is the colour of
the door/window/etc?

18. Whos got it? A row of children in front of the class are given various ob-
jects, or pictures of things. They hold them up for the class to see briey
and then put them behind their backs. The class has to try to remember
who has what: Whos got the car? John has got the cat. I think Mary has got
the apple.

This can become a guessing game if the pupils in the row exchange the objects
among each other without leing the class see.

Note: You should always be on the look out for games and activities that could
be used for language learning. Party games are oen useful. One example
is the well-known game Passing the Parcel. When the music stops the
person who has the parcel begins to unwrap it. Music may not be possible
in the classroom, but the teacher could set a time limit, perhaps two
minutes. The class is then told that the parcel must not be passed until the
right conversa- tional exchange has been completed. This might be:

May I have it now, please?


Certainly. Here you are.
Thank you very
much.
Not at all.

This could of course be much simpler. The person holding the parcel at the end
of the two minutes unwraps it (and perhaps keeps the prize)

Other games And activities can be adapted in the same way for the use of what-
ever language the teacher decides.

15. Lesson Planning


There is a syllabus in place, approved by the Ministry of Education and Science,
which guide teachers in drawing up their plans of work for each academic year,
indicating the work to be done each week. Each item is a small part in the build-
ing of a greater whole. The following are some basic questions that the teacher
needs to answer when developing his/her lessons plan.

Question one: What is lesson planning?


Lesson planning means taking into consideration what to do with the students
during the time they are in the classroom, enabling them during this time to do
26
something new with the language. This planning is presented in wri en form as
lessons notes.

Question two: Is this exercise (i.e. lesson planning) necessary?


It is necessary because it helps the teacher to carefully pre-shape ahead of time
what he is going to teach and how he is going to teach during the given time pe-
riod. This preparation serves as a guide and reference for the teacher, reminding
him a) what to do, b) how to do it, and c) for how long. Serious consideration is
given to: a) who the learners are, b) the class, c) the number of students, d) the
age range, e) their knowledge in the mother tongue. It is important to know the
learners for whom the lesson plan is prepared, for this will help identify the ap-
propriate level of diculty of the exercises and also the types and duration of
the activities. The class and aainment level help the teacher to know, in
general, the type of work the student can do in English, while the number of
students will help in the organization of group work or working in pairs.

27
16. The lesson planning format
The content of the lesson plan includes the following:

- It indicates what the teacher is going to teach;


- It shows what she and the students will do in class;
- It describes the dierent stages of the lesson;

The lesson plan has to have a format which is built up by providing answers to
the following questions:

- What item in the new lesson do the students already know?


- What is the aim of the lesson?
- What new items of English are to be taught?
- What visual aids, activities, and organization will be used for maximum
participation by the students?
- How does the teacher measure the learners achievement

In answer to the above ve questions, the format for writing lesson notes will be
as follows:

The lesson topic: The topic of the lesson must be clearly stated. The topic guides
the teacher as to what he has to teach.

The aim: The aim or objective of the lesson comes next. There has to be a reason
for teaching each lesson. The aim is student centered because it is meant to
bring about an expected change in the students performance by the end of the
lesson, and such change can be measured or evaluated by the teacher.

You must ask yourself what new skills or knowledge the students should
dem- onstrate by the end of the lesson. For example, students should be able to
iden- tify, list, discriminate between, or explain whatever they were expected to
do.
When the aim or objective is clearly stated, it will serve as a guide that will help
the teacher to choose useful activities, appropriate techniques, and the materials
needed to achieve the objective within the time available.

The Introduction: It may also be referred to as Previous knowledge. An important


principle of learning is to go from the known to the unknown. This means that
the teacher introduces the lesson by connecting it with what he knows and what
the students already know that has to do with the new lesson. This can take the
form of simple questions related to the new lesson, about things children know,
or it might take the form of a review of the previous lesson, if this has a clear
and logical connection with the lesson to be taught.

The Presentation: This takes into consideration the content to be taught and the
method to be used, involving visual aids, organization, etc.
The presentation is usually done in stages, going from the simple to the more
complex, so that one stage leads to the next logically or scientically. There are
as many stages as the teacher wishes three, four, ve, or more if need be.

Evaluation: The evaluation stage states how the teacher is going to nd out
wheth- er the students have understood what they have been taught during the
lesson. The evaluation is a test for both the teacher and the student. If the
students fail to show the expected behaviour change at the end of the lesson
when tested, the teacher is made aware of the fact that something is wrong
somewhere, and the lesson has to be taught again, in order to get the desired
response from the stu- dents.

Note: The above format for lesson planning is merely a suggestion. There are
dierent methods of writing headings, but the above format, if followed
enables the teacher to prepare his lesson properly, taking into consideration
all the details concerning what the teacher wants to teach, why and how to
teach it, and how to test what has been taught.

17. Stages of the lesson


Warm-ups
Begin lessons with a warm-up activity. At the very beginning it can be a rhyme
or song. Later it can be something taught in the previous lesson.
Warm up activities are motivational activities that add an element of enjoyment
and personal involvement. They can be used at various points during the lesson,
especially when students need a change of pace, or where they might need to
re- lease their energies. When choosing a warm up, you strongly recommend
select- ing a game, a song, a puzzle, or physical activity whose theme is closely
related to the content topic and teaching objectives.
This step is essential in preparing learners for the lesson creating a positive
feel- ing toward language learning, thereby awaking interest in learning.

Presentation
This stage of the lesson provides a suggestion for presenting the new language
structure or vocabulary in a context which will a ract the childrens aention
and involve their active participation just from the beginning of the lesson. The
active presentation is an important stage in the lesson. It encourages children to
make sense of new language in an authentic and fun language-learning
environment.
Role play
Role play can be used as a follow-up activity to the main text. Role play
supports the pupils enjoyment and allows them to practice new language items
in a mean- ingful way. Procedure for role play could be as follows
1. Divide the class into small groups and x the role of each pupil to each
group.
2. Play the recording and ask the pupils or the groups to repeat the dialogue
(You and Me) in chorus.
3. Invite one or two groups to perform the dialogue for the class, either from
memory or using role cards. They may want simple props.

Pair work
Pair work activities frequently appear in the second lesson of each item. These
activities may be organized in dierent ways:
a. The teacher may take role A and the whole class provides the response as B.
b. The teacher may take role A and an individual pupil may take role B.
c. A pair of pupil may perform the activity in front of the class. ( A & B )
The teacher may use one or a variety of the above suggestions. When pupils are
working in pairs, pay aention to their pronunciation and intonation. Ensure
that all the pupils are involved and give them lots of encouragement.

Organizing pair work


Its very important to organize the pupils in pairs, since the very beginning. Tell
them that they are going to work in those pairs until the end of this item. Its
bet- ter to use a random way of creating pairs.
There are many ways of creating pairs. For example, you can divide the class
into two equal groups. Write the names of all the pupils in one group, in small
pieces of paper, and then ask the pupils of the other group to pick up one paper.
The pupil whose name they have picked is their partner.
Alternatively you may write numbers, colours, and owers and so on.

Songs
The songs or rhyme in each Pupils Book item can be used at any stage of the
les- son, for example, at the beginning to mark the change from the previous
subject to English; in the middle of the lesson as a break from another; or at the
end, to round a lesson o.
Songs and rhymes are an essential part of language learning for young learners.
Children really enjoy learning and singing songs. Rhyme is like a song without
music.
Some songs are good for singing, others for doing actions to the music, and the
best ones are good for both. You can use songs and rhymes to teach children the
sounds and rhythm of English to reinforce structures and vocabulary, but above
all to have fun.
Some possible approaches to using songs:
a. First familiarize yourself with the words of the song.
b. When playing a song for the rst time, let the pupils simply listen. Encour-
age them to
clap hands and demonstrate the actions as they listen.
c. Play the song again and encourage the pupils to join in with the actions and
singing.

Games
There are also many games in the Pupils Book, which can be played in pairs or
small groups. Games in the language classroom help children to see learning
English as enjoyable and rewarding. Playing games in the classroom develops
the ability to co-operate with each other without being aggressive, and to follow
some given rules.
Its important to make dierent teams each time you play, thus the children will
get used to working with all other classmates.
Some of the games involve quite a lot of preparation, but once you have made
the materials, you can use them again and again.

The activity book


The activity book provides additional practice regarding language use for each
lesson. It is useful for the consolidation and extension in class, for giving tasks
to quicker students while others nish an easier activity. The activity book
con- tains many fun activities in order to make English language learning for
children a fun experience for them.

Its valuable for the pupils to create their own individual notebook. In this note-
book they can write notes they have learnt, vocabulary, exercises, and drawings,
stick pictures, make up their own versions, puzzles and so on. In the notebook,
pupils make the language they are learning their own. Encourage them to
record facts and information as it relates to them and their lives, their families,
friends, pets, etc.
The notebooks notes could be organized alphabetically or thematically. For ev-
ery new word, pupils can write the translation, draw a picture or write a simple
denition.
The notebook can also be used for homework.

Classroom display
Pupils like to see their work on show. So, its very important to have a place in
the classroom, where the materials which pupils write can be easily displayed.
Displaying
Pupils work gives it status and creates an atmosphere of positive learning. Be
sure to ask the pupils to sign their work. It will give them a sense of pride.

Classroom language

While teaching young learners it is necessary to use simple English structures.


Pupils will develop a passive understanding initially, and will be able to use

31
many of them themselves at the end of the rst year. There is no need to teach
these expressions, pupils will gradually assimilate them if the teachers use them
on a regular basis.

Greetings: Good morning. / Good aernoon / Good bye / Hello, (boys/girls)

Starting /during /ending the lesson


Is everybody here? / Who is absent today? / Lets start. / Get your
books/pencils/ pens out
Put down your pencils, please. / Sit down/ stand up. / Put your hands
up/down, please.
Give it to me. / Hold up your picture. / Lets read the text. / Hurry up. / Come
in. Wait a minute, please. / Open your books at page / Look at number
Write in your notebook. / Say it aer me. / Can you repeat that? / All together.
Can you read this? / This group Who knows the answer? / Lets check the
homework.
Who wants to write on the chalkboard? / How do you spell it? / Is that right?
Please stop talking now. / Well done!.

32
II. UP THE LADDER 3
1. Educational and didactic objectives
The aims of the Teaching English to children of this age group

1. To provide the student with the basics of foreign language learning and to
feel the importance of language as a means of communication and use it in
discourse.
2. To help in the overall development of the student regarding cognitive, lin-
guistic and emotional aspect.
3. To empower the student to listen reproduce, understand and create new
and simple elements of foreign language learning.
4. To encourage the student to ask and answer questions, to describe the ob-
jects around, to understand the language spoken by the teacher in class.

AIMS
English language teaching for this age group aims:

To transmit to children a beginning foundation of a foreign language, giv-


ing them a feel for language as a means of communication

To contribute to the multiple ways in which children are developing intel-


lectual, physical, emotional and linguistic skills

To enable students to listen and understand, reproduce and create some


simple uers in the foreign language

To create an environment in which students are eager to listen to the


teachers English and respond appropriately, ask and answer questions and
describe objectives in their immediate environment.
2. Overall objectives
Language competences

Listening
- The student reacts through physical actions towards the instructions and
actions of the teacher;
- The students understand short texts illustrated through pictures, draw-
ings or gestures of the teacher.
- The student listens and understands simple sentences, stated slowly and
clearly.
- The student identies various objects when their names are articulated.

Speaking
- The student articulates simple words or word groups while being sup-
ported by audiovisual aids;
- The asks simple questions and gives simple answers to what he/she
hears or sees, while expressing his own wishes, feelings and preferences.

Reading
- The student understands short texts which include words and expres-
sions familiar to the student;
- The student indicates that he/she understands short dialogues composed
of simple vocabulary.

Writing
- The student copies words and expressions which he/she is familiar with;
- The student labels objects around him/her
- The student is able to discern and choose the suitable word or words in a
list to ll in the blanks in a sentence.

The teacher uses the competencies to assess students knowledge. He/she will
use his ndings to tailor the teaching process based on the students needs.
3. Objectives by chapters
Chapter 1
By the end of this chapter the students will be able:
- To read and comprehend the texts.
- To learn and use vocabulary. (28 words)
- To greet each other, ask about name and health
- To copy and write short simple sentences.
- To take part in brief, prepared dialogues.
- To do exercises in the activity book.

Chapter 2
By the end of this chapter the students will be able:
- To read and comprehend the texts.
- To learn and use vocabulary.(32 words)
- To ask & answer about name and age
- To copy and write short simple sentences.
- To take part in brief, prepared dialogues.
- To do exercises in the activity book.

Chapter 3
By the end of this chapter the students will be able:
- To read and comprehend the texts.
- To learn and use vocabulary.(27 words)
- To ask & answer about professions and countries
- To copy and write short simple sentences.
- To take part in brief, prepared dialogues.
- To do exercises in the activity book.

Chapter 4
By the end of this chapter the students will be able:
- To read and comprehend the texts.
- To learn and use vocabulary.(34 words)
- To speak about school things, about their classroom, and the clothes.
- To practice and use this-that
- To copy and write short simple sentences.
- To take part in brief, prepared dialogues.
- To do exercises in the activity book.
Chapter 5
By the end of this chapter the students will be able:
- To read and comprehend the texts.
- To learn and use vocabulary.(32 words)
- To speak about colours, animals, and the clothes.
- To practice and use There is/ there are/ how many
- To copy and write short simple sentences.
- To take part in brief, prepared dialogues.
- To do exercises in the activity book.

Chapter 6
By the end of this chapter the students will be able:
- To read and comprehend the texts.
- To learn and use vocabulary.(29 words)
- To speak about their bedroom
- To practice and use the questions Where is/are?
- To practice and use the prepositions in, on, under, next to
- To copy and write short simple sentences.
- To take part in brief, prepared dialogues.
- To do exercises in the activity book.

Chapter 7
By the end of this chapter the students will be able:
- To read and comprehend the texts.
- To learn and use vocabulary.(43 words)
- To speak about numbers, their body, fruits & vegetables
- To practice and use Yes/No questions
- To copy and write short simple sentences.
- To take part in brief, prepared dialogues.
- To do exercises in the activity book.

Chapter 8
By the end of this chapter the students will be able:
- To read and comprehend the texts.
- To learn and use vocabulary.(29words)
- To speak about their close friend
- To practice and use Have/Has got & Can I have a?
- To copy and write short simple sentences.
- To take part in brief, prepared dialogues.
- To do exercises in the activity book.

36
4. Analytical structure of the course
STRUCTURE: 35 weeks x 2 hours = 70 hours
1 Oral Course ................................................................8 hours
2 Communication and culture education ................30 hours
3 Grammar education ..................................................28 hours
4 Wrien tests................................................................2 hours
5 Free classes .................................................................2 hours

No Chapter Objectives for Topic Resource Visual aids


each chapter material
The pupil should be
1 I able to:
- To learn the
English alphabet.
- To learn how to
articulate simple
words or word
groups.
1 Oral course The English Alphabet The book table
2 Oral course Imperatives The book Some
pictures
3 Oral course This\ that. Classroom The book Some
objects pictures
4 Oral course Numbers 1-10 The book Some
pictures
5 Oral course Colours The book Some
pictures
6 Oral course Parts of the body The book Some
pictures
7 Oral course Clothes The book Some
pictures
8 Oral course The book Some
pictures
- Read &
comprehend the
text.
2 II - Learn & use
vocabulary (28
words)
- Greet each other,
ask about name &
health
- copy & write
short simple
Sentences.
- Take part in brief,
prepared dialogues.
- Do exercises in
the AB
9 Item one Greetings SB & AB Pictures
10 Item one Read/Rhyme/Exercise SB & AB Some
pictures
11 Item two Whats your\his\her SB & AB Pictures
name?
12 Item two Lang. SB & AB Some
puzzle/Read/Song. pictures
Exercise
13 Item three How are you? SB & AB Pictures
14 Item three Lang. puzzle/Read/ SB &Some
Rhyme/ Exercise AB pictures
15 Revision Exercises SB & Different
1 AB pictures
- Read & comprehend the
text.
- Learn & use vocabulary (32
3 III words)
- Ask & answer about name
and age
- Copy & write short simple
sentences.
-Take part in brief, prepared
dialogues.
- Do exercises in the AB
16 Item four Who are you? SB & Pictures
AB
17 Item four Lang. puzzle/Practice SB & Some
/Rhyme/ Ex. AB pictures
18 Item five How old are you? SB & Pictures
AB
19 Item five Lang. puzzle/Ex SB & Some
/Read/Song/ AB pictures
20 Item six Who is he \she? SB & Pictures
AB
21 Item six Lang. puzzle/ Read/Song/ SB & Some
Ex. AB pictures
22 Item How old is he\she? SB & Pictures
seven AB
23 Item Lang. puzzle/ Read/Song/ SB & Some
seven Ex. AB pictures
24 Revision Exercises SB & Different
2 AB pictures
- Read & comprehend the
text.
- Learn & use vocabulary (27
IV words)
4 - Ask & answer about
professions and
countries
- Copy & write short simple
sentences.
- Take part in brief, prepared
dialogues.
25 Item eight What are you? SB & Pictures
AB
26 Item eight Lang. puzzle/ Read/Song/ SB & Some
Ex. AB pictures
27 Item nine What is he\she? SB & Pictures
AB
28 Item nine Lang. puzzle/ SB & Some
Practice/Ex. AB pictures
29 Item ten Where are you from? SB & Pictures
AB
30 Item ten The flag game/Rhyme/ SB & Some
Exercises AB pictures
31 Revision 3 Exercises SB & Different
AB pictures
32 Written test
1
- Read & comprehend the
text.
V - Learn & use vocabulary
5 (34 words)
- Speak about school things,
about classroom, and
clothes.
-Practice and use this-that
- Copy & write short simple
sentences.
- Take part in brief, prepared
dialogues.
- Do exercises in the AB
33 Item What is this? SB & Pictures
eleven AB
34 Item Lang. puzzle/Game/ SB & Some
eleven Exercises. AB pictures
35 Item This is my classroom SB & Pictures
twelve AB
36 Item Lang. puzzle. Exercises SB & Some
twelve AB pictures
37 Item What is that? SB & Pictures
thirteen AB
38 Item Lang. SB & Some
thirteen puzzle/Read/Rhyme/ Ex. AB pictures
39 Revision 4 Exercises SB & Different
AB pictures
- Read & comprehend the
text.
VI - Learn & use vocabulary
6 (29
words)
- Speak about colours, and
clothes,
-Practice and use there is
a/an.Is
there a/an?

-Practice there are../ are


there..? How many?
- Copy & write short
simple
sentences.
- Take part in brief,
prepared dialogues.
- Do exercises in the AB
40 Item What colour is it? SB & Pictures
fourteen AB
41 Item Lang. puzzle/ SB & Some
fourteen Chain game /Song/ AB pictures
Exercices
42 Item There is SB & Some
fifteen AB pictures
43 Item Lang. puzzle/In the SB & Pictures
fifteen zoo//Rhyme/Ex AB
44 Item sixteen There are SB & Some
AB pictures
45 Item Lang. puzzle/Picture SB & Different
sixteen game/Song/ AB pictures
46 Revision 5 Exercises SB Pictures
- Read & comprehend the
text.
- Learn & use vocabulary
VII (29
7 words)
- Speak about the
bedroom.
- Practice and use Where
is/are?
- Practice and use the
preposition
in, on, under, next to.
- Copy & write short
simple
sentences.
- Take part in brief,
prepared
dialogues.
- Do exercises in the AB
47 Item Where is ? SB & AB Pictures
seventeen
48 Item Lang. puzzle/Rhyme/ SB & AB Some pictures
seventeen Exercises.
49 Item Where are the? SB & AB Pictures
eighteen
50 Item Lang. puzzle/Song/ SB & AB Some pictures
eighteen Exercises
51 Item My bedroom SB & AB Pictures
nineteen
52 Item Lang. SB & AB Some pictures
nineteen puzzle/Read/Rhyme/
Ex.
53 Revision 6 Exercises SB & AB Different
pictures
- Read &
comprehend the
text.
- Learn & use
VIII vocabulary (43
words)
8 - Speak about
numbers/ body/
fruits & vegetables.
- Practice and use
Yes / No
questions.
- Copy & write
short simple
sentences.
- Take part in brief,
prepared
dialogues.
- Do exercises in the
AB
54 Item Numbers 11-20 SB & AB Pictures
twenty
55 Item Lang. puzzle/Guess SB & AB Some pictures
twenty game/Rhyme
56 Item Face and body SB & AB Pictures
twenty one
57 Item Lang. puzzle/Song/ SB & AB Some pictures
twenty one Exercises
58 Item Fruits and vegetables SB & AB Pictures
twenty two
59 Item Lang. puzzle/Rhyme SB & AB Some pictures
twenty two
60 Revision 7 Exercises SB & AB Different
pictures
- Read &
comprehend the
IX text.
9 - Learn & use
vocabulary (29
words)
- Speak about
close friends
- Practice and use
the questions
Have / Has Got
& Can I have
a?
- Copy & write
short simple
sentences.
- Take part in
brief, prepared
dialogues.
- Do exercises in
the AB
61 Item Have got\Has got SB & AB Pictures
twenty
three
62 Item Lang. SB & AB Some pictures
twenty puzzle/Game/Rhyme/
three Ex.
63 Item My friend SB & AB Pictures, photos
twenty
four
64 Item Lang. puzzle/Song/ SB & AB Some pictures
twenty Exercises
four
65 Item Can I have a? SB & AB Pictures,
twenty flashcards
five
66 Item Lang. puzzle/Rhyme/ SB & AB Some pictures
twenty Exercises.
five
67 Revision 8 Exercises SB & AB Different
pictures
68 Written
test 2
69 Free class Making puppets (craft Young Coloured pencils,
activity) learners scissors, paper,
book
pens
70 Free class School activity
5. Oral Course
During the oral course (8 periods) the students will learn:

1. English alphabet
2. Imperatives
3. This/that classroom objects
4. Numbers 1-10
5. Colours
6. Parts of the body
7. Clothes
8. Toys.

Introducing yourself and teaching children to introduce themselves

Begin the lesson by saying Hello! to dierent pupils. Get them to reply Good
morning.
Point to pairs of pupils. They say Hello! to each other.
Point to yourself and say Im (using your name).
If a puppet is available, make is say Hello! to dierent pupils. They reply
Say Hello! Im to pupils. Prompt them to reply Hello! Im
_.
If using a puppet give it a name and make it say Hello Im to the dif-
ferent pupils. They reply.
Get pairs of pupils to come out and say Hello! Im to each other, and shake
hands.
Point to yourself and say Im a teacher.

Class 1 The English alphabet

Once you enter the classroom you rst introduce yourself in Albanian and
English. Say Une jam mesuesja e gjuhes anglaze. (Im your English teach-
er). Une quhem /My name is .

Ask students whether they know any English word. A dini ndonje ale ne
gjuhen angleze? If students dont know any English word ask them Po ne
ndonje gjuhe tjeter te huaj? How about words in some other foreign lan-
guage? If they do write words on the chalkboard using chalk with dier-
ent colours. Children this age like colours.
Then continue showing students the British, American, Canadian ags or a
map of these countries and ask: A e dini cilat jane disa nga vendet ku itet
gjuha angleze? If students are not able to answer, then use the objects and
gives the answer himself both in English and in Albanian. Angli-England
etc. in order to encourage them about English language learning.

Ask all students or individual students Pse te pelqen ty te mesosh gjuhen


angleze? Why do you like to learn English? Listen to the answers a en-
tively and encourage them by using the words Bukur - Great; Shume mire
- Very good; Te lumte - Well done, etc.

This activity is carried out in no more than 7 minutes with all students
participat- ing in the discussion.

Then introduce the textbook Up the Ladder. In Albanian, explain in about three
minutes the meaning of the title while pointing to the cover of the book. Then,
briey talk about the course and that they will rst start with the oral course.

Introduce the topic for the day and writes the word Alfabeti The Alphabet on
the chalkboard. Then asks students: Sa shkronja ka alfabeti i gjuhes shqipe?
and instruct them to look at the English alphabet in the book. Allow the
students for two to three minutes and then ask them: Sa shkronja ka alfabeti i
gjuhes an- gleze? Wait for the students answer and write the accurate answer
on the chalk- board.

Read the alphabet in English slowly. Then read a bit more quickly. Then, read
the rst leer and the students repeat aer you. Then, ask the students to split
up ingroups and to articulate the rst leer of the alphabet. Then ask the
student to practice the leers in pairs. Pay aention to the pronouncation.

Monitor the activity by walking closely to the groups and pairs and helping
them out if they have any diculty with the pronouncation of the le ers of the
alpha- bet.

Play the alphabet game to reinforce. Divide students in groups. Each group called
the Rabbit group having the leers A, B, C, D, E, F. The second group is
The ower Group having the leers H, I, J, K, L, M, etc.
Ask the ower group members and they will each start pronouncing their let-
ters.
Sing the alphabet song. Children learn songs very quickly.
Class 2 - Imperatives

Students must learn and remember two words draw and write and be able to
dis- criminate between them. They must also understand and follow
instructions you use during your lesson. Use English in the classroom as o en
as possible. Use simpler classroom instructions consistently, and the pupils
will soon become fa- miliar with them. Teach one or two new instructions each
time. Usually gestures, or repeated use in context, will make the meaning clear.
Here are some classroom language expressions that you may use:

Stand up. / Sit down. / Come here, please. / Go to your seat. / Open your
books./ Close your books. / Listen. / Repeat. / Good. / Very good. / Good
boy/girl.
You say it. / Quiet, please. / Pencils down. / Hands up. / Hands down. /
Read./ Write.
Draw. / Go to . / Give me . / Show me . / Point to .
Together / Everyone. / Hello. / Goodbye. / Thank you. / Come in. / Go
out. / Open/Shut the door/window, please. / Hold this, please.
Children must also learn the verb give matched with the word me and with
their friends names. Also the MAGIC words PLEASE and THANK YOU MUST
be learned.
This helps introduce a good communication ethics among students and with
their teacher in the classroom.

Example:
Seing: On the table there are a number of objects, dierent colours and dier-
ent quantity)
Teacher: Alba, give me two red apples. (Alba selects the two red apples and
gives them to the teacher.)
Teacher: Thank you, Alba.
Then you have children interact in the following way:
Teacher: Alba, give Migena four green apples. (Alba selects four green apples
and gives them to Migena who says Thank you
You should insist on the use of words Please and Thank you.

Note to the teacher: This approach is also slightly grammar based as it gives im-
plicit rules about the plurals and position of adjectives, while using them in a
natural way.
Class 3 This/That - Classroom objects

Put some objects (a book, a pen, a pencil, a bag, a ruler, a rubber etc.) on the
table. Ask pupils to look at the objects and teach each word saying THIS /
THAT IS A

Ask individual pupils to repeat the word and the sentence, using the objects as
prompts.
You may divide the class into four or six groups. Distribute objects to each
group. Each pupil in the group has a personal item and takes turns to say THIS
IS A Other pupils of the other group say: YES, THAT IS A

Or
Point to classroom objects that are near you and say This is a/an Repeat
the language structure several times. Let the students repeat them a er you.
When you understand that the students feel comfortable using the new
language struc- ture, begin by pointing to other objects that are not near you by
saying That is a/an

At the next stage ask each individual student to point to objects which are near
or far from the student using both structures This is a/an and That is
a/an

Class 4 - Numbers

Show ash cards containing numbers and have children repeat them a er
you. Then keep silent and have the children repeat the numbers while you
ash the cards. Small groups of numbers (e.g. 1 to 4 in the rst lesson, then
increasing lile by lile up to 10 in the later lessons) are shown, acquired,
and then checked in each lesson. They should be checked going rst forward,
then backwards, then ins scrambled order, so the children are not just repeating
by heart.

Another way to check their knowledge of numbers is by supplying the children


with sheets of papers where dots, corresponding to numbers, will form a simple
picture when united. You say the numbers aloud and if the students draws the
lines connecting the dots correctly, the picture will emerge.
You can show objects that students already know and link them with the num-
bers and colours, like this : banana one banana
Class 5 - Colours

Show coloured ash cards while you say aloud the names of colours. Then the
students will say the names of colours while you silently ash the cards.

Their knowledge of the words for colours can also be checked by bingo cards.
Each student has two or more cards with dierent colours on them. The names
of the colours will be said aloud and the one who has completed his/her bingo
cards is the winner

Note: You will need to explain the game in Albanian in order for the students to
fully understand the game instructions.

You can show objects that students already know and link them with the num-
bers and colours, like this: banana one banana, one green banana. (red apple,
etc.).
This allows you to review vocabulary students have already learned.

Class 6 Parts of the body

Show pupils the picture of a body or draw a boys or girls body on a large piece
of paper so that the pupils can see it clearly and teach them the parts of body.
Ask the pupils to repeat the words individually or in chorus. The song Head
and shoulder.
Listen to the song and practice doing the action yourself.
There are some general guidelines for teaching songs in class.
1. Play or sing the song once or twice with the pupils just listening, so that
they begin to absorb the tune and the rhythm.
2. Play or sing the song again and ask them to clap the rhythm.
3. Ask them to join the action with you.
4. Ask them if they can tell you what the song means from the actions
5. Explain anything they do not understand.
6. Play the song again. The pupils join in with the actions, and sing along with
the words if they wish.
Listening and doing actions is the best way to exploit traditional songs
where the words are oen dicult to understand. The actions keep the
pupils interested and give them a reason for listening
The pupils may want to sing the words too. This is ne if they want to, but
DO NOT force them if they are not ready.
Activity
Snowman cra activity
Make a paper doll of a snowman to show students and say Lets make paper
dolls! Put students in pairs and distribute some materials, e.g. paper, scissors,
glue, crayons, yarn, buons, sticks, etc. While students are working, the teacher
asks individual students about the body parts, e.g. Whats this? Show me
his (arms) etc. As students work, the teacher encourages students to talk to each
other, e.g. Do you want to make his eyes?

Class 7 - Clothes

Teach words for clothes by pointing to dierent items of clothing which you or
your pupils are wearing: This is a What is this? What colour is it? Ask the pu-
pils to repeat the words individually or in chorus.
Draw two or three stick gures on the board and give each one a name:
Tom, Mary etc.
Describe what the gures are wearing. Tom is wearing , Mary is wearing

Ask someone to come and draw the items of clothing onto the correct g-
ure. Ask the rest of the class if the drawing is correct.
Choose one character and describe him/her: She is wearing a red skirt
and white blouse.
Pupils guess the character you are describing.
Choose three or four boys to come the front. Describe one of them to the
class, e.g. He is wearing blue jeans and red T-shirt
Pupils guess who he is. Describe some of the other boys in the same way.
Then repeat with three or four girls.

Class 8 - Toys

Bring toys in the classroom or draw toys on the board or on a large piece of
paper so that the pupils can see it clearly and teach them to the pupils. Ask the
pupils to repeat the words individually or in chorus.
Give a piece of paper to each pupil.
Explain that you are going to tell them in English the name of toys; ex. bike,
ball etc. The pupils must draw the item.
Practice the activity with just one of the pupils. Check that the class under-
stands what to do.
Tell them they should listen rst and then draw.
Ask the pupils to repeat the words several times.

48
6. NEW ITEMS
Item 1 - Greetings

Begin the lesson by saying Good morning! Several times prompt the class to re-
ply.
Say Good morning (using pupils names) to individual pupils. Prompt them to
reply
Ask pairs of pupils to come to the front of the class and say Good morning! to
each other.
Use a puppet or a Teddy bear (if available) and make is say Good morning! to
dierent pupils. They reply.
The Teddy Bear says Good morning! Im to pupils. Prompt them to
reply Good morning! Im .
Get pairs of pupils to come out and say Good morning! Im to each other,
and shake hands.

Note: If the lesson is taught in the aernoon, replace morning by a ernoon.


Or, to teach the greetings Good aernoon or Good evening you may use a
clock so that the children will look at the time, prepare a sun or moon with
card- board to and put it on the wall somewhere in the classroom.

When you leave the classroom simply say Good bye and the children will im-
mediately understand what that means.

Game: Blind greetings. This is a very good way of practicing exchanges like
these:

Good morning .
Good morning . How are you?
Fine, thanks. How are you?
Im very well, thank you.

Pupils take it in turn to stand in front of the class. They may be blindfolded or
they may stand with their back to the class, which is much quicker.
Members of the class greet them, as above. The child in front has to guess the
name of the child who spoke and use the name, for example Good morning,
Samuel. If correct, the pupil who spoke comes to the front and takes over.
Item 2 Whats your/his/her name?

1. Point to yourself and say My names Repeat several times.


2. Point to individual student and say My name is . Then ask pupils Whats
your name, please? (Linda)
3. Prompt pupils to say My names . Go around the class.

When you feel the students have had enough practice with the above, introduce
His name is directly aer a boy has responded, saying to the class: My
name is .; His name is
Work with more boys, have the class repeat the sentence His names
Then introduce and practice Her name is in the same way.
Finally say Whats his name?; answer the question yourself. Write the question
on the board. Point to a student, ask the question; let the class respond in
chorus. Write His names on the board. Use the same steps for Whats her
name?

Note: remind the pupils to use the word PLEASE.

Item 3 How are you?

1. Act the parts of two people. Move from one side of the class and change
your voice as you change to the other person, and say:

A: Good morning,
B: Good morning, . How are
you? A: Fine, thanks. How are you?
B: Fine, thanks.

Note: If two puppets are available, make them do the greetings instead of your-
self.

2. Ask the class to repeat each line aer you.


3. Then divide the class in half, and ask half the class to greet the other half.
4. Greet individual pupils, using the dialogue above.
5. Pairs of pupils come to the front of the class, wave at each other and greet
each other in this way.
6. Illustrate morning and aernoon, using a teaching clock or by drawing
clocks on the blackboard. You may also refer to the picture in the Pupils
book. Explain that aernoon is aer 12 oclock.
7. Repeat the steps above to teach Good evening, and Good night. Show the
time on the clock or draw the curtains to make the classroom seing look
darker, referring to the teaching clock at the same time.

Item 4 Who are you?

1. Point to yourself and say I am Ann


2. Ask pupils Who are you? Im
3. Prompt pupils to say I am . Who are you? Go around the class.
4. Ask pairs of pupils to come to the front of the class and ask: Who are you?
How are you? to each other.
Then go on with listening to the tape or read the text by yourself.

Item 5 How old are you?

1. Point to yourself and say My names


2. Ask pupils Whats your name, please? (Elda)
3. Prompt pupils to say My names . Go around the class.
4. Ask pupils How old are you? Prompt their answer. Im seven/eight,
etc. (Look interested in their replies.)
5. Tell a pupil Stand up, please. How old are you? Prompt their answer. Im
seven/eight, etc. (Look interested in their replies.)

Note: remind the pupils to use the word PLEASE.

Then ask students to have a number which indicates their age. Then ask each
individual student
T: How old are you?
S: Im ten
T: How old are you?
S: Im nine, etc.

Then ask students to practice in front of the class. Pay special aention to the
intonation and stress.

Introduce and teach, if necessary YES and NO. Ask several students Are you
ten? Write the question on the board. Aer several exchanges with just YES and
NO, expand the answers to YES, I am/No, Im not. Write on board.
Ask other students: Are you (nine) or (ten)? Write the question and responses
(Im ) on the board.

Blindfold Question Game


1) Put students in a circle, with one student blindfolded standing in the mid-
dle.
2) Turn the student around a few times.
3) Tell the student to point at the person in front of him/her and ask the
ques- tion, How old are you?
51
4) Aer the reply, the blindfolded student must guess the name of the student
she/he is talking to.

Item 6 Who is he/she?


1. Point to dierent pupils and say He is . She is .
2. Ask pupils Who is he/she?
3. Prompt pupils to say Who is he/she? He/She is . Go around the
class.
4. Ask pairs of pupils to come to the front of the class and ask: Who is
he/she? to each other.
Then go on with listening to the tape or read the text by yourself.
Game: Ask one pupil to come in front of the class (Pupil A) . Blindfold him.
Then ask another student (B) to come close to him/her and ask him to touch the
head and body of his friend. You then ask the blindfolded pupil who he/she is
Who is he/she? Then the pupil will say He/she is (name of the pupil). If
he/she nds the right person, then the whole class will give a clap.
Game: Ask one pupil to come in front of the class (Pupil A) . Blindfold him.
Then ask another student (B) to come close to him/her and ask him to touch the
head and body of his friend. You then ask the blindfolded pupil who he/she is
Who is he/she? Then the pupil will say He/she is (name of the pupil). If
he/she nds the right person then the whole class will give a clap.

Item 7 How old is he/she?


1. Point to yourself and say My names
2. Ask pupils Whats your name, please? (Sokol)
3. Prompt pupils to say My names . Go around the class.
4. Tell a pupil Stand up, please. Ask Whats your name and How old are you?
Prompt their answer. My name is Im seven/eight, etc. (Look
interested in their replies.)
5. Point to the pupils and say Hes six, Shes eight. If you forget an age, ask the
pupil. How old are you?
6. Emphasize the he/she distinction. Point to boys and say he, and to girls
and say she.
7. Tell the pupils they are going to ll in the chart on the blackboard. Each pu-
pils will go and ll in the chart. Each can use the colour of his own choos-
ing.

Note: Make sure that you keep this in order by asking pupils to come individu-
ally in order to avoid confusion.

Name Boy Girl Age


Amy X 8
Tom X 7

8. Pupils can talk about each others age and say: Example: Amy is eight.

52
Item 8 What are you? (boy, girl)

Start by asking one student What are you? Then, give the answer yourself
Youre a student/pupil.
Repeat this several times with students.

1. Point to yourself and say I am Ann. I am a teacher.


2. Ask pupils Who are you? Im . What are you? I am .
3. Prompt pupils to say I am . What are you? Go around the class.
4. Ask pairs of pupils to come to the front of the class and practice some
simple short dialogues with each other, using the material learned up to
now. (greet, name, age)
Then go on with listening to the tape or read the text by yourself.

Item 9 What is he/she?

Start by asking one student What are you? Then give the answer yourself
Youre a student/pupil. Repeat this several times with students. Then ask
several the students about the other students What is he/she? Students will
reply He is a student. She is a student.

Go through the occupations illustrated in Item 9 or use the wall charts.


Ask the students to point to them and name the occupations. Then ask the stu-
dents in turn to name one at a time.
Ask the students to mime the occupation that you whisper to them. The rest of
the class guesses which it is. Use all the occupations.
Ask one or two pupils: Whats your father? (Hes a )
Note: Some of their fathers occupations will not fall into the categories learned.
e. g. caretaker. You can tell these students the names of their fathers/mothers
oc- cupations. The other students put up their hands to guess what it is. Help
them to ask Is he a ? (Yes/No). When someone guesses correctly, he acts next.

Continue to play the miming game until everyone has had a turn.
Read the lesson/dialogues in the textbook together with the
students.
Write the names of the occupations on the blackboard and ask the class to erad
them. Then see if they can read them with their books shut. Point to one of the
words and ask a pupil to read it and act it. Do the same for the other occupa-
tions.

53
Read exercise ..together and ask dierent pupils to answer.

54
Read exercise together and tell them in pairs to ask their partners for the
answers. Then ask them to tell you about their partners.
Ask them for the answers to C.
Read and pronounce the ER-words. The ER is unstressed in all of these words
and is pronounced [ ].

Ask students to tell you the answers aloud and then do the exercise in their
books. They can work in pairs. Go round helping.
Ask them in pairs to decide which occupation belongs to each person.They then
tell you the answers aloud, and then write them in their books.
Remember that we say Hes a , but we write He is a .

1. Point to dierent boys and girs and say He/She is . He/She is


a teacher.
2. Ask pupils Who he/she is? He/She is . What he/she is? He/She is
.
3. Prompt pupils to say He/She is . What he/he is? Go around
the class.
4. Ask pairs of pupils to come to the front of the class and practice some
simple short dialogues with each other, using the material learned up to
now. (greet, name, age)
5. Write a selection of words on the board (What, boy, pupil, name, ne,
thanks, who, how etc.) Pupils look at them and try to make any questions
they can from the words. Write these questions on the board.
6. Ask individual pupils the questions. Pupils then work in pairs, asking and
answering the questions from the board.

Item 10 Where are you from?


1. Take ags of some dierent countries. Show them to the pupils, and teach
them what country they belong to. Ask the class to repeat each word aer
you.
2. Point to yourself and say I am from Albania. Where are you from? Practice
the question and the answer with several pupils
3. Show them a poster with children from dierent countries. Each child has
got a ag in the hand. Practice He is Antonio. He is from Italy. Where is he
from?
4. Ask pairs of pupils to come to the front of the class and practice the ques-
tion with each other.

Game
Show the ags to the pupils, and tell them what country they belong to.
Ask for a couple of volunteers to put them into sets.
They should put the ags of the same country together to make a set. Each set
have got three or more ags.
Divide the pupils into groups of four. Give each group a piece of paper. They
have to draw and colour any ag they like to.
When all nish, ask one to collect and try to complete a set with ags belonging
54
to the same country. The rst player to complete a set is the winner.

Sentence puzzles
Choose one sentence that the students have recently learned. Write out the
words in a mixed up order on the board. Students work in pairs to nd the
correct order to make a complete sentence, then they raise their hands and tell
the rest of the class or write the sentence in the correct order on the board.
Repeat with other sentences.

Item 11 What is this?

1. Teach the new words using real objects or ash cards. Touch/show each
and say This is a . several times. (Or draw a sketch of an object if you
can). Then ask the pupils What is this? Then say This is a cup.
2. Pupils repeat the word/s.
3. Then continue with the words taking article an.
4. Follow the instructions recommended for teaching new vocabulary (page
??? of this teachers guide)
5. Going around the class, ask pupils to tell you the names of the objects
around the classroom (bag, pencil, pen, rubber, book, ruler, apple, orange,
egg, ice-cream) or you have in the ash cards.
6. Write on the blackboard the articles A and AN, or have them on ashcards,
BUT in dierent colours.
7. Then show individual ashcards or the real objects to the students and say
them aloud. Have the pupils repeat them aer you. Every time you say
them point to A and An on the blackboard or show the ashcards with
them one.
8. Then show one object and ask the children to say the word in English along
with the relevant article.
9. In pairs the pupils touch each picture and say This is a/ this is an
10. Tell the pupils they are going to play the guessing game. Arrange the ob-
jects on your desk and cover them with a cloth.
11. Call out a pupil. Put his hands on the cloth over an object. Prompt him to
say This is a / an . Li up the cloth so the pupils can see if he
is correct (Say Yes/No. Let all pupils have a turn. Keep moving the position
of the objects under the cloth. They try to guess. Use all the objects. Then
add some of the objects learnt in previous lessons.

Item 12 This is my classroom

Revise names of the classroom object learned during the oral course.
Draw a big classroom on the board or on a large piece of paper so that the pupils
can see it clearly.
Invite pupils to guess the objects in the classroom. As pupils nd the names of
the objects, write the word next to each object.
Ask the pupils to repeat the words individually or in chorus.
55
Memory game
Begin a memory chain:
This is my classroom
This is my classroom and this is my
Pupils continue adding words to the chain until a mistake is made.

Item 13 What is that?

1. Play a guessing game. (Clothes words are learned during the oral course)
Invite two pupils to the front of the class. They each choose a ashcard
without showing it to the rest of the class. One pupil then stands at the back
of the class and one at the front.
2. The class has to guess which cards they have got. Point to the pupils and
ask the class: Whats this? Whats that?
3. Pupils take it in turns to ask: Is it a blouse/ a dress etc.? the two pupils
with the cards answer: Yes or No.
4. When a pupil guesses correctly, he or she takes a ashcard and replaces the
pupil whose card has been guessed.
5. Stress the use of THIS/ THAT. Elicit examples from the class.

Another game
One child goes behind the blanket and the class all say this rhyme together
quickly and rhythmically if possible.

What is it? What is it? What could it be? What is it?


What is it? One two three.

It helps if the children clap on the what, what, what and be And on the
what, what; one, and three.
By the time the class reach three the person behind the blanket MUST be
stand- ing on their chosen card. Aer the class have pronounced the word
three they are free to call
out any possible word. Each class member can only call out one word but they
can all call their words out together. There will be some noise! As soon as the
child behind the
blanket hears the correct word they jump out and all those who called out that
word award themselves points (mass cheating no doubt, but I shouldnt pay at-
tention to it).
The next child up to go behind the curtain heads over there while the class im-
mediately start up the rhyme again. The pace should be fast and exciting with
no time in between
rounds.

You can replace the simple rhyme above with one that you make up, which may
include the sentence or question structure you wish to practise, or it may be a
rhyme with some vocabulary you would like to reinforce. Here is an example:
Travel on a bus, Travel on a train. Ride on a bicycle, Fly in a plane.
56
When played well this game is really prey noisy and fun, and the children have
a chance to repeat the same words over and over so they will remember them.

You might want to teach the rhyme in a previous lesson, and you can use it
again in all sorts of other games. The rst time you play start slowly, and pick up
the pace as and when your class understand what is happening. When you play
it again in future lessons using the same words if you are revising, or using
a new set of words, youll nd
that you can pick the pace up another notch.

Item 14 What colour is it?

Listening and speaking

Begin the lesson by calling ve children to the front to introduce themselves to


the class saying Im Ilir etc.
Then each student will hold a ashcard with a special colour. The teacher will
then say This is Ilir. He is student is blue., proceeding with the other students
holding other colours.

Then continue by teaching the colour words. Use dierent objects with dierent
colours. Hold up one apple and say This is an apple. Its red. Then hold
another red object and say this is a/an Its red. Do this several times and
repeat with other objects in dierent colours. Repeat this several times and ask
the students if they can guess the meaning of other colours.
Practice this by holding up coloured pencils and saying the colours. Prompt the
class to repeat the words aer you.

Tell the students to put their coloured pencils on their desks. Explain that you
are going to say the names of the colours. They must listen carefully and hold
up a pencil of the correct colour. Spend three or four minutes on this activity.

As the words are learned during the oral course we are going to give any
activity connected with this theme.
You can show objects that students already know and link them with the num-
bers and colours, like this: banana one banana, one green banana. (red, apple,
etc.).
This allows you to review vocabulary students have already learned.

Game:
You may use a grid to make a simple coloured picture either using any picture,
or one that ts the topic you want to revise.
1. Draw a large grid on the board and write along sides of it the leers and
numbers you have chosen to practice.
2. Say the leer and number of one square and then invite a pupil to colour
it. For example: A2, violet. Do this a few times until the pupils have got the
idea of the grid and you have build up a simple picture.
57
3. Give out empty grids and ask the pupils to copy the numbers and leers
from the board. (you may also use squared paper.)
4. Call out the leers, numbers and colours of the squares in your picture,
marking o the squares you have said. You will probably need to say all the
squares two or three times to let the slower pupils catch up and so that all
the pupils can check their work.
5. Finally ask the pupils what the picture shows. Then show them your pic-
ture so they can see if they have got it right.

Vocabulary activity
Tell the children to look at the colours. Practice the colours by saying Point to
red. Let one or two children come to the front of the class and give the same
commands to the rest of the class. Then ask the class to read together the names
of the colours under each picture and point to each word as they speak. Repeat
this twice.

The children colour the words. They should use the words and colours. Walk
round checking the work and make sure that all the children have nished.

Listening and speaking


Play a game with colours nd the classroom commands. Each child must choose
one coloured pencil and hold it in his or her hand so that everyone can see it.
They should use only the colours for which they know the English names. Give
commands like this Green, stand up. Blue, point to orange, etc. Let one or two
children take it in turns to give the commands.

Item 15 There is a

1. While you begin the class and greet the pupils, show them a ash card with
a dog and say This is a dog. There is a dog in this picture. Then continue
with other ashcards containing a cat, horse, mouse, lion.
2. Have the pupils repeat the words and sentences aer you.
3. Then continue with the words elephant, apple, orange, egg, ice-cream by
saying This is an elephant. There is an elephant in this picture. Remind pu-
pils of the use of the indenite article A and AN.
4. Then put several objects on the table and cover them with a cloth. Ask one
pupil to come to the desk and feel them and nd out what the objects are
by using the expression There is a / an on the desk.

Item 16 There are

Teach the new paern by using classroom objects. Clear the top of your desk,
then put one book on it. Prompt the students to say Theres a book on the desk.
Put several more books on the desk and say several times There are some books
on the desk. Let the students repeat the sentences several times. Clear your desk
again and repeat.
58
Ask a boy to stand next to the door. Point to him and say Theres a boy next to
the door. Tell other boys to stand next to him and say There are some boys next
to the door. The students should repeat the sentences several times. Repeat the
same activity with girls, and promt the class to say Theres a girl next to the
door. There are some girls next to the door.
Practise reading with the sentences in the textbook.
Give the students a few minutes to look at the pictures in the book and read the
sentences. The students should point to the correct object or objects in the book
as the read.

Grammar activity
Draw a table on the blackboard. Ask the children to read the rst sentence
aloud and then according to their instructions. Repeat with the other sentences.
Clean the board and draw another table. Choose a student to come to the front.
Prompt the other students to tell him/her what to draw, using the paers
Theres a/an There are some on the table.

Draw two empty zoos with some numbered empty rooms. Label these pic-
tures A and B. Make a photocopy for each pupil.
In pairs, each completes one drawing of the zoo with animals name. Pu-
pilA draws on picture A, and pupil B draws on picture B.
Pupil A dictates where animals are in picture A. For example: Therere two
lions in number one room. Pupil B listens and draws two lions in number
one room. Then they change roles for picture B.
Pupils compare their pictures.

Item 17 Where is the?

1. While you begin the class and greet the children, put your bag on the table
and ask the pupils Where is the bag? Say Its on the table. Do the same with
dierent objects.
2. Then, in the box put a pen, a rubber, a pencil, a ruler etc. Pretend to hunt
for them (one by one). Say loudly Where is my pen? several times. Ask the
children to search for them. Say, Oh, its in the box.
3. Leave the box on the table. Put the objects in/on/under/next to the box.
Ask the question Where is the pen? Say Its on the box. Do this several times
and have the pupils repeat until you are sure they understand.
4. Then move objects and have pupils say The (object) is (preposi-
tion) the box.
5. Give pupils instructions. Put the pen in/on/under/next to the box/bag,
etc. Do it with other objects too.
6. Ask the pupils to make a big cardboard car and a toy dog. As you position
the dog then pupils repeat the words in/on/under/next to several times.
7. Play a variation game with other vocabulary that pupils know, but using
the words in/on/under/next to.

59
Item 18 Where are the ?

1. Ask for pairs of volunteers to come to the front of class. For the rst pair,
put one object (a book, a pen etc.) on the table and ask: Where is the ?
Its on the table.
2. Then put two or more objects (books, pens etc.) on/ in/ under/ next
to the table and ask: Where are the ? Theyre on the table.
3. Use two or more pairs to demonstrate.

Item 19 My bedroom

1. Read the title of the lesson and explain the word bedroom.
2. Show pupils a picture of a bedroom and tell them the objects of it.
3. Revise words by pointing to dierent objects in the picture.
4. Pupils repeat the words in group or individually.

Activity
1. Draw a simple bedroom with furniture in the top half of a sheet of paper.
Repeat the drawing in the boom half. Make a photocopy for each pupil.
2. Pupils work in pairs. They agree on ve objects to draw in the bedrooms.
They both draw these objects in the top bedroom.
3. Pupil A describes to pupil B where each objects is. Pupil b draws the object
in the correct place in the second bedroom.
4. Then pupil B describes the bedroom he or she has drawn, and pupil A
re- produces this on the second bedroom outline.

Item 20 Numbers 11-20

1. Count to ten with the class. Show pictures with dierent objects in dierent
numbers and ask the class How many are here? Give each
pair of children a picture. Tell the pupils to work in pairs and to count them
in English. Ask them for the answers.
2. Revise the numbers using dierent numbers of objects that pupils already
know.
3. Write numerals on the blackboard for the pupils to read. Revise the words
for the numbers by using ashcards or by writing them on the blackboard.
4. Tell the pupils to do the sums, writing the numerals and the words.
Item 21 Face and body

1. Draw a large picture on the blackboard. Draw the head, point to it and say
head. Do the same with nose, eye, ear, hair, face, neck, arm, leg, nger, foot
and other parts.
2. The pupils repeat the words.
3. Start a new picture. Call out one pupil at a time, give him the chalk and say
the name of one part of the body. He draws it. Continue until the picture is
nished.
4. Point to your head and say This is my head. Do the same for the other parts
of the body. The pupils repeat the actions and the words. They must all
point to their own heads when they say my head.
5. Going around the class the pupils in turn name parts of their body. Point to
you head. The rst pupil touches his head and says This is my head. Con-
tinue round the class pointing to dierent parts of the body.
6. Hold up a card e.g. head and ask a pupil to draw it. Continue until the pic-
ture is nished
7. Draw a person on the blackboard. Teach the pupils to read the words using
ash cards, and ask them to match the cards with the picture, or write the
words on the blackboard and join them to the pictures with arrows. Ask the
class and individual pupils to read them.
8. Tell the pupils that they are going to play a game. The rst pupil points to a
body part and says This is my arm. The second pupil adds another part of
the body and says This is my arm and this is my neck (touching his neck).
Each pupil has to remember the list and add one more item. When this
group of pupils nish their turn and all parts of the body have been used,
the next groups starts the game again.

Item 22 Fruits and vegetables

1. Use pictures of fruits and vegetables to introduce the new vocabulary.


2. Ask pupils to repeat each words several times.
3. Then play a simple game of Come and Find.
4. Aach some fruits and vegetables pictures on the board.
5. Ask individual pupils: Come and Find an apple, a plum etc.
6. Repeat until all the pictures have been taken from the board.

Activity
1. Revise food vocabulary using the food ashcards. Then play a game of
Food Bingo.
2. Pupils draw or write four food items on a piece of paper.
3. Call out food items one by one. Pupils listen and cross o the items they
have wrien as they hear them called out.
4. The rst pupil to cross o all four food items calls out Bingo

Item 23 Have got/has got

Play a dice game


1. Pupils work in groups of six. Each group chooses six items from the les-
sons learned up to now. (Personal objects, fruits, vegetables, clothes, toys)
They make three pictures cards for each of these items, each with a picture
and the name of the item. There should be eighteen cards per group: three
cards for each of their six chosen objects.
2. In their groups, they make a separate list and of the six items and number
them 1 to 6.
3. One pupil in each group shues the cards they have made and deals three
cards to each pupil.
5. Pupils take it in turns to throw the dice. They match the number thrown to
the item on their list, and ask: Have you got a (book)?
6. Several pupils might have it, but the rst to lay their card down has the next
turn throwing the dice and asking. The rst pupil to lay down all three
cards is the winner.

Ask the students to point to (various animals, school objects etc) in the book.
Ask How many .. (objects).

Listening and speaking


Ask the students to use the paern I have got a/an , using their a) clothes and
b) family members. I have got a brown coat. I have got one sister.
Call a boy and a girl to the front. Ask the boy to describe his clothes; then intro-
duce the new language. Point to his clothes and say he has brown shorts, blue
socks and black shoes, etc. Say the sentences again, prompting the children to
repeat them. Follow the same procedure with a girl.
Call up another pair of children to the front and ask the class to describe their
clothes, using the paern She/he has .. Ask all the children in one row to
point to their neighbour and say He has a blue shirt/She has a red dress, etc.

Grammar activity
Call a boy or a girl to the front of the class to describe their clothes. Write some
of their sentences on the board for the children to practice reading aloud.
The teacher distributes to the students the picture of a man (sketch) which
he/she has photocopied. The students work in pairs. The teacher asks them to
colour the pictures as they like. Then the students give the person in the picture
a name and say Mr has got a/an .
Then the teacher asks the question to the whole class: Who has got (a blue
shirt)? The students will immediately nd the student wearing a blue shirt and
will shout (if there is one).

62
Item 24 My friend

1. Introduce the lesson by asking some questions, such as: Who is your
friend? How old is he/she? What is his /her name? and so on.
2. Describe one of the pupils explaining the new words.

Activity
1. Divide the class into two groups, A and B.
2. Tell each pupil to prepare a simple description of the photo of his or her
friend that the pupils have brought to class.
3. Spread the photos of group A in front of group B. And the photos of
group B in front of group A.
4. Invite a pupil from group A to describe his or her photo. Pupils from group
B has to nd out the photo. If group B correctly nd the photo, they get one
point.
5. Change over and ask one pupil from group A to describe his/her photo
to the other group. Group A must now nd the photo that matches the
de- scription. Continue in this way until all the photos have been
described. The group with most points is the winner.

Item 25 Can I have a ?

1. Use . (tins, packets and kilos of dierent things). Use a real loaf of bread.
Ask pupils to give you dierent things Can I have a pen, please? Thank
you.
2. Ask the students for the new items Can I have a packet of , please?
3. Hold up the items and ask the students to repeat ..
4. Then try to improvise a dialogue:

Teacher: Good morning.


Student: Good morning. Can I have a ?
Teacher: Yes, Here you are.

Split the class into groups. Tell each group to make their own shop. They can
use books, rulers, and anything available. When they have nished ask a
member of each group to tell the class what she sells: I sell , and then some of
the things she doesnt sell: I dont sell
Pretend to buy something from each group, using the language Can I have a ,
please? How much is it? Or I want a , or Can I have a , please?

63
Grammar activity
Whisper down the line
Have the class stand in two or more lines. The teacher whispers a question, e.g.
Can you read? to the rst student in line 1 and another question, e.g. Can you
sing? to the rst student in line 2. When the teacher says Go!, Student 1 in both
lines whispers the sentence to Student 2, Student 2 whispers to Student 3 and so
on, until the sentence reaches the end of the line. The last student from each line
asks the teacher the question and he/she answers accordingly. The students
keep playing, changing the questions.

64
7. Test Models
TEST 1

My name is

I. Answer the questions.


1. Who are you?
2. What are you?
3. How old are you?
4. Who is he?
5. How old is he?

II. Put the words in the right column.

good evening,mother,one,good morning, sister,


brother,father,eight,ten,good night, three, hello,

NUMBERS Greetings FAMILY

III. Circle is or are in these sentences.


1. What ( are/ is ) her name?
2. Her name( are/ is ) Sara.
3. How old ( are / is ) she?
4. My brother (are/ is ) two years old.
5. Ben and Sarah ( are / is ) ten years old.
6. Who ( are /is ) you?

IV Fill in the dialogue.


Alice: Hi Tom! How you?
Tom : Im ne . And you?
Alice: Great!
Tom: Who is ? Alice:
Shes sister.
Tom: She cute. How is ?
Alice: She is three old. Her birthday tomorrow.
Tom: Really? birthday, to your sister.
Marks 4 5 6 7 8 9 10
Points 0 -7 8 - 11 12 - 15 16 - 19 20 - 23 24 - 27 28 - 30

TEST (rst term)


My name is

1. Write the words in the right column. (9 points)


scarf, table trousers, chalkboard, pencil, desk, rubber, dress, book, shirt, notice board, shoes, ba

Classroom objects clothes School materials

II. Use A or AN. ( 10 points)


1. This is ice cream, but that is banana.
2. This is chalkboard, but that is notice board.
3. This is orange and that is egg.
4. This is blouse, but that is T-shirt.
5. This is coat, but that is pair of trainers.

III. Put in AM , IS or ARE (10 points)


1. He a pupil and she a teacher.
2. I eight years old, but my sister three years old.
3. You my friend and I your friend.
4. Zana a worker and Tim a doctor.
5. How you? I ne, thank you.

IV. Answer the questions. (10 points)


1. Whats your name?
2. Where are you from?
3. What are you?
4. How old are you?
5. Who is she? (my teacher)
V. Write six (6) sentences about your classroom. (12 points)

_
_

Points 4 5 6 7 8 9 10
Marks 1- 9 10 -18 19 - 25 26 - 33 34 - 40 41 - 47 48 - 51

TEST III
My name is

I. Odd one out. (5 points)


1. red, white, pencil, black, green
2. dog, mouse, elephant, horse, girl
3. next to, in, apple, on, under
4. chalkboard, wardrobe, carpet, bed, armchair
5. blouse, rubber, dress, T-shirt, trousers

II. Put the words in the right order. (5 points)


1. There are/ birds/ in/ two/ the cage.
2. in/ They/ the garden/ are.
3. like/ my/ I/ bedroom.
4. My/ is/ shirt/ yellow.
5. classroom/ My/ is/ clean.

III. Answer the questions. (10 points)


1. What colour is your bag? ________________________________________
2. What colour are your eyes?
3. Where is the ______________________________________________
book? ______________________________________________
4. Where is the doll?
5. Where are the pupils? ______________________________________________
6. How many teacher is there in your classroom?
7. How many birds are there?
8. How many books are there?
9. Is there a TV in your bedroom?
10. Are there two windows in the classroom?
IV. Describe your bedroom. (10 points)

_
_
_

Mark 4 5 6 7 8 9 10
Points 1-6 7 - 10 11 14 15 18 19- 23 24- 27 27 - 30

TEST (second term)


My name is

1. Put the words in the right column. (5 points)

nineteen, good night,grandma,orange, hello, apple, pencil case, bag,good morning, dad, good

numbers greetings family school materials fruits

2. Use A or AN ( 5 points)
1. This is ice cream, but that is banana.
2. This is chalkboard, but that is notice board.
3. This is orange and that is egg.
4. This is blouse, but that is T-shirt.
5. This is coat, but that is pair of trainers.

68
3. Answer the questions. (10 points)
1. Whatisyourbrother?
2. Whatishisfather?
3. Whoishe?
4. Howoldishe?
5. What colour is your bag?
6. Where is the book?
7. How many doors are there in your classroom?
8. Aretheretwowindowsintheclassroom?
9. Haveyougotaredbag?
10. Are you a pupil?

4. Circle IS or ARE in these sentences. (5 points)


1. What (are / is ) her name?
2. Her name ( are / is ) Sara.
3. Ben and Sarah ( are / is ) ten years old.
4. He ( are / is ) a pupil and she (is / are ) a teacher.
5. How (is /are ) you? I ( am / is ) ne, thank you.

5. Circle HAVE GOT or HAS GOT in these sentences. (5 points)


1. Cinderella (have got / has got) fair hair.
2. My brother (have got / has got) a green bike.
3. They (have got / has got) a new computer.
4. Tim (have got / has got) a lile sister.
5. Batman (have got / has got) a black hat.

6. Write about yourself. ( 7-8 sentences) (10 points)


Name, age, hair, eyes, body, family, likes

____________________________________________________________________

_____________________________________________________________________

Points 4 5 6 7 8 9 10
Mark 0-9 10 - 16 17 - 22 23- 27 28 - 32 33 - 36 37 - 40

69
III. UP THE LADDER 4
1.Aims of the course

The English lesson for this age group aims to:

Transmit to children a beginning foundation of a foreign language, giving


them a feel for language as a means of communication
Contribute to the multiple ways in which children are developing intellec-
tual, physical, emotional and linguistic skills
Enables students to listen and understand, reproduce and create some
simple uers in the foreign language
Create an environment in which students are eager to listen to the teachers
English and respond appropriately, ask and answer questions and describe
objectives in their immediate environment.

2.OVERALL OBJECTIVES

Listening
Students understand and respond to simple stories narratives and descriptions
of familiar topic in the present past or future assisted by some repetition or
visual reference.
They begin to pay special aention to pronunciation and in to intonation.

Speaking
Students give short answers to what is seen or heard expressing their aitudes,
feelings; desires and dislikes.
They take part in brief, prepared dialogues that use simple pre learned phrases
greetings, invitations etc.

Reading
Students read and comprehend words phrases and short texts.
They show a growing condence in reading aloud and begin to read simple texts
independently.

Writing
Students copy short phrases and write simple words learned before from
memo- ry and by the end of the year, they write short paragraphs using simple
descrip- tive language.
3.Objectives by chapter

Chapter 1
By the end of this chapter the students will be able:
- To read and comprehend the texts.
- To learn and use vocabulary.(69 words)
- To speak about their friends, the days of the week, the months and seasons
of the year.
- To practice and use This-These, That- Those, s-Possessive, Past of TO BE,
Likes & Dislikes.
- To take part in brief, prepared dialogues.
- To copy short phrases, write simple words learned before and do exercises
in the activity book.

Chapter 2
By the end of this chapter the students will be able:
- To read and comprehend the texts.
- To learn and use vocabulary. (57 words)
- To speak about their school, the sickness, their families, their holidays.
- To practice and use Present Continuous, Have/Has, Comparison of
Adjec- tives and Present Simple.
- To take part in brief, prepared dialogues.
- To copy short phrases, write simple words learned before and do exercises
in the activity book.

Chapter 3
By the end of this chapter the students will be able:
- To read and comprehend the texts.
- To learn and use vocabulary. (71 words)
- To speak and write about their diary, their breakfast.
- To describe their games & toys.
- To practice and use Past Simple, Object pronouns,
Countable/uncountable, Plural of nouns
- To take part in brief, prepared dialogues.
- To copy short phrases, write simple words learned before and do exercises
in the activity book.

Chapter 4
By the end of this chapter the students will be able:
- To read and comprehend the texts.
- To learn and use vocabulary. (65 words)

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- To speak and write about their school uniform, their Cartoon characters,
their city and animals they love most.
- To describe their games & toys.
- To practice and use Past Simple, Object pronouns,
Countable/uncountable, Plural of nouns
- To take part in brief, prepared dialogues.
- To copy short phrases, write simple words learned before and do exercises
in the activity book.

Chapter 5
By the end of this chapter the students will be able:
- To read and comprehend the texts.
- To learn and use vocabulary. (85 words)
- To speak and write about their school library, their friends, and their
dreams.
- To tell jokes
- To practice and use Shall/Will, Past Simple Irregular, Want to become, May.
- To take part in brief, prepared dialogues.
- To copy short phrases, write simple words learned before and do exercises
in the activity book.

4.Analytical Course Structure

35 WEEKS X 2 HOURS = 70 HOURS

1 Communication and culture education 32 hours


2 Grammar education 28 hours
3 Wrien tests 2 hours
4 Free classes 8 hours

N Chapter Objectives for each Topic Source Visual aids


o chapter materials
1 Revision 1 The book
2 Revision 2 The book
3 Revision 3 The book

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The pupil should
be able to:
-Read and comprehend
the texts.
- Learn and use
I vocabulary.(69 words)
- Speak about friends,
the days of the
week, the months
and seasons of the
year.
- Practice and use
This-These, That-
Those, s-Possessive,
Past of TO BE,
Likes & Dislikes.
- Take part in brief,
prepared dialogues.
- Copy short phrases,
write simple words
learned before.
- Do exercises in SB &
4 Item one AB Meet my SB & AB some different
friends photos &
pictures
5 Item one Grammar/ SB & AB grammar table
Ex./ Games/
Rhyme
6 Item two Whose SB & AB a calendar
birthday is it ?
7 Item two Grammar/ SB & AB grammar table
Exercises
8 Item two Exercises/ SB & AB
Games
9 Item Days of the SB & AB a calendar
three week
10 Item Grammar/ SB & AB grammar table
three Exercises
11 Item Exercises/ SB & AB
three Games/
12 Item four Seasons SB & a calendar
AB
13 Item four Grammar/ SB & grammar
Exercises AB table
14 Item four Exercises/ Games/ SB &
Rhyme AB
15 Revision 1 Exercises

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- Read and
comprehend the
texts.
- Learn and use
vocabulary. (57
words)
II - Speak about
school, the sickness,
families, holidays.
- Practice and use
Present Continuous,
Have/Has,
Comparison of
Adjectives and
Present Simple.
- Take part in brief,
prepared dialogues.
- Copy short phrases,
write simple words
learned before.
- Do exercises in AB
& SB
16 Item five Paola at school SB & a picture of a
AB school
17 Item five Grammar/ SB & grammar
Exercises AB table
18 Item five Exercises/ Games/ SB & flash cards
Rhyme AB
19 Item six Whats wrong SB & picture of
with? AB doctor
20 Item six Grammar/ SB & grammar
Exercises AB table
21 Item six Exercises/ Games/ SB &
Rhyme AB
22 Item seven The twin sister. SB & photos
AB
23 Item seven Grammar/ SB & grammar
Exercises Games/ AB table
24 Item eight Lilys holiday. SB & pictures of
AB different
cities
25 Item eight Grammar/ SB & grammar
Exercises AB table
Games/ Rhyme
26 Revision Exercises SB
2
27 Test 1

74
-Read & comprehend
the texts.
- Learn & and use
vocabulary. (71 words)
- Speak & write about the
diary, breakfast.
III - Describe their games &
toys.
- Practice & use Past
Simple, Object pronouns,
Countable/uncountable,
Plural of nouns
- Take part in brief,
prepared dialogues.
- Copy short phrases,
write simple words
learned before
- DO exercises in SB &
AB
28 Item nine Albas diary. SB & picture of
AB new years
day
29 Item nine Grammar/ SB & grammar
Exercises AB table
30 Item nine Exercises/ SB &
Games AB
31 Item ten At the SB & picture of a
playground. AB playground
32 Item ten Grammar/ Ex. SB & grammar
Games/ Song AB table
33 Item Whats your SB & different food
eleven breakfast? AB
34 Item Grammar/ SB & grammar
eleven Exercises AB table
35 Item Exercises/ SB &
eleven Games AB
36 Item The toyshop SB & AB different toys
twelve
37 Item Grammar/ SB & AB grammar table
twelve Exercises
38 Item Exercises/ SB & AB
twelve Games/
Rhyme
39 Revision Exercises SB
3

75
- Read & comprehend
the texts.
- Learn & use
vocabulary. (65
words).
- Speak & write about
school uniform,
IV Cartoon characters, city
and animals he/she
loves most.
- Describe games &
toys.
- Practice & use
possessive adj/pron./
can (ability)/
comparison of long
adj./adverbs.
- Take part in brief,
prepared dialogues.
- Copy short phrases,
write simple words
learned before.
- Do exercises in AB &
SB.
40 Item Whats your SB & AB Photos &
thirteen school pictures
uniform like?
41 Item Grammar/ SB & AB grammar table
thirteen Exercises
42 Item Exercises/ SB & AB
thirteen Games/
Rhyme
43 Item Cartoon SB & AB Pictures of
fourteen characters. cartoons
44 Item Grammar/ Ex SB & AB grammar table
fourteen Games/Rhyme
45 Item Where do you SB & AB photos of
fifteen live? different cities
46 Item Grammar/ SB & AB grammar table
fifteen Exercises
47 Item Exercises/ SB & AB
fifteen Games
48 Item Animal lovers. SB & AB pictures of
sixteen animals
49 Item Grammar/ Ex/ SB & AB grammar table
sixteen Games different toys
50 Revision Exercises SB
4

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- Read & comprehend
the texts.
- Learn & use
vocabulary. (85 words)
- Speak & write about
school library,
V friends, and dreams.
- Tell jokes.
- Practice & use
Shall/Will, Past Simple
Irregular, Want to
become, May.
- Take part in brief,
prepared dialogues.
-Copy short phrases,
write simple words
learned before
- Do exercises in AB &
SB.
51 Item In the library. SB & AB photos of
seventeen library of the
school.
52 Item Grammar/ SB & AB grammar
seventeen Exercises / table/flashcards
Games
53 Item We, the SB & AB pictures
eighteen children.
54 Item Grammar SB & AB grammar table
eighteen exercises
55 Item Exercises/ SB & AB
eighteen Games
Item My dream. SB & AB pictures of
nineteen touristy places
56 Item Grammar SB & AB grammar table
nineteen exercises
57 Item Exercises/ SB & AB
nineteen Games
58 Item Joke of the SB & AB
twenty day.
59 Item Grammar SB & AB grammar table
twenty exercises
60 Item Games/
twenty Rhyme
61 Revision Revision five SB
5
62 Test 2
63 Free Problem Resource Pencils ,
class solving book for papers,
(reading teachers
activity

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64 Free In the Resource Worksheet,
class playground book for coloured
a picture teachers pencils
dictation
65 Free Making books Resource Paper,
class book for coloured
teachers pencils,
scissors, glue
66 Free Variation on a Resource Some short
class gap book for prepared texts,
teachers pens
67 Free School International Pictures,
class activity languages posters, songs
Day.
(after
revision 3
68 Free School
class activity
69 Free School
class activity
70 Free School
class activity

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4. Model lesson plan
English 4th form
Topic: Item twelve The toy shop
Aim: To teach words connected with toys.
Aids: The text book, the activity book, pictures to illustrate the new words.
Skills: Reading, writing, listening, speaking.

OBJECTIVES:
Low level: To learn toy words.
To read the reading passage.
Middle level: To read and comprehend the reading passage
To learn the vocabulary of the text.
High level: To learn the vocabulary of the text.
To read and comprehend the reading passage.
To use the new words in their own sentences.

Warm up:
Sing the song learned in the previous lesson.

Procedure
1.
Teach the new words using pictures or real objects.
Write the words on the board for the pupils to read and spell.
Read the text twice. The pupils must listen carefully and look at their
books.
Give the pupils a few minutes to look at the pictures on the book, then read
the words, while the pupils point to the correct objects on the page, then
repeat, following the usual procedures.
Choose two pupils to read the dialogue, YOU AND ME. Explain any new
words.
Working in pairs the pupils read the dialogue or try to say it.
Some two or three others read the reading passage.

Memory game
Working in their pairs, the pupils play a memory game with the new
words.
One pupil has the book open. The other has the book closed.
They take turns to try to remember all nine objects on page 62.
Homework
You may use the exercise in the activity book or any exercise of your own
choice.

5. Test model
Group A

My name is

1. Odd the one out, draw a circle.


1. May, Monday, August, January, April
2. this, these, that, she, those.
3. headache, toothache, doctor, earache.
4. writing, classmates, drawing, listening.

2. Put the verb in the present continuous.


1. Ben on the blackboard. (write)
2. The pupils to school. (go)
3. Megi in the sea. (swim)
4. I the book. (read)

3. Where were the children yesterday?


1. Peter at home yesterday.
2. We at the zoo yesterday aernoon.
3. The girls in the park yesterday.
4. Amy in Vlora on Thursday.

4. Answer the question.


1. Do you like summer? Yes,
2. Does Lily play football? No,
3. Does she stay at her relatives house? Yes,
4. Do the pupils go to the park? No,

5. Complete the sentences. Use HAVE/HAS.


1. She a headache.
2. We a new teacher.
3. My father a red car.
4. Viki and Mike a TV.

6. Write about yourself. Compare.


Me My friend
11 years old 10 years old
32 kg 40 kg
1m 20 cm 1m 40cm
short hair long hair
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1. I
2. I
3. I
4. I

Mark 4 5 6 7 8 9 10
Points 0-5 6-7 8-10 11-15 16-19 20-22 23-24

TEST
Group B

My name is

1. Odd the one out, draw a circle.


1. September, Monday, Sunday, Friday.
2. she, we, these, you, he, I.
3. morning, aernoon, evening, season.
4. speak, play, go, picture, read.

2. Put the verb in the present continuous.


1. I to the teacher. (listen)
2. The boys football. (play
3. Mimi English. (speak)
4. Glen a picture of his school. (draw)

3. Where were the children yesterday?


1. My mum in the shop yesterday.
2. You in the classroom yesterday.
3. The boys in the garden yesterday morning.
4. My brother not at home yesterday.

4. Answer the question.


1. Do you like English? Yes,
2. Does Lily play tennis? No,
3. Does he go to the doctor? Yes,
4. Do the pupils go to zoo? No,

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5. Complete the sentences. Use HAVE/HAS.
1. He a green bike.
2. They a new school.
3. My mother a cold.
4. Mimi and Amy a new computer.

6. Write about your friend. Compare.


Me My friend
10 years old 13 years old
32 kg 35kg
1m 30 cm 1m 40cm
long hair short hair
1. My friend
2. My friend
3. My friend
4. My friend

Mark 4 5 6 7 8 9 10
Points 0-5 6-7 8-10 11-15 16-19 20-22 23-24

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Test IV
My name is

I. Put the words into the correct columns. (5 points)


chips, astronaut, honey, water, buer, tea, hide-and-seek, e
tnn
s,i basketball, doll, vet, yo-yo, milk, te

Toys Drinks Jobs Food Games

II. Put the words in the correct order. ( 5 points )


1. animals / watching/ My sister/ is/ a lm/ about
2. Tirana / beautiful/ than/ Durres/ is
3. my/ character/ Tommythecat/ is/ cartoon
4. forget/ Ill/ Childrens Day/ never.
5. wants/ Lily/ to become/ an actor

III. Choose the correct form of the words. (10 points)


1. She is speaking English to (he / him).
2. (He / she) is a nine- year- old girl.
3. (Andy/Andys) school is in the center of the town.
4. Nick and Ben can sing ( beautiful / beautifully)
5. There are een (boys / boy ) in our classroom.
6. There is ( some / one ) cheese in the fridge.
7. They (will / shall ) go to Vlora tomorrow.
8. She (goes/go) to the library everyday.
9. They always (do /does ) their homework at home.
10. There are two ( child / children ) in the yard.

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IV. Choose the correct sentences. One sentence is correct. Which one? ( 10
points)
1. a. How much milk do you drink for breakfast?
b. How many milk do you drink for breakfast?
2. a. My brother goes to primary school.
b. My brother go to primary school.
3. a. Do you speak English?
b. Does you speak English?
4. a. Lena is older than her brother.
b. Lena is old than her brother.
5. a. Students shall clean the classrooms tomorrow.
b. Students will clean the classrooms tomorrow.
6. a. Alba is a very good pupil and she speaks English well.
b. Alba is a very good pupil and she speaks English good.
7. a. We played traditional games yesterday.
b. We play traditional games yesterday.
8. a. Did you make big posters?
b. Did you made big posters?
9. a. Did you ate traditional food?
b. Did you eat traditional food?
10. a. Mary can play basketball.
b. Mary cans play basketball.

V. Writing task
Write about you and your plan for the future. (10 points)
____________________________________________________________________
____________________________________________________________________
____________________________________________________________________
____________________________________________________________________
____________________________________________________________________
____________________________________________________________________
____________________________________________________________________
____________________________________________________________________

Points 4 5 6 7 8 9 10
Mark 0-9 10 - 16 17 - 22 23- 27 28 - 32 33 - 36 37 - 40

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