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Flight Operations Support & Line Assistance

Issue II - September 2003


getting to grips with FANS
Flight Operations Support & Line Assistance getting to grips with
AIRBUS S.A.S.
31707 BLAGNAC CEDEX, FRANCE

FANS
CONCEPT DESIGN SCM12
REFERENCE SCM-A215
SEPTEMBER 2003
PRINTED IN FRANCE
© AIRBUS S.A.S. 2003
ALL RIGHTS RESERVED

AN EADS JOINT COMPANY


WITH BAE SYSTEMS Future Air Navigation System
Issue II - September 2003
The statements made herein do not constitute an
offer. They are based on the assumptions shown and
are expressed in good faith. Where the supporting
grounds for these statements are not shown, the
Company will be pleased to explain the basis thereof.
This document is the property of Airbus and is Flight Operations Support & Line Assistance
supplied on the express condition that it is to be
treated as confidential. No use of reproduction may Future Air Navigation System
be made thereof other than that expressely
authorised. IssueII - September 2003
FANS
Future Air Navigation System

Aircraft upgrade of: Communication Navigation


Surveillance (CNS)

To allow for efficient: Air Traffic Management


(ATM)

Airbus product: AIM-FANS


(Airbus Interoperable Modular-FANS)

STEP 1 FANS A
• Air Traffic Services Data link based on
ACARS network

STEP 2 FANS B
• Introduction of ATN (Aeronautical Telecommunication Network)
• ICAO approved (CNS/ATM-1 standards)

STEP 3 FULL FANS


• "Free Flight" concept supported

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4 Flight Operations Support & Line Assistance
Getting to grips with FANS – Ref STL 945.7011/03
FOREWORD

FOREWORD
The purpose of this brochure is to provide Airbus aircraft operators with the agreed
interpretations of the currently applicable CNS/ATM (i.e. FANS) regulations.

The intent is thus to provide guidance material on CNS/ATM operations, which satisfy
airworthiness requirements in order for an airline to obtain operational approval from its
national operational authorities.

All recommendations conform to the current regulatory requirements and are intended
to assist the operators in maximising the cost effectiveness of their operations.

The content of this second edition is limited to the FANS A system, which is in use at
the date of publication (Step 1, ref. p3). New feature have been added to the 1st edition,
such as a description of the Airbus FANS A+ package, new FANS application
procedures, and a FANS world status. Future editions will include information on further
systems, e.g. ATN (or CNS/ATM-1; Step 2, ref. p3) based systems and ADS-B, once
these are certified and there are definite plans to introduce them in some areas.

As detailed hereafter, CNS/ATM is a global system concept, which is based on global


navigation, communications and automatic dependent surveillance systems.
Although FANS air spaces or routes are usually defined in terms of all the three C, N
and S aspects, this brochure mainly addresses the Data Link Communications and
Automatic Dependent Surveillance issues only. Recommendations for RNP (Required
Navigation Performance) and RVSM (Reduced Vertical Separation Minima) operational
approval are given in the brochure “Getting to grips with modern navigation” - A flight
operations view - (reference: STL 945.0415/99). Whenever needed, the reader will be
invited to refer to this document.

Any questions with respect to information contained herein should be directed to:

AIRBUS SAS
Flight Operations Support
Customer Services Directorate
1, Rond Point Maurice Bellonte, BP 33
31707 BLAGNAC Cedex- FRANCE

TELEX: AIRBU 530526F


SITA: TLSBI7X
Telefax: 33 5 61 93 29 68 or 33 5 61 93 44 65

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TABLE OF CONTENTS

TABLE OF CONTENTS
EXECUTIVE SUMMARY .............................................................................................. 10

ABBREVIATIONS ........................................................................................................ 18

1. CNS/ATM CONCEPT............................................................................................ 22
1.1. Historical background ..................................................................................... 22
1.2. CNS/ATM global concept ................................................................................ 22
1.3. Communications .............................................................................................. 23
1.4. Navigation......................................................................................................... 24
1.5. Surveillance ...................................................................................................... 24
1.6. Air Traffic Management ................................................................................... 24

2. CNS/ATM COMPONENTS DESCRIPTION .......................................................... 26


2.1. FANS A architecture ........................................................................................ 26
2.2. Datalink media.................................................................................................. 27
2.2.1. Air/Ground datalink ..................................................................................... 27
2.2.2. Ground/Ground datalink.............................................................................. 29
2.3. CNS/ATM ATC applications ............................................................................ 31
2.3.1. ATS Facility Notification (AFN).................................................................... 31
2.3.2. Controller Pilot Data link Communications (CPDLC) .................................. 31
2.3.3. Automatic Dependent Surveillance (ADS) .................................................. 32
2.3.4. AEEC623 .................................................................................................... 33
2.4. Performance requirements ............................................................................. 33
2.4.1. General ....................................................................................................... 33
2.4.2. Required Navigation Performance (RNP) ................................................... 33
2.4.3. Required Communication performance (RCP)............................................ 34
2.4.4. Required Surveillance Performance (RSP)................................................. 34

3. AIM-FANS DESCRIPTION.................................................................................... 38
3.1. General: the need for flexibility....................................................................... 38
3.2. AIM-FANS architecture .................................................................................... 40
3.2.1. The ATSU ................................................................................................... 40
3.2.2. The new FMS (2nd generation FMS).......................................................... 41
3.2.3. Crew interfaces ........................................................................................... 42
3.3. Human Machine Interface................................................................................ 42
3.3.1. Basic operational principles ........................................................................ 44
3.3.2. Main HMI rules............................................................................................ 44

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4. OPERATIONAL PROCEDURES ...........................................................................50


4.1. Introduction.......................................................................................................50
4.2. Pre-flight phase.................................................................................................50
4.3. ATS Facilities Notification (AFN) .....................................................................51
4.4. CPDLC procedures ...........................................................................................55
4.4.1. CPDLC connection ......................................................................................55
4.4.2. CPDLC connection transfer .........................................................................56
4.4.3. End of service ..............................................................................................59
4.4.4. Failures of the CPDLC connection...............................................................60
4.4.5. CPDLC shutdown ........................................................................................60
4.4.6. Abnormal cases at the time of transfer of connection ..................................61
4.4.7. Recommendations for exchange of CPDLC messages...............................61
4.5. ADS procedures................................................................................................68
4.5.1. ATS notification and ADS connection ..........................................................68
4.5.2. ADS connections management ...................................................................71
4.5.3. Position reporting with ADS .........................................................................72
4.5.4. ADS connections closure.............................................................................72
4.5.5. Route offset .................................................................................................73
4.5.6. ADS shutdown .............................................................................................73
4.5.7. Emergency procedures................................................................................73
4.6. ATS623 applications.........................................................................................74

5. FANS A EVOLUTION ............................................................................................78


5.1. FANS A enhanced ADS ....................................................................................78
5.2. FANS A+ (FANS A system evolution) .............................................................78
5.2.1. FANS A+ basics ..........................................................................................79
5.2.1.1. Enhancements to the Human-Machine Interface (HMI) ...........................79
5.2.1.2. Improvements related to the CPDLC service. ..........................................80
5.2.1.3. DataLink Service Provider (DSP) worldmap ............................................81
5.2.1.4. ATSU router customisation via loadable database...................................81
5.2.1.5. BITE (Built-In Test Equipment) improvement ...........................................81
5.2.2. FANS A+ options .........................................................................................82
5.2.2.1. HF dataLink (HFDL) .................................................................................82
5.2.2.2. High speed VHF datalink (VDL mode2) ...................................................83
5.2.2.3. Wired high speed dataloading capability (AEEC 615a)............................83
5.2.2.4. Clearances and digital ATIS applications (ATS623).................................84
5.2.3. FANS A+ Retrofits .......................................................................................84

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6. FANS A WORLD STATUS ................................................................................... 88


6.1. Status of Fans A implementation ................................................................... 88
6.2. North Atlantic (NAT)......................................................................................... 89
6.3. South Atlantic................................................................................................... 90
6.4. North Canada.................................................................................................... 91
6.5. Pacific Ocean.................................................................................................... 91
6.6. Indian Ocean : South Africa ............................................................................ 94
6.7. Indian Ocean : Australia .................................................................................. 95
6.8. Singapore ......................................................................................................... 96
6.9. Bay of Bengal ................................................................................................... 96
6.10. China ................................................................................................................. 97

7. STARTING FANS OPERATIONS ....................................................................... 100


7.1. General............................................................................................................ 100
7.2. DataLink: contracts and declarations .......................................................... 100
7.2.1. Contracts with Datalink Service Providers (DSP)...................................... 100
7.2.2. Aircraft declaration to DataLink Service Providers and ATC centres ........ 101
7.2.3. Recommendations .................................................................................... 101
7.3. Impact on aircraft configuration ................................................................... 101
7.3.1. ATSU scan mask ...................................................................................... 101
7.3.2. SATCOM user ORT .................................................................................. 101
7.3.3. AMI database of the FMS ......................................................................... 102
7.4. Get the operational approval......................................................................... 102
7.4.1. General requirements ............................................................................... 102
7.4.2. Aircraft configuration ................................................................................. 103
7.4.3. Flight crew training / qualification .............................................................. 103
7.4.4. Maintenance training................................................................................. 111
7.4.5. Approved documentation .......................................................................... 111

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APPENDIX A : LIST OF CPDLC MESSAGES WITH THEIR MEANING....................116

APPENDIX B : ADS REPORT DATA .........................................................................133

APPENDIX C : DATA COMMUNICATIONS SERVICE PROVIDERS ........................135

APPENDIX D : SATCOM OPERATORS ....................................................................144

APPENDIX E : FANS OPERATIONAL PROCEDURES.............................................144


1 - Pacific FANS operations......................................................................................145
2 - Indian ocean FANS operations ...........................................................................148
3 - North Atlantic FANS operations..........................................................................150
4 - South Atlantic FANS operations (trials) .............................................................159
5 - New York oceanic (KZWY) CPDLC service area................................................165

APPENDIX F : DYNAMIC AIRBORNE ROUTE PLANNING ......................................167

APPENDIX G : OPERATIONAL SCENARIOS FANS A.............................................169


1 - Initial notification..................................................................................................169
2 - CPDLC logon ........................................................................................................172
3 - Logon to next ATC ...............................................................................................174
4 - Clearance ..............................................................................................................178
5 - When can you… ...................................................................................................181

APPENDIX H : OPERATIONAL SCENARIOS FANS A+...........................................186


1 - Initial notification..................................................................................................186
2 - CPDLC logon ........................................................................................................189
3 - Connection to next ATC.......................................................................................191
4 - Clearance ..............................................................................................................195
5 - When can you .......................................................................................................195

APPENDIX I : OPERATIONAL SCENARIOS ATS623...............................................200

APPENDIX J : OIT/FOT NEW ATSU AIRCRAFT INTERFACE .................................212

APPENDIX K : FANS A AIRWORTHINESS SUMMARY ...........................................216

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EXECUTIVE SUMMARY

EXECUTIVE SUMMARY

1 – CNS/ATM CONCEPT
CNS/ATM global concept
• Increasing the airspace capacity, enhancing the operational efficiency while ensuring
the best safety level of the air traffic cannot be done without a combined use of the
air and ground entities. Following this statement, the concept of CNS/ATM
(Communication, Navigation and Surveillance for Air Traffic Management) has been
defined.
• Numerous actors play in this global end-to-end concept, which can be seen as a
chain linking a pilot and a controller. Although most of these actors are independent
entities, the proper interoperability of all of them is the key factor for the right
operation of the system.

Communications
• Operationally speaking, the biggest change provided by FANS is the way pilot and
controllers communicate. In addition to the classical VHF and HF voice, and to the
more recent satellite voice, digital CPDLC (Controller Pilot Data Link
Communications) will now become the primary means to communicate.
• CPDLC is a powerful means to sustain ATC communications in oceanic or remote
areas first, and it is expected to become, in a near future, an additional tool to
overcome VHF congestion in some busy TMAs.

Navigation
• FANS routes or air spaces are associated with a given RNP (Required Navigation
Performance) value. This RNP is a statement on the navigation performance
accuracy necessary for operation in this air space.

Surveillance
• Different types of surveillance may be founded. Wherever radar coverage is
possible, SSR modes A and C are still used (mode S is soon expected to be used in
such areas).
• In oceanic and remote FANS air spaces, procedurally controlled surveillance is
progressively replaced by Automatic Dependent Surveillance, which is expected to
allow for reduced lateral and longitudinal separation. It is also expected that there
will be no need for HF voice reporting any longer.

Air Traffic Management


• Under this term is grouped a large set of methods to improve the management of all
the parts of the air traffic, e.g. traffic flow management, strategic (long term) and
tactical (short term) control or air traffic services. New methods are developed and
progressively implemented to provide greater airspace capacity to cope with the
large increase of air traffic demand.

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EXECUTIVE SUMMARY

2 - CNS/ATM COMPONENT DESCRIPTION


Pending the new Aeronautical Telecommunication Network (ATN) availability for FANS
B, the current FANS A step uses the ACARS network to exchange data between
aircraft and ground systems.

FANS A data link architecture


• The airborne part: the ATSU which manages all the communications and
automatically chooses the best available medium (e.g. VHF, Satcom and HF, in
that order).
• The air/ground datalink: used to transmit AOC or ATC data to the ground
through VDL modeA, VDL mode2, Satcom and HFDL.
• The ground/ground datalink: to ensure the connection to the ground parts
through either satellites Ground Earth Stations (GES), VHF and HF Remote
Ground Stations (RGS), air-ground processors (which route and handle the
messages).
• DSP operating with national service providers are currently interconnected to
provide a global interoperability of ATS data link applications.

FANS A applications
• ATS Facility Notification (AFN)
Through this application, an ATC knows whether an aircraft is capable of using data
link communications. This exchange of the data link context is needed prior to any
CPDLC or ADS connection.
• Controller Pilot Data Link Communications (CPDLC)
CPDLC is a powerful tool to sustain data link communications between a pilot and
the controller of the relevant flight region.
It is particularly adapted to such areas where voice communications are difficult (e.g.
HF voice over oceans or remote part of the world), and is expected to become very
convenient to alleviate congested VHF of some busy TMAs when utilised for routine
dialogue (e.g. frequency transfer).
• Automatic Dependent Surveillance (ADS)
Through the ADS application, the ATSU automatically sends aircraft surveillance
data to the connected ATC centres (up to 4). This is done automatically and remains
transparent to the crew.
Different types of ADS "contracts" exist: periodic, on demand and on event
• AEEC623
The AEEC623 specification defines the application text formats for character-
oriented Air Traffic Services messages (e.g. departure or oceanic clearances), that
can be transmitted over the ACARS data link.

Performance requirements
The three concepts of Required Navigation Performance (RNP), Required
Communications Performance (RCP) and Required Surveillance Performance
(RSP) are all parts of a general CNS/ATM performance concept and independent
of the technologies used.

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EXECUTIVE SUMMARY

3 - AIM-FANS DESCRIPTION
The transition to CNS/ATM requires both flexibility and growth capability. For the
airplane, flexibility is the essential requirement, but requires computer power.
This was tackled right from the beginning with the AIM-FANS avionics package: indeed,
the power and flexibility of a dedicated communications unit (the ATSU) combined with
the power of a new FMS.

AIM-FANS avionics
• This new avionics unit (ATSU) has been developed to cope with data link
communications. Its functions are:
- To manage the HMI, the display and warning systems.
- To enable the access to all available communications media.
- To sustain the communications tasks.
• The FMS is a key element of the AIM-FANS system for which :
- It provides data to the ATSU
- It monitors the ATC messages and their subsequent implications
- It handles and processes some of the ATC messages
Crew interface
• The main crew interface used for the FANS applications is based on the two
DCDUs. All ATC messages, clearances (uplink message), requests or answers
(downlink messages) are displayed on the DCDU.
In addition to the DCDU, the MCDU is mainly used to prepare a request.

4 - OPERATIONAL PROCEDURES
Pre-flight phase
ICAO F-PLN filing
The CNS/ATM capabilities of the aircraft will be notified when filing in the ICAO flight
plan.
• The data link capability is notified by a letter "J" to be entered in the field 10.
• The letter "D" is also entered in the surveillance part of that field, if ADS is
available.
• The other capabilities are given in the field 18 (Other Information) under the
DAT/ information. The following code is used:
S (Satellite data link), H (HFDL), V (VHF data link), M (SSR Mode S data link)
Pre-flight checks
Prior to departing for a FANS flight, the crew will check that the required equipment is
operative.
The following items are recommended to be included in those checks:
- GPS availability
- UTC time settings
- RNP capability
- Data link communications availability
- Flight Id. (on the MCDU “COMM INIT“ page)
- Airlines’ priority list of contracted DSP for FANS operations with this aircraft

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EXECUTIVE SUMMARY

ATS Facilities Notification (AFN)

The aim of the ATS Facilities Notification is to:


- notify the appropriate ATC centre of the capabilities and specifics of the aircraft
data link communication applications
- give the flight identification and the aircraft registration number

When no other CPDLC or ADS connections have been established with a previous ATC
centre, the AFN must be exercised (e.g. prior to departure, prior to entering a data link
airspace).

The AFN can be initiated:


- manually by the pilot, or
- automatically by the ATSU using the address forwarding process.

The AFN must be successfully completed prior to any connection is being


established.

CPDLC procedures

CPDLC Connection
• Once the AFN has been successfully done, the ATC centre can initiate a CPDLC
connection (transparent to the crew).
• Checks are automatically done by the ATSU to validate or reject the connection:
- Connection is accepted if no previous connection already exists or, it is
relative to the next data link ATC to control the aircraft
- Connection is rejected in all other cases
• Once connection is established, the active connected ATC centre is then
displayed on the DCDU, and on the CONNECTION STATUS page of the MCDU.

Failures of the CPDLC connection


• As soon as a failure of the CPDLC connection is noticed by either the crew or the
ground controller, voice will be used to inform the other part of the failure and to
co-ordinate further actions.
• Once a connection has been lost, a complete LOGON procedure (AFN +
Connection) must be done.

Transfer to the next ATC


• To inform the aircraft avionics (i.e. ATSU) that a transfer of control will occurred,
the current active ATC sends a so-called NDA message (Next Data Authority) to
the aircraft. This is the only way for the ATSU to be aware of and to accept the
connection with the next ATC centre.
• Once a NDA message has been received, the aircraft is waiting for the
connection with the next ATC centre.
• Under normal circumstances the CPDLC connection should be established with
the Next Data Authority prior to the connection between the aircraft and the
current data authority being terminated

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EXECUTIVE SUMMARY

To be noticed
Pending the ATN, as long as the FANS A ACARS based protocols is used, both pilot
and controllers cannot know whether a message has been delivered to their right
counterpart.

ADS procedures

ADS connections
• An ATC centre can establish ADS contracts once the AFN has been performed.
• FANS A equipped aircraft can have up to five ADS connections.
One of these is reserved to the AOC.
The aircraft has the capability to report to four different ATC centres simultaneously
using ADS.
• Different types of ADS "contracts" exist:
- periodic: the data are sent at periodic time intervals.
- on demand: the data are sent only when asked for.
- on event: the data are sent whenever a specified event occurs.
• ADS is transparent to the crew. In particular, contracts can not be modified from
the aircraft. A connection may be stopped from the ground or manually by the crew
through the CONNECTION STATUS page of the MCDU ATC menu
• ADS contracts and connections should normally be terminated by the ground system
when the:
- Aircraft has crossed a FIR boundary
- Aircraft's flight plan has been cancelled or has finished
• A Waypoint will not be sequenced if the position is offset by more 7NM aside from
this point. When an offset is flown, it is recommended that the crew keeps updated
his FMS flight plan, and that he uses the FMS Offset function.

ADS shutdown
When a shutdown occurs the controller will advise the crew of the requirements for the
position reports (by voice or CPDLC).

ADS emergency
• The emergency mode can be activated either by the pilot or the controller, and is
normally cancelled by the pilot. When selected on the MCDU ATC page, the FMS
immediately sends a message to all ATC centres that currently have contracts
established with that aircraft.
• The controller in charge of the flight shall acknowledge any ADS emergency
message.

ATS623 applications

Pending for a greater maturity of standardised services, Airbus has decided to


implement only three AEEC623 applications:
- Departure Clearance (DCL)
- Oceanic Clearance (OCL)
- Digital – Automatic Terminal Information Service (D-ATIS)

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EXECUTIVE SUMMARY

• In case similar applications have been customised through AOC (ACARS) contracts,
these will no longer be available should the ATS623 package be chosen (e.g. AOC
DCL or OCL will no longer be sent from a customised AOC page).

• However, ,customised AOC functions such as Pre-Departure Clearance (PDC),


which is not compliant with the AEEC 623 specifications, will remain possible
through the ACARS.

5 - FANS A EVOLUTION
Enhance ADS

Current FANS A ADS system can be enhanced through the updates of the ATSU
software (CLR3.6b) and FMS Pegasus 2 software (as detailed in Appendix G).

FANS A+ standard

To improve the current FANS A package and extend the use of data link services, a
new standard, called FANS A+, has been developed.
♦ Improvements address points coming from:
- operational / in service feedback from operators
- interoperability and standardization objectives
- improvement of Human Machine Interface (HMI)
- functional evolutions
♦ New data link services have also been added with the introduction of :
- VDL mode 2, so as to increase the capacity for ATC communications
- HFDL capability for ATC (once this service is approved)
- ATS623 (Departure and Oceanic clearances, Digital-ATIS applications)
- High speed dataloading capability (AEEC 615a)

FANS A+ retrofits

To upgrade aircraft systems from FANS A to FANS A+ standards, only a software


update is necessary (no hardware components need to be changed).

FANS A FANS A with enhanced ADS FANS A+


ACARS Router ACARS Router ACARS Router
ATSU Software CLR3.5 ATSU Software CLR3.6 ATSU Software CLR4.5

1Q-2003 Jan-2004
Enhanced ADS automatically provided with FANS A+ standards

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EXECUTIVE SUMMARY

6 - STATUS OF FANS A IMPLEMENTATION

• For the time being only remote areas such as oceanic or desert areas are
implemented with FANS. In these areas ATC radar cannot be used to control Air
Traffic and HF radio is used for voice communication with ATC.

• All FIRs which are FANS equipped, do not provide the same services.
These FIRs may provide the following FANS functions
- Both ADS and CPDLC.
- ADS only
- CPDLC only

7 - STARTING FANS OPERATIONS


To ensure proper operations of FANS A aircraft on FANS routes, the operator needs to
ensure the following before starting operations:
1. Sign contract(s) with Datalink Service Provider(s) (DSP)
2. Declare aircraft to these Datalink Services Providers
3. Declare aircraft and its FANS capability to ATC centres of the operated routes
4. Configure adequately the aircraft avionics
5. Obtain the operational approval

Contracts with Datalink Service Providers


• To operate in FANS environment, it is necessary to have a contract with at least one
of the major service providers (ARINC or SITA) for SATCOM and VDL datalink
• For ATC datalink, each individual aircraft must be declared, and identified namely
through its Aircraft Registration Number in DSP tables.
• In addition, the SATCOM AES (Aircraft Earth Station) identification, i.e. the aircraft
ICAO address, must be declared to the GES (Ground Earth Station) the aircraft will
operate. This is achieved through the SATCOM commissioning procedure.

Impact on aircraft configuration


Once the airline has selected the datalink service providers, the aircraft configuration
needs to be adapted accordingly. This can be achieved through customization of:
- The ATSU (Air Traffic Services Unit) scan mask for VHF DataLink
- The SATCOM user ORT for SATCOM datalink

Operational approval
Rules are not yet fully available and individual operational authority may choose the
"means of compliance" stating what the applicant airline may have to demonstrate.
However, the following items will have to be complied with:
- Aircraft configuration
The aircraft should be configured in accordance with the approved certification
configuration for FANS A operations
- Flight crew training/qualification
Operating an aircraft in a FANS type environment requires from the crew
understanding, knowledge and operational use of the three C, N and S
dimensions of the CNS/ATM concept.

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- Maintenance training
An appropriate maintenance training program relative to the digital
communications, must be given to maintenance people
- Approved operational documentation
The applicant airline should present to its relevant authority the FANS A
Airworthiness Approval Summary, the MEL and the AFM to be approved.

It is strongly recommended not to make spontaneous FANS testing with ATC


centres when they have not been previously made aware of a given aircraft
intention to operate in FANS mode.

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ABBREVIATIONS

ACARS Airline Communications, Addressing, and Reporting System


ADF Automatic Direction Finder
ADIRS Air Data Inertial Reference System
ADNS Arinc Data Network Service
ADS Automatic Dependent Surveillance
ADS-B Automatic Dependent Surveillance- Broadcast
AEEC Airlines Electronics Engineering Committee
AES Aircraft Earth Station
AFN ATS Facility Notification
AFTN Aeronautical Fixed Telecommunication Network
AIDC ATC Inter-facility ground/ground Data Communications
AIM-FANS Airbus Interoperable Modular- Future Air Navigation System
AIP Aeronautical Information Publication
AMI Airline Modifiable Information
AMU Audio Management Unit
AOC Airline Operations Communications (or Centre)
ARINC Aeronautical Radio INC
ATC Air Traffic Control
ATM Air Traffic Management
ATN Aeronautical Telecommunication Network
ATS Air Traffic Services
ATSU Air Traffic Services Unit
CDTI Cockpit Display of Traffic Information
CFDIU Centralised Fault Display Interface Unit
CMC Central Maintenance Computer
CNS/ATM Communication Navigation Surveillance/Air Traffic Management
CPDLC Controller Pilot Data Link Communications
CTA Control Area
DARP(S) Dynamic Airborne Route Planning (System)
DCDU Data Communications Display Unit
DFIS Digital Flight Information Services
DGPS Differential GPS
DL Down Link
DM Downlink Message
DSP Data Service Providers (or Processor)
EATMS European Air Traffic Management System
ECAM Electronic Centralised Aircraft Monitoring
EFIS Electronic Flight Information System
EIS Electronic Instrument System
ERSA En-Route Supplement Australia
EUROCAE European Organisation for Civil Aviation Equipment
FANS Future Air Navigation System
FHA Functional Hazard Analysis
FIR Flight Information Region
FIS Flight Information Services
FIT FANS Inter operability Team
FMS Flight Management System

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ABBREVIATIONS

FWC Flight Warning Computer


GES Ground Earth Station
GNSS Global Navigation Satellite System
GLS GPS Landing System
GPS Global Positioning System
HFDL High Frequency Data Link
HFDR High Frequency Data Radio
HMI Human Machine Interface
ICAO International Civil Aviation Organisation
IFALPA International Federation of Airline Pilot Associations
ISPACG Informal South Pacific ATC Co-ordinating Group
LSK Line Select Key
MASPS Minimum Aviation Systems Performance Standards
MCDU Multifunction Control and Display Unit
MDDU Multi Disk Drive Unit
MMR Multi Mode Receiver
Mode S Radar Mode S
NAS National Airspace System
NDA Next Data Authority
NOTAM NOtice To Air Men
NPA Non Precision Approach
OCA Oceanic Control Area
ORT Owner Requirements Table
PACOTS Pacific Organised Track System
RAIM Receiver Autonomous Integrity Monitoring
RCP Required Communications Performance
RGS Remote Ground Station
RNAV Area Navigation
RNP Required Navigation Performance
RSP Required Surveillance Performance
RTCA Requirements and Technical Concepts for Aviation
RVSM Reduced Vertical Separation Minima
SATCOM Satellite Communications
SITA Société Internationale de Télécommunications Aéronautiques
SOP Standard Operating Procedures
SOR System Objectives and Requirements
SPOM South Pacific Operating Manual
SSR Secondary Surveillance Radar
TDM Track Definition Message
TMA Terminal Area
TMU Traffic Management Unit
UL Up Link
UM Uplink Message
V/DME VHF/Distance Measurement Equipment
VDL VHF Data Link
VDR VHF Data Radio
WPR WayPoint Reporting

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ABBREVIATIONS

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1 - CNS/ATM CONCEPT

1. CNS/ATM CONCEPT.............................................................................................22

1.1. Historical background ...............................................................................22

1.2. CNS/ATM global concept ..........................................................................22

1.3. Communications........................................................................................23

1.4. Navigation ..................................................................................................24

1.5. Surveillance................................................................................................24

1.6. Air Traffic Management .............................................................................24

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1 – CNS/ATM CONCEPT

1. CNS/ATM CONCEPT

1.1. HISTORICAL BACKGROUND


In 1983 the ICAO council tasked its special committee on Future Air Navigation
Systems (FANS) to make recommendations to upgrade the communications, navigation
and surveillance systems so as to cope with the evolution of the world wide air traffic. In
1989, based on the previous work, a second committee was created aiming at the
implementation of the CNS/ATM (Communication, Navigation, Surveillance / Air Traffic
Management) concept. This concept was endorsed by the Tenth Air Navigation
Conference in 1991. It is mainly built on satellite technology and digital communications
and aims at increasing the air space capacity, enhancing the operational flexibility and
global safety of the air traffic.

1.2. CNS/ATM GLOBAL CONCEPT


The CNS/ATM acronym states what is behind its concept. Increasing the airspace
capacity, enhancing the operational efficiency while ensuring the best safety level of the
air traffic cannot be done without a combined use of the air and ground elements.
Numerous actors play in this global end-to-end concept, which can be seen as a chain
linking a pilot and a controller. Although most of these actors are independent entities
(e.g. Air Traffic Services organisations, communication service providers or ATC) the
proper interoperability of all of them is the key factor for the right operation of the
system.
Communication Navigation
satellites (GNSS)
Space
satellites (SATCOM)

Air

Ground-based Radio
(VHF & HF) Ground
Satcom Transponder
Ground Network for
Data Communications

Differential
GNSS station

Airline Information ATC


Host Service

Figure 1.1
CNS/ATM global concept

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1 - CNS/ATM CONCEPT

1.3. COMMUNICATIONS
Operationally speaking, the biggest change provided by FANS is the way pilot and
controllers communicate. In addition to the classical VHF and HF voice, and to the more
recent satellite voice, digital CPDLC (Controller Pilot Data Link Communications) will
now become the primary means to communicate.
CPDLC is a powerful means to sustain ATC communications in oceanic or remote
areas first, and it is expected to become, in a near future, an additional tool to overcome
VHF congestion in some busy TMAs.
On board, CPDLC messages are displayed to the crew on the dedicated DCDU (Data
Communication Display Unit) screens. They can also be printed.
Ground-ground communications are also part of the concept. They serve to link and to
co-ordinate in between different ATC service organisations (or services of the same
ATC) and AOC (Airline Operational Centre). AFTN, voice or AIDC (ATS Interfacility
Data Communications) ensure these communications.
Under commercial and financial pressures, the airlines have asked for FANS benefits
without waiting for complete availability of all the appropriate tools (such as a better
Aeronautical Telecommunications Network: the ATN). That is why FANS A operations
have already started using the existing communications networks and protocols
(ACARS / ARINC 622) which are of less performance than the ATN, but were endorsed
by the ICAO as a valuable step towards an early introduction of ATM applications.
ATN is implemented and successfully operated both in Miami and Maastricht FIRs.
These ATC are currently used as test centres. First implementation phases are
scheduled for 2005, with the CPDLC Build1A program (for Miami) and Link2000+
program (for Europe). The objective of those programs is to plan and co-ordinate the
implementation of operational Air/Ground Data-Link services for Air Traffic
Management.

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1 – CNS/ATM CONCEPT

1.4. NAVIGATION
To fully benefit from the CNS/ATM concept, aircraft will need to attain a certain level of
navigation performance in terms of accuracy, availability, integrity and service
continuity. Required Navigation Performance (RNP) is a navigation element, which is
expected to affect currently existing airspace structures and lead to a whole new
concept in air navigation. Another modern navigation trend involves the development of
instrument procedures that are not based on conventional radio Navaids. This type of
navigation is called Area Navigation or RNAV. It can be used En-route, in association
with the RNP concept, but also for terminal area navigation and instrument approach
procedures.

Refer to the “Getting to grips with modern navigation” document for detailed
explanations.

1.5. SURVEILLANCE
Different types of surveillance may be found. Wherever radar coverage is possible, SSR
modes A and C are still used. Mode S is expected to be used in such areas where
traffic densities are high enough to warrant it.

In oceanic and remote FANS air spaces, procedurally controlled surveillance is


progressively replaced by Automatic Dependent Surveillance, which allows the aircraft
to automatically send position data and F-PLN intents to up to four different ATC
centres. It is expected that there will be no need for HF voice reporting any longer. With
the possibilities offered to the controllers to select the rate and mode of reporting (at
specified time intervals or on the occurrence of a special event such as a heading or
attitude change), ADS is expected to allow for reduced lateral and longitudinal
separation.

1.6. AIR TRAFFIC MANAGEMENT


Under this term is grouped a large set of methods to improve the management of all the
parts of the air traffic, e.g. traffic flow management, strategic (long term) and tactical
(short term) control or air traffic services. New methods are developed and
progressively implemented to provide greater airspace capacity to cope with the large
increase of air traffic demand. A close co-operation of ATS, crews and airline
operational centres, is expected to be reached through data communications, and
automated sharing of real-time information. CPDLC, ADS and AOC/ATC inter-facility
link are some of the tools used to support new ATM methods such as Collaborative
Decision Making (CDM). The aim of CDM is to enable the corresponding actors (crews,
controllers and airline operations) involved in ATM system, to improve mutual
knowledge of the forecast/current situations, of each other constraints, preferences and
capabilities, so as to resolve potential problems.

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2. CNS/ATM COMPONENTS DESCRIPTION ...........................................................26

2.1 FANS A architecture ...................................................................................26

2.2. Datalink media............................................................................................27


2.2.1. Air/Ground datalink ............................................................................27
2.2.2. Ground/Ground datalink ....................................................................29

2.3. CNS/ATM ATC applications ......................................................................31


2.3.1. ATS Facility Notification (AFN) ..........................................................31
2.3.2. Controller Pilot Data link Communications (CPDLC) .........................32
2.3.3. Automatic Dependent Surveillance (ADS) .........................................33
2.3.4. AEEC623 ...........................................................................................34

2.4. Performance requirements .......................................................................33


2.4.1. General..............................................................................................33
2.4.2. Required Navigation Performance (RNP) ..........................................33
2.4.3. Required Communication performance (RCP) ..................................34
2.4.4. Required Surveillance Performance (RSP)........................................34

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2. CNS/ATM COMPONENTS DESCRIPTION

2.1. FANS A ARCHITECTURE


Pending the new Aeronautical Telecommunication Network (ATN) availability (for FANS
B implementation), the current FANS A step uses the ACARS network to exchange data
between aircraft and ground systems. This ACARS network can be accessed through
either satellite, HF or VHF media, and various ground networks are inter-connected to
provide the ATC/ATM services to all FANS A equipped aircraft. These data
communications are supported by the aircraft's ATSU (Air Traffic Service Unit), which
manages all the communications and automatically chooses the best available media
(for example VHF, Satcom and HF, in that order).
The FANS A data link architecture is given in figure 2.1. It is made of the following
components:
• The airborne part, with the ATSU, which is a modular hosting platform that
centralises all data communications (ATC and AOC) and manages the dedicated
Human Machine Interface (HMI).
• The air/ground datalink, VDL modeA/2, Satcom or HFDL are used to transmit AOC
or ATC data to the ground.
• The ground/ground datalink, which ensure the connection to the ground part
through either :
- Satellite Ground Earth Stations (GES) whenever VHF coverage is not available
- VHF and HF Remote Ground Stations (RGS) if within the line of sight of the aircraft
- Air-Ground processors, which route and handle the messages

Communication Global Positioning


satellites (SATCOM) Satellites (GPS)

ATSU

SATCOM VDL Mode A VDL Mode 2 HFDL


ground station ground station ground station ground station

ACARS networks

Airline Air
Operations Traffic
Control Control

Figure 2.1
FANS A architecture

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2.2. DATALINK MEDIA


2.2.1. AIR/GROUND DATALINK

2.2.1.1. VHF DATALINK


2.2.1.1.1. VDL mode A
Data Link transmission over ACARS (so-called VDL mode A) has been used for years
for AOC data purpose and for FANS A.

2.2.1.1.2. VDL-2 capability


The VDL Mode 2 (VHF Data Link Mode 2) function provides improved air-ground VHF
digital communications link. As the data link traffic over ACARS continues to increase,
and congestion of the current ground networks is soon to be expected, the VDL-2
standard happens to be as a good interim solution.
Waiting for the ATN development (for FANS B implementation), the VDL-2 is the only
way to improve the current performance of data link applications, and to increase the
capacity (which implies a reduction of communication charges by service providers).
Compared to the current ATSU data link capabilities through the ACARS networks, the
VDL-2 increases the rate of data transmission from 2.4Kbits per second to 31.5Kbits per
second.

2.2.1.1.3. VDL-2 description


VDL-2 is a communication protocol between the aircraft and VHF ground stations of the
networks of service providers. Obviously, both the aircraft and the recipient (VHF
station) must be equipped. With VDL-2, the ACARS messages are transmitted into
packets of bits rather than in blocks of characters. This provides a gain in transmission
efficiency.

2.2.1.1.4. VDL-2 over ACARS network


VDL2 was originally designed to be used with an ATN router. As delays have been
experienced in an ATN development and deployment on ground, and ACARS is soon to
be congested, the VDL-2 function has first been adapted to the ACARS environment.
This solution is known as the VDL-2/AOA (AOA: ACARS over AVLC: Aviation VHF Link
Control). It is expected to cover the gap between the current ACARS system and the
future ATN capabilities. Whenever referred to in this document, VDL-2 stands for
VDL2/AOA.

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2.2.1.2. SATCOM
Until Satcom, radio-communications suffered from VHF line-of-sight limitations along
with the unreliability and variable quality of HF. Satellite links overcome these
weaknesses, being unaffected by distance or ionospheric conditions. Satcom are thus
playing a major role in the implementation of ICAO’s CNS/ATM concept for Air Traffic
Control in the 21st century, supporting both ADS and CPDLC applications over the
oceans and wilderness areas.

Whatever the applications (passenger services, airline operational communications or


air traffic communications), the voice/data are transmitted via satellite, from the aircraft
to the Ground Earth Stations (GES) and then switched through international
telecommunications networks (ARINC, SITA, …) to anywhere in the world (airline hosts,
ATC centres,…).

Currently, only Inmarsat constellation is able to provide communication services (voice


or data) to the whole globe, except to the extreme polar regions (above 80°N and below
80°S) with a bit rate up to 64kbps for Swift64 services.

Note: MTSAT satellite is to be launched in early 2004 to provide communication


services over Asia.

2.2.1.3. HF DATALINK (HFDL)


HF Data Link (HFDL) has been certified only for an AOC purpose in April 2002, and
should be certified for an ATC purpose in early 2004 with the FANS A+ package.
HFDL allows data transmission at a rate of 1.8 Kbits per second. Today, ARINC is the
only DSP providing HFDL. The proposed coverage is world-wide (refer to Appendix C).

Operational trials have started in some parts of the world to demonstrate that HFDL
could be used for ATC. Good results have so far been gathered. HFDL performance
happens to be better than current HF voice. It is not as good as VDL or Satcom, but in
some areas such as Polar regions where neither VDL nor Satcom are available, HFDL
for ADS or CPDLC is expected to be used efficiently.

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2.2.2. GROUND/GROUND DATALINK

2.2.2.1. THE DATA LINK COMMUNICATIONS NETWORKS


Several communications service providers, in addition to the AOC messages, ensure
today the routing of ATC messages between the aircraft and the ATC centre. These are
growing steadily, thus raising some issues for future interoperability. Among the main
ones the following may be listed:

• INMARSAT: covers the space segment through its satellite constellation, which is
accessed by numerous GES operators (most of them being sub-contracted).

• MTSAT: to be launched in early 2004, it will provides communication services aver


Asia.

• ARINC: through its so-called ADNS network, ensures the SATCOM, VHF and HFDL
(High Frequency Data Link) air-ground processing through numerous GESs and
RGSs.

• SITA: through its so-called AIRCOM system, ensures the SATCOM and VHF air-
ground processing through numerous GESs and RGSs.

• AVICOM: this Japanese provider ensures a VHF air-ground processing within Japan

• DATACOM: this Brazilian provider ensures a VHF air-ground processing within


Brazil region.

Both ARINC and SITA networks operate with national service providers and are
currently interconnected to provide a global interoperability of ATS data link
applications. This means for instance, that an aircraft using a VHF data link under a
SITA agreement can nevertheless operate in a FANS ATC area using an ARINC
contract (refer to § 2.2.2.2).

Given in Appendix D is general information relative to some of these service providers.

2.2.2.2. THE INTEROPERABILITY OF THE NETWORKS


The interoperability between the Data Service Processors of the two main
communications service providers (ARINC and SITA) is a key element in the overall
performance of the system, and ensures that each relevant ATC centre has access to
all FANS aircraft within its region.

Whenever there is a switching for instance from VHF to Satcom (or vice versa), the
ATSU sends a Medium Advisory (MA) message to the DSP indicating the status of the
communications with each medium. Such an automatic function is needed to fulfil the
logic that determines the routing of any uplink message. It is transparent to both the
pilot and the controller and ensures that uplink messages can be sent to the aircraft
irrespective of the medium or communications service providers used.

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ARINC Network SITA Network

Network Network
Interoperability Interoperability

ATC 1 ATC 2

ARINC communication domain SITA communication domain


Figure 2.2
Network interoperability

2.2.2.3. AIDC COMMUNICATIONS


The ATS Inter-facility Data Communications (AIDC) defines the data link between ATC
centres. This link is used for notification, co-ordination and phases for transfer of
control. AIDC functions will be progressively introduced as ATC centres along routes
and air spaces are equipped with CNS/ATM systems. This is not an aircraft issue.

2.2.2.4. FUTURE NETWORK


With the current FANS A, the Air Traffic Services datalink is based on the ACARS
network, which will not be able to handle the increasing volumes of AOC and ATC
communications. Therefore, a network dedicated to aeronautical communications is
being developed to act as a backbone of the ICAO’s CNS/ATM concept. This
Aeronautical Telecommunication Network (ATN) will seamlessly connect aircraft, air
traffic control centres, airline operations facilities and communication service providers
with enhanced efficiency, capability and security.

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2.3. CNS/ATM ATC APPLICATIONS


2.3.1. ATS FACILITY NOTIFICATION (AFN)
Through this application, an ATC knows whether an aircraft is capable of using data link
communications. This serves to exchange the address information between the aircraft
and the ATC centre. This exchange of the data link context is needed prior to any
CPDLC or ADS connection.
The AFN log on is initiated by the pilot to notify the ATC of its data link capability and
characteristics. Whenever there is no automatic transfer of control from one ATC centre
to another, the active one may request the pilot to make a log on procedure to the next
centre.

2.3.2. CONTROLLER PILOT DATA LINK COMMUNICATIONS (CPDLC)


CPDLC is a powerful tool to sustain data link communications between a pilot and the
controller of the relevant flight region. It is particularly adapted to such areas where
voice communications are difficult (e.g. HF voice over oceans or remote part of the
world), and is expected to become very convenient to alleviate congested VHF of some
busy TMAs when utilised for routine dialogue (e.g. frequency transfer).
CPDLC consists in the exchange of messages, which can be formed by the use of
individual (or combination) elements chosen within a set of internationally agreed
preformatted ATC ones. These elements are in agreement with the existing ICAO
phraseology, and serve to exchange nominal clearances, requests, reports,
negotiations or miscellaneous ATC information (e.g. emergency notifications, transfer of
ATC centre or frequency).
Appendix A lists all the messages (around 180) that are supported by FANS A and
FANS A+ airborne and ground systems.
Advantages and drawbacks of CPDLC have been discussed at length for some years.
Among the main ones, CPDLC is a remedy to shortcomings of the existing systems:
• significant reduction of the transmission time
• suppression of the errors or misunderstandings pertaining to poor voice quality,
fading, language
• suppression of mistakenly actions on ATC messages intended for another flight
• suppression of the tiring listening watch of the radio traffic
• possibility for an immediate access to previously recorded messages
• automatic loading within the FMS of route or F-PLN clearances, thus avoiding
transcription errors, long and fastidious manual keystrokes.

The following points however must be well understood and will have to be underlined in
training:
• handling of CPDLC messages requires time:
- reading and interpreting a written clearance was found to be less immediate than
hearing the same one
- preparing and sending a request through the combination of the MCDU and
DCDU is longer than directly using the mike.
• the party line is lost (the pilot can no longer listen to the surrounding transmissions)

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2.3.3. AUTOMATIC DEPENDENT SURVEILLANCE (ADS)


Through the ADS application, the ATSU automatically sends aircraft surveillance data to
the connected ATC centres and/or to the airline host. FANS A equipped aircraft can
have up to five ADS connections. One of the five connections is reserved for use of the
AOC. The aircraft has the capability to report to four different ATC simultaneously using
ADS.

This is done automatically and remains transparent to the crew. These are air-ground
downlink messages.

Different types of ADS "contracts" exist:


• periodic: the data are sent at periodic time intervals
• on demand: the data are sent only when asked for
• on event: the data are sent whenever a specified event occurs (e.g. altitude or
heading change, vertical rate change, waypoint change)

In the FANS A system, the ADS is based on these contracts, which are set by the ATC
centres to satisfy their operational needs for surveillance, as dictated by circumstances
(e.g. traffic density). The crew cannot modify these contracts, but the controller can. And
so can he specify the parameters of the contract. Optional data groups may thus be
added in the contract request. Obviously, at anyone ATC centre, only one contract may
exist at any one time, and whenever a modification is asked by the controller, a new
contract is set, which cancels the previous one.
Another type of contract may be found: the emergency mode. When the crew activates
this mode, the data are automatically sent at a high rate (every 64 seconds),
independently of the previous contract.
Appendix B lists the various elements and groups of data of the ADS messages, and
provides some details on the different contracts.

Based on these contracts, directly addressed between an ATC centre and a given
aircraft, ADS is then usually called ADS-C (where C stands for Contract), or ADS-A
(where A stands for Addressed). Both these designations are equivalent.
In a future step, the aircraft are expected to have the capability to broadcast their
positions and intents not only to the ground, but also to other aircraft in their vicinity.
Trials of this ADS-B (B stands for Broadcast) have already started. Associated with
Cockpit Display of Traffic Information (CDTI), ADS-B is intended to be an enabler to free
flight concepts.

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2.3.4. AEEC623
The AEEC623 specification defines the application text formats for character-oriented
Air Traffic Services messages that can be transmitted over the ACARS data link.
The main AEEC623 applications are the followings:
- D-ATIS (Digital – Automatic Terminal Information Service)
- Oceanic Clearance (OCL)
- Departure Clearance (DCL)
- Terminal Weather Information for Pilots
- Pushback Clearance
- Taxi Clearance
These applications will enhanced the existing customised AOC applications as
transaction messages will no more go through the airline host but directly from the ATC
to the aircraft (via DSP).

2.4. PERFORMANCE REQUIREMENTS


2.4.1. GENERAL
The requirements for operation in a specified airspace may be defined in terms of each
of the three "C", "N" and "S" aspects.
As such, the three concepts of Required Navigation Performance (RNP), Required
Communications Performance (RCP) and Required Surveillance Performance (RSP)
are all parts of a general CNS/ATM performance concept and are complementary.
They all address the functionality and performance of the system for their relevant
aspect and may be defined in terms of availability, accuracy and integrity.
Each of these three performance requirements is independent of the technologies used
to ensure either of the three Navigation, Communications or Surveillance functions.

2.4.2. REQUIRED NAVIGATION PERFORMANCE (RNP)


FANS routes or air spaces are associated with a given RNP (Required Navigation
Performance) value. This RNP is a statement on the navigation performance accuracy
necessary for operation in this air space. The ATC centres define the RNP criteria to be
fulfilled prior to the utilisation of their FANS routes. RNP 10 is the current requirement
for oceanic FANS air spaces, however specific areas (e.g. Tasman sea) require RNP4
for 30/30 lateral and longitudinal separations.

Each aircraft operating in RNP airspace shall have a total system navigation position
error equal to, or less than, the RNP value for 95 % of the flight time.
See Figure 2.3 illustrating the track error accuracy.

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Containment

2X
Accuracy limit
X (RNP value)
Desired Flight Path

X
Accuracy limit
2X
Containment

Figure 2.3
RNP concept

The RNP concept together with the FANS A navigation capabilities of the Airbus aircraft
are fully described in the "Getting to grips with modern navigation" brochure.
Remark: over North Atlantic, MNPS airspace has been defined before the RNP concept.
It is assumed that MNPS is equivalent to RNP11.
2.4.3. REQUIRED COMMUNICATION PERFORMANCE (RCP)
The RCP concept defines the end to end communications performance which is
required to operate in a specified airspace or under specified procedures of operation. It
is determined by the relevant authorities for the considered area, taking account of
various parameters such as targets level of safety, separation assurance criteria or
functional hazard analysis. Human factors considerations are also taken into account to
reflect the human performance to complete an exchange of communication by initiating
a reply.
The RCP is independent of the technology used and is applicable to both voice and
data communications.
It is now commonly agreed upon that the prime parameter in assessing the technical
performance of the communications, is the delay experienced by the exchange of data
between the end users (e.g. pilot / controller).
According to the latest work of the RTCA/EUROCAE groups, the following terms have
been defined to characterise the RCP statement:
• Delay: is a measure of the time required for an information element to transit
between two identifiable points.
• Integrity: is expressed as the probability of an undetected system-induced failure of
message transmission (i.e. undetected message error, wrong address, lost message
transmission).
• Availability: is the ratio of actual operating time to specified operating time.
When such a concept is endorsed by the relevant airworthiness authorities and is
applicable to some CNS/ATM operations, it is intended that further details will be added
in this chapter to help the airline in defining its operational context.
2.4.4. REQUIRED SURVEILLANCE PERFORMANCE (RSP)
The RSP concept, at the time of this edition, is not mature enough to be described here.
It is intended that further editions give here the expected level of information to help the
airline in defining its operational criteria.

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Please, bear in mind…

Pending the new Aeronautical Telecommunication Network (ATN) availability for


FANS B, the current FANS A step uses the ACARS network to exchange data
between aircraft and ground systems.

FANS A data link architecture


• The airborne part: the ATSU which manages all the communications and
automatically chooses the best available medium (e.g. VHF, Satcom and HF,
in that order).
• The air/ground datalink: used to transmit AOC or ATC data to the ground
through VDL modeA, VDL mode2, Satcom and HFDL.
• The ground/ground datalink: to ensure the connection to the ground parts
through either satellites Ground Earth Stations (GES), VHF and HF Remote
Ground Stations (RGS), air-ground processors (which route and handle the
messages).
• DSP operating with national service providers are currently interconnected to
provide a global interoperability of ATS data link applications.

FANS A applications
• ATS Facility Notification (AFN)
Through this application, an ATC knows whether an aircraft is capable of using
data link communications. This exchange of the data link context is needed prior
to any CPDLC or ADS connection.
• Controller Pilot Data Link Communications (CPDLC)
CPDLC is a powerful tool to sustain data link communications between a pilot and
the controller of the relevant flight region.
It is particularly adapted to such areas where voice communications are difficult
(e.g. HF voice over oceans or remote part of the world), and is expected to
become very convenient to alleviate congested VHF of some busy TMAs when
utilised for routine dialogue (e.g. frequency transfer).
• Automatic Dependent Surveillance (ADS)
Through the ADS application, the ATSU automatically sends aircraft surveillance
data to the connected ATC centres (up to 4). This is done automatically and
remains transparent to the crew.
Different types of ADS "contracts" exist: periodic, on demand and on event
• AEEC623
The AEEC623 specification defines the application text formats for character-
oriented Air Traffic Services messages (e.g. departure or oceanic clearances),
that can be transmitted over the ACARS data link.

Performance Requirements
The three concepts of Required Navigation Performance (RNP), Required
Communications Performance (RCP) and Required Surveillance Performance
(RSP) are all parts of a general CNS/ATM performance concept and
independent of the technologies used.

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36 Flight Operations Support & Line Assistance
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3. AIM-FANS DESCRIPTION ....................................................................................38

3.1. Need for flexibility......................................................................................38

3.2. AIM-FANS architecture..............................................................................40


3.2.1. The ATSU ..........................................................................................40
3.2.2. The new FMS (2nd generation FMS).................................................41
3.2.3. Crew interfaces..................................................................................42

3.3. Human Machine Interface .........................................................................42


3.3.1. Basic operational principles ...............................................................44
3.3.2. Main HMI rules...................................................................................44

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3. AIM-FANS DESCRIPTION

3.1. GENERAL: THE NEED FOR FLEXIBILITY


Air spaces greatly vary from one part of the world to another: some are already
congested (e.g. Europe region at some peak hours) whereas others are still relatively
empty (e.g. Pacific Ocean). The requirements to change the way we operate in such
different areas are not the same.
Implementing the latest technologies, which are now available to support these awaited
changes, cannot be done without the involvement of numerous parties. States, ATS,
communications service providers are affected in the same way as airlines, airframers
or avionics equipment manufacturers.
That is why the CNS-ATM concept can only be developed regionally or even on a route
by route basis.
The Airbus forecast for future CNS-ATM implementation envisions three main phases:

• On a short term basis, FANS A routings are being opened (e.g. Europe / Asia
through the Bay of Bengal, Europe / North America or Australia / South Africa in
complement to the current operative Pacific area).
• On a mid term basis (2007- 2010), ICAO SARPS*-compliant ATN development
should allow FANS B to spread around the world, thus enabling a full-performance
data link. Regions of low traffic density may plan to then leapfrog the FANS A step
and go directly to FANS B. The potential economic benefits however, lie mainly in
the high traffic density areas for which FANS B is designed.
• On a long term basis (starting around 2015), a generalisation of FANS B is
expected, since the search for the best economic benefits and the tremendous
increase of traffic should then lead to a world-wide generalisation of this concept.
Other operational concepts and technologies, such as ADS-B, are expected to come
into service.

The following figure summarises the Airbus implementation of CNS/ATM (four main
steps leading to global implementation of ICAO standards).

* : The SARPs are international “Standards And Recommended Practices” published by


ICAO. National aeronautical regulations of countries member of ICAO shall comply with
the content of these SARPS.

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2015
FANS B
High and Low
2007 density airspace
FANS B C & S: Over ATN and
High Density airspace ADS-B
2000 C: Over ATN N: Extended Satellite.
FANS A S: Over ADS-B Nav.-based
Oceanic/Remote N: GNSS/RNP (GNSS)/RNP
airspace - Low density ATM: Air Traffic Control ATM: Air Traffic
(enhanced procedures, Management using
1998 C & S: ATC/AOC
ICAO standards
datalink over ACARS starts transition towards
Pre-FANS Free Flight)
N: GPS-based
Airline Datalink
ATM: Air Traffic
C: AOC by ACARS
Control Procedures
N: Classical means Extension of FANSB
enhancement
S: Transponder to low density areas
ATM: Air Traffic
Control procedures
Ground accommodation of FANS A legacy systems

Retain on-board ACARS functionality for AOC purpose

Figure 3.1
Airbus implementation of CNS/ATM
Four main steps leading to global implementation of ICAO standards

It is considered that FANS A, FANS B and non-FANS environments will co-exist for
many years. The aircraft's ability to go seamlessly from one environment to another is a
fundamental asset, which was one of the prime design objectives of the Airbus
architecture.
Further extensions to FANS B, such as free flight concepts (as described either in the
NAS - US National Air Space - program or mentioned in the EATMS - European Air
Traffic Management System - operational concept for instance), are also already
considered: the provisional capacity for data broadcast operations (e.g. ADS-B) have
been secured in the proposed system.
Longer term philosophy aiming at defining whether or not and to which extent, the crew
will be responsible for their own separation is beyond the scope of the aircraft
manufacturers alone.

As a conclusion to this brief overview of the implications of CNS-ATM we can say that
the transition to this new way of operating requires both flexibility and growth capability.
For the airplane, flexibility is the essential requirement:
• Flexibility to grow as the CNS-ATM concept evolves
• Flexibility to adapt to inevitable unforeseen developments of the environment
• Flexibility to operate in mixed ATC environments

But flexibility requires computer power. This was tackled right from the beginning with
the AIM-FANS (Airbus Interoperable Modular -FANS) avionics package: indeed, the
power and flexibility of a dedicated communications unit (the ATSU) combined with the
power of a new FMS.

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3.2. AIM-FANS ARCHITECTURE


The Airbus objectives in defining its system are:
• To adapt the aircraft to the various CNS-ATM environments
• To cope with a moving FANS world
• To minimise the burden of the airlines in their moving to CNS-ATM
• To introduce a user-friendly Human Machine Interface for the data link
• To ensure the Airbus family concept
The following figure shows the architecture used:

Figure 3.2
AIM-FANS architecture

3.2.1. THE ATSU


This new avionics unit, called Air Traffic Services Unit (ATSU), has been developed to
cope with data link communications. Its functions are:
• To manage the HMI, the display and warning systems. It warns the crew of any up-
coming message, displays it, and also sends the appropriate data to the peripherals
• To enable the access to all available communications media (current and future).
The selection of the media is made automatically and without any pilot action.
• To sustain the communications tasks (e.g. selection of the appropriate ATC centre
for data link all along the flight).
Part of this, is the management of all the messages (up/down link) whatever their types
(ATC clearance, ADS, pilot requests, AOC, flight information). Today's ACARS
functions are included in the ATSU. There is no longer a need for an ACARS
management unit.

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In the frame of FANS A and B, only one ATSU is used. But for later steps, two ATSUs
can be installed, dealing with all the expected evolutions, as aircraft operation and
safety become more dependent on data link communications.

Furthermore, to answer the airlines' expectations, Airbus has committed to be


responsible for the responsiveness and quality of their entire FANS system. Just like the
Flight Warning System for example, the ATSU becomes an essential equipment for the
flight safety, and thus must be controlled accordingly throughout its design realisation
and implementation on board.

The ATSU is a hosting platform, which has been designed so as to take provision of all
foreseen evolutions. This modularity concept for both software and hardware permits to
ease a quick and dependable introduction of all the ATC data link capability during the
transition to the ultimate full FANS.

The following figure depicts the modularity concept of the ATSU.

Figure 3.3

3.2.2. THE NEW FMS (2ND GENERATION FMS)


An overall description of the new FMS functions can be found in the FCOM volume 4
(FMGS Pilot's guide). The following chapter describes the role of the FMS within the
FANS A operations.

The FMS is a key element of the AIM-FANS system for which it ensures three main
functions:
• it provides data to the ATSU
• it monitors the ATC messages and their subsequent implications
• it handles and processes some of the ATC messages

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The FMS can first be seen as a data provider for both ADS and CPDLC messages. As
such, it periodically sends all the ADS parameters, whether for the basic group
(position, altitude, cross track...), the predicted route frame or the intent group. The
predicted position, altitude, speed or sequencing time for up to the next 2 waypoints of
the flight plan are thus sent by the FMS to the ADS application of the ATSU.
Position reports messages whether for manual CPDLC messages or for automatic ADS
are processed by the FMS.
The FMS monitors the ATC conditional or deferred clearances that are linked to the
navigation (e.g. "AT ALCOA CLIMB TO AND MAINTAIN FL 350"). It triggers the signal
to warn the pilot of the completion of the clearance.
Whenever confirmation messages are received (e.g. "CONFIRM ASSIGNED SPEED")
it automatically proposes the answer to the pilot. This is true for both current data (e.g.
altitude, speed, route...) or target data (e.g. altitude, speed, heading...)
Route requests or route clearances are processed by the FMS. Once prepared in the
secondary F-PLN, a route request is sent by the FMS to the ATSU/DCDU prior to being
sent. Similarly, once a route clearance (or a re-route proposed by the AOC) is received,
it is loaded into the FMS, which acknowledges or rejects this new routing. The reasons
for a rejection (for instance proposed waypoint not in database) are indicated to the
pilots so that they can solve the issue. Co-ordination and exchange of F-PLN between
ATC, AOC and the aircraft is processed with the FMS.

3.2.3. CREW INTERFACES


The main crew interface used for the FANS applications is based on the two Data
Communications Display Unit (DCDU), which are LCD screens dedicated to the ATC
data link messages. All ATC messages, whether clearances (uplink message), requests
or answers (downlink messages) are displayed on the DCDU.
The two DCDUs are located in the main deck, just above each MCDU.
The retained principles for an operational use of the DCDU are described in the
following chapter.
In addition to the DCDU, the MCDU is mainly used to prepare a request.
Any ATC message can also be printed on the printer, at any time.

3.3. HUMAN MACHINE INTERFACE


The following figure gives a general view of the cockpit with the main elements of the
interface.
The Human Factors considerations were particularly addressed all along the
development of this interface. From the initial capture of the operational needs at the
very beginning of the design phase, to the operational flight test evaluation and
certification, numerous pilots from various origins such as flight test, training instructors
and airline pilots, were involved in the definition of this interface. The whole Human
Factors plan, as defined and presented to the airworthiness authorities, was also
applied.

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Figure 3.4
FANS HMI

The retained interface, with the two DCDUs in the core part of the cockpit, provides for a
minimum perturbation of the existing procedures. This allows for a simple reversion to
backup voice-based procedures when needed.

Colour coding and/or reverse video on the DCDU have been used to differentiate
between titles, text, main parameters in the text, uplink or downlink messages.
The DCDU provides for full time accessibility and readability for both crew, which
requires only limited head-down time.

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3.3.1. BASIC OPERATIONAL PRINCIPLES


The flight crew is alerted to an incoming message by means of a flashing blue "ATC
MSG" light in two pushbuttons on the glareshield (i.e. visual), as well as by a dedicated
audio sound. The alert is stopped by pressing one of these two pushbuttons or by
answering the message, directly on the DCDU. For normal messages the buttons flash,
and the audio signal is repeated about every 15 seconds (with the first signal delayed
by 15 seconds, so as not to multiply audio warnings). The message will appear on the
DCDU if the screen is empty. If the screen is not empty, a flashing cue (e.g. "MSG 1/2")
reminds the crew of the arrival of the message. For urgent messages the buttons flash,
the audio signal is repeated about every 5 seconds, and the message is displayed on
the DCDU regardless of the state of the screen.
Note: The audio sound is similar to a old telephone sound. It was elected by a great
majority of the consulted pilots.
To reply to a message, the flight crew either uses the standard replies on the DCDU or
composes a reply on a menu-page from the MCDU. After composing the message on
the MCDU it is transferred to the DCDU for sending (refer to scenarios in Appendix G, H
and I).
3.3.2. MAIN HMI RULES
The following lists the main principles retained for the HMI:

a) DCDU
• The two DCDUs are the compulsory data link communications focal point for either
type of messages (up or down link).
• It is recommended to keep both DCDUs without anything displayed. This, to allow
for an immediate display of a new message. Consequently, it will be recommended
to clean up the screens whenever a message has been completely treated and does
no longer require to be displayed.
• Both DCDUs are identical, are interconnected and have the same displays. Any
operation on either DCDU is valid for both of them.
ATC Centre Message
Identification Status
and message
time

Current
Brightness message
key Print key

Message Page
Slew key Slew key
Informatio
n Field
Function Function
keys keys

Figure 3.5 : DCDU HMI

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b) MCDU
• The MCDUs are also part of the ATS data link system. They are used to prepare the
request type of messages or free text messages. They also provide for an access to
the file of the stored messages.

• The "ATC COMM" key of the MCDU gives access to the various pages of the ATS
data link system

c) Alert
• The alert function is triggered each time a new uplink message arrives or whenever
a deferred report or clearance expires.

• Both the "ATC MSG" pushbuttons on the glareshield are lighted and flash until a
positive action of the crew (either by pressing one of the pushbuttons or by
answering the uplinked message on the DCDU) is done to stop the alert.

• The specific ATC audio sound may also be activated (15 sec delay)

d) Messages
• As soon as the alert is triggered, the associated ATC message may be accessed
and viewed on both DCDUs. It is automatically displayed (whether the screens of the
DCDUs are free or not) if it is an "urgent" or "distress" message.

• Request messages can be brought to the DCDU as soon as the crew has activated
the corresponding command ("ATC REQ DISPL").

• Pending messages can be brought (one at a time) to the DCDU by the crew who
can review them in the order they want.

• The crew can (and is recommended to do so) clean up the DCDU through a specific
function key ("CLOSE") once the displayed message has been entirely treated.

e) Printer
• A print function is available on the DCDU to print the currently displayed message in
whole. This can be done at any time.

• It is recommended to print long messages (e.g. F-PLN clearance) or reports.

f) FMS/DCDU interface
• An ATC F-PLN can be loaded in the secondary F-PLN of the FMS. This is done
through the "LOAD" key of the DCDU. The crew is kept aware of the result of this
loading by an indication located on the DCDU (e.g. "LOAD OK", or "LOAD
PARTIAL"). Whenever this loading cannot be done entirely (for instance waypoint
not in data base, runway/ILS mismatch,..) the pilots can access the MCDU
secondary F-PLN pages to assess the reasons for the rejected parameters, and take
appropriate actions.

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• ATC messages requiring navigation parameters (e.g. "Confirm speed") are


processed by the FMS. An answering message is automatically proposed on the
DCDU with the FMS value. The crew can nevertheless modify this message before
being sent.

• A monitoring process is launched by the FMS whenever "Report" messages are


received (e.g. "Report Passing..."). The message is automatically recalled and the
answer is proposed on the DCDU, once it is time to report.

• A monitoring process is launched by the FMS whenever deferred or conditional


clearances (e.g. "AT ALCOA CLB TO FL350") are received. 30 seconds before it
expires, the message is triggered again to remind the crew of this clearance.

g) ADS
• ADS reports are automatically sent to the ground without any possibility for the crew
to either see or modify them.

• A CPDLC emergency message (e.g. "MAY DAY") automatically activates the ADS
emergency mode.

h) Colour coding
The following colour coding philosophy is used for the DCDU:

• The title is always displayed in GREEN.

• Uplink messages are displayed with the text in WHITE and the main parameters are
highlighted in CYAN

• Closed actions are always in GREEN

• Configuration or failure requiring awareness but not immediate action are displayed
in AMBER

• NORMAL VIDEO is used for uplink

• REVERSE VIDEO is used for downlink

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i) Miscellaneous
• A star. “ * ” in front of a LSK means the key is activated.

• New messages coming from the controller are displayed immediately if they are
‘Distress’ or ‘Emergency’ or if the message file is empty. Else they are filed and can
be displayed through dedicated flight crew actions (MSG keys of the DCDUs).
The flight crew can process (i.e. answer or send) the filed message in any order.
The message access principle is based on the following figure:

MSG 1/4
MSG 2/4
MSG 3/4
MSG 4/4

PGE 1/3

PGE 2/3

PGE 3/3

MSG- PGE-

MSG+ PGE+

Figure 3.6
Messages and pages management

Any next or previous page for a currently displayed message can be accessed through
a press on DCDU commands ‘PGE+’ and ‘PGE-’.
Any next or previous message of the file can be accessed though a press on DCDU
commands ‘MSG+’ and ‘MSG-’.

Note: Several scenarios are provided in Appendix G, H and I to develop the handling of
both DCDU and MCDU

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Please, bear in mind…

The transition to CNS/ATM requires both flexibility and growth capability. For the
airplane, flexibility is the essential requirement, but requires computer power.
This was tackled right from the beginning with the AIM-FANS avionics package:
indeed, the power and flexibility of a dedicated communications unit (the ATSU)
combined with the power of a new FMS.

AIM-FANS Avionics
• This new avionics unit (ATSU) has been developed to cope with data link
communications. Its functions are:
- To manage the HMI, the display and warning systems.
- To enable the access to all available communications media.
- To sustain the communications tasks.

• The FMS is a key element of the AIM-FANS system for which :


- It provides data to the ATSU
- It monitors the ATC messages and their subsequent implications
- It handles and processes some of the ATC messages

Crew Interface
• The main crew interface used for the FANS applications is based on the two
DCDUs. All ATC messages, clearances (uplink message), requests or
answers (downlink messages) are displayed on the DCDU.
In addition to the DCDU, the MCDU is mainly used to prepare a request.

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4. OPERATIONAL PROCEDURES ...........................................................................50
4.1. Introduction ................................................................................................50
4.2. Pre-flight phase..........................................................................................50
4.3. ATS Facilities Notification (AFN) ..............................................................51
4.4. CPDLC procedures ....................................................................................55
4.4.1. CPDLC connection ............................................................................55
4.4.2. CPDLC Connection transfer ..............................................................56
4.4.3. End of service ....................................................................................59
4.4.4. Failures of the CPDLC connection.....................................................60
4.4.5. CPDLC shutdown ..............................................................................60
4.4.6. Abnormal cases at the time of transfer of connection ........................61
4.4.7. Recommendations for exchange of CPDLC messages.....................61
4.5. ADS procedures.........................................................................................68
4.5.1. ATS notification and ADS connection ................................................68
4.5.2. ADS connections management .........................................................71
4.5.3. Position reporting with ADS ...............................................................72
4.5.4. ADS connections closure...................................................................72
4.5.5. Route offset .......................................................................................73
4.5.6. ADS shutdown ...................................................................................73
4.5.7. Emergency procedures......................................................................73
4.6. ATS623 applications..................................................................................74

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4. OPERATIONAL PROCEDURES

4.1. INTRODUCTION
The following chapter depicts some important and general procedures for an
operational use of CNS/ATM systems.
As already explained FANS routes are, and will be, regionally opened, based on the
availability of ground equipment and technologies. Operational procedures are defined
for each area and published in “Operations Manuals” such as POM (Pacific Operations
Manual) or IOOM (Indian Ocean Operations Manual).

The here-below recommendations are based on these manuals.

4.2. PRE-FLIGHT PHASE


As for any flight, it is the commander's responsibility to ensure that crew FANS training
qualifications, aircraft and operational approval are satisfied for the intended flight (refer
to §7.4.3).

• ICAO F-PLN filing

The CNS/ATM capabilities of the aircraft will be notified when filing in the ICAO flight
plan. A letter code has been defined for this information.
The data link capability is notified by a letter "J" to be entered in the field 10
(Equipment). The letter "D" is also entered in the surveillance part of that field, if ADS is
available. The other capabilities are given in the field 18 (Other Information) under the
DAT/ information.

10 - EQUIPMENT

J / D

18 - OTHER INFORMATION

DAT / SV

In this example, the data link is ensured by both Satellite and VHF, and ADS is
available.
The following code is used:
- S...........Satellite data link
- H...........HF data link
- V...........VHF data link
- M...........SSR Mode S data link

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If RNP is expected, field 18 will also mention: NAV/RNP. (Refer to “Getting to grips with
modern navigation” brochure).
The aircraft registration is also to be notified in the Field 18. This will be used for
correlation purposes by the ATC through a comparison of it with the one contained in
the AFN logon (see here-after).
• Pre-flight checks
Prior to departing for a FANS flight, the crew will check that the required equipment is
operative. The following items are recommended to be included in those checks:
- GPS availability
- UTC time settings
- RNP capability
- Data link communications availability (e.g. Satcom logged)
- Flight Id. (on the MCDU “COMM INIT“ page)
- Airlines’ priority list of contracted DSP for FANS operations with this aircraft (refer
to §7.3.1).
If the data link is to be used a short time after the departure, the ATS Facilities
Notification (AFN) function (described here after) will have to be completed prior to take
off. As a general rule, it is worth noting that the AFN should be completed 30 to 45
minutes before entering the CPDLC/ADS air space.

4.3. ATS FACILITIES NOTIFICATION (AFN)


• Why such a function?
The aim of the ATS Facilities Notification is to tell (to notify) an ATC centre that your
aircraft is able to sustain digital communications and that you are ready to connect. It is
thus two folds:
- To inform the appropriate ATC centre of the capabilities and specifics of the
aircraft data link communications (e.g. CPDLC and/or ADS available
applications, ACARS address)
- To give the ATC centre the flight identification and aircraft registration number to
allow for a correlation with the filed flight plan.

The AFN must be successfully completed prior to any connection is being established.
The AFN can be initiated:
- Manually by the pilot (e.g. the first notification which is always manual); or
- Automatically by an ATC using the address forwarding process transparent to the
crew (refer to §4.4.2). In case this process fails, a manual connection should be
done.
The table below emphasises the ways to initiate an AFN depending on the services
provided by the “Current Data Authority” (FROM) and the “Next Data Authority” (TO).

TO
CPDLC only ADS only CPDLC & ADS
FROM
CPDLC only Automatically Automatically Automatically
ADS only Manually Manually Manually
CPDLC & ADS Automatically Automatically Automatically

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• Manual AFN
When no other CPDLC or ADS connections have been established with a previous ATC
centre, the AFN must be exercised (e.g. prior to departure, prior to entering a data link
airspace, or following a failure to re-initiate a connection)

To this end, the pilot sends a first AFN CONTACT message (FN_CON). This is done
through the NOTIFICATION page of the ATC pages on the MCDU, when the crew
enters the ICAO 4 letter code of the ATC centre and the automatic exchange of
messages between the ground and the aircraft is correctly done. The ATC centre
replies to the FN_CON by an AFN ACKNOWLEDGE (FN_ACK).

This can be monitored on the NOTIFICATION pages where the sequence


"NOTIFYING", "NOTIFIED" is displayed. (See picture 4.1).
This AFN procedure is more or less transparent to the crew, but must be understood.

Remark:

Pending the appropriate FANS stations installation in the next coming year in both Nav
Canada (Gander Oceanic) and UK NATS (Shanwick Oceanic), ADS is not true ADS.
The connection is NOT done with either of these centres, but to the ARINC Central ADS
(CADS) computer in Annapolis, which then transforms the received ADS reports into
position reports as if received by the aeradio operators and then transmitted to the
controllers via AFTN (Aero Fixed Telecom Network).

So, although the "logon" is apparently performed to the Gander or Shanwick centres
(when the crew type the 4-letter address on the NOTIFICATION page) it is indeed
connected to the CADS. ADS, or pseudo ADS, is however not a CPDLC. There is no
connection between a controller and the aircraft.
The original goal of ADS was to reduce horizontal separation, and as such ADS is
transparent to the crew: this choice of design has been done because ADS is a
surveillance tool, to be used in conjunction with communications media (CPDLC).

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MCDU

MCDU

Figure 4.1
Manual Notification

The pilot sends an AFN CONTACT message to the appropriate ATC


through the NOTIFICATION page of the MCDU (selecting “NOTIFY” Line
Select Key).

When the ATC centre receives the “AFN Contact” message, it replies by
an “AFN Acknowledge”. When this acknowledgement is received on
board, "NOTIFIED" is displayed on the NOTIFICATION page. This means
the ATC has been correctly informed of the aircraft’ datalink capabilities.

This AFN procedure is more or less transparent to the crew, but must be
understood.

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Please, bear in mind…

Pre-flight phase

ICAO F-PLN filing


The CNS/ATM capabilities of the aircraft will be notified when filing in the ICAO flight
plan.
• The data link capability is notified by a letter "J" to be entered in the field 10.
• The letter "D" is also entered in the surveillance part of that field, if ADS is
available.
• The other capabilities are given in the field 18 (Other Information) under the
DAT/ information. The following code is used:
S (Satellite data link), H (HFDL), V (VHF data link), M (SSR Mode S data link)

Pre-flight checks
Prior to departing for a FANS flight, the crew will check that the required equipment is
operative.
The following items are recommended to be included in those checks:
- GPS availability
- UTC time settings
- RNP capability
- Data link communications availability
- Flight Id. (on the MCDU “COMM INIT“ page)
- Airlines’ priority list of contracted DSP for FANS operations with this
aircraft

ATS Facilities Notification (AFN)

The aim of the ATS Facilities Notification is to:


- notify the appropriate ATC centre of the capabilities and specifics of the
aircraft data link communication applications
- give the flight identification and the aircraft registration number

When no other CPDLC or ADS connections have been established with a previous
ATC centre, the AFN must be exercised (e.g. prior to departure, prior to entering a
data link airspace).

The AFN can be initiated:


- manually by the pilot, or
- automatically by the ATSU using the address forwarding process.

The AFN must be successfully completed prior to any connection is being


established.

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4.4. CPDLC PROCEDURES


4.4.1. CPDLC CONNECTION

Once the AFN has been successfully done (“ATC NOTIFIED” on the MCDU Notification
page), the ATC centre can initiate a CPDLC connection.
Here also, an exchange of two messages (CONNECTION REQUEST and
CONNECTION CONFIRM) occurs between the ground and the aircraft to initiate the
connection. But this is transparent to the crew.

Checks are automatically done by the ATSU to validate or reject the connection:
- Connection is accepted if no previous connection already exists
- Connection is accepted if it is relative to the next data link ATC to control the aircraft
- Connection is rejected in all other cases

DCDU

MCDU

Figure 4.2
CPDLC connection
When CPDLC connection has been established, the active ATC is
indicated on both DCDU and MCDU

Note: The “Active ATC” line on the MCDU is dedicated to CPDLC connection status.

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4.4.2. CPDLC CONNECTION TRANSFER

4.4.2.1. NOTIFICATION OF TRANSFER TO THE NEXT ATC


The three following paragraphs describe a thorough explanation of the retained
mechanisation.

- The active data link ATC is usually called the Data Authority.
- The next data link ATC is usually called the Next Data Authority (NDA).

• Nominal case

To inform the aircraft avionics (i.e. ATSU box) that a transfer of control will be done, the
current active ATC sends a so-called NDA message to the aircraft. This is the only way
for the ATSU to be aware of and to accept the connection with the next ATC centre.
Once a NDA message has been received, the aircraft is waiting for the connection with
the next ATC centre.

DCDU

MCDU

Figure 4.3
Notification of transfer to the next ATC

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• Abnormal cases
If the aircraft NDA message has not been received at the time when the next ATC
centre tries to connect, this connection attempt is rejected. This is transparent to the
crew.

Whenever the controller of the transferring ATC knows the NDA message has not been
delivered, he will ask the crew for a manual AFN with the next centre. Either voice or
CPDLC can be used for this. The following phraseology is recommended:
- Controller: " Contact (ATCXXXX). Frequency YYYYY. Select ATC com off then
logon to ATCXXXX "
- Pilot: "WILCO".

4.4.2.2. TRANSFER TO THE NEXT ATC


Transfer from one Data Authority to the next one is usually done automatically and
remains transparent to the crew.
The following explanations are nevertheless given for a better understanding of the
failure cases and their associated procedures.
The automatic transfer to the next ATC is made through a so-called “Address
Forwarding Process”. The aim of the address forwarding is to forward the address of the
next ATC to the aircraft avionics.

• Automated procedures for an automatic transfer


The following sequence of message exchange should be initiated by the first ATC
around 30 minutes prior to the estimated time at the FIR boundary. The crew is
unaware of this exchange.

- The first ATC sends an AFN Contact Advisory message to the aircraft
- The aircraft acknowledges this message and sends an AFN contact message to the
next ATC
- This second ATC acknowledges the demand through an FN_ ACK message
- The aircraft sends an AFN Complete (FN_COMP) message to the first ATC, to
inform it of the completion of the AFN

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DCDU

MCDU

Figure 4.4
Transfer to the next ATC

• Abnormal cases
Whenever the previous exchanges are not successful, a manual connection is to be
done. The controller of the first ATC will ask the crew to manually send an AFN logon to
the next ATC as explained in the previous paragraph (§4.4.2.1).

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4.4.3. END OF SERVICE


A CPDLC connection with one ATC centre is usually terminated once this centre has
sent an "END SERVICE" message to the aircraft. This message is sent once all the
preparatory messages for the automatic transfer (as described in the §4.4.2) have been
exchanged. It is sent just prior to the FIR boundary. The disconnection is made
automatically and does not require any pilot action.

Upon receipt of this message the ATSU:


- Sends down a "DISCONNECT" message and physically disconnects from the
first ATC centre
- Activates the pending connection to the next ATC centre.

If the next ATC centre has not been connected to the aircraft at the time the "END
SERVICE" message is received, the aircraft is left without any connection.

There are two cases in which the avionics will terminate established connections.
- When any uplink messages remain open when the aircraft receives an END
SERVICE message,
- When the END SERVICE element is part of a multi-element message where
none of the elements require a WILCO response.
In both cases an error message will be generated to both ATS systems and a
deconnection with both ATC will occur.

If any downlink message remains open when the aircraft receives an END SERVICE
message, the avionics will close the message and terminate the CPDLC connection
with the current ATC. This will not affect the CPDLC connection with the next ATC.

Aircraft entering VHF coverage


For aircraft entering airspace where radar and air-ground VHF are provided, and the
aircraft will not cross a FIR boundary, it is not necessary to send an END SERVICE
message to disconnect CPDLC. In this case, the CPDLC connection will remain active
until termination of flight. If subsequent control sector within the FIR does not have
CPDLC capability, and local instructions do not exist telling the contrary, the controller
with jurisdiction for CPDLC must ensure that CPDLC clearances or instructions are not
issued to the aircraft while it is under the control of another sector.

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4.4.4. FAILURES OF THE CPDLC CONNECTION


As soon as a failure of the CPDLC connection is noticed by either of the flight crew
member or ground controller, voice will be used to inform the other part of the failure
and to co-ordinate further actions.
Once a connection has been lost, a complete LOGON procedure (AFN + Connection)
must re-apply.

The following procedures are recommended:

• Failure detected by the controller


- The controller, through a voice system, tells the crew to switch off his data link
system, and to reinitialise it.
- The crew access to the MCDU ATC pages and reinitialises the connection through
the complete AFN from the NOTIFICATION pages.

• Failure detected by the aircraft


- The pilot, through voice, notifies the controller of the problem.
- He restarts the CPDLC connection through the complete AFN from the
NOTIFICATION pages

4.4.5. CPDLC SHUTDOWN


The following procedures should be followed whenever a shutdown occurs:

• Planned shutdown:
- It should be notified through NOTAM, Voice is to be used

• Unplanned shutdown, notified by the ground:


- The controller, through voice, informs the crews of the shutdown using the following
phraseology: "CPDLC shutdown. Select ATC Com Off. Continue on voice"
- The pilot acknowledges: "Select ATC com off. Continue on voice"
- The pilot continues on voice until further ATC notification.

• Unplanned shutdown, notified by the crew:


- The crew notifies the controller of the shutdown through the voice phraseology:
"CPDLC shutdown. Select ATC com off. Continue on voice"
- The controller acknowledges: " Roger. Continue on voice".

In all the three above cases, ATC / AOC co-ordination is recommended.

• CPDLC Resumption
Once CPDLC can be resumed, the following voice phraseology applies:
- The controller, through voice, announces: "CPDLC operational. Logon to (ATC
XXXX)
- The pilot answers: "Logon to XXXX"

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4.4.6.ABNORMAL CASES AT THE TIME OF TRANSFER OF CONNECTION


• Non delivery of the END SERVICE
Whenever the controller is aware that the "END SERVICE" message has not been
successful, he will tell (by voice) the crew to manually disconnect.
Voice will be used until the connection with the next ATC has been done.
The recommended voice phraseology is:
- Controller: "Select ATC Com Off then logon to ATCXXXX"
- Pilot: "Select ATC Com Off then logon to ATCXXXX"

• Automatic connection transfer not successful


Before crossing the boundary of the second data link ATC centre, the crew should have
checked that the connection is well established with this ATC.
Whenever the crew is aware that the connection with the first ATC centre is not
terminated (e.g. at the time when a first position report to the next ATC) he should follow
the recommended procedure:
- Advise the first ATC of the situation by voice
- Manual disconnect from the current ATC
- Logon to the next ATC
- Send a CPDLC position report at the FIR boundary to the second ATC

4.4.7.RECOMMENDATIONS FOR EXCHANGE OF CPDLC MESSAGES


This chapter depicts the various operational points for a proper understanding and use
of the CPDLC system. It also provides for recommendations directly based on the
lessons learned in the South Pacific operations.
A list of all the up and down link messages supported by the CPDLC system is given in
Appendix A.

4.4.7.1. TO BE KNOWN
Pending for the ATN, as long as the FANS A ACARS based protocols exist, both pilot
and controllers cannot know whether a message has been delivered to their right
counterpart.
However, the following is worth noting:
- Whenever the controller sends a message to an aircraft, a message assurance is
triggered to indicate the controller that his message has reached the right aircraft
(but this does not mean the message has been displayed and read by the pilot
- Whenever the crew sends a message to a controller, the "SENDING" then
"SENT" indications displayed on the DCDU, indicates that the message has been
delivered to the network. This does not mean the message has been displayed
and read by the relevant controller.
Should any doubt or problem occur when dialoguing through CPDLC, voice should
be resumed.

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4.4.7.2. USE AND CONTEXT OF MESSAGES


• Usual answers
Most of the clearances can be directly answered through appropriate answer keys on
the DCDU. According to the recommended international rules, the 5 following closure
responses may be used as appropriate: WILCO, ROGER, AFFIRM, UNABLE,
NEGATIVE.
It is then important that the crew is fully aware of the right meaning and implications of
these answers. The following lists the recognised statements for these response
elements:
- WILCO: This down link message tells the controller that the pilot will comply fully with
the clearance/instruction contained in the associated up link message
- UNABLE: Through this either up or down link message the pilot or the controller
informs/is informed that the request(s) contained in the associated message cannot be
complied with
- STANDBY: Through this either up or down link message the pilot or the controller is
informed that the request is being assessed and there will be a short term delay (within
10 minutes). The exchange is not closed and the request will be answered when
conditions allow.
- ROGER: Through this either up or down link message the pilot or the controller
informs/is informed that the content of the associated message has been received and
understood. ROGER is the only correct response to any up link free text message.
ROGER shall not be used instead of AFFIRM.
- AFFIRM: Whether up or down link, AFFIRM means YES and is an appropriate
response to up linked message of negotiation request (e.g. "CAN YOU ACCEPT FL 350
AT ALCOA?").
- NEGATIVE: Whether up or down link, NEGATIVE means NO and is an appropriate
response to up linked message of negotiation request (e.g. "CAN YOU ACCEPT FL 350
AT ALCOA?").

• Meaning of other messages

- DISREGARD: This up link message means that the previous up link shall be ignored.
DISREGARD should not refer to an instruction or clearance. Another element shall be
added to clarify which message is to be disregarded.
- CONFIRM: The present parameter (e.g. position, altitude, speed...) is awaited by the
controller whenever CONFIRM XXXX is used. The DCDU will automatically propose to
the crew the current FMS target linked to the considered parameter. Sending this
answer is done directly on the DCDU. Should the crew be not satisfied with the
proposed answer, he then could modify before sending.
- CONFIRM ASSIGNED: The currently assigned parameter (e.g. altitude, speed, route)
is awaited by the controller whenever CONFIRM ASSIGNED XXXX is used.

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4.4.7.3. EXPECTED DELAYS IN RESPONDING TO CPDLC MESSAGES


Delays depend upon numerous varying factors and happen to be more or less random
and unpredictable. Waiting for a better consolidation of the three availability, integrity
and accuracy elements as expected with the ATN, the current FANS A performance
requirements have been given for the South Pacific operations:
- Down link: An end-to-end transit delay of 60 seconds or less for 95% of delivered
messages. Transit being measured as the difference in the timestamp of the
ground controller station and that of the sending action of the pilot.

- Up link: A 120 second round trip delay on 95%. Round trip being obtained by
comparing the time the up link is sent from the controller system against the time
the message assurance (indicating successful delivery) was received back to the
ground controller station. To be noted that a 6 minute round trip delay is also
aimed at on 99%.
As an order of magnitude both controller and pilot should consider that it takes up to
one minute for a message to be received, around 30 seconds for the pilot or controller
to take action and respond and up to one other minute for the reply to be received.
STANDBY answers assume that a further response should come within the next 10
minutes. The message thus remains open. If the controller does not respond within this
time the pilot shall send an inquiry. In no case should a duplicate message be sent (this
would cause failure of the system).

4.4.7.4. RECOMMENDED ANSWERS TO REQUEST AND CLEARANCES


• Affirmative answer to a clearance
WILCO is to be used. Pilot will then fully comply with the clearance or instruction

• Affirmative answer to a negotiation request


AFFIRM is to be used whenever an up linked negotiation request is approved (e.g.
"CAN YOU ACCEPT FL 350 AT 1030Z")

• Negative answer to a negotiation request


NEGATIVE is to be used whenever an up linked negotiation request is not approved
(e.g. "CAN YOU ACCEPT FL 350 AT 1030Z")

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4.4.7.5. POSITION REPORT


• General recommendations
- Only compulsory reporting points (unless requested otherwise by ATC) shall be
reported by either voice, CPDLC or ADS for the "POSITION" and "NEXT
POSITION". In particular, when ADS is used, only ATC reporting points will be
entered in the FMS F-PLN. This will avoid that reports are triggered immediately
and at unknown fixes.

- Whenever ADS is not used, CPDLC position reporting will be done once the
waypoint is passed over (or abeam when an offset is in progress). Use of the
POSITION REPORT message (as given on the MCDU ATC pages) is expected.

- The first CPDLC position report is expected to be sent:


. after the completion of the initial connection, or
. after the transfer of connection from one centre to the next one, or
. when crossing the FIR boundary

- Updating the estimate for a given waypoint should be done through a free text
message in the form of e.g. "REVISED ETA ALCOA 1034"

- Whenever a position report is not received by the ground, the controller may ask
for it through the CPDLC up link: "REQUEST POSITION REPORT"

- The use of the automatic position report capability should be preferred to manual
position report where CPDLC position reporting is needed.
• Sequencing Abeam waypoints
The FMS does not sequence the active waypoint when the aircraft is abeam this point
by more than 7 NM. In this case, the waypoint is not sequenced on the CPDLC report
message. It is thus recommended to use the offset function of the FMS so as to send
true position reports. Once again, and specially in RNP or FANS route, updating the
flight plan is highly recommended.

• ARINC 424 Waypoints


Since FANS A is operated, some issues have been highlighted concerning Waypoints
Position Reporting (WPR) to ATC centres when encoded in ARINC 424 (format used to
code FMS Navigation Database, but not recognised by ground systems). The problem
is that waypoints that use ARINC 424 encoding scheme, which allows latitude and
longitude to be encoded in 5 characters (e.g. 7560N for N75W060), are not interpreted
properly by some ground systems, which try to decode them as latitude and longitude
and may end up with something completely different.

The issue is limited to ATC communication (CPDLC) for reporting Ident Waypoint coded
in Arinc424. ADS does not use identifiers, but reports all lat./long waypoints, including
the Reported Waypoint (in the Basic group) or a Waypoint Change Event report, Next
and Next+1 waypoints (in the Predicted Route Group), as well as all those that force
track, speed or altitude changes and are reported as “ADS Intent points”.

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Many ATC centres cannot accept position reports containing latitude and longitude
(Lat./Long) in ARINC 424 format (e.g. 4050N). Position reports containing Lat./Long
waypoints within these areas will be accepted in whole latitude and longitude format
only. Flights unable to send position reports in whole latitude and longitude format must
accomplish position reporting via HF voice.

4.4.7.6. MULTI-ELEMENT MESSAGES


- It is highly recommended to avoid potential ambiguity, that the crews do not send
multiple clearance requests in a single message.
- Pilots should send one message per clearance element.

4.4.7.7. DUPLICATE MESSAGES


• General
- As a general rule, duplicate messages, which can cause potential ambiguity,
should be carefully avoided.
- To avoid the risk of duplicate messages, incoming request messages shall be
answered as soon as possible
• Re-sending of a message
After a reasonable period without answer to his request, the crew may elect to re-
send a message. In that case, he should do this in the form of a query, not a
duplicate of the first request. In the case for instance where the initial request was
"REQUEST CLIMB TO FL 350", the second attempt should be "WHEN CAN WE
EXPECT FL 350".

4.4.7.8. USE OF FREE TEXT


Free text messages cannot be treated by the automated station of the controller as
standard ATC messages. As such, no correlation between the free text and its answer
can be provided. Automatic pre-formatted answers cannot be provided in response to a
free text. This thus increases the controller workload, the response time and the risk of
input errors.

- Free text messages should be avoided as much as possible.


- Use of free text is to be considered only when the pre-formatted messages do
not allow for a specific message element.
- Standard ATC phraseology should be used in free text and abbreviations should
be avoided.

Remark: "Standardised free text" messages have been developed and agreed upon
by the main FANS actors of the South Pacific area, to cope with the lack of pre-
formatted functions.

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4.4.7.9. MESSAGE CLOSURE


Among the basic assumptions and rules which have presided to the design of the
CPDLC system, the closure of a message is one of the most important to be known by
the crews. Open messages are prone to potential ambiguity and system issues. They
should be avoided as far as possible.
Pilots should be prompt to answer the received messages and to clean up their DCDU
with the "CLOSE" prompt.

They should be aware of the following definitions, which apply:

- A message is open as long as an associated response is not received

- A message which needs not an answer is closed once received

- A message is closed when its associated response, other than STANDBY or


REQUEST DEFERRED, is received.

Free text message received on board will be closed once ROGER has been answered.
ROGER is the sole response to any up linked free text.

4.4.7.10. EMERGENCY PROCEDURES

Pilots should be aware of the CPDLC emergency procedures, which apply in the
considered area. The emergency mode is activated through the EMERGENCY prompt
of the ATC menu page.
In particular, they should know what can be expected from the controller once the
emergency mode is triggered.
The general rules usually apply:

- The controller shall immediately acknowledge receipt of an emergency message,


which has been sent by the pilot (e.g. MAYDAY or PAN). Either voice or CPDLC free
text will be used. If free text is used, the crew is not required to close it through the
"ROGER" reply.

- The controller shall also attempt a voice contact after he has acknowledged an
emergency message through CPDLC

- If CPDLC is the best (or the sole) means for communications, the current controller
will keep the connection active to provide the assistance. In particular, no transfer
(either automatic or manual) of connection will be done.

Remark: When both CPDLC and ADS are active, sending an emergency message
through CPDLC automatically switches the ground ADS contract to the "High Periodic
Reporting rate" (ADS Emergency mode). Conversely, sending the CPDLC "CANCEL
EMERGENCY" message deactivates the ADS emergency mode.

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Please, bear in mind…


CPDLC Connection
• Once the AFN has been successfully done, the ATC centre can initiate a
CPDLC connection (transparent to the crew).
• Checks are automatically done by the ATSU to validate or reject the
connection:
- Connection is accepted if no previous connection already exists or, it is
relative to the next data link ATC to control the aircraft
- Connection is rejected in all other cases
• Once connection is established, the active connected ATC centre is then
displayed on the DCDU, and on the CONNECTION STATUS page of the
MCDU.

Failures of the CPDLC connection


• As soon as a failure of the CPDLC connection is noticed by either the crew or
the ground controller, voice will be used to inform the other part of the failure
and to co-ordinate further actions.
• Once a connection has been lost, a complete LOGON procedure (AFN +
Connection) must be done.

Transfer to the next ATC


• To inform the aircraft avionics (i.e. ATSU) that a transfer of control will
occurred, the current active ATC sends a so-called NDA message (Next Data
Authority) to the aircraft. This is the only way for the ATSU to be aware of and
to accept the connection with the next ATC centre.
• Once a NDA message has been received, the aircraft is waiting for the
connection with the next ATC centre.
• Under normal circumstances the CPDLC connection should be established
with the Next Data Authority prior to the connection between the aircraft and
the current data authority being terminated

To be noticed
Pending the ATN, as long as the FANS A ACARS based protocols is used, both pilot
and controllers cannot know whether a message has been delivered to their right
counterpart.

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4.5. ADS PROCEDURES


4.5.1. ATS NOTIFICATION AND ADS CONNECTION
The AFN procedure as described in §4.3 is to be applied to initiate an ADS connection
with the desired ATC centre.
The ATC centre can establish ADS contracts once the AFN has been done either
manually via the MCDU or automatically through a transfer from a previous ATC centre.
As soon as the ATSU is initialised, the ADS application is armed, waiting for a possible
connection:
- With the current FANS A design, ADS is ON by default, which is slightly misleading.
Until an ATC centre initiates a contract, ADS remains armed (refer to the examples
here after).
- In addition, there is no means for the crew to know whether or not ADS is operative.
On the NOTIFICATION page, "NOTIFIED" is displayed once the notification has
been done, but this does not mean that the ADS is launched. On the CONNECTION
STATUS page as well as on the DCDU, nothing is displayed (NO ACTIVE ATC for
the DCDU and the ACTIVE ATC is dashed ---, on the MCDU page). These two
devices are devoted to CPDLC only.

In the FANS A+ package, the initial FANS A HMI (as defined here above) has been
modified to provide additional information relative to ADS/CPDLC connections.

FANS-A FANS-A+
"OFF"
ADS "OFF"
"ARMED"
Connection Status on MCDU "ON"
"CONNECTED"

ADS "ADS Connected (X)"


No Information where X is the number of
Connection Status on DCDU connections

MCDU / DCDU ADS Connection status

Note: The ADS system must be set to “ON” (or “ARMED” with FANS A+), prior to
perform an ATC notification. This setting is the default status.

With FANS A+, ADS connection status will stay on “ARMED” after AFN until at least
one contract has been established. At this time, the ADS status switches to
“CONNECTED”. This is not the case with FANS A, for which ADS status is “ON” before
and after a contract establishment (see examples hereafter).

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FANS A vs. FANS A+ MCDU HMI

FANS A MCDU HMI FANS A+ MCDU HMI

Notification done / Waiting for a connection (ADS or CPDLC)

ADS status is « ON » on the MCDU ADS status is « ARMED » on the


page. But it does not mean that ADS MCDU page. The ADS status is given
contracts have been set up. In fact, without ambiguity.
here ADS is just «armed”, waiting for
contracts

An ADS connection occurred

ADS status is still « ON » on the ADS status is now “CONNECTED”. We


MCDU page. But is this example, clearly know that the ADS application is
contract(s) has(have) been set up. sending reports to at least one ATC.

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FANS A DCDU HMI FANS A+ DCDU HMI


No CPDLC and No ADS connections

Even if there are no connections, the CPDLC When there are no connections, the default
connection status is displayed. screen is black.

There is no CPDLC connection, but 2 ADS contracts have been set up.

In case of ADS-only, the information given by There is no ambiguity regarding the ADS
the DCDU screen can be misleading. Even if status on the DCDU screen
there is “NO active ATC”, ADS contract could
have been set up.

CPDLC and 2 ADS connections are active

DCDU is devoted to CPDLC application. No DCDU is devoted to both CPDLC & ADS
information relative to ADS contracts are applications. Information relative to ADS
available contracts are available

A CPDLC connection exists, but no ADS contract has been set up.

We can not see that no ADS contracts has We can see that no ADS contracts has been
been set-up (ADS is “ON” or “OFF”) set-up. (ADS is either “OFF” or “ARMED”)

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4.5.2. ADS CONNECTIONS MANAGEMENT


The ADS connection management is transparent to the crew, but is under the
responsibility of the ATC centre in charge of the flight.

4.5.2.1. ADS CONNECTION PRIORITIES:


FANS A equipped aircraft can have up to five ADS connections. One of the five
connections is reserved for use of the AOC. The aircraft has the capability to report to
four different ATC simultaneously using ADS.
The FANS A system does not assign technical priority to ADS connections; therefore,
the controlling ATC may not be aware of other connections established with the aircraft.
In order to manage these connections, a procedural hierarchy controlled by the Address
Forwarding process (§ 4.4.2.2) has been established.

4.5.2.2. ALLOCATION OF ADS CONNECTIONS:


Using the Address Forwarding process, the current controlling authority shall allocate
ADS connection priority to the next ATC that will have air traffic control responsibility for
the aircraft. The priority for the allocation of ADS connections shall be in accordance
with the following list:
1. The Current Data Authority,
2. The Next Data Authority,
3. An ATC requiring a connection for monitoring operations close to a FIR border,
4. Airline AOC
5. Other miscellaneous connections.

Remark: It is to be noticed that in the FANS A+ package, an MCDU “ADS DETAIL”


page lists ATC centres with active ADS contracts. They can easily be disconnected
through the appropriate right Line Select Key (LSK) of the MCDU.

In the example given through this figure, four centres have set up ADS contracts.
Pressing the appropriate LSK cancels the ADS contract established by the
corresponding ATC centre.

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4.5.3. POSITION REPORTING WITH ADS


Initially CPDLC was used for position reporting, but using the possibility of ADS to send
position co-ordinates, some areas (such as NAT) has developed possibility to use ADS
for position reporting. The way to report position by CPDLC or ADS is mentioned in
AIPs of concerned area. In all cases, HF voice is on stand by to be use as a back up.

4.5.3.1. CPDLC REPORT AT FIR ENTRY POSITION


When an ATC has nominated the use of ADS reporting only within the associated FIR,
an HF or CPDLC position report at the FIR entry position is still required to confirm that
the ATC holds the status of Current Data Authority. Following the initial report at the
boundary, no further CPDLC or voice position reports will be required for operations
within the FIR.

4.5.3.2. UPDATING WAYPOINT ESTIMATES


ATS should publish in the AIP that pilots are not required to update estimates for
waypoints when the aircraft is reporting by ADS in airspace where additional CPDLC or
voice reports are not required.
Exceptions to this rule are that updates to estimates are required when:
- An estimate previously advised by voice or by CPDLC will change by more than
2 minutes
- A pilot-initiated action, such as a change in speed, will change the estimate for
the next reporting point by more than 2 minutes
Here also, and to a greater extent, whenever ADS is used, only ATC reporting points
should be entered in the FMS F-PLN. This will avoid immediate reports triggering at
unknown fixes.

4.5.4. ADS CONNECTIONS CLOSURE


ADS is transparent to the crew. In particular, contracts can not be modified from the
aircraft. An individual ADS connection may be stopped from the ground or manually by
the crew (FANS A+ only) through the ADS DETAIL page of the MCDU ATC menu.

ADS contracts and connections should normally be terminated by the ground system
when the:
- Aircraft has crossed any FIR boundary and has passed beyond the normal "back
co-ordination" parameter
- Aircraft's flight plan has been cancelled or has finished

Note: Once the ATC centre has been notified ("NOTIFIED" is displayed on the MCDU),
the ADS should not be set to off, unless instructed to do so (e.g. ATC request).
If the ADS is set to off, the ATC centre can no longer be provided with ADS
reports.

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4.5.5. ROUTE OFFSET


The accuracy of the ADS intent and predicted route information is of prime importance
when it is to be used by the ATC centre to allow for reduced lateral and /or longitudinal
separation.

If an offset is manually flown, in a Heading Select mode for instance, both the intent and
predictions as sent by the FMS for ADS purpose, may be incorrect. A Waypoint will not
be sequenced if the position is beyond 7NM from this point.

It is then recommended that the crew keeps updated his FMS flight plan, and that he
uses the FMS Offset function. When an Offset is flown with the FMS, the intent and
predicted route information will be provided along the offset route.

4.5.6. ADS SHUTDOWN


When a shutdown occurs the controller will advise the crew of the requirements for the
position reports.
If CPDLC is still available, the controller shall send a CPDLC free text: "ADS
SHUTDOWN. REVERT TO ATC DATALINK POSITION REPORT"
As for any free text the pilot will answer "ROGER".

4.5.7. EMERGENCY PROCEDURES


The emergency mode can be activated either by the pilot or the controller, and is
normally cancelled by the pilot. This activation is done through the EMERGENCY
prompt accessed on the MCDU ATC page. When selected, the ATSU immediately
sends a message to all ATC centres that currently have periodic or event contracts
established with that aircraft.

This means that all the established connections switch to this emergency mode and the
High Reporting Rate will be automatically selected.

The controller in charge of the flight shall acknowledge any ADS emergency message.
This is done through either a voice contact or a free text CPDLC message.
The following phraseology is then expected: "ROGER MAYDAY" or "ROGER PAN".

It is to be noticed that when the pilot cancels the emergency mode, the existing
contracts are unaffected by this cancellation.

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4.6. ATS623 APPLICATIONS


The ATS623 applications (Airbus implementation of AEEC623) are an option of the
FANS A+ package.
As a first step to a greater use of data link applications, and pending for a greater
maturity of standardised services, Airbus has decided to implement only three
AEEC623 applications:
- Departure Clearance (DCL)
- Oceanic Clearance (OCL)
- Digital – Automatic Terminal Information Service (D-ATIS)

Operating these applications is done with both the DCDU and the MCDU. Although very
similar to the current FANS A functions, differences exist and must be kept in mind:
- ATS623 exchanges do not require a permanent connection between the ground
and the aircraft systems
- ATS623 exchanges have been built upon voice exchanges: crew request, ground
clearance, crew read-back and ground confirmation. This was a requirement
from the Airworthiness Authorities.
- ATS623 exchanges do not allow for any data-link refusal of a clearance
- No Time stamp information are available for ATS623 exchanges.

It is to be noted that in case similar applications have been customised through AOC
(ACARS) contracts, these will no longer be available should the ATS623 package be
chosen. This means that AOC DCL or OCL will no longer be sent from a customised
AOC page.

However, customised AOC functions such as Pre-Departure Clearance (PDC), which is


not compliant with the AEEC 623 specifications, will remain possible through the
ACARS.

Note: ATS623 applications are not FANS applications, but are considered as such
because using the DCDU/MCDU to exchange messages.

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Example: Standard Departure Clearance Communication Scenario

Aircraft ATC center

Ground DSP

1- M CDU +
DCDU Request DCL
‘ sending ’
NAT ACK DSP

‘ sent ’
Clearance

2- ATC
MSG + DCDU
NAT = Network Acknowledgement Timer
AUCT = ATC Uplink Confirmation Timer

3-
DCDU Answer (ACK)
‘ sending ’
NAT ACK DSP
‘ sent ’
AUCT

Confirmed

4-
ATC
MSG +
DCDU

Figure 4.5 : DCL communication scenario

1- Departure Clearance request: The DEPARTURE CLEARANCE request is prepared


on the MCDU, displayed on the DCDU and sent to the ground.

2- Departure Clearance reception: An uplink clearance is received: the aural and visual
warnings are activated, and the message is displayed on the DCDU.

3- Departure Clearance readback: If the pilot accepts the clearance, he selects the
proposed ACK answer on the DCDU and sends it to the ground together with the
clearance.

4- Departure Clearance confirmation: The ground confirms that the acknowledgement


for this clearance has been received, this is displayed on the DCDU.
If the crew prefer to REFUSE the received clearance (step 3), then no downlink
message is sent to the ground and this must be done by voice contact: this is indicated
on the DCDU when REFUSE is selected.

Note: An operational scenario can be found in Appendix I.

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Please, bear in mind…

ADS Connections
• An ATC centre can establish ADS contracts once the AFN has been performed.
• FANS A equipped aircraft can have up to five ADS connections.
One of these is reserved to the AOC.
The aircraft has the capability to report to four different ATC centres
simultaneously using ADS.
• Different types of ADS "contracts" exist:
- periodic: the data are sent at periodic time intervals.
- on demand: the data are sent only when asked for.
- on event: the data are sent whenever a specified event occurs.
• ADS is transparent to the crew. In particular, contracts can not be modified from
the aircraft. A connection may be stopped from the ground or manually by the
crew through the CONNECTION STATUS page of the MCDU ATC menu
• ADS contracts and connections should normally be terminated by the ground
system when the:
- Aircraft has crossed a FIR boundary
- Aircraft's flight plan has been cancelled or has finished
• A Waypoint will not be sequenced if the position is offset by more 7NM aside from
this point. When an offset is flown, it is recommended that the crew keeps
updated his FMS flight plan, and that he uses the FMS Offset function.

ADS shutdown
When a shutdown occurs the controller will advise the crew of the requirements for
the position reports (by voice or CPDLC).

ADS Emergency
• The emergency mode can be activated either by the pilot or the controller, and is
normally cancelled by the pilot. When selected on the MCDU ATC page, the FMS
immediately sends a message to all ATC centres that currently have contracts
established with that aircraft.
• The controller in charge of the flight shall acknowledge any ADS emergency
message.

ATS623
• Pending for a greater maturity of standardised services, Airbus has decided to
implement only three AEEC623 applications:
- Departure Clearance (DCL)
- Oceanic Clearance (OCL)
- Digital – Automatic Terminal Information Service (D-ATIS)
• In case similar applications have been customised through AOC (ACARS)
contracts, these will no longer be available should the ATS623 package be
chosen (e.g. AOC DCL or OCL will no longer be sent from a customised AOC
page).
• However, ,customised AOC functions such as Pre-Departure Clearance (PDC),
which is not compliant with the AEEC 623 specifications, will remain possible
through the ACARS.

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5. FANS A EVOLUTION ............................................................................................78
5.1. FANS A Enhanced ADS .............................................................................78
5.2. FANS A+ (FANS A System Evolution)......................................................78
5.2.1. FANS A+ Basics ................................................................................79
5.2.1.1. Enhancements to the Human-Machine Interface (HMI) ................................... 79
5.2.1.2. Improvements related to the CPDLC service.................................................... 80
5.2.1.3. DataLink Service Provider (DSP) worldmap ..................................................... 81
5.2.1.4. ATSU router customisation via loadable database ........................................... 81
5.2.1.5. BITE (Built-In Test Equipment) improvement ................................................... 81

5.2.2. FANS A+ Options ..............................................................................82


5.2.2.1. HF DataLink (HFDL) ......................................................................................... 82
5.2.2.2. High speed VHF datalink (VDL mode2) ............................................................ 83
5.2.2.3. Wired High speed dataloading capability (AEEC 615a) ................................... 83
5.2.2.4. clearances and digital atis applications (ATS623) ............................................ 84

5.2.3. FANS A+ Retrofits .............................................................................84

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5. FANS A EVOLUTION

5.1. FANS A ENHANCED ADS


The issues concerning aircraft position reporting through ADS with FANS A over North
Atlantic have been solved as detailed in Appendix J (OIT/FOT Ref. “SE
999.0001/03/VHR”).

5.2. FANS A+ (FANS A SYSTEM EVOLUTION)


Since certified on both A330 and A340 aircraft in July 2000, FANS A has been used by
numerous operators in various areas such as the Pacific Ocean, the North Atlantic
Ocean or even the Indian Ocean. These three years of operations and an active
participation in numerous international forums for CNS/ATM implementation have led to
the introduction of new services and of modifications so as to satisfy to interoperability
and standardisation requirements. The aim of this chapter is thus to list and to describe
the main points that are addressed by this new standard of FANS A services.

The objectives of this new standard FANS A+ are two-fold:


• To improve the current package of FANS A services (FANS A+ basics)
• To extend the use of data link services (FANS A+ options)

Improvements address points coming from feedback from operators (e.g. ADS
information on DCDU), interoperability and standardisation objectives (e.g. addition of
CPDLC elements to clarify some messages) or have been dictated by improvement of
Human Machine Interface (HMI) or by functional evolutions (e.g. availability of the
"LOAD" command on the DCDU).

New data link services have also been added with the introduction of :
- VDL mode 2, so as to increase the capacity for ATC communications
- HFDL capability for ATC (once this service is approved)
- Departure and Oceanic clearances together with Digital-ATIS applications
(ATS623)
- High speed dataloading capability (AEEC 615A)
These services are optional and may be chosen separately according to the airlines
needs and types of operations.

Note: The following evolutions are independent of the software update providing an
enhanced ADS (detailed in §5.1) and will be basics for A330/A340 at the entry into
service since January 2004.

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5.2.1. FANS A+ BASICS

5.2.1.1. ENHANCEMENTS TO THE HUMAN-MACHINE INTERFACE (HMI)


In the FANS A+ package, the initial FANS A HMI has been modified to provide
additional information relative to:
- ADS/CPDLC Connections
- CPDLC Message and functions

• ADS (Modifications on MCDU):


- MCDU “CONNECTION STATUS” page specifies if ADS is either "ARMED",
"CONNECTED" or "OFF" (as detailed in § 4.5.1).

- MCDU “ADS DETAIL” page lists ATC centres with active ADS contracts. They
can easily be disconnected separately through the appropriate right Line Select
Key (LSK) of the MCDU (as detailed in § 4.5.2).

• Modifications on DCDU:
- FANS A DCDU was designed to be operated in an ADS/CPDLC environment, as
it was foreseen in the CNS/ATM concept. In case of ADS-only regions, the
DCDU HMI indicates “NO ACTIVE ATC”. This message refers to the CPDLC
status only, and does not mean there are no ADS contracts established with the
aircraft. So as to improve the knowledge of the ADS status, an ADS indication
has been added on the DCDU (refer to §4.5.1)
- Previous «NO ACTIVE ATC» indication (on CPDLC status) has been removed in
FANS A+.

• DCDU indications in case of failures


In any abnormal conditions as regards the CPDLC services, positive information is
provided on the DCDU screen whenever appropriate.
In this case, the pilot (through voice) must notify the current ATC of the problem and
restart the CPDLC connection through the complete AFN procedure from the MCDU
NOTIFICATION pages (refer §4.3).

• Crew awareness in case of no reply from the ATC


Whenever an ATC reply has not been received after 5 minutes, the crew is warned by a
message on the DCDU.
- If the request is still displayed, the indication is just added on the DCDU.
- If the request had been closed, it is then automatically recalled and displayed
again with the "NO ATC REPLY" indication.

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5.2.1.2. IMPROVEMENTS RELATED TO THE CPDLC SERVICE.


They have been added in agreement with international FANS inter-operability groups
that have been working on CNS/ATM implementations in various parts of the world.

• Addition of information on Report messages


When needed, the following message elements are now automatically proposed as part
of the down-link message: "CLIMBING TO", "DESCENDING TO" or "DEVIATING TO".
They are part of the Report messages, and are proposed wherever appropriate by the
FMS.

• Discarding old up-link messages


To prevent operational misunderstanding due to delayed messages presentation
(because of ACARS networks' performance), some ATC centres will ask, in a near
future, the crews to set a maximum value for an acceptable delay.
This request, done via CPDLC the message: "SET MAX UPLINK DELAY VALUE TO
xxx SEC", will be displayed on the DCDU. The crew will set the value on the
CONNECTION STATUS page in the MAX UPLINK DELAY field.
Messages received beyond this maximum elapsed time will be discarded (not displayed
on the DCDU). An error message will be sent to the ground indicating that the related
delayed message has been discarded by the airborne system.

Figure 5.1

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• The "Back On Route" Message after an offset has been flown


When offsets are flown in areas where CPDLC is the first means of communication, to
avoid the use of a free text to inform the ATC once back on the initial route, the "Back
On Route" pre-formatted message has been added on the MCDU ATC REPORTS
page.

Figure 5.2

5.2.1.3. DATALINK SERVICE PROVIDER (DSP) WORLDMAP


In order to optimise Frequency, Media and DSP selection, an algorithm (VHF
Worldmap) lists the VHF datalink service providers available in each geographical area.
The ATSU router automatically selects a VHF frequency depending on the aircraft
position in accordance with the scan mask entered by the airline.

5.2.1.4. ATSU ROUTER CUSTOMISATION VIA LOADABLE DATABASE


Configuration of the ATSU Router (SCAN MASK and A/L IDENT parameters) can be
achieved through a loadable database. MCDU inputs inhibition for those parameters is
also achieved via loading of a customised ATSU router database.

5.2.1.5. BITE (BUILT-IN TEST EQUIPMENT) IMPROVEMENT


The system capacity to auto-diagnose its failures (or those of its peripherals) has been
improved to limit the number of inopportune messages, which harm the correct
breakdown service of the system.

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5.2.2. FANS A+ OPTIONS

5.2.2.1. HF DATALINK (HFDL)


• HFDL for ATC purpose
HF Data Link (HFDL) is an optional function of the FANS A package that has been
certified only for AOC purpose (as explained in §2.2.1.3). HFDL for ATC purpose will be
certified with FANS A+ and we can reasonably hope that it will soon be approved for
ATC communications.

For this reason, although HFDL is not yet approved by airworthiness authorities as a
medium for ATC communications or surveillance functions, it has been decided to
remove the “lock" installed on current FANS A, and allow for the use of HFDL as a
tertiary means of communication for data link ATC messages. The reason behind this is
that operational trials have started in some parts of the world, to demonstrate that HFDL
could be used for ATC. Good results have so far been gathered. HFDL performance
happens to be better than current HF voice.

• Operational use of HFDL

As there is only one HF antenna to support the use of either HFDL or HF voice, some
operational constraints exist that have to be understood. HF voice and HFDL cannot be
used at the same time, and as per the international aeronautical rule (AEEC 753), HFDL
is inhibited for 60 seconds whenever HF voice has been used for transmission. This 60
seconds limitation is justified by the need for a possible HF voice reply to any HF voice
initiated from the aircraft. So as not to disturb this reply, HFDL is thus inhibited
momentarily.

This one minute limitation is arguable: in some poor conditions of propagation, one
minute may not be sufficient. The above mentioned rule however, recommends an
inhibition in between 30 and 120 seconds. 60 seconds were chosen on Airbus aircraft.
When HFDL is used, the aircraft may be emitting for slots of 2.5 seconds every 32
seconds.

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5.2.2.2. HIGH SPEED VHF DATALINK (VDL MODE2)


VHF Data Link mode2 (as described in §2.2.1) is an optional function of the FANS A+
package that allows higher data rate than VDL mode A.

• VDL-2 operations
Although both the current VDL mode A and VDL mode 2 are available in the ATSU, only
one of them can be used at the same time. Although mostly developed to overcome the
current ACARS networks congestion, the VDL-2 should be used for ATC purpose. It has
indeed started to be used in two ATC centres (Maastricht and Miami) and will be
implemented in other ATC over the next years.

VDL-2 ensures a communication function, and as such is not dependent of any


application. Current AOC applications can be transferred to VDL-2 without modification.
The figure given in Appendix C gives the current deployment of VDL-2 ground stations.
(ARINC courtesy). As can be seen, deployment over continental US airspace is large. It
must be noted that another service provider (namely SITA) has already taken the
needed provisions on their ground stations throughout both Europe and USA for a quick
upgrade to VDL- 2.

5.2.2.3. WIRED HIGH SPEED DATALOADING CAPABILITY (AEEC 615A)


• General:
The ATSU has now the capability to support wired high speed data loading specification
AEEC-615A (Ethernet loading usually called ARINC-615A), which enables airlines to
save additional operating costs. This new feature reduces software data loading
duration with a factor of 5 at a minimum and introduce also a full ATSU software
configuration management (including the AOC ) to ease maintenance operations.

On board high speed dataloading requires installation of:


- a dedicated plug in the avionics bay
- an hardware modification, which consists in integrating an Ethernet module in the
ATSU

• Benefits:
A joint utilisation of a high-speed-dataloading ATSU and of a SDL/PDL provides the
following benefits:
- Reduced dataloading time with a factor of five at a minimum
- Compatible with AEEC 615-3 and AEEC 615A
- Facilitated maintenance operation:
. reduce manual intervention between loads
. capacity to load customised airline configuration
. user-friendly dataloader design
. trouble shooting aids in case of loading issue

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5.2.2.4. CLEARANCES AND DIGITAL ATIS APPLICATIONS (ATS623)

• ATS623 Main HMI principles


In Appendix I, a departure clearance scenario is proposed to depict the main points that
are linked to the three applications.

• Operational use of ATS623


As part of the certification, the operational conditions for a use of the ATS623 is as
follows:
- Pre-flight and En-Route phases for both DCL and OCL
- All flight phases for D-ATIS
- During Take off and landing phases, all associated uplinks are inhibited.
They indeed are put in a buffer and are displayed once out off the inhibition phases.

Although very similar to FANS A as far as the DCDU and MCDU displays and handling
are concerned, the ATS623 operations do present some differences that have to be
known (refer to 4.6).

The most important point is that Oceanic Clearance and Departure Clearance are not
true FANS A services, and as such, cannot be processed by the system in the same
way as CPDLC for instance. The associated HMI (DCDU mainly) is thus slightly
different, and has been adapted to take account of these differences.

5.2.3.FANS A+ RETROFITS
To upgrade aircraft systems from FANS A to FANS A+ standards, only a software
update is necessary for basic package and options (no hardware components need to
be changed).
For operators wishing to modify their aircraft configuration, an RFC (Request For
Change) must be issued for the “basic functions” package (see §5.2.1) and a specific
RFC for capabilities to be activated separately (options).
Remark: the provision of AEEC615a capability (option detailed in §5.2.2.3) requires a
hardware modification, which consists in the installation of a dedicated plug in the
avionics bay along with the integration of an Ethernet module in the ATSU.

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Please, bear in mind…

Enhance ADS

Current FANS A ADS system can be enhanced through the updates of the ATSU
software (CLR3.6b) and FMS Pegasus 2 software (as detailed in Appendix G).

FANS A+ Standard
To improve the current FANS A package and extend the use of data link services, a
new standard, called FANS A+, has been developed.
♦ Improvements address points coming from:
- operational / in service feedback from operators
- interoperability and standardisation objectives
- improvement of Human Machine Interface (HMI)
- functional evolutions
♦ New data link services have also been added with the introduction of :
- VDL mode 2, so as to increase the capacity for ATC communications
- HFDL capability for ATC (once this service is approved)
- ATS623 (Departure and Oceanic clearances, Digital-ATIS applications)
- High speed dataloading capability (AEEC 615a)

FANS A+ RETROFITS
To upgrade aircraft systems from FANS A to FANS A+ standards, only a software
update is necessary (no hardware components need to be changed).

FANS A FANS A with enhanced ADS FANS A+


ACARS Router ACARS Router ACARS Router
ATSU Software CLR3.5 ATSU Software CLR3.6 ATSU Software CLR4.5

1Q-2003 Jan. 2004


Enhanced ADS automatically provided with FANS A+ package

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6. FANS A WORLD STATUS ....................................................................................88
6.1. Status of FANS A implementation............................................................88
6.2. North Atlantic (NAT) ..................................................................................89
6.3. South Atlantic.............................................................................................90
6.4. North Canada .............................................................................................91
6.5. Pacific Ocean .............................................................................................91
6.6. Indian Ocean : South Africa ......................................................................94
6.7. Indian Ocean : Australia............................................................................95
6.8. Singapore ...................................................................................................96
6.9. Bay of Bengal .............................................................................................96
6.10. China.........................................................................................................97

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6. FANS A WORLD STATUS

6.1. STATUS OF FANS A IMPLEMENTATION


For the time being only remote areas such as oceanic or desert areas are implemented
with FANS.

All FIRs which are FANS equipped, do not provide the same services.

These FIRs may provide the following FANS functions


- Both ADS and CPDLC.
- ADS only
- CPDLC only

These FANS capabilities are represented on the following chart (based on data
available in April 2003) :

FIR using FANS

= Full FANS (ADS + CPDLC) = ADS only + CPDLC trials = ADS-B only

= CPDLC only = ADS and/or CPDLC trials

= ADS only = ADS and/or CPDLC planned before 2005

Note: New York Oceanic service area (KZWY) is expected to implement ADS in
September 2003.

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6.2. NORTH ATLANTIC (NAT)


6.2.1. OPERATIONAL CONCEPT
The use of ADS to report position over waypoints is called ADS Waypoint Position
Reporting (ADS WPR). Typically, on a Europe / North America flight (Eastbound and
Westbound), ADS WPR is done at the 5 longitude crossings (10°W, 20°W, 30°W, 40°W,
50°W).
In addition to the above NATS operations, it is to be noted that the New York oceanic
FIR (KZWY) provides full CPDLC services and is to implement ADS in September 2003.
Waiting for the implementation of ADS, pilots should send their required position reports
using CPDLC.

6.2.2. AREA OF APPLICATIONS


• The NAT ADS airspace consists of both:
- Gander* Oceanic Control Area
- Shanwick Oceanic Control Area
- Reykjavik** Oceanic Control Area
- Santa Maria Oceanic Control Area
- New York Oceanic Control Area (September 2003)
* Gander Oceanic CTA encompasses the Gander Oceanic FIR and that part of the
Sondrestrom FIR south of 63°30' and above FL195
** Reykjavik CTA encompasses the Reykjavik FIR and that part of the Sondrestrom
FIR north of 63°30' and above FL195.
• The NAT CPDLC operational airspace consists of New-York Oceanic Control Area.
It is to be noticed that CPDLC trials are carried out in both Gander and Shanwick
OCA. Iceland (Reykjavik) and Portugal (Santa Maria) have indicated that they may
be able to begin CPDLC pre-operational trials in 2004.
• Both ADS and CPDLC trials have started in Canary Islands FIR (see South Atlantic
operations §6.3).

6.2.3. NAT OPERATIONAL PROCEDURES


They are based on a "Guidance material for ATS Data Link Services in the NAT
Airspace". This document may be downloaded from the NAT PCO (North Atlantic
Program Coordination) web site: http://www.nat-pco.org
For deeper interest, the main NAT operational procedures are given in Appendix E.

6.2.4. POINT OF CONTACTS


Don Harris Nav Ph: (613) 563-5674 Fax: (613) 563.5674 E-mail:
Manager, Canada harrisd@navcanada.ca
Procedures
John Coulson UK NATS Ph:44 1293 576385 Fax: 44 1293 576452 E-mail:
john.coulson@nats.co.uk
Leifur CAA Ph: 354 569 4100 Fax: 354 552 2744 E-mail:
Hakonarson Iceland leifur@caa.is

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6.3. SOUTH ATLANTIC


6.3.1. OPERATIONAL CONCEPT
CPDLC for position reports and ADS functions may be exercised within the Canarias
airspace for operational evaluation trials. The CANARIAS ATS unit (GCCC) ensures
those services.

6.3.2. AREA OF APPLICATIONS


A protocol was developed by Cape Verde and Spain in order to enable Sal (Cape
Verde) ACC to receive information from Canary Island ADS system. Furthermore, Spain
is initiating protocols for “ADS sharing” with other members of EUR/SAM Corridor, such
as Brazil (Recife) and Senegal (Dakar).

6.3.3. OPERATIONAL PROCEDURES


Details about the SACCAN system and necessary detailed procedures to participate in
the trials can be found in the document titled “Guidance material on SACCAN FANS A
operational evaluation trials in Canarias airspace”, which can be requested to SATMA
(South Atlantic Monitoring Agency) or directly downloaded from its web site: www.
satmasat.com

For deeper interest, the main South and Central Atlantic operational procedures are
given in Appendix E.

6.3.4. POINTS OF CONTACT


Contact points for the SACCAN FANS A operational evaluation trials within SATMA are
as follows:

Jorge Cabrera AENA Ph : + 34 928577057 Fax : + 34 928577052 jcupierrez@aena.es


Umpiérrez
(Operational Support
Department)
Jorge Ascensión AENA Ph : + 34 928577060 Fax :+ 34 928577052 jagodoy@aena.es
Godoy (Operations
Management
Department)
Operators using ARINC as their DSP
Terry Anton ARINC Ph : 410 266-4027 Fax :410 573-3515 txa@arinc.com

Operators using SITA as their DSP


Eduard Blasi SITA Ph : + 33 1 4641 2473 Fax :+ 33 1 4641 1978 eduard.blasi@sita.int

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6.4. NORTH CANADA


6.4.1.AREA OF APPLICATIONS
Independent of NAT Region, Nav Canada also plans to expand its domestic data
link service into Canada's northern airspace by making its Edmonton (CZEG) area
control centre ADS and CPDLC-capable in early 2004. Such an upgrade could
facilitate air transport flights that take the polar routes between North America and
the Asia-Pacific region. Waiting for HFDL to be approved as an ATC media, ADS
and CPDLC services will be limited to 80°N (satellite coverage limitation).

6.4.2. POINTS OF CONTACT


John Nav Canada Ph: 1 613 248 6930 Fax: 1 613 248 6802 fekkesj@navcanada.ca
Fekkes
Norm Nav Canada Ph: 1 613 248 6859 Fax:1 613 248 6802 dimockn@navcanada.ca
Dimock

6.5. PACIFIC OCEAN


6.5.1. AREA OF APPLICATIONS
• For more than 7 years , the South Pacific has been used as a trial area for data link
operations. CPDLC and ADS procedures have been experienced and fine tuned.
Specific operations have been developed so as to increase the operational benefits
of the operators under the auspices of the ICAO ISPACG group (Informal South
Pacific ATC Co-ordination Group).

The 5 following ATC centres have been involved so far:


- Oakland ACC
- Tahiti ACC
- Nadi ACC
- Auckland ACC
- Brisbane ACC

• Based on the procedures that have been developed in the South Pacific data link
operations are in use on routes of both the North and Central Pacific where the
controlling centres are:
- Oakland ACC
- Anchorage ACC
- Tokyo ACC

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6.5.2. OPERATIONAL CONCEPT

• CPDLC: It is used as the primary means of communications within the Pacific FIRs.

• ADS: It is used by all the ATCs within the Pacific areas (except Oakland and
Anchorage, which should be equipped in 2004).

• DARP (Dynamic Airborne Route Planning):

This type of operation has been specifically developed to take full advantage of the
weather conditions as they appeared along the average 14 hours flight in the SOPAC. It
consists in allowing an in-flight dynamic re-routing once better wind conditions are
known. Once primarily negotiated with the concerned ATCs, a new flight plan is sent by
AOC to the aircraft via ACARS into the FMS secondary flight plan. It is then up to the
crew to decide and negotiate for the new route. All this transaction with ATC is done
through CPDLC. Now, DARP is used on some User Preferred Route (detailed below).

Although promising, this procedure (detailed in Appendix F) has not been used very
much for the time being, because it happens that the current wind models, as used by
the airlines, are precise enough within the frame of the flight. Activating the DARP
procedure requires a good co-ordination between all involved actors (Aircraft, AOC,
ATC) . The User Preferred Route procedure (UPR) is by far preferred by the airlines. In
addition, DARP cannot be generalised because it needs AIDC between the various
ground ATC, which is not available in all ATC centres.

• UPR (User Preferred Route):

The wind models used by the airlines are not the same than those used by the ATC
when the daily PACOTS routes are defined. Differences of up to around 15 minutes of
flight time are claimed by the operators. These have been asking for the possibility to
define their own routes according to the daily conditions. They file their UPR Flight Plan.
These UPR procedures are generalised throughout South Pacific.

• Reduced lateral separation (50Nm)

As previously mentioned, 50 NM lateral separation is already used in New Zealand


airspace and throughout Oakland's airspace between RNP-10-capable aircraft (75NM
between RNP-10 and non-RNP-10 aircraft and 100NM between non-RNP-10 aircraft).
But PACOTS tracks are only defined with 50NM lateral separation outside areas of
known or forecast convective weather.

It is to be notice that 30/30 lateral and longitudinal separation is to start in the Tasman
sea area.

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The end-to-end data link system is now sufficiently reliable to support 50NM lateral
spacing in the south Pacific.
Weather deviations occur frequently in the south Pacific but application of RVSM
provides an opportunity for more flexibility and for added contingency procedures that
pilots can use if a weather deviation clearance cannot be provided. Contingency
procedures for 300 feet climbs are being developed and will provide a level of safety in
all scenarios.

Imposition of Required Navigation Performance RNP-10 in the Central Pacific has


enabled the reduction in the lateral separation minimum from 100 nautical miles to 50
nautical miles. Refer to POM manual for description of all the procedures in use.

All the operations are described in the so-called POM (Pacific Operating Manual) which
has now been used as a basis to other areas in the world.
This document may be downloaded from the FAA-Oceanic Procedures Branch (ATP-
130) web site: http://www.faa.gov/ats/ato/130.htm

6.5.3. POINT OF CONTACT


- Oakland:
Jerry Audiat FAA Ph: 510-745-3320 Fx: 510-745-3628 Jerry.Audiat@FAA.com

Robert FAA Ph: 510-745-3836 Fx: 510-745-3826 Bob.hansen@faa.gov


Hansen

- Tahiti:
Jean-Pierre VIVO Tahiti Carle_jean-pierre@seac.pf
Carle

- Fiji:
Inia Tueli SASL-Fiji Ph: 679-725110 Fx: 679-724-525 Sasl@is.com.fj
J. Seetom Seetomj@afl.com.fj

- Auckland:
Mark ACNZ Ph: 64-9-275-3109 Fx: 64-9-275-3106 Goodallm@airways.co.nz
Goodall

Paul ACNZ Ph: 64-9-2568077 Fx: 64-9-275-3106 Radfordp@airways.co.nz


Radford

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- Brisbane:
Adam Air Ph: 61-7-3866-3421 Fx: 61-7-3866-3257 Adam.watkin@airservices.gov.au
Watkin Services
Australia

- United States:
Jerry FAA Ph: 510-745-3320 Fx:510-745-3628 Jerry.Audiat@FAA.com
Audiat

Robert FAA Ph: 510-745-3836 Fx: 510-745-3826 Bob.hansen@faa.gov


Hansen

- Japan:
Yoshiki JCAB Ph: 81 3 3581 6672 Fx: 81 3 3580 7971 Yoshiki-
Imawaka Imawaka@so.motnet.go.jp

Yoshinori Director y-furukawa


Furukawa ATC Div @so.motnet.go.jp
JCAB

6.6. INDIAN OCEAN : SOUTH AFRICA


6.6.1. OPERATIONAL CONCEPT
CPDLC for position reports and ADS functions may be exercised along some African
routes below the equator line, or over the oceanic routes (Indian and Atlantic).
Johannesburg ATC centre (FAJO) ensures those services.

6.6.2. AREA OF APPLICATIONS


Three areas A, B and C have been defined:
- Area A is the continental part over the South part of Africa (South latitudes)
- Area B covers the Indian Ocean part (Between 75°E and Johannesburg and down to
60°S )
- Area C covers the Atlantic Ocean part (Up to 10°W in the Johannesburg Oceanic
FIR)

Appendix E highlight the main operations principles within this area. For further details,
refer to the Indian Ocean Operating Manuals (IOOM).

6.6.3. POINTS OF CONTACT


A J Bradshaw ATNS Ph: 27 11 392 4895 Fx: 27 11 392 3946 arthurb@atns.co.za
AL
G Manager
Stuart Ratcliff ATNS Ph: 2711 928 6433 Fx: 2711 928 6420 Stuartr@atns.co.za

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6.7. INDIAN OCEAN : AUSTRALIA


6.7.1. AREA OF APPLICATIONS
According to ERSA NAV/COMM §2-5, which describe data link operations within
Australian airspace, and unless otherwise specified, both ADS and CPDLC are used in
Australian FIRs.

There are two Australian FIRs:


- Melbourne (YMMM)
- Brisbane (YBBB)

6.7.2. OPERATIONAL CONCEPT


CPDLC: is the primary means of communication outside VHF voice range and is used
in conjunction with an HF backup frequency. Inside VHF voice range CPDLC is used in
conjunction with VHF on certain routes, but primarily outside radar coverage (generally
the traffic within radar coverage is too busy for FANS A CPDLC).

A CPDLC position report is required at the first contact:


- On the FIR boundary for aircraft inbound to Australian airspace
- On being transferred to datalink from voice for outbound aircraft

Once the CPDLC position report is received by the ATC (which is only used to confirm
that the FIR is the CPDLC data authority), and providing that ADS is operating normally,
then only ADS position reporting is required by the ATC. (No CPDLC or voice position
report is then required). ADS is thus used for this purpose on all routes outside radar
coverage and allows lateral/longitudinal separation 30/30 Nm.

Australian ATC does not have any requirements for new FANS operators, other than
the aircraft and crew to meet the FANS training/performance standards of their State of
Registration.

Australian ATC has noticed that some new FANS operators have not had their aircraft
registered correctly with the datalink service providers (e.g. SITA or ARINC) and
therefore have been unable to logon to Australian data link system until the registration
is completed. Emphasis is thus put on the correct preparation of data link operations.

Appendix E highlight the main operations principles within this area. For further details,
refer to the Indian Ocean Operating Manuals (IOOM).

6.7.3. POINTS OF CONTACT

Craig Air Services Ph: 61-3-9339-2615 Fx: 61-3-9339-2108 Craig.roberts@airservices.gov.au


Roberts Australia

Adam Air Services Ph: 61-7-3866-3421 Fx: 61-7-3866-3257 Adam.watkin@airservices.gov.au


Watkin Australia

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6.8. SINGAPORE
6.8.1. OPERATIONAL CONCEPT
Although of a limited geographic area, the Singapore FIR does support both CPDLC
and ADS operations (The 4-letter address code is WSJC). These are used on the South
China Sea area (which is outside radar coverage) of the FIR, thus providing for a better
knowledge of the aircraft position and for easier communications in these areas of poor
HF operations.
The Singapore CAA are waiting for international separation standards to be finalised to
introduce reduced separation standards. Once introduced, less delays due to increased
airspace capacity should bring the first benefits to airlines.

6.8.2. POINT OF CONTACT


Soo Kiat Goh CAAS/OP Soo_Kiat_Goh@caas.gov.sg

6.9. BAY OF BENGAL


6.9.1. AREA OF APPLICATIONS
The L759 route (previously UM501) crossing above Bay of Bengal has been the very
first one to be defined for specific FANS operations.

This route crosses over three FIRs:


- Calcutta, India
- Yangon, Myanmar
- Phuket, Thailand

The three ATC centres are respectively:


- Calcutta, India (VECO)
- Yangon, Myanmar (VYYF)
- Phuket, Thailand (VTBB)

6.9.2. OPERATIONAL CONCEPT


India, Myanmar and Thailand have published the route with special conditions, namely
RNP4, ADS and CPDLC are the aircraft capabilities pre-requisites. The published
requirements can be get from the local AIPs authorities.

6.9.3. POINTS OF CONTACT


al
S.P. Sikka G Manager-Ops Ph: 91 11 465 2649 Fx: 91 11 461 1078
Airports Authority-India
t
U YAO SHU Director ATS Dep of Civil Ph: 5 11 665 144 Fx: 95 665124
Aviation Myanmar

Suriya Bangkok Area Control Ph: 662 285 9405 suriya_bacc@radius.a-net.net.th


Samittachatti Centre Thailand

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6.10. CHINA
6.10.1. AREA OF APPLICATIONS
A specific FANS route (L888) has been opened along Western China over Tibetan
plateau.
Four FANS equipped stations ensure CPDLC and ADS services along this route:
- Kunming (ZPPP)
- Chengdu (ZUUU)
- Lanzhou (ZLLL)
- Urumqi (ZWWW)

It is to be noticed that ADS and CPDLC operational trials are conducted along route
A588, in Shenyang FIR (ZYSH). Procedures may be get from the local AIPs authorities.

6.10.2. OPERATIONAL PROCEDURES


The route is RNP 4 or less; it provides 10 minutes longitudinal separation, 600 metres
vertical separation, and the available flight levels are:
- 10200m / 11400m on the Urumqi to Kunming sector
- 9600m/10800m/12000m on the Kunming to Urumqi way

The route is defined as follows:


BIDRU MAKUL DONEN NIVUX LEVBA PEXUN SANLI LUVAR MUMAN TEMOL
LEBAK TONAX NOLEP SADAN KCA(VOR).

An AIP has been published to describe the data link capabilities supported by the China
Air Traffic services on this Chinese western route.
Both CPDLC and ADS operations are carried out through Satellite data link in a first
step.

Alternate airports along the route are:


- Kunming
- Chengdu
- Urumqi
- Kashi
The diverting routes are described in the AIP.

6.10.3. POINTS OF CONTACT

Yi Qun CNS/ATM Ph: 8610 67318866 Fx: 8610 6731 8482 yiqun@atmb.net.cn
Deputy Division
Director ATM Bureau
Li Xin CNS/ATM Ph: 8610 67318866 Fx: 8610 6731 8482 lixin@atmb.net.cn
Division
ATM Bureau

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Synthesis
The table underneath is based on data available in April 2003.

O p e r a tio n a l T r ia ls
S ta te U IR i d . F IR
CPDLC A D S -C CPDLC A D S -C
F ra n c e
NTTT T a h iti X X
F r e n c h P o l. T a h it i
S o u th F iji NFFF N adi X X
P a c i f ic N e w Z e a la n d NZZO A u k la n d X X
A u s t r a lia YBBB B r ib a n e X X
A u s t r a lia YMMM M e lb o u r n e X X
Japan R JTG Tokyo X X
N o rth
U n it e d S ta t e s KZAK O a k la n d X 4 Q -0 3
P a c i f ic
U n it e d S ta t e s PAZA* A n c h o ra g e X 3 Q -0 4
A u s t r a lia YBBB B r is b a n e X X
A u s t r a lia YMMM M e lb o u r n e X X
In d i a n M adagascar FM M M A n t a n a n a r iv o X X
O cean S e y c h e lle s FSSS S e y c h e lle s 4 Q .0 3 4 Q .0 3 X X
S o u t h A fr ic a FAJO J o h a n n e s b u rg X X
M a u r itiu s F IM M M a u r itiu s X X
G r e a t B r ita in EGGX S h a n w ic k X X
U n it e d S ta t e s KZW Y N e w Y o r k O c e a n ic X 3 Q -0 3
P o rtu g a l LPPO S a n ta M a r ia , A z o r e s X 2004
N o rth S o n d re s tro m
G r e e n la n d ( D e n . ) BG G L* X 2004
A tla n tic ( R e y k la v ic & G a n d e r C T A s )
I c e la n d B IR D R e y k ja v ik X 2004
C anada CZQ X G ander X X
C anada CZEG * E d m o n to n 2004 4 Q -0 3
S o u th C a n a r ie s Is . ( S p a in ) GCCC L a s P a lm a s ( C a n a r y I s la n d s ) X X
A t la n t ic C a p e V e rd e Is . G VSC S a l (C a p e V e rd e Is .) X X
W e s te rn N o rw a y ENO B* Bodo 2005 2005
E u ro p e Sw eden ESO S S t o c k h o lm X
E a s te rn R u s s ia n F e d e r a t io n UHMM* M agadan X X
E u ro p e R u s s ia n F e d e r a t io n ULM M * M u rm a n s k X
U z b e k is ta n UTTT Tashkent X
C e n t r a l A s ia
M o n g o lia ZM BZ U la a n B a to r X X
I n d ia VECF K o lk a ta X X
I n d ia VOMF C hennai X X
M yanm ar VYYY Yangoon X X
T h a ila n d VTBB Phuket X X
B ay of S ri L a n k a VCCC C o lo m b o X X
I n d o n e s ia W AAZ U ju n g X X
I n d o n e s ia W II Z J a k a rta X X
M a la y s ia W M FC K u a la L u m p u r E q u ip m e n t T e s t
Lao PD R V L IV V ie n t ia n e O p e r t a t io n s
C h in a ZPKM K u n m in g ( L 8 8 8 ) X X
C h in a ZPKM C h e n g d u (L 8 8 8 ) X X
C h in a ZLHW Lanzhou (L 8 8 8 ) X X
C h in a ZW UQ U ru m q i (L 8 8 8 ) X X
C h in a ZYSH S h e n y a n g - H a r b in ( A 5 8 8 ) X X
Far East
S in g a p o r e W SJC S in g a p o r e X X
P h ilip p in e s RPHI M a n ila 2005 2005
K o r e a , S o u th RKTT Taegu X X
H o n g K o n g , C h in a VHHK H ong Kong X X
V ie t n a m VVGL H anoi 2004 2004
M a a s t r ic h t EHBK M a a s t r ic h t X X
ATN
U n it e d S ta t e s KZM A M ia m i X X
Egypt HECC C a ir o X X
M id d le E a s t
Ira n O IIX T e h ra n X X

* : p e n d in g H F D L a p p r o v a l a s a t e r tia r y m e d ia fo r A T C , F A N S s e r v ic e s a r e n o t p r o v id e d a b o v e 8 0 ° N

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7. STARTING FANS OPERATIONS........................................................................100
7.1. General .....................................................................................................100
7.2. DataLink: contracts and declarations ....................................................100
7.2.1. Contracts with Datalink Service Providers (DSP) ............................100
7.2.2. Aircraft declaration to DSP and ATC centres...................................101
7.2.3. Recommendations...........................................................................101
7.3. Impact on aircraft configuration .............................................................101
7.3.1. ATSU scan mask .............................................................................101
7.3.2. SATCOM user ORT.........................................................................101
7.3.3. AMI database of the FMS ................................................................102
7.4. Get the operational approval ..................................................................102
7.4.1. General............................................................................................102
7.4.2. Aircraft configuration........................................................................103
7.4.3. Flight crew training / qualification.....................................................103
7.4.4. Maintenance training .......................................................................111
7.4.5. Approved documentation .................................................................111

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7. STARTING FANS OPERATIONS

7.1. GENERAL
This chapter aims at providing airlines with administrative and technical guidelines so as
to ensure proper operations of FANS A aircraft on FANS routes.

To perform FANS operations, data communication has to be ensured between the


concerned Aircraft and the following entities:
• ATC Centres
• Information service
• Airline host
Or part of them depending on the operated area or the required services.

For these reasons the operator needs to ensure the following before starting FANS
Operations:
1. Sign contract(s) with Datalink Service Provider(s) (DSP)
2. Declare aircraft to these Datalink Services Providers
3. Declare aircraft and its FANS capability to ATC centres of the operated routes
4. Configure adequately the aircraft avionics
5. Obtain the operational approval

7.2. DATALINK: CONTRACTS AND DECLARATIONS


The air/ground data communications can be made through the three following
communication media:
• VHF
• SATCOM
• HF

As of today, VHF and SATCOM are certified by Airbus to sustain both ATC and AOC
datalink, whereas HFDL (already used to make AOC datalink) is to be certified for ATC
communications at the beginning of 2004.

7.2.1. CONTRACTS WITH DATALINK SERVICE PROVIDERS (DSP)


To operate in FANS environment, i.e. on routes where AFN, ADS and CPDLC functions
are required, it is necessary to have a contract with at least one of the major service
providers (ARINC or SITA) for SATCOM datalink and VDL (VHF datalink).
If an airline wishes to use more than one service provider, then two solutions may be
considered:
- Place contracts directly with each service provider
- Place a contract with a unique service provider who will subcontract data
handling to other service providers.

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7.2.2. AIRCRAFT DECLARATION TO DATALINK SERVICE PROVIDERS


AND ATC CENTRES
For ATC datalink, each individual aircraft must be declared, and identified namely
through its Aircraft Registration Number in Datalink Service Provider tables. This is an
imperative condition to allow ATC datalink message exchanges between an aircraft and
the ATC centre on the ground.

In addition, the SATCOM AES (Aircraft Earth Station) identification, i.e. the aircraft
ICAO address, must be declared to the GES (Ground Earth Station) the aircraft will
operate with. This is achieved through registering with Inmarsat using the Registration
for service activation of Aircraft Earth Station (AES) form.

The airline should make sure that all service providers to be potentially contacted by a
given aircraft have been advised of its FANS capability and identification. Each new
FANS aircraft entry into service must be declared to the service providers selected by
the airline and to the ATC centres the aircraft will communicate with.

7.2.3. RECOMMENDATIONS
It is strongly recommended not to make spontaneous FANS testing with ATC centres
when they have not been previously made aware of a given aircraft intention to operate
in FANS mode. Such unscheduled testing are indeed inconvenient for ground ATC
centres, and disturb them in their daily work.

7.3. IMPACT ON AIRCRAFT CONFIGURATION


Once the airline has selected the datalink service providers, the aircraft configuration
needs to be adapted accordingly. This can be achieved through customisation of:
- The ATSU (Air Traffic Services Unit) scan mask for VHF DataLink
- The SATCOM user ORT (Owner Requirements Table) for SATCOM datalink

7.3.1. ATSU SCAN MASK


The ATSU scan mask is a user-modifiable list of VHF Datalink Service Providers (DSP)
that is used by the ATSU to operate in VHF datalink. DSP(s) to which the aircraft
registration number has been declared FANS capable, must be sorted by order of
priority in the scan mask. Airlines must therefore set up a scan mask programming
policy to be applied on each FANS aircraft. If the scan mask is not set properly, FANS
operation will be impacted, and this may result in ATC Datalink message losses.
The Initialisation procedure of the ATSU router (airline identification and scan mask) is
provided through AMM 46-21-00-860-801.

7.3.2. SATCOM USER ORT


The SATCOM user ORT (Owner Requirements Table) is a database in which the airline
specifies the GES/satellites on which the aircraft SATCOM system will logon for both
voice and data communications. GES are connected to ARINC or SITA networks to
provide SATCOM datalink services. Therefore, the programming of the ORT will impact
FANS operation if not done properly, i.e. if selected GES are connected to datalink
service provider networks to which the aircraft is not declared.

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The table (Appendix D) gives the GES code and associated Satellite code that are used
by Airborne SATCOM systems to select, according to the priority order set in the ORT,
the couple Satellite/GES through which they will operate for both voice communications
and datalink.
The ORT cannot be modified via MCDU, thus is less prone to programming errors than
the ATSU scan mask.

7.3.3. AMI DATABASE OF THE FMS

The FMS database called AMI (Airline Modifiable Information) allows activating the
FMS/ATSU interface. FMS data are required by the ATSU to operate in ADS, AFN and
CPDLC. A wrong AMI definition can cause these FANS applications to be inoperative
on a FANS aircraft.
Airlines are required, by their FMS supplier, to fill-in a form called AMI worksheet, where
they must specify the FMS optional functions they wish to use. In order to have FANS
functions activated, it is necessary to have the datalink function enabled (§2.5.1 of
Honeywell AMI worksheet). Airlines should advise their FMS supplier, that the aircraft
on which the AMI will be loaded have the FANS function activated, so that a particular
attention will be paid at AMI settings.

7.4. GET THE OPERATIONAL APPROVAL


7.4.1. GENERAL REQUIREMENTS

Based on the systems global description and operational points, as described in the
previous parts, the aim of this chapter is to provide the operators with recommendations
and guidance material, that will help them to put in place operational procedures,
training programs, and maintenance needed to obtain the operational approval to use
CPDLC and ADS.

Operational approval rules are not yet fully available and individual operational authority
may choose the "means of compliance" (such as FAA AC 120-70), stating what the
applicant airline may have to demonstrate.
It is however expected that the following items will have to be complied with, by the
applicant airline:
- Aircraft configuration
- Flight crew training/qualification
- Maintenance training
- Approved operational documentation and procedures

In complement to the FANS A certification system, the airworthiness authorities of the


applicant airline may require additional demonstration activities for specific environment
or operational conditions. To this end, the FANS A Airworthiness Approval Summary
document has been written for certification and provided to both the airline and its
authority (refer to Appendix K). For FANS A+ approval, an Airworthiness Approval
Summary document will also be available early 2004.

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Based on this document, which lists the assumptions on the ground environment and
gives a synthesis of the tests carried out for certification, the scope of additional tests
may be defined:
- Interoperability test scenarios
- Verification of the safety and performance criteria with regards to the considered
environment

7.4.2. AIRCRAFT CONFIGURATION


The aircraft should be configured in accordance with the approved certification
configuration for FANS A operations.
In particular the following list of equipment shall be implemented:
- 1 ATSU
- 2 DCDU
- 2 “Attention getter” pushbuttons on the glareshield
- 3 VDR
- 2 second generation FMS: Honeywell Pegasus or Thales FMS2 (once certified)
- MCDU with the "ATC COMM" key
- FWC at appropriate standard
- UTC Time Clock
- MDDU at appropriate standard
- SATCOM system
- 2 HF

The list of the approved FANS aircraft configuration will be kept updated by Airbus.
Compliance to this list will have to be ensured.

Remark:
To operate in the South Pacific and take benefit of the problem analysis as currently
proposed by the FIT (FANS Interoperability Team, subgroup of the ISPACG), a strict
adherence to the South Pacific Operations approved aircraft configuration list will have
to be observed.

7.4.3. FLIGHT CREW TRAINING / QUALIFICATION

7.4.3.1. GENERAL RECOMMENDATIONS


Operating an aircraft in a FANS type environment requires from the crew
understanding, knowledge and operational use of the three C, N and S dimensions of
the CNS/ATM concept.
The Navigation aspects are addressed in the “Getting to grips with modern navigation”
brochure.
The following develops recommendations to assure flight crew qualification for a safe
and efficient use of data link communications and surveillance systems. They should be
part of the programmes to be presented to the airworthiness authorities.

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To this end, the following points will be emphasised in preparing the flight crew training
programs:

• Basic knowledge of the overall CNS/ATM environment for which, the various
concepts and interacting elements, the involved aircraft systems and relevant
operating procedures to be applied should be covered in a dedicated academic
training.

• Operational use of data link communications (e.g. handling of up and down link ATC
messages or ATC operating procedures) should be taught so as to develop skills
and practices for the considered FANS environment.

• Initial evaluation and recurrent training have to be part of the approved syllabi.

• Specific Human Factors points pertaining to the data link communications should be
carefully addressed (they are mentioned in the here below "academic training"
chapter.

7.4.3.2. PROPOSED QUALIFICATION MEANS


A training program has been discussed with the main airworthiness authorities
FAA/JAA. The individual airline should submit its own training program to its relevant
authority to get the operational approval.

It is Airbus opinion that the initial qualification should be made of the following
components:
• Half a day familiarisation course, to address the academic training, and
emphasise the main operational critical points.
• "Home work" training for each pilot, through the interactive CD-ROM developed
by Airbus.
• One operational flight conducted with an airline check pilot.

As soon as the FANS training are available in the simulators, the FANS training can be
proposed in various options: initial, transition, recurrent or upgrade training or
qualification programs.

7.4.3.3. ACADEMIC TRAINING


The aim of the academic training is to familiarise the flight crew with the main
characteristics of the digital communications, as used in a CNS/ATM context. In a first
step prior to FANS operations, pilots will be introduced to the basic principles of
CNS/ATM concept.
Such an initial training may be based on the CD-ROM developed by Airbus or given as
a first step.

Note: To obtain a CD-ROM, a CBT license is needed. For further information, contact
your Airbus Customer Service Manager.

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Once completed, this program should not be repeated. Only the new, modified or
specific points will be addressed during further programs.

The following points should be part of this academic training:

• General presentation of the CNS/ATM concept.

C, N and S together with the current trends for ATM should be described. The
general characteristics of the data link communications will be given and the chain
links of the components that exist in between a pilot and a controller will be
emphasised.
Flight crews should be made aware of the nominal systems operations and
performance parameters, normal and abnormal use together with the limitations of
the systems.

• Basic use of the AIM-FANS.

The crews should be taught on the normal handling of the data link. In particular,
coping with the DCDU ATC messages reception and acknowledgement, acceptance
or rejection should be addressed. At this stage, the crews will be made aware of the
DCDU / MCDU relations for handling of Clearances and Requests and of the role of
the FMS in such operations.

• Basic knowledge of the data link communications language, terms to be used


and information to be exchanged.

Use of CPDLC and ADS for instance, are based on an extensive set of formatted
messages, agreed upon abbreviations, conventions and assumptions the main of
which will have to be known. The crews will be made aware of and familiar with the
existing terminology as used by the considered ATS, as displayed on relevant charts
or manuals, or given by the various service providers (ATC and communications).
Familiarisation with all the available means of communications (e.g. VDR, HF,
Satcom both in voice and data communications) is expected at that stage. In
particular Satcom voice procedures, call addressing, ATC facility phone access,
codes, call ID and priority will be covered. Later on, mode S or VDL 2, 3 or 4 will be
included.

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• Awareness of the ATS communications, co-ordination and credits for use of


data link
The ATC requirements in terms of F-PLN classification, separation criteria, operating
procedures or MEL credits that are based on digital communications use should be
known of the crews. A special emphasis on the voice/data link communications
transition in both normal and abnormal configurations will be given. Although voice
remains the ultimate back up mode, procedures for its use must be carefully
followed.
• Basic knowledge of the main AIM-FANS components, equipment and controls
in both the nominal and abnormal operations.
The interaction of the various computers (e.g. ATSU, FMS, FWC) or the relations in
between their interface (e.g. DCDU, MCDU, ECAM, printer, warning lights..) will
have to be described here. Transmission times, failure annunciation, constraints and
limitations of these components should be known of the crews for a safe and
efficient operation.

• Human Factors considerations.


The following recommendations have been developed to cope with the specific issues
of the data communications:
- The pilot responsible for the communications ensures that the situation awareness,
as entailed by the ATC data link messages, is fully shared by the other pilot. To this
end, any message transiting through the DCDU (whether received or to be sent) will
be read in a loud voice so as to ensure a common understanding and allow for a
good cross checking between the two pilots.
- Crew co-ordination should be completed before any action ensuing a received
message is done or before any message or answer is sent to the ground.
- Emphasis will be done on the crew work sharing, so as to avoid simultaneous head
down attention by both pilots, while handling of the messages is done.

7.4.3.4. OPERATIONAL TRAINING


In addition to the academic training, the airline will have to demonstrate to its authorities
that an operational training is done to provide all the flight crew members with the
adequate training to perform their duties in an operational FANS environment.

• Operational points
This paragraph addresses the practical application of the operational procedures
described in chapter 5.
The Airbus CD-ROM training device, through its interactive operational scenarios,
mostly covers this training syllabus. It may be presented by the airline to the
airworthiness authorities as a "stand alone" computer-based instruction (CBI). It covers
the data link communications items of the global FANS, and comes in complement to
the RNP/RVSM operational training (as described in the “Getting to grips with modern
navigation” brochure).

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The following lists the items to be tackled in a training course. All but the "Special
Recommendations" paragraph are addressed in the Airbus CD-ROM:

- Message handling
The pilots should be trained on how to receive and interpret ATC messages.
Understanding the CPDLC / ADS phraseology is to be acquired.
Appropriate use of the pre-formatted answers of the DCDU (e.g. WILCO, ROGER,
UNABLE, CANCEL...) together with the knowledge for storing and retrieving messages
from the ATC messages logbook will be addressed.
Will also be practised the operations that require simultaneous work on both the DCDU
and the MCDU. In particular, loading route clearance messages in the FMS, or
preparing requests on the ATC pages of the MCDU should be covered.
The automatism, as provided by the FMS, for monitoring and answering to some
specific messages (e.g. differed clearances) should be known from the flight crews.
Handling of automatically FMS proposed answers should be mastered.

- Managing the communications systems


The global use of the communications systems, whether they are traditional voice or
new data link communications will have to be acquired.
Establishing and terminating CPDLC, activating and deactivating ADS, switching from
traditional voice based to digital communications control and coping with failures of
these systems should be practised.
All the available controls and indicators of the AIM-FANS system should be known and
used (e.g. the meaning of the various displays, advisories, available functions).
Whenever CPDLC is the primary means of communications, pilots should be trained to
monitor the appropriate HF primary and secondary frequencies through the SELCAL.
Whenever CPDLC is the primary means of communications, the use of voice
communications should be done as a complement, and through the following available
means:
- VHF
- HF
- SATCOM
SATVOICE may be considered, at pilot's discretion whenever required (emergency,
medical advice, hazards,..)

- ATS procedures and services

Knowledge of the ATS procedures for the considered FANS area (e.g. timely, relevant
and appropriate responses to communications and surveillance failures) is of prime
importance.
In addition, crews should be able to recognise "usual" failures and be fully aware of the
tricks pertaining to the sensitivity of the end-to-end data link communications (Refer to
the following recommendations).

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- Special recommendations

Derived from the lessons learned during FANS operations in the South Pacific area, the
following list gives the main points to be underlined in the operational training:

. Flight identification

The correlation of the flight identification, between that expected by an ATC ground
system according to the filed F-PLN, and that of the coded message exercised during
the initial log on attempt (AFN), is very prone to errors.
Pilots should be fully aware that the flight identification of both the filed F-PLN and the
one used for data link communications must be identical. It is the pilot's responsibility
to ensure that correct flight identification and registration number are used.
In particular, the operator ICAO 3-letter code is to be used (e.g. ICAO ATC filed F-
PLN, FMS, data link). Attempting a connection with a TP 232 ident for instance,
whereas TAP232 has been filed, will cause the ground system to reject the
connection.
Space and leading zeros in these identifications have to be carefully handled.

. Use of free text

Limit the use of free text message to exceptional cases. Pilots should be made aware
that free text messages cannot be treated by the automated station of the controller as
a standard ATC message. As such, no correlation between the free text and its
answer can be provided.

Avoid abbreviations and acronyms since they may have different meanings to different
operators.

. Use standard English aeronautical terminology only.

"ROGER" is the sole answer for an up linked free text message. Any other answer will
keep the received message open.

. FIR transfer of control

- Until the AIDC function in between subsequent ATC centres is fully implemented, the
transfer of control between two FIR will have to be carefully monitored by the crew.
The applicable procedures will have to be strictly followed.
Whenever an automatic transfer is done, it is recommended to monitor it through the
display of the active ATC centre on the DCDU. In case a manual transfer is done,
carefully apply the correct sequence of actions (as described in the "operational
procedures" chapter or by the relevant ATC).

In particular, pilots should verify that the expected ICAO 4 letter code for the region is
displayed on the DCDU, and should not send any message before this check has
been done.

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- Disconnection may also occur during FIR transfers due to pending uplink
messages and this, although the recommended procedures specify that the "END
SERVICE" message is not transmitted while there are open messages. Pilots
should be aware of such occurrences.

. Open message

Open messages should be chased and it should be recommended to avoid sending


messages whenever another one is open. This is to avoid crossing answers,
misunderstanding of replies, wrong correlation of up/down links or even disconnection
(in the case of transfer of centre).

. Delays in responding

Both pilots and ATC answers to messages should be done as soon as possible. In
case a STANDBY response has been received from the ATC, the flight crew should
expect a further answer within 10 minutes. Waiting for it, the message remains open. If
no answer comes on time, and to avoid a duplicate message, it is then recommended
that the next message of the crew is based on an inquiry (e.g. "When can we
expect...")

. Multi-element messages

Multi-elements messages (up/down links) should be avoided.


Answering multi-elements messages is prone to misunderstanding since it is done for
the whole message itself and cannot apply to each element individually.

. Waypoint sequencing

When an aircraft is laterally displaced by more than a set distance (7NM for Airbus
models) from the track defined by an active flight plan, waypoints cease to be
sequenced. This affects the data transmitted in CPDLC position reports and prevents
ADS waypoint events from triggering reports.
Monitoring the correct sequencing of the waypoints together with the updating of the F-
PLN is thus to be recommended, especially in those areas of flight where ADS (or
CPDLC) position reporting is done.

. Position reporting

Pilots should be aware that there is no ATC response to their CPDLC position report.
As such, they must not re-send their message.

The ATC ground systems are designed so as to address compulsory reporting points
as defined on approved En route charts. Pilots are thus invited to check that their FMS
F-PLN is consistent with these charts, and that only compulsory position reports are
sent through data link (CPDLC or ADS).

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. Weather deviation

Weather deviation procedures should be emphasised in training.


Increasing use of ADS and radar cover in some unexpected areas have shown that
crews routinely deviate from track without a clearance for ATC.
Clearances and use of offset should be highlighted.

Weather deviation procedures have been developed and published:


. Priority is given to aircraft which include "Due to weather" in requests or those using
the urgency pro-word "PAN")
. If ATC is unable to achieve the required deviation and maintain minimum horizontal
separation, a 1000-foot vertical buffer will be provided.
. If ATC is unable to issue a clearance or if communication cannot be established, the
aircraft should climb or descend 500 feet, establish communications, and make the
aircraft visible. This is a simple modification of global contingency procedures.

. Abnormal configurations

Pilots should be well aware of applicable procedures to revert to voice


communications whenever a data link failure or misbehaviour is encountered.

• Operational responsibilities

Pilot responsibilities:
During their operational training, flight crews should be taught of their responsibilities
with regards to the use of digital communications.

The following lists the expected pilot's behaviour for an efficient use of the data
communications systems, whether this is used as either a primary or a secondary
means:
- Prompt and appropriate answer to up linked messages
- Appropriate emission of down linked messages
- Nominal crew work share for an efficient handling of the messages
- Compensation of system failures through prompt back up voice
- Compliance with the voice clearance whenever this contradicts the data link one
- Use of data link only within approved area and configuration

Operator responsibilities:
Operators have the following responsibilities regarding the use of digital
communications:
- Signing contract with DSP and declaring aircraft to DSP and ATC centres of
operated routes
- Configuring adequately the aircraft avionics,
- Verifying digital communications functionality for each environment to be used and
when new or modified components or software are introduced,
- Assuring follow up and evaluation of exceptional data link events;
- Periodically assessing digital communication training, checking and maintenance
programs to ensure their correctness, pertinence, timeless and effectiveness.

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• Operational feed back


Pilots should be encouraged to report on the overall performance of the FANS system.
Specific data link events should be reported to the flight operations department or to the
ATC whenever appropriate.
Data link anomalies (failures, loss of messages, unanswered messages, very long
response time, disconnection...), procedural difficulties, human factors issues should be
reported through any appropriate devices according to the airline policies.

7.4.4. MAINTENANCE TRAINING


To get its operational approval, the airline must demonstrate that an appropriate
maintenance training program relative to the digital communications, is given to its
maintenance people. This is part of the ICAO Annex 6, paragraph 8.3.
In this program, the procedures for digital communications maintenance will be
consistent with that recommended in the relevant chapters of the aircraft maintenance
manuals.
The aim is to train the maintenance personnel to properly implement, maintain, or
replace the AIM-FANS equipment (e.g. ATSU, DCDU, FMS, printer, VDR...)
Installation, modification and use of testing tools are some of the points to be trained.
The maintenance people should also be aware of the MEL items associated to the relief
of FANS equipment.
Adhering to configuration control lists that may be recommended in some FANS areas,
so as to maintain recognised operating equipment and performance levels, might be
part of the requirements. Data link service providers can provide the airline with
information on poor performance by individual aircraft. It is also recommended that the
airline provide Airbus with information on their current avionics configuration and
operating performance so as to ensure a good feed back on the FANS systems and
documentation update.
Implementing the adequate Service Bulletins for approved configuration and ensuring
software updates of the FANS systems are correctly incorporated should also be
assured.

7.4.5. APPROVED DOCUMENTATION


The applicant airline should present to its relevant authority a set of documents to be
approved. It is expected that the following documentation will be required:
- FANS A Airworthiness Approval Summary
- MEL
- AFM

7.4.5.1. FANS A AIRWORTHINESS APPROVAL SUMMARY


This document (provided in Appendix K) is part of the manufacturer operational
approval. It can be made available to the national authority of the applicant airline.
It contains the assumptions on the ground environment and a synthesis of the results of
certification tests.
Based on this document, the operational and technical context may be evaluated and
additional demonstration activities be asked by the authority.

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7.4.5.2. MEL (MINIMUM EQUIPMENT LIST)


The airline should submit its intended MEL for operation of FANS routes to its
airworthiness authority. In addition to the MEL provisions taken for the navigation
equipment, in the frame of RNP/RVSM context (“Getting to grips with modern
navigation” brochure), provisions will have to be taken for the digital communications
equipment.
The MEL items for data link communications may depend on the considered FANS
route (oceanic, continental, remote areas). The airline should thus take provisions for
some specific operating systems at dispatch, and consider the consequences of their
loss on the data link communications.
FANS operations are related to operational aspects, and therefore Airbus current policy
is not to include FANS considerations in the MMEL. Therefore it remains up to the
operators to amend their own MEL for FANS operations.
However, for CNS/ATM operations, the following minimum equipment must be
operative :
* ATA 46-20 COCKPIT INFORMATION SYSTEM
- ATSU
- 1 DCDU
- 1 ATC MSG pb

* ATA 23 COMMUNICATIONS
- VDR3
- SATCOM
Note : 2 HF are required for remote area further than VHF line-of-sight with or
without FANS capability. Although the availability and the reliability of the SATCOM
have proven to be good enough in South Pacific area, dispatch with one HF only is
still not granted for such area. As soon as HFDL is available and authorized for ATC
data link purpose, dispatch equipment list may be reconsidered.

* ATA 22 AUTO FLIGHT


- 1 FMGC
Note : Second FMGC or its Nav Backup function may be required in function of the
RNP of the planned route.

* ATA 34 NAVIGATION
- 1 GPS
Note : GPS is needed for ensuring position/time report accuracy

7.4.5.3. AIRPLANE FLIGHT MANUAL


The airplane flight manual shall reference the FANS A Airworthiness Approval Summary
document (provided in Appendix K).

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Please, bear in mind…

To ensure proper operations of FANS A aircraft on FANS routes, the operator needs
to ensure the following before starting operations:
1. Sign contract(s) with Datalink Service Provider(s) (DSP)
2. Declare aircraft to these Datalink Services Providers
3. Declare aircraft and its FANS capability to ATC centres of the operated
routes
4. Configure adequately the aircraft avionics
5. Obtain the operational approval

Contracts with Datalink Service Providers


• To operate in FANS environment, it is necessary to have a contract with at least
one of the major service providers (ARINC or SITA) for SATCOM and VDL datalink
• For ATC datalink, each individual aircraft must be declared, and identified namely
through its Aircraft Registration Number in DSP tables.
• In addition, the SATCOM AES (Aircraft Earth Station) identification, i.e. the aircraft
ICAO address, must be declared to the GES (Ground Earth Station) the aircraft will
operate. This is achieved through the SATCOM commissioning procedure.

Impact on aircraft configuration


Once the airline has selected the datalink service providers, the aircraft configuration
needs to be adapted accordingly. This can be achieved through customisation of:
- The ATSU (Air Traffic Services Unit) scan mask for VHF DataLink
- The SATCOM user ORT for SATCOM datalink

Operational approval
Rules are not yet fully available and individual operational authority may choose the
"means of compliance" stating what the applicant airline may have to demonstrate.
However, the following items will have to be complied with:
- Aircraft configuration
The aircraft should be configured in accordance with the approved certification
configuration for FANS A operations
- Flight crew training/qualification
Operating an aircraft in a FANS type environment requires from the crew
understanding, knowledge and operational use of the three C, N and S
dimensions of the CNS/ATM concept.
- Maintenance training
An appropriate maintenance training program relative to the digital
communications, must be given to maintenance people
- Approved operational documentation
The applicant airline should present to its relevant authority the FANS A
Airworthiness Approval Summary, the MEL and the AFM to be approved.

It is strongly recommended not to make spontaneous FANS testing with ATC


centres when they have not been previously made aware of a given aircraft
intention to operate in FANS mode.

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APPENDICES

APPENDICES

A - CPDLC messages and their meaning


B - ADS Report data
C - Data Communications Service Providers
- INMARSAT
- ARINC
- SITA
D - SATCOM Operators
E - FANS Operational Procedures
- Pacific FANS operations
- Indian ocean FANS operations
- North Atlantic FANS operations
- South Atlantic FANS operations
- New York oceanic CPDLC service area
F - Dynamic Airborne Route Planning (DARP)
G - Operational Scenarios FANS A
H - Operational Scenarios FANS A+
I - Operational Scenarios ATS623
J - OIT/FOT Ref. 999.0001/03:
New Air Traffic Services Unit (ATSU) aircraft interface
K - FANS A Airworthiness Summary

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APPENDIX A

APPENDIX A

LIST OF CPDLC MESSAGES WITH THEIR MEANING


Listed in this appendix are all the FANS A and FANS A+ messages supported by the CPDLC,
as defined by the EUROCAE ED-100 and endorsed by the ICAO ADS panel. Additional
comments provided by the ISPACG user forum are displayed in italics.
The abbreviations used for classification purpose are defined here below.
All up and down messages have been classified into operational groups. The reference number
is that of the initial ED-100.

ABBREVIATIONS CLOSURE RESPONSES


W/U WILCO, UNABLE, will close the uplink message.
A/N AFFIRM, NEGATIVE, will close the uplink message.
R ROGER, will close the uplink message.
NE WILCO, UNABLE, AFFIRM, NEGATIVE, ROGER, STANDBY,
will not close the uplink message. Only the actual referenced
response (time, heading, speed,…) will close the uplink
message.
Remark: The response is typed through the MCDU scratch pad
after having pressed the DCDU “MODIFY” key.
Y Response required.
N Response not required

Uplink - Responses and Acknowledgements

UL MESSAGE ELEMENT MESSAGE INTENT RESPONSE


0 UNABLE Indicates that ATS cannot comply with the NE
request.
1 STANDBY Indicates that ATS has received the NE
message and will respond.
The pilot is informed that the request is
being assessed and there will be a short-
term delay (within 10 minutes). The
exchange is not closed and the request
will be responded to when conditions
allow.
2 REQUEST DEFERRED Indicates that ATS has received the NE
request but it has been deferred until
later.
The pilot is informed that the request is
being assessed and a long-term delay
can be expected. The exchange is not
closed and the request will be responded
to when conditions allow.
3 ROGER Indicates that ATS has received and NE
understood the message.
4 AFFIRM Yes NE
5 NEGATIVE No NE

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APPENDIX A

Uplink - Vertical Clearances

UL MESSAGE ELEMENT MESSAGE INTENT RESPONSE


6 EXPECT [altitude] Notification that a level change instruction R
should be expected.
7 EXPECT CLIMB AT [time] Notification that an instruction should be R
expected for the aircraft to commence
climb at the specified time.
8 EXPECT CLIMB AT [position] Notification that an instruction should be R
expected for the aircraft to commence
climb at the specified position.
9 EXPECT DESCENT AT [time] Notification that an instruction should be R
expected for the aircraft to commence
descent at the specified time.
10 EXPECT DESCENT AT [position] Notification that an instruction should be R
expected for the aircraft to commence
descent at the specified position.
11 EXPECT CRUISE CLIMB AT [time] Notification that an instruction should be R
expected for the aircraft to commence
cruise climb at the specified time.
12 EXPECT CRUISE CLIMB AT [position] Notification that an instruction should be R
expected for the aircraft to commence
cruise climb at the specified position.
13 AT [time] EXPECT CLIMB TO Notification that an instruction should be R
[altitude] expected for the aircraft to commence
climb at the specified time to the specified
level.
14 AT [position] EXPECT CLIMB TO Notification that an instruction should be R
[altitude] expected for the aircraft to commence
climb at the specified position to the
specified level.
15 AT [time] EXPECT DESCENT TO Notification that an instruction should be R
[altitude] expected for the aircraft to commence
descent at the specified time to the
specified level.
16 AT [position] EXPECT DESCENT TO Notification that an instruction should be R
[altitude] expected for the aircraft to commence
descent at the specified position to the
specified level.
17 AT [time] EXPECT CRUISE CLIMB TO Notification that an instruction should be R
[altitude] expected for the aircraft to commence
cruise climb at the specified time to the
specified level.
Due to different interpretations between
the various ATS units, this element should
be avoided.
18 AT [position] EXPECT CRUISE CLIMB Notification that an instruction should be R
TO [altitude] expected for the aircraft to commence
cruise climb at the specified position to
the specified level.
Due to different interpretations between
the various ATS units, this element should
be avoided.
19 MAINTAIN [altitude] Instruction to maintain the specified level. W/U

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Uplink - Vertical Clearances (Continued)

20 CLIMB TO AND MAINTAIN [altitude] Instruction that a climb to the specified W/U
level is to commence and the level is to
be maintained when reached.
21 AT [time] CLIMB TO AND MAINTAIN Instruction that at the specified time, a W/U
[altitude] climb to the specified level is to
commence and once reached the
specified level is to be maintained.
22 AT [position] CLIMB TO AND Instruction that at the specified position, a W/U
MAINTAIN [altitude] climb to the specified level is to
commence and once reached the
specified level is to be maintained.
23 DESCEND TO AND MAINTAIN Instruction that a descent to the specified W/U
[altitude] level is to commence and the level is to
be maintained when reached.
24 AT [time] DESCEND TO AND Instruction that at the specified time a W/U
MAINTAIN [altitude] decent to the specified level is to
commence and once reached the
specified level is to be maintained.
25 AT [position] DESCEND TO AND Instruction that at the specified position a W/U
MAINTAIN [altitude] descent to the specified level is to
commence and when the specified level
is reached it is to be maintained.
26 CLIMB TO REACH [altitude] BY [time] Instruction that a climb is to commence at W/U
a rate such that the specified level is
reached at or before the specified time.
27 CLIMB TO REACH [altitude] BY Instruction that a climb is to commence at W/U
[position] a rate such that the specified level is
reached at or before the specified
position.
28 DESCEND TO REACH [altitude] BY Instruction that a descent is to commence W/U
[time] at a rate such that the specified level is
reached at or before the specified time.
29 DESCEND TO REACH [altitude] BY Instruction that a descent is to commence W/U
[position] at a rate such that the specified level is
reached at or before the specified
position.
30 MAINTAIN BLOCK [altitude] TO A level within the specified vertical range W/U
[altitude] is to be maintained.
31 CLIMB TO AND MAINTAIN BLOCK Instruction that a climb to a level within W/U
[altitude] TO [altitude] the specified vertical range is to
commence.
32 DESCEND TO AND MAINTAIN BLOCK Instruction that a descent to a level within W/U
[altitude] TO [altitude] the specified vertical range is to
commence.
33 Reserved
34 CRUISE CLIMB TO [altitude] A cruise climb is to commence and W/U
continue until the specified level is
reached.
35 CRUISE CLIMB ABOVE [altitude] A cruise climb can commence once W/U
above the specified level.
36 EXPEDITE CLIMB TO [altitude] The climb to the specified level should be W/U
made at the aircraft's best rate.
37 EXPEDITE DESCENT TO [altitude] The descent to the specified level should W/U
be made at the aircraft's best rate.

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Uplink - Vertical Clearances (Continued)

38 IMMEDIATELY CLIMB TO [altitude] Urgent instruction to immediately climb to W/U


the specified level.
39 IMMEDIATELY DESCEND TO [altitude] Urgent instruction to immediately descend W/U
to the specified level.
40 IMMEDIATELY STOP CLIMB AT Urgent instruction to immediately stop a W/U
[altitude] climb once the specified level is reached.
41 IMMEDIATELY STOP DESCENT AT Urgent instruction to immediately stop a W/U
[altitude] descent once the specified level is
reached.
171 CLIMB AT [VERTICAL RATE] MINIMUM Instruction to climb at not less than the W/U
specified rate.
172 CLIMB AT [vertical rate] MAXIMUM Instruction to climb at not above the W/U
specified rate.
173 DESCEND AT [vertical rate] MINIMUM Instruction to descend at not less than the W/U
specified rate.
174 DESCEND AT [vertical rate] Instruction to descend at not above the W/U
MAXIMUM specified rate.

Uplink - Crossing Constraints

UL MESSAGE ELEMENT MESSAGE INTENT RESPONSE


42 EXPECT TO CROSS [position] AT Notification that a level change instruction R
[altitude] should be expected which will require the
specified position to be crossed at the
specified level.
43 EXPECT TO CROSS [position] AT OR Notification that a level change instruction R
ABOVE [altitude] should be expected which will require the
specified position to be crossed at or
above the specified level.
44 EXPECT TO CROSS [position] AT OR Notification that a level change instruction R
BELOW [altitude] should be expected which will require the
specified position to be crossed at or
below the specified level.
45 EXPECT TO CROSS [position] AT Notification that a level change instruction R
AND MAINTAIN [altitude] should be expected which will require the
specified position to be crossed at the
specified level which is to be maintained
subsequently.
46 CROSS [position] AT [altitude] The specified position is to be crossed at W/U
the specified level. This may require the
aircraft to modify its climb or descent
profile.
47 CROSS [position] AT OR ABOVE The specified position is to be crossed at W/U
[altitude] or above the specified level.
48 CROSS [position] AT OR BELOW The specified position is to be crossed at W/U
[altitude] or below the specified level.
49 CROSS [position] AT AND MAINTAIN Instruction that the specified position is to W/U
[altitude] be crossed at the specified level and that
level is to be maintained when reached.

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Uplink - Crossing Constraints (Continued)

50 CROSS [position] BETWEEN The specified position is to be crossed at W/U


[altitude] AND [altitude] a level between the specified levels.
51 CROSS [position] AT [time] The specified position is to be crossed at W/U
the specified time.
52 CROSS [position] AT OR BEFORE The specified position is to be crossed at W/U
[time] or before the specified time.
53 CROSS [position] AT OR AFTER The specified position is to be crossed at W/U
[time] or after the specified time.
54 CROSS [position] BETWEEN [time] The specified position is to be crossed at W/U
AND [time] a time between the specified times.
55 CROSS [position] AT [speed] The specified position is to be crossed at W/U
the specified speed and the specified
speed is to be maintained until further
advised.
56 CROSS [position] AT OR LESS THAN The specified position is to be crossed at W/U
[speed] a speed equal to or less than the
specified speed and the specified speed
or less is to be maintained until further
advised.
57 CROSS [position] AT OR GREATER The specified position is to be crossed at W/U
THAN [speed] a speed equal to or greater than the
specified speed and the specified speed
or greater is to be maintained until further
advised.
58 CROSS [position] AT [time] AT The specified position is to be crossed at W/U
[altitude] the specified time and the specified level.
59 CROSS [position] AT OR BEFORE The specified position is to be crossed at W/U
[time] AT [altitude] or before the specified time and at the
specified level.
60 CROSS [position] AT OR AFTER The specified position is to be crossed at W/U
[time] AT [altitude] or after the specified time and at the
specified level.
61 CROSS [position] AT AND MAINTAIN Instruction that the specified position is to W/U
[altitude] AT [speed] be crossed at the specified level and
speed and the level and speed are to be
maintained.
62 At [time] CROSS [position] AT AND Instruction that at the specified time the W/U
MAINTAIN [altitude] specified position is to be crossed at the
specified level and the level is to be
maintained.
63 AT [time] CROSS [position] AT AND Instruction that at the specified time the W/U
MAINTAIN [altitude] AT [speed] specified position is to be crossed at the
specified level and speed and the level
and speed are to be maintained.

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APPENDIX A

Uplink - Lateral Offsets

UL MESSAGE ELEMENT MESSAGE INTENT RESPONSE


64 OFFSET [direction] [distance offset] Instruction to fly a parallel track to the W/U
OF ROUTE cleared route at a displacement of the
specified distance in the specified
direction.
65 AT [position] OFFSET [direction] Instruction to fly a parallel track to the W/U
[distance offset] OF ROUTE cleared route at a displacement of the
specified distance in the specified
direction and commencing at the specified
position.
66 AT [time] OFFSET [direction] Instruction to fly a parallel track to the W/U
[distance offset] OF ROUTE cleared route at a displacement of the
specified distance in the specified
direction and commencing at the specified
time.
67 PROCEED BACK ON ROUTE The cleared flight route is to be rejoined. W/U

68 REJOIN ROUTE BY [position] The cleared flight route is to be rejoined at W/U


or before the specified position.
69 REJOIN ROUTE BY [time] The cleared flight route is to be rejoined at W/U
or before the specified time.
70 EXPECT BACK ON ROUTE BY Notification that a clearance may be R
[position] issued to enable the aircraft to rejoin the
cleared route at or before the specified
position.
71 EXPECT BACK ON ROUTE BY [time] Notification that a clearance may be R
issued to enable the aircraft to rejoin the
cleared route at or before the specified
time.
72 RESUME OWN NAVIGATION Instruction to resume own navigation W/U
following a period of tracking or heading
clearances. May be used in conjunction
with an instruction on how or where to
rejoin the cleared route.

Uplink - Route Modifications

UL MESSAGE ELEMENT MESSAGE INTENT RESPONSE


73 [predepartureclearance] Notification to the aircraft of the W/U
instructions to be followed from departure
until the specified clearance limit.
74 PROCEED DIRECT TO [position] Instruction to proceed directly from the W/U
present position to the specified position.
75 W HEN ABLE PROCEED DIRECT TO Instruction to proceed, when able, directly W/U
[position] to the specified position.
76 AT [time] PROCEED DIRECT TO Instruction to proceed, at the specified W/U
[position] time, directly to the specified position.
77 AT [position] PROCEED DIRECT TO lnstruction to proceed, at the specified W/U
[position] position, directly to the next specified
position.
78 AT [altitude] PROCEED DIRECT TO Instruction to proceed, upon reaching the W/U
[position] specified level, directly to the specified
position.

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APPENDIX A

Uplink - Route Modifications (Continued)

79 CLEARED TO [position] VIA [route Instruction to proceed to the specified W/U


clearance] position via the specified route.
80 CLEARED [route clearance] Instruction to proceed via the specified W/U
route.

81 CLEARED [procedure name] Instruction to proceed in accordance with W/U


the specified procedure.
82 CLEARED TO DEVIATE UP TO Approval to deviate up to the specified W/U
[direction] [distance offset] OF distance from the cleared route in the
ROUTE specified direction.
83 AT [position] CLEARED [route Instruction to proceed from the specified W/U
clearance] position via the specified route.
84 AT [position] CLEARED [procedure Instruction to proceed from the specified W/U
name] position via the specified procedure.
85 EXPECT [route clearance] Notification that a clearance to fly on the R
specified route may be issued.
86 AT [position] EXPECT [route Notification that a clearance to fly on the R
clearance] specified route from the specified position
may be issued.
87 EXPECT DIRECT TO [position] Notification that a clearance to fly directly R
to the specified position may be issued.
88 AT [position] EXPECT DIRECT TO Notification that a clearance to fly directly R
[position] from the first specified position to the next
specified position may be issued.
89 AT [time] EXPECT DIRECT TO Notification that a clearance to fly directly R
[position] to the specified position commencing at
the specified time may be issued.
90 AT [altitude] EXPECT DIRECT TO Notification that a clearance to fly directly R
[position] to the specified position commencing
when the specified level is reached may
be issued.
91 HOLD AT [position] MAINTAIN Instruction to enter a holding pattern with W/U
[altitude] INBOUND TRACK the specified characteristics at the
[degrees][direction] TURN LEG TIME specified position and level.
[leg type]
92 HOLD AT [position] AS PUBLISHED Instruction to enter a holding pattern with W/U
MAINTAIN [altitude] the published characteristics at the
specified position and level.
93 EXPECT FURTHER CLEARANCE AT Notification that an onwards clearance R
[time] may be issued at the specified time.
94 TURN [direction] HEADING Instruction to turn left or right as specified W/U
[degrees] onto the specified heading.
95 TURN [direction] GROUND TRACK Instruction to turn left or right as specified W/U
[degrees] onto the specified track.
96 FLY PRESENT HEADING Instruction to continue to fly on the current W/U
heading.
97 AT [position] FLY HEADING Instruction to fly on the specified heading W/U
[degrees] from the specified position.
98 IMMEDIATELY TURN [direction] Instruction to turn immediately left or right W/U
HEADING [degrees] as specified onto the specified heading.

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Uplink - Route Modifications (Continued)

99 EXPECT [procedure name] Notification that a clearance may be R


issued for the aircraft to fly the specified
procedure.
178 TRACK DETAIL MESSAGE Message not defined.

Uplink - Speed Changes

UL MESSAGE ELEMENT MESSAGE INTENT RESPONSE


100 AT [time] EXPECT [speed] Notification that a speed instruction may R
be issued to be effective at the specified
time.
101 AT [position] EXPECT [speed] Notification that a speed instruction may R
be issued to be effective at the specified
position.
102 AT [altitude] EXPECT [speed] Notification that a speed instruction may R
be issued to be effective at the specified
level.
103 AT [time] EXPECT [speed] TO Notification that a speed range instruction R
[speed] may be issued to be effective at the
specified time.
104 AT [position] EXPECT [speed] TO Notification that a speed range instruction R
[speed] may be issued to be effective at the
specified position.
105 AT [altitude] EXPECT [speed] TO Notification that a speed range instruction R
[speed] may be issued to be effective at the
specified level.
106 MAINTAIN [speed] The specified speed is to be maintained. W/U

107 MAINTAIN PRESENT SPEED The present speed is to be maintained. W/U

108 MAINTAIN [speed] OR GREATER The specified speed or a greater speed is W/U
to be maintained.
109 MAINTAIN [speed] OR LESS The specified speed or a lesser speed is W/U
to be maintained.
110 MAINTAIN [speed] TO [speed] A speed within the specified range is to W/U
be maintained.
111 INCREASE SPEED TO [speed] The present speed is to be increased to W/U
the specified speed and maintained until
further advised.
112 INCREASE SPEED TO [speed] OR The present speed is to be increased to W/U
GREATER the specified speed or greater, and
maintained at or above the specified
speed until further advised.
113 REDUCE SPEED TO [speed] The present speed is to be reduced to the W/U
specified speed and maintained until
further advised.
114 REDUCE SPEED TO [speed] OR LESS The present speed is to be reduced to the W/U
specified speed or less and maintained at
or below the specified speed until further
advised.

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APPENDIX A

Uplink - Speed Changes (Continued)

115 DO NOT EXCEED [speed] The specified speed is not to be W/U


exceeded.
116 RESUME NORMAL SPEED Notification that the aircraft need no W/U
longer comply with the previously issued
speed restriction.

Uplink - Contact/Monitor/Surveillance Requests

UL MESSAGE ELEMENT MESSAGE INTENT RESPONSE


117 CONTACT The pilot is required to call the ATS facility W/U
[icaounitname][frequency] on the specified frequency.

118 AT [position] CONTACT At the specified position the ATS unit with W/U
[icaounitname] [frequency] the specified ATS unit name is to be
contacted on the specified frequency.
119 AT [time] CONTACT [icaounitname] At the specified time the ATS unit with the W/U
[frequency] specified ATS unit name is to be
contacted on the specified frequency.
120 MONITOR The pilot is required to monitor the W/U
[icaounitname][frequency] specified ATS facility on the specified
frequency. The Pilot is not required to
check in.
121 AT [position] MONITOR At the specified position the ATS unit with W/U
[icaounitname] [frequency] the specified ATS unit name is to be
monitored on the specified frequency.
122 AT [time] MONITOR [icaounitname] At the specified time the ATS unit with the W/U
[frequency] specified ATS unit name is to be
monitored on the specified frequency.
123 SQUAWK [beacon code] The specified code (SSR code) is to be W/U
selected.
124 STOP SQUAWK The SSR transponder responses are to W/U
be disabled.
125 SQUAWK ALTITUDE The SSR transponder responses should W/U
include level information.
126 STOP ALTITUDE SQUAWK The SSR transponder responses should W/U
no longer include level information.
179 SQUAWK IDENT The 'ident' function on the SSR W/U
transponder is to be actuated.

Uplink - Report/Confirmation Requests

UL MESSAGE ELEMENT MESSAGE INTENT RESPONSE


127 REPORT BACK ON ROUTE Instruction to report when the aircraft is R
back on the cleared route.
128 REPORT LEAVING [altitude] Instruction to report when the aircraft has R
left the specified level. Either a level that
has been maintained, or a level passed
through on climb or descent.
129 REPORT LEVEL [altitude] Instruction to report when the aircraft is in R
level flight at the specified level.
Note: To avoid confusion, Some States
have decided that they will not use this
element

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APPENDIX A

Uplink - Report/Confirmation Requests (Continued)


175 REPORT REACHING [altitude] Instruction to report when the aircraft R
has reached the specified level.
To be interpreted as “Report reaching
an assigned level.”
180 REPORT REACHING BLOCK [altitude] Instruction to report when the aircraft is R
TO [altitude] within the specified vertical range.
130 REPORT PASSING [position] Instruction to report when the aircraft R
has passed the specified position.
181 REPORT DISTANCE [to/from] Instruction to report the present distance NE
[position] to or from the specified position.
131 REPORT REMAINING FUEL AND Instruction to report the amount of fuel NE
SOULS ON BOARD remaining and the number of persons on
board.
132 CONFIRM POSITION Instruction to report the present position. NE

133 CONFIRM ALTITUDE Instruction to report the present level. NE

134 CONFIRM SPEED Instruction to report the present speed. NE

135 CONFIRM ASSIGNED ALTITUDE Instruction to confirm and acknowledge NE


the currently assigned level.
136 CONFIRM ASSIGNED SPEED Instruction to confirm and acknowledge NE
the currently assigned speed.
137 CONFIRM ASSIGNED ROUTE Instruction to confirm and acknowledge NE
the currently assigned route.
138 CONFIRM TIME OVER REPORTED Instruction to confirm the previously NE
WAYPOINT
reported time over the last reported
waypoint.
139 CONFIRM REPORTED WAYPOINT Instruction to confirm the identity of the NE
previously reported waypoint.
140 CONFIRM NEXT WAYPOINT Instruction to confirm the identity of the NE
next waypoint.
141 CONFIRM NEXT WAYPOINT ETA Instruction to confirm the previously NE
reported estimated time at the next
waypoint.
142 CONFIRM ENSUING WAYPOINT Instruction to confirm the identity of the NE
next plus one waypoint.
143 CONFIRM REQUEST The request was not understood. It NE
should be clarified and resubmitted.
144 CONFIRM SQUAWK Instruction to report the currently NE
selected transponder code.
145 CONFIRM HEADING Instruction to report the present heading. NE

146 CONFIRM GROUND TRACK Instruction to report the present ground NE


track.
182 CONFIRM ATIS CODE Instruction to report the identification NE
code of the last ATIS received.
147 REQUEST POSITION REPORT Instruction to make a position report. NE
To be used if the controller does not
receive a scheduled position report.

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APPENDIX A

Uplink - Negotiation Requests

UL MESSAGE ELEMENT MESSAGE INTENT RESPONSE


148 W HEN CAN YOU ACCEPT [altitude] Request for the earliest time at which NE
the specified level can be accepted.
149 CAN YOU ACCEPT [altitude] AT Instruction to report whether or not the A/N
[position] specified level can be accepted at the
specified position.
150 CAN YOU ACCEPT [altitude] AT Instruction to report whether or not the A/N
[time] specified level can be accepted at the
specified time.
151 W HEN CAN YOU ACCEPT [speed] Instruction to report the earliest time NE
when the specified speed can be
accepted.
152 W HEN CAN YOU ACCEPT [direction] Instruction to report the earliest time NE
[distance offset] OFFSET when the specified offset track can be
accepted.

Uplink - Air Traffic Advisories

UL MESSAGE ELEMENT MESSAGE INTENT RESPONSE


153 ALTIMETER [altimeter] ATS advisory that the altimeter setting R
should be the specified setting.
154 RADAR SERVICES TERMINATED ATS advisory that the radar service is R
terminated.
155 RADAR CONTACT [position] ATS advisory that radar contact has R
been established at the specified
position.
156 RADAR CONTACT LOST ATS advisory that radar contact has R
been lost.

157 CHECK STUCK MICROPHONE A continuous transmission is detected R


[frequency] on the specified frequency. Check the
microphone button.
158 ATIS [atis code] ATS advisory that the ATIS information R
identified by the specified code is the
current ATIS information.

Uplink - System Management Messages

UL MESSAGE ELEMENT MESSAGE INTENT RESPONSE


159 ERROR [error information] A system generated message that the NE
ground system has detected an error.
160 NEXT DATA AUTHORITY [facility Notification to the avionics that the next NE
designation] data authority is the specified ATSU.
161 END SERVICE Notification to the avionics that the data NE
link connection with the current data
authority is being terminated.
162 SERVICE UNAVAILABLE Notification that the ground system does NE
not support this message.
163 [icao facility designation] Notification to the pilot of an ATSU NE
[tp4Table] identifier.

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APPENDIX A

Uplink - Additional Messages

UL MESSAGE ELEMENT MESSAGE INTENT RESPONSE


164 WHEN READY The associated instruction may be NE
complied with at any future time.
165 THEN Used to link two messages, indicating NE
the proper order of execution of
clearances or instructions.
166 DUE TO TRAFFIC The associated instruction is issued due NE
to traffic considerations.
167 DUE TO AIRSPACE RESTRICTION The associated instruction is issued due NE
to airspace restrictions.
168 DISREGARD The indicated communication should be R
ignored.
The previously sent uplink CPDLC
message shall be ignored. DISREGARD
should not refer to a clearance or
instruction. If DISREGARD is used,
another element shall be added to clarify
which message is to be disregarded.
176 MAINTAIN OWN SEPARATION AND Notification that the pilot is responsible W/U
VMC for maintaining separation from other
traffic and is also responsible for
maintaining Visual Meteorological
Conditions.
177 AT PILOTS DISCRETION Used in conjunction with a clearance or N
instruction to indicate that the pilot may
execute when prepared to do so.
169 [free text] Normal urgency attribute R

170 [free text] Distress urgency attribute R

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APPENDIX A

Downlink Messages
Downlink - Responses

DL MESSAGE ELEMENT MESSAGE INTENT RESPONSE


0 W ILCO The instruction is understood and will be N
complied with.
1 UNABLE The instruction cannot be complied with. N

2 STANDBY Wait for a reply. N


The controller is informed that the request
is being assessed and there will be a
short term delay (within 10 minutes). The
exchange is not closed and the request
will be responded to when conditions
allow.
3 ROGER Message received and understood. N
ROGER is the only correct response to an
uplink free text message. Under no
circumstances will ROGER be used
instead of AFFIRM.
4 AFFIRM Yes N
AFFIRM is an appropriate response to an
uplinked negotiation request message
(e.g. CAN YOU ACCEPT [altitude] AT [time]).
5 NEGATIVE No N
NEGATIVE is an appropriate response to
an uplinked negotiation request message
(e.g. CAN YOU ACCEPT [altitude] AT [time]).

Downlink - Vertical Requests

DL MESSAGE ELEMENT MESSAGE INTENT RESPONSE


6 REQUEST [altitude] Request to fly at the specified level. Y

7 REQUEST BLOCK [altitude] TO Request to fly at a level within the Y


[altitude] specified vertical range.
8 REQUEST CRUISE CLIMB TO [altitude] Request to cruise climb to the specified Y
level.
9 REQUEST CLIMB TO [altitude] Request to climb to the specified level. Y

10 REQUEST DESCENT TO [altitude] Request to descend to the specified level. Y

11 AT [position] REQUEST CLIMB TO Request that at the specified position a Y


[altitude] climb to the specified level be approved.
12 AT [position] REQUEST DESCENT TO Request that at the specified position a Y
[altitude] descent to the specified level be
approved.
13 AT [time] REQUEST CLIMB TO Request that at the specified time a climb Y
[altitude] to the specified level be approved.
14 AT [time] REQUEST DESCENT TO Request that at the specified time a Y
[altitude] descent to the specified level be
approved.

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APPENDIX A

Downlink - Lateral Off-Set Requests

DL MESSAGE ELEMENT MESSAGE INTENT RESPONSE


15 REQUEST OFFSET [direction] Request that a parallel track, offset from Y
[distance offset] OF ROUTE the cleared track by the specified distance
in the specified direction, be approved.
16 AT [position] REQUEST OFFSET Request that a parallel track, offset from Y
[direction] [distance offset] OF the cleared track by the specified distance
ROUTE in the specified direction, be approved
from the specified position.
17 AT [time] REQUEST OFFSET Request that a parallel track, offset from Y
[direction] [distance offset] OF the cleared track by the specified distance
ROUTE in the specified direction, be approved
from the specified time.

Downlink - Speed Requests

DL MESSAGE ELEMENT MESSAGE INTENT RESPONSE


18 REQUEST [speed] Request to fly at the specified speed. Y

19 REQUEST [speed] TO [speed] Request to fly within the specified speed Y


range.

Downlink - Voice Contact Requests

DL MESSAGE ELEMENT MESSAGE INTENT RESPONSE


20 REQUEST VOICE CONTACT Request for voice contact. Y

21 REQUEST VOICE CONTACT Request for voice contact on the specified Y


[frequency] frequency.

Downlink - Route Modification Requests

DL MESSAGE ELEMENT MESSAGE INTENT RESPONSE


22 REQUEST DIRECT TO [position] Request to track from the present position Y
direct to the specified position.
23 REQUEST [procedure name] Request for the specified procedure Y
clearance.
24 REQUEST [route clearance] Request for a route clearance. Y

25 REQUEST CLEARANCE Request for either a pre-departure or Y


route clearance.
26 REQUEST WEATHER DEVIATION TO Request for a weather deviation to the Y
[position] VIA [route clearance] specified position via the specified route.
27 REQUEST WEATHER DEVIATION UP TO Request for a weather deviation up to the Y
[direction] [distance offset] OF specified distance off track in the
ROUTE specified direction.
70 REQUEST HEADING [degrees] Request a clearance to adopt the Y
specified heading.
71 REQUEST GROUND TRACK [degrees] Request a clearance to adopt the Y
specified ground track.

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APPENDIX A

Downlink - Reports

DL MESSAGE ELEMENT MESSAGE INTENT RESPONSE


28 LEAVING [altitude] Notification of leaving the specified level. N

29 CLIMBING TO [altitude] Notification of climbing to the specified N


level.
30 DESCENDING TO [altitude] Notification of descending to the specified N
level.
31 PASSING [position] Notification of passing the specified N
position.

78 AT [time] [distance] [to/from] At the specified time, the aircraft's position N


[position] was as specified.
32 PRESENT ALTITUDE [altitude] Notification of the present level. N

33 PRESENT POSITION [position] Notification of the present position. N

34 PRESENT SPEED [speed] Notification of the present speed. N

35 PRESENT HEADING [degrees] Notification of the present heading in N


degrees.
36 PRESENT GROUND TRACK [degrees] Notification of the present ground track in N
degrees.
37 LEVEL [altitude] Notification that the aircraft is maintaining N
the specified level.
72 REACHING [altitude] Notification that the aircraft has reached N
the specified level.
76 REACHING BLOCK [altitude] TO Notification that the aircraft has reached a N
[altitude] level within the specified vertical range.
38 ASSIGNED ALTITUDE [altitude] Read-back of the assigned level. N

77 ASSIGNED BLOCK [altitude] TO Read-back of the assigned vertical range. N


[altitude]
39 ASSIGNED SPEED [speed] Read-back of the assigned speed. N

40 ASSIGNED ROUTE [route clearance] Read-back of the assigned route. N

41 BACK ON ROUTE The aircraft has regained the cleared N


route.

42 NEXT WAYPOINT [position] The next waypoint is the specified N


position.

43 NEXT WAYPOINT ETA [time] The ETA at the next waypoint is as N


specified.

44 ENSUING WAYPOINT [position] The next plus one waypoint is the N


specified position.
45 REPORTED WAYPOINT [position] Clarification of previously reported N
waypoint passage.
46 REPORTED WAYPOINT [time] Clarification of time over previously N
reported waypoint.
47 SQUAWKING [beacon code] The specified (SSR) code has been N
selected.

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Downlink – Reports (Continued)

48 POSITION REPORT [position report] Reports the current position of the aircraft N
when the pilot presses the button to send
this message.
ATC expects position reports based on
this downlink message
79 ATIS [atis code] The code of the latest ATIS received is as N
specified.
80 DEVIATING [direction] [distance Notification that the aircraft is deviating N
offset] OF ROUTE from the cleared route by the specified
distance in the specified direction.

Downlink - Negotiation Requests

DL MESSAGE ELEMENT MESSAGE INTENT RESPONSE


49 W HEN CAN WE EXPECT [speed] Request for the earliest time at which a Y
clearance to the specified speed can be
expected.
50 W HEN CAN WE EXPECT [speed] TO Request for the earliest time at which a Y
[speed] clearance to a speed within the specified
range can be expected.
51 W HEN CAN WE EXPECT BACK ON Request for the earliest time at which a Y
ROUTE clearance to regain the planned route can
be expected.
52 W HEN CAN WE EXPECT LOWER Request for the earliest time at which a Y
ALTITUDE clearance to descend can be expected.
53 W HEN CAN WE EXPECT HIGHER Request for the earliest time at which a Y
ALTITUDE clearance to climb can be expected.
54 W HEN CAN WE EXPECT CRUISE CLIMB Request for the earliest time at which a Y
TO [altitude] clearance to cruise climb to the specified
level can be expected.

Downlink - Emergency Messages

DL MESSAGE ELEMENT MESSAGE INTENT RESPONSE


55 PAN PAN PAN Urgency prefix. N

56 MAYDAY MAYDAY MAYDAY Distress prefix. N

57 [remaining fuel] OF FUEL REMAINING Notification of fuel remaining and number N


AND [souls on board] SOULS ON of persons on board.
BOARD
58 CANCEL EMERGENCY Notification that the pilot wishes to cancel N
the emergency condition.
59 DIVERTING TO [position] or Notification that the aircraft is diverting to N
DIVERTING TO [position] VIA [x] the specified position via the specified
route.
60 OFFSETTING [direction] [distance Notification that the aircraft is deviating N
offset] OF ROUTE the specified distance in the specified
direction off the cleared route and
maintaining a parallel track.
61 DESCENDING TO [altitude] Notification that the aircraft is descending N
to the specified level.

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APPENDIX A

Downlink - System Management Messages

DL MESSAGE ELEMENT MESSAGE INTENT RESPONSE


2 RROR [error information] system generated message that the N
avionics has detected an error.
3 OT CURRENT DATA AUTHORITY system generated denial to any CPDLC N
message sent from a ground facility that is
not the Current Data Authority.
4 cao facility designation] otification to the ground system that the N
specified ATSU is the current data
authority.
3 version number] system generated message indicating the N
software version number.

Downlink - Additional Messages

DL MESSAGE ELEMENT MESSAGE INTENT RESPONSE


65 DUE TO WEATHER Used to explain reasons for aircraft N
operator’s message.
66 DUE TO AIRCRAFT PERFORMANCE Used to explain reasons for aircraft N
operator's message.
74 MAINTAIN OWN SEPARATION AND VMC States a desire by the pilot to provide N
his/her own separation and remain in
VMC.
75 AT PILOTS DISCRETION Used in conjunction with another N
message to indicate that the pilot wishes
to execute the request when the pilot is
prepared to do so.
67 [free text] Normal urgency attribute N

67 W E CAN ACCEPT [altitude] AT [time] We can accept the specified level at the N
b specified time.
67c W E CAN ACCEPT [speed] AT [time] We can accept the specified speed at the N
specified time.
67 W E CAN ACCEPT [direction] [distance We can accept a parallel track offset the N
d offset] AT [time] specified distance in the specified
direction at the specified time.
67e W E CANNOT ACCEPT [altitude] We cannot accept the specified level. N

67f W E CANNOT ACCEPT [speed] We cannot accept the specified speed. N

67 W E CANNOT ACCEPT [direction] We cannot accept a parallel track offset N


g [distance offset] the specified distance in the specified
direction.
67 W HEN CAN WE EXPECT CLIMB TO Request for the earliest time at which a N
h [altitude] clearance to climb to the specified level
can be expected.
67i W HEN CAN WE EXPECT DESCENT TO Request for the earliest time at which a N
[altitude] clearance to descend to the specified
level can be expected.
68 [free text] Distress urgency attribute Y

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APPENDIX B

APPENDIX B
ADS REPORT DATA
(*): On request
GROUP PARAMETERS
Basic ADS group - Current latitude
(Required) - Current longitude
- Current STD altitude
- UTC Time stamp
- Navigation redundancy bit:
set to 1 if two or more IRS are providing valid position to the
FMS, else, set to 0
- Figure of merit:
level (0-7), which reflects the accuracy of the reported position
- TCAS health: set to 1 if valid data, else to 0
Earth Reference - True Track
Group (*) - Ground Speed
- Inertial Vertical Rate
Air Reference - Current True Heading
Group(*) - Mach
- Inertial Vertical Rate
Airframe Ident - 24 bit ICAO code
Group(*) (Not provided in FANS A)
Flight Ident - Flight ID
Group(*)
Meteorological - Wind Speed
Group(*) - True Wind Direction
- Static Air Temperature
Predicted Route - Latitude at next waypoint
Group(*) - Longitude at next waypoint
- STD altitude at next waypoint
- Estimated Time to Go (ETG) to next waypoint
- Latitude at Next +1 waypoint
- Longitude at Next+1 waypoint
- STD altitude at Next+1 waypoint
Fixed Intent - Latitude of fixed projected point
Group(*) - Longitude of fixed projected point
- STD altitude of fixed projected point
- Projected time:
Travel time to the fixed intent point along the active route
Intermediate - Distance:
Projected Intent . from current a/c position to the first intermediate projected point
Group(*) . from the previous intermediate projected point, for the
subsequent points
- Track::
. from current a/c position to the first intermediate projected point
. from the previous intermediate projected point, for the
subsequent points
- STD altitude of the intermediate projected point
Projected Time: Estimated Time to Go (ETG) to the intermediate
projected point
Output values of the parameters of the ADS messages

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APPENDIX B

PARAMETER VALID RANGE DEFAULT SIGNIFICANT DEFINED MSB APPROX.


VALUE (1) BITS (7) VALUE (2) LSB VALUE

Latitude ±90° (Note 3) 20 & sign 90° 0.000172°


Longitude ±180° (Note 3) 20 & sign 90° 0.000172°
Altitude ±131,068 feet -131,072 feet 15 & sign 65,536 feet 4 feet
Time Stamp 0 - 3599.875 sec FOM = 0 (Note 15 2048 sec. 0.125 sec.
(Note 8) 9)
Flight ID Alphanumeric Space 6 per character N/A N/A
(Note 4) (Note 5)
Mach 0 - 4.095 mach 4.0955 mach 13 2.048 mach 0.0005 mach
Ground Speed 0 - 4095 knots 4095.5 knots 13 2048 knots 0.5 knots
Wind Speed 0 - 255 knots 255.5 knots 9 128 knots 0.5 knots
True Wind -180 - +179.296875° Valid bit = 1 8 & sign & valid 90° .703125°
Direction (Note 6)
Vertical Rate ±32,752 ft/min -32,768 11 & sign 16,384 ft/min 16 ft/min
ft/min

Temperature ±511.75°C -512°C 11 & sign 256°C 0.25°C


True Track Angle -180 - +179.912° Valid bit = 1 11 & sign & valid 90° 0.08789°
(Note 6)

True Heading -180 - +179.912° Valid bit = 1 11 & sign & valid 90° 0.08789°
(Note 6)

Distance 0 - 8191.750 nm 8191.875 nm 16 4096 nm 0.125 nm


ETA 0 - 16382 sec 16383 sec 14 8192 sec 1 sec
Projected Time 0 - 16382 sec 16383 sec 14 8192 sec 1 sec

NOTES:
1. When no value is available or the value available to the ADS is invalid, a
default value shall be inserted in the field. The values shown here reflect a
coding of all "ones".
2. The value of the Most Significant Bit (MSB) is accurate by definition. The
value of the Least Significant Bit (LSB) is an approximation.
3. When either the latitude or the longitude for a position are invalid, both shall
be set to -180°. In the Basic ADS Group, the FOM shall also be set to 0.
4. When the Flight Identification is invalid, all characters shall be encoded as
spaces. When the Flight Identification is less than eight characters, the Flight
Identification shall be encoded left justified and the unused characters shall
be encoded as spaces.
5. The character set for the Flight Identification Group shall be ISO 5, without
the most significant bit. This allows the characters to be encoded using only
six bits. Valid characters are contained in the following sets: (A..Z), (0..9) and
( ).
6. The validation of the direction parameter shall be indicated by the
immediately preceding bit, where 0 = valid and 1 = invalid.
7. Signed numerical values shall be represented in two's complement notation.
8. The time stamp shall be expressed as the time elapsed since the most
recent hour. Time shall be rounded, not truncated, to accurately yield the
value loaded into the time stamp field.

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APPENDIX C

APPENDIX C

DATA COMMUNICATIONS SERVICE PROVIDERS

A) INMARSAT
- Aeronautical global and spot beam coverage

B) ARINC
- VHF datalink coverage
- VHF coverage
- HFDL coverage

C) SITA
- VDL coverage

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APPENDIX C

INMARSAT

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APPENDIX C

ARINC - VHF Data Link Coverage


North America
ARINC VDL COVERAGE

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APPENDIX C

ARINC VHF COVERAGE


ARINC - VHF Coverage

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APPENDIX C

ARINC - HFDL Coverage ARINC HFDL COVERAGE

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APPENDIX C

SITA - Americas coverage


Altitude 30 000 feet / On-line RGS are in red, planned are in blue

SITA VDL COVERAGE

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APPENDIX C

SITA - Europe, Africa and Middle-East coverage


Altitude 30 000 feet / On-line RGS are in red, planned are in blue

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APPENDIX C

SITA - Asia Pacific coverage


Altitude 30 000 feet / On-line RGS are in red, planned are in blue

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APPENDIX D : SATCOM OPERATORS
Inmarsat Telecom Providers for Service provider
GES
Satellite voice/fax for SATCOM
Country Location Code Name Code communications datalink
(Octal)
SKYPHONE CONSORTIUM
101 AOR/E 01
UK Goonhilly British Telecom ARINC
001 AOR/W 00
310 IOR 03
Singapore Sentosa Singapore Telecom ARINC
201 POR 02
SATELLITE AIRCOM CONSORTIUM
305 IOR 03
Australia Perth TELSTRA SITA
205 POR 02
103 AOR/E 01
France Aussaguel France Telecom SITA
005 AOR/W 00
SKYWAYS ALLIANCE
004 AOR/W 00
Norway Eik 104 AOR/E 01 Norwegian Telecom ARINC
301 IOR 03
312 IOR 03
Italy Fucino Telecom Italia NONE
105 AOR/E 01
USA Southbury 002 AOR/W 00 COMSAT ARINC
USA Santa Paula 202 POR 02 COMSAT ARINC
306 IOR 03
Japan Yamaguchi KDD AVICOM
203 POR 02
Thailand Nonthaburi 302 IOR 03 CAT AEROTHAI
MTSAT Satellites (expected availability end 2004)
JCAB (GES operator) SITA (AOC Messages)
Japan Kobe 161 MTSAT 07
SITA (Provider) JCAB (ATS Messages)
APPENDIX E

APPENDIX E

FANS OPERATIONAL PROCEDURES

1) Pacific FANS operations

2) Indian Ocean FANS operations

3) North Atlantic FANS operations


A) CPDLC procedures

B) ADS procedures

4) South Atlantic FANS operations (Trials)

5) New York Oceanic (KZWY) CPDLC service area

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APPENDIX E

E.1 - PACIFIC FANS OPERATIONS

This appendix provides information of FANS A datalink operations in the Pacific area:
- Japan
- Australia
- Fiji
- New Zealand
- Tahiti
- United States

All the following information are based on the Pacific Operation Manual (v1.1) available
on the FAA web site (Oceanic Procedures Branch): http://www1.faa.gov/ats/ato/130.htm

1. ATSU Designators
1.1 ICAO
The Pacific ICAO facility designations (called also “4 character ICAO code”) are:

ATS Units ICAO Facility Designation


Anchorage PAZA
Auckland NZZO
Brisbane YBBB
Melbourne YMMM
Nadi NFFF
Oakland KZAK
Tahiti NTTT
Tokyo RJTG

1.2 ACARS ADDRESSES


The following indicates the ATS Unit addresses lodged in the ACARS system, for the
Pacific:

ATS System ATSU Address


OCS – Anchorage ANCXFXA
OCS – Auckland AKLCDYA
TAATS – Brisbane BNECAYA
TAATS – Melbourne MELCAYA
Eurocat 2000X – Nadi NANCDYA
ODL – Oakland OAKODYA
VIVO – Tahiti PPTCDYA
ODP-3 – Tokyo TYOTGYA

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APPENDIX E

2 HF Voice Communications Requirements


a) Pre-Departure
All South Pacific ATS Units require a SELCAL check prior to departure. In the North
and Central Pacific only those aircraft, including aircraft equipping with FANS A datalink,
intending to operate in the North and Central Pacific airspace using a Selective Calling
System (SELCAL) to fulfil communications listening watch requirements, should
conduct a SELCAL check prior to departure.

b) Crossing International FIR Boundaries


When entering a Pacific FIR from an adjacent international FIR and CPDLC is
serviceable, the HF instruction CONTACT or MONITOR datalink message shall be sent as
detailed below:

FIR HF Instruction
Anchorage Oceanic CONTACT PAZA CENTRE [frequency]
Auckland Oceanic CONTACT NZZO CENTRE [frequency]
Brisbane CONTACT YBBB CENTRE [frequency]
Melbourne CONTACT YMMM CENTRE [frequency]
Nadi CONTACT NFFF CENTRE [frequency]
Oakland CONTACT KSFO CENTRE [frequency]
KSFO (San Francisco Radio) will provide all primary
and secondary HF frequencies, and HF transfer
points along the route of flight.
Tahiti CONTACT NTTT CENTRE [frequency]
A SELCAL check is required.
Tokyo CONTACT TOKYO CENTRE [frequency]

c) CPDLC Services Within The Tokyo FIR


Initial notification of emergency status may be accepted by CPDLC. Depending on the
nature of the emergency condition experienced, the pilot should notify ATC of the
circumstances by the most efficient means (voice or CPDLC).
Clearances/instructions relating to cruise climb are not issued within the Tokyo FIR.
Therefore, downlink request DL #8 “REQUEST CRUISE CLIMB TO [ level ]” should not
be used.
Pre-formatted messages regarding route modifications, including route clearance are
not able to be uplinked. These messages include UL #79, 80, 81, 83, 84, 85 and 86
(detailed in appendix A). The route clearance should, therefore be requested and issued
by HF or VHF voice communication.
Special and other non-routine aircraft observation, i.e. moderate turbulence (transonic
and supersonic aircraft only), severe turbulence, and volcanic activity should be
reported by HF or VHF voice communication.

Flight information services will be provided by HF or VHF voice communication.

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APPENDIX E

d) Logon Procedures within the Tokyo FIR


Datalink-equipped aircraft inbound from non-datalink airspace or radar airspace to
Tokyo Oceanic Controlled airspace are required to log on between 15 and 45 minutes
prior to entering datalink airspace within the Tokyo FIR. On initial contact with Tokyo
Radio, the pilot should inform Tokyo Radio that they have the CPDLC connection using
the voice phraseology “WE HAVE CPDLC CONNECTION”, and should downlink a
CPDLC position report.
Datalink-equipped aircraft inbound from the Anchorage FIR or Oakland FIR to
Tokyo Oceanic Controlled airspace will be automatically transferred to “RJTG” by
Anchorage or Oakland. If the process is not successful and “RJTG” is not the active
centre, the pilot shall, within 5 minutes after crossing the Tokyo and Anchorage/Oakland
common FIR boundary, terminate the connection by selecting ATC datalink off, then log
on with “RJTG”. Once a CPDLC connection has been established with “RJTG (Tokyo
ACC)”, the pilot should inform Tokyo Radio that they have the CPDLC connection using
the voice, and should downlink a CPDLC position report.

3 Differences of Use of FANS A Messages


The Pacific States listed in the box on the right do NOT use these two messages.
33 UL Cruise [altitude] Australia, Fiji, Japan, New Zealand,
and Tahiti do not use this message.
129 UL Report level[altitude] Australia, Fiji, Japan, New Zealand,
Tahiti and the United States do not
to use this message

4 Position Reporting Requirements: CPDLC and ADS Environments


The table below lists the position reporting requirements of individual ATS Units in the
Pacific.
ATC Reporting Requirements
Anchorage Does not accept CPDLC position reports in lieu of HF
voice
Auckland Requires an initial CPDLC position report at the FIR
boundary entry point, then ADS reporting only.
Brisbane Requires an initial CPDLC position report at the FIR
boundary entry point, then ADS reporting only.
Melbourne Requires an initial CPDLC position report at the FIR
boundary entry point, then ADS reporting only.
Nadi Currently accepts CPDLC position reports. Following the
commissioning of the EASY system Fiji will require an
initial CPDLC position report at the FIR boundary entry
point, then ADS reporting only.
Oakland Accepts CPDLC position reports in lieu of HF voice.
Tahiti Accepts CPDLC position reports. Controllers will send a
free text request for an FIR boundary estimate for
outbound flights.
Tokyo Accepts CPDLC position reports in lieu of HF voice.

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APPENDIX E

E.2 - INDIAN OCEAN FANS OPERATIONS

All the following information is based on the Indian Ocean Operation Manual (v1.0)
available on the following web site http://members.optusnet.com.au/~cjr/index.html
HF Voice Communications Requirements

• HF SELCAL Check
All Indian Ocean ATCs, except Australia, require a SELCAL check.
• Crossing International FIR Boundaries
When entering an Indian Ocean FIR from an adjacent international FIR and CPDLC is
serviceable, the HF instruction CONTACT or MONITOR datalink message shall be sent as
detailed below:

FIR HF Instruction
Antananarivo CONTACT FMMM CENTRE [frequency]
Brisbane CONTACT YBBB CENTRE [frequency]
Melbourne CONTACT YMMM CENTRE [frequency]
Johannesburg CONTACT FAJO CENTRE [frequency]
Seychelles CONTACT FSSS CENTRE [frequency]

• Differences of Use of FANS A Messages


The Indian Ocean States use the following FANS A messages as detailed below:
33 UL Cruise [altitude] Australia, South Africa and
Madagascar do not use this
message.
129 UL Report level[altitude] Australia does not use this
message in order to avoid
confusion because it does not
comply with voice phraseology.

• Position Reporting Requirements: CPDLC and ADS Environments


The following table lists the position reporting requirements of individual ATCs in the
Indian Ocean.
ATC Reporting Requirements
Antananarivo
Johannesburg Requires an initial CPDLC position report at the FIR
Brisbane boundary entry point, then ADS reporting only.
Melbourne
Seychelles

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APPENDIX E

• Class G airspace procedures: MELBOURNE FIR

Some specific procedures apply for flight operating the Indian Ocean portion of the
Melbourne FIR south of Latitude 45 South (Class G airspace).

Despite operating in a Traffic Information only when south of 45 South, flight crew
should still send CPDLC requests for changes of level and/or amended tracking that will
apply to route segments wholly within Class G airspace. This action will update the
controller flight data record, ensuring that the most accurate information is presented to
the controller.

These specific procedures (level changes, route clearance request…) are detailed in
the “Indian Ocean Operations Manual”, Part 8, which can be obtained from Airservices
Australia (www.airservices.gov.au).

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APPENDIX E

E.3 - NORTH ATLANTIC FANS OPERATIONS

All the following information are based on the “ATS Data link Services in NAT Airspace”
Version 7.0. This document is available on the NAT PCO web site: www.nat-pco.org

1. CPDLC PROCEDURES
1.1 Flight Planning
• The aircraft registration is required in Field 18 of the ATC flight plan. If the aircraft
registration is missing, or different from that contained in the AFN CONTACT
message, the ground system will not establish a CPDLC connection with that
aircraft.
• Hyphens contained in an aircraft registration must not be entered into the ICAO flight
plan form.

1.2 Air Traffic Control


• Where CPDLC-related voice communications are required, utilise the appropriate
phraseology as detailed in Appendix A.

• When CPDLC fails and communications revert to voice, all open messages should
be considered not delivered and any dialogues involving those messages should be
re-commenced by voice.

• Initiate voice contact to clarify the meaning or intent if an unexpected or


inappropriate response is received to an uplink message.

• Immediately revert to voice communications if at any time it appears that there is a


misunderstanding about the intent of a CPDLC dialogue.

• If possible, all open messages should be closed, regardless of any associated voice
communications. These responses should be consistent with the voice
communication, in order to prevent confusion.

• Up to five message elements can be sent within the same message, but the number
of elements should be kept to a minimum. Messages should not include ATC
clearances or instructions that are not dependent on one another. Misunderstanding
could result if only part of such a message could be complied with.

• If the controller becomes aware that the AFN to the NDA is not successful, the
controller should instruct the aircraft to manually initiate an AFN with the next ATC
Do not re-send the NDA message.
- Co-ordinate with the next ATC, establishing clearly when or where the aircraft will
be instructed to initiate AFN with that unit.
- The AFN instruction should be timed to allow the next ATC to establish an Active
CPDLC connection prior to the aircraft’s crossing the common boundary. Note
that this process will terminate the current CPDLC connection.

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APPENDIX E

• Do not include any other message element with the END SERVICE message.

• Appropriate responses to any received downlink messages should be sent prior to


sending the END SERVICE message.

• If an NDA was established, co-ordinate with that ATC regarding any CPDLC uplink
messages that were open at the time the END SERVICE message was sent.

1.3 Flight Crew – General

The following procedures apply to all Phases of CPDLC Operational Trials.


• When initialising the FMC, it is essential to ensure that the aircraft identification/call-
sign/flight ID matches the one displayed in the filed ATC flight plan. If the aircraft
identification/call-sign/flight ID and registration contained in the AFN CONTACT
message do not match what is provided in the flight plan, the AFN will be rejected.

• In the Shanwick FIR, the AFN will be rejected unless the oceanic clearance has
been issued to the flight. As well, the Shanwick system will reject AFN from
westbound flights proceeding into or transiting the Madrid FIR, because the limited
benefit for such flights does not justify the workload associated with providing
CPDLC services to them.

• If an AFN is rejected:
a) check whether the aircraft identification/call-sign/flight ID in the FMC matches the
aircraft identification/call-sign/flight ID provided in the flight plan and make
corrections if necessary;
b) check whether the aircraft registration matches the aircraft registration provided
in the flight plan, and arrange for the flight plan to be modified, if necessary;
c) attempt another AFN after receipt of the oceanic clearance; or
d) do not attempt another AFN if the flight is westbound in the Shanwick FIR and
will proceed into or transit the Madrid FIR.

• If entering CPDLC or ADS airspace via departure from an airport adjacent to, or
underlying the airspace, initiate AFN with the appropriate ATC prior to departure.

• If entering a CPDLC OCA/FIR from adjacent airspace where no CPDLC connections


have been established, initiate AFN to the CPDLC ATC between 15 and 45 minutes
prior to entering the CPDLC OCA/FIR.

• If, after initiating an AFN, the Active Centre does not match the ATC specified during
the Logon, the flight crew should clarify the situation via voice.

• CPDLC transfers to adjacent ATCs offering CPDLC services will be automatic.

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APPENDIX E

• When exiting a CPDLC OCA/FIR into a non-CPDLC OCA/FIR flight crews should
expect the Active Centre to terminate the CPDLC connection, leaving the aircraft
with no CPDLC connectivity. If entering a subsequent CPDLC OCA/FIR, crews
should initiate an AFN to the CPDLC ATC between 15 and 45 minutes prior to
entering the CPDLC OCA/FIR.

• Unless otherwise instructed, flight crews should revert to voice communications


while transiting non-CPDLC OCA/FIRs. Crews should note that an active CPDLC
connection may be established with the next CPDLC OCA/FIR well before entering
that OCA/FIR. Such connections should not be utilised except in highly unusual or
emergency situations.

• Where CPDLC-related voice communications are required, utilise the appropriate


phraseology as detailed in Appendix A.

• Initial contact and SELCAL check (if SELCAL will be used to monitor HF) with the
appropriate aeradio station are essential requirements prior to entering oceanic
airspace and each OCA/FIR along the route of flight.

• If no domestic frequency assignment has been received by 10 minutes prior to the


flight’s entry into domestic airspace, contact aeradio and request the frequency,
stating the oceanic exit fix.

• Flight crews should be aware of paragraph 5.4.6 concerning END SERVICE. For
this reason, it is important to respond to uplink messages promptly and
appropriately, particularly when approaching a FIR boundary. It should be noted that
if any uplink messages are open when the END SERVICE message is sent, the
CPDLC connections to both the CDA and NDA will be terminated.

• If unable to continue using CPDLC, flight crews should revert to voice procedures.

• Flight crews should be aware of the Expected Responses to particular downlink


message elements listed in Appendix A. If one of the Expected Responses is not
received, the flight crew should initiate voice contact to clarify the situation.

• All open messages should be closed, regardless of any associated voice


communications. These responses should be consistent with the voice communication,
in order to prevent confusion.

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1.4 Flight Crew –Contact with Aeradio

The integrity of the ATC service remains wholly dependent on establishing and
maintaining HF or VHF voice communications. During implementation of CPDLC,
specific Air Traffic Service Providers may be in various stages of development and
testing.

• Prior to entering each oceanic CTA, the pilot shall contact the appropriate aeradio
station.
• If the flight will exit the CTA into oceanic airspace, on initial contact the pilot shall:
a) use the term “C-P-D-L-C” after the aircraft call sign;
b) state the name of the next OCA/FIR to be entered; and
c) request the SELCAL check.

Example: KLM634 C-P-D-L-C, SHANWICK NEXT, REQUEST SELCAL CHECK CDAB.

Expect to either receive the frequencies for the stated OCA/FIR or to be advised about
the frequencies that will be assigned via CPDLC.

• If the flight will exit the CTA into domestic airspace, on initial contact the pilot shall:
a) use the term “C-P-D-L-C” after the aircraft call sign;
b) state the track letter if operating on the Organised Track System (OTS);
c) state the last two fixes in the cleared route of flight if operating outside the
OTS; and
d) request the SELCAL check.

Example 1: KLM634 C-P-D-L-C, TRACK BRAVO, REQUEST SELCAL


CHECK CDAB.
Example 2: CRX126 C-P-D-L-C, SCROD VALIE, REQUEST SELCAL
CHECK DMCS.

Expect to receive the domestic frequencies or to be advised about the frequencies that
will be assigned via CPDLC.

• Continue to use the term “C-P-D-L-C” until the SELCAL check has been completed,
the frequency assignment has been received or advised about the frequency that
will be assigned via CPDLC.
• If a frequency assignment is not received prior to crossing an OCA/FIR boundary,
contact the appropriate aeradio station.

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• When an onboard systems failure prevents CPDLC, or if CPDLC is terminated due


to FANS A problems:
a) do not inform aeradio that CPDLC has been terminated;
b) if the failure occurs prior to initial contact with the aeradio station, do not
use the phrase “C-P-D-L-C”; and
c) inform Company Operations Department in accordance with established
problem reporting procedures.
• When leaving CPDLC airspace, resume:
- ADS procedures if entering ADS airspace; or
- normal voice procedures if entering non-FANS A airspace.

1.5 Aeradio

• If an OCA/FIR implements Phase 2 operational trials:


some aeradio operators will advise CPDLC flights that frequencies will be provided
via CPDLC; while other aeradio operators will continue to provide frequency
assignments.

• Aeradio operators shall:


a) respond to an aircraft that identifies itself as “C-P-D-L-C” by restating
“C-P-D-L-C” in conjunction with the aircraft call-sign; and
b) complete the SELCAL check.

• Aeradio operators serving ATCs that are participating in ADS WPR operational trials
but not in CPDLC operational trials shall:
a) advise aircraft that:
“CPDLC SERVICE NOT AVAILABLE IN (name) OCA/FIR. VOICE REPORTS
NOT REQUIRED IN (name) OCA/FIR”; and
b) issue:
- communication instructions for the next OCA/FIR; or
- communication instructions and the frequency to contact the appropriate ATS
unit approaching, or over, the exit point; or
- instructions for the aircraft to call the aeradio station serving the next
OCA/FIR at a time or location prior to the exit OCA/FIR boundary or exit point.

• Aeradio operators serving ATCs that are participating in ADS WPR operational trials
and in CPDLC operational trials shall advise aircraft that:
“VOICE REPORTS NOT REQUIRED IN (name) OCA/FIR”; and
a) advise aircraft that:
“(type) FREQUENCIES WILL BE ASSIGNED VIA CPDLC”; or
b) issue:
- communication instructions for the next OCA/FIR; or
- communication instructions and the frequency to contact the appropriate ATS
unit approaching, or over, the exit point; or
- instructions for the aircraft to call the aeradio station serving the next
OCA/FIR at a time or location prior to the exit OCA/FIR boundary or exit point.

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1.6 Emergency Messages During Operational Trials

• It is expected that, in an emergency, flight crews will immediately revert to voice


communications. This does not preclude crews from using CPDLC for emergency
communications if unable to establish voice contact.

• Any downlink message that contains an emergency message element (see


Appendix 1) should be treated as an emergency message.

• In the event that a controller receives an emergency downlink message he/she


should take immediate action to confirm the status and intentions of the aircraft via
voice.

• Upon receipt of an emergency downlink message, the controller shall indicate to the
aircraft that the message was received by:
- responding with standard freetext message 004: ROGER PAN if the message
contains DM55 PAN PAN PAN;
- responding with standard freetext message 005: ROGER MAYDAY if the message
contains DM56 MAYDAY MAYDAY MAYDAY; or
- responding with UM3 ROGER if the message contains DM57, DM58, DM59, DM60
or DM61.

• If an emergency downlink message is inadvertently sent, the flight crew should send
DM58 CANCEL EMERGENCY as soon as practicable. After sending DM58, the
flight crew should confirm their status and intentions via voice.

• Once an emergency downlink message is received, controllers will consider the


aircraft to be in an emergency state until confirmed otherwise via voice contact with
the flight crew.

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2. ADS PROCEDURES
Air Traffic Control Procedures
• Whenever an ADS WPR is overdue by more than an period of time, as determined
by ATC, a controller shall take action to advise the aircraft concerned and request a
voice position report. If either the pilot or the controller notices intermittent operation,
either may revert to voice communications at any time. (Crews would be expected to
log-off and resume voice reporting for the remainder of the crossing.)
• A controller who becomes aware of corrupt or incorrect data shall initiate action to
establish voice contact with the aircraft concerned in order to correct the situation.
• If the controller is advised, or becomes aware of, a data link communications failure,
aircraft concerned shall be advised as necessary to revert to voice position
reporting.
• When an ADS emergency message is received, the controller with control
responsibility for the aircraft shall request confirmation of the emergency through
voice communications with the aircraft.
• When a controller not having control responsibility for the aircraft receives an ADS
emergency report, he/she shall co-ordinate with the controlling authority to ensure
that the emergency report has been received.
Flight Crew Procedures - General
The integrity of the ATC service remains wholly dependent on establishing and
maintaining HF or VHF voice communications. During implementation of ADS WPR,
specific Air Traffic and Communications Service Providers may be in various stages of
development and testing. To assist in the smooth transition to full implementation of
ADS WPR throughout the NAT Region, the pilot procedures below reflect the end-state
for ADS WPR. They are also applicable for operation within OCA/FIR’s conducting Pre
Operational Trials. The application of the following pilot and associated aeradio
procedures will permit a seamless expansion of ADS WPR without numerous changes
to the procedures themselves
.
Flight Crew Procedures – ATS Facilities Notification (AFN)
• When initialising the FMC, it is essential to ensure that the aircraft identification
matches the one displayed in the filed ATC flight plan. If a flight crew becomes
aware that they have provided incorrect flight identification data for the AFN, they
shall immediately terminate ADS and re- with a correct identification.
• Between 15 and 45 minutes prior to entering an ADS CTA the pilot shall initiate an
AFN. For flights departing from airports adjacent to, or underlying ADS Airspace, the
pilot shall logon prior to departure. Regardless of the Data link Service Provider, the
logon address for:
- Gander is CZQX;
- Shanwick is EGGX;
- Reykjavik is BIRD;
- Santa Maria is LPPO;

• Once logon has been established with one participating ATS provider, subsequent
logons with adjacent participating ATS providers will be automatic.

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Flight Crew Procedures – Aeradio Communications

Prior to entering an ADS CTA, the pilot shall contact the appropriate aeradio station.

• If the flight will exit an ADS CTA into oceanic airspace, on initial contact the pilot
shall:
- use the term “A-D-S” after the aircraft call sign;
- state the name of the next OCA/FIR to be entered; and
- request the SELCAL check.

Example: KLM634 A-D-S, SHANWICK NEXT, REQUEST SELCAL CHECK CDBA.


(Expect to receive the frequencies for the stated OCA/FIR)

If the flight will exit an ADS CTA into domestic airspace, on initial contact, the pilot
shall:
- use the term “A-D-S” after the aircraft call sign;
- state the track letter if operating on the Organised Track System (OTS);
- state the last two fixes in the cleared route of flight if operating outside the OTS and
- request the SELCAL check.

Example 1: KLM634 A-D-S, TRACK BRAVO, REQUEST SELCAL CHECK CDBA.

Example 2: CRX126 A-D-S, SCROD VALIE, REQUEST SELCAL CHECK DMCS.


(Expect to receive the Domestic frequencies).

• Continue to use the term “A-D-S” until either the SELCAL check has been completed
or the frequency assignment has been received.
• Pilots shall submit position reports via voice unless otherwise advised by the aeradio
operator. (See next section, Aeradio Procedures);
• If the estimated time for the NEXT position last reported to ATC is found to be
delayed by three minutes or more, a revised estimate shall be transmitted via voice
to the ATS unit concerned as soon as possible.

• When an onboard system failure prevents ADS WPR, or if ADS is terminated due to
FANS A problems:
- do not inform aeradio that ADS has been terminated;
- transmit all subsequent position reports via voice;
- if the failure occurs prior to initial contact with the aeradio station, do not use the
phrase “A-D-S”;
- inform Company Operations Department in accordance with established problem
reporting procedures.

When leaving ADS airspace, Pilots shall resume normal voice communications.

• Flight crews should not insert non-ATC waypoints (e.g. mid-points) in cleared
oceanic flight legs, as it will result in transmission of unwanted ADS reports. Non
ATC waypoints may prevent the provision of proper ETA data in the ADS reports
required for ATC waypoints.

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Notes:
- The use of ADS WPR does not negate the requirement to advise ATC whenever
any lateral offset is initiated or terminated.
- Aircraft participating in ADS WPR are exempt from all routine voice Meteorological
Reporting (wind and temperature), requirements.
- ADS WPR will automatically terminate after exiting ADS Airspace.

Aeradio Procedures

• Aeradio operators shall:


- Respond to an aircraft that identifies itself as “A-D-S” by restating “A-D-S” in
conjunction with the aircraft call-sign; and
- Complete the SELCAL check.

• During Pre-Operational Trials, aeradio operators shall advise the pilot to make
position reports by HF voice.

• During the Operational Trial aeradio operators shall:


- Advise aircraft that “VOICE REPORTS NOT REQUIRED IN (nominated)
OCA/FIR”,
- Issue:
- communication instruction for the next OCA/FIR; or
- communications instructions and the frequency to contact the appropriate ATS unit
approaching, or over, the exit point or
- instructions for the aircraft to call the aeradio station serving the next OCA/FIR at a
time or location prior to the next OCA/FIR boundary or exit point.

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APPENDIX E

E.4 - SOUTH ATLANTIC FANS OPERATIONS (TRIALS)

All the following information are based on the “Guidance material on SACCAN FANS A
operational evaluation trials in Canarias airspace” Version 1.0. This document is
available on the SATMA web site: www.satmasat.com

SYSTEM OPERATION - MANAGING ADS AND CPDLC

• Log-on/Connection

Aircraft participating in the SACCAN FANS A operational evaluation trials are kindly
requested to manually log-on the Canary Islands SACCAN system by sending an ATS
Facilities Notification (AFN) Contact message, containing the 4 character ICAO code of
the CANARIAS ATS unit “GCCC” between 15 and 45 minutes prior to entering the
CANARIAS FIR/UIR.

If a log-on attempt is not successful, wait at least 5 minutes before making a second
attempt

For flights departing from airports adjacent to, or within CANARIAS FIR/UIR, the pilot
should log-on prior to departure.

Some aircraft may decide to participate only in ADS operational evaluation trials, and
therefore the only connection to be activated will be ADS.

The AFN log-on will be rejected if:


- the aircraft registration/flight identification pairing does not match the pairing
contained in the flight plan;
- there is no aircraft registration included in the flight plan; or
- there is no flight plan in the ATS system (SACCAN) for that flight.
The flight identification used for log-on must be exactly the same as the filed in
the ATS flight plan.
• Establishing and Terminating an ADS Connection
Immediately after log-on has been completed successfully SACCAN will automatically
activate the ADS connection and set an initial 15 minutes (adaptable value) periodic
reporting rate contract with the aircraft.

During the aircraft transit through CANARIAS FIR/UIR airspace different periodic
contract reporting rates and data contents will be exercised in order to operationally
evaluate the SACCAN automatic ADS contracts management feature.

Although several types of event contracts will be operationally evaluated , the most
commonly used will be:
- ADS Way Point Change Event;
- Altitude Range; and,
- Lateral Deviation Change Event; and,
- Demand contracts (set by the ground system at any time); and,
- ADS MET Data contract request will also be evaluated.

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In order to minimise the cost of data communications the use of high periodic reporting
rates (the highest possible is 64 seconds for FANS A avionics) and in general the
amount of ADS data exchanged will be kept to the minimum required.

During the operational evaluation trials phase it is not expected to execute any transfer
since no adjacent ATS unit FANS A equipped is yet available

• ADS Emergency Mode Operation

When SACCAN receives an emergency-mode ADS report (triggered by pilot action) , it


will alert the Controller. If a periodic contract is active, the emergency reports will be
transmitted at the existing periodic rate. Only the pilot can cancel the emergency mode.

During the ADS operational evaluation trials the ADS Emergency Mode Operation will
be occasionally evaluated with aircraft. Pilot triggering of the emergency mode for
testing purposes will be done only on controller request via voice communications, or
via data link free text in case the aircraft is also participating in CPDLC trials.

• Surveillance Safety Considerations

During this first phase of ADS operational evaluation trials ADS data will never
be used for operational purposes such as application of ADS separations
between aircraft, aircraft and the terrain, or any kind of ADS service.

Only after proper evaluation, system modification if required, and validation, SACCAN
will be used in a first operational phase for “ADS monitoring”

• Establishing, Executing, and Terminating a CPDLC Connection

Participating FANS A equipped aircraft wanting/able to participate on top of ADS also in


CPDLC operational evaluation trials, once entered Canarias airspace and ready to start
the trials, should inform Canarias ACC by means of the following voice phraseology:
“READY FOR CPDLC TRIALS”

If when receiving the aircraft request the controller is ready for CPDLC trials, he/she will
answer “ ROGER, INITIATING CPDLC” while he/she manually triggers the CPDLC
initiation in the SACCAN system.

If when receiving the aircraft request the controller is not ready for CPDLC trials with
that aircraft, and expects he/she will never be before the aircraft leaves the Canarias
airspace, the answer will be “UNABLE TO PERFORM CPDLC TRIALS”.

If when receiving the aircraft request the controller is not ready for CPDLC trials, but
he/she expects to be ready for it later before the aircraft leaves the Canarias airspace,
he/she will answer “ROGER, I WILL CALL YOU BACK FOR CPDLC TRIALS”, or
“EXPECT CPDLC CONECTION FOR TRIALS AT TIME __ __”.

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Once the controller is ready for CPDLC trials he/she will indicate it to the pilot by the
voice message “ CONFIRM READY FOR CPDLC TRIALS”, and if the pilot response is
”AFFIRMATIVE” he/she will answer “ROGER” and trigger the CPDLC initiation in the
SACCAN system.

A CPDLC exchange can only occur after the AFN has been completed, the CPDLC
initiated by means of a CONNECTION REQUEST message triggered manually by the
controller and sent by the SACCAN system to the aircraft, and a CONNECTION
CONFIRM message received from the aircraft.

Pilots will ensure that the CPDLC connection is an active connection.

When so requested by ATC by means of the free text message “START CPDLC
WAYPOINT POSITION REPORTING” pilots shall ensure that a CPDLC message will
be issued whenever an ATC waypoint is passed over (Waypoint Change Events
(WCE) ). ATC expects position reports based on downlink message POSITION
REPORT [position report] (Message 48 of the DOWNLINK MESSAGE ELEMENT
TABLE defined in RTCA DO-219 that also can be seen in Appendix 3). Pilots should
not expect a controller response to these position reports. Free text message
“STOP CPDLC WAYPOINT POSITION REPORTING” will be used by ATC to advice
pilot to stop this reporting.

A set of CPDLC tests to be carried out during the first phase of the operational
evaluation is in “Guidance material on SACCAN FANS A Operational Evaluation Trials
in Canarias Airspace.

The CPDLC messages exchanged during this first phase of operational


evaluation trials are not operationally valid and therefore instructions or requests
in them shall never be considered as operational valid either by the crew or
controller. Controller instructions via CPDLC are not to be complied with, either
by pilot or FMS.

Once a test have been commenced, that test should be completed in order not to leave
open messages before terminating the CPDLC trials.

The termination of a CPDLC trials session may be decided at any moment by either
pilot or controller and will be communicated to each other by means of the following free
text message: “REQUEST CPDLC TRIALS TERMINATION”

Pilot response to this message should be “ROGER”.

The controller will trigger the initiation of the CPDLC connection termination sequence
which will cause SACCAN to send an END SERVICE uplink message.

The controller shall ensure that no open uplink CPDLC messages exist prior to the up-
linking of an END SERVICE message.

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Although it is an abnormal case, if the controller is aware that the END SERVICE
message has been unsuccessful, the pilot will be instructed by voice to terminate the
connection.

If the CPDLC connection does not terminate automatically at the appropriate time
(normally 5 minutes after leaving CANARIAS FIR/UIR, then the pilot shall manually
disconnect.

• Communications Safety Considerations

The CPDLC messages exchanged during this first phase of operational


evaluation trials are not operationally valid and therefore instructions or requests
in them shall never be considered as operational valid either by the crew or
controller.

During this first phase of the operational evaluation trials the integrity of the ATC
service remains wholly dependent on establishing and maintaining HF or VHF
voice communications. The only operational valid means of communications
continue to be VHF and HF voice communications.

OPERATIONAL EVALUATION TRIALS PROCEDURES

• Flight Planning Procedures

Operators should complete the ICAO flight plan form as follows for FANS A equipped
aircraft as detailed in §5.2.
It is to be noticed that the Item 18 must be filled with RMK/ followed by CANARIAS
FANS 1 or CANARIAS FANS A (specifically requested by Canarias ACC to FANS A
participating aircraft).

Example:
ICAO Item 18: DAT/SV..RMK/CANARIAS FANS 1 (for a satellite and VHF data link
equipped aircraft, and FANS 1 aircraft participating in the Canarias FANS A operational
evaluation trials )

NOTE: The above requirements are for an end-state system. If an operator’s flight
planning system does not have the capability to enter any of the data as indicated; this
will not restrict participation in the SACCAN FANS A Operational Evaluation Trials.

The ATS system (SACCAN) compares the registration number of the aircraft contained
in Field 18 (Other Information) of the ICAO flight plan with the registration contained in
the ATS Facilities Notification (AFN). The operator is responsible for ensuring that the
correct aircraft registration is filed in Field 18 of the ICAO flight plan.

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• Air Traffic Control Procedures


It is to be noticed that logon and connection management are detailed in § 5.

Whenever an ADS-WPR is overdue by more than interval, as determined by ATC, the


controller will take action to advise the aircraft concerned in order to investigate or try to
correct the situation.

A controller who becomes aware of corrupt or incorrect data, will take action to advise
the aircraft concerned in order to investigate or try to correct the situation.

In order to perform the operational evaluation the controller will follow the internal
evaluation procedures and protocols established to this respect.

If the controller is advised, or becomes aware of a data link communications failure,


aircraft concerned will be advised.

When an unexpected /not programmed ADS emergency message is received, the


controller with control responsibility for the aircraft shall request confirmation of the
emergency through voice communications with the aircraft.

When a controller not having control responsibility for the aircraft receives an ADS
emergency report, he/she shall co-ordinate with the controlling authority to ensure that
the emergency report has been received and is investigated.

• Flight Crew Procedures

When initializing the FMC, it is essential to ensure that the aircraft identification
matches the one displayed in the filed ATC flight plan (FPL Message). If a flight
crew becomes aware that they have provided incorrect flight identification data
for logon to ATC, they shall immediately terminate ADS and re-logon with a
correct identification.

Pilots must be aware that appropriate clocks synchronisation to UTC


(hours/minutes/seconds) is essential for FANS operations and specially for ADS.

Pilots might be asked by the controller to provide a “time check for ADS” by means of
the following voice message: “REQUEST TIME CHECK FOR ADS”; if that is the case,
pilot response should be : “TIME (minutes, seconds)”.

Pilots are requested to log-on between 15 and 45 minutes prior to entering the
CANARIAS FIR/UIR.

On initial voice contact with CANARIAS ACC the pilot will use the term “FANS ADS”
after the call-sign.

If unable to log-on after several attempts , on initial voice contact with CANARIAS ACC
the pilot should inform ATS using the following terminology:
“UNABLE TO FANS LOG-ON”.

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ADS, with the exception of the “ADS Emergency Mode Operation” will normally be
initiated, managed, and terminated by the ground system, without pilot intervention.

If problems are experienced with the CPDLC connection , pilot should inform ATS via
HF or VHF voice using the following terminology:
“PROBLEMS WITH CPDLC CONNECTION”

Log-off should normally take place 5 minutes after leaving CANARIAS FIR/UIR unless
something different is agreed in real time via pilot-controller voice communications

Flight crews that encounter problems with FANS A data link will inform controller and
advise their Company Operations Department in accordance with their established
problem reporting procedures.

The CPDLC messages exchanged during this first phase of operational


evaluation trials are not operationally valid and therefore instructions or requests
in them shall never be considered as operational valid either by the crew or
controller.

During this first phase of the operational evaluation trials the integrity of the ATC
service remains wholly dependent on establishing and maintaining HF or VHF
voice communications.

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APPENDIX E

E.5 - NEW YORK OCEANIC (KZWY) CPDLC SERVICE AREA

This document is based on a NOTAM (March 20th, 2003) available on the FAA web site:
http://www1.faa.gov/ats/ato/data_link.htm

On March 2003, New York ARTCC has implemented full FANS1/A CPDLC capability in
the New York Oceanic FIR MNPS airspace including that additional airspace within the
New York Oceanic FIR south of 27 degrees North latitude and east of 60 degrees West
longitude inclusive. CPDLC will not be available in the WATRS area. FANS A capable
aircraft that wish to participate in CPDLC may utilise this service.
The New York Oceanic FIR log-on address is “KZWY”.

As KZWY does not have the capability to receive waypoint position reports using ADS,
pilots should send their required position reports utilising CPDLC. Meteorological
reports will not be required from flights when utilising CPDLC.

1. HF Communications Requirement

Prior to entering the KZWY CPDLC service area, contact New York Radio on HF or
VHF and identify the flight as CPDLC equipped; provide SELCAL, departure point,
destination, and aircraft registration number. Expect to receive primary and secondary
HF frequency assignments from New York Radio for the route of flight within the
CPDLC service area. Pilots must maintain HF communications capability with New York
Radio at all times within the entire New York Oceanic FIR.

2. Log-On (Entry Procedures)

Aircraft entering the KZWY CPDLC service area from NON-CPDLC airspace:

• Initial log-on from non-CPDLC airspace: Log on to KZWY at least 15 minutes but
not more than 45 minutes prior to entering the KZWY CPDLC service area.

• Initial log-on in transit eastbound through WATRS airspace: Log on to CPDLC


at least 15 minutes but no more than 45 minutes prior to entering the KZWY
CPDLC service area. Continue normal ATC communication via HF voice until
entering the KZWY CPDLC service area. Commence CPDLC communications at
the service area boundary. Downlink messages sent prior to entering the CPDLC
service area will be rejected and a response of "Service unavailable" will be
uplinked.

EXCEPTION: Flights operating along A700 within MNPS airspace are not to use
CPDLC and are to continue using HF voice.

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Aircraft entering the KZWY CPDLC service area from adjacent CPDLC airspace:

Until further advised, there is no automatic transfer of a flight’s CPDLC connection from
any CPDLC service area entering KZWY. If a “Datalink Termination” message is
received, pilots must manually log-on to the KZWY CPDLC system and send a
boundary waypoint position report.

If “KZWY” is not the active centre within 5 minutes after the boundary is crossed, pilots
shall ensure all open uplinks from the previous ATC unit have been responded to, then
terminate the CPDLC connection and log on to KZWY.

While “KZWY” is the active centre the pilot shall ensure HF communications are
maintained as a backup and begin CPDLC communication.

3. KZWY CPDLC Service Area Exit Procedures

• Aircraft exiting the KZWY CPDLC service area to adjacent NON-CPDLC


airspace (Santa Maria, Piarco, San Juan, WATRS, New York Centre,
Bermuda Radar, Moncton, and Gander Domestic):
Aircraft approaching the airspace above can expect the CPDLC “CONTACT”
message containing the frequency for the next facility. CPDLC will be terminated
approximately 10 minutes prior to the boundary crossing point.

• Aircraft exiting the KZWY CPDLC service area to adjacent CPDLC


airspace (presently only applicable to Gander Oceanic):
Aircraft approaching adjacent CPDLC airspace above can expect the CPDLC
“MONITOR” message containing the frequency for the next facility. CPDLC will
be transferred approximately 10 minutes prior to the boundary crossing point.
4. Position Report Message Format

KZWY cannot accept position reports containing latitude and longitude (Lat/Long) in
ARINC 424 format (e.g. 4050N). Position reports containing Lat/Long waypoints within
the KZWY CPDLC service area will be accepted in whole latitude and longitude format
only (050N040W). Flights unable to send position reports in whole latitude and longitude
format must accomplish position reporting via HF voice communications.
5. Controller Pilot Data Link Communications (CPDLC) Failure
In the event of CPDLC failure, flight crews shall contact New York Radio via HF voice
for routine communications. SATVOICE contact is limited to distress and urgency
situations.
Direct questions to New York International Operations, telephone: (1) 631-468-1037,
fax: (1) 631-468-4229 during normal business hours Monday – Friday. During all other
times, contact New York Centre North Atlantic Supervisor: (1) 631-468-1496. Questions
can also be e-mailed to 9-AEA-NYCPDLC@FAA.GOV (email address effective as of 1
March 2003).

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APPENDIX F

APPENDIX F

DYNAMIC AIRBORNE ROUTE PLANNING

The dynamic re-routing procedure has been developed by the ISPACG forum to provide
FANS equipped aircraft with the possibility of a complete F-PLN change once airborne.
On the typical Los Angeles/Sydney or Los Angeles/Auckland routes, the wind updates
after the first hours of flight may happen to show that a better F-PLN could be
considered.
Procedures, based on an extensive use of the data link capabilities of the three AOC,
ATC and aircraft, have thus been developed to allow for the crew to get an in-flight route
re-clearance. The DARP scenario is described in the Airbus AIM-FANS A training CD-
ROM.
The following describes the SPOM procedures, for a single re-route per flight, as
currently in use.
1- Prerequisites
- The airline shall have an AOC data link capability to communicate with both the
aircraft and the ATC with data link.
- The airline must be able to sustain CPDLC with the appropriate ATC, and data link
AOC with its operations centre.
- The ATC centres providing the control of the FIR where the re-routing will be done
must have CPDLC capability.
2- PACOTS / DARP Track designations
PACOTS tracks still exist but many operators use them as UPR. Therefore, there are
aircraft both on PACOTS and UPR. Consequently, no more strategic separations
(50Nm) between aircraft can be applied.

3- Descriptive drawing

The following sequence is applied:


OAKLAND
- Oakland (ZOA) receives new weather forecast and loads it in its system
- ZOA Traffic Management Unit defines the DARP entry point on the original track, at
least 90 minutes ahead of the aircraft.
- ZOA TMU (Traffic Management Unit) defines a new track based on the old route
until the DARP entry point.
- ZOA TMU sends a new TDM (Track Definition Message) to all concerned ATCs

AOC / Aircraft/ ATC


- Following the receipt of the new TDM, AOC decides whether or not to re-route
- If re-route decided, the AOC uplinks the new route to the aircraft
- After evaluation of the received P-PLN, the pilot asks for a re-route clearance
- Once cleared, the crew activates the re-route and notifies it to his AOC
- The AOC transmits a Change message to the all concerned ATC (until AIDC
exists)

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APPENDIX F

The following drawing gives a general view of all the co-ordinated sequences that
occur in a DARP phase.

Oakland (USA) 1 – Wind Forecast


Traffic Management Unit

2 – New Track
Definition
Meteo Centre

5 – Cleared 6 – Re-route
Route Notification

4 – Route Clearance 3 – Revised


Request F-PLN

ATC1 ATC2 Airline Operations


Control
AFTN 7 – Revised F-PLN

Although promising this procedure has not been used very much for the time being,
because it happens that the current wind models, as used by the airlines, are precise
enough within the frame of the flight. Activating the DARP procedure requires a good
co-ordination between all involved actors (Aircraft, AOC, ATC) . The User Preferred
Route procedure (UPR) is by far preferred by the airlines.

UPR (User Preferred Route):

The wind models used by the airlines are not the same than those used by the ATC
when the daily PACOTS routes are defined. Differences of up to around 15 minutes of
flight time are claimed by the operators. These have been asking for the possibility to
define their own routes according to the daily conditions. They file their UPR Flight
Plan. These UPR procedures are currently used between Los Angeles and both
Sydney and Auckland.

Next Step: DARP from UPR


The South Pacific FIT is developing procedures for a trial of a DARP from the airlines'
individual UPR. In this case, the airlines do not need to take into account the daily
published PACOTS. A trial of the procedure is proposed for mid-2003.

168 Flight Operations Support & Line Assistance


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APPENDIX G

APPENDIX G

OPERATIONAL SCENARIOS FANS A

1 - INITIAL NOTIFICATION

The aircraft is in flight, for a flight from Los Angeles (KLAX) to Auckland (NZAA). The
first ATC for this flight is KZAK control and the crew wants to logon to it.
The first step is to notify the ATC center of the aircraft datalink capability.

- First, select the ATC Menu page on the MCDU (by pressing on the ATC COMM
function key), then select the NOTIFICATION page.

BRT
NO AC T I V E AT C
DIM PRINT

MSG - PGE -

MSG + PGE +

FM 1 IN D RDY FM 2

AT SU DAT A L I NK

<AT C ME NU AOC MENU>

BRT

D IR PRO G PERF IN IT DATA


O FF
RAD FUEL SEC ATC M CDU
F -P L N
NAV PRED F -P L N COMM M ENU

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Getting to grips with FANS – Ref STL 945.7011/03
APPENDIX G

FM 1 IN D RDY FM 2

AT C MENU

< L AT REQ V E RT R E Q>

<WH E N C A N WE OT H E R R E Q>

T E XT >

<M S G L OG R E P ORT S >


C ON N E CT I ON
<N OT I F I C A T I ON ST ATU S>
A T S U D L K
<R ET U RN EM E RG E N CY >
BRT

D IR PRO G PERF IN IT DATA


O FF
RAD FUEL SEC ATC M CDU
F -P L N
NAV PRED F -P L N COMM M ENU

The ATC FLT NBR is provided by the FMGEC (set on the INIT page).
The system has stored the last active ATC center of the previous flight, here KZAK.
In our example, this is the first ATC for your flight.
Press NOTIFY* in order to notify the KZAK ATC center.

FM 1 IN D RDY FM 2

N OT I F I C A T I ON
A T C F L T N B R
A F 8 0 0
A T C C E N T E R
K Z A K – – – – – – – – – – – – – NOT I F Y *

A T C ME N U C ON N E CT I ON
<R ET U RN ST ATU S>
BRT

D IR PRO G PERF IN IT DATA


O FF
RAD FUEL SEC ATC M CDU
F -P L N
NAV PRED F -P L N COMM M ENU

170 Flight Operations Support & Line Assistance


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APPENDIX G

KZAK NOTIFIED is displayed in green.


It means that the ATC has been notified of the aircraft datalink capability.
It does not mean that the connection has been performed.
This is confirmed on the DCDU by the NO ACTIVE ATC message.
Once notified, the connection operation is initialised by the ATC at their discretion.

BRT
NO A C T I V E A T C PRINT
DIM

MSG - PGE -

MSG + PGE +

FM 1 IN D RDY FM 2

N OT I F I C A T I ON
A T C F L T N B R
A F 8 0 0
A T C C E N T E R
!!!! – – – – – – – – – – – – – N O T I F Y

– – – – – K Z A K : N OT I F I E D – – – – –

A T C ME N U C ON N E CT I ON
<R ET U RN ST ATU S>
BRT

D IR PRO G PERF IN IT DATA


O FF
RAD FUEL SEC ATC M CDU
F -P L N
NAV PRED F -P L N COMM M ENU

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APPENDIX G

2 - CPDLC LOGON

When the ATC center initialises the CPDLC connection, the display on the DCDU
changes, and the active ATC is displayed on the DCDU. The ATC center has performed
the logon operation and the communication is established.

BRT
ACT I VE AT C : KZ AK CT L PRINT
DIM

MSG - PGE -

MSG + PGE +

The aircraft is now able to exchange datalink messages. Here is how to check the
connection status:
Select the Connection Status page.

FM 1 IN D RDY FM 2

N OT I F I C A T I ON
A T C F L T N B R
A F 8 0 0
A T C C E N T E R
!!!! – – – – – – – – – – – – – N O T I F Y

A T C ME N U C ON N E CT I ON
<R ET U RN ST ATU S>
BRT

D IR PRO G PERF IN IT DATA


O FF
RAD FUEL SEC ATC M CDU
F -P L N
NAV PRED F -P L N COMM M ENU

172 Flight Operations Support & Line Assistance


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APPENDIX G

The active ATC is displayed.


Note: As a general rule, the connection should be completed 15 to 45 mn before
entering a CPDLC airspace.

FM 1 IN D RDY FM 2

CONN E CT I ON ST AT U S
A C T I V E A T C
K Z A K ––––––– D I S CONN E CT *
N E X T A T C
– – – –

–––––––– AD S : ON –––––––
* S ET OF F

A T C ME N U
<R ET U RN NOT I F I C AT I ON>
BRT

D IR PRO G PERF IN IT DATA


O FF
RAD FUEL SEC ATC M CDU
F -P L N
NAV PRED F -P L N COMM M ENU

Notice also the default status of the ADS function, set to ON. This means that ADS is
ready to work (armed), as soon as an ATC will have given an ADS contract to the
aircraft.

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APPENDIX G

3 - LOGON TO NEXT ATC

The datalink communication transfer to the next ATC, also known as Next Data
Authority, is initialised by the current ATC and automatically performed by the ATSU.
This process is totally transparent to the crew. This is simply indicated by a SERVICE
TERMINATED message sent by the ATC.

The aircraft is in cruise, close to leaving the KZAK CTL and to entering the KOAK.

BRT
ACT I VE AT C : KZ AK CT L PRINT
DIM

MSG - PGE -

MSG + PGE +

RE C AL L*

On the connection status page, KZAK is the active ATC. There is no NEXT ATC.

FM 1 IN D RDY FM 2

AT C MENU

< L AT REQ V E RT R E Q>

<WH E N C A N WE OT H E R R E Q>

T E XT >

<M S G L OG R E P ORT S >


C ON N E CT I ON
<N OT I F I C A T I ON ST ATU S>
A T S U D L K
<R ET U RN EM E RG E N CY >
BRT

D IR PRO G PERF IN IT DATA


O FF
RAD FUEL SEC ATC M CDU
F -P L N
NAV PRED F -P L N COMM M ENU

174 Flight Operations Support & Line Assistance


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APPENDIX G

FM 1 IN D RDY FM 2

CONN E CT I ON ST AT U S
A C T I V E A T C
K Z A K ––––––– D I S CONN E CT *
N E X T A T C
– – – –

–––––––– AD S : ON –––––––
* S ET OF F

A T C ME N U
<R ET U RN NOT I F I C AT I ON>
BRT

D IR PRO G PERF IN IT DATA


O FF
RAD FUEL SEC ATC M CDU
F -P L N
NAV PRED F -P L N COMM M ENU

Upon reception by the aircraft of an ATC message, both ATC MSG lights flash and as it
is a normal message, the first telephone ring is delayed by 15 s, then it will be repeated
every 15 s.
Press on the ATC MSG pushbutton to extinguish the lights and stop the aural signal.

ATC ATC
MSG MSG

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APPENDIX G

The message received from KZAK CTL is displayed on the DCDU, indicating that the
next ATC is KOAK. Press the CLOSE softkey to store the message. On the connection
status page, the next ATC is displayed: this is a "NO ANSWER" message.

1107Z F ROM K Z AK C T L
BRT
NE X T D AT A A UT HO R I T Y : PRINT
DIM
KO A K
MSG - PGE -

MSG + PGE +

C LOS E *

FM 1 IN D RDY FM 2

CONN E CT I ON ST AT U S
A C T I V E A T C
K Z A K ––––––– D I S CONN E CT *
N E X T A T C
K OA K

–––––––– AD S : ON –––––––
* S ET OF F

A T C ME N U
<R ET U RN NOT I F I C AT I ON>
BRT

D IR PRO G PERF IN IT DATA


O FF
RAD FUEL SEC ATC M CDU
F -P L N
NAV PRED F -P L N COMM M ENU

The message is closed: the DCDU screen is cleared. The active ATC is still KZAK and
will change only when KZAK terminates the connection.
The message can be recalled by pressing the RECALL softkey on the DCDU or
displayed in the MSG LOG page on the MCDU.

BRT
ACT I VE AT C : K ZAK CT L PRINT
DIM

MSG - PGE -

MSG + PGE +

RECALL*

176 Flight Operations Support & Line Assistance


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APPENDIX G

An uplink ATC message is received: both ATC MSG lights flash and as it is a normal
message, the first telephone ring is delayed by 15 s, then it will be repeated every 15 s.
Press on the ATC MSG pushbutton to extinguish the lights and stop the aural signal.

ATC ATC
MSG MSG

When the new ATC center initialises the connection, the SERVICE TERMINATED
message received from KZAK CTL is displayed on the DCDU. The ATC center has
performed the logon operation and the communication is established.
Press the CLOSE softkey to store the message.

1110Z F ROM K Z AK CT L
BRT
S E R V I C E T E RM I N A T E D PRINT
DIM

MSG - PGE -

MSG + PGE +

<OT HER CLOSE*

The message is closed: the DCDU screen is cleared.


The new active ATC (KOAK CTL) is displayed on the DCDU.

BRT
ACT I V E AT C : KOAK CT L PRINT
DIM

MSG - PGE -

MSG + PGE +

RE C AL L*

Flight Operations Support & Line Assistance 177


Getting to grips with FANS – Ref STL 945.7011/03
APPENDIX G

4 - CLEARANCE
In this scenario the aircraft receives the answer to its previous request and later on, a
lateral clearance.

An uplink ATC message is received: both ATC MSG lights flash and as it is a normal
message, the first telephone ring is delayed by 15 s, then it will be repeated every 15 s.
Press on the ATC MSG pushbutton to extinguish the lights and stop the aural signal.

ATC ATC
MSG MSG

The received message is displayed on the DCDU. On the first line, in green, the
indication about the time and the issuer of the message (here, KZAK CTRL).
On the second line, in white, the reply indication, including the sending time of the
aircraft's request.
On the remaining lines, the ATC answer.
To ease the reading, uplink messages are in white with the main parameters highlighted
in cyan.
In order to reply WILCO to the message, select the WILCO softkey.

1425Z F ROM K Z AK CT L OP E N
BRT
( REP L Y T O 1 4 1 9 Z REQ ) PRINT
DIM
AT A L COA
MSG - CL B T O & MA I NT F L 3 9 0 PGE -

MSG + PGE +

* U N AB L E ST BY *

<OT HER W I L CO *

Once selected, the WILCO status is displayed in cyan inverse video on the top right
corner.
Each answer selected by the crew will be displayed at this place in this manner before
being physically sent.
In case of mistake, the CANCEL soft key enables the crew to cancel the current
selection and to re-select another answer.
The SEND* function is now available for the sending of the selected answer (WILCO)
Press the SEND softkey.

178 Flight Operations Support & Line Assistance


Getting to grips with FANS – Ref STL 945.7011/03
APPENDIX G

1425Z F ROM K Z AK CT L W I L CO
BRT
( REP L Y T O 1 4 1 9 Z REQ ) PRINT
DIM
AT A L COA
MSG - CL B T O & MA I NT F L 3 9 0 PGE -

MSG + PGE +

* C AN CE L

<OT HER SE ND*

As already seen, the SENDING/SENT information is shown.


The SEND status is in green inverse video when SEND has been selected, and the
message content changes to green once sent.
The parameter ALCOA turns magenta indicating that the FMS is currently monitoring
the related deferred clearance. This is confirmed by the MONITORING information
displayed on the DCDU bottom centre.
This means that when closing to ALCOA, the FMS will recall the message to remind the
crew about this clearance.

1425Z F ROM K Z AK CT L W I L CO
BRT
( REP L Y T O 1 4 1 9 Z REQ ) PRINT
DIM
AT A L COA
MSG - CL B T O & MA I NT F L 3 9 0 PGE -

MSG + PGE +

MO N I T O R I NG
* C AN CE L

<OT HER SE ND*

1425Z F ROM K Z AK CT L W I L CO
BRT
( REP L Y T O 1 4 1 9 Z REQ ) PRINT
DIM
AT A L COA
MSG - CL B T O & MA I NT F L 3 9 0 PGE -

MSG + PGE +

SENT

<OT HER CLOSE*

Flight Operations Support & Line Assistance 179


Getting to grips with FANS – Ref STL 945.7011/03
APPENDIX G

During CPDLC exchanges, the FMS processes the ATC conditional or deferred
clearances that are linked to navigation. Then, when approaching a clearance condition,
the FMS is able to recall messages to alert the pilots.

About 30 s before the clearance condition, the FMS automatically displays the deferred
clearance text on the DCDU. This is indicated by the REMINDER information and the
visual and aural alerts:
Press on the ATC MSG pushbutton to extinguish the lights and stop the aural signal.

ATC ATC
MSG MSG

As the clearance condition is fulfilled, the clearance text is shown in green. The answer
to the clearance is also displayed at the top right corner.
The time and active ATC fields at the top of the screen are no longer displayed.
Press the CLOSE softkey to store the message.

W I L CO
BRT
AT A L COA PRINT
DIM
CL B T O & MA I NT F L 3 9 0
MSG - PGE -

MSG + PGE +

REM I NDER

OT HER CLOSE

180 Flight Operations Support & Line Assistance


Getting to grips with FANS – Ref STL 945.7011/03
APPENDIX G

5 - WHEN CAN YOU…


In this scenario, the ATC sends a question message containing the element “WHEN
CAN YOU”.
The received message s displayed on the DCDU.
The CAN and CANNOT softkeys are available.
Press the CAN softkey. The response message is automatically created.

1154Z F ROM K Z AK CT L OP E N
BRT
WH E N C A N Y O U A C C E P T PRINT
DIM
FL370
MSG - PGE -

MSG + PGE +

* C AN NO T

C AN *

The OPEN message status is replaced by CAN status in inverse video.


The text of the reply is displayed with the data field to fill in by means of the MCDU.
Now, the CANCEL and MODIFY softkeys are available. Note that the SEND function is
not available, as the message is still incomplete: the user must press MODIFY in order
to fill the brackets, or else CANCEL the message. Press the MODIFY softkey.

1154Z F ROM K Z AK CT L CAN


BRT
WH E N C A N Y O U A C C E P T PRINT
DIM
FL370
MSG - –––––––––––––––––––––––– PGE -
WE C A N A C C E P T F L 3 7 0 B Y [
MSG + PGE +
]

* C AN CE L MO D I F Y *

SE ND

Flight Operations Support & Line Assistance 181


Getting to grips with FANS – Ref STL 945.7011/03
APPENDIX G

Under the reply, the MCDU FOR EDIT information is displayed.


The MESSAGE EDITION page comes into view on the MCDU.
Enter the time parameter in the MCDU scratchpad and press the line key adjacent to
the BY data field.

1154Z F ROM K Z AK CT L CAN


BRT
WH E N C A N Y O U A C C E P T PRINT
DIM
FL370
MSG - –––––––––––––––––––––––– PGE -
WE C A N A C C E P T F L 3 7 0 B Y [
MSG + PGE +
]
MCDU FOR E D I T
* C AN CE L MO D I F Y

SE ND

FM 1 IN D RDY FM 2

ME S S AG E MOD I F Y
T O K Z A K C T L

WE CAN ACCEPT F L370


B Y
[ ]

ADD T E XT
P A G E A T C
* C AN C E L MOD I F DI SPL
1 2H30
BRT

D IR PRO G PERF IN IT DATA


O FF
RAD FUEL SEC ATC M CDU
F -P L N
NAV PRED F -P L N COMM M ENU

182 Flight Operations Support & Line Assistance


Getting to grips with FANS – Ref STL 945.7011/03
APPENDIX G

The time (foreseen to reach the flight level 370) is displayed on the MCDU.
It is possible to add free text to the reply by selecting ADD TEXT. This leads to the
MCDU TEXT page:

FM 1 IN D RDY FM 2

ME S S AG E MOD I F Y
T O K Z A K C T L

WE CAN ACCEPT F L370


B Y
1 2H30

ADD T E XT >
P A G E A T C
* C AN C E L MOD I F D I S P L*
BRT

D IR PRO G PERF IN IT DATA


O FF
RAD FUEL SEC ATC M CDU
F -P L N
NAV PRED F -P L N COMM M ENU

It is possible to enter up to 4 lines of free text, or to chose one of the proposed reasons.
For this example, chose the DUE TO A/C PERFORM. key. The selected text is
displayed in cyan.

FM 1 IN D RDY FM 2

T E XT 1 / 2 "#
DU E T O DU E T O
"A / C P E R F O RM . ME D I C A L#
DU E T O DU E T O
"W E A T H E R T E CHN I C A L#
DU E T O A T P I L OT S
"T U R B U L E N C E D I S C R E T I ON#
– – – – – – F R E E T E X T – – – – – – –
[ ]
I N P U T S
*ERASE
A T C ME N U A T C
<R ET U RN MOD I F D I S P L*
BRT

D IR PRO G PERF IN IT DATA


O FF
RAD FUEL SEC ATC M CDU
F -P L N
NAV PRED F -P L N COMM M ENU

Flight Operations Support & Line Assistance 183


Getting to grips with FANS – Ref STL 945.7011/03
APPENDIX G

Press the line key adjacent to the ATC MSG DISPL* command on the MCDU. This
displays the prepared message on the DCDU.
FM 1 IN D RDY FM 2

T E XT 1 / 2 "#
DU E T O DU E T O
A/ C P E R F O RM . ME D I C A L#
DU E T O DU E T O
"W E A T H E R T E CHN I C A L#
DU E T O A T P I L OT S
"T U R B U L E N C E D I S C R E T I ON#
– – – – – – F R E E T E X T – – – – – – –
[ ]
I N P U T S
*ERASE
A T C ME N U A T C
<R ET U RN MOD I F D I S P L*
BRT

D IR PRO G PERF IN IT DATA


O FF
RAD FUEL SEC ATC M CDU
F -P L N
NAV PRED F -P L N COMM M ENU

The MCDU paged is refreshed, with the default "ATC TEXT DISPL" text in line 6R, but
unavailable (no star). Options are all available again to allow for further message
completion if required.
As the created message is too long to be displayed on 1 page of the DCDU, page1/2
appears on the DCDU. The SEND function is not available (no star) until all pages of
the prepared message have not been visualized: press on the PAGE + softkey.

1154Z F ROM K Z AK CT L CAN


BRT
WH E N C A N Y O U A C C E P T PRINT
DIM
FL370
MSG - –––––––––––––––––––––––– PGE -
WE C A N A C C E P T F L 3 7 0 B Y
MSG + PGE +
1 2 H3 0

* C AN CE L MO D I F Y *
PGE
1/2 SE ND

184 Flight Operations Support & Line Assistance


Getting to grips with FANS – Ref STL 945.7011/03
APPENDIX G

FM 1 IN D RDY FM 2

T E XT 1 / 2 "#
DU E T O DU E T O
"A / C P E R F O RM . ME D I C A L#
DU E T O DU E T O
"W E A T H E R T E CHN I C A L#
DU E T O A T P I L OT S
"T U R B U L E N C E D I S C R E T I ON#
– – – – – – F R E E T E X T – – – – – – –
[ ]
I N P U T S
ERASE
A T C ME N U A T C
<R ET U RN T E XT DI SPL
BRT

D IR PRO G PERF IN IT DATA


O FF
RAD FUEL SEC ATC M CDU
F -P L N
NAV PRED F -P L N COMM M ENU

The SEND softkey is now available.


Press the SEND softkey.

CAN
BRT
1 2 H3 0 PRINT
DIM
D U E T O A / C P E R F O RM A N C E
MSG - PGE -

MSG + PGE +

* C AN CE L MO D I F Y *
PGE
2/2 SE ND*

1154Z F ROM K Z AK CT L CAN


BRT
WH E N C A N Y O U A C C E P T PRINT
DIM
FL370
MSG - –––––––––––––––––––––––– PGE -
WE C A N A C C E P T F L 3 7 0 B Y
MSG + PGE +
1 2 H3 0
SENT
PGE
1/2 CLOSE*

Under the reply, the SENDING information is displayed TEMPORARILY.


The message body changes to green once sent.

Flight Operations Support & Line Assistance 185


Getting to grips with FANS – Ref STL 945.7011/03
APPENDIX H

APPENDIX H

OPERATIONAL SCENARIOS FANS A+

1 - INITIAL NOTIFICATION

The aircraft is in flight, for a flight from Los Angeles (KLAX) to Auckland (NZAA). The
first ATC for this flight is KZAK control and the crew wants to logon to it.
The first step is to notify the ATC center of the aircraft datalink capability.
First, select the ATC Menu page on the MCDU then select the NOTIFICATION page.

AT SU D AT A L I N K

<AT C MENU AOC MENU>

186 Flight Operations Support & Line Assistance


Getting to grips with FANS – Ref STL 945.7011/03
APPENDIX H

AT C MENU 1 / 2 "#

< L AT REQ V E RT R E Q>

<WH E N C A N WE OT H E R R E Q>

T E XT >

<M S G R E CORD R E P ORT S >


CON N E CT I ON
<N OT I F I C A T I ON ST AT U S>
A T S U D L K
<R E T U RN EME RG E N CY >

The ATC FLT NBR is provided by the FMGEC (set on the INIT page).
The system has stored the last active ATC center of the previous flight, here KZAK.
In our example, this is the first ATC for your flight.
Press NOTIFY* in order to notify the KZAK ATC center.

NOT I F I C AT I ON
A T C F L T N B R
A F 8 0 0
A T C C E N T E R
K Z A K – – – – – – – – – – – – – N OT I F Y *

A T C ME N U CON N E CT I ON
<R E T U RN ST AT U S>

Flight Operations Support & Line Assistance 187


Getting to grips with FANS – Ref STL 945.7011/03
APPENDIX H

KZAK is displayed in green.


It means that the ATC has been notified of the aircraft datalink capability.
It does not mean that the connection has been performed.
This is confirmed on the DCDU by the default message.
Once notified, the connection operation is initialised by the ATC at their discretion.

NOT I F I C AT I ON
A T C F L T N B R
A F 8 0 0
A T C C E N T E R
!!!! – – – – – – – – – – – – – N O T I F Y
A T C N OT I F I E D
KZAK

A T C ME N U CON N E CT I ON
<R E T U RN ST AT U S>

NOTE : the last 6 notified centers can be displayed on the MCDU.

NOTE : all the notification history will be deleted after each flight, 2 minutes after the
engine shut down.

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APPENDIX H

2 - CPDLC LOGON

When the ATC center initialises the CPDLC connection, the display on the DCDU
changes, and the active ATC is displayed on the DCDU. The ATC center has performed
the connection operation and the communication is established.

A C T I V E A T C : K ZA K C T L

The aircraft is now able to exchange datalink messages. Here is how to check the
connection status:
Select the Connection Status page.

NOT I F I C AT I ON
A T C F L T N B R
A F 8 0 0
A T C C E N T E R
!!!! – – – – – – – – – – – – – N O T I F Y
A T C N OT I F I E D
KZAK

A T C ME N U CON N E CT I ON
<R E T U RN ST AT U S>

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The active ATC is displayed.


Note: As a general rule, the connection should be completed 15 to 45 mn before
entering a CPDLC airspace.

CONN E CT I ON ST AT U S
A CT I V E A T C
K Z A K ––––––– D I S CONN E CT *
N E X T A T C MS G L A T E N CY
– – – – N ON E

– – – – – – – – – AD S : A RM E D – – – – –
* S ET OF F

ADS DET A I L
A T C ME N U
<R E T U RN NOT I F I C A T I ON >

Notice also the default status of the ADS function, set to “ARMED”. This means that
ADS is ready to work (armed : ready to accept contract with ground ATC centers)

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APPENDIX H

3 - CONNECTION TO NEXT ATC

The datalink communication transfer to the next ATC, also known as Next Data
Authority, is initialised by the current ATC and automatically performed by the ATSU.
This process is totally transparent to the crew. This is simply indicated by a SERVICE
TERMINATED message sent by the ATC.

The aircraft is in cruise, close to leaving the KZAK CTL and to entering the KOAK.

A C T I V E A T C : K ZA K C T L

R E CA L L *

AT C MENU 1 / 2 "#

< L AT REQ V E RT R E Q>

<WH E N C A N WE OT H E R R E Q>

T E XT >

<M S G R E CORD R E P ORT S >


CON N E CT I ON
<N OT I F I C A T I ON ST AT U S>
A T S U D L K
<R E T U RN EME RG E N CY >

On the connection status page, KZAK is the active ATC. There is no NEXT ATC.

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CONN E CT I ON ST AT U S
A C T I V E A T C
K Z A K ––––––– D I S CONN E CT *
N E X T A T C MS G L A T E N C Y
– – – – NON E

– – – – – – – – – ADS : A RM E D – – – – –
* S ET OF F

AD S DET A I L
A T C M E N U
<R ET U RN NOT I F I C AT I ON>

Upon reception by the aircraft of an ATC message, both ATC MSG lights flash and as it
is a normal message, the first telephone ring is delayed by 15 s, then it will be repeated
every 15 s.
Press on the ATC MSG pushbutton to extinguish the lights and stop the aural signal.

ATC ATC
MSG MSG

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The message received from KZAK CTL is displayed on the DCDU, indicating that the
next ATC is KOAK. Press the CLOSE softkey to store the message. On the connection
status page, the next ATC is displayed: this is a "NO ANSWER" message.

1 1 0 7 Z F ROM K Z A K CT L

N EX T A T C : KOA K C T L

C L O S E

When the connection is established with the next ATC center, we can show it on the
MCDU page in the NEXT ATC field.

CONN E C T I ON ST AT U S
A C T I V E A T C
K Z A K ––––––– D I S CONN E CT *
N E X T A T C MS G L A T E N CY
K OA K NON E

– – – – – – – – – ADS : A RM E D – – – – –
*S ET OF F

ADS DET A I L
A T C ME N U
<R ET U RN NOT I F I C AT I ON>

The message is closed: the DCDU screen is cleared. The active ATC is still KZAK and
will change only when KZAK terminates the connection.
The message can be recalled by pressing the RECALL softkey on the DCDU or
displayed in the MSG RECORD page on the MCDU.

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APPENDIX H

A C T I V E A T C : K Z A K C T L

R E CA L L *

An uplink ATC message is received: both ATC MSG lights flash and as it is a normal
message, the first telephone ring is delayed by 15 s, then it will be repeated every 15 s.
Press on the ATC MSG pushbutton to extinguish the lights and stop the aural signal.

ATC ATC
MSG MSG

When the SERVICE TERMINATED message is received from KZAK CTL , it is


displayed on the DCDU. The ATC center has performed the connection operation and
the communication is established.
Press the CLOSE softkey to store the message.

1 1 1 0 Z F ROM K Z A K CT L

S ERV I C E T ERM I NA T ED

<OT H E R C L O S E *

The message is closed: the DCDU screen is cleared.


The new active ATC (KOAK CTL) is displayed on the DCDU.

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APPENDIX H

4 - CLEARANCE
The exchange of messages described in this scenario and the DCDU associated HMI
are the same for FANS A and FANS A+.

Refer to Appendix G (Operational scenarios FANS A - Deferred clearance) for further


details.

5 - WHEN CAN YOU


In this scenario, the ATC sends a question message containing the element “WHEN
CAN YOU”.
The received message is displayed on the DCDU.

1 5 4 9 Z F ROM K Z A K CT L O P E N

WH E N C A N YOU A C C E PT
F L 3 7 0
– – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – –
WE C A N A C C E PT F L 3 7 0 NOW
[ 1 5 4 9 Z ]

* CA NN OT MOD I F Y *

<OT H E R S E ND *

Press the CANNOT softkey. The response message is automatically created.


The text of the reply is displayed with the data field to fill in by means of the MCDU.
Press the MODIFY softkey.

1 5 4 9 Z F ROM K Z A K CT L O P EN

WH E N C A N YOU A C C E P T
F L 3 7 0
– – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – –
WE C A NNOT A C C E P T F L 3 7 0

* C A N C E L MOD I F Y *

<OT H E R S E ND*

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Under the reply, the MCDU FOR MODIF information is displayed.

1 5 4 9 Z F ROM K Z A K CT L O P EN

WH E N C A N YOU A C C E P T
F L 3 7 0
– – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – –
WE C A NNOT A C C E PT F L 3 7 0

MCD U F O R MOD I F MOD I F Y *


* CA N C E L

<OT H E R S E N D*

The MESSAGE EDITION page comes into view on the MCDU.


Press the CAN key on the MCDU, and it’s possible to enter the time parameter in the
MCDU scratchpad and press the line key adjacent to the BY data field.

ME S S AG E MOD I F Y

"C AN F L370

C ANNOT F L370

P A G E
* CAN C E L ADD T E XT >
A T C R E P O RT S A T C
<RE T U RN MOD I F D I S P L*

ME S S AG E MOD I F Y

CA N F L 3 7 0 A T
1549Z

"C A N N OT F L370

P A G E
* C AN C E L ADD T E XT>
A T C R E P O RT S A T C
<R E T U RN MOD I F D I S P L*

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APPENDIX H

ME S S AG E MOD I F Y

C A N F L 3 7 0 A T
1549Z

"C A N N OT F L370

P A G E
* C ANC E L ADD T E XT>
A T C R E P O RT S A T C
<R E T U RN MOD I F D I SP L*
1555Z

By pressing ATC MODIF DISPL, the DCDU message can be modified with the new
time.

ME S S AG E MOD I F Y

C A N F L 3 7 0 A T
1555Z

"C A N N OT F L370

P A G E
* C ANC E L ADD T E XT>
A T C R E P O RT S A T C
<R E T U RN MOD I F D I SP L*

At this moment, crew can add text by pressing modify which cause TEXT page to be
displayed on the MCDU.

1 5 4 9 Z F ROM K Z A K CT L O P EN

WH E N C A N YOU A C C E P T
F L 3 7 0
– – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – –
WE C A N A C C E P T F L 3 7 0 A T
1 5 5 5 Z

* CA N N OT MOD I F Y *

<OT H E R S E N D*

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ME S S AG E MOD I F Y T E XT 1 / 2 "#
D U E T O DU E T O
"A / C P E R F O RM . ME D I C A L#
CA N F L 3 7 0 A T D U E T O DU E T O
1555Z " WE A T H E R T E CHN I C A L#
D U E T O A T P I L OT S
"C A NNOT F L370 "T U R B U L E N C E D I S C R E T I ON#
– – – – – – F R E E T E X T – – – – – – –
[ ]
P A G E A L L F I E L D S
* CANC E L ADD T E XT > E RASE
A T C R E P O RT S A T C A T C M E NU A T C
<R E T U RN MOD I F D I S P L* <R E T U RN T E XT DI SPL

T E XT 1 / 2 "#
D U E T O DU E T O
A/C P E R F O RM . ME D I C A L#
D U E T O DU E T O
" WE A T H E R T E CHN I C A L#
D U E T O A T P I L OT S
"T U R B U L E N C E D I S C R E T I ON#
– – – – – – F R E E T E X T – – – – – – –
[ ]
I N P U T S
*E RASE
A T C M E NU A T C
<R E T U RN MOD I F D I S P L*

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The SEND softkey is now available.


Press the SEND softkey.

1 5 5 5 Z
DU E TO A / C P ER FORMA NC E

* CA N C E L MOD I F Y *
P G E
2 / 2 S E N D*

1 1 5 4 Z F ROM K Z A K CT L

WH E N C A N YOU A C C E P T
F L 3 7 0
– – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – –
WE C A N A C C E PT F L 3 7 0 A T
1 5 5 5 Z

S E NT

P G E
1 / 2 C L O S E *

Under the reply, the SENDING information is displayed TEMPORARILY.


The message body changes to green once sent.

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APPENDIX I

APPENDIX I
OPERATIONAL SCENARIOS ATS623

DEPARTURE CLEARANCE (DCL)

On the DCDU, the default screen is displayed, indicating that the ARINC 623 ATC
applications are available. The applications can be used as they are, no prior
connection with the ground is required.
(Note: this screen is displayed when there are ATC applications)

The Departure Clearance application is an ARINC 623 ATC application: these can be
reached through the ATSU MENU by selecting the prompt ATS623, or directly by
selecting the ATC COM hardkey:

M C DU ME N U

<F M1

<AT S U

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Select the Departure Request application:

AT C ME NU 2 / 2 "#

– – – – – A T S 6 2 3 P A G E – – – – – –
<D E P A R T REQ AT I S>

<O C E A N I C REQ

A T S U D L K
<RE T U RN

Amber boxes represent fields that must be filled in order to send the Departure
Clearance request: the function REQ DISPL (to display the request on the DCDU) will
only be available (star present) when all mandatory fields are filled.
The flight number is displayed in green: this colour indicates that the parameters is
automatically set by the system (it comes from the FMS), and it is not modifiable.
Parameters in cyan indicate modifiable parameters. Here the system has automatically
filled the origin and destination airports (taken from the FMS). These are also
mandatory parameters: if they are cleared, amber boxes will appear.
Type in the aircraft type, and insert it in the corresponding field.

AT S 6 2 3 D E P A RT REQ
A T C F L T N B R A / C T Y P E
A F R 0 0 6 !!!!
F ROM / T O
LF PG / K J F K
GA T E A T I S COD E
[ ] !
– – – – – – – – F R E E T E XT – – – – – – –
[ ]
MO R E
F RE E T E XT >
A T C ME N U A T C D E P A RT
<RE T U RN REQ D I S P L
A320

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Type in the ATIS code and insert it in the corresponding field.

AT S 6 2 3 D E P A RT REQ
A T C F L T N B R A / C T Y P E
A F R 0 0 6 A320
F ROM / T O
L F P G / K J F K
GA T E A T I S C OD E
[ ] !
– – – – – – – – F R E E T E X T – – – – – – –
[ ]
MO R E
F REE T E XT >
A T C ME N U A T C D E P A RT
<RE T U RN REQ D I SP L
H

As all mandatory fields are completed, the star appears in front of REQ DISPL,
indicating that this function is available.
For this example, let us add free text: type in the text and insert it.

AT S 6 2 3 D E P A RT REQ
A T C F L T N B R A / C T Y P E
A F R 0 0 6 A320
F ROM / T O
L F P G / K J F K
G A T E A T I S COD E
[ ] H
– – – – – – – – F R E E T E X T – – – – – – –
[ ]
MO R E
F REE T E XT>
A T C ME N U A T C D E P A RT
<R ET U RN REQ D I SP L*
CH A RT E R E D F L I GHT

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Type in the gate number (optional parameter) and insert it.

AT S 6 2 3 D E P A RT REQ
A T C F L T N B R A / C T Y P E
A F R 0 0 6 A320
F ROM / T O
L F P G / K J F K
G A T E A T I S COD E
[ ] H
– – – – – – – – F R E E T E X T – – – – – – –
CH A RT E R E D F L I GHT
MO R E
F REE T E XT>
A T C ME N U A T C D E P A RT
<R ET U RN REQ D I SP L*
A65

To add more free text, select the prompt MORE FREE TEXT.

AT S 6 2 3 D E P A RT REQ
A T C F L T N B R A / C T Y P E
A F R 0 0 6 A320
F ROM / T O
L F P G / K J F K
G A T E A T I S COD E
A65 H
– – – – – – – – F R E E T E X T – – – – – – –
CH A RT E R E D F L I GHT
MO R E
F REE T E XT>
A T C ME N U A T C D E P A RT
<R ET U RN REQ D I SP L*

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APPENDIX I

3 more lines of free text can be added. The first line of free text is already displayed on
this page. Type in one line of text and insert it.

MOR E F REE T E XT

CH A RT E R E D F L I GHT

[ ]

[ ]

[ ]

D E P A RT R E Q A T C D E P A RT
<R ET U RN REQ D I SP L*
175 PAX ON BOA RD

It is possible to display the clearance request on the DCDU from this page also: select
REQ DISPL.

MOR E F REE T E XT

CH A RT E R E D F L I GHT

175 PAX ON BOA RD

[ ]

[ ]

D E P A RT R E Q A T C D E P A RT
<R ET U RN REQ D I SP L*

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The Departure Clearance request is displayed on the DCDU. At it takes more than 1
page, page 1/2 is indicated. It is not possible to send the message before all pages
have been visualised or printed: select PGE+ to see next page.

1 0 5 6 Z T O L F P G CT L O P EN

D E P A R T UR E R EQU E S T
A F R 0 0 6
F ROM : L F P G GA T E : A 6 5
TO : K J F K A T I S : H
A / C T Y P E : A 3 2 0

* CA N C E L
PG E
1 / 2
S E N D

Page 2/2 is displayed and it is now possible to send the message: select SEND.

O P EN

A / C T Y P E : A 3 2 0
C HA R T ER ED F L I GHT
1 7 5 P A X ON BOA R D

* CA N C E L
PG E
2 / 2
S E N D*

The message switches to green inverse video, indicating that is has been sent. The first
page is displayed, with the SENDING indication.

1 0 5 6 Z T O L F P G CT L

D E PA RT UR E R EQU E S T
A F R 0 0 6
F ROM : L F P G GA T E : A 6 5
TO : K J F K A T I S : H
A / C T Y P E : A 3 2 0

S E N D I N G

PG E
1 / 2
C L O S E

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The SENT information indicates that the message has been received by the ground
network. It is now possible to close the message. Closing the message stores it in the
message log. Select CLOSE.

1 0 5 6 Z T O L F P G CT L

D E P A RT UR E R EQU E S T
A F R 0 0 6
F ROM : L F PG GA T E : A 6 5
TO : K J F K A T I S : H
A / C T Y P E : A 3 2 0

S E N T
PG E
1 / 2
C L O S E *

The default screen is displayed, and the previous message can be recalled if required.

R E CA L L *

The flashing "ATC message" pushbuttons and the aural warning (telephone ring)
indicate that a message from the ATC has been received: extinguish the alert by
pushing a pushbutton.

ATC ATC
MSG MSG

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APPENDIX I

The received message is displayed on the DCDU. As this new message contains
several pages, "PGE 1/2" is displayed.
The received message is the departure clearance. Its status for the moment is "OPEN"
because no answer has been prepared yet.
Proposed answers are REFUSE or ACK. It is not possible to select ACK before the
whole clearance has been read, or printed. To read the following pages, select PGE+.

1 0 5 9 Z F ROM L F P G CT L O P EN

D E P A RT C L EA RA NC E N O 1 4 6
1 0 5 8 Z 2 5 J UN 2 0 0 0
F ROM : L F P G
A F R 0 0 6
C L RD TO : K J F K

* R E F U S E
P G E
<OT H E R 1 / 2 A C K

The REFUSE and ACK answers are now selectable. Let us say, for this example, that
you want to refuse the clearance: select REFUSE.

O P EN

C L RD TO : K J F K
RWY : 0 9 S I D : B N E 8A
SQK : 5 0 2 3 S LOT : 1 1 3 5 Z
F R EQ : 1 2 4 . 2 5 A T I S : H
HA V E A N I C E F L I GHT

* R E F U S E
P G E
<OT H E R 2 / 2 A C K*

On the DCDU, you can see that no datalink message has been sent to signify the
refusal: you must contact the ATC by voice. The received clearance is repeated on the
following pages, in green: select PGE+ to see the clearance.

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APPENDIX I

1 0 5 9 Z F ROM L F P G CT L R E F U S E

CONT A C T A T C B Y VO I C E
R E F U S E NOT SU P PORT ED
B Y DA T A L I NK
– – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – –
D E P A R T C L EA R A NC E NO 1 4 6

* CA N C E L
P G E
<OT H E R 1 / 3 C L O S E *

On each page of the refused clearance, the status "REFUSE" is displayed. However it
is displayed in white, signifying that no downlink message has been sent.

R E F U S E

DE P A RT C L EA RA NC E N O 1 4 6
1 0 5 8 Z 2 5 J UN 2 0 0 0
F ROM : L F P G
A F R 0 0 6
C L RD TO : K J F K

* CA N C E L
P G E
<OT H E R 2 / 3 C L O S E *

For our example, let us finally decide that this clearance is convenient: as no message
has been sent to the controller, the fact that we had refused this clearance will be
transparent for the ground: the REFUSE state can be cancelled by selecting the
corresponding softkey.

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APPENDIX I

R E F U S E

C L RD TO : K J F K
RWY : 0 9 S I D : B N E 8 A
SQK : 5 0 2 3 S LOT : 1 1 3 5 Z
F R EQ : 1 2 4 . 2 5 A T I S : H
HA V E A N I C E F L I GHT

* CA N C E L
P G E
<OT H E R 3 / 3 C L O S E *

The clearance is displayed with the 'open' status, and the ACK and REFUSE functions
are proposed: to accept the clearance, select ACK.

1 0 5 9 Z F ROM L F P G CT L O P EN

D E P A R T C L EA RA NC E N O 1 4 6
1 0 5 8 Z 2 5 J UN 2 0 0 0
F ROM : L F P G
A F R 0 0 6
C L R D TO : K J F K

* R E F U S E
P G E
<OT H E R 1 / 2 A C K*

The message is displayed in the 'ACK' state. To send the DC readback, select SEND.

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APPENDIX I

1 0 5 9 Z F ROM L F P G CT L A C K

D E P A RT C L EA R A NC E NO 1 4 6
1 0 5 8 Z 2 5 J UN 2 0 0 0
F ROM : L F P G
A F R 0 0 6
C L R D TO : K J F K

* CA N C E L
P G E
<OT H E R 1 / 2 S E N D*

Temporarily the information 'sending' is displayed.

1 0 5 9 Z F ROM L F P G CT L A C K

D E PA RT C L EA RA NC E NO 1 4 6
1 0 5 8 Z 2 5 J UN 2 0 0 0
F ROM : L F P G
A F R 0 0 6
C L RD TO : K J F K

S E N D I N G

P G E
<OT H E R 1 / 2 C L O S E

When the ground service provider acknowledges reception of the message, the
information 'sent' is displayed. The aircrew is informed that a confirmation of this
readback must follow.

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1 0 5 9 Z F ROM L F P G CT L A C K

WA I T FOR CON F I RMA T I ON


– – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – –
D E P A RT C L EA RA NC E NO 1 4 6
1 0 5 8 Z 2 5 J UN 2 0 0 0
F ROM L F P G
S E N T

P G E
<OT H E R 1 / 2 C L O S E*

When the confirmation of the readback arrives, it is indicated to the crew with the visual
and aural alerts: extinguish the alerts by pressing the ATC MSG pushbutton.

ATC ATC
MSG MSG

The departure clearance is confirmed. The message can now be closed (it will be
stored).

1 1 0 0 Z F ROM L F P G CT L

D E P A RT ME S SA G E
A C K R E C E I V ED
1 0 5 9 Z 2 5 J UN 2 0 0 0
A F R 0 0 6
– – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – –

P G E
<OT H E R 1 / 3 C L O S E *

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APPENDIX J

APPENDIX J
OIT/FOT REF. 999.0001/03
NEW AIR TRAFFIC SERVICES UNIT (ATSU) AIRCRAFT INTERFACE
FROM : AIRBUS CUSTOMER SERVICES TOULOUSE TX530526

OPERATOR INFORMATION TELEX - OPERATOR INFORMATION TELEX


AND
FLIGHT OPERATIONS TELEX - FLIGHT OPERATIONS TELEX

TO : FANS A OPERATORS ON A330/A340 (A340-500/-600 EXCLUDED)

SUBJECT : A330/A340 - ATA 46 -NEW AIR TRAFFIC SERVICES UNIT (ATSU)


AIRCRAFT INTERFACE SOFTWARE VERSION CLR3.6B AND FMS VERSION P2
FOR ENHANCED AUTOMATIC DEPENDENT SURVEILLANCE (ADS)

OUR REF.: SE 999.0001/03/VHR DATE 07 JAN 2003

OIT CLASSIFICATION: ENGINEERING AND OPERATIONAL RECOMMENDATION

I/ VALIDITY:
ALL A330 AND A340 AIRCRAFT EQUIPPED WITH FANS A
- FORWARD FIT: MODIFICATION 48227 EMBODIED
- RETROFIT: AIRBUS SB A330-46-3006/A340-46-4010.

A340-600 AND A340-500 ARE NOT CONCERNED BY THIS OIT/FOT SINCE THE
SUBJECT CONFIGURATION IS BASIC AT THE ENTRY INTO SERVICE.

II/ REASON

THE PURPOSE OF THIS OIT/FOT IS TO ADVISE A330/A340 FANS A


OPERATORS OF ATSU SOFTWARE CLR3.6B AND FMS P2 CERTIFICATION.
ASSOCIATION OF ATSU SOFTWARE CLR3.6B AND FMS P2, WILL ADDRESS THE
FOLLOWING ISSUES:
- MISSING ADS REPORTS
- DOWNSTREAM ADS REPORTS
- ADS REPORTS WITH MISSING PREDICTIONS OR MISSING ETA (ESTIMATED
TIME OF ARRIVAL) AT ''TO'' WAYPOINT.
THIS CONFIGURATION IS ALREADY IN SERVICE ON THE A340-600 AND
PROVES FULLY SATISFACTORY.

III/ DESCRIPTION

IIIA) ATSU

ATSU SOFTWARE CLR3.6B CORRECTS MISSING ADS AND PARTIALLY ADDRESSES


DOWNSTREAM ADS REPORTS (ATSU REPRESENTS 80 PERCENT OF FULL
CORRECTION BY FMS P2/ATSU CLR3.6B).

ATSU SOFTWARE UPGRADE TO CLR3.6B PN LA2T0S11105J0F1 (FIN 20TX)


FROM CURRENT FANS A SOFTWARE CLR3.5B PN LA2T0S11105G0F1 CAN BE
DONE BY ATSU SOFTWARE UPLOADING ON THE AIRCRAFT.
PLEASE NOTE THAT CURRENT ATC (AIR TRAFFIC CONTROL) AND AOC
(AIRLINE OPERATIONAL COMMUNICATION) APPLICATIONS, FIN 25TX, 26TX,
27TX, 28TX, 29TX, 22TX AND 24TX INSTALLED IN THE CURRENT FANS A
CONFIGURATION REMAIN COMPATIBLE WITH CLR3.6B. UPLOADING OF 20TX
SOFTWARE HOWEVER CAUSES ERASURE OF ALL APPLICATIONS PREVIOUSLY

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LOADED, THUS THE COMPLETE ATSU SOFTWARE MUST BE RELOADED DURING


THE UPGRADE TO CLR3.6B.

CLR3.6B SOFTWARE CAN BE USED WITH ATSU HARDWARE PN LA2T0G20503B040


OR PN LA2T0G20503B050.

ATSU CLR3.6B CERTIFICATION AND RETROFIT ARE COVERED THROUGH:


- MOD 50323
- AIRBUS FRANCE AVIONICS AND SIMULATION PRODUCTS VSB REFERENCE
LA2T0-46-008 DISPATCHED ON 09TH OCTOBER 2002
- SB A330-46-3011 OR SB A340-46-4011 BOTH EXPECTED FOR DISPATCH BY
THE 28TH FEBRUARY 2003.

PRODUCTION EMBODIMENT RANK FOR ATSU CLR3.6B IS MADE/SCHEDULED FROM


A330 MSN 510 AND A340 MSN 528.

IIIB) FMS

FMS P2 ADDRESSES ADS REPORTS WITH MISSING POSITION AND REDUCES


OCCURRENCE RATE OF MISSING ETA/ALTITUDE AT ''TO'' WAYPOINT, AND
COMPLETES CORRECTION TO DOWNSTREAM ADS REPORTS (FMS P2 REPRESENTS
20 PERCENT OF FULL CORRECTION BY FMS P2/ATSU CLR3.6B).

FOR FMS P2 UPGRADE, TWO CASES MUST BE DISTINGUISHED:


1/ A330
FMS P2CD7 FOR PW-RR ENGINES/FMS P2B7 FOR GE ENGINES UPGRADE FROM
FMSP1CD7/P1B7 CONSISTS IN:
- FM OPERATIONAL SOFTWARE (FIN 1CA0M3) UPGRADE TO PN PS4087700-902
FROM PN PS4087700-901
- FM PERFORMANCE DATABASE (FIN 1CA0M2) UPGRADE TO PN PS4087705-903
FROM PN PS4087705-901
FMGEC HARDWARE AND FG OBRM ARE NOT IMPACTED BY THIS CHANGE ON
A330.

CAUTION: FM OPERATIONAL SOFTWARE (FIN 1CA0M3) UPGRADE MUST BE DONE


ON BOTH FMS ON THE AIRCRAFT VIA THE MDDU. INDEED, USE OF THE
CROSSLOADING FUNCTION FOR FM OPERATIONAL SOFTWARE (FIN 1CA0M3)
UPGRADE ON SECOND FMS IS FORBIDDEN DUE TO A P1 SOFTWARE UPLOAD
LIMITATION, ADDRESSED THROUGH P2 UPGRADE.
BUT FMS CROSSLOADING CAN BE USED FOR SECOND FMS UPLOADING WITH FM
PERFORMANCE DATABASE (FIN 1CA0M2), OPERATIONAL PROGRAM
CONFIGURATION (OPC), AIRLINE MODIFIABLE INFORMATION (AMI) AND
NAVDATABASE.

2/ A340
FMS P2A10 UPGRADE FROM P1A9 FOR CFMI ENGINES CONSISTS IN:
- FMGEC HARDWARE CHANGE TO PN C12858AA03 FROM PN C12858AA02 VIA FG
OBRM REPLACEMENT
- ABOVE MENTIONED FM PERFORMANCE DATABASE (FIN 1CA0M2) AND FM
OPERATIONAL SOFTWARE (FIN 1CA0M3) UPGRADES, APPLY ALSO TO THE A340
(SAME SOFTWARE PN) AND ARE ALSO TO BE DONE ON AIRCRAFT. THE SAME
CROSSLOADING LIMITATIONS OF ABOVE CAUTION PARAGRAPH APPLY TO P2A10
UPGRADE ON A340.

FMS P2 CERTIFICATION AND RETROFIT WILL BE COVERED THROUGH:


- MOD 50716/SB A330-22-3042 FOR A330 PW-RR
- MOD 50717/SB A330-22-3043 FOR A330 GE
- MOD 50718/SB A340-22-4035 FOR A340 CFM.

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MODIFICATION 50716 AND 50717 EXPECTED FOR CERTIFICATION BY MID


JANUARY 2003, MODIFICATION 50718 BY MID FEBRUARY 2003.
AIRBUS SBS ARE EXPECTED TO BE DISPATCHED BY THE 28TH FEBRUARY
2003.

THE OPERATIONAL PROGRAM CONFIGURATION (OPC), THE AIRLINE


MODIFIABLE INFORMATION (AMI) AND EVEN THE NAVDATABASE CYCLES
PREVIOUSLY USED ON FMS P1 REMAIN COMPATIBLE WITH FMS P2. THOSE
SOFTWARE WILL HOWEVER NEED TO BE RELOADED AFTER FM PERFORMANCE AND
OPERATIONAL SOFTWARE UPLOAD.

PRODUCTION EMBODIMENT RANK FOR FMS P2 IS SCHEDULED FROM:

- A330 RR/PW: MSN 526


- A330 GE: MSN 530
- A340 CFMI: MSN538

IV) RECOMMENDATION
IN ORDER TO EASE ATSU CLR3.6B AND FMS P2 RETROFIT ON ALL AIRCRAFT
TYPES, CORRESPONDING AIRBUS SB'S WILL NOT BE PHYSICALLY LINKED.
THIS WILL ALLOW PROCEEDING SEPARATELY WITH ATSU THEN FMS RETROFIT.
HOWEVER, IN ORDER TO ENSURE SUBSTANTIAL ADS PERFORMANCE
IMPROVEMENT, IT IS HIGHLY RECOMMENDED TO PROCEED FIRST WITH ATSU
SOFTWARE UPGRADE, THAT CORRECTS THE MAJOR ADS ISSUE, I.E. MISSING
ADS REPORT. ASSOCIATION OF FMS P2 WITH ATSU CLR3.5B WOULD DEGRADE
ADS PERFORMANCE.

AIRLINES ARE HOWEVER RECOMMENDED TO TAKE APPROPRIATE ACTIONS TO


ENSURE THAT WITHIN A REASONABLE TIME, FMS P2 UPGRADE IS MADE ON
TOP OF ATSU CLR3.6B.

V) RETROFIT
ATSU CLR3.6B/FMS P2 RETROFIT, MONITORED BY AIRBUS (SET4), WILL
START SOON AFTER SB ISSUE AND WILL BE ANNOUNCED BY A RETROFIT
INFORMATION LETTER.
EACH OPERATOR WILL THEN BE CONTACTED INDIVIDUALLY BY AIRBUS FRANCE
AND THALES AVIONICS, THROUGH A CUSTOMIZED RETROFIT PLANNING LETTER
(RPL), IN ORDER TO FORMALIZE THE LOGISTICAL ASPECTS OF THE
RETROFIT CAMPAIGN.

VI) OPERATIONAL REPERCUSSIONS


ONCE BOTH FMS P2 AND ATSU CLR3.6B ARE RETROFITTED ON THE FANS A
FLEET OF A GIVEN AIRLINE, THE RECOMMENDATION OF FOT REFERENCE STL
999.0022/02 REV01- JC/FPA DATED 24 MAY 2002 QUOTED HEREAFTER
BECOMES OBSOLETE AND SHOULD NOT BE FOLLOWED ANYMORE :

QUOTE
- DURING FLIGHTS ON NORTH ATLANTIC ROUTES, IT HAS BEEN REPORTED
THAT, SOMETIMES, ADS REPORTS ARE NOT TRIGGERED WHEN OVERFLYING A
WAYPOINT. WHEN THE FMS2 IS THE MASTER, AND SEQUENCES A WAYPOINT
BEFORE FMS1, IT MAY OCCUR THAT THE ATSU DOES NOT DETECT THE
WAYPOINT CHANGE EVENT.
TO AVOID MISSING ADS REPORTS, WHEN OVERFLYING A WAYPOINT, DO NOT
USE AP2 DURING ADS OPERATIONS.
UNQUOTE

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BUT, THE OTHER RECOMMENDATIONS MADE IN THE SAME FOT REMAIN


APPLICABLE AS THEY CONCERN NOMINAL SYSTEM OPERATION. THOSE FLIGHT
OPERATION RECOMMENDATIONS ARE REPEATED THEREAFTER AS A REMINDER:

IN ORDER TO IMPROVE ADS OPERATIONAL EFFICIENCY, AIRBUS HAS THE


FOLLOWING RECOMMENDATIONS:
- DO NOT TRY TO LOGON / NOTIFY THE ATC CENTRE, IF AIRCRAFT
REGISTRATION AND FANS CAPABILITY HAVE NOT BEEN DECLARED TO
CONCERNED ATC CENTRES, OR IF AGREEMENT FOR ADS (FANS) UTILIZATION
HAS NOT BEEN OBTAINED FROM THESE ATC.
- DO NOT PERFORM SPONTANEOUS FANS TESTING WITH ATC CENTRES, WHEN
THEY HAVE NOT BEEN PREVIOUSLY NOTIFIED OF A GIVEN AIRCRAFT'S
INTENTION TO OPERATE IN FANS MODE.
- TO USE THE ADS SYSTEM, THE FOLLOWING RULES MUST BE OBSERVED:
- THE ADS SYSTEM MUST BE SET TO ON, PRIOR TO PERFORMING AN ATC
NOTIFICATION. THE ADS IS NORMALLY SET TO ON BY DEFAULT. THIS CAN
BE CHECKED BY SELECTING "ATSU" ON THE MCDU MENU PAGE, THEN "ATC
MENU" ON THE ATSU DATALINK PAGE, AND "CONNECTION STATUS" ON THE
ATC MENU PAGE.
- ONCE THE ATC CENTRE HAS BEEN NOTIFIED ("NOTIFIED" IS DISPLAYED
ON THE MCDU), THE ADS WORKS TRANSPARENTLY TO THE FLIGHT CREW AND
SHOULD NOT BE SET TO OFF, UNLESS INSTRUCTED TO DO SO (E. G. ATC
REQUEST). IF THE ADS IS SET TO OFF, THE ATC CENTRE CAN NO LONGER
BE PROVIDED WITH ADS REPORTS.
- DO NOT ACTIVATE THE ADS EMERGENCY MODE, WITHOUT GOOD REASON.
- DO NOT MODIFY THE SCAN MASK SETTING, IF NOT REQUIRED BY AIRLINE
POLICY. THE SCAN MASK IS A LIST OF THE VHF DATALINK SERVICE
PROVIDERS, USED BY ATSU, TO OPERATE IN VHF DATALINK. MODIFICATION
OF THE SCAN MASK SETTING MAY RESULT IN THE LOSS OF AIR-GROUND VHF
DATALINK COMMUNICATION. AIRLINES MUST DEFINE A SORTED LIST, BASED
ON THEIR RESPECTIVE AGREEMENT WITH DATALINK SERVICE PROVIDERS.

VII) REFERENCE DOCUMENTS


TFU 46.22.00.001: ADS ISSUES. DETAILS ADS ISSUES EXPERIENCED WITH
ATSU CLR3.5B/ FMS P1, AND SOLUTIONS DESIGNED THROUGH ATSU CLR3.6B/
FMS P2.

QUESTIONS ABOUT THE TECHNICAL CONTENT OF THIS OIT ARE TO BE


ADDRESSED TO MR. C. CASSIAU-HAURIE, DEPT. SEE4, PHONE +33/(0)5 62
11 05 25, FAX +33/(0)5 61 93 44 25.

QUESTIONS CONCERNING THE OPERATIONAL CONTENT OF THIS FOT ARE TO BE


ADDRESSED TO MR. JACQUES CASAUBIEILH, DEPT. STLS / PHONE +33/(0)5
61 93 40 41, FAX +33/(0)5 61 93 29 68.

BEST REGARDS.

P. GLAPA C. MONTEIL
VICE PRESIDENT, SYSTEMS & POWERPLANT VICE PRESIDENT
ENGINEERING SERVICES FLIGHT OPERATIONS
CUSTOMER SERVICES DIRECTORATE SUPPORT AND LINE ASSISTANCE

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APPENDIX K
FANS A AIRWORTHINESS SUMMARY
(Ref. 555.1221/00)

1 - PURPOSE AND SCOPE


The purpose of this document is to describe the characteristics of the operational environment and the
interoperability, safety and performance requirements that have been considered for the development
and airworthiness approval of the Airbus Industries AIM FANS A avionics package that supports Air
Traffic Services datalink applications. It also summarises the main results and achievements of
interoperability, safety and performance demonstrations that have been conducted by Airbus Industries.

This document is an outcome of the AIM FANS A Airworthiness Approval process intended to be widely
distributed to any party planning to make use of data communications for Air Traffic Services purposes.

This document is primarily intended for Operators, ATC Service Providers and National Aviation
Authorities.
They should refer to this document when deciding on how to implement operations based on data
communications for ATS purposes. It may also be used by Operators as substantiating data in order to
help in obtaining operational changes.

This document contains :

- Section 2 : the description of the operational environment in which the AIM FANS A package is intended
to be used. This description was used as the basis for the end-to-end Hazard Analysis,

- Section 3 : the listing of all industry standards considered for the development of the datalink
applications, and the record of all clarifications, additions and/or deviations to those standards, applicable
to the AIM FANS A avionics systems,

- Section 4 : the list of all assumptions placed on the ATS Ground Systems and Communication Service
Providers that must be fulfilled,

- Section 5 : an overview of the interoperability, safety and performance demonstrations achieved during
the airworthiness approval process of the AIM FANS A package. This section also provides a set of flight
crew procedures,

- Section 6 : a proposal for a list of checks and verifications that Operators and ATC providers may wish
to perform before starting operations.

The scope of this document is limited to Air Traffic Services datalink communications implemented in the
AIM FANS A avionics package. These functions to be considered are :
. ATS Facilities Notification (AFN),
. Controller-Pilot DataLink Communication (CPDLC)
. Automatic Dependent Surveillance (ADS)

The underlying communication network is the ACARS Air-Ground Network.

This document does not cover :


. the Airline Operational Communication (AOC) applications : these applications are considered as
« user-modifiable software » and are therefore not covered by the Airworthiness Approval granted for the
basic AIM FANS A package. The definition of the AOC applications and obtaining its subsequent
approval is the responsibility of the operator,
. the ground-to-ground ATS communications,
. the process for declaring an ATS Ground System as « operational ».

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2 - OPERATIONAL ENVIRONMENT DESCRIPTION

The AIM FANS A avionics package has been designed to be operated in an operational environment
having the characteristics specified below. Any operational environment that fulfills these characteristcs is
classified as « FANS A Code 1 » according to an Airbus Industries internal terminology.

These characteristics have been considered during the end-to-end Functional Hazard Analysis (FHA)
conducted in the frame of the AIM FANS A Airworthiness Approval.
Therefore, Operators or National Aviation Authorities willing to implement operations using AIM FANS A
datalink communication capabilities must ensure the foreseen environment satisfies these characteristics.

The characteristics of a FANS A Code 1 operational environment are the following :

ENVIRONMENT
- Airspace type : oceanic / Remote
- Traffic Density : low
- Traffic Complexity : in convoy
- Datalink Operations : En-Route / Cruise
- Airspace Management : procedural (based on CPDLC Position Reports and/or ADS information)
- Aircraft Separation Minima : lateral : 50 NM
longitudinal : 50 NM
vertical : 2000 ft, 1000 ft with RVSM

COMMUNICATION, NAVIGATION, SURVEILLANCE CAPABILITIES

Communications
Datalink communications is assumed to be the primary means of communication between Air Traffic
Controller and Flight Crew. However, all existing voice communication media must be available for
back-up communications and reversion to conventional ATM operations must be made using the
following communication means as appropriate :
- VHF
- direct HF
- third party HF
- SATCOM voice

Note : other communication means do exist to enable quick ATC centre – flight crew communications,
but no benefit has been claimed for the use of these means in the end-to-end Functional Hazard
Analysis. These are :
- CPDLC free text
- VHF with other aircraft in the vicinity
- Any other usable means (e.g. passenger phone).

Navigation
RNP10 navigation performance has been assumed as an acceptable performance to allow, in
conjunction with both communication and surveillance means, a 50x50 NM aircraft separation minima.

Surveillance
CPDLC and/or ADS reports are the primary means of surveillance. Voice position report (using VHF,
HF or SATCOM voice as appropriate) must be kept as back-up means.

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3 - INDUSTRY STANDARDS FOR AVIONICS SYSTEM


Industry Standards define the interoperability requirements for Air Traffic Services supported by data
communications.
Industry has recognised that some of these requirements needed additions, clarifications and/or changes.
All amendments to these initial standards have been validated by Communication Service Providers, ATS
Providers and their system suppliers within the frame of standardisation activities led by the EUROCAE
WG53 / RTCA SC-189 joint group.
Note : results of this standardisation activity is now published by EUROCAE under document ED-100.

This section lists the interoperability requirements resulting from this joint group that Airbus Industries has
elected to apply in the development of the AIM FANS A avionics systems.

3.1 - Datalink Applications

3.1.1 - ATS Facilities Notification (AFN)


AIM FANS A system complies with ARINC 622-2 specification, Section 3 for the AFN application.

Deviations to this specification have been made as indicated in Appendix #1 « Amendments to ARINC
622-2 for AFN application ».

3.1.2 - Controller Pilot DataLink Communications (CPDLC)


AIM FANS A system complies with DO-219 MOPS (dated August 27, 1993), section 2.2.2 through
2.2.6.

Deviations to this standard have been made as indicated in Appendix #2 « Amendments to DO-219
for CPDLC application ».

In addition, specific design choices have been made that particularise the AIM FANS A package :

- DO-219 does not specify message pairing for all uplink messages.
Appendix 3 « CPDLC Message Pairing » provides information as to the mapping between uplink
report/confirmation request and corresponding downlink reports generated by the AIM FANS A
system.

- Datalink communications involving [Position] or [RouteClearance] variables activate interface


and functions with the on-board Flight Management System (FMS). Particular attention must be
paid to the encoding by the ground system of these elements to ensure proper treatment by the
on-board FMS once the uplink message is delivered to the aircraft. These specific guidelines are
provided in Appendix 4 « [Position] and [RouteClearance] Variable Processing ».

- Finally, Appendix 5 « CPDLC Error Processing » gives the list of conditions under which the
CPDLC application transmit an error message. Signification of the associated error code used in
the [ErrorInformation] element is also given in this Appendix.

3.1.3 - Automatic Dependent Surveillance (ADS)


The AIM FANS A system complies with DO-212 MOPS (dated October 26, 1992) section 2.2.1.

Deviations to this standard have been made as indicated in Appendix 6 « Amendments to DO-212 for
ADS application ».

Note : appendices assume previous knowledge of AFN, CPDLC and ADS MOPS.

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3.2 - Communications protocols

3.2.1 - ACARS Convergence Function (ACF)

The AIM FANS A system complies with :


- ARINC 622-2 Specification, Section 2 for the ACARS Compatible System with no deviation
- ARINC 622-2 Specification, Section 4 for the Support of Bit-Oriented Applications. Deviations to this
specification have been made as indicated in Appendix 7 « Amendments to ARINC 622-2 for
Application Interface ».

3.2.2 - Communication protocols

The AIM FANS A system complies with the following communication protocols :
- ARINC 620 « Datalink Ground System Standard and Interface Specification »
- ARINC 619 « ACARS Protocols for Avionics End Systems »
- ARINC 618 « Air Ground Character Oriented Protocol Specification »

3.3 - Communication means

The AIM FANS A system is able to exchange datalink messages for ATS purposes over the following
communication media :
- SATCOM
- VHF Data Radio

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APPENDIX K

4 - INTEROPERABILITY & SAFETY REQUIREMENTS FOR ATS GROUND


SYSTEMS

Datalink communications require that end-to-end requirements be specified and complied with by all
systems involved in the realisation of the functions (i.e. ATS Systems, Communication Service Providers
and Airborne Avionics).
Airworthiness Approval of the AIM FANS A ensures that the avionics package complies with the
requirements and industry standards listed in Section 3 of this document.

Formally speaking, industry standards apply to aircraft systems only. In order to ensure end-to-end
interoperability, it has been found necessary to produce interoperability requirements applicable to
Communication Service Providers’ systems and to ATS Providers’ systems. This activity has been done
within the EUROCAE WG53 / RTCA SC-189 joint group.

In addition, while conducting the end-to-end Functional Hazard Analysis, Airbus Industries has made
some assumptions concerning design features of the ATS Ground Systems and/or ATC Controller’s
behaviours and procedures. These assumptions are used in the FHA to mitigate the effects of functional
failure and incorrect behaviours.
These assumptions become Safety Requirements that must be considered by ATS Service Providers.

This section lists the resulting Interoperability and Safety requirements applicable to Communication
Service Providers’ systems and/or ATS Providers’ systems. Airbus Industries assumed that these
requirements would be satisfied in order to ensure continued interoperability and safety of the AIM FANS
A package.

4.1 - INTEROPERABILITY & TECHNICAL REQUIREMENTS FOR ATS GROUND SYSTEMS

4.1.1 - Communication services

- All FANS A communications shall comply with ARINC Specifications 618, 620, and 622.
- All FANS A uplink traffic shall be identified by the use of “A” labels as described in ARINC
Specification 620.
- All FANS A downlink traffic shall be identified by the use of “B” labels as described in ARINC
Specification 620.
- Recording of datalink messages : on-ground recording of all datalink messages, including time
stamp, shall be provided.
- ATS Providers shall have the capability to request notification of successful delivery for uplink
messages, via the Message Assurance (MAS) function (as described in ARINC Specification 620).
- Every uplink message from an ATS Provider shall use the aircraft registration number which is
contained within the portion of the AFN logon message (FN_CON) that is encapsulated by the
Cyclical Redundancy Check (CRC).
- Since FANS A downlink messages do not include a Message Function Identifier (MFI), the ATS
Provider shall use the following uplink Standard Message Identifiers (SMI), as defined in ARINC
Specification 622 for each application :
- “ATC” for CPDLC application,
- “AFU” for AFN application,
- “RAR” for ADS application.
- For FANS A uplink messages, the optional MFI shall not be used; that is, the address will
immediately follow “/” in the free text format.
Note : uplink messages containing a MFI will be discarded by the AIM FANS A avionics package.
- As the Communication Service Provider determines the routing of FANS A messages to the aircraft,
the following text elements (described in ARINC Specification 620, Section 3.7) shall not be used by
an ATS Provider in uplink messages : AP, GL, TP because the CSPs have the responsibility for
routing of uplink messages.

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4.1.2 - Datalink Applications

The ATS Ground Systems supporting Air Traffic Services Datalink Applications shall implement datalink
applications compatible with :
- ARINC 622-2 Specification Section 2 for the ACARS Convergence Function, as amended according
to the table included in Appendix 8 « Amendments to A622 ACARS Convergence Function for ATS
Ground Systems ».
- ARINC 622-2 Specification Section 3 for the AFN application, as amended according to the table
included in Appendix 9 « Amendments to A622 AFN Application for ATS Ground Systems ».
- DO-219 MOPS, Sections 2.2.2 through 2.2.6 for the CPDLC application, as amended according to
the table included in Appendix 10 « Amendments to DO-219 CPDLC Applicaion for ATS Ground
Systems ».
- DO-212 MOPS, Section 2.2.1 for the ADS application, as amended according to the table included
in Appendix 11 « Amendments to DO-212 ADS Application for ATS Ground Systems »

4.2 - INTEROPERABILITY & TECHNICAL REQUIREMENTS FOR COMMUNICATION SERVICE


PROVIDERS

Where the term “ATS contracted CSP” is used in this Section, it refers to the particular CSP contracted by
an ATS Provider to provide all FANS A datalink services (e.g. VHF and SATCOM).
The term “alternate ATS CSP” applies to another CSP whose network is needed by the ATS Provider to
communicate with some aircraft.

- All FANS A communications shall comply with ARINC Specifications 618, 620, and 622.
- All FANS A uplink traffic shall be identified by the use of “A” labels or Message Function Identifiers
(MFIs) as described in ARINC Specification 620.
- All FANS A downlink traffic shall be identified by the use of “B” labels or Message Function
Identifiers as described in ARINC Specification 620.
- Recording of datalink messages : on-ground recording of all datalink messages, including time
stamp, shall be provided.
- CSPs shall support the message assurance function as described in ARINC Specification 620. If the
ATS Provider requests Message Assurance (MAS), the ATS contracted CSP shall provide one of
the following notifications to the ATS Provider for each uplink message :
- "success" (MAS/S) indicating that the uplink message has been received and positively
acknowledged by the aircraft.
- "failure" (MAS/F) indicating that the all parts of the uplink message have not been received
and positively acknowledged by the aircraft, or have been delayed.
- "not known" (MAS/X) indicating that the CSP is unable to provide an indication of delivery for
this uplink message.

- The CSPs shall use unique uplink block identifiers (UBIs) for uplink messages to a given aircraft.
- From the downlink message, the CSP shall extract the address of the ATS Provider to which the
message will be delivered.
- The CSP shall translate the message from air-ground (type-A) format to ground-ground (type-B)
format.
- When a downlink message is received by the Central Processor of a CSP, it shall be routed to the
unique address of the ATS Provider.
- The CSP shall use either of the following mechanisms in the CP to provide this routing:
- mapping of 4 character supplemental address to the corresponding 7 character IATA Type B
address, or
- use of actual 7 character supplemental address in the downlink message.

- The 7 character address assignment of each ATS Provider is unique and shall be configured in the
networks of all CSPs.

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- If the addressed ATS Provider is not connected to the ground network of the CSP which received
the downlink message, the message shall be forwarded to the correct CSP’s network via a
connection between the networks of the CSPs.
- Each CSP offering FANS A communication service to an ATS Provider shall support an
internetworking function.
- Communication shall only be attempted via a maximum of two media or CSP.
- The internetworking function shall address and deliver the message to the appropriate CSP for
delivery (based on current media advisory information or default delivery preferences), with the
request for Message Assurance delivery confirmation.
- If successful delivery (indicated by receipt of an aircraft ACK as described in ARINC Specification
618) is achieved, a Message Delivery Confirmation message shall be returned to the
internetworking function.
- Upon receipt of the Message Delivery Confirmation message the internetworking function shall
forward this to the ATS Provider, if requested as the message assurance.
- If delivery is unsuccessful (indicated as described in ARINC Specification 618), either an
Untransmittable Message Assurance or an Undeliverable Message Assurance shall be returned to
the internetworking function.
- Receipt of these messages by the internetworking function shall result in either :
- another attempt at message delivery as required by the routing logic in the internetworking
function or;
- the Untransmittable Message Assurance or Undeliverable Message Assurance being forwarded
to the ATS Provider, if requested.
- If VHF is available then uplink delivery shall be attempted via VHF.
- If VHF is available and delivery is not successful or VHF is unavailable and the aircraft is a
contracted user and is logged-on to the CSPs satellite service, uplink delivery shall be attempted via
satellite.
- If VHF is available and the attempt at delivery via VHF was not successful, uplink delivery shall be
attempted via the satellite communications facilities of an alternate CSP.
- If communication is not possible via the ATS contracted CSP and the aircraft is using the air-ground
facilities of an alternate CSP, then uplink delivery shall be attempted via the alternate CSP.
- If the first uplink delivery attempt was made via an alternate CSP (VHF) provider and was
unsuccessful, the second uplink delivery attempt shall be made via the aircraft’s contracted satellite
datalink service provider.
- Media Advisory downlinks shall be delivered to the internetworking functions of all CSPs, which use
the media advisory message.
- In the absence of media advisory messages or if the first attempt to deliver a message has failed
then the internetworking function shall forward the message to the next CSP as determined by
contractual arrangements of the particular Operator.

4.3 - SAFETY REQUIREMENTS FOR ATS GROUND SYSTEMS & COMMUNICATION SERVICE
PROVIDERS

Airbus Industries has performed an end-to-end Functional Hazard Analysis for the AIM FANS A functions
where Functional Failures and Incorrect Behaviour of the functions were analysed and evaluated for their
effects and impacts on flight crew, ground ATC and airspace. Doing so, a number of detection means,
protections or barriers, and procedures were assumed to be implemented in the ATS ground systems.

These assumptions made on the ground systems have been presented to the JAA Team during the AIM
FANS A Airworthiness Approval process. They have all been accepted as being realistic assumptions for
an ATS Provider implementing datalink communications.
However, these assumptions turn out to be Safety Requirements that ATS providers must comply with
prior to start actual operations based on CPDLC and ADS in order to ensure adequate safety level is
attained.

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4.3.1 - GROUND PROCEDURES

- GP#1 : Area of control


The ATCO shall not issue a clearance to an aircraft that is not in his area of control.
- GP#3 : Entering aircraft check
When the ATC controller receives the first CPDLC Position Report from an aircraft, he must check
that this aircraft is in his FIR.
- GP#4 : Flight Plan/Flight Number check
During any notification procedure (AFN), the ATC ground system or controller must check that the
flight number and A/C Tail Number match with those of the registered Flight Plan.
- GP#10 : Non reception of an expected ADS report
In case of signaled non-reception of an expected ADS report, the ATC controller shall take
appropriate corrective action ASAP (e.g. by sending a demand contract or establishing a new
periodic contract with the aircraft.
- GP#13 : CPDLC report delay
If an A/C has to report via CPDLC its position at a given time, and fails to report its position within
Tr=3minutes, the ATC controller shall take appropriate action to establish communication. If
communication is not established within Tc=8minutes from the time the report should have been
received, an alternative form of separation shall be applied.

4.3.2 - GROUND TECHNICAL REQUIREMENT

- GT #1 : Ground/Ground communications
A telephone back-up is assumed for inter-facility data communication (ground/ground) and
procedures are established for its use.
- GT #2 : CPDLC and ADS use
Processing of CPDLC and ADS position reports shall be developed to allow primary means of
surveillance (e.g. separation assurance, up to reduction of separation).
- GT #3 : Alert of non-reception of CPDLC/ADS report
Controller shall be alerted in case of non-reception of expected ADS report or CPDLC position
report.
- GT #6 : communication outage information
The communication service provider shall inform ATS srvice providers involved in the operation of
the datalink system in case of communication outage (satellite, RGS)
- GT #7 : Internetworking
Internetworking between service providers shall ensure correct process of ATC datalink messages.
- GT #8 : Error detection
The ATC system must be able to detect that the aircraft is deviating from its assigned route. If the
deviation exceeds 7.5NM, data of the predicted and A/C intent groups may prove to be incorrect. In
this situation, the ATC system should base extrapolation of the aircraft trajectory on track data rather
than on predicted group and intent group data.

4.3.3 - COMMON TECHNICAL REQUIREMENTS

- CT #1 : Back-up communication
The ATC centres and the aircraft shall have backup communication systems. All voice capabilities
must be retained (HF, VHF, SATCOM).
- CT #2 : Timers
There shall exist timers for the ATC controllers and flight crews to monitor the air/ground processing
status of a message.
These timers must be consistent with the communication performance objectives :
- response time for donwlink message (one way) : 1 minute 95% of the time
- response time for uplink message (round trip) : 2 minutes 95% of the time.
- CT #6 : CRC
CRC must be implemented against air/ground segment corruption of each uplink or downlink
message. For interoperability reasons, this 16 bit CRC has been agreed as an accpetable means of
compliance with this objective.

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APPENDIX K

5 - INTEROPERABILITY, SAFETY & PERFORMANCE DEMONSTRATIONS


ACHIEVED FOR AIM FANS A SYSTEM
This section provides the results and achievements of Interoperability, Safety and Performance
demonstrations conducted by AIRBUS INDUSTRIES in the frame of the Airworthiness Approval of the
AIM FANS A package.

These demonstrations were conducted according to the AIRBUS INDUSTRIES document « FANS A :
Interoperability, Safety and Performance Demonstration Test Plan » that has been agreed by the JAA.

In addition, this section provides with inputs for procedures to be applied by the flight crew.

5.1 - INTEROPERABILITY DEMONSTRATIONS

Airbus Industries has demonstrated compliance to industry standards as indicated in Section 3 of this
document thanks to a combination of simulator tests and flight tests. In both cases, the avionics package
under test was in a configuration representative of the AIM FANS A production package configuration.

Peer ground systems used for Interoperability demonstrations were a combination of simulated ATC
system and several actual ATC systems where AFN, CPDLC and ADS applications are recognised as
« operational » for ATS purposes (i.e. daily used).

The AIM FANS A package complies with Interoperability requirements listed in Section 3, and AFN,
CPDLC and ADS applications may be used with ATS Ground Systems compliant with Interoperability
requirements listed in Section 4 of this document.

5.2 - SAFETY DEMONSTRATIONS

Based on the end-to-end Functional Hazard Analysis conducted by Airbus Industries, a list of Failure
Conditions has been deduced and allocated to the avionics package. Safety Objectives were specified for
each Failure Condition.
Failure Condition allocated to the aircraft were ranked from MINOR to MAJOR effects, according to
classification per JAR 25.1309.
Airbus Industries has conducted a System Safety Analysis of the AIM FANS A package in order to
demonstrate compliance to these Safety Objectives : all Safety Objectives are satisfied.

The following assumptions were made as part of the System Safety Analysis of the AIM FANS A system :
- the flight crew follows, as a minimum, the procedures listed in Section 5.5 of this document.
These crew procedures were used in the System Safety Analysis as detection, protection or
barriers to the analysed Failure Conditions. All these procedures are taken into account in the
Airbus Industries Flight Crew Operating Manual (FCOM) for FANS A functions. Operators
should be encouraged to follow the procedures recommended in this manual to ensure
proper operation with AIM FANS A system.

5.3 - PERFORMANCE DEMONSTRATIONS

5.3.1 - Achieved Time Accuracy

All messages are timestamped based on UTC time information from GPS with a +/- 2seconds accuracy.
- Uplinks messages are timestamped when they are put in the DCDU queue for display.
- Downlink messages are timestamped when the Flight Crew depresses the SEND soft key on the
DCDU.

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APPENDIX K

5.3.2 - Achieved Communication Performances

Airbus Industries has demonstrated communication performances based on actual flight tests with one
simulated ATC ground system, with a representative combination of uplink and downlink and use of VHF
and SATCOM. The times from more than 500 messages were used to conduct a statistical analysis.
Additionally, Airbus Industries conducted specific flight tests in operational environment connected with
operational ATC ground systems. Again, the times from more than 500 messages were used to conduct a
statistical analysis.

The Communication Performances demonstrated by Airbus Industries in the frame of the AIM FANS A
Airworthiness Approval process are the following :

- Round-Trip transit time for uplink messages is less than 2 minutes for more than 95% of the
uplink ATC messages
This time is the measure between the time an uplink message is sent by the ATC Ground System
and the time the Message Assurance (MAS) issued by the avionic system is received by the ATC
Ground System.

- One-Way transit time for downlink messages is less than 1 minute for more than 95% of the
downlink messages
This time is the measure between the time a downlink message is timestamped by the avionics
system and the time this message is received by the ATC Ground System.

These communication performance values were used in the end-to-end Functional Hazard Analysis and
subsequent System Safety Analysis conducted by Airbus Industries.

Note : these communication performances have been established where appropriate coverage of the
communication media (VHF or Satellite) was available.
In particular, satellite datalink communications are based on a constellation of 4 INMARSAT
satellites that can provide virtually world-wide coverage between 75°N and 75°S latitudes. Use of
satellite datalink communications outside of these latitudes may either not be possible, or may
exhibit degraded performances.

5.4 - AIM FANS A Adventitious Characteristics

The following are differences between the desired FANS A requirements and the actual implementation.
Only differences which have a potentially significant impact on ATC systems/operations are described.
For some items there is a requirement placed on ATC to work around the problem; the remaining items
are for information only.

5.4.1 - AFN
None

5.4.2 - ADS
1. When an Intermediate Projected Intent group contains default values, the three last bits of the
group are set to 1 instead of 0. Note that these bits are padding bits to achieve an integral
number of octets.
Requirement on ATC : ignore the value of the three last bits of an Intermediate Projected Intent
group.

2. Upon receipt of a Cancel Emergency Mode Request containing the contract number of an
existing event contract, a Negative Acknowledgement should be sent. Instead, the request is
acknowledged and the event contract is cancelled. Note that the emergency mode will be
cancelled on that connection.
Requirement on ATC : none.

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5.4.3 - CPDLC
1. The BACK ON ROUTE (dM#41) message element cannot be generated. The crew has to send this
information using a free-text (dM#67).
Requirement on ATC: none.
Crew Procedure : manually send a free-text message with the "BACK ON ROUTE" text when
appropriate.

2. When the optional [legtype] is not included in the uplink HOLD AT [position] MAINTAIN [altitude]
INBOUND TRACK [degrees] [direction] TURNS [legtype] (uM#91) message element, the aircraft
sends back an error message.
Requirement on ATC : insert the optional [legtype] in message element uM#91.

3. Transfer of connection while pending uplink messages exist disconnects both the current and next
data authorities.
Requirement on ATC : pending uplink messages must be closed before sending END SERVICE.

4. Display of the satellite channel frequency is incorrect.


Requirement on ATC : do not send the [Frequencysatchannel] variable.

5. The uplink WHEN CAN YOU ACCEPT [speed] (uM#151) message element with a choice 4 or 5
(speedground or speedgroundmetric) locks CPDLC.
Requirement on ATC : do not send a ground speed in message element uM#151.

6. The CLEARED [routeclearance] (uM#80) message element containing more than 82 place-bearing-
distance cannot be loaded.
Requirement on ATC : do not send more than 82 place-bearing-distance in message element
uM#80.

7. Upon receipt of the [trackdetailmessage] (uM#178) message element, an ERROR [errorinformation]


with the [invaliddata] value should be sent. Instead the ERROR message will contain the
[insufficientstoragecapacity] value.
Requirement on ATC : none.

8. An uplink message containing more than three confirm message elements (uM#132 to uM#147)
cannot be processed.
Requirement on ATC : do not send an uplink message containing more than three confirm message
elements.

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APPENDIX K

5.5 - Input for Flight Crew Procedures

The following flight crew procedures are used in the System Safety Analysis as detection, protection or
barriers to the Failure Conditions.
All these procedures are taken into account in the Airbus Industries Crew Operating Manual (FCOM) for
FANS A functions. Operators should be encouraged to follow the procedures recommended in this
manual to ensure proper operation with AIM FANS A system.

- FP #1 : Initial Notification procedure


The Flight Crew must not initiate a notification procedure with ATC that have no juridiction on their
flight (i.e. that are neither current controlling ATC nor next controlling ATC).

- FP #2 : Flight Ident check


The Flight Crew shall check that correct Flight Number and Aircraft Tail Number are entered in the
avionics before initiating any Notification Procedure.

- FP #3 : Next controlling ATC check


The Flight Crew shall check that the next controlling ATC designated in the NEXT DATA
AUTHORITY CPDLC message is as per their flight plan.

- FP #4 : CPDLC connection check


The Flight Crew shall check that the establishment of the CPDLC connection has been made with the
expected ATC centre. If not, this may lead to lost messages.

- FP #7 : PF / PNF mutual information


The PF and PNF should inform each other of all the received messages by reading them aloud.

- FP #8 : Positive or Negative answer


The Flight Crew must answer all clearances requesting an answer and in particular, tell the ATC
Controller ASAP the clearances they cannot comply with. They may justify (by free text) the reason
why they cannot comply with the clearance.

- FP #9 : Display of ATC clearances.


The DCDU is the reference equipment for the display of any ATC message. The Flight Crew shall not
rely on the use of the PRINTER for decision making.

- FP #11 : deviation procedure


Except in emergency, before deviating from his assigned flight plan, the Flight Crew must request the
deviation from the ATC Controller and receive appropriate clearance.
If the aircraft has lost communication, the Flight Crew shall follow the procedure defined in the SPOM
Part 5 Chapter 2.2 (Deviation from centreline).
If the Flight Crew realizes that the aircraft has deviated from its route (e.g. in case of navigation failure
or error), they shall readily inform the ATC Controller.

- FP #17 : Deferred Clearance, ALTITUDE.


For deferred clearance related to altitude, the Flight Crew must report when reaching the assigned
altitude.

- FP #18 : Deferred Clearance, HEADING.


For deferred clearance related to heading, the Flight Crew must report when reaching the assigned
heading.

- FP #19 : Deferred Clearance, SPEED.


For deferred clearance related to speed, the Flight Crew must report when reaching the assigned
speed.

- FP #20 : Position comparison


The Flight Crew should compare the CPDLC Position Report with current aircrfat position in FMS
before sending.

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APPENDIX K

6 - PROPOSED COMPLEMENTARY VERIFICATIONS BEFORE STARTING


OPERATIONS
This section is proposing a list of verifications that an Operator may consider prior to start operations
using data communications in order to ensure correct functioning of the AIM FANS A system. Indeed,
most of these checks aim at verifying that the Operator is correctly registered into its selected
Communication Service Provider. These checks cannot be performed during the Airworthiness Approval
of the avionics package since they depend on each Operator.

In addition, this section proposes a list of functional tests that Operators and/or ATS Service Providers
may wish to perform before starting operations.

All verifications and tests contained in this section are only provided to assist Operators deciding to use
datalink communications with AIM FANS A package.

6.1 - Proposed verifications

1. The Operator will ensure that it has the appropriate contract(s) with one or more CSP for the intended
operational environment.

2. Operators may make use of different Communication Service Providers and/or media depending on
the availability of services and their individual contractual arrangements. Operators will ensure that all
CSP with whom they have contracts have the appropriate labels configured to support the FANS A
messages.
Note : as satellite datalink is usually global, an Operator generally needs to contract with only one
CSP for satellite datalink service. VHF datalink facilities, on the other hand, are supported in
different regions by different CSPs. This means that Operators may contract with more than one
CSP for VHF datalink service. In a given region an Operator may receive VHF datalink service
from one CSP and satellite datalink service from another CSP. There are cases where a number
of CSPs support VHF datalink service in the same region. Where this occurs, the Operator’s
contractual arrangements will determine the choice of VHF CSP by the aircraft.

3. The requirement for a particular medium on a particular route may be specified by the appropriate
States based on factors such as performance and coverage. Such requirement can lead to a need for
carriage of specific communication equipment. The Operator will ensure the aircraft configuration
comply with such requirement.

6.2 - Proposed tests


Some functional tests may be performed with an aircraft on ground and an ATS Provider system to
ensure the correct functioning of the AIM FANS A system on the aircraft.

The objectives of these tests are :


- Ability to establish, maintain and terminate data link connections via real subnetworks (correct
addressing, use of Satcom and VHF data link subnetworks)
- Ability to encode/decode data link messages,
- Demonstration of message pairing (i.e., an answer correctly refers to a request, is understood as
such and is operationally meaningful),

Following minimum tests are proposed :

a. Demonstration of CPDLC exchanges


The objective is to reflect CPDLC operations with one real ATC ground system: establishment and
termination of a CPDLC connection, exchange of clearances and reports. Message pairing and
usability of data will be checked.

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b. Demonstration of ADS reporting


The objective is to reflect ADS operations with one real ATC ground system: establishment and
termination of an ADS connection, reporting in normal mode and transition to emergency mode.
Processing and usability of data will be checked.

c. Robustness to duplicate logons


The objective is to check that duplicate logons do not affect established CPDLC and ADS
connections.

If two real ATS Provider systems can participate to the test, the following scenario is also worth testing :

d. Ability to transfer a CPDLC connection

In any case, the Operator and the ATS Provider must ensure that:
- Aircraft flight number and tail number (included in the Notification message) will be recognized by
the ATS Provider system,
- Network addresses, choice of medium and choice of communication service provider are
adequate.

Scenarios for each of the above proposed tests are detailed in Appendix #12 with following terminology:
FN_CON: manual Notification (downlink)
FN_AK: Notification Acknowledgement (uplink)
CR1: CPDLC Connection Request (uplink)
CC1: CPDLC Connection Confirm (downlink, system-generated)
NDA: NEXT DATA AUTHORITY ATC name
DR1: CPDLC or ADS connection termination (downlink, system-generated).

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APPENDIX # 1

Amendments to ARINC 622-2 for AFN application

ATS Facilities Notification (AFN)

FANS A complies with ARINC Specification 622-2, Section 3 except as noted below.

ARINC 622 section Description


3.3.3 AFN-Active Flag The ‘Active Flag’ value is not significant. The aircraft will accept FN_CAD messages from any ATS Provider
system.
3.4 Timers / Reason ATST1 value will be 10 minutes.
Codes
3.5.3 AFN The optional 24-bit ICAO address will not be provided.
Message Header
Time stamp will be provided (HHMMSS).
flt_no value must be as filed in field 7 of the ICAO flight plan. ‘Flight ID’ defined in ARINC Specification 620
will not be used.
Where an Aircraft Registration Number is less than seven characters, the Aircraft Registration Number will be
placed in the right of the field tail_no and the remainder of the field padded out with period [.] characters.
3.5.4 AFN Contact [ap_name] fields will reflect the applications basically available in the aircraft and will not reflect the
Message applications available (i.e. not failed or not off) at the time the AFN Contact Message is initiated.
The optional FCO AIF and version number will not be used.
Attachment 2, table 2- Version number will be 01 for ADS and CPDLC.
1
Attachment 2, table 2- The Application Name ‘ATC’ is used for CPDLC.
1
3.5.5 Only the overall reason code in the FN_AK will be used to determine whether the response is positive or not
AFN Acknowledge (i.e. the AFN logon is successful or not).
Message
APPENDIX # 2

Amendments to DO 219 MOPS for CPDLC application

Controller Pilot Data Link Communication (CPDLC)

FANS A complies with DO-219 except as noted below.

DO-219 section Description


2.2.2.1 Connection The CPDLC application will interface with:
Initiation The ACARS Compatible System defined in section 2 of ARINC Specification 622-2,
The Application Interface defined in section 4 of ARINC Specification 622-2.
2.2.2.1.1.a.2, Tp4 timer requirements are not applicable.
2.2.2.1.2.a.3.i
Connection Initiation
2.2.2.1.2.a, If a valid "Connect Request" (IMI=CR1) is received from a facility designation which is already connected, the CPDLC
2.2.2.1.3.a application will send the “Connect Confirm” (IMI=CC1) containing a message with the [versionnumber] (dM73)
Connection Initiation message element only.
NOTE: This situation happens when the flight crew manually notifies (AFN) an ATS Provider system which has already
established a CPDLC connection. Pending messages in the aircraft will not be affected.
2.2.2.2.1.a If a message is received with an END SERVICE (uM161) message element only and pending uplink messages exist,
Connection the CPDLC application will send "Disconnect Request" (IMI=DR1) containing a message with the ERROR
Termination [errorinformation] (dM62) message element with the [endServiceWithPendingMsgs] value for the active connection only.
2.2.2.3.b Next ATC If the connection with the next ATC Data Authority has not been established, the next ATC Data Authority facility
Data Authority designation will be retained even after an END SERVICE (uM161) message element has been received.
Retention NOTE: This next ATC Data Authority facility designation will be subsequently cleared upon manual Notification (AFN).
2.2.3.3 Message The Response Attribute of uplink message element #177 will be NE.
Structure and Content
Uplink and downlink messages will be paired as detailed in Appendix #3.
Position and routeclearance will be processed as detailed in Appendix #4.
The uplink message element #178 will be considered to be undefined.
The downlink message element #80 is defined.

-- DEVIATING [distanceoffset] [direction] OF ROUTE Resp ( N )


dM80DistanceoffsetDirection [80] DM80DistanceoffsetDirection,

The alert attribute for this message is medium. The urgency attribute for this message is normal.
2.2.3.3 Message An optional time stamp field is defined in the header of CPDLC messages.
Structure and Content
ATCmessageheader ::= SEQUENCE
{
msgidentificationnumber Msgidentificationnumber,
msgreferencenumber Msgreferencenumber OPTIONAL,
timestamp Timestamp OPTIONAL
}

Msgidentificationnumber ::= INTEGER (0..63)


Msgreferencenumber ::= INTEGER (0..63)

Timestamp ::= SEQUENCE


{
timehours Timehours,
timeminutes Timeminutes,
timeseconds Timeseconds
}

Timeseconds ::= INTEGER (0..59)


-- Units = 1 Second, Range (0..59)

All downlink CPDLC messages will contain a timestamp which indicates the originators send time and should use a
time source which is referenced to UTC.
2.2.3.3 Three optional fields are added to the position report.
Message Structure and Positionreport ::= SEQUENCE
Content {
positioncurrent [0] Positioncurrent,
timeatpositioncurrent [1] Timeatpositioncurrent,
altitude [2] Altitude,
fixnext [3] Fixnext OPTIONAL,
timeetaatfixnext [4] Timeetaatfixnext OPTIONAL,
fixnextplusone [5] Fixnextplusone OPTIONAL,
timeetadestination [6] Timeetadestination OPTIONAL,
remainingfuel [7] Remainingfuel OPTIONAL,
temperature [8] Temperature OPTIONAL,
winds [9] Winds OPTIONAL,
turbulence [10] Turbulence OPTIONAL,
icing [11] Icing OPTIONAL,
speed [12] Speed OPTIONAL,
speedground [13] Speedground OPTIONAL,
verticalchange [14] Verticalchange OPTIONAL,
trackangle [15] Trackangle OPTIONAL,
trueheading [16] Trueheading OPTIONAL,
distance [17] Distance OPTIONAL,
supplementaryinformation [18] SupplementaryinformationOPTIONAL,
reportedwaypointposition [19] Reportedwaypointposition OPTIONAL,
reportedwaypointtime [20] Reportedwaypointtime OPTIONAL,
reportedwaypointaltitude [21] Reportedwaypointaltitude OPTIONAL
}
Reportedwaypointposition ::= Position
Reportedwaypointtime ::= Time
Reportedwaypointaltitude ::= Altitude

Reportedwaypointposition. Specifies the previously reported point in the aircraft’s route.


Reportedwaypointtime. Specifies the time an aircraft crossed the previously reported point in the route.
Reportedwaypointaltitude. Specifies the altitude an aircraft crossed the previously reported point in the route.
2.2.4.1.b Message In cases where the Message Identification Number, time stamp and content are equal to those of a pending message,
Identification Number as per section 2.2.6.4, the aircraft will discard the duplicate message and generate no error message.
2.2.4.1.e Message When only one Message Identification Number is available in the aircraft for subsequent transmission of messages, the
Identification Number CPDLC application will send for all connections the “Disconnect Request” which contains the ERROR [errorinformation]
(dM62) message element with the [noAvailableMsgIdentificationNumber] value.
2.2.4.2.a Message If a message is received with a Message Reference Number which does not equal the Message Identification Number
Reference Number of a pending message, as per section 2.2.6.4, and does not contain either the ERROR [errorinformation] (uM159)
message element or SERVICE UNAVAILABLE (uM162) message element, then CPDLC will send a message
containing the ERROR [errorinformation] (dM62) message element and discard the received message.
2.2.4.2.a Message If a message is received with a Message Reference Number which does not equal the Message Identification Number
Reference Number of a pending message, as per section 2.2.6.4, and contains either the ERROR [errorinformation] (uM159) message
element or SERVICE UNAVAILABLE (uM162) message element, then CPDLC will not send a message containing the
ERROR [errorinformation]
2.2.4.2.b Message The CPDLC application will assign a Message Reference Number equal to the Message Identification Number for the
Reference Number associated uplink message for each downlink message initiated for transmission with a WILCO (dM0), UNABLE (dM1),
STANDBY (dM2), ROGER (dM3), AFFIRM (dM4), NEGATIVE (dM5), [versionnumber] (dM73) or ERROR
[errorinformation] (dM62) (with the exception below) message element.
If the message header of the uplink message associated to a downlink ERROR [errorinformation] (dM62) message
element does not contain enough bits to constitute a Message Identification Number, then ATCComm will not assign a
Message Reference Number for the ERROR [errorinformation] (dM62) message element.
2.2.5.1 Urgency The Urgency Attribute has been implemented according to the existing cockpit philosophy.
2.2.5.2 Alert The Alert Attribute has been implemented according to the existing cockpit philosophy.
2.2.5.3.a.1, 2.2.5.3.a.2 The ERROR [errorinformation] (dM62) and NOT CURRENT DATA AUTHORITY (dM63) message elements are also
2.2.5.3.a.3 Response acceptable responses.
2.2.5.4 Recall The Recall Attribute has been implemented according to the existing cockpit philosophy.
2.2.6.3 Message Display Message Display has been implemented according to the existing cockpit philosophy.
2.2.6.8 Message Errors Error processing is detailed in Appendix #5.
APPENDIX K

Appendix #3

CPDLC Uplink/Downlink Message Pairing

The following mapping between uplink report/confirmation requests (uM#) and downlink reports (dM#)
applies.

uM Message Element dM Message Element


# #
127 REPORT BACK ON ROUTE 41 BACK ON ROUTE
128 REPORT LEAVING [altitude] 28 LEAVING [altitude]
129 REPORT LEVEL [altitude] 37 LEVEL [altitude]
130 REPORT PASSING [position] 31 PASSING [position]
131 REPORT REMAING FUEL AND 57 [remainingfuel] OF FUEL REMAINING
SOULS ON BOARD AND [remainingsouls] SOULS ON
BOARD
132 CONFIRM POSITION 33 PRESENT POSITION [position]
133 CONFIRM ALTITUDE 32 PRESENT ALTITUDE [altitude]
134 CONFIRM SPEED 34 PRESENT SPEED [speed]
135 CONFIRM ASSIGNED ALTITUDE 38 ASSIGNED ALTITUDE [altitude]
136 CONFIRM ASSIGNED SPEED 39 ASSIGNED SPEED [speed]
137 CONFIRM ASSIGNED ROUTE 40 ASSIGNED ROUTE [routeclearance]
138 CONFIRM TIME OVER 46 REPORTED WAYPOINT [time]
REPORTED WAYPOINT
139 CONFIRM REPORTED 45 REPORTED WAYPOINT [position]
WAYPOINT
140 CONFIRM NEXT WAYPOINT 42 NEXT WAYPOINT [position]
141 CONFIRM NEXT WAYPOINT 43 NEXT WAYPOINT ETA [time]
ETA
142 CONFIRM ENSUING WAYPOINT 44 ENSUING WAYPOINT [position]
144 CONFIRM SQUAWK 47 SQUAWKING [beaconcode]
145 CONFIRM HEADING 35 PRESENT HEADING [degrees]
146 CONFIRM GROUND TRACK 36 PRESENT GROUND TRACK
[degrees]
147 REQUEST POSITION REPORT 48 POSITION REPORT [positionreport]
175 REPORT REACHING [altitude] 72 REACHING [altitude]
180 REPORT REACHING BLOCK 76 REACHING BLOCK [altitude] TO
[altitude] TO [altitude] [altitude]
181 REPORT DISTANCE [tofrom] 78 AT [time] [distance] [toFrom] [position]
[position]
182 CONFIRM ATIS CODE 79 ATIS [atiscode]

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APPENDIX K

Appendix #4

[Position] and [RouteClearance] Variable Processing

Loadable Uplink Message Elements


Most CPDLC uplink message elements are merely displayed to the pilot for action. However, some may be
loaded into the flight management function of the aircraft. The following table lists those message elements
which can be loaded.

uM# Crossing Constraints


51 CROSS [position] AT [time]
52 CROSS [position] AT OR BEFORE [time]
53 CROSS [position] AT OR AFTER [time]
Route Modifications
79 CLEARED TO [position] VIA [routeclearance]
80 CLEARED [routeclearance]
83 AT [position] CLEARED [routeclearance]

[position] Variable Loading

The following rules for [position] loading apply to standalone [position] variables, as in message element
uM77, and to those embedded in the [routeclearance] variable.

In the message structure defined in section 4.6.3.3, the [position] variable is defined as a choice of ‘fixname’,
‘navaid’, ‘airport’, ‘latitudeLongitude’, or ‘placebearingdistance’. The first three choices have "overlapping"
definitions. [Fixname] is an IA5String (Size(1..5)); [navaid] is an IA5String (Size(1..4)); and [airport] is an
IA5String (Size(4)). Consequently, a 1, 2, or 3 character identifier could be encoded as a [fixname] or
[navaid], and a four character identifier could be encoded as any of the first three [position] choices.

The FMS Navigation Data Base (NDB) is configured to the ARINC 424 specification, which defines the record
structure and naming conventions for NDB data. When the FMS receives an uplink message with a loadable
message element containing the [position] variable, it uses the [position] choice to determine which of its
NDB records to search for a matching identifier.
This is required in order for the FMS to be able to load the uplinked [position] into the FMS flight plan.

For example, if an uplink message with a [position] choice of 'navaid' is received, the FMS will search only the
NDB Navaid record for a matching identifier. Similarly, the ‘airport’ choice leads to a search of the NDB
airport record and the ‘fixname’ choice leads to a search of the NDB waypoint record and the NDB non-
directional beacon record (explained further below).

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APPENDIX K

If a match is not found, then the FMS will not load the specified [position] into the FMS flight plan. Limiting the
search in this manner (i.e., as opposed to searching all NDB records, irrespective of the [position] choice)
decreases, but does not eliminate, the likelihood of the FMS finding duplicate matching identifiers.

The FMS will create a waypoint at the specified [position] when the ‘latitudeLongitude’ choice is selected.
If the ‘placebearingdistance’ choice is selected, the [fixname] must match an identifier in the FMS Navigation
Database (waypoint, navaid, airport, or non-directional beacon), otherwise, the [fixname] and the
corresponding [placebearingdistance] are not loadable.
It must be noted that in the case of the FMS finding duplicate matching identifiers, or a FMS Navigation
Database unsuccessfull match , a downlink ERROR message element will not be generated.

6.2.1 - [routeclearance] Variable Loading

The following table describes how the constituent variables of the [routeclearance] variable will be loaded into
the FMS flight plan.

NOTE: FMSs have the capability to store two flight plans. The flight plan along which the aircraft is to be
flown is called the active flight plan. The "selected route" in which the [routeclearance] variable is loaded is
the secondary flight plan.

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Table - [routeclearance] Variables

Variable Name Loaded into the Additional information


selected route as:
[airportdeparture] Origin airport for the selected The [airportdeparture] variable is not loadable if the [airport] identifier does not match an
route identifier in the FMS Navigation Database.
Otherwise, the [airportdeparture] is loadable.
[airportdestination] Destination airport for the The [airportdestination] variable is not loadable if the [airport] identifier does not match an
selected route identifier in the FMS Navigation Database.
Otherwise, the [airportdestination] is loadable.
[runwaydeparture] Departure runway direction The [runwaydeparture] variable is not loadable if the [runway] [runwaydirection] and
[runway] and configuration for the [runwayconfiguration] do not match a runway identifier for the applicable origin airport in the
[runwaydirection] selected route FMS Navigation Database.
[runwayconfiguration] Otherwise, the [runwaydeparture] is loadable.
[proceduredeparture] Departure procedure and The [proceduredeparture] is not loadable if the [procedure], or [procedure] and
[procedurename] departure transition for the [proceduretransition], do not match a departure procedure identifier, or departure procedure
[procedure] selected route and transition identifiers, for the applicable origin airport in the FMS Navigation Database.
[proceduretransition] Otherwise, the [proceduredeparture] is loadable.
[runwayarrival] Arrival runway direction and The [runwayarrival] variable is not loadable if the [runway] [runwaydirection] and
[runway] configuration for the selected [runwayconfiguration] do not match a runway identifier for the applicable destination airport
[runwaydirection] route in the FMS Navigation Database.
[runwayconfiguration] Otherwise, the [runwayarrival] is loadable
[procedureapproach] Approach procedure and The [procedureapproach] is not loadable if the [procedure], or [procedure] and
[procedurename] approach transition for the [proceduretransition], do not match an approach procedure identifier, or approach
[procedure] selected route procedure and transition identifiers, for the applicable destination airport in the FMS
[proceduretransition] Navigation Database.
Otherwise, the [procedureapproach] is loadable
[procedurearrival] Arrival procedure and arrival The [procedurearrival] is not loadable if the [procedure], or [procedure] and
[procedurename] transition for the selected [proceduretransition], do not match an arrival procedure identifier, or arrival procedure and
[procedure] route transition identifiers, for the applicable destination airport in the FMS Navigation Database.
[proceduretransition] Otherwise, the [procedurearrival] is loadable
[airwayintercept] The first airway in the en The [airwayintercept] is not loadable.
route portion of the selected
route; the FMS automatically
selects the point at which the
airplane should join the
airway.
Variable Name Loaded into the selected Additional information
route as:
[routeinformation] En route data for the selected The FMS ignores (and does not attempt to load) any [trackdetail] encoded in the
[publishedidentifier] route [routeinformation] portion of a [routeclearance] variable.
[latitudelongitude] Any [publishedidentifier] [fixname], [placebearingdistance] [fixname] or
[placebearingplacebearing] [fixname], for which the [fixname] does not match an
[placebearingplacebearin identifier in the FMS Navigation Database (waypoint, navaid, airport, or non-directional
g] beacon), is not loadable.
[placebearingdistance] Any [airwayidentifier] which does not match an airway identifier in the FMS Navigation
[airwayidentifier] Database is not loadable.
[trackdetail] Any [airwayidentifier] for which the point at which the airplane is to join the airway is not
defined by a [publishedidentifier] or by another [airwayidentifier] immediately preceding
the [airwayidentifier] in the [routeinformation] is not loadable.
Any [airwayidentifier] for which the point at which the airplane is to leave the airway is
not defined by a [publishedidentifier] or by another [airwayidentifier] immediately
following the [airwayidentifier] in the [routeinformation] is not loadable.
The ATS Provider system should include the optional [latitudelongitude] with any
[publishedidentifier] for which duplicates exist.
The FMS attempts to load all other [routeinformation] variables into the selected route in
the order in which they occur in the [routeinformation] variable.
[routeinformationadditiona Place-bearing-distance When the [aTWalongtrackwaypoint] [position], [aTWdistance], and
l] [atwalongtrackwaypoint- [aTWdistancetolerance] are all loadable (see below), the FMS converts these and then
sequence] inserts the result into the correct location in the selected route
[atwalongtrackwaypoint]
[routeinformationadditiona If the [position] does not match a loadable [publishedidentifier] or [placebearingdistance]
l] in the uplinked [routeinformation], or does not match a waypoint on an airway defined by
[atwalongtrackwaypoint] an [airwayidentifier] in the uplinked [routeinformation], then the [position] (and the
[position] [aTWalongtrackwaypoint]) is not loadable.
Otherwise, the [position] is loadable and is used to convert the along track waypoint to a
PBD, as stated above.
[routeinformationadditiona ATW that would not fall between the [position] and the preceding or following waypoint
l] [atwalongtrackwaypoint] are not loadable.
[aTWdistance] The [distance] and [aTWdistancetolerance] are used to convert the along track waypoint
[aTWdistancetolerance] to a PBD, as stated above.
[distance]
[routeinformationadditiona Speed constraint for the [speed] with a speed choice other than choice 0 (speedindicated) or choice 1
l] [atwalongtrackwaypoint] corresponding PBD (speedindicatedmetric) is not loadable.
[speed]
Variable Name Loaded into the selected route Additional information
as:
[routeinformationadditional][ AT, AT OR ABOVE or AT OR Following altitudes are not loadable:
aTWalongtrackwaypoint- BELOW altitude constraint for the [altitude] with an altitude choice other than choice 0 (altitudeqnh), 1
sequence][aTWaltitudesequ corresponding PBD (altitudeqnhmeters), 6 (altitudeflightlevel), or 7 (altitudeflightlevelmetric),
ence] [aTWaltitude] [aTWaltitudesequence] with a choice of 2 (altitude window),
[aTWaltitudetolerance] a single [aTWaltitude] which is at or above the current cruise altitude.
[altitude]
[routeinformationadditional] Latitude/longitude waypoint or series If a latitude defined by a [latitudedirection] and [latitudedegrees], or a
[reportingpoints] of latitude/longitude waypoints longitude defined by a [longitudedirection] and [longitudedegrees], does not
[latlonreportingpoints] intersect the selected route, then the [latlonreportingpoints] is not loadable. If
latitudereportingpoints] a latitude defined by a [latitudedirection] and [latitudedegrees], or a longitude
[latitudedirection] defined by a [longitudedirection] and [longitudedegrees], does intersect the
[latitudedegrees] selected route, then the FMS will insert a latitude/longitude waypoint at the
[longitudereportingpoints] intersection point.
[longitudedirection] If the [degreeincrement] is included, then the FMS will insert reporting points
[longitudedegrees] at intervals along the selected route, as defined by the [degreesincrement]
[degreeincrement] along the direction of flight starting at the intersection point.
[routeinformationadditional][i NOT USED The FMS ignores (and does not attempt to load) any [interceptcoursefrom]
nterceptcoursefromsequenc encoded in the [routeinformationadditional]
e] [interceptcoursefrom]
[routeinformationadditional] Hold position and associated data for
[holdatwaypointsequence] a given holding pattern in the selected
[holdatwaypoint] route
[routeinformationadditional] Position for a given hold in the If the [position] does not match a loadable [publishedidentifier],[
[holdatwaypoint] selected route latitudelongitude], or [placebearingdistance] in the uplinked
[position] [routeinformation], or does not match a waypoint on an airway defined by an
[airwayidentifier] in the uplinked [routeinformation], then the [position] (and
the [holdatwaypoint]) is not loadable.
Otherwise, the [position] is loadable.
[routeinformationadditional] Speed constraint associated with a The [holdatwaypointspeedlow] variable is not loadable.
[holdatwaypoint] given hold in the selected route
[holdatwaypointspeedlow]
[routeinformationadditional] AT, AT OR ABOVE or AT OR The [aTWaltitude] variable is not loadable.
[holdatwaypoint] BELOW altitude constraint associated
[aTWaltitude] with a given hold in the selected route
[aTWaltitudetolerance]
[altitude]
Variable Name Loaded into the selected route Additional information
as:
[routeinformationadditional] Speed constraint associated with a The [holdatwaypointspeedhigh] variable is not loadable.
[holdatwaypoint] given hold in the selected route
[holdatwaypointspeedhigh]
[routeinformationadditional] Turn direction associated with a given If the [direction] choice is anything other than choice 0 (left) or 1 (right), then
[holdatwaypoint] hold in the selected route the [direction] is not loadable.
[direction] Otherwise, the [direction] is loadable.
[routeinformationadditional] Inbound course associated with a [degrees] is loadable, irrespective of the [degrees] choice
[holdatwaypoint] given hold in the selected route
[degrees]
[routeinformationadditional] Expect Further Clearance Time The [EFCtime] variable is not loadable.
[holdatwaypoint] associated with a given hold in the
[EFCtime] selected route
[routeinformationadditional] Leg Distance, if specified for a given The [legdistance] with a choice of 1 (legdistancemetric) is not loadable.
[holdatwaypoint] hold in the selected route.
[legtype] Otherwise, Leg Time associated with
a given hold in the selected route
[routeinformationadditional] Speed, altitude, and associated For a given [position], the [waypointspeedaltitude] variable should appear
[waypointspeedaltitude] position for a given waypoint speed only once in the uplinked [routeinformationadditional].
and altitude or altitude-only or speed-
only constraint in the selected route
[routeinformationadditional] Position of a waypoint in the selected If the [position] does not match a loadable [publishedidentifier],
[waypointspeedaltitude] route which has a corresponding [latitudelongitude], or [placebearingdistance] in the uplinked
[position] speed and altitude or altitude-only or [routeinformation], or does not match a waypoint on an airway defined by an
speed-only constraint [airwayidentifier] in the uplinked [routeinformation], then the [position] (and
the [waypointspeedaltitude]) is not loadable.
Otherwise, the [position] is loadable.
Variable Name Loaded into the selected Additional information
route as:
[routeinformationadditiona Speed portion of speed and The [speed] variable with a speed choice other than choice 0 (speedindicated) or
l] altitude or speed-only constraint choice 1 (speedindicatedmetric) is not loadable.
[waypointspeedaltitude] for a waypoint in the selected
[speed] route
[routeinformationadditiona AT, AT OR ABOVE, or AT OR Following altitudes are not loadable:
l] BELOW altitude constraint or [altitude] with an altitude choice other than choice 0 (altitudeqnh), 1
[waypointspeedaltitude] window altitude constraint for the (altitudeqnhmeters), 6 (altitudeflightlevel), or 7 (altitudeflightlevelmetric),
corresponding [aTWaltitudesequence] with a choice of 2 (altitude window),
[ATWaltitudesequence] [waypointspeedaltitude] a single [aTWaltitude] which is at or above the current cruise altitude.
[position]
[RTArequiredtimeofarrival] RTA on the specified position in Only one [RTArequiredtimeofarrival] variable is loadable.
the selected route
[RTArequiredtimeofarrival] position of a waypoint in the If the [position] does not match a loadable [publishedidentifier], [latitudelongitude], or
[position] selected route which has an RTA [placebearingdistance] in the uplinked [routeinformation], or does not match a
applied to it waypoint on an airway defined by an [airwayidentifier] in the uplinked
[routeinformation], then the [position] (and the [waypointspeedaltitude]) is not
loadable.
Otherwise, the [position] is loadable.
[RTArequiredtimeofarrival] [RTAtime] for the specified
[RTAtime] [position]
[RTArequiredtimeofarrival] [timetolerance] for the specified The [RTAtolerance] is not loadable.
[RTAtolerance] [position]
[routeclearance] Variable Encoding
The following table describes how the constituent variables of the [routeclearance] variable will be encoded when an element containing the
[routeclearance] variable is sent in a downlink message.

The constituent variables of the [routeclearance] variable are all optional. If the data associated with a particular variable do not exist in the "selected
route", then no data are encoded for that variable. The "selected route" is the secondary FMS flight plan in constructing a downlink route clearance
request or the active flight plan when responding to a CONFIRM ASSIGNED ROUTE message element.

Table - [routeclearance] Variable Encoding Table


Variable Name Data Source
[airportdeparture] Origin airport for the selected route.
[airportdestination] Destination airport for the selected route.
[runwaydeparture] Departure runway ([runwaydirection] and [runwayconfiguration]) for the selected route.
[proceduredeparture] Departure procedure and departure transition for the selected route.
[runwayarrival] Arrival runway ([runwaydirection] and [runwayconfiguration]) for the selected route.
[procedureapproach] Approach procedure and approach transition for the selected route.
[procedurearrival] Arrival procedure and arrival transition for the selected route.
[airwayintercept] NOT USED.
[routeinformation] En route data for the selected route. All [routeinformation] variables are encoded in the order in which they occur in
the selected route.
[routeinformationadditional] NOT USED - ATWs (Along Track Waypoints) are stored in the FMS and sent in downlinks as PBDs.
[atwalongtrackwaypoint-
sequence]
[routeinformationadditional] NOT USED.
[reportingpoints]
[routeinformationadditional] NOT USED.
[interceptcoursefrom]
[routeinformationadditional] Hold data and associated position for each holding pattern in the selected route.
[holdatwaypoint]
[routeinformationadditional] Position for a given hold in the selected route.
[holdatwaypoint] If the [position] variable does not match an identifier in the FMS's Navigation Database or is not a Place Bearing
[position] Distance, then the [position] is encoded as choice value 3 (latitudelongitude).
Otherwise, the [position] is encoded as choice value 0 (fixname), 1 (navaid), 2 (airport), or 4 (placebearingdistance),
as appropriate.
[routeinformationadditional] NOT USED.
[holdatwaypoint]
holdatwaypointspeedlow]
Variable Name Data Source
[routeinformationadditional]
[routeinformationadditional] NOT USED.
[holdatwaypoint]
[holdatwaypointspeedhigh]
[routeinformationadditional] Turn direction (left or right) associated with a given hold in the selected route.
[holdatwaypoint] [direction]
[routeinformationadditional] Inbound course associated with a given hold in the selected route.
[holdatwaypoint][degrees] When possible, [degrees] are encoded as choice value 1 (degreestrue). Otherwise , [degrees] are encoded as
choice value 0 (degreesmagnetic).
[routeinformationadditional] NOT USED.
[holdatwaypoint][EFCtime]
[routeinformationadditional] Leg Distance, if specified for a given hold in the selected route.
[holdatwaypoint] Otherwise, Leg Time associated with a given hold in the selected route.
[legtype] If a Leg Distance is specified, then [legdistance] is encoded as choice value 0 (legdistanceenglish).
[routeinformationadditional] Speed and altitude constraint and associated position for each waypoint speed and altitude constraint in the
[waypointspeedaltitude] selected route.
[routeinformationadditional] Position of a waypoint which has a corresponding altitude or speed or speed and altitude constraint.
[waypointspeedaltitude] If the [position] variable does NOT match an identifier in the FMS's Navigation Database or is not a Place Bearing
[position] Distance, then the [position] is encoded as choice value 3 (latitudelongitude).
Otherwise, the [position] is encoded as choice value 0 (fixname), 1 (navaid), 2 (airport), or 4 (placebearingdistance),
as appropriate.
[routeinformationadditional] Speed portion of a speed or speed/altitude constraint for a waypoint in the selected route.
[waypointspeedaltitude] The [speed] is encoded as choice value 0 (speedindicated).
[speed]
[routeinformationadditional] Altitude portion of an altitude or speed/altitude or window altitude constraint associated with a waypoint in the
[waypointspeedaltitude] selected route. The [altitude] is encoded as choice value 0 (altitudeqnh) or as choice value 6 (altitudeflightlevel).
[ATWaltitudesequence] If a window constraint exists for a given waypoint, then the [ATWaltitudetolerance] for the lower of the two altitudes
is encoded as choice value 1 (at or above) and the [ATWaltitudetolerance] for the higher of the two altitudes is
encoded as choice value 2 (at or below). (tbc)
[RTArequiredtimeofarrival] RTA data for a position in the selected route. FMS can only have one at a time.
[RTArequiredtimeofarrival] Position of a waypoint which has a defined RTA.
[position] If the [position] variable does NOT match an identifier in the FMS's Navigation Database or is not a Place Bearing
Distance, then the [position] is encoded as choice value 3 (latitudelongitude).
Otherwise, the [position] is encoded as choice value 0 (fixname), 1 (navaid), 2 (airport), or 4 (placebearingdistance),
as appropriate.
APPENDIX K

Appendix #5

CPDLC Error Processing

The following lists the conditions under which the CPDLC application will transmit an error message.
These conditions are listed by the error code that will be transmitted in the downlink ERROR
[errorinformation] message element. Imbedded Message Identifiers (IMI) of the ERROR [errorinformation]
message element are detailed.

0. applicationError
The CPDLC application receives an uplink message (IMI=AT1) with one of the following combinations:
message element 160 (NEXT DATA AUTHORITY [icaofacilitydesignation]) and any other message
element,
message element 159 (ERROR [errorinformation]) and any other message element,
message element 162 (SERVICE UNAVAILABLE) and any other message element.

1. duplicateMsgIdentificationNumber
The CPDLC application receives an uplink message (IMI=AT1) with an MIN equal the MIN of a previous
uplink which is still pending.

2. unrecognizedMsgReferenceNumber
The CPDLC application receives an uplink message (IMI=AT1) with an MRN and there is no pending
downlink message with a matching MIN. (Downlink IMI=AT1).
The CPDLC application receives an uplink with IMI=CR1 and the uplink includes an MRN. (Downlink
IMI=DR1).

3. endServiceWithPendingMsgs
The CPDLC application receives an uplink message (IMI=AT1) containing element 161 and no other
element and there are pending uplink messages, (downlink IMI=DR1), or
The CPDLC application receives an uplink message (IMI=AT1) containing element 161 plus another
element requiring WILCO/UNABLE response and there are pending uplink messages and the pilot sends
WILCO. (Downlink IMI=DR1).

4. endServiceWithNoValidResponse
The CPDLC application receives an uplink message (IMI=AT1) containing element 161 and another
element requiring no response or a response other than WILCO/UNABLE. (Downlink IMI=DR1).

5. insufficientMsgStorageCapacity
The CPDLC application receives an uplink message (IMI=AT1) when the message storage or processing
capacity is full. (Downlink IMI=AT1).

6. noAvailableMsgIdentificationNumber
The CPDLC application has only one MIN available that is not being used for a pending downlink
message (or a downlink message not acknoweldged by the network) (Downlink IMI=DR1)

7. commandedTermination
The pilot disconnects the CPDLC application or changes the entered flight number. (Downlink IMI=DR1).

8. insufficientData
The CPDLC application receives an uplink message (IMI=CR1 or AT1) containing no message element.
(If the uplink IMI=CR1, the downlink IMI=DR1. If the uplink IMI=AT1, the downlink IMI=AT1).

9. unexpectedData
The CPDLC application receives an uplink message during a CPDLC inhibition phase.

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APPENDIX K

10. invalidData
The CPDLC application receives an uplink with IMI=CR1 and either datum in element 163 is invalid.
(Downlink IMI=DR1).

The CPDLC application receives an uplink message (IMI=AT1) with element 178 or 183-255, (downlink
IMI=AT1), or
The CPDLC application receives an uplink message (IMI=AT1) with a variable outside its valid range.
(Downlink IMI=AT1).

The CPDLC application receives an uplink message (IMI=AT1) containing an IA5String (e.g. element 169
[freetext]) and the string contains a character which the DCDU can not display. (Downlink IMI=AT1).

The CPDLC application receives an uplink message (IMI=CR1 or AT1) without enough bits to define the
header and one valid element, (If the uplink IMI=CR1, the downlink IMI=DR1. If the uplink IMI=AT1, the
downlink IMI=AT1). or
The CPDLC application receives an uplink message (IMI=AT1) without enough bits to define all variables
required for each element, (downlink IMI=AT1), or
The CPDLC application receives an uplink message (IMI=AT1) containing an IA5String and the string
contains fewer characters than specified, (downlink IMI=AT1), or
The CPDLC application receives an uplink (IMI=AT1) with more than 5 message elements. (Downlink
IMI=AT1).
The CPDLC application receives an uplink message (IMI=AT1) with more pad bits than required to make
a full octet, (downlink IMI=AT1), or
The CPDLC application receives an uplink message (IMI=AT1) containing an IA5String and the string
contains more characters than specified, (downlink IMI=AT1), or
The CPDLC application receives an uplink message with IMI=CR1 and an element other than 163,
(downlink IMI=DR1), or
The CPDLC application receives an uplink message with IMI=CR1 and element 163 plus any other
element. (Downlink IMI=DR1).

11. reservedErrorMsg
Not Used

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Appendix 6
Deviation to DO-212 for ADS application
FANS A complies with DO-212, except as noted below.

DO-212 section Description


2.2.1.1 Application The ADS application will interface with:
Interface The ACARS Compatible System defined in section 2 of ARINC Specification 622-2,
2.2.1.3.2 Context The Application Interface defined in section 4 of ARINC Specification 622-2.
Management Interface
2.2.1.1.1.2.a Connection Not applicable.
Denial
2.2.1.2.d Processing of Any downlinking of an Acknowledgement message or a Non-Compliance Notification message will reset the counter of
Uplinks consecutive Non-Acknowledgement messages.
2.2.1.2.1.d Periodic The ADS application will support a periodic reporting interval of 64 seconds on any or all connections. If a periodic reporting
Contract Request interval which is less than 64 seconds is requested, the ADS application will respond with a Non-compliance Notification and
will establish a periodic contract with a 64-second reporting period.
2.2.1.2.1.g Periodic The contract number will be modified based upon the new contract number.
Contract Request
2.2.1.2.5.a Cancel When an emergency periodic contract exists and the ADS application receives a Cancel Emergency Mode Request, the ADS
emergency Mode Request application will perform the following in the listed order:
cancel the emergency periodic contract,
send immediately an Acknowledgement message to the Cancel Emergency Mode Request,
establish a normal periodic contract with the same reporting rate and the same on-request groups as existed before the
emergency mode was canceled,
send the first normal periodic report with respect to the period.
2.2.1.2.5 Cancel When the ADS application receives a Cancel Emergency Mode Request with a contract number that matches the contract
emergency Mode Request request number of an active emergency periodic contract on that connection, a Negative Acknowledgement with a negative
acknowledgement reason of 6 will be sent (i.e., the contract number in a Cancel Emergency Mode Request cannot be the
same as the contract number of an existing contract on that connection).
2.2.1.3.1 Flight Crew The flight crew will have the means to initiate/terminate the ADS application's emergency mode and to terminate all ADS
Interfaces connections.
2.2.1.3.1.1.a Create When a normal periodic contract exists before the creation of emergency mode, its reporting rate will be retained and applied
Emergency Mode to the default emergency periodic contract.
Indication When a default emergency periodic contract is created, the first emergency periodic report will be sent immediately.
2.2.1.3.1.1.c If a new connection is established while the ADS application is in emergency mode, then an event contract request during
Create Emergency Mode connection establishment will result in an event contract only. The connection will be in emergency mode and no default
Indication emergency periodic contract will be established.
If a new connection is established while the ADS application is in emergency mode, then a normal demand contract request
during connection establishment will result in a Negative Acknowledgement with a negative acknowledgement reason of 4.

DO-212 section Description


Figure 2-11 Airframe Identification Group will not be provided in ADS reports.
Figure 2-13 ATC mandatory and non-mandatory waypoints (e.g., inserted by the pilot) will be reported in the Predicted Route Group.
When the Predicted Route Group is required, the ETA field will contain the estimated time to go (ETG) from aircraft position to
the next waypoint.
Figure 2-14 In the True Track field definition, the validity and the sign bits are in reverse order.
ATC mandatory and non-mandatory waypoints (e.g., inserted by the pilot) and computed vertical profile points will be reported
in the Intermediate Projected Intent Group.
A maximum of 10 Intermediate Projected Intent points will be provided.
Figure 2-15 The fixed projected point is the predicted aircraft location along the flight plan at the end of the requested time interval.
If the predicted aircraft location at the requested time is beyond the end of route, then the last waypoint of the route will be
reported as the fixed projected point.
Table 2-4 The unit for altitude is feet.
The valid range for Distance is 0-8191.750 nm. The default value is 8191.875 nm.
The valid range for ETA and Projected Time is 16382 seconds. The default value is 16383 seconds.
2.2.1.4.i Message If Aircraft Intent Groups are requested in a valid Demand Contract Request, then the ADS application will send the initial
Generation response within 60 seconds of receipt of the contract request.
2.2.1.4.l Message The ADS application will send the initial response within 5 seconds of receipt of a contract request (except as noted above).
Generation The ADS application will send subsequent periodic reports within 5 seconds of detecting the expiry of the reporting interval.
The ADS application will send event reports within 5 seconds of detecting the event occurrence.
2.2.1.4.3.d Non- This applies when the requested reporting rate is less than 64 seconds.
Compliance Notification
2.2.1.5.a Abnormal When the ADS application receives a disconnect indication, all connections will be canceled.
Connection Termination
APPENDIX #7
Amendments to ARINC 622-2 Section 4 for Application Interface
FANS A complies with ARINC Specification 622-2, Section 4 except as noted below.

ARINC 622 section Description


4.5 CMA Provisions Not applicable.
4.6 FIS Provisions Not applicable.
4.1 ACARS- Application name AIF and Version number of this application will not be used.
Application Interface
4.4 ATCComm ATCComm is also known as CPDLC.
Provisions
APPENDIX #8
AMENDMENTS TO A622 ACARS Convergence Function for ATS Ground Systems
ARINC 622 section Description
2.0 ACARS Compatible ATS Provider systems are required to support both avionics architectures (ATS applications in ACARS management function
System unit or in ACARS management function peripheral) if they intend to support the aircraft types covered in this document. This
implies that both routings of ATS messages will be available in ATS Providers systems.
2.2.3 ACARS Compatible In the event that the appended CRC does not match the calculated CRC, the message shall be discarded.
System CRC
Attachment 2, table 2-1 For ADS, only the following IMI shall be used: ADS.
Attachment 2, table 2-1 For CPDLC, only the following IMIs shall be used: AT1, CR1, and DR1.

APPENDIX #9
AMENDMENTS TO A622 AFN Application for ATS Ground Systems
ARINC 622 section Description
3.3.2 Request for The active ATS Provider system (i.e., the current ATC Data Authority) shall be able to forward AFN logon information.
Notification
3.4 Timers / Reason ATST3 value shall be greater than ATST1 value.
Codes NOTE: ATS Provider systems should use 15 minutes for ATST3.
3.5.3 AFN Message Where an Aircraft Registration Number is less than seven characters, the Aircraft Registration Number shall be placed in the
Header right of the field tail_no and the remainder of the field padded out with period [.] characters.
Attachment 2, table 2-1 Version number shall be 01 for ADS and CPDLC.
APPENDIX #10

AMENDMENTS TO DO-219 CPDLC Application for ATS Ground Systems

DO-219 Description
section
2.2.1 The CPDLC application shall interface with:
The ACARS Compatible System defined in section 2 of ARINC Specification 622-2,
The Application Interface defined in section 4 of ARINC Specification 622-2.
2.2.2 A CPDLC application built to the functional capability described here shall be version number 01.
2.2.2.1 The ATS Provider System shall initiate connections with aircraft by sending the “Connect Request” (IMI=CR1) containing a message
with the [icaofacilitydesignation][tp4table] (uM163) message element only.
2.2.2.1.1.c If no connections are established or in the process of being established, upon receipt of any message, the ATS Provider system shall
ignore that message.
2.2.2.1.2.c If a "Connect Request" (IMI=CR1) is pending, upon receipt of a message other than the corresponding "Connect Confirm" (IMI=CC1),
the ATS Provider system shall ignore that message.
2.2.3.3.a CPDLC message structure and content shall conform to the abstract syntax in this section.
2.2.3.4.a CPDLC shall use ISO/IEC 8825-2:1996 Packed Encoding Rules (PER) – Basic Unaligned, to encode/decode the ASN.1 message
structure and content specified in section 2.2.3.3 or a functionally equivalent means which provides the same result.
2.2.3.4.b Encoded messages shall be padded with bits set to the zero value at the end of the message to achieve an integral number of octets.
2.2.4 If a message is received and there are not enough bits to constitute a header, CPDLC shall send a message with the ERROR
[errorinformation] (uM159) message element and discard the received message.
2.2.4.1.b If the received downlink message has a “Y” Response type, the ATS Provider system shall use the Message Identification Number for
that received message as the Message Reference Number for the message containing the response message element(s).
2.2.4.1.c If a message is received containing a Message Identification Number equal to that of a pending message, as specified in section
2.2.6.4, CPDLC shall send a message containing the ERROR [errorinformation] (uM159) message element with the
[duplicateMsgIdentificationNumber] value and discard the received message
2.2.4.1.d On a given connection, CDPLC shall assign a Message Identification Number for each message initiated for transmission.
2.2.4.1.e Each assigned Message Identification Number shall be unique from any Message Identification Number for a pending message, as per
section 2.2.6.4.
2.2.4.1.g If a pending message, as per section 2.2.6.4, has been deleted, CPDLC shall not allow the Message Identification Number for that
message to be made available for re-use except as specified in paragraph 2.2.6.4.c.

2.2.4.2.a If a message is received with a Message Reference Number which does not equal the Message Identification Number of a pending
message, as per section 2.2.6.4, and does not contain either the ERROR [errorinformation] (uM159) message element or SERVICE
UNAVAILABLE (uM162) message element, then CPDLC shall send a message containing the ERROR [errorinformation] (uM159)
message element and discard the received message.

DO-219 Description
section
2.2.4.2.b If a message is received with a Message Reference Number which does not equal the Message Identification Number of a pending
message, as per section 2.2.6.4, and contains either the ERROR [errorinformation] (uM159) message element or SERVICE
UNAVAILABLE (uM162) message element, then CPDLC shall not send a message containing the ERROR [errorinformation].
2.2.4.2.e If a message is received by an ATS Provider system with a Message Reference Number which does not equal the Message
Identification Number of a pending uplink message in the ATS Provider system, then the message shall be discarded.
2.2.4.2.f On a given connection, the ATS Provider system shall assign a Message Reference Number equal to the Message Identification
Number for the associated downlink message for each uplink message sent with an UNABLE (uM0), STANDBY (uM1), REQUEST
DEFERRED (uM2), ROGER (uM3), AFFIRM (uM4), NEGATIVE (uM5), ERROR [errorinformation] (uM159), or SERVICE
UNAVAILABLE (uM162) message element, or any other uplink message transmitted in response to a downlink message element with
a “Y” response attribute.
2.2.4.2.g The [versionnumber] (dM73) message element sent with the “Connect Confirm” (IMI=CC1) shall contain a Message Reference Number
corresponding to the associated Message Identification Number of the [ICAOfacilitydesignation][tp4table] (uM163) message element
sent with the“Connect Request” (IMI=CR1).
2.2.5 For a given message, Urgency, Alert, Response, and Recall types will be assigned for each message element as specified in section
2.2.3.3. For a message containing multiple message elements, the message element type with the highest precedence shall be
assigned for each attribute for that message, as determined from Table 2-4 through Table 2-8 from Section 2.2.3.1.
2.2.5.3.b Only one closure response shall be allowed for a given message.
2.2.5.3.c When an unacceptable closure response to an uplink message is received by the ATS Provider system (e.g. ROGER in response to a
message with a W/U Response type), the ATS Provider system shall discard the message.
2.2.6 If a message is received and insufficient storage exists to handle the message, CPDLC shall send a message containing the ERROR
[errorinformation] (uM159) message element with the [insufficientMsgStorageCapacity] value and discard the received message.
2.2.6.1.a If a message is received and any message element number is not represented in section 2.2.3.3, CPDLC shall send a message with
the ERROR [errorinformation] (uM159) message element with the [invalidData] value and discard the received message.
2.2.6.1.b If a message is received and there are more than 5 message elements, CPDLC shall send a message with the ERROR
[errorinformation] (uM159) message element and discard the received message.
2.2.6.1.c CPDLC shall not permit a message with missing mandatory data to be transmitted.
2.2.6.1.d If a message is received and there are message elements containing an IA5 string character not supported, CPDLC shall send a
message with the ERROR [errorinformation] (uM159) message element and discard the received message.
2.2.6.2 If a message is received and any message Data Type is not as represented in section 2.2.3.3, CPDLC shall send a message with the
ERROR [errorinformation] (uM159) message element with the [invalidData] value and discard the received message.
2.2.6.4.a A message shall be retained by CPDLC as a pending uplink message until at least one of the following conditions have been met:
1.The message has a "W/U", "A/N", or "R" Response type and a message which contains a closure response as indicated in section
2.2.5.3.a with a Message Reference Number equal to the Message Identification Number for the uplink message has been sent by
aircraft or received by the ATS Provider system.
2. This connection has been terminated.

DO-219 Description
section
2.2.6.4.c If a downlink message has a "Y" Response type, that message shall be retained by CDPLC as a pending downlink message until at
least one of the following conditions have been met:
1. A message with a Message Reference Number equal to the Message Identification Number for the downlink message has been sent
by the ATS Provider system or received by aircraft, and that the received message did not have a STANDBY or REQUEST
DEFERRED message element.
2. This connection has been terminated.
2.2.6.8 When a message error is detected, CPDLC shall send a response message containing the ERROR [errorinformation] (uM159)
message element with the value selected in accordance with the specific requirements of section 2.2.
2.2.2.1 After successful completion of the AFN logon, the ATS Provider system shall send a CPDLC Connect Request (IMI = CR1 and
contains message element uM163 [ICAO facility designation]) to the aircraft.
2.2.2.2 If address forwarding is carried out using ground-ground communications networks or by the AFN Address Forwarding, the CPDLC
NEXT DATA AUTHORITY [icaofacilitydesignation] (uM160) message element shall be sent by the active ATS Provider system before
forwarding the AFN logon information to the next ATS Provider system.
The [position] variable does not allow a position to be defined as a latitude or longitude only. To overcome this limitation some ATS
Providers define a latitude or longitude using the ‘fixname’ choice. For example CROSS 140W AT FL330 or AT 5S CLIMB TO AND
MAINTAIN FL310, with 140W and 5S being defined as ‘fixname’. However, if minutes of latitude or longitude are used, e.g., CROSS
4030N AT FL330, this may correspond to an actual fix as defined by the ARINC 424 specification in the aircraft Nvigation Data Base. It
should be noted that this fix could be geographically different from the intended position in the ATS Provider instruction. This situation
should be avoided.
In order to assure that the data are loaded correctly, the following constituent variables of the [routeclearance] variable should not be
used with elements uM79 and uM83: airportdeparture, proceduredeparture, procedureapproach, procedurearrival, and airwayintercept.
APPENDIX #11

AMENDMENTS TO DO-212 ADS Application for ATS Ground Systems

DO-212 section Description


2.2.1 ADSF Operation When the ATS Provider system requests a capability not supported by an aircraft, the aircraft shall recognize that fact, and the
Non-compliance Notification message shall inform the ATS Provider system that this capability is not supported.
2.2.1.1 The ATS Provider system shall interface with:
Application Interface The ACARS Compatible System defined in section 2 of ARINC Specification 622-2,
The Application Interface defined in section 4 of ARINC Specification 622-2.
2.2.1.1.1 Connection An ADS application built to the functional capability described here shall be version number 01
To establish an ADS connection, the ATS Provider system shall send an ADS contract request (IMI = ADS and containing one
or more contract request messages as defined in section 2.2.1.2).
2.2.1.2.b Processing of The first octet of an ADS request shall define the type of request being made. Valid requests shall be: Cancel All Contracts
Uplinks and Terminate Connection (tag value 1, see subparagraph 2.2.1.2.4); Cancel Contract (tag value 2, see subparagraph
2.2.1.2.3); Cancel Emergency Mode (tag value 6, see subparagraph 2.2.1.2.5); Periodic Contract (including Demand
Contract) (tag value 7, see subparagraph 2.2.1.2.1); Event Contract (tag value 8, see subparagraph 2.2.1.2.2); and
Emergency Periodic Contract (tag value 9, see subparagraph 2.2.1.2.1). When a valid request tag is encountered, the aircraft
shall interpret the data as defined in the referenced section and operate as defined in subparagraph 2.2.1.4.
2.2.1.2.e.2 Processing of If the aircraft cannot comply with a particular Event Contract Request, and no other events were requested with the contract
Uplinks request, then the ATS Provider system and the aircraft shall both transition to a state as if the contract request were fulfilled.
2.2.1.2.1.a Periodic The Periodic Contract Request shall be interpreted as a mandatory request tag octet and a mandatory contract request
Contract Request number octet followed by optional groups of data. The optional groups of data shall be: reporting rate tag octet followed by
the reporting rate octet; on-request group tag octet followed by the on-request group modulus octet followed by zero or more
octets of parameter data, as required. These optional groups of data may appear in any order following the contract request
number.
2.2.1.2.1.b.1 Periodic The reporting rate, or interval, octet shall define how often the Basic ADS Group is sent.
Contract Request
2.2.1.2.1.b.3 Periodic The format of the reporting rate octet shall be defined as follows. Bits 6 through 1 shall define the rate, in binary format. Bits
Contract Request 8 and 7 shall define the Scaling Factor (SF) to be used when computing the reporting interval, using the following table:
2.2.1.2.1.c Periodic The following algorithm shall be used to determine the reporting interval:
Contract Request
2.2.1.2.2.a The Event Contract Request shall be interpreted as a mandatory request tag octet and a mandatory contract request number
Event Contract Request octet followed by optional groups of data. These optional groups of data shall be: vertical rate change tag octet followed by
vertical rate change threshold octet; waypoint change tag octet; lateral deviation change tag octet followed by the lateral
deviation change threshold octet; and altitude range tag octet followed by the ceiling and floor altitude data, each two octets in
length.
2.2.1.2.2.b.1 The optional data shall define the event that is used to generate an event report.
Event Contract Request
2.2.1.2.4 Cancel All Under normal operations, the ADS connection shall be terminated by the ATS Provider system sending the Cancel All
Contracts and Terminate Contracts And Terminate Connection request.
Connection
2.2.1.4.a.3 The ADS-report tag contained in the Basic ADS Group shall define the type of report generated : emergency periodic
Message Generation (including demand), normal periodic (including demand) or event.
2.2.1.4.b.7 The time stamp shall be expressed as the time elapsed since the most recent hour. Time shall be rounded, not truncated, to
Message Generation accurately yield the value loaded into the time stamp field.
2.2.1.4.d.1 When the Aircraft Intent Group is required, its content shall be determined as follows. The fixed projected point shall be
Message Generation determined by the predicted location of the aircraft in X minutes, where X is the aircraft intent projection time contained in the
Periodic Contract Request. Intermediate projected intent points shall be any points between the aircraft's present position and
the fixed projected point where an altitude, track or speed change is predicted to occur.
2.2.1.4.f The report generated for a vertical rate event shall contain the Earth Reference Group.
Message Generation
2.2.1.4.g The report generated for a waypoint change event shall contain the Predicted Route Group.
Message Generation
2.2.1.4.1 The ADS contract request number contained in the Acknowledgement message shall correspond to the ADS contract request
Acknowledgement number being acknowledged.
Message
2.2.1.4.2.a The ADS contract request number contained in the Negative Acknowledgement message shall correspond to the ADS
Negative contract request number being negatively acknowledged. The Negative Acknowledgement reasons shall be as defined in
Acknowledgement Table 4.5-6. The extended data octet shall only be used with Negative Acknowledgement reasons 1, 2 and 7, and shall
contain the data defined in Table 4.5-6. The extended data octet shall not be sent for other Negative Acknowledgement
reasons.
2.2.1.4.2.b For Negative Acknowledgement reason 7, the first octet of the request will have contained a number not defined for uplink
Negative requests. The second octet of the request shall be assumed to be the ADS contract request number (returned in the second
Acknowledgement octet of the Negative Acknowledgement).
2.2.1.4.3.a The Non-compliance Notification message shall consist of the following mandatory five octets: non-compliance notification
Non-Compliance tag, ADS contract request number that cannot be complied with, the number of on-request groups and events that cannot be
Notification Message complied with, the tag of the first on-request group or event that cannot be complied with, and a fifth octet containing coded
data.
2.2.1.4.3.b.1 The most significant bit (bit 8) of the fifth octet shall define whether the on-request group is undefined or unavailable. A one
Non-Compliance shall indicate undefined, a zero shall indicate unavailable.
Notification Message
2.2.1.4.3.b.3 If unavailable, the next bit (bit 7) shall define whether the entire on-request group or event is unavailable. A one shall indicate
Non-Compliance that the entire on-request group or event is unavailable, and the remainder of the octet shall not be used. A zero shall indicate
Notification Message that one or more parameters of an on-request group are not available. Bits 6 and 5 are reserved. The remaining four bits in
the fifth octet shall contain the number of parameters that are not available.
2.2.1.4.3.c If parameters are not available, as many parameter octets as needed shall follow the fifth octet, to define the unavailable
Non-Compliance parameters. Each parameter octet that follows shall be divided in half, each half shall contain a parameter number. This
Notification Message parameter number shall be in reference to the location of the parameter in the on-request group. If an odd number of
parameters is unavailable, the last four bits of the last parameter octet shall be all zeros.
2.2.1.4.3.d When the aircraft uses the Non-compliance Notification message to indicate that it is not going to support a reporting interval
Non-Compliance of less than the minimum reporting interval, the reporting rate tag shall be contained in octet four, the first bit of octet five shall
Notification Message be set to zero, and the second bit of octet five shall be set to one. The remaining bits of octet five shall not be used.
APPENDIX K

Appendix #12

Scenario and message sequence chart for proposed tests

1. Demonstration of CPDLC exchanges


This scenario is supposed to reflect real CPDLC operations with one ATS Provider system. Notification,
establishment of a CPDLC connection, several exchanges of messages (or combination of messages)
and ground-initiated termination of the connection will be executed. As a minimum, altitude clearances
and position reports must be exchanged.

Message pairing (appropriate and meaningful answers) and state of messages (open or not) will be
observed.

aircraft ATC
FN_CON

FN_AK
CR1

CC1

Exchange of CPDLC
messages

END SERVICE

DR1

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APPENDIX K

2. Demonstration of ADS reporting

This scenario intends to reflect real ADS operations with one ATS Provider system.
Periodic, event and demand contracts will be established in normal mode. Then emergency mode will be
created. Reporting intervals, on-request groups and events will be adapted to test means. As a minimum,
a periodic contract requesting Predicted Route group and an event contract including Waypoint Change
should be established.

Note: except the Notification (FN_CON), all exchanges will be transparent to the crew. Results will be
visible at the ATS Provider system level.

aircraft ATC
FN_CON

FN_AK

1st ADS Contract Request

Acknowledgement
ADS normal
+Report
mode
ADS reporting

Creation of
emergency mode
ADS reporting ADS emergency
mode
Cancellation of
emergency mode
ADS reporting ADS normal
mode

Contract All Contracts and


Terminate Connection
Request

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APPENDIX K

3. Robustness to duplicate logons

In this scenario, a CPDLC connection is established with the ATS Provider system.
Then the crew sends a Notification to this ATS Provider system. From the crew perspective, the CPDLC
connection should not be affected.

To complement this scenario, an uplink clearance (e.g., CLIMB TO altitude) can be sent but not
responded by the crew before the second Notification attempt.

Similarly a downlink clearance request (e.g., REQUEST speed) can be sent but not responded by the
ATC controller before the second Notification attempt.
The respective answers must be sent after the second Notification. From the crew perspective, the
processing of messages should not be affected.

aircraft ATC
FN_CON
aircraft ATC
FN_AK
FN_CON
CR1
FN_AK
CC1
CR1
CPDLC connection
established CC1
FN_CON
CPDLC connection
FN_AK established
FN_CON
CR1
FN_AK
CC1
CR1

CC1

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APPENDIX K

4. Transfer of CPDLC connection

This scenario requires two ATS Provider systems and they must be able to transfer a CPDLC connection
from one to the other. This ability must be checked and may require coordination with the appropriate
ATS Provider staff.

In this scenario, a CPDLC connection is established with an ATS Provider system (ATC 1). The whole
sequence of transfer from ATC 1 to ATC 2 is initiated by ATC 1. The level of automation will depend on
the test means.
The crew will verify on cockpit displays that the controlling ATS Provider system has become ATC 2.

Note: FN_CAD, FN_RESP and FN_COMP are system-generated downlinks. In this specific scenario,
FN_CON will also be system-generated. These messages will therefore be transparent to the crew.

ATC 1 aircraft ATC 2

NDA

FN_CAD
FN_CON
FN_RESP
FN_AK

FN_COMP CR1

MONITOR + CC1
END SERVICE

WILCO

DR1

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APPENDIX K

262 Flight Operations Support & Line Assistance


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AIRBUS SAS
All right reserved
The statement herein do not constitute an offer. They are
based on the assumptions shown and are expressed in good
faith. Where the supporting grounds for these statements are
not shown the Company will be pleased to explain the basis
thereof.
Customer Services
31707 Blagnac Cedex France
Telephone +33 (0) 5 61 93 33 33
Ref. STL 945.7011/03
Printed in France

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