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RF Power Control and Handover Algorithm: FER

RF Power Control and Handover Algorithm: FER <a href=RF Power Control and Handover Algorithm: radio link measurement processing in BTS and BSC RF Power Control and Handover Algorithm: FER FER Measurement is an optional feature in the BSC and is used only for speech. FER (Frame Erasure Rate) improves the indication of voice quality provided in a network. It represents the percentage of frames being dropped due to high number of non-corrected bit errors in the frame. FER Measurement in PC and HO decisions The BSC uses CORRECTED RXQUAL for HO and PC decisions only on the TCH channel. On the SDCCH channel RXQual value is used for HO and PC decisions. When the FER Measurement is activated the BSC receives used codec and FER indications from the BTS in the same way as the other measurements. Due to reason that DL FER is not reported by the MSs the correlation between BER (Bit Error Ratio) and FER is calculated over time in the BSC for each channel profile in the uplink, i.e. non-hopping, hopping, all codecs. Once this correlation is ready, it is applied to the downlink BER in order to estimate the DL FER. For DL FER estimation, the correlation between BER and FER is defined separately for each codec. This means that the BSC collects, for each codec, FER equivalents for each RX quality (BER) class and the number of samples in each class (see figure below). This collection is done after events (see Rebuilding a correlation table ) until enough data is collected for each codec and for each RX quality class of the codecs. http://127.0.0.1:43231/NED/NED?action=retrieve&library= ... omponent=data&item=data&pointer=eb01ebxxsxx.ns5c-div2.9 (1 of 6)08/16/2004 13:07:40 " id="pdf-obj-0-4" src="pdf-obj-0-4.jpg">
RF Power Control and Handover Algorithm: FER <a href=RF Power Control and Handover Algorithm: radio link measurement processing in BTS and BSC RF Power Control and Handover Algorithm: FER FER Measurement is an optional feature in the BSC and is used only for speech. FER (Frame Erasure Rate) improves the indication of voice quality provided in a network. It represents the percentage of frames being dropped due to high number of non-corrected bit errors in the frame. FER Measurement in PC and HO decisions The BSC uses CORRECTED RXQUAL for HO and PC decisions only on the TCH channel. On the SDCCH channel RXQual value is used for HO and PC decisions. When the FER Measurement is activated the BSC receives used codec and FER indications from the BTS in the same way as the other measurements. Due to reason that DL FER is not reported by the MSs the correlation between BER (Bit Error Ratio) and FER is calculated over time in the BSC for each channel profile in the uplink, i.e. non-hopping, hopping, all codecs. Once this correlation is ready, it is applied to the downlink BER in order to estimate the DL FER. For DL FER estimation, the correlation between BER and FER is defined separately for each codec. This means that the BSC collects, for each codec, FER equivalents for each RX quality (BER) class and the number of samples in each class (see figure below). This collection is done after events (see Rebuilding a correlation table ) until enough data is collected for each codec and for each RX quality class of the codecs. http://127.0.0.1:43231/NED/NED?action=retrieve&library= ... omponent=data&item=data&pointer=eb01ebxxsxx.ns5c-div2.9 (1 of 6)08/16/2004 13:07:40 " id="pdf-obj-0-8" src="pdf-obj-0-8.jpg">

RF Power Control and Handover Algorithm: FER

FER Measurement is an optional feature in the BSC and is used only for speech.

FER (Frame Erasure Rate) improves the indication of voice quality provided in a network. It represents the percentage of frames being dropped due to high number of non-corrected bit errors in the frame.

FER Measurement in PC and HO decisions

The BSC uses CORRECTED RXQUAL for HO and PC decisions only on the TCH channel. On the SDCCH channel RXQual value is used for HO and PC decisions.

When the FER Measurement is activated the BSC receives used codec and FER indications from the BTS in the same way as the other measurements.

Due to reason that DL FER is not reported by the MSs the correlation between BER (Bit Error Ratio) and FER is calculated over time in the BSC for each channel profile in the uplink, i.e. non-hopping, hopping, all codecs. Once this correlation is ready, it is applied to the downlink BER in order to estimate the DL FER.

For DL FER estimation, the correlation between BER and FER is defined separately for each codec. This means that the BSC collects, for each codec, FER equivalents for each RX quality (BER) class and the number of samples in each class (see figure below). This collection is done after events (see Rebuilding a correlation table ) until enough data is collected for each codec and for each RX quality class of the codecs.

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RF Power Control and Handover Algorithm: FER

RF Power Control and Handover Algorithm: FER Figure: Example of correlation table of one codec, hoppingTRX in the BTS, the BSC updates the non-hopping part of the correlation table. In the case of frequency hopping and if the TRX is a BCCH TRX, the BSC updates the non-hopping part of http://127.0.0.1:43231/NED/NED?action=retrieve&library= ... omponent=data&item=data&pointer=eb01ebxxsxx.ns5c-div2.9 (2 of 6)08/16/2004 13:07:40 " id="pdf-obj-1-4" src="pdf-obj-1-4.jpg">

Figure: Example of correlation table of one codec, hopping or non-hopping

The correlation is then used to provide DL FER estimates (see figure below), that is, FEP (Frame Erasure Probability) in order to get CORRECTED RXQUAL for the use of RF Power Control and Handover Algorithm.

RF Power Control and Handover Algorithm: FER Figure: Example of correlation table of one codec, hoppingTRX in the BTS, the BSC updates the non-hopping part of the correlation table. In the case of frequency hopping and if the TRX is a BCCH TRX, the BSC updates the non-hopping part of http://127.0.0.1:43231/NED/NED?action=retrieve&library= ... omponent=data&item=data&pointer=eb01ebxxsxx.ns5c-div2.9 (2 of 6)08/16/2004 13:07:40 " id="pdf-obj-1-12" src="pdf-obj-1-12.jpg">

Figure: Example of calculated FEP values of one codec derived from the correlation table, hopping or non-hopping

The parameter FEPinPcHoUse indicates whether the BSC can use the CORRECTED RXQUAL for HO and PC decisions.

Building a correlation table

In the case of baseband hopping the BSC updates the hopping part of the correlation table with the exeption that if there is only one TRX in the BTS, the BSC updates the non-hopping part of the correlation

table.

In the case of frequency hopping and if the TRX is a BCCH TRX, the BSC updates the non-hopping part of

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RF Power Control and Handover Algorithm: FER

the correlation table. If the TRX is a non-BCCH TRX, the BSC updates the hopping part of the correlation table.

There are two link adaptation (LA) modes, the ETSI specified fast LA and the Nokia proprietary slow LA. During ETSI specified fast LA BTS allows inband codec mode changes on every other TCH frame, but in Nokia proprietary slow LA BTS allows inband codec mode changes only on SACCH frame interval. Due to

ETSI specified fast LA mode BTS indicates always the first and the last used codec during the last measurement interval.

If the first and the last codec are not the same, the BSC updates the correlation table for each codec used in the measurement period. Depending on the averaging performed by the BTS there can be codecs and FER values of 1-4 measurement periods in one measurement report.

If the mobile has used DTX during a measurement period, the BTS does not send the FER value of the

measurement period to the BSC at all. In the case of DTX used in measurement report the BSC does not update the correlation table.

In the case of non-diversity antenna and non-hopping the BSC multiplies the FER value by the correction value before updating the correlation table with it. The value of the correction value depends on the uplink quality class (0-7) read from the Measurement Report (see figure below).

RF Power Control and Handover Algorithm: FER the correlation table. If the TRX is a non-BCCHSACCH frame interval. Due to ETSI specified fast LA mode BTS indicates always the first and the last used codec during the last measurement interval. If the first and the last codec are not the same, the BSC updates the correlation table for each codec used in the measurement period. Depending on the averaging performed by the BTS there can be codecs and FER values of 1-4 measurement periods in one measurement report. If the mobile has used DTX during a measurement period, the BTS does not send the FER value of the measurement period to the BSC at all. In the case of DTX used in measurement report the BSC does not update the correlation table. In the case of non-diversity antenna and non-hopping the BSC multiplies the FER value by the correction value before updating the correlation table with it. The value of the correction value depends on the uplink quality class (0-7) read from the Measurement Report (see figure below). Figure: Correction values for updating the correlation table Rebuilding a correlation table The correlation table is re-collected after the following events: (1) the BSC reset (2) the BCSU switchover (3) change of the frequency hopping scheme http://127.0.0.1:43231/NED/NED?action=retrieve&library= ... omponent=data&item=data&pointer=eb01ebxxsxx.ns5c-div2.9 (3 of 6)08/16/2004 13:07:40 " id="pdf-obj-2-22" src="pdf-obj-2-22.jpg">

Figure: Correction values for updating the correlation table

Rebuilding a correlation table

The correlation table is re-collected after the following events:

(1) the BSC reset

(2) the BCSU switchover

(3) change of the frequency hopping scheme

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RF Power Control and Handover Algorithm: FER

Unfinished correlation table

The BSC checks if enough samples are collected for the used codec of the call after a handover, or after the establishment of a call. If at least two of the RX quality classes of the used codec have enough samples in order to calculate the FEP values, the BSC can estimate the rest of the FEP values. Estimated values are not used in order to make other estimations. The estimation is based on the following equation:

y = ax + b.

y

equals to FEP

x

equals to quality class

 

Example:

 

RX Quality:

0

1

2

3

4

5

6

7

FEP:

0,1

0,3

2,2

5,0

The estimated FEP is needed for the classes 2, 3, 5 and 6.

The BSC uses two nearest quality classes for the estimation. In order to get estimation for the quality class 2, quality classes 0 and 1 are used. In order to get estimation for the quality class 3, quality classes 1 and 4 are used and so on.

<=>

a = (y2 – y1) / (x2 – x1) a = (0,3 – 0,1) / (1 – 0)

 

<=>

a = 0,2 / 1

<=>

a = 0,2

-------

<=>

y = ax + b b = y – ax

||

x=0, y=0,1

<=>

b = 0,1 – (0,2 * 0)

<=>

b = 0,1

-------

When x = 2:

y = ax + b

<=>

y = 0,2 * 2 + 0,1

<=>

y = 0,5

-------

The BSC uses 0,5 as an estimated FEP for the quality class 2.

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RF Power Control and Handover Algorithm: FER

The BSC continues collecting samples to the correlation table even though it is able to start using the correlation table with samples only in two RX quality classes. The new samples do not, however, affect the ongoing call. These new samples are taken into account when a new call is established or after a handover has taken place.

Using a correlation table in HO and PC decisions

The BSC is able to use the CORRECTED RXQUAL for HO and PC decisions for the used codec of the call when enough samples are collected for that codec. It is also possible when the BSC can estimate the rest of the FEP values for the used codec. (See Unfinished correlation table ).

In order to get CORRECTED RXQUAL for the uplink and the downlink quality values read from the measurement report the BSC picks up the corresponding FEP values from the correlation table.

When the diversity antenna is used and hopping is not used, the FEP value for the downlink is multiplied with the inverse value (see figure below) of the correction value (see figure Correction values for updating the correlation table in Building a correlation table ). If neither of the diversity antenna or

hopping are used, the FEP values of both uplink and downlink are multiplied with the inverse value of the correction value.

RF Power Control and Handover Algorithm: FER The BSC continues collecting samples to the correlation tableHO and PC decisions for the used codec of the call when enough samples are collected for that codec. It is also possible when the BSC can estimate the rest of the FEP values for the used codec. (See Unfinished correlation table ). In order to get CORRECTED RXQUAL for the uplink and the downlink quality values read from the measurement report the BSC picks up the corresponding FEP values from the correlation table. When the diversity antenna is used and hopping is not used, the FEP value for the downlink is multiplied with the inverse value (see figure below) of the correction value (see figure Correction values for updating the correlation table in Building a correlation table ). If neither of the diversity antenna or hopping are used, the FEP values of both uplink and downlink are multiplied with the inverse value of the correction value. Figure: Inversed correction values for using the correlation table The correlation table FEP values are compared to the RX quality class boundaries defined in PAFILE (BSC Control Parameter File). PAFILE boundaries determine what is the CORRECTED RXQUAL class for the uplink and downlink. - FEP CORR WITH RXQUAL IN PC&HO ALGRTHM,CL1 defines the low boundary for the RX quality class 1. - FEP CORR WITH RXQUAL IN PC&HO ALGRTHM,CL2 defines the low boundary for the RX quality class 2. http://127.0.0.1:43231/NED/NED?action=retrieve&library= ... omponent=data&item=data&pointer=eb01ebxxsxx.ns5c-div2.9 (5 of 6)08/16/2004 13:07:40 " id="pdf-obj-4-30" src="pdf-obj-4-30.jpg">

Figure: Inversed correction values for using the correlation table

The correlation table FEP values are compared to the RX quality class boundaries defined in PAFILE (BSC Control Parameter File). PAFILE boundaries determine what is the CORRECTED RXQUAL class for the uplink and downlink.

  • - FEP CORR WITH RXQUAL IN PC&HO ALGRTHM,CL1 defines the low boundary for the RX quality class 1.

  • - FEP CORR WITH RXQUAL IN PC&HO ALGRTHM,CL2 defines the low boundary for the RX quality class 2.

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RF Power Control and Handover Algorithm: FER

  • - FEP CORR WITH RXQUAL IN PC&HO ALGRTHM,CL3 defines the low boundary for the RX quality class 3.

  • - FEP CORR WITH RXQUAL IN PC&HO ALGRTHM,CL4 defines the low boundary for the RX quality class 4.

  • - FEP CORR WITH RXQUAL IN PC&HO ALGRTHM,CL5 defines the low boundary for the RX quality class 5.

  • - FEP CORR WITH RXQUAL IN PC&HO ALGRTHM,CL6 defines the low boundary for the RX quality class 6.

  • - FEP CORR WITH RXQUAL IN PC&HO ALGRTHM,CL7 defines the low boundary for the RX quality class 7.

Example:

If the uplink and downlink RX quality values of the measurement report are 3 and 4, the corresponding FEP values of the correlation table are 5% for the UL and 7% for the DL. The class boundaries are as presented below:

RX Quality:

0

1

2

3

4

5

6

7

Boundary-%:

2

4

6

8

10

12

14

The CORRECTED RXQUAL is hereby 2 for the uplink and 3 for the downlink direction.

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