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I. INTRODUCTION
ROM THE BEGINNING of the study of a synchronous generator, magnetic flux saturation has been regarded as an inevitable phenomenon. Needless to say, the
phenomenon is part of typical nonlinear problems in the
electric and magnetic technological fields. In a system
with saturation characteristics, the superposition law cannot be used, similar to the general nonlinear systems. This
fact makes it difficult to analyze the Characteristics of the
system, because the usual analytical methods are based
on linear dependence of the output quantities upon the
input quantities. Therefore, the studies of the saturation
characteristics in a synchronous generator have had tendencies to give revisions of reactances in the conventional
linear characteristic equations. Potier reactance is also one
of the useful reactances, which is used in the theoretical
analysis of synchronous generators with the saturation
characteristics and the design of the generator.
Potier explained that the zero powerfactor characteristic is displaced from the noload characteristic vertically
by xp i, and horizontally by ki,, where i, is the armature
current and k is a coefficient of equivalence between the
ampereturns of armature windings and field windings [ 11.
xp was explained as the coefficient dependent on armature
leakage. This x p is known as Potier reactance. After the
study, March and Crary [2] and Beckwith [3] qualitatively
showed the possibility that some components, except the
2187
6% :Search coil
o :Phasea conductor
:Phaseb conductor
A :Phasec conductor
Fig. 1 . The twopole model of the tested generator and the coordinates.
0
f
B. Setup Conditions
The experiments are performed for the following two
cases:
i) the noload saturation test,
ii) the zero powerfactor test.
Keeping the armature current constant (10.0, 15.7 A),
the field current of the generator is increased. In the experiment, the load apparatus is a threephase balanced inductor with power factor 0.1.
The speed of the rotor is kept at rated speed. In these
experiments, an auto voltage regulator was not used. Ad
OF ANALYSIS
111. OUTLINE
A. Conventional Method for the Dejinition of the Potier
Triangle
As stated in Section I, the Potier triangle is introduced
to estimate Potier reactance by making use of the noload
saturation characteristic and the zero powerfactor characteristic. The typical case is shown in Fig. 3. In the figure, the ordinate axis denotes the terminal phase voltage
and the horizontal axis the field current. The upper curve
is drawn from the noload saturation test and the lower
from the zero powerfactor test. Potier pointed out that
they are approximately identical to each other with a parallel shift [l]. Therefore, in Fig. 3 , the triangle ABC is
congruent with the triangle ABC to the arbitrary point
A on the lower curve. Here BC is parallel to B C , and
BC is the initial slope of the gap line. Now label the
intersection of the perpendicular line to AC from point B
as D . The triangle ABD is called the Potier triangle. The
length BD is xpi,, where i, is the armature current and xp
is the Potier reactance.
On the other hand, the reactance xp is given by the approximating equation [2], [ 101
2188
0 u2
(u,
+ u2)/( 1 + U I U 2 )
u = tanh ( a v )
(3)
where ci is an arbitrary real number, u is an element of
the sublinear space, and v is an element of the linear
space. Hereafter we call (3) sublinear mapping. Now
let L be a linear operator. Then the following operation
L@ can be defined:
*
,=I
C3 . . . {B,,,cos n(E
e) + B,, sin ( E
 e)
e).
(6)
=  tanh
Cl
(C2b)
(7)
(9)
E,,
= El,
Bl, =
0 Elac
4, + Blas
(10)
B ( E , 8) =
(BIf, 0 E,)
COS
(E
e)
+ B,
where E,
B,,cos ( E
(4 1
v).
If L is an arbitrary number, the operation means the multiplication rule. The significance of SLT is the fact that
the quantities obtained through the saturable system can
keep the linearity with respect to the modified addition
rule and the multiplication rule. The substitution 8 can
be defined by the addition 0 of the negative quantity and
the division 0 by the multiplication 3 of the reciprocal
number.
2) Application of SLT to the Analysis of AirGap Flux
Density Distribution: The tested generator has only saturable magnetic paths in the field core [8]. On account of
it, there can be found the saturation characteristics only
in the direct ( d ) axis components of flux. On the other
hand, the quadrature (4)axis components of flux do not
saturate, because there is no saturable elements in their
magnetic path. Therefore, the saturation does not affect
the separation between the d and qaxis components [ 1 11.
In the tested generator, the airgap flux density distribution B ( E , 0 ) has already been represented, approximately, as follows [5]:
B ( E ,e ) =
B ( E ,e ) =
(2)
L 3 u = tanh ( a L
harmonic of the d and qaxis components. In this representation, B,, saturates, but B,,, does not. The reasons are
already explained above. These higher harmonic components in (5) are induced by the machine structure and the
magnetic flux saturation. In the following discussion, we
will pick only the space and time fundamental component
of airgap flux density. Therefore, we will neglect the saturation of higher harmonic components. Since the higher
harmonic components do not induce the effective internal
electromotive force [5], the airgap flux density distribution B ( E , 0 ) is represented by
sin n ( ~
e)]
2189
qax15
Blac = Blc 0
Blfc
(12)
I
I
I
B,((,
e)
Blaccos ( E
e ) + Blassin ( E
e).
(13)
I)m= 16
m=0,1,2
j:a j
(~/2)mu+(a/i)l
 ( ~ / 2 ) ( m 
~)a+(a/i)
B(E,e ) r d t
K 1 ( & COS 0  B I ssin e )
(14)
where
32r1,
(sin a
+ sin 2 a )
+ Bls cos e ) .
(15)
e i R r ( e )=  W K ~ ( Bsin
~ , 8~
+ B1, cos e ) .
(16)
Eiar
= wKlJ(B:a,
+ B:a)/2.
+ ( E sin
~ 6i  E, sin 6,) sin y )
a = 1r/9
slot pitch,
r = 0.1375 ( m ) inner radius of armature,
effective axial length of armature,
1, = K , 1
coefficient of effective axial length of
Ke
armature,
axial length of armature.
1 = 0.13 ( m )
= wKI(BICsin
daxis
(17)
xi
1
=
{ ( E sin
~ 6i
I,

(18)
where E, denotes the internal EMF, E, the terminal voltage, and I, the armature current. 6,, 6,, and y are, respectively, the angle between the qaxis and the phasers E,,
E,, and I,.
IV. RESULTSOF EXPERIMENTS
A. AirGap Flux Density and Sublinear Mapping
By means of a harmonic analysis on the coordinates 48 , the space and time fundamental airgap flux density
components and the thirdharmonic components are estimated as shown in Figs. 5 and 6. Fig. 5 is obtained in the
noload test. Fig. 6 is obtained in the zero powerfactor
test. In the following analysis, the higher space and time
harmonic components are neglected. By means of the
method of least squares in the noload test, we can determine the normalizing coefficients of sublinear mapping
(5). The relation between the saturated flux density B ,
which is a space time fundamental component, and the
unsaturated one b is shown in Fig. 7 . In the same figure,
the approximated sublinear function is shown by the solid
line. The approximated sublinear function is given by

B =  tanh (2.67b).
3.1
(19)
2190
Om4
0.1
1.0
2.0
3.0
if
4.0
5.0
0.2
0.6
0.4
(A)
0.8
1.0
b (TI
0.31
Fig. 7. Relation between the saturated and the unsaturated flux density and
the sublinear mapping.
la
10.0 ( A )
15.7 ( A )
h
L
10.0 ( A )
0.2 0
1.0
2.0
3.0
4.0
5.0
0.3
0.4
1.0
2.0
3.0
4.0
if
5.0
(A)
considered to contain errors which are induced by overestimation of field flux, because the field flux leakage becomes large when the field current increases at the onload
state. Therefore, the armature reaction fluxes do not remain constant. Moreover, there can be found some errors
which occur on account of the approximation of the sublinear mapping.
+
0.1
0.21
0
1.0
2.0
3.0
if
4.0
5.0
(A)
(b)
Fig. 6 . Airgap flux density components in the zeropowerfactor test. (a)
I, = 10.0 A. (b) I, = 15.7 A.
2191
150
h
>
Ia= 10.0 ( A )
.v
L
100
U
W
50I
15.7 ( A )
0.3
1
0.1
1.0
2.0
3.0
4.0
if
1.0
2.0
3.0
4.0
(A)
(A)
(a)
10.0
(A)
15.7
I n t e r n a l emf
Terminal v o l t a g e
Armature r e a c t i o n emf
13
(A)
0.4
0.3
10.0
(A)
4
15.7 ( A )
150
Noload
O.l
t
1.0
3.0
2.0
4.0
5.0
i c( A )
(b)
Fig. 1 1 . Leakage reactance and armature resistance. (a) Leakage reactance. (b) Armature resistance.
if
(A)
section point of the curve to the horizontal axis is determined by the results of the eternal shortcircuit test. Fig.
10 shows examples of the Potier triangle at two values of
armature current. By means of the triangle, Potier reactance is obtained. In every case of armature current, the
Potier reactance xp has the value from 2.3 to 2.4 Q . And
k , which is the coefficient of equivalence between the ampereturns of armature and field windings, has the value
from 0.078 to 0.083.
D. Leakage Reactance
By means of (23) and (24), the armature resistance r,
and the leakage reactance xI can be obtained. The results
are shown in Fig. 1 l(a) and (b). In the zero powerfactor
test, the leakage reactance of the armature winding and
the armature resistance increase as the field current increases.
V. PHYSICAL
MEANINGOF THE POTIERTRIANGLE
In this section, the physical meaning of the Potier triangle is discussed based on the experimental results, and
a new quantitative interpretation is introduced.
2192
200
150
>
100
50
1.0
3.0
2.0
lf
4.0
(A)
if1
Fig. 12. Relations between the electromotive forces of the armature winding and the field current.
voltage to the MMF at the state A becomes EA,, = ErA E,, ( V ) , which is the length of A H. In the figure, the
length A A is equal to E,.. ( V ). On the line OX, set a
point B , which is an intersection point of the line OX by
the horizontal line from A . Then draw the perpendicular
line BH from B to the horizontal axis. In the figure,
point B is the intersection point of BH with curve 1 . The
point C is set at the intersection point of BH and the
horizontal line from A . The length OH becomes ifl if,,. In the process there appears the triangle ABC. The
length of the bottom line of the triangle ABC at ifl = 2.5
A is almost equal to that of the Potier triangle.
B. Physical Meaning
By means of armature reaction voltages which are obtained in the experiment, the triangle ABCs can be obtained. In Fig. 13 the locus of C, which is obtained based
on the experimental data, is shown as curve 3. If the armature reaction voltage is held constant, which is obtained at the field current i, = 2.5 A, the locus of C becomes curve 4.In the figure, the point D means the same
EMF point on the noload saturation curve as the point A .
In the preceding section, the length AC is explained as
the field current which yields the armature reaction EMF.
However, the armature current is kept at a constant value
in this experiment. Therefore, the increase of length AC
can be understood as an increase of the field flux linkage
over the field current if = 2.5 A. The increased value of
the field current is shown in the length CC, because the
length AC means the field current which yields the armature reaction EMF at if = 2.5 A. The usual Potier tri
1) The armature reaction EMF of the armature windings can be estimated exactly by means of the new method
based on the SLT. The separation between the field flux
and the armature reaction flux requires the superposition
of the flux density. However, in the saturable system, the
usual superposition law cannot be used. Therefore, the
new analytical method gives us some useful knowledge of
the saturation characteristics of a synchronous generator
quantitatively, especially about the armature reaction at
the onload state.
2) The Potier triangle has a base which means the field
current that yields the armature reaction MMF added to
the MMF of the field flux leakage at the low excited state.
The height of the triangle includes not only the drop by
the armature leakage reactance but also the EMF equivalent to the field leakage added to the EMF equivalent to
the increase of the higher harmonic components of the airgap flux from the noload state. The conclusion is obtained by the separation of EMF according to the contribution of currents. This procedure has not been previously discussed. On the basis of this different standpoint,
these results show that the physical meaning of the Potier
triangle is in accordance with the conventional expectation.
3) Potier reactance is not only the armature leakage reactance. However, the used definition of Potier reactance
gives a conservative value in the design of a synchronous
generator. This conclusion is confirmed quantitatively.
In this paper, we have directed our attention only to the
Potier triangle by means of a new analysis method. This
result will make possible a more accurate model of a synchronous generator with saturation characteristics.
APPENDIX
Details of the tested generator are shown in Table I [8].
ACKNOWLEDGMENT
The authors would like to thank Prof. Y. Ueda of Kyoto
University for his helpful suggestions and discussions.
2193
TABLE I
RATINGS
A N D DIMENSIONS
OF TESTED
GENERATOR
Rating
Number of phase: 3, frequency: 6 0 Hz, number of poles: 4
Output power: 6 kVA, cos 6:0.9 (lagging)
Rating: continuous, rated voltage: 220 V
Rated load current: 15.7 A, number of revolutions: 1800 r/min
Field current: 4 . 8 A
Stator
Diameter: inside diameter 275 mm ( r = 137.5 mm)
outside diameter 410 mm, core length: 1 = 130 mm
Actual airgap in pole center: 3.3 mm
Number of slots: 36
Number of slots per pole per phase: 3
Skew: 24 mm at 2756
Number of series conductors: 8
Stator (machine) slot pitch: a, = 2 ~ / 3 6rad
Stator (electrical) slot pitch: a = 27r/18 rad
Armature windings: lap, double, distributed, shortpitch, integral slot
windings, and star connected
DC resistance of armature winding at 75C: r, = 0.149 0
Number of turns of search coil: N = 3
Rotor
~
500
REFERENCES
[ I ] A. Potier, Armature reaction of alternators, L Eclairage Elect r i p e , vol. 24, pp. 133141, 1900.
[2] L. A. March and S. B. Crary, Armature leakage reactance of synchronous machines, Trans. AIEE, vol. 54, pp. 378381, Apr. 1935.
[3] S. Beckwith, Approximating Potier reactance, Trans. AIEE, vol.
61, pp. 297306, Jun. 1937.
[4] S. L. Mikhail, Potier reactance for salientpole synchronous machines, Trans. AIEE, vol. 60, pp. 235238, Feb. 1950.
[5] C. Uenosono, Y. Ueda, T . Nanahara, and K. Kaneko, Airgap flux
of a synchronous generator at steadystate and fluxbased analysis of
generator characteristics, Trans. IEE Japan, vol. 102B, no. 5, pp.
281288, May 1982. (English translation: Scripta, vol. 102, no. 3,
pp. 4249, 1982).
[6] C. Uenosono, Y. Ueda, Y. Inoue, and T . Hanai, Armature reaction
of a synchronous generator on the basis of airgap fluxAppearance
of instability in case of single machine operation . . . , Trans. IEE
Japan, vol. 102B, no. 8 , pp. 545551, Aug. 1982. (English translation: Scripta, vol. 4 , pp. 115121, 1982.)
[7] C. Uenosono, Y. Ueda, Y. Inoue, and T. Sakurai, Transient behavior of magnetic flux distribution of a synchronous generator at threephase sudden shortcircuit, Trans. IEE Japan, vol. 102B, no. 9,
pp. 627633, Sept. 1982.