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Physical Meaning of the Potier Triangle Based


on the Analysis of Magnetic Flux Saturation
Article in IEEE Transactions on Magnetics October 1988
DOI: 10.1109/20.3427 Source: IEEE Xplore

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IEEE TRANSACTIONS ON MAGNETICS, VOL. 24, NO. 5. SEPTEMBER 1988

2186

Physical Meaning of the Potier Triangle Based on the


Analysis of Magnetic Flux Saturation

Abstract-Potier reactance is one of the useful reactances to describe


the characteristics of a synchronous generator. It is known to be the
necessary physical quantity to design the generator and to analyze the
characteristics of the generator theoretically. In the conventional
treatment, the Potier triangle has been applied to obtain this reactance. But the physical meaning of Potier reactance and the Potier triangle has not been explained clearly. In this paper they are discussed
on the basis of experimental data. The air-gap flux densities in a generator and the terminal quantities are measured both in the no-load
test and in the zero power-factor test. These data are examined by
means of a new method for analysis of magnetic flux saturation. As a
result, the physical meaning of the Porter triangle is obtained analytically. The result helps to make a more accurate model of a synchronous generator with saturation characteristics.

I. INTRODUCTION
ROM THE BEGINNING of the study of a synchronous generator, magnetic flux saturation has been regarded as an inevitable phenomenon. Needless to say, the
phenomenon is part of typical nonlinear problems in the
electric and magnetic technological fields. In a system
with saturation characteristics, the superposition law cannot be used, similar to the general nonlinear systems. This
fact makes it difficult to analyze the Characteristics of the
system, because the usual analytical methods are based
on linear dependence of the output quantities upon the
input quantities. Therefore, the studies of the saturation
characteristics in a synchronous generator have had tendencies to give revisions of reactances in the conventional
linear characteristic equations. Potier reactance is also one
of the useful reactances, which is used in the theoretical
analysis of synchronous generators with the saturation
characteristics and the design of the generator.
Potier explained that the zero power-factor characteristic is displaced from the no-load characteristic vertically
by xp i, and horizontally by ki,, where i, is the armature
current and k is a coefficient of equivalence between the
ampere-turns of armature windings and field windings [ 11.
xp was explained as the coefficient dependent on armature
leakage. This x p is known as Potier reactance. After the
study, March and Crary [2] and Beckwith [3] qualitatively
showed the possibility that some components, except the

Manuscript received September 9 , 1986; revised March 20, 1988.


T. Hikihara is with the Department of Electrical Engineering, Kansai
University, Osaka 564, Japan.
T. Okajima is with the Department of Electrical Engineering, Kyoto
University, Kyoto 606, Japan.
IEEE Log Number 8822124.

armature leakage reactance, are contained in the Potier


reactance. Especially they pointed out that the Potier reactance depends upon the following three effects: 1) the
armature leakage flux, 2) the field leakage flux, and 3) the
change of air-gap flux waveforms. Then through magnetic
circuit theory, Mikhail presented a systematic treatment
of the change of field leakage and expression for the Potier reactance instead of the empirical formulations [4]. In
spite of this, many textbooks continue to cite the Potier
triangle as the only method which will give the true armature leakage reactance. One of the reasons seems to be
that the method has not been checked in an experiment,
hence the physical meanings of Potier reactance and the
triangle have not been clarified.
On the other hand, we have been studying flux-based
analysis of generator characteristics by making use of a
tested generator equipped with search coils [5]-[8]. Here
we are going to introduce a new method to treat the magnetic flux saturation. The method is based on the theory
for the sublinear systems by Sat0 [9] (the theory is called
SLT in this paper). By means of this method, we can
treat the armature reaction flux densities independently of
the field flux densities at on-load state, when magnetic
flux saturation exists.
This paper tries to give the physical meaning of the Potier triangle by making use of the above mentioned
method. The experiments are performed for two cases,
i.e., the no-load test and the zero power-factor test. In
these tests, the air-gap flux density distributions and the
terminal quantities are measured. Based on the separation
of the air-gap flux density according to the contribution
of the currents, each internal electromotive force (EMF)
of the armature windings is estimated. Using the results,
the new interpretations of the Potier triangle and the Potier reactance are constructed quantitatively.
11. OUTLINE
OF EXPERIMENTS
A . Tested Generator
The tested generator is a four salient pole type synchronous generator of the following ratings: 6 kVA, 220
V, 15.7 A, power factor (lagging) 0.9, 1800 r/min. The
two-pole model of the tested generator is shown in Fig.
1. In the model, two coordinates E and 8 are introduced.
{ denotes the coordinate of the position along the air-gap
and the origin is put at the axis of the phase a winding. 0
denotes the coordinate of rotor position which depends on

0018-9464/88/0900-2186$01.OO @ 1988 IEEE

2187

HIKIHARA A N D OKAJIMA: PHYSICAL MEANING OF POTIER TRIANGLE

6% :Search coil

Fig. 3 . Potier triangle.

o :Phasea conductor
:Phaseb conductor
A :Phasec conductor

Fig. 1 . The two-pole model of the tested generator and the coordinates.

ditionally , we have the results of the eternal short-circuit


test in [8]. The results are necessary to complete the zero
power-factor curve.
In the conventional method, the Potier triangle is defined by means of these experiments. The triangle is determined by the graphical method, using the no-load saturation curve and the zero power-factor saturation curve.
But in this paper, the new method for the analysis of magnetic flux saturation on the basis of the SLT can be used
in the analysis of the above experimental results. As a
result, the armature reaction EMF can be estimated. Then,
the physical meaning of the Potier triangle can be explained from a different standpoint than the conventional
one.

-0
f

Fig. 2. The distribution of phase a armature winding.

time t and equals ut ( = 1207rt (rad)). It represents the


angle between the direct axis of the rotor and the axis of
the phase a winding. The phase a armature winding is
distributed as shown in Fig. 2. The tested generator has
the same no-load saturation characteristic and the same
short-circuit ratio as a 13-MVA generator in a 154-kV
system. The saturation characteristic is shown later in Fig.
9 of Section IV-B. The generator is equipped with search
coils at several tooth tips to measure the air-gap flux density distributions. The details of the tested generator are
presented in [8] and summarized in the Appendix of this
paper.

B. Setup Conditions
The experiments are performed for the following two
cases:
i) the no-load saturation test,
ii) the zero power-factor test.
Keeping the armature current constant (10.0, 15.7 A),
the field current of the generator is increased. In the experiment, the load apparatus is a three-phase balanced inductor with power factor 0.1.
The speed of the rotor is kept at rated speed. In these
experiments, an auto voltage regulator was not used. Ad-

OF ANALYSIS
111. OUTLINE
A. Conventional Method for the Dejinition of the Potier
Triangle
As stated in Section I, the Potier triangle is introduced
to estimate Potier reactance by making use of the no-load
saturation characteristic and the zero power-factor characteristic. The typical case is shown in Fig. 3. In the figure, the ordinate axis denotes the terminal phase voltage
and the horizontal axis the field current. The upper curve
is drawn from the no-load saturation test and the lower
from the zero power-factor test. Potier pointed out that
they are approximately identical to each other with a parallel shift [l]. Therefore, in Fig. 3 , the triangle ABC is
congruent with the triangle ABC to the arbitrary point
A on the lower curve. Here BC is parallel to B C , and
BC is the initial slope of the gap line. Now label the
intersection of the perpendicular line to AC from point B
as D . The triangle ABD is called the Potier triangle. The
length BD is xpi,, where i, is the armature current and xp
is the Potier reactance.
On the other hand, the reactance xp is given by the approximating equation [2], [ 101

where x l denotes the armature leakage reactance, x i the

IEEE TRANSACTIONS ON MAGNETICS, VOL. 24. NO. 5, SEPTEMBER 1988

2188

direct axis transient reactance, ATf the field ampere-turns,


and AT, the armature ampere-turns. Ampere-turns are the
representation of magnetomotive force (MMF) . They are,
respectively, obtained as the product of the current, number of turns, and the coefficients of the winding. Potier
reactance is considered to be very useful for the designers
to estimate the total saturation with load from the no-load
saturation curve. But the physical meaning of Potier reactance and the Potier triangle has not been explained
clearly.

B. Analysis of Air-Gap Flux Density Distribution


I ) Outline of the Sublinear Theoly [9]: The SLT
proves that a sublinear space can be constructed on the
saturable system, which is nonlinear on the usual addition
rule, by some modification of the addition rule. A typical
modified addition rule is
u1

0 u2

(u,

+ u2)/( 1 + U I U 2 )

u = tanh ( a v )
(3)
where ci is an arbitrary real number, u is an element of
the sublinear space, and v is an element of the linear
space. Hereafter we call (3) sublinear mapping. Now
let L be a linear operator. Then the following operation
L@ can be defined:
*

,=I

C3 . . . {B,,,cos n(E

e) + B,, sin ( E

- e)

e).

(6)

The saturation characteristics of the tested generator is


approximated by
-

= - tanh

Cl

(C2b)

(7)

where denotes a fundamental component of the d-axis


air-gap flux density and b the hypothetical d-axis flux density, which will be obtained if there is no saturation. We
determine the quantity b by the gap line of the saturation
characteristic of B.Hereafter the quantity with an overbar
will indicate the sublinear quantity. C1 and C2 are normalizing coefficients. Then the addition rule and the multiplication rule are modified about the d-axis flux densities
as follows:

(9)

where B1,B2,and are the space and time fundamental


components of the d-axis air-gap flux densities. Under
these definitions, the superposition law can be applied to
the d-axis component of the air-gap flux density.
Because of the generator structure, B,,and B , , consist
of field flux densities and the armature reaction flux densities. Therefore, the amplitudes in ( 6 ) are represented as
follows:

E,,

= El,

Bl, =

0 Elac

4, + Blas

(10)

where the quantities with the subscript f denote the field


flux densities and the quantities with the subscript a the
armature reaction flux densities. Therefore, the following
equation follows from ( 6 ) and (10):

B ( E , 8) =

(BIf, 0 E,)

COS

(E

e)

In the no-load test Elf, and Blf s can be obtained by means


of
harmonic analysis of the air-gap flux density distribu(5)
tion. Also B1,and B , , can be obtained in the on-load test
and B,, are, respectively, the nth space and time by the same way. Therefore, Blac and Bias can be esti9

+ B,

where E,

B,,cos ( E

(4 1

v).

If L is an arbitrary number, the operation means the multiplication rule. The significance of SLT is the fact that
the quantities obtained through the saturable system can
keep the linearity with respect to the modified addition
rule and the multiplication rule. The substitution 8 can
be defined by the addition 0 of the negative quantity and
the division 0 by the multiplication 3 of the reciprocal
number.
2) Application of SLT to the Analysis of Air-Gap Flux
Density Distribution: The tested generator has only saturable magnetic paths in the field core [8]. On account of
it, there can be found the saturation characteristics only
in the direct ( d ) axis components of flux. On the other
hand, the quadrature (4)axis components of flux do not
saturate, because there is no saturable elements in their
magnetic path. Therefore, the saturation does not affect
the separation between the d- and q-axis components [ 1 11.
In the tested generator, the air-gap flux density distribution B ( E , 0 ) has already been represented, approximately, as follows [5]:

B ( E ,e ) =

B ( E ,e ) =

(2)

where u1 and u 2 are the elements of a sublinear space.


Also the SLT shows the sublinear space with the addition
rule (2) are saturable systems mapped by the hyperbolic
tangent function from a linear space as follows:

L 3 u = tanh ( a L

harmonic of the d- and q-axis components. In this representation, B,, saturates, but B,,, does not. The reasons are
already explained above. These higher harmonic components in (5) are induced by the machine structure and the
magnetic flux saturation. In the following discussion, we
will pick only the space and time fundamental component
of air-gap flux density. Therefore, we will neglect the saturation of higher harmonic components. Since the higher
harmonic components do not induce the effective internal
electromotive force [5], the air-gap flux density distribution B ( E , 0 ) is represented by

sin n ( ~

e)]

2189

HIKIHARA AND OKAJIMA: PHYSICAL MEANING OF POTIER TRIANGLE

mated by the substitution of the above measurable quantities in each direction.

q-ax15

Blac = Blc 0

Blfc

Blas = B1s - Blfs.

(12)

I
I
I

As a result, the following armature reaction flux density


B, ( 4 , 0 ) can be obtained:

B,((,

e)

Blaccos ( E

e ) + Blassin ( E

e).

Fig. 4. Phase diagram

(13)

3) Electromotive Force of Armature Winding: The


electromotive force (EMF) of armature winding is estimated by the integration of the air-gap flux density in the
region in which the armature windings distributes (see
Fig. 2). As already referred to in the former section, the
EMF depends on the space and time fundamental components.
The flux linkage of the phase a armature winding I), ( 0 )
is given by the following equation [5]:

I)m= 16

m=0,1,2

j:a j

(~/2)-mu+(a/i)l
- ( ~ / 2 )- ( m -

~)a+(a/i)

B(E,e ) r d t
K 1 ( & COS 0 - B I ssin e )

(14)

where

32r1,

-(sin a

+ sin 2 a )

Therefore, the EMF of phase a winding ei ( e ) is induced


by

+ Bls cos e ) .

(15)

On the other hand, the armature reaction flux density


distribution has already been obtained in (12). The armature reaction flux density induces the EMF caused by
armature current. Let eiar( e ) denote the EMF. Then it is
given by

e i R r ( e )= - W K ~ ( Bsin
~ , 8~

+ B1, cos e ) .

(16)

The effective value of eiar( e ) is defined by the following


Eiar:

Eiar

= wKlJ(B:a,

+ B:a)/2.

erator with saturation characteristics under the on-load


states.
4) Leakage Reactance: The air-gap flux measured by
search coils at the armature tooth tips does not include the
armature leakage fluxes [8]. Therefore, the leakage reactance of the armature can be estimated by the armature
EMF and the terminal voltage. In a given ordinary load
state, the relations between the EMF and the terminal
quantities are represented as is shown in Fig. 4. The
method to estimate the coefficient of effective axial length
of armature has been already obtained in [8]. In the experiments, the coefficient K, equals 1.08. Then, in the zero
power-factor test, the armature resistance r, and the leakage reactance xi can be estimated by the following relations:
1
r, = - { ( E COS
~ hi - E, COS 6,) COS y
1,

+ ( E sin
~ 6i - E, sin 6,) sin y )

a = 1r/9
slot pitch,
r = 0.1375 ( m ) inner radius of armature,
effective axial length of armature,
1, = K , 1
coefficient of effective axial length of
Ke
armature,
axial length of armature.
1 = 0.13 ( m )

= -wKI(BICsin

d-axis

(17)

In the conventional treatment, the armature reaction


EMF of the armature winding has never been obtained.
Equation (17) shows that the new method makes it possible to estimate the armature reaction EMF of the gen-

xi

1
=

{ ( E sin
~ 6i

I,
-

E, sin 6,) cos y

(Ei cos hi - E, cos 6,) sin y ]

(18)
where E, denotes the internal EMF, E, the terminal voltage, and I, the armature current. 6,, 6,, and y are, respectively, the angle between the q-axis and the phasers E,,
E,, and I,.
IV. RESULTSOF EXPERIMENTS
A. Air-Gap Flux Density and Sublinear Mapping
By means of a harmonic analysis on the coordinates 48 , the space and time fundamental air-gap flux density
components and the third-harmonic components are estimated as shown in Figs. 5 and 6. Fig. 5 is obtained in the
no-load test. Fig. 6 is obtained in the zero power-factor
test. In the following analysis, the higher space and time
harmonic components are neglected. By means of the
method of least squares in the no-load test, we can determine the normalizing coefficients of sublinear mapping
(5). The relation between the saturated flux density B ,
which is a space time fundamental component, and the
unsaturated one b is shown in Fig. 7 . In the same figure,
the approximated sublinear function is shown by the solid
line. The approximated sublinear function is given by
-

B = - tanh (2.67b).
3.1

(19)

IEEE TRANSACTIONS ON MAGNETICS, VOL. 24. NO. 5, SEPTEMBER 1988

2190

Om4

-0.1

1.0

2.0

3.0
if

4.0

5.0

0.2

0.6

0.4

(A)

0.8

1.0

b (TI

Fig. 5 . Air-gap flux density components in the no-load test

0.31

Fig. 7. Relation between the saturated and the unsaturated flux density and
the sublinear mapping.

la

10.0 ( A )

15.7 ( A )

h
L

10.0 ( A )

-0.2 0

1.0

2.0

3.0

4.0

5.0

-0.3

-0.4

1.0

2.0

3.0

4.0

if

5.0

(A)

Fig. 8 . The armature reaction air-gap flux density.

considered to contain errors which are induced by overestimation of field flux, because the field flux leakage becomes large when the field current increases at the on-load
state. Therefore, the armature reaction fluxes do not remain constant. Moreover, there can be found some errors
which occur on account of the approximation of the sublinear mapping.

-+

0.1

-0.21
0

1.0

2.0

3.0
if

4.0

5.0

(A)

(b)
Fig. 6 . Air-gap flux density components in the zero-power-factor test. (a)
I, = 10.0 A. (b) I, = 15.7 A.

Then, as for the space and time fundamental air-gap


flux components, the armature reaction air-gap flux density components are obtained by making use of the former
results. The estimated results are shown in Fig. 8. In this
figure. the points over the field current i F = 3.0 A are

B. The Electromotive Force of Armature Winding


In the zero power-factor test, the EMF of the armature
winding can be obtained by (15) and the armature reaction
EMF can be estimated by (16). The results are shown in
Fig. 9. In the same figure, the terminal phase voltage,
which is obtained by the voltage between the a and b
phase, is shown for each armature current. The difference
between the EMF of the armature winding and the terminal voltage is the voltage drop caused by the armature
leakage impedance.

C. The Potier Triangle and Reactance


The Potier triangle can be drawn from the zero powerfactor curve and the no-load saturation curve. The inter-

2191

HIKIHARA A N D OKAJIMA: PHYSICAL MEANING OF POTIER TRIANGLE

150
h

>

Ia= 10.0 ( A )

.v
L

100
U
W

50I

15.7 ( A )

0.3

-1
0.1

1.0

2.0

3.0

4.0

if

1.0

2.0

3.0

4.0

(A)

(A)

(a)
10.0

(A)

15.7

I n t e r n a l emf

Terminal v o l t a g e

Armature r e a c t i o n emf

13

(A)

0.4

0.3

Fig, 9. The electromotive forces of the armature winding.

10.0

(A)

4
15.7 ( A )

150

No-load

O.l

t
1.0

3.0

2.0

4.0

5.0

i c( A )

(b)

Fig. 1 1 . Leakage reactance and armature resistance. (a) Leakage reactance. (b) Armature resistance.

if

(A)

Fig. 10. Potier triangle in experiment.

section point of the curve to the horizontal axis is determined by the results of the eternal short-circuit test. Fig.
10 shows examples of the Potier triangle at two values of
armature current. By means of the triangle, Potier reactance is obtained. In every case of armature current, the
Potier reactance xp has the value from 2.3 to 2.4 Q . And
k , which is the coefficient of equivalence between the ampere-turns of armature and field windings, has the value
from 0.078 to 0.083.

D. Leakage Reactance
By means of (23) and (24), the armature resistance r,
and the leakage reactance xI can be obtained. The results
are shown in Fig. 1 l(a) and (b). In the zero power-factor
test, the leakage reactance of the armature winding and
the armature resistance increase as the field current increases.

V. PHYSICAL
MEANINGOF THE POTIERTRIANGLE
In this section, the physical meaning of the Potier triangle is discussed based on the experimental results, and
a new quantitative interpretation is introduced.

A. The Potier Triangle


In Section IV-C the Potier triangle has already been obtained using the conventional drawing method. The results in Fig. 11 mean that Potier reactance does not consist of only the armature leakage reactance. Fig. 12 shows
the relation between the no-load saturation characteristic
(curve 1) and the zero power-factor internal EMF (curve
2) at I, = 15.7 A. The straight line OX means the gap
line of the no-load saturation characteristic. Now, pick a
point A on curve 2. When the field current i f = i f , , the
internal EMF becomes EA (V). The equivalent voltage to
the field magnetomotive force (MMF) at the field current
i f = i f l is E , ( V ) . In Section IV-B, the armature reaction
EMF has already been obtained. If the voltage is E,,, ( V ) ,
the same no-load voltage is obtained at the field current i f
= if,-,. Then the equivalent voltage to the MMF at i f =
i f , becomes Efa, ( V ) . Therefore, the effective equivalent

[EEE TRANSACTIONS ON MAGNETICS, VOL. 24, NO. 5, SEPTEMBER 1988

2192

200

150

>

100

50

1.0

3.0

2.0
lf

4.0

(A)

Fig. 13. Explanation of Potier triangle.

if1

Fig. 12. Relations between the electromotive forces of the armature winding and the field current.

voltage to the MMF at the state A becomes EA,, = ErA E,, ( V ) , which is the length of A H. In the figure, the
length A A is equal to E,.. ( V ). On the line OX, set a
point B , which is an intersection point of the line OX by
the horizontal line from A . Then draw the perpendicular
line BH from B to the horizontal axis. In the figure,
point B is the intersection point of BH with curve 1 . The
point C is set at the intersection point of BH and the
horizontal line from A . The length OH becomes ifl if,,. In the process there appears the triangle ABC. The
length of the bottom line of the triangle ABC at ifl = 2.5
A is almost equal to that of the Potier triangle.

B. Physical Meaning
By means of armature reaction voltages which are obtained in the experiment, the triangle ABCs can be obtained. In Fig. 13 the locus of C, which is obtained based
on the experimental data, is shown as curve 3. If the armature reaction voltage is held constant, which is obtained at the field current i, = 2.5 A, the locus of C becomes curve 4.In the figure, the point D means the same
EMF point on the no-load saturation curve as the point A .
In the preceding section, the length AC is explained as
the field current which yields the armature reaction EMF.
However, the armature current is kept at a constant value
in this experiment. Therefore, the increase of length AC
can be understood as an increase of the field flux linkage
over the field current if = 2.5 A. The increased value of
the field current is shown in the length CC, because the
length AC means the field current which yields the armature reaction EMF at if = 2.5 A. The usual Potier tri-

angle has the same bottom line as the triangle AB C.As


already referred to in Section IV-A, the estimation of the
point C over if = 4.5 A contains an error resulting from
the approximation of the sublinear mapping.
On the other hand, the length DC is the difference between the no-load state and the on-load state. In the above
discussion, the fundamental magnetic flux components
and the leakage flux components have already been considered. But we do not consider the higher harmonic magnetic flux components which are shown in Figs. 5 and 6.
Taking the components into account, the difference DC
means the increase of the field current which cannot induce the terminal EMF but can induce the higher harmonic flux components in the air gap.
This discussion is limited to the division of the field
current. By the same method, the division of the armature
EMF can be obtained. The height of the triangle ABC,
that is, BC, means that the armature EMF becomes the
value of point B , if there is no increase of higher harmonic
components of the air-gap flux. And then if there is no
increase of field flux leakage, the EMF becomes the value
of B . And also, if there is no armature reaction, it becomes the value of D.Therefore, in the triangle ABC,
the base AC means the field current which yields the constant armature reaction EMF at i, = 2.5 A and the field
flux leakage at the same field current. The height of the
triangle means the EMF equivalent to the field flux leakage added to the EMF equivalent to the increase of the
higher harmonic components of the air-gap flux from the
no-load state. The important fact is that the usual superposition rule of the EMF cannot be used. These results
clearly show the components included in the height of the
Potier triangle in addition to the drop of the armature leakage reactance.
VI. CONCLUSION
This paper attempts to make the physical meaning of
the Potier triangle clear by means of a new method for the
analysis of magnetic flux saturation in a synchronous generator. A summary of the results is as follows:

HIKIHARA AND OKAJIMA: PHYSICAL MEANING OF POTIER TRIANGLE

1) The armature reaction EMF of the armature windings can be estimated exactly by means of the new method
based on the SLT. The separation between the field flux
and the armature reaction flux requires the superposition
of the flux density. However, in the saturable system, the
usual superposition law cannot be used. Therefore, the
new analytical method gives us some useful knowledge of
the saturation characteristics of a synchronous generator
quantitatively, especially about the armature reaction at
the on-load state.
2) The Potier triangle has a base which means the field
current that yields the armature reaction MMF added to
the MMF of the field flux leakage at the low excited state.
The height of the triangle includes not only the drop by
the armature leakage reactance but also the EMF equivalent to the field leakage added to the EMF equivalent to
the increase of the higher harmonic components of the airgap flux from the no-load state. The conclusion is obtained by the separation of EMF according to the contribution of currents. This procedure has not been previously discussed. On the basis of this different standpoint,
these results show that the physical meaning of the Potier
triangle is in accordance with the conventional expectation.
3) Potier reactance is not only the armature leakage reactance. However, the used definition of Potier reactance
gives a conservative value in the design of a synchronous
generator. This conclusion is confirmed quantitatively.
In this paper, we have directed our attention only to the
Potier triangle by means of a new analysis method. This
result will make possible a more accurate model of a synchronous generator with saturation characteristics.
APPENDIX
Details of the tested generator are shown in Table I [8].
ACKNOWLEDGMENT
The authors would like to thank Prof. Y. Ueda of Kyoto
University for his helpful suggestions and discussions.

2193
TABLE I
RATINGS
A N D DIMENSIONS
OF TESTED
GENERATOR
Rating
Number of phase: 3, frequency: 6 0 Hz, number of poles: 4
Output power: 6 kVA, cos 6:0.9 (lagging)
Rating: continuous, rated voltage: 220 V
Rated load current: 15.7 A, number of revolutions: 1800 r/min
Field current: 4 . 8 A
Stator
Diameter: inside diameter 275 mm ( r = 137.5 mm)
outside diameter 410 mm, core length: 1 = 130 mm
Actual air-gap in pole center: 3.3 mm
Number of slots: 36
Number of slots per pole per phase: 3
Skew: 24 mm at 2756
Number of series conductors: 8
Stator (machine) slot pitch: a, = 2 ~ / 3 6rad
Stator (electrical) slot pitch: a = 27r/18 rad
Armature windings: lap, double, distributed, short-pitch, integral slot
windings, and star connected
DC resistance of armature winding at 75C: r, = 0.149 0
Number of turns of search coil: N = 3
Rotor
~

Rotor diameter: 268.4 mm


Core length: 130 mm
Length of pole head: 90 mm
Width of pole head: 162 mm
Laminated poles
Milled steel 1.6 mm
Number of turns of field winding per pole: N,
DC resistance of field windings: 14.9 0

500

Y. Ueda, T. Hikihara, and C. Uenosono, An experimental study of


flux-linkage relations in a synchronous generator at steady states,
Mem. Fac. Eng., Kyoto Univ., vol. 48, no. 2, pp. 178-194, Apr.
1986.
N. Sato, A theory for sub-linear system, Trans. I.E. C.E. Japan,
vol. E68, no. 4, pp. 219-226, Apr. 1985.
L. A. Kilgore, Discussion of [2], Trans. AIEE, vol. 54, pp. 11171118, 1935.
T. Hikihara, Y. Ueda, and C. Uenosono, Linearized model of a
synchronous generator with saturation characteristics, Trans. IEE
Japan, vol. 107D, no. 8 , pp. 1049-1056, Aug. 1987.

REFERENCES
[ I ] A. Potier, Armature reaction of alternators, L Eclairage Elect r i p e , vol. 24, pp. 133-141, 1900.
[2] L. A. March and S. B. Crary, Armature leakage reactance of synchronous machines, Trans. AIEE, vol. 54, pp. 378-381, Apr. 1935.
[3] S. Beckwith, Approximating Potier reactance, Trans. AIEE, vol.
61, pp. 297-306, Jun. 1937.
[4] S. L. Mikhail, Potier reactance for salient-pole synchronous machines, Trans. AIEE, vol. 60, pp. 235-238, Feb. 1950.
[5] C. Uenosono, Y. Ueda, T . Nanahara, and K. Kaneko, Air-gap flux
of a synchronous generator at steady-state and flux-based analysis of
generator characteristics, Trans. IEE Japan, vol. 102-B, no. 5, pp.
281-288, May 1982. (English translation: Scripta, vol. 102, no. 3,
pp. 42-49, 1982).
[6] C. Uenosono, Y. Ueda, Y. Inoue, and T . Hanai, Armature reaction
of a synchronous generator on the basis of air-gap flux-Appearance
of instability in case of single machine operation . . . , Trans. IEE
Japan, vol. 102-B, no. 8 , pp. 545-551, Aug. 1982. (English translation: Scripta, vol. 4 , pp. 115-121, 1982.)
[7] C. Uenosono, Y. Ueda, Y. Inoue, and T. Sakurai, Transient behavior of magnetic flux distribution of a synchronous generator at threephase sudden short-circuit, Trans. IEE Japan, vol. 102-B, no. 9,
pp. 627-633, Sept. 1982.

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Takashi Hikihara (M87) was born in Kyoto, Japan, on August 9, 1958.


He received the B.E. degree from Kyoto Institute of Technology, Kyoto,
Japan, in 1982, and the M.E. degree from Kyoto University, Kyoto, Japan
in 1984. He is currently working towards the Ph.D. degree.
He has been with the Department of Electrical Engineering, Kansai University, Osaka, Japan as a research associate. His major interests are in the
field of electrical machinery, power electronics, and nonlinear electrical
circuit.
Mr. Hikihara is a member of the IEE of Japan, the IEICE of Japan, and
the SICE of Japan.

Tatsuya Okajima was born in Okayama, Japan, on February 8 , 1964. He


received the B.E. degree in 1986 and the M.E. degree in 1988, both in
electrical engineering from Kyoto University, Kyoto, Japan.
He has been with JR Tokai Co. Ltd. His major interest is in the field of
electrical machinery.
Mr. Okajima is a member of the IEE of Japan.