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5.

Reservoir fluids

FLUID PROPERTIES

Generalities
Pure components and simple mixture properties
Oil and gas behavior between the reservoir and
the surface
Sampling
PVT studies
Conclusions
Applied exercises

FLUID PROPERTIES

Goal of a PVT study


Determine characteristics (chemical and
physical) of the reservoir fluids so as to predict
its behaviour when pressure and temperature
vary.
During the production process reservoir fluids
are depleted at constant temperature.

GENERALITIES
Gas
Separator

Pt

at Psep. , T sep.

Oil

Tubing

Pwf

Voil

Pr
Tr

Reservoir

GENERALITIES

Applications of a PVT study

- Parameters for oil in place evaluation ;


- Fluid composition analysis ;
- Understand fluids behaviour during
production ;
- Numerical simulations at the field scale.

GENERALITIES

Who uses PVT ?


Geoscienties
- study the reservoir compartmentalization, reservoir
continuity
- understanding of the oil or gas behaviour in the
reservoir
- establish a coherent developing plan
- use for compositional simulations (state equation).
Process engineers
- choice of the separation process
- surface separation optimization

GENERALITIES

Basic characteristics
Gas = C1 to C4
Density
Calorific value (J / m3)
Chemical Composition (valorisation, extraction of liquids)
Dry gas
Wet gas
Condensat

GENERALITIES

Basic Characteristics
oil = C5 +
API Definition
API = 141.5

- 131.5

where d is the density of stock tank oil relative to water at 60F (15.6C).
Condensate or very light oils :
Light oils :
Medium oils :
heavy oils :

d < 0.80
0.80 < d < 0.86
0.86 < d < 0.92
0.92 < d < 1

(above 45API)
(33 to 45API)
(22 to 33API)
(lower than 22API)

Viscosity (capability to move in the reservoir and in the pipe)

GENERALITIES
MAIN FAMILIES OF HYDROCARBONS
Hydrocarbons
Aromatics
Aliphatics

(ex. benzene, toluene,


xylene)
Saturated

Unsaturated

(or Alkanes)

Normal Alkanes

Iso-alkanes

(ex. methane,
ethane, propane)

(ex. iso-butane)

Cycloalkanes
(or Naphthenes)

Alkenes
(ex. ethylene)

Alkynes
(ex. acetylene)

(ex. cyclohexane)

GENERALITIES
Structure of reservoir fluid hydrocarbons
a) Normal alkanes

GENERALITIES
Structure of reservoir fluid hydrocarbons
b) Iso- and cyclo-alkanes, aromatics

GENERALITIES

Definitions
Oil : reservoir fluid having a bubble point at reservoir temperature.
When the pressure decreases in the reservoir, the fluid is
monophasic until the bubble point pressure is reached. Below this
pressure, a gaseous phase expands progressively.
Special case : a dead oil is an oil containing so little gas dissolved
that no bubble point is noticeable. This is often the case with heavy
oil.

Gas : reservoir fluid having either a dew point at the reservoir


temperature (condensate gas), or no transition phase at this
temperature.

GENERALITIES
DEFINITIONS
Bubble point : the pressure at which the first gas bubble appears (out of
solution).
Example : opening of a champagne bottle.
Dew point : the new phase is a liquid phase.
Example : condensation of water vapor when breathing out in cold air.

GENERALITIES
DEFINITIONS

Reference conditions generally used throughout


Petroleum Industry

Standard conditions :
Pst = 14,7 psia (or 1,013 bar a)
Tst = 60F (15,6 C)

GENERALITIES
Several formation fluids composition
(% mole)
Components Oil

Oil

Oil

Condensate Condensate Wet


gas
gas
gas

Dry
gas

Nitrogen+CO2 2.16

2.37

4.09

1.01

0.40

30.28
6.28
10.21
1.23
5.75
1.62
2.71
3.28
36.58

4.49
3.45
50.12
7.78
5.18
1.04
2.65
1.11
1.43
1.92
20.83

2.12

H2S
Methane
Ethane
Propane
Isobutane
n-Butane
Isopentane
n-Pentane
C6
C7+

63.91
8.29
4.37
0.94
2.21
0.72
1.15
1.86
14.43

64.19
11.18
6.20
0.75
2.31
0.64
1.03
1.22
10.11

73.80
9.43
4.43
0.87
1.63
0.71
0.66
0.91
3.47

88.54
5.32
2.30
0.56
0.59
0.27
0.23
0.27
0.91

94.32
3.90
1.17
0.08
0.13

Total

100.00

100.00

100.00

100.00

100.00

100.00

100.00

MAIN OIL PROPERTIES

Formation Volume Factor


Vo
Vstd ref

Bo =

Volume of oil in reservoir Pr, Tr conditions


Volume of stock tank oil in standard conditions

Solution gas/oil ratio (Rs)


Rs =

Vg std
Vstd ref

Boi

Bob(1+Co(Pb - Pi))

For P >Pb

Bob

Boi(1+Co(Pi - Pb))

For P >Pb

Volume of gas in standard conditions


Volume of oil in standard conditions

Rs quantifies the amount of gaseous components which are dissolved in the oil at
reservoir conditions.

Compressibility (Co)
Co = -

1
V

( V
P )T

Co quantifies the changes of oil volume during depletion at reservoir temperature,


above the bubble point pressure.

MAIN OIL PROPERTIES

Reservoir conditions

200 m gas

1 m oil

Surface conditions

0,8 m oil
Formation volume factor (FVF) :
Bo = 1/0.8 = 1.25 m/m
Gas oil ratio :
GOR = 200/0.8 = 250 Sm/m

MAIN OIL PROPERTIES

Bo
1.9

45API

1.6

30API

1.3

1.0
100

200

300

400

500

P (bar)

MAIN OIL PROPERTIES

Rs
300

45API

200

30API

100

100

200

400

300

500

P (bar)

MAIN OIL PROPERTIES

Viscosity
The viscosity varies with the pressure, temperature and quantity of dissolved
gas. In the reservoir, the following prevail for the hydrocarbon liquid :
Order of magnitude : from 0,2 cP (very light oil) to 1 P, called heavy oil
above 1 P, up to about 100 P.
o (cP)
1,5

30API

0,5

45API
100

200

300

400 P (bar)

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OIL FORMATION VOLUME FACTOR Bob

BUBBLE POINT PRESSURE Pb

GOR = 350

dg = 0.75

T = 180F
o = 30 API
Pb = 1900 psi

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MAIN GAS PROPERTIES


Definitions for gas :
Gas Specific Gravity :
(air =1) = gas/air = Mwgas/Mwair
= Mwgas /28.978
Gas density:
gas = Mwgas/Vair(molar) = Mwgas/ 23.645
Vair(1 mole of air) = 23.645
gas = * 1.225 10-3
Air density:
Mwair = 28.9784
air =28.9784/23.645 =1.225 kg/m

MAIN GAS PROPERTIES

Reservoir conditions

200 m gas

1 m gas

Surface conditions

0,2 m
condensate
Formation volume factor :
Bg = 1/200 m/m
Ratio condensate /gas :
CGR = 0.2/200 = 0.001 Sm/m

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MAIN GAS PROPERTIES

Vgres

Pres x Vres = Z x R x Tres


Pstd x Vstd = 1 x R x Tstd

Bg =

Pstd

Tres
x Zx

Bg =
Tstd

Vgstd

Pres

Eg = 1 / Bg
R

Field Units

ZxT

Pstd = 14.7 psia

Tstd = 520 R

Bg = 0.028269 x

vol/vol
P

460 +60F(T st.)

Metric Units

psia
K

ZxT

Pstd = 1.01325 barsa

Tstd = 288 K

Bg = 0.00352 x

vol/vol
P

273+15(Tst)

SI Units

bars a

ZxT

Pstd = 101325 Pa (a)

Tstd = 288 K

Bg = 351.8 x

vol/vol
P
Pa

Vol of 1 mole of gas at std conditions {1 atm, 288 K (15C)} :

23.63 dm3

Vol of 1 mole of gas at normal conditions {1 atm, 273 K (0C)} : 22.414 dm3

MAIN GAS PROPERTIES


Determination of Z
Experimental : P-V analysis of a weight of gas m at T (m known)
Calculations and charts
These methods are based on the law of corresponding states.
A chart has been prepared giving Z, based on studies of many gases, as a
function of :
Pseudoreduced pressure= absolute pressure / absolute pseudocritical pressure
Pseudoreduced temperature= absolute temperature /absolute pseudocritical temperature

The pseudocritical pressure and temperature of a given gas (different from


the critical pressure and temperature) are obtained by calculation from the
composition, or by chart from the specific gravity.

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Tpc and Ppc DETERMINATION


(pseudo critical parameters)

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GAS COMPRESSIBILITY FACTOR

Standing & Katz

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OIL AND GAS BEHAVIOUR


BETWEEN THE RESERVOIR
AND THE SURFACE

PURE COMPONENT

Pure component properties :

Pressure

a pure component is characterized by one equation


of state : f (P, V, T) = 0

C
Liquid
Vapor

Temperature

15

PURE COMPONENT

Pressure

Clapeyron P - V Curve
T3

T2
T1

A
C
L

V
B

Psat

R
Dew point

Bubble
point

L+V

Saturation curve
Volume

Pressure

PHASE ENVELOPE OF A MIXTURE


P-T

C
Monophasic
Area
n

Liquid + Vapor

cricondentherm

oi
eP

Cu
rve

l
bb
Bu

Monophasic
Area

ve
ur
tC

Po
in t

Pc

cricondenbar

De
w

Pcc

Tc

Tcc

Temperature

16

Pressure

PHASE ENVELOPE OF A MIXTURE


P-V

T3

T2
T1

CC
L
Psat

Bubble
point
Dew point

L+V
Volume

Pressure

UNDERSATURATED OIL

Tres, Pres

p1

Critical point

Separator

Tc
Temperature

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Pressure

SATURATED OIL

Critical point

C
Tres, Pres
P1

Separator

Tc
Temperature

CONDENSATE GAS

Pressure

Tres, Pres
Critical point

p1

Sparateur

Tc

Tcc
Temperature

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Pressure

Oil reservoirs with


dissolved gases

Cricondenbar

Gas reservoirs with


retrograde
condensation

PHASE ENVELOPE OF A MIXTURE


P-T

Gas reservoirs without


retrograde condensation

Pcc

Pc

l
bb
Bu

n
oi
ep

u
tc

e
rv

Critical point
Cricondentherm

Liquid + gas
Zone : No or poor contribution of
dissolved gases

Dry gas
100%

75%
50%

30%
20%
10%
5%
0%

Zone : Appreciable contribution


of dissolved gases
tc
poin
Dew

Zone : Retrograde with


condensation of liquid in the
reservoir

e
urv

Tc Tcc

T Zone : Dry or wet gas

WET GAS

Tres, Pres

Pressure

Critical point

p1

Separator

Tc
Temperature

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DRY GAS

Critical point

Pressure

Separator

Tres, Pres p1

Tc
Temperature

Condensate

WE
TG

Gas

Gas

Oil

AS

P V T / FLUIDS

Po
int

DR
Y

t
in
Po

De
w

le
bb
Bu

GA
S

Separator

Separator

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SAMPLING

Representativity :
monophasic
only one layer per sampling
stabilized flow regime
pressure
GOR
flow rates, etc...

SAMPLING
Gas sampling
bottle

gas
Psep, Tsep

Oil sampling
bottle

Reservoir fluid
Pr, Tr

GORsep = Qgas/Qoil

Psto, Tsto

GORsto

Tank oil
ambient conditions

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SAMPLING SUMMARY

Produced fluid

Fluid flow and


reservoir
characteristics

Sampling type
Bottom hole sampling

Surface sampling

Undersaturated oil GOR=GORi=Ct

Well in production
with Pwf > Pb

Stabilized well
with Pwf>Pb

Saturated oil

GOR > GORi


Pwsi = Pb

To bean back
progressively. Well closed
and stabilized. Sampling at
minimum flow rate.

To bean back to
have GOR GORi
Stabilized flow rate
with P min

Gas

GOR=GORi=Ct

Not recommended

Minimum flow rate


possible ; compatible
with
- homogeneous flow
in the tubing
- separator stability

RESERVOIR WATER

Systematically associated with hydrocarbons :


Water properties derived from correlations :
Resistivity Rw = f (T, g/l)
Solubility Rsw = f (P, T, g/l)
Formation volume Factor Bw = f (P, T, Rsw)
Specific gravity w = f (P, T, Rsw)
Viscosity w = f (T, g/l)
Compressibility Cw = -1/V (dV/dP)T

< 0.1 Ohm/m


< 5 m 3 / m3
1 - 1.05
1 - 1.05 g/cm3
0.3 - 1.5 cP
0,4.10-4 bar-1

Water analysis at Patm.


salinity (NaCl concentration) in g/l or ppm
chemical composition (Na+, K+, MG2+ ,)
Danger : formation + injected water CaCO3, BaSO4 precipitates

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PVT Studies
Constant Composition Expansion (Oil)
Oil expansion between the initial pressure and the bubble
pressure (it is also a flash process)

Differential Vaporization (Oil):


Vaporisation - modification of the fluid composition

Flash Liberation (Oil)


Separator test, flash of the reservoir fluids (CCE)

Constant Composition Expansion ( Condensate Gas)


Constant Volume Depletion ( Condensate Gas)
Compositional analysis of the reservoir fluid
Measurement of the gas viscosity and the oil viscosity
related to the pressure)

PVT Studies
CONSTANT COMPOSITION EXPANSION
At reservoir temperature with constant composition

Determine :
Bubble point pressure at reservoir temperature (Pb)
Isothermal compressibility factor of oil at bubble point (Co)
Gas compressibility factor (Z)

Pressure

Global volume of oil as a function of pressure

Saturation pressure
P1
P2

P1>Psat

P3
P4
P5

P2>Psat

P3=Psat

P4<P3

P5<P4

Oil
Gas
Volume

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PVT Studies
DIFFERENTIAL VAPORIZATION
At reservoir temperature with variable composition

Determine :

Bubble point pressure at reservoir temperature (Pb)


Amount of solution gas as a function of pressure
Liberated gas properties: compressibility, composition, density,Bg
Oil properties as a function of pressure:density, Bod, Bobd, Rsd,

Vg
Vo2
Vo2

P1=Psat

Vo3

Vt3

Vt2

Vo3

P2<Psat

P2

Vt3
Vt2

oil
gas
Volume

P3<P2

P2

P3

P3

bubble point pressure

Vo2
Vo3

P3

P2

Pb

P1

PVT Studies
CONSTANT COMPOSITION EXPANSION/GAS
Vsat

P1>Psat

P2=Psat

P3<P2

P4<P3

P5<P4

condensate
gas

P6<P5

P7<P6

P1>P at dew point


P2=P at dew point
P3
P4

Pressure
P5
P6
P7

Temperature

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PVT Studies
CONSTANT VOLUME DEPLETION /GAS
Vg

Vsat

Vsat

V1

P2<Psat

P1=Psat

P2

V2

P2

P3<P2

P3

condensate
gas

PVT Studies
FLASH LIBERATION /OIL
Vo res
Qg

Bo =

Vo std
Rs =

Vg

Separator

std

Psep

Vo std

Tsep

Qo
Vo std

Qg
GOR =
Pres

Vo res

Qo

Tres

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PVT Studies
SEPARATOR TEST
The objective :
To obtain the optimum conditions of oil
separation in the surface at different pressure
and temperature.

gas

oil

Preservoir
Treservoir

Psep 1st step


Tsep 1st step

Psp 2nd step


Tsp 2nd step

Patm
Tabm

PVT Studies

COMPOSITE DATA

Bo= bod*(bobf/bobd)
Rs = rsif-(rsid-rsd) *(bobf/bobd)

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PVT Studies

Differential separation describes the phase equilibrium in the


reservoir whereas composite PVT describes the reservoir to tank
process.
ATHOS Simulator allows to define the two curves. In a numerical
simulator that would not, it is better to take the composite curve in
order to respect volumetrics.

NB : more generally, for any kind of volumetric calculation between


reservoir and surface, it is the composite curves that have to be taken

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