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September 1985 <s
Issue 27, Vol. 3, No. 9
02220 $3.75 Canada


Inside Commodore's New Amiga

A Hands-On Report
Printer Wedge
Create your own custom
character sets with this
utility for the 64 and 1525,
MPS-801, and MPS-803

Mastering this fast-paced
ad; p game for the 64 is no
easy task.

is simplifie
"* V-
Weather Prophet
An amazingly reliable
forecaster for the 64 and Power BASIC:
QuickScan User Group Update

Machine Language For

09 Reading programs on the
Beginners: From Machine
screen is simplified with Language To BASIC
this electronic ruler for the
64 and VIC-20.
7U86 02220 -
urn your COMMODORE 64 into a personal typing tutor with KEYS TO TYPING software.
Over 30 easy lessons, all based on proven teaching techniques that typing teachers have been
usingforyears. Combined with the speed andflexibility ofcomputerized instruction—it's
■he fastest and easiest way yet to learn typing.
"■■...■.■ ■ ■. . .


step-by-step lessons
rn at your own pace!
"ui#] will explain the
.ram and show you
how to get on-screen help
each lesson has three parts:
introduction of new keys,
exercises, and reinforcement
over 400 exercises, alt based
on successful typing manuals
get immediate help or return t
main menu with a single keys!
no complex computer comma*]
its user friendly and menu tlriv.
no knowledge of computers nci
just basic reading skills
select the lesson you want
through a simple menu control
typing game included,
.to make learning fun!

e perrect learning program lor students ot any age. her ou

re-entering (he workforce who need a fast refresher. Designed by educators and computer programmers working together. KEYS TO
TYPING lets you learn quickly, easily and effortlessly. After 32 lessons, you'll be typing at speeds you never (bought possible.

30 Mural Street f 7S75 Sky Park North, Suite P
Richmond Hill, Ontario Irving, California
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If you have been searching for a letter printing. The built in 2K huffer frees op THE BEST PART
quality printer you have probably found your computer while printing a page or When shopping for a daisy wheel
the flood of claims and counterclaims to two allowing you to go to your next job. printer with all these features (if you
be a real roadblock in your search. Not To really put your printer to work, the could find one), you couid expect io pay
long ago we were in the same position. Cut Sheet Feeder option is great for $600 or S700 dollars. The options would
We tried to determine which daisy wheel automatic printing of those long jobs. add much more. AW now! We have done
printer had all the features our Also available is the adjustable Tractor our homework. We can now offer (his
customers wanted, yet would not set Feed option. Compare our option prices! printer for only $353. Order yours today!
them back a month's salary. Recently Best of all the Daisy 1120 is quiet: only
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machines thai had features we were 62-65 dii-A fur Others). Try the Daisy 1120 for 2 weeks. If you
seaching for. After a thorough assess are not satisfied for ANY reason we will
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The Daisy 1120 uses industry standard 1-year parts and labor warranty is
other for lack of one feature or another
Diablo* compatible printwheeis. Scores included.
until we only had one left.
of typeface styles are available at most
computer or stationary stores. You can
We found the printer which has all Ilie pop in a 10. 12. 15 pilch or proportional Aprotek Daisy 1120 (Orderfll20) S353
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FEATURES GALORE Again universally available. Accessories
This printer has il all. To start with, Jl Not only is the hardware completely 8' Cable for IBM Pq» and compatibles
compatible, the control codes recognized [«103) S26
has a front panel Pitch Selector button
with indicators which allows 10, 12, 15
by the Daisy 1120 are Diablo 630*
Interface with cable; *T!-99/4A (*106) S66
compatible (industry standard!. You can
characters per inch (CPI) or •Apple II or lie MI04) $76
lake advantage rrf all the great features
Proportional Spacing. There is a Select • All Commodore (except Pet) (#1105) S44
of word processing packages like
(Online) button (with indicator) and a •All Atari (#1107) S66
Wordstar* . pfs: Write* . Microsoft
Line Feed button. You can also set Top- Shipping is S11 —UPS ctiniinmtal USA. If you are in
Word* and most others which allow you
of-Form or Form Feed with the touch of a hurry, UPS Blue or Air Parcel Posl (s^ond day
to automatically use superscripts, air) is S25. Canada. Alaska, Mesico and Hawaii are
the TOP button. Other front pane! in
subscripts, automatic nnderiining, bold S30 (air). Ollk'r fuiciRn is $60 (air). California
dicators include Power and Alarm. residents add (fl't la*. PriMS are cash prices—VISA
face (shadow printing) and doubleslrike.
To load a sheet of paper, simply place and M/C add '.1% to total. We ship pmniptly un
The printer has a set of rear switches money urders, cashier'.4; checks, and charge i.iiiK
il in the feed slot and pull the paper bail
which allow the use <>( standard ASCII as Allow [.!-,!,iy ck-.irint! fur checks. Nh CO.D.'S. Pay-
lever. 1'KESTO! The paper feeds automati
well as foreign character printwheeis. nwtil i» US ildll.irs only.
cally to a 1 inch top margin and the car
Page length can be set to ». 11, 12. or TO ORDER ONLY CALL TOLL PREE
riage aligns to the selected left, margin.
Ifi'. The Daisy 1120 can also be switch (800) 962-5800 USA
In this manner, each page can have iden (8-8 PST)
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tical margins automatically. You can con (800) 962-3800 CALIF.
tinue to compute while the Or send payment to address below:
Daisy II20 is
Technical Information & Customer
Service: (805) 987-2454 (8-5 I'STi
Dealer Inquiries Invited

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Corp; WimJsiaT-.Mk-rupii' Corp.i PFS-

wft Corp.: App!t, If

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others. Includes listings. 200pp $11.95 use SIMON'S Basic. 250pp $1955 can easily enter your information using XPER's complete
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For postage and handling Inducts $4.00 per order. Foreign ord»r» IncluO* $8.00 par
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Checker versatile for home and small business use
• An efficient, 80-column professional • A complete general information storage • 250 rows and up to 250 columns (128K
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a spelling checker and built-in graphics, statistics, and labei-making (locations on the spreadsheet) in which
cafculator. capabilities. to place information.
■ Contains all the features you'll need for ■ Exclusive X-SEARCH, X-SORT, and • Performs mathematical functions up to
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scrolling, and more. your results.

With Timeworks you get more With Timeworks you get more * With Timeworks you get our
power for your dollar than software Money Back Guarantee
You can use each program alone. Or You Get Our Customer Technical If you can find anything that works better
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system that delivers all the power and you'll find our full-time Customer Techni of the program you want, along with your
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You Get Our Liberal Trade-Up Policy
Look for these and other Timeworks pro
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11 Off** vaW lor 90 days Irprn rials d f
" RgotcibtW trwemaifcs o! *j#« Confute, ln=. imemaKmai Busrmi Macfunn Corpwaiwi. aiW
Commodore Compmei Systems
C IMS TimeworKs, Inc. All rigni? fewrv«
wmrm-. September 1985 Vol. 3, No. 9

The New Commodore Amiga: A Hands-On Report Charles Brannon 18 •
Amiga Software: Something lor Everyone Selby Bateman 26 *
The Summer Consumer Electronics Show: Beyond the Shakeout Lance Eiko 30 *
CES Perspective: The End of the Tap Dance Kathy Yakal 36 *

F-15 Strike Eagle Neil Randall 32
On-Court Tennis Kevin Martin 53
Cave of the Word Wizard Neil Randall 54
B.C. II: Grog's Revenge James Trunzo 54
Legionnaire Neil Randall 55
Adventure Writer, Dialog, and The ELF System Neil Randall 56
Chlpwlts Arthur Leyenberger 58
Also Worth Noting 59

Maze-Mania Mark Tuttie, Kevin Mykytyn, and Philip Nelson 68 64
Tracker Ned W. Schultz 69 64
Friendly Alien Cal Overhulser 70 64/V

education/home applications
Computing for Families: In Search of the Computer Sandbox, Part 1 Fred D'lgnazh 72 *
Weather Prophet George IV. Miller 73 64/+4

BASIC Magic: Drawing Lines and Borders Michael S. Tomczyk 42 64/V/+4/16
Hints & Tips: Recycling Selected DATA Statements Gordon J. LeVee 46 64/V/+4/16
Power BASIC: QuickScan Daan Deenik 76 64/V
Machine Language for Beginners: From Machine Language to BASIC Richard Mansfield 77 64/V
Printer Wedge James Chandler, Jr 80 64
Zounds!, Part 3 Lawrence Cotton 81 64
TinyTerm for the 1650 Automodem Preston Douglas 82 64/V
VIC Emulator Fausto Ibarra 84 64

The Editor's Notes Robert Lock and Richard Mansfield 6 *
Gazette Feedback Editors and Readers 10 *
User Group Update 49 *
Horizons: Programming the 128 Charles Brannon 60 128
Simple Answers to Common Questions Tom R. Halfhill 87 *

program listings
Bug-Swatter: Modifications and Corrections 88 *
MLX: Machine Language Entry Program 89 64/V
How to Type In COMPUTERS Gazette Programs 90 *

Product Mart 126

Gazette Classified 127
Advertisers Index 128

* = General, V=VIC-20. 64=Commodore 64, +4=Plus/4, 16=Commodore 16, 128 = Commodore 128

COMPUTE!'! GAZETTEis [HiNllhiNl monlhlv b; COMPtTTIJ Publications. Inc.. Posl Office Boi 5)06, Greensboro. XC 17403 USA. Phone (919) 275-9809. Editorial pfBcB are
lofj|i>d jt 324 Vint WWiifovtr Avrnue. Grrmsboro, NC 2740B Domesllc subscriptions1 12 EMM!, $24. Send ^ubsmption orj,i*. or chanR? ol flddrev* (P.O form 3579) lo
Circulation Depl., COMPUTE'* GAZETTE. P.O. Dot 461. Famiingdjic, NY 11737. Second s!i55 application pending a! Grenrihoro. NC 27403 and jddllional mailing offices.
Enure cnntrnti r.ijiyngh! ffll'BS by COMPUTE! f'uhlk-aiionv Inc. All right* reserved. ISSN 0737-3716. )|'\
COMPUTB Publitaiioni, Inc. One ul the ABC Publiihlng Coropinlt* ABC Publishing, President, Robert G. Burton; U3U Avenur ol Ihe Anwnrw: New York. Nils York 10011.
In the most recent issue of COMPUTE!, "remember" better than their pre even access online grammar check
our sister publication, we chided decessors. And that means they can ing and thesauri. You'll have the
Commodore for apparently send do everything better. power of the Macintosh graphics
ing Amiga systems to competitors Video, for example. Take a programs, but in color. It will be
while consciously making a deci look at page 18. One of the impor easy to draw titles, graphs, or visual
sion to withhold them from us. tant byproducts of more processor aids and transfer them to other me
We're pleased to report that in the power is greater video resolution— dia such as VCRs and slides. Com
interim we've discovered several more dots of visual information, plex music and voice synthesis and
things. Commodore allowed sever more colors, more shades. The new sampling will be available.
al competitors access to the Amiga, computers offer relief from the rela The larger memories and faster
but did not send them systems. tively crude block-graphics and car speeds of these new computers will
And, more importantly, since we toons which have hitherto served allow many more variables in
brought the situation to their atten as the visual element of personal games. Adventures will have more
tion, Commodore's new manage computers. We can't show you ani scenes, more intelligent input anal
ment team and their assistants have mation in these pages, but that, too, ysis, more characters, and a more
been extremely helpful in rectifying is far superior. Things can now look complex story line. Action games
our concerns. Harmony has re round instead of ragged, shadows will look real (a videotape can run
turned to our editorial halls, and look like shadows instead of black in the background of computer im
you'll find a rather exciting story in blobs, and moving objects, instead ages) and the sound effects will be
this issue on the new Amiga from of lurching, can now glide and astonishing. Games will be able to
Commodore. revolve. approach simulation-quality real
It seems likely that the Amiga Pages of print, too, are tight ism and be far richer and more so
and the new ST from Atari are go and stable on new, high-definition phisticated than is currently
ing to revitalize the personal com monitors. You can read these possible.
puter industry. screens iike a book. Related to this, When you've seen what these
These machines represent a Atari and other companies are cur new machines can do, you're likely
leap to a higher level of technology. rently preparing to offer entire to agree that pessimists reporting
New, synergistic technologies have encyclopedia-sized databases on a the demise of personal computing
been brought together to create a single compact disc. This new pe this past year have been seriously
significant advance in power. New ripheral will plug into your com off the mark. No one can tell what
microprocessors, new storage de puter like a disk drive and in the next ten years will bring, but if
vices, and new video screens equal seconds will locate any information these computers are any indication,
far more than the sum of their parts. you need. You can even ask it ques it will be a decade of marvels. Con
When COMPUTE! first started tions which contain and and or rela sumer computing is still an industry
publishing in 1979, it was called tionships: baseball and football in in its infancy, but no other technol
"The 6502 Resource Magazine" be movies or books. You'll have a lot ogy is more likely to enrich our
cause the home computers then of knowledge only seconds away lives in so many unpredictable
available—Apple, Atari, Commo from your screen. The amount of ways.

dore PET, and others—all con information that can be packed

tained the 6502 microprocessor onto a compact disc is staggering:
chip. The 6502 has been aban 550 megabytes. It's the equivalent
doned by the new generation of of nearly 3,400 Commodore floppy
personal computers in favor of the disks, 96 million words, 427,000
high-speed, feature-laden, bigger typed pages, or nearly 2,000 ordi
68000 chip. Among other advan nary books. Editor In Chief
tages, this chip can manipulate 16 As for software, the new power
pieces of information at a time. The will expand the potential of every
6502 could only work with 8 pieces. category, from word processing to
By doubling the information size, games. You'll be able to compose
Senior Editor
the computer can do things far fast large documents without linking
er and can directly access far more files, check spelling quickly with a
RAM memory. So, in general, these huge dictionary, see the text exactly
new computers "think" faster and as it will be printed, and maybe

6 COMPUTE!'! Gazette September 1985

Better Letter Box
introducing EasyPlex" The new, options previously available only with more growing computer information service in
easy-to-use electronic mail system expensive services. the world and (he premier supplier of
from CompuServe. CompuServe's EasyPlex lets friends and business information to FORTUNE 500
relatives, associations and club members companies.
communicate any lime of the day or night. StartcommunicatinglTobuya
Finally! Electronic Mail that's so easy to And small business owners, real estate CompuServe Subscription Kit. see your
use you can start composing and sending professionals, insurance agents, lawyers, nearest computer dealer. To receive our
messages the lirst time you get online. writers, etc can communicate quickly and informative brochure or to orderdirect,
simply—either interoffice or interstate. call or write:
Designed for various experience levels,
EasyPlex has a menu mode with simple, "It's Easy." "Just Plex it!"
easy-to-follow directions for beginners,
and it lets experienced users save lime by
Best of all, EasyPlex is available to all
CompuServe subscribers. And, along with
Information Services, PQ Box 20212
working in the prompt or command modes. EasyPlex, you get hundreds of valuable and 5000 Arlington Cenlie Blvd., Columbus, Ohio 43220
With EasyPlex, you can compose, edit, send, entertaining computing options. Plus the 800-848-8199
file, and take advantage of sophisticated assurance of belonging to the largest, fastest In Ohio, call 61-1-457-0B02

An HSR Block Company

COMPUTE! PublicationsJnc©
Address all advertising materials to:
One of tt>o ABC PuWlinirio Companies <^^ 324 West Wendover Ave., Suite 200, Greensboro, NC 27408
Sales Offices, The Thompson Compeny
New England 617-720-1888
Mid-Atlantic 212-772-0933
Publisher Gary R. Ingersoll Southeast 919-275-9809
Editor in Chief Robert C Lock Midwest 312-726-6047
Texas 713-731-2605
Director of Administration Alice 5. Wolfe
Northwest, Nevada 408-354-5553
Senior Editor Richard Mansfield
Northern CA 415-348-8222
Managing Editor Kathleen Martinek Southern CA 213-378-8361
Editor Lance Elko Arizona 213-378-8361
Assistant Editor Todd Heimarck New Mexico 213-378-8361
Production Director Tonv Roberts Colorado 303-595-9299

Editors COMPUTE!! Publications, Inc., publishes

Tom R. Halfhill, Editor, COMPUTE! Magazine; Stephen Levy, COMPUTE! COMPUTE! Bookt COMPUTEI'l GAZETTE
Editor, COMPUTE:! Books Division; Gail Cowper, Production
Corporate Office:
Editor; Ottis R, Cowper, Technical Editor; Charles Brannon,
324 West Wendover Ave., Suite 200, Greensboro, NC 27408
Program Editor; Selby Bateman, Features Editor
Assistant Editors Mailing Address:
Gregg Keizer, J. Blake Lambert (Books); John Krause, George Post Office Box 5406, Greensboro, NC 27403
Miller, (Technical); Philip Nelson (COMPUTE! Magazine); Knthy Distribution Center
Yakal, Feature Writer; Mark Tuttle, Submissions Reviewer 500-A Radar Road, Greensboro, NC 27419
Editorial Programmers Telephone: 919-275-9809
Patrick Pairish (Supervisor), Tim Victor, Kevin Mykytyn, Kevin Office Hours: 8:30 AM to 4:30 PM Monday-Friday
Programming Assistant
David Florance President Gary R. Ingersoll
Copy Editors Vice President, Finance & Planning Paul J. Megliola
Joan Rouleau, Ann Davies Executive Assistant Debi Nash
Administrative Staff Assistant Anita Arm field
Susan Young, Laura MacFadden. Julia Fleming, Iris Brooks, [an
Kretlow Subscription Information
P.O. Box 5406, Greensboro, NC 27403
Irma Swairi, Production Manager; Janice Fan1, Art & Design
Director, Lee Noel, Assistant Editor, Art & Design; De Potter, TOLL FREE
Mechanical Art Supervisor; Terry Cash, Carole Dunton, Typesetting Subscription Order Line
Dabney Glick (Publications), Debbie Bray (Books); Harry Blair, 800-334-0868
In NC 919-275-9809


Jim Butterfield (Toronto), Harvey Herman (Greensboro), Subscription Rates
Fred D'Ignazio (Roanoke) (12 Issue Year): US (one year) S24. Canada, Mexico and [-'oreign
Surface Mail $30. Foreign Air Mail $65.
Customer Service
Philippa King, Customer Service Manager; Gail Jones, Dealer The COMPUTB'i GAZETTE subscriber list is made available to carefully
Sales Supervisor; Judy Taylor, Customer Service Supervisor; screened organizations with a product or service which may be of
Dealer Sales Staff: Rhonda Savage, Debi Goforth, Liz interest to our readers. If you prefer not to receive such mailings,
Krusenstjerna; Customer Service Staff: Betty Atkins, Gayle please send an exact copy of your subscription label to: compute!'!
Benbow, Mary Hunt, Jenna Nash, Chris Patty gazette, P.O. Box 961, Farmingdale, NY 11737. Include a note in
Lonnie Arden, Warehouse Manager; Staff: Howard Avers, Steve dicating your preference to receive only your subscription.
Bowman, David Hensley, Larry O'Connor
Authors of manuscripts warrant that all materials submitted to
Data Processing COMPUTBTl Cazettg are original materials with full ownership rights
Leon Stokes, Manager; Chris Cain, Assistant resident in said authors. By submitting articles to COmputi;: n gazette,
authors acknowledge that such materials, upon acceptance for
Accounting publication, become the exclusive property of COMPUTE!! Publica
Paul J. Megliola, VP, Finance & Planning; R. Steven Vetter, tions, Inc. No portion of this magazine may be reproduced in any
Director, Finance & Planning; Robert Bean, General Accountant; form without written permission from the publisher. Entire contents
Karen K. Rogalski, Financial Analyst; Staff; Dale Branch, Jill Pope copyright © 1985, COMPUTE] Publications, Inc. Rights to programs
Credit developed and submitted by authors are explained in our author
Barry L Beck, Credit Manager; Staff: Sybil Agoe, Anne Ferguson, Pat contract. Unsolicited materials not accepted for publication will be
Fuller, Doris Hall, Linda Miller, Mary Waddell, Jane Wiggs returned if author provides a sel fa d dressed, stamped envelope.
Where programs are included in an article submission, a tape or disk
must accompany the submission. Printed listings are optional, but
Gregory L. Smith, Purchasing Manager
helpful. Articles should be furnished as typed copy (upper and
Promotion lowercase, please) with double spacing. Each article page should bear
the title of the article, date, and name of the author. COMPUTE!
Caroline Dark, Promotion Assistant
Publications, Inc., assumes no liability for errors in articles or
Advertising Sales
advertisements. Opinions expressed by authors are not necessarily
Ken Woodard, Director of Advertising Sales; Patti Stokes, Production
those of COMPUTE! Publications, Inc. COMPUTEI Publications as
Coordinator; Kathleen Hanlon, Administrative Assistant
sumes no responsibility for damages, delays, or failure of shipment in
Sales Representatives connection with authors' offer to make tape or disk copies of pro
Jerry Thompson 415-3-1H-H222 grams published herein.
Ed Winchelt 213-378-8361
PET, CBM, V1C-20, and Commodore 64 are trademarks of Commo
Harry Blair 919-275-9809
dore Business Machines, Inc., and/or Commodore.Electronics Limited.
Jules E. Thompson, Inc. Other than as an independent supplier of quality information and
National and Canadian Sales Representatives services to owners and users of Commodore products, COMPUTE!
1290 Hoivard Avenue, Suite 303 Publications, Inc., is in no way associated with Commodore Business
Buriingame, CA 94010 Machines, Inc., or any of its subsidiaries.
The long-awaited companion to Tool Kit: BASIC has arrived.


Commodore 64 Tool Kit: Kernal
by DanHeeb $16.95

• Explains the mysterious ROM routines in a clear, step-by-

step fashion
• Includes screen, serial, tape, and RS-232-C routines
• Helps you understand each of the standard Kernal jump
routines by describing them thoroughly and clearly.

This book can help a beginner understand how the Kernal

and the computer work. It can help an intermediate pro
grammer become an expert. And for experts, this is an
essential reference.

And new for the

Commodore 64 and 128,

COMPUTEPs Commodore 64/128

Collection Edited, $12.95

Now for the Commodore 64 and the Commodore 128.

this collection brings together some of the best games,
applications, and utilities from COMPUTEI Publications.

• All programs run on the 64 and the 128 running in 64- mode.
• Sections detail the advanced special features of the
powerful, new 128 computer,
• A disk is available which includes programs in the book.

This is the ideal book for beginning and intermediate users

of the Commodore 64 and the new Commodore 128.

Look for these and other best-selling titles from COMPUTEI Books at your local computer and book stores
or order directly from COMPUTE! Publications.

To order, call toll free 800-334-0868 or mail your payment (including $2.00 per book for shipping charges)
to COMPUTE! Books, P.O. Box 5058, Greensboro, NC 27403.

One o< ihe ABC Publishing Companies
Editors and Readers

Do you have a question or a problem? characters to the printer or other periph adding 64K to a 64 to make a 128—is no. A
Have you discovered something that eral. The hardware solution is an interface 128 in 128 mode is more than a Com
could help other Commodore users? that intercepts the Commodore characters modore 64 with extra memory. There are
Do you have a comment about some and changes them to standard ASCII many new keys, including ESC, ALT,
thing you've read in computed ga before they reach their destination. HELP, 40/80 (columns), and a numeric
zette? We want to hear from you. The program you're using apparently keypad. And there's an improved BASIC.
Write to Gazette Feedback, computed gives you the option of sending either kind A 128 in 64 mode is a 64, but it would
GAZETTE, P.O. Box 5406, Greensboro, of ASCII (Commodore ASCII or a software be difficult if not impossible to upgrade a
NC 27403. We regret that due to the translation to true ASCII, if you need it). 64 lo act like a 128 in 128 mode.
volume of mail received, we cannot The MPS-801 you own is a Commodore
respond individually to program printer and uses Commodore ASCII. So,
ming questions. when your program asks what type of Learning BASIC
ASCII, you should answer Commodore The manual that came with my com
ASCII rather than standard ASCII. puter has a list of BASIC words in the
appendix, but it doesn't go through
Speaking The Same Language Commodore 128 Compatibility
them one by one and explain how to
What's an ASCII code? And what's the use them. The definitions are very short
I am considering upgrading from my 64
ASCII code for the MPS-801 printer? I and don't include useful examples. For
to a 128 and I have a few questions
recently purchased a software package example, the DATA statement " fol
about compatibility. Is the 128 compat
that needs to know a printer's code to lowed by a list of items to be used by
ible with the 1541 disk drive? Is it
work. READ statements."
compatible with the 1650 Automodem?
K. Fuse My grandmother has a Texas In
What about the Connection interface
struments computer and the manual for
ASCII is short for "American Standard and a BMC printer? Is it compatible
it explains every little detail of every
Code for Information Interchange," a kind with GAZETTE programs? Will popular
word needed to program in TI BASIC.
of common language used to send infor commercial software work on the 128?
Where do I find a book like that for
mation from a computer to printers, disk Kerry Konecny
Commodore computers?
drives, or other computers. I've read about new 128 software that Bo Michelli
It's like Morse code for computers.
would not fit on a 64 due to ils smaller
Each character is assigned a unique series There are many books that explain BASIC
memory. If you buy a 64K expander for
of on and off bits—ones and zeros—so in simple terms, with a lot of examples.
the 64, would the 128 programs work?
data can be traded back and forth. The The ones written for children can be help
Scott Colston
ones and zeros are commonly expressed as ful even if you're an adult (for example,
their decimal equivalents (for example, The answers to the first five questions are COMPUTEI's Kids and the Commo
01000007 is ASCII 65, which is the letter yes, yes, we don't know (but probably yes), dore 64).
A). yes, and yes. There are three distinct But reading about programming is
The BASIC functions ASC and CHRS computers inside the 128: a Commodore not enough. You should practice and
allow you to find out which characters are 64 (40 columns), a 128 (40 or 80 columns), experiment; remember that you can't
assigned to which ASCII numbers. Try and a CP/M 3.0 computer (80 columns harm the computer by making mistakes.
typing PRINT ASCC'A") or PRINT only). Many readers have commented that typ
CHR$<65). The 1541 works with both 64 or 128 ing in programs from the gazette has
Commodore owners need to know mode, but you'll need the newer disk drive helped them learn more about
about two different types of ASCII codes. to run CP/M programs. A television or programming.
Standard or "true" ASCII uses seven bits composite monitor will work in 40 col Start by learning the most common
to create 128 numbers: 96 printable umns for either 64 mode or 128 mode. But commands like PRINT, INPUT, FOR-
characters and 32 control codes. An eighth 128 mode (80 columns) and CP/M both NEXT, IF-THEN, READ-DATA, GOTO,
bit is sometimes used as a parity bit, a require an RGB monitor. We've tested the and GOSUB. (You could even learn how
checksum. Commodore ASCII is not the 1650 Automodem with Vidtex software in they work by reading your grandmother's
same as true ASCII, and has 256 numbers 64 mode and it seems to work fine (as of book about TI BASIC; these commands
(eight bits), some of which are unused or this writing, there is no telecommu work much the same in different versions
duplicated. nications software for 128 mode). of BASIC.) You don't have to learn all of
If you send Commodore ASCII codes In 64 mode, the computer runs all 64 the commands at once, some of them you
to a non-Commodore printer that expects software we've tried. In other words, it's may never need in the programs you
Standard ASCII, the upper and lowercase not just 64-compatible, it is a 64. write.
letters will be switched (1IKE tHIS, fOR So if you already own a 64 and have It also helps to be able to ask ques
eXAMPLE). You can fix this through soft invested in software and hardware for it, tions about problems you encounter. If
ware or hardware. The software solution you can buy a 128 and continue to use you can't find a friend or neighbor who
is to have the program make the conver your peripherals and programs. knows how to program, contact a local
sion to standard ASCII before sending the The answer to the final question— users group; many offer classes for

10 COMPUTE'S Gazelle September '985


Sure Summer Games was great, but event. It's so realistic, there's even an
why stop there? Let Summer Games II take opening and dosing ceremony along with
you even farther with eight new events medal presentations after each event.
including cycling, fencing, knyaktngi triple
It's not too early to gel ready for 1988.
jump, rawing, high jump,javelin and even
equestrian, They can all be played by
With the right diet, proper training and
up to eight players and some, like cycling,
houra of practice you jusl mighl make it, In
the meantime, put on your sweatsuit grab
rowing and fencing challenge you with
that joystick and let Summer Games II give
realistic head-to-lie ad competition.
you eight new ways toGo For The Gold!
First, you decide which of the 18 different
countries you're going to represent. Then,
in true Olympic fashion, you will need the
proper strategy and mental toughness, • amuvrm scntui

no! just speed and agility to excel in each Strategy Games far tiie Action-Game Player
beginners. Or call local schools and ask if like to be able to use it for other things, 64 (SX-64), and newer models of the 64
they have night or weekend classes in such as menu selection and game de have been revised to eliminate the
programming. sign. I've tried PEEKing to no avail. problem.
Any information you could give me The lockup will occur only when the
would be helpful. cursor color is red, cyan, blue, yellow,
Putting Information Into Lists
David Bradley light red, dark gray, light blue, or light
I've had my computer for two years and
gray. Safe colors are black, white, purple,
can write programs for it, but I just can't The KoalaPad is read like paddles. Each
green, orange, brown, medium gray, and
seem to understand the DIM statement. paddle can have a value from 0 to 255,
light green. To avoid the problem al
Chris Davis depending on which direction it is turned.
together, change the cursor color to a safe
The KoalaPad gives back two numbers in
DIM is short for DIMension, and it sets up color before you start programming.
the range 0-255, corresponding to the
a list of variables called an array. Let's say Also, you can defeat the lockup if you
pen's horizontal and vertical position. On
you're a teacher meeting new students for own a Datassette. After the computer
the 64, peeking location 54297 gives the
the first time. You know ahead of time that freezes, simultaneously press the left
horizontal coordinate, and 54298 gives
there will be 15 students, so you write the SHIFT key and 3, or X and 5, or V and 7,
the vertical position. Reading the
numbers 1-15 on separate lines down the and so on (every other key from left to
KoalaPad is more accurate !ji machine
tefthand side of a sheet of paper. As each right). The screen will display PRESS
language,because these two locations are
student comes into the room, you ask for PLAY ON TAPE. Press PLAY on the
also usedby the keyboard scan routine.
his or her name and write it on one of the Datassette and then RUN/STOP. Disk
Use these statements in your pro
numbered lines. Numbering the list before drive owners can totally avoid the bug if
gram to determine which button is
putting anything into it is the equivalent the first line in the program in memory is
of the DIM statement—you're preparing a OPEN15.8.15: 1NPUT#15,A$.
list that will be a certain size. IF <PEEK<56321>AND8) = 0 THEN the
right button is pressed
You can do the same thing (create a
IF <PEEK{S6321)AND4) = 0 THEN the left Disk Limits
numbered list of names) on a computer
button is pressed I am learning how to use relative files
with a string array:
on the 64. I've read that more than one
The following BASIC program uses
10 DIM N$(15) disk file can be open simultaneously,
20 FOR ] = 1 TO 15: PRINT "STUDENT"; the KoalaPad to move a sprite around the
but whenever I try to open a second rel
J screen. Pressing the right button will
ative file, I get an error 70, NO CHAN
30 INPUT N«J): NEXT change the color of the sprite, while press
NEL. I don't understand where the
40 PRINT "STUDENT FIVE IS''; N$<5> ing the left will toggle the sprite's size.
error comes from.
The DIM statement in line 10 tells 10 PRINT"[CLRi":FORA=832T0896: Don Amett
the computer to set aside some memory for POKEA,255:NEXT:POKE2040,13:
a list of strings (for a list of numbers, you POKE53269,1 Relative files are fast and flexible, but you
would leave off the dollar sign). It's like 20 POKE53248,PEEK(54297):POKE5 cannot have more than one open at any
3249,PEEK(54298) time. It's possible lo open a sequential file
writing numbers down the side of a piece
30 IF(PEEK(56321)AND8)=0THENPO while a relative file is open, however, and
of paper, except that the computer starts
KE532B7,(PEEK(53287)+l)*-(P you may be able to modify your program
counting at zero, so the list actually has EGK(53287)<255)
room for 16 tiatnes rather than 15. Lines accordingly. For more about programming
40 IF(PEEK(56321)AND4)=0THENPO
20-30 ask for 15 names, ignoring name relative files, see "Relative Files: Speed
number zero. 50 GOTO 20 and Economy" in the ]une 1985 gazette.
The example above is a one-
dimensional array, meaning there's only Don't jump Out Of Loops
one number (dimension) in parentheses. The 64 Lockup Bug I've been programming the 64 for about
You can create complex multidimensional I have encountered an extremely nine months, and recently I got an OUT
arrays by using more numbers separated annoying and aggravating problem OF MEMORY error during a program.
by commas. For example, DIM B$(15,3) with my 64. When I'm typing a line at PRINT FRE(0) showed that there was
would create a 64-elemcnt two- the bottom of the screen and go over plenty of memory left.
dimensional array 16 strings wide (0-15) the 80-character limit (two screen I've read that this error can be
by 4 strings deep (numbered 0-3). This ar lines), I start to delete the excess charac caused by a full stack, which can come
ray could keep track of 16 students, with ters. As the cursor hits the 40th column from jumping out of FOR-NEXT loops
separate variables for first, middle, and on the previous line, the words LOAD (which I did excessively). So I POKEd
last name (plus one more entry like favor and READY appear. And BASIC zeros into the stack area, but that didn't
ite food or shoe size). Three, four, five, or crashes. I have to turn the computer off, work. How can I get my memory back?
more dimensions are also possible, al losing the program in memory. Is there William J. Moses
though you don't see them used very any solution?
POKEing zeros to the stack doesn't clear
often. David Schuster
it, it just changes all the information on
Once an array is dimensioned, it can
Nearly all 64s suffer from this bug. Read the (still) full stack to zeros. It's possible to
not be redimensioned—you'll get a
ers who haven't seen it before can make it write a machine language program that
REDIM'D ARRAY error. You have to stick
happen quite easily. Turn on your 64, clears leftover FOR-NEXT information
with the dimensions you assign at the
move the cursor down to the last line, and from the stack, but jumping out of FOR-
beginning of the program.
hold down the space bar until the cursor NEXT loops is only asking for trouble. The
Arrays are useful because, for one
passes the right edge of the screen twice. best solution is to avoid doing so.
thing, they allow you to alphabetize and
Hold down the DELete key until the BASIC programs put important
sort lists of words and numbers. They're
cursor goes back to the far right column. information about subroutines and FOR-
also quite common in database and
You'll see the word LOAD, and if there's a NEXT loops on the stack. Loops and sub
spreadsheet applications.
program in memory, it will run. But when routines may contain one line or a
the program ends, your computer will lock thousand, so the program has to keep the
The Koala Pad up. information safe until it eventually
As an owner of the KoalaPad, I would The bug does not affect the. portable reaches a NEXT or a RETURN. Jumping

12 COMPUTE's Gazette September 1985

If we could arrange to have you sit down and use Paperback Writer, we wouldn't have to run
this ad. The software would sell itself. The session would start with you wondering where the
manual was. The fact is, you don't need one ... Paperback Writer is 'leading-edge'
sophisticated, yet with assistance throughout, it's extremely simple to use. A manual
would only waste your time.

Paperback Writer is a revelation. What you see on screen is what you get. When you
specify a format, you see it right away. Look at our exclusive visual on-screen text formatting
like boldface, underline and italics ... like page breaks and indents.

You also get all of the other features you could

hope for in serious word processing software like
spelling checker, 40 or 80 column versions, and Hie
compatibility with other popular word processors.
You'll think you've stepped into the next generation
of word processing and you know what? You have!

Paperback Writer is available in two versions...

64 or the new, faster 80 column 128. And Digital
Solutions has a special offer for you. All registered
Paperback Writer 64 owners can receive a 128
upgrade disc for only $15 through Digital

Plot BBtiuno! Wforo Fvsisw With Paperback Writer, you'll adore you
(ov Hut Gonin»adi>ift» 6-4
Commodore even more. On, and one more thing can order Paperback Writer 64 or 128
from Crystal Computer for only $39.95.

Talk about a happy ending

ioi orda'S only tall: Crystal Computer Inc. For ififon.-.m i i To. Digital Solutions Int.
InMichlgo" US 17-)21-7667 P.O. Bon 345, Slolian A
Ouiiido Michigan 1-B00-245-7316 WiNowddo, Ontario
out of a loop or subroutine leaves "gar 1. Sometimes the problem is simple
bage" on the stack, leading to the error magnetic interference. Move your Moving Across The Sprite Seam
you described. Datassette away from the television or I'm not able to move two sprites, in tan
If the logic of your program requires monitor. And watch where you keep your dem, through the 255 blockade. I
jumping out of a loop, don't use FOR- cassettes; don'i store them next to the TV. would like them to enter the left side of
NEXT. Instead of FOR M=l TO 20, 2. If certain tapes are unloadable, try the screen and exit to the right,
start the loop with M=l. Replace the fast forwarding and then rewinding them Sid Seiferlein
NEXT with M = M + 1: IF M<21 THEN once or twice. This removes slack from the
GOTO XXX (XXX should be the line that There are two memory locations that
tape, which can make it slip and slide
follows M=l). The FOR-NEXT loop has determine the X and Y position of each of
when loading or saving.
been replaced by IF-COTO, which will the eight sprites:
3. Use ferric oxide rather than the
not fill up the stack or lead to an error. 53248 Sprite 0 X-position
more expensive chromium tape. Ferric
53249 Sprite 0 Y-po$itio>i
tape records programs better,
53250 Sprite I X-position
Triple-VIC/64 4. The read/write head can become 53251 Sprite 1 Y-position
Your April issue contained a machine magnetized and/or dirty after heavy use. anil so on...
language program that divides a 64 into Demagnetizes, sometimes called "de 53262 Sprite 7 X-positbn
three 12K areas. I have a VIC with 16K gaussers," and head cleaning kits are 53263 Sprite 7 Y-position
expansion and would like to know if it's available at audio and electronics stores, But 16 registers, two for each sprite,
possible to write a version of Triple-64 and will solve this problem. are not enough to cover all positions on
for the VIC.
5. Tape drives can become mis the screen. Each memory location can
Neil J. Schneider aligned. If you're having trouble loading contain a number from 0 to 255. This is
Several VIC owners have requested a ver commercial tapes, try adjusting the screw enough for the possible Y (vertical) po
sion of Triple-64. Reader Richard Good next to the tape head. The newer sitions, but there are more than 256 X
man sent us a Triple-VIC program for a Datassettes (the ones where RECORD is (horizontal) locations. One more register is
VIC with 32K expansion. We modified it next to PLAY) have a small hole through needed, for the high bit of the X-position:
somewhat to make it work on either the 64 which you can insert a screwdriver to
Location 53264 (8 bits)
or a VIC with any memory expansion. align the head. xxxxxxxx

Also, if you've moved the start or end of Sprite/Bil # 76543210

BASIC to protect a utility program like Value 128 64 32 16 8 4 2 I
■'MetaBASIC." or to keep BASIC away Spaces Look Like Shifted Spaces To move sprites across to the right of
from hi-res screens or custom characters, I am writing a graphics program for the the seam (where SP is the sprite number
the protected area is still safe. 64. 1 want to plot an initial block but between zero and seven), POKE 53264,
Whatever memory is free is divided nothing appears with this line: 380 PEEK(53264) OR (2TSP). To go back to
into three roughly equal sections of mem POKE 1064,96: POKE 55336,2. Chang the left side, POKE 53264, PEEK(53264)
ory. Section three may be slightly larger ing the background color doesn't affect AND(255-2TSP).
than one or two. To move back and forth, anything. I used character 96 because At the same time that you set the bit
SYS679 and press 1, 2, or 3. the User's Guide says it's the reverse for in 53264, you'll have to lower the number
10 F0RA=679TO733:READB:POKEA,B character 32. Can you help? in the X-position, For sprite zero, for ex
iNEXT David Easterday ample, here are the POKEs;
20 H=PEEK{44):M=INT((PEEK(56)-
X-position POKEs
N)/3) When you POKE characters to the screen
30 FORA=0TO2:POKE741+A,N+A*M:P of a Commodore computer, you must use 253 POKE5324B,253
OKE7 38+A,N+A"MtPOKE743+A,N+ 254 POKE5324S,254
screen codes, which are listed in an
A*M:J=256"PEEK(741+A) 255 POKE53248.255
appendix in the User's Guide. They're not
40 FORK=0TO2:POKEJ+K,0iNEXT:PO 256 POKE53248,0:POKE53264,
necessarily the same as ASCII codes. In
KE735+A,3tNEXTiPOKE2,1:POKE PEEK(53264)OR1
746,PEEK(56)iNEW addition, you have to POKE to color mem
257 FOKE53248,1
50 DATA 166,2,165,45,157,222 ory. Each letter has a foreground color (the 258 POKE53248,2
60 DATA 2,165,46,157,225,2 character you see) and a background color.
70 DATA 32,228,255,41,15,240 The foreground is taken from color mem The POKE to 53264 is necessary only
80 DATA 249,201,4,176,245,170 ory, while the background is the same as when you cross the sprite seam. It's best to
90 DATA 134,2,1B9,222,2,133 the screen color. use OR to turn bits on, and AND to turn
100 DATA 45,133,47,133,49,189
If you forget to POKE color memory, them off, so you don't disturb the positions
110 DATA 225,2,133,46,133,48 of the other sprites.
you may get a character that's the same
120 DATA 133,50,189,228,2,133 To move two or more sprites across
130 DATA 44,189,231,2,133,56,9
color as the screen, like writing with blue
ink on blue paper, or white ink on white the seam, OR or AND with the appro
priate number. If they're sprites zero and
You have the right idea—location one, POKE 53264, PEEK(53624) OR 3 to
Cassette Woes move right, POKE 53264, PEEKI53264)
1064 in screen memory matches up with
I own a 64 and a Datassette. Sometimes AND (255-3) to move left. You'll have
55336 in color memory. But character 96
it does not record right, and the pro to POKE the registers for the X-position as
is not the reverse of character 32. Charac
gram doesn't completely load. I believe well. <m
ter 32 is a space. Character 96 is a shifted
I need to buy a new Datassette, but
space, which looks exactly like a regular
would like to read through the problem
space (no foreground, because it's a space, To receive additional
tape and find out what's going wrong.
and spaces are all background}. At the end'
Any suggestions? information from advertisers
of the screen code table is a note that says
Tom Appell
"Codes from 128 to 255 are reversed im in this issue, use the
You probably don't need to buy a new ages of codes 0-127," so to get a reversed handy reader service cards
Datassette—you may be able to fix it space, POKE a 160 (space 32 + reverse
yourself. Here are some suggestions for 128) to 1064. A 224 (SHIFT-space 96 + in the back of the
troubleshooting cassette problems: reverse 128) could also be used. magazine.
14 COMPUTEfs Gazette September 1985

ourself in the pilot's seat of a Piper 181 Cherokee Archer for an awe-inspiring liignt over reaiisnc scene
js^Xxam New York to Los Angeles. High speed color-filled 3D graphics will give you a beautiful panoramic vli
as you practice takeoffs, landings, and aerobatics. Complete documentation will get you airborne quickly
even If you've never flown before. When you think you're ready, you can play the World War I Ace aerial battle
game. Flight Simulator II features Include ■ animated color 3D graphics ■ day, dusk, and night flying mode;
■ over 80 airports in four scenery areas: New York/Chicago, Los Angeles, Seattle, with additional scenery ;
areas available ■ user-variable weather, from clear blue skies to grey cloudy conditions ■ complete flight ;
Instrumentation ■ VOR, ILS, ADF, and DME radio equipped ■ navigation facilities and course plotting ■ World
War I Ace aerial battle game ■ complete Information manual and flight handbook.

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Gazette Disk
Now you can enjoy the exciting programs
from COMPUTE!"s Gazette on a
ready-to-run disk

Every month you can receive COMPUTEI's

Gazette Disk, which includes the fascinat
ing and challenging programs published
in the corresponding issue of COMPUTEI's
Gazette, ready to load on your Com
modore 64 or VIC-20.
The 514-inch floppy disk will arrive in your
home in time for you to enjoy the quality
programs of COMPUTEI's Gazette without
having to type a single program.

Tlmesavlng Convenient
Using COMPUTEI's Gazette Disk saves COMPUTEI's Gazette Disk gives you
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L --J
A stunning example of high-resolution graphics on the Amiga. The
image of this mandrill was digitized and displayed on the computer's
640X400 graphics screen. With 4096 shades of color available, the
Amiga can accurately reproduce almost any image.

18 COMPUTE!* Gazette September 1985

Inside Cflmmodore's New

nds-On Report
Charles Brannon, Program Editor

The long wait isfcver. The Amiga compi^^from of a musician's stand-alone

Commodore hasmrrived, combining the multi Although much of today's soft
tasking power oga minicomputer, the color ware is useful and friendly, the ide
al computer would truly fulfill the
graphics of a computer design station, the stereo
promise of user-friendliness. You
sound of a sophisticated synthesizer, and much should be able to learn and use soft
more. Here's anVbverview of this astounding new ware without thick manuals or ex
tended training sessions. You
personal computer.
should have the convenience and
: ■
features of professional software
while retaining straightforward
The VIC and 64 both repre Apple Macintosh, the Atari ST, and ease of use.
sent considerable comput the Amiga, can finally satisfy the Given a library of powerful
ing power, bringing the true needs of a broad range of users, software, wouldn't it be even better
power of a computer within from home, educational, and recre if all your software could work to
almost any consumer's reach. ational computing to small business gether, or — outrageous as it
These computers, now referred to and corporate data processing. The sounds—for many programs to run
as low-end machines, had their ori price of these machines is some simultaneously? Indeed, our ideal
gin in the first affordable $1000 what more than many people are computer should be more than a
computers: the venerable PET, the used to paying for a home com personal microcomputer. It should
Apple, and the Atari 400/800. The puter, but these are complete ma offer to a single user the flavor and
64 was instrumental in bringing the chines. You don't need to add features of a personal mainframe.
price of all computers down, while memory or disk drives—they're The computer we've described
giving us the graphics formerly built in. is the Amiga. The smallest Amiga
possible only on large-scale arcade How can the Amiga possibly comes complete with 256K (four
machines. We're still seeing the fulfill these broad expectations? times the memory of the 64) and
evolution of the low-end home Picture your ideal computer. Tak built-in 3.5 inch microfloppy that
computer with the Plus/4, the 128, ing the 64 as the base, it would be stores 880K (about five Commo
the Atari 130XE, and even the Japa nice to extend the memory, ideally dore 1541 disks) for S1100-S1500.
nese MSX computers. In the mean without limit. The 64 graphics are The $2000 (approximately) Amiga
time, there's a segregated market of great, but wouldn't 80 columns, offers 512K and includes a super-
IBM and IBM compatibles—high- more resolution, and much more high-resolution monitor. If 512K of
end machines which carry high- variety of color be even better? The memory isn't enough, the Amiga
end price tags. ideal computer should be able to can be expanded up to 8 megabytes
We're now seeing the cycle re display near-photographic quality (that's 8 million bytes) of RAM. In
peat itself: new, powerful comput pictures. deed, you can already buy a two-
ers bringing Promethean The 64's SID chip was the first megabyte memory expansion
computing power from the world of sound device to rise above mere board that includes a battery-
minicomputers and mainframes. bleeps and tones, but our ideal powered clock/calendar and an ad
These truly unique machines, the computer should have the quality ditional communications port. You
COMPUTEIs Gazelle September 1985 19
■;;;: £!::*■"■ ■* . -

sponsible for much of the Amiga's

speed. Along with the copper, it
takes care of graphics (including
animation), freeing the 68000 to
run as a pure turbocharged comput
ing engine.
The blitter can simulate sprites
with all the speed and capability of
64 sprites, including collision and
proximity (nearness) detection and
multiple display priority-—all
this-—with 32 colors. The icing on
the cake is the hardware sprite sys
tem which can be used in addition
to blitter objects. The Amiga sup
ports eight primary sprites. Each
sprite is 16 dots wide (compared to
the 64's 12-pixel multicolor sprites)
and up to the full screen's height.
Each sprite can display four of the
4096 colors simultaneously, and
can be quickly and easily moved
anywhere on the screen. Sprites can
be attached (overlayed) to allow 16
color combinations. The sprites can
computer from Commodore, with built-in i'h-inch disk drive, detached
be reused automatically in different
keyboard, two-button mouse, and optional RGB monitor, and external drive.
areas of the screen permitting many
more than eight simultaneous ob
can attach up to four external 880K modes are fully supported by the jects. And the Amiga operating sys
disk drives, or a 20-megabyte hard operating system. To comprehend tem will even substitute blitter
disk drive. (The 2M RAM board this figure, remember that the 64's objects when it runs out of sprites.
and 20M hard drive are available screen would fit in one quadrant of Sprites can be made to move
from Tecmar, not Amiga.) the 640 x 400 mode, and this automatically.
Amiga mode also has 16 times the There's more. Any screen can
color resolution of the 64. The be finely scrolled both horizontally
The Amiga's graphics are simply 640 x 400 mode has pixels so fine and vertically. A special mode per
outstanding, far surpassing the that they are not easily seen, no mits you to create two separate
graphics available on any computer matter how close you get to the screens, as if each screen was in a
sold for less than $10,000. While screen. Pictures drawn in this mode dimension of its own. The screens
the 64 has a 160 x 200 multicolor are hard to distinguish from actual are overlayed, and can include
mode, the Amiga can display 320 paintings, cartoons, or even transparent portions so that you
dots across and 200 down, and can photographs. can view through one screen to see
display one of 32 colors in any dot These are impressive graphics, another. It's as if you had one huge
position. You can fill these 32 color but a still image is lifeless compared sprite to display on top of the pri
registers with any of 4096 colors; 16 to one filled with ricocheting ob mary screen. You do lose some
luminance levels each of red, green, jects, growing forms, flashing col color capabilities with dual screens.
and blue, combined as you wish, as ors, and all manner of motion. The But if it's color you want, a hold and
if you were an artist mixing paints Amiga hardware includes special modify mode permits you to display
on a palette. This many colors per microprocessors that run simulta any of the 4096 colors in every pixel
mit incredibly subtle shading and neously with the main 68000 CPU position in the 320 x 200 mode.
color selection. Almost any color (the 68000 has been referred to as a An optional video board
you can think of can be displayed ''minicomputer on a chip"). One (about $200) allows video mixing
realistically. The pictures (actual chip called the copper (for coproces and frame grabbing. Video can be
screen photos) accompanying this sor) runs in tandem with the video mixed from any video source, such
article show only some of the beam, tracking and capable of as a color video camera, laser disc,
graphics capabilities. changing graphics on the fly. The or a VCR. The Amiga's text and
The Amiga can also display a more powerful blitter chip can draw graphics can be superimposed on
640 x 200 display, but only 16 col lines on its own, fill areas, and the external video, then re-record
ors can be displayed simultaneous move large sections of the screen ed. The frame grabber freezes and
ly. Each of these 16 colors can still around. It can move blocks of mem digitizes the video image in color,
be picked from a total of 4096 color ory of any size and shape to any permitting you to convert real-
combinations. There's a 320 x 400 other place in memory. It does all world video into computer graphics
mode (twice the vertical resolution) these things without significantly that you can edit with a drawing
and a 640 x 400 mode. These slowing the 68000. The blitter is re program.

20 COMPUTErs Gazelle September 1985





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similar to the 64's attack/sustain/ of data from the disk. Even the disk
decay/release cycle. The sound drive can operate simultaneously
system has direct access to system with direct access to memory, while
memory, requiring very little pro the 68000 is busy with something
cessor time to keep the sound going else. The core operating system, the
or to change notes or instruments, equivalent of the 64's Kernal, is
again freeing the 68000 for pure more than a bag of tricks. It pro
computing tasks. vides a firm foundation for the
The Amiga comes with a built- higher level operating system.
in voice synthesizer capable of sim The next level up in complexity
ulating male or female voices. The is AmigaDOS. It is comparable in
voice is somewhat metallic and features to IBM's DOS, but is closer
seems to talk with a strange accent, to Unix in design. AmigaDOS not
but is still quite understandable. only provides for the command line
Most importantly, because the interpreter where you can execute
Even low-resolution graphics on the voice synthesis is built in, software commands to rename, delete, list,
Amiga are impressive. Island Graphics developers are sure to exploit it. and create files, but provides these
ofSausalito, California, which is design The educational value of speech is functions to other applications and
ing graphics software for the Amiga,
undeniable. You may or may not operating system routines. Amiga-
copied this ballerina from a famous
prefer your computer to talk to you DOS also includes a powerful batch
painting by Edgar Degas. This graphics
mode offers the same resolution as a while you're word processing, but it language which lets you create your
Commodore 64—320 X 200 pixels—but could be an option. Voice synthesis own custom disk routines.
the wider variety of colors lets the
Amiga more closely duplicate the feel of
the original.

The Amiga doesn't shortchange

the audiophile. Its sound system
rivals the quality of commercial
music synthesizers. The 64's SID
chip has been called a synthesizer,
but few would mistake its sound for
the real thing. The Amiga does
sound like actual instruments.
We've heard the Amiga simulate a
piano, a flute, a pipe organ, an elec
tric guitar, snare drums, cymbals,
tom-toms, and more. Instead of pi
ano-like tones or white-noise
drums, what you hear sounds much
like a recording of the real thing. In
fact, the Amiga sound system is ca
pable of playing hack digitized
sound with uncanny accuracy, ap
proaching the sound quality of the
new compact disc audio This space scene is another example of what can be done with the Amiga and Pro-
technology. Paint. Island Graphics also has preyared a slightly less powerful version of the pro
The sound system has four gram called GraphiCraft.
voices—two of which are sent to
each sound channel, permitting is most useful when text on the Unlike most DOSs for other
stereo depth as well as stereo imag screen may be overlooked. This computers (except Concurrent
ing. Each voice plays a digital should open up completely new CP/M), AmigaDOS permits its
waveform in memory that is de concepts for software developers. own commands to run simulta
fined either by your program or by neously. You can list a directory in
a previously recorded actual sound. one window while sorting a file in
Almost any sound can be approxi The opera tingsystemsupporlsex- another. Programs can be run un
mated closely. In fact, each voice tremely sophisticated program der AmigaDOS in the background.
can play chords of multiple instru ming. You need never resort to Each program has its own "virtual"
ment waveforms, permitting more PEEKs and POKEs, not even from access to all machine features, but
than four levels of sound layering. machine language. There's a routine does not interfere with any other
The volume level can be controlled to access every feature of the hard programs running simultaneously.
automatically, permitting realistic ware, from automatic line drawing (No single computer can actually
high-resolution sound envelopes, routines to pulling in huge amounts do more than one thing at once, but

22 COMPUTE!'* Gazette September 19B5

COMPUTES's Telecomputing
on the Commodore 64
This comprehensive guide explains
TELECOMPUTING everything you need to know lo start
telecomputing on your Commodore
Many home compuler analysts

64 believe that telecomputing will soon

be the most popular use for home
computers. COMPUTEI's Telecomputing
on the Commodore 64 Introduces
readers to telecommunications, with
sections on buying and using modems,
accessing Information services and
bulletin boards, and uploading and
downloading flies, Best ol all, there are
Evoylliing you reed to know 10 (tart
teieeorrwng an your 64—Including ipaciol
terminal programs which allow you to
Iwrrinol toflwaro communicate with the Information
services and bulletin boards,
n COWUTII ■»)<■ ii turn

For your convenience, there's also a disk available which Includes all the
programs In the book, This SVi-lnch floppy disk saves you hours of typing
and prevents many typing errors. It's fast, Inexpensive, and ready to load
on your Commodore 64. You can order the Disk directly Irom COMPUTEI
Books for only $12.95.

To order COMPUTEI's Telecomputing on the Commodore 64 or the Disk, mall the order
torm with your payment to COMPUTEI Books, P.O, Box 5058, Greensboro, NC 27403.
For fastest service, call toll free 600-334-0868 (in NC 919-275-9809.)


Plea is tend me:
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COMPUIEI Bookj are available (n the U.K. Europe, the

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COMPUTE! Publicationsjnc.® 1 St. Anne's Road. Eastbourne, East
BN21 3UN. England.
ting many DOS windows and DOS includes ten special function keys, a
programs to be running at once. cursor pad, and a numeric keypad.
This realizes the true power of The keyboard has a very light touch
minicomputers and mainframes. and good spacing, layout, and tac
With terminals and the proper soft tile feedback, with a nonglare tex
ware, you can even attach multiple tured surface. You can slide the
users to the same machine, a capa keyboard underneath the system
bility formerly available only on the unit when it's not needed, freeing
most expensive microcomputers. up desk space.
Multitasking is easy with Intu
You don't have to be a keyboard ition and Workbench, the "desk
A picture within a picture. This image wizard to use the Amiga. Ami top" that's similar to the Macintosh
and all of (he graphics screens accompa gaDOS will probably be the pre finder. Each application you run
nying tins article except the mandrill can have its own window or an en
ferred environment for many
were created in the low-resolution mode tire screen of its own. A window is
programmers and expert users, but
by Island Graphics. The pictures were
most beginners and occasional us like a miniature screen that can be
drawn with a mouse controller a>id
ers of the computer will want some moved about and resized on the
Island Graphics' ProPaint software,
which will be marketed under the buffering between them and the in desktop, A screen is a separate full-
Amiga brand name. timidating power and sophistica size window that, itself, can contain
tion of this DOS. multiple windows.
Amiga's "Intuition" operating Concurrency is a powerful
system permits the use of Macin concept. You can start working
tosh-like features such as multiple with a spreadsheet, and while it's
windows, pull-down menus, dialog recalculating a huge interconnected
boxes, and mouse control. (The series of formulas, switch to a word
mouse is a small box that relays di processor to jot down a memo.
rection and speed as you move it on While the word processor is print
a flat surface.) This user interface ing your memo, you can switch to a
concept originated with Alan Kay telecommunications program and
and the Xerox Star. It relies exten tell it to download stock quotes or
sively on the use of pictures (icons) research data, or send some files to
This screen shows some of the educa to symbolically represent com the office computer. While the com
tional possibilities of the Amiga. These mands and files as objects. The puter is juggling these three tasks,
microbes are reproduced nearly as accu you can go to another word pro
work environment is represented
rately as a textbook illustration. cessing window to write some
by a graphic desktop, called the
WorkBt'ttch. Computer operations more, or access your database for a
JFrOjptl tjyoiil
EERITFlii mimic familiar real-world tasks. In mailing label or bibliography.
While writing you may need to
stead of typing OPEN 15,8,15,
"S0:FILENAME":CLOSE 15, you switch to a drawing program to pre
just point to the file with the mouse, pare a figure to insert in your text.
hold down the mouse button, and You may need to refer to your out
drag the file into a picture of a line stored in the outline processor.
trashcan. Drag a file into the win It's easy to copy data between these
dow of another disk, and you've programs by using a common area
Cupibp V*v* ("itt SHIFT in hsvt cursor i
Fl ; Stlicllai [ti - Cd;i« |g Ih.
copied it. Instead of trying to re of memory called the clipboard. As
1 F3 : Blyloird Jtrftrtrtt 1 = flari tali .
■ F4-= 1 Mintlt Tolinili Uts Arams member the name of a command, long as you've got the computer do
just point to the top of the screen ing all your work for you, you
A help screen from TextCraft, an icon- and then point the command you might as well play an adventure
based word processor developed by Ark- want from a list of commands (a game until it's finished.
tronics. This screen shows a keyboard menu) that magically drop's down
map; other screens provide animated tu from the top. Programmers will love the Amiga.
torials on everything from creating a file If you've ever used Commo The operating system supports
to printing out a finished document.
dore's magic Desk, you've seen an so many routines that a program
extremely simplified, but similar, mer needs only to concentrate on
concept. And if you've used a Mac- his or her algorithm, not on looking
can seem to, by quickly switching intosh, you'll find the same up which bit controls the priority of
between tasks, giving each program straightforward and intuitive style, playfield versus sprites. Most of the
a small slice of processor time. but with true multitasking. Unlike operating system was written in C,
Hence, too many concurrent pro the Macintosh, most programs fully a language unique in its high-speed
grams can slow things down.) support keyboard control. In fact, performance, permitting system-
Programs can also be set up to Amiga claims that you can unplug level access to the machine while
reside concurrently without execut the mouse, pitch it across the room, providing high-level language con
ing. You can even run AmigaDOS and still take full advantage of the structs. C can be described as a sys
simultaneously with itself, permit- machine. The detached keyboard tems-level Pascal, but with so many
24 COMPUTE'S Gazette SeplembeM985 continued on page 28
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Selby Bateman, Features Editor A "videogram" created by Electronic Electronic Arts' Return to Atlantis
Arts'Video Construction Set. is an undersea adventure with three-
dimensional graphics and digital sound
Question: What sort of software do
you create for a computer as powerful
and versatile as the Amiga?
Answer: Anything you want.
Among the companies develo
ping Amiga programs are such
That's the happy situation in consumer software names as Ac- The new packages are Video
which Commodore finds itself as tivision, Broderbund, and Electron Construction Set, a graphics pro
momentum builds for the long- ic Arts. Mindscape will offer Amiga gram which lets you create your
awaited Amiga computer. More versions of The Halley Project, Key own pictures and incorporate im
than 20 applications packages were board Cadets, and Deja Vu, and is ages and sounds from a library of
scheduled to be available in late producing the tutorial software to "click art" pictures and sound ef
July at the Amiga official launch. A be bundled with the machine. Oth fects to make sophisticated "video-
score of companies have been de ers include Island Graphics; Ark- grams" for a variety of consumer
veloping software with Amiga pro tronics, which has developed and business applications; Return to
totypes—some for longer than a TextCraft, an entry-level word pro Atlantis, a graphic undersea adven
year. And another 150 developers, cessor carrying the Amiga brand ture game with three-dimensional
representing approximately 80 name; Chang Labs, which is con video images and digital sound ef
companies, crowded into Amiga's verting its Rags to Riches accounting fects; Instant Music, a music cre
software development symposium series—Ledger, Receivables, and ation program which uses real
held in Monterey earlier this Pflt/oWes—from the IBM-PC format digitized sound and can emulate a
summer. to an Amiga version; Batteries In synthesizer and a variety of musical
Commodore officials point out cluded, and SubLogic Corp. (Flight instruments; Deluxe Music Con
that these companies include devel Simulator II and Jet). struction Set, an advanced version
opers and distributors of business, "We are making a major com of the EA's earlier Music Construc
education, entertainment, lan mitment to develop programs for tion Set, for even more sophisticat
guage, personal productivity, the Amiga," says Trip Hawkins, ed music creation; and a strategic
graphics, music, and utility pro president of Electronic Arts, a lead action game {untitled at press time)
grams—in short, the entire spec ing software company which has which pits players in a flying super-
trum of computer software. been creating programs on the tank against invading aliens.
With an Amiga advertising Amiga for the past ten months. "I Existing Electronic Arts' pack
budget of approximately $25 mil believe this machine, marketed and ages to be made available for the
lion for the latter half of 1985, Com supported properly, should-have a Amiga initially include Adventure
modore is pushing its marketing very significant impact on the per Construction Set, Archon, Archon 11:
efforts for the machine (and the ini sona! computer industry. We will Adept, Seven Cities of Gold, SkyFox,
tial software) toward two targets probably have more programs for Financial Cookbook, and Julius
during the first six months: small the Amiga than any other software Erving and Larry Bird Go One-on-
business and in-home users. In ear firm." One.
ly 1986, Commodore will begin to The first dozen programs an For over a year. Island Graph
go after the corporate and educa nounced by EA include several new ics of San Francisco has been devel
tion markets as software titles in packages as well as enhancements oping advanced graphics software
both areas become available in of software already existing for oth for the Amiga. Although not well
quantity. While the first software er computers—all to be introduced known to the public, Island Graph
products are expected to be weight within the last six months of 1985. ics has established itself as a lead
ed toward the consumer and small Prices will range between $35 and ing computer graphics OEM
business markets, Commodore is $50, Hawkins says. Not surprising (original equipment manufacturer).
confident that powerful business ly, EA's Amiga titles take full ad The company has designed pro
programs from major manufactur vantage of the stunning graphics grams ranging from Micro Illustra
ers will begin to appear in early and sound capabilities of the new tor and the software for the Atari
1986. machine. Touch Tablet to minicomputer

26 COMPUTE!'* Gazette September 1985

It's Absolutely
After all these years, CMS Software Systems is still the only
company providing professional quality accounting software for the
complete line of Commodore business computers.

Whether you own an 8032, 8096, SuperPET, B-128, C-64, or the new
C-128, we have a professionally written, fully integrated Accounting System
designed especially for you.

Introduced in 1979, the CMS Accounting System was the first

Accounting System available for Commodore computers. Not satisfied with
just being first, we have continued to update, expand, and improve until
today, the CMS Accounting System is widely recognized as one of the
finest Accounting Systems available for any computer.

Now Available for the Commodore C-128

eneral Ledger

'ccounts Receivable


. ■ ■

.ccounts Payable

• Job Costing


Complete Price

For mote information see your

Commodore dealer or cali
Cathy Yorkal 214/289-0677.

CMS Software Systems, Inc. - 2204 Camp David • Mesquite, TX 75149

graphic design work stations. Chart and Apple's MacPaint and
Island Graphics will initially MacDrazo for the Macintosh. BPGS
have several packages for the is an object-oriented system. Any
Amiga, with more to follow. The part of the display can be moved
first two, both of which will carry CPU: Motorola 68000, a 16/32-bit
and edited as if it were an indepen
the Amiga brand name, are Grophi- microprocessor; three separate cus
dent shape. The program uses vec
tom integrated-circuit chips con
Craft, a graphics creation program tored text—characters and letters
for the home market, and ProPaint, trolling animation, graphics, and
drawn with lines—so that the text
an advanced graphics program for can be finely scaled without blocki-
the professional artist. An ad ness. The created image can be cop- Operating System: Macintosh-
vanced business graphics package ied to various printers with no style with pull-down menus, win
will also be among the first releases effective limit on resolution. The dows, multiple screens, and icons.
for the Amiga from island Graph system is also ideal for use with the Unix-like DOS. Capable of true
ics. Entitled BPCS (Business Presen- Polaroid Palette slide capture sys multitasking (able to run several
tation Graphics System), the tem, providing an entre to crack programs simultaneously).
package will reportedly surpass the into the $11.8 billion per year busi Memory: 256K RAM standard,
combined capabilities of Microsoft ness presentation slide market. 512K optional. Expandable up to 8
megabytes. 192K ROM.
continued from page 24 Disk Drive: Built-in 880K 3V3-inch
microfloppy drive; can daisy-chain
functions available in its standard not rule out the possibility of an
up to four external drives; third-
function package and in the Amiga MS-DOS IBM PC compatibility car
party 20-megabyte hard disk
operating system, it's a uniquely tridge. Other ports are a Centronics
powerful language. parallel printer port (which can be
C is available as an alternate reprogrammed to act as a parallel Video: Outputs for composite color
language for developers, but there input port); a high-speed RS-232 or monochrome monitors, analog
are also two versions of BASIC. No serial port for 1200- or 2400-baud RGB color monitor, and built-in RF
BASIC is built into ROM {nor is one modems or serial printers; and two modulator for ordinary TV; 80-
likely to be in the future), but a new control ports that support the column text standard, with option
version of Microsoft BASIC, report mouse, two joysticks, two analog to use 40 or 60 columns with ordi
edly more powerful than either the joysticks, four paddle controllers, or nary TV. 4,096 possible colors.
IBM or Macintosh versions, will be a high-resolution light pen. A con Graphics: Four graphics modes:
bundled with the machine, along figuration program permits full use 640 X 400-pixel maximum resolu
with AmigaDOS and a self-paced of the Amiga with most popular tion (up to 16 simultaneous colors);
tutorial program. Another BASIC printers including letter-quality, 640 X 200 (up to 16 simultaneous
called ABasiC is available as an op dot-ma-trix, ink-jet, and laser print colors); 320 X 200 (up to 32 simul
tion. Both BASlCs are extremely ers. The Diablo color inkjet printer taneous colors); and 320 X 400(up
fast and support all Amiga func can copy the screen graphics and to 32 simultaneous colors). Custom
tions. PEEK and POKE are func colors almost exactly, and there are graphics chip controls background
tionally obsolete, but they're rumors of a pending color laser graphics, screen handling, and
supported if you want them. Full printer. eight four-color sprites; custom ani
access to all Amiga Kernal routines As you can see, the Amiga is mation chip.
is also included. the first truly general-purpose com Sound: Advanced four-voice sound
Other languages available are puter, capable of doing everything chip with stereo output and option
Logo, LISP, and a 68000 Macro As well. It can support the most de al digital sound sampling; built-in
sembler. Soon to come are Forth, manding business needs while of speech synthesis.
Pascal, and possibly FORTRAN. A fering staggering power to the Interfaces: Centronics-standard
programmer will have an enor home user. The astounding graph parallel port, RS-232 serial port,
mous range of options, including ics are ideal for CAD/CAM, art three video outputs, two stereo
advanced symbolic debuggers. Any production, cartoon design, presen sound outputs, two control ports
program written properly will also tation graphics, and the best games for mouse or joysticks, keyboard
be able to run concurrently, and seen in or out of the video parlor. jack, and expansion port with full
will be compatible with future ver-1 The sound rivals midrange com system bus for unlimited expansion
sions of the Amiga. mercial synthesizers. The operating (such as add-on coprocessors).
We've mentioned the capabili system combines the best of MS-
Printers: Supports letter-quality,
ty to add the frame grabber, exter DOS, Unix, and the Macintosh op
dot-matrix, ink-jet, and laser print
nal disk drives, a hard disk drive, era ting system, and brings
ers— including color printers.
and a clock/calendar with 2 mega multitasking to the consumer. And
(Drivers for most popular printers
bytes of RAM and RS-232 serial the wide range of software, avail
are standard.)
port. Add-on boards attach via the able immediately {see "Amiga Soft
Price: Between $1,100 and
expansion port, which brings out ware: Something for Everyone")
$1,500—256K entry-level unit.
every line of the system, and even means that you can start using it the
About $2,000—512K system with
supports additional coprocessing minute you plug it in. Welcome to a
RGB color monitor. «B
capabilities. Amiga engineers will new generation.

2B COMPUTEi's Gazelle Snplambo' 1985

Fly the unfriendly skies.

You're in the cockpit of a dream machine— game in history. It has the most awesome,
jiia & i twajjon sw
a bad dream for the poor sap whose tail you're high-speed animation you've ever seen on your
waxing. You stick a silver bird up his exhaust and wince computer. It's played to rave reviews in every magazine.
as he blossoms into fire. And then you rain down like pes And it's yours—at your retailer—or direct from EA at (800)
tilence upon the grunts in the tanks. 227-6703 with a 14-day satisfac-
Skyfox. It's the fastest-selling EA '""■^^K y tion or money-back guarantee.


ORDERING INFORMATIONS. MACHINE AVAlLA6tUTY1V1si[>-our retailer .m all (SOO)227-67OMinCA call (SCO) 632-7979) for VISA or MasterCard orders.
Tu purchase by mill, send check or money order to Electronic Arts, PO. Box 506, Half Moon Bay. CA 94019. Add 55 for insured shipping &. handling Indicate machine
vcreon desitcd, Allow 1-4 weeb for delivery. Apple II family available now a! S39.95. C-64 available now at $34.')i- liir a rapy of our complete catalogue nnd direct order
form, jend 50* and a stamped, wlf-adda-ssed envelope to Electronic Arts, 2755 Campus Drive, San MrUeo.CA 94403.
The Summer Consumer Electronics


Lance Elko, Editor Both low-end computer manu

facturers, Commodore and Atari, as
well as many established software
The personal computer publishers, had a healthy showing.
Although the number of software
section at this year's publishers has declined, the stron
s Mark Twain once said to gest and most dedicated remain.
Summer CES attracted the press, "The reports of The shakeout of the past year has
less attention than in L my death are greatly exag- victimized both computer manufac
—gerated." In recent turers and software companies—
past years, but a months, stories about the demise of Coleco (Adam), IBM (PCjr),
the personal computer industry Futurehouse, and Microlab, to
closer look revealed have, too, been gravely premature. name a few. But the tone of the
a pleasant surprise. The Summer Consumer Electronics survivors is that of optimism sea
Show (CES), held this past June in soned by experience. And the qual
Chicago, provided strong evidence ity of many of the newest products
that there's plenty of life in this in shows a mature, positive approach
fant industry. to the marketplace.
3D COMPUTE'S Gazelle September 19B5
$200. Although the 1572 dual drive
is designed for use with the 128, the
MPS 1000 is compatible with the
128 and 64, and the 1670 modem
with the 128, 64, Plus/4, SX-64,
and VIC-20.
Also on display at the Com
modore booth was the previously
announced Commodore mouse
controller. It is now available at a
suggested retail price of $49.95.
Commodore is pledging full
In an effort to demonstrate that its software support for the 128.
market includes much more than According to Paul Goheen, director
the U.S., Commodore displayed its of software development, the 128
two IBM PC compatibles, the PC10 will be supported both by Com
and PC20, available in Europe and modore titles and by third-party

Canada. They will not appear in the developers.

Signs of renewed life for the in
dustry have appeared in a variety of U.S. Also on display was the Com Available for the 128 this sum
places. A recent survey based on modore 900 Business Computer, a mer from Commodore are jane 2.0,
marketing research by CBS, Louis Unix-compatible machine designed the Perfect Series, and Micro Il
for multitasking and networking. lustrator, jane 2.0, an impressive
Harris, A. C. Nielsen, Dataquest,
Commodore plans to market this icon-based three-disk package,
and others indicates that the per
sonal computer industry appears to machine in Europe this fall, and it developed for Commodore by
have a healthier future than many could later appear in the U.S. Arktronics Corporation, was in
have predicted. According to the While underscoring its po troduced at the Winter CES, but has
since been revised. The package in
study, 15 percent of U.S. house sition as an international company,
cludes three integrated programs:
holds currently have a personal Commodore was touting its newest
"computer. By year's end, the report market entry, the 128. Unlike the faneioritt, a word processor,
indicates-that this will climb to a ill-fated Plus/4 and 16 computers, janccalc, a spreadsheet, and
hefty 21 percent, or 16 to 18 million the 128 seems to be getting stronger janelist, a file manager. The en
hanced version includes some new
machines in U.S. homes. support from Commodore.
What market share Com New hardware for the 128 features designed to appeal to both
modore will have remains to be from Commodore includes the novice and seasoned users. It works

seen. At this writing, it's too early to 1572 disk drive, the MPS 1000 with the mouse or a joystick. Sug
tell how the public will respond to printer, and the 1670 mo gested retail price is $49.95. A 32K

the Commodore 128 and Amiga, or dem/1200. The 1572 is a dual drive ROM cartridge version for the 64 is
the impact of the new Atari ST version of the 1571 and offers up to expected to be available for
computers. 820K of data storage. The price will approximately the same price.
At the Commodore CES press be announced later. The MPS 1000, The Perfect Series—Perfect
reception, Marshall Smith, presi an Epson-like dot matrix printer, Writer, Perfect Caic, and Perfect
dent and chief executive officer, features three operating modes: Filer—also announced at the Win
was openly ruffled by the pessimis high-speed draft (100 characters ter CES, is now available. Each of
tic press reports of the past few per second), near letter quality (16 these programs can be used sepa
months concerning the future of cps), and graphics mode with a rately or share files when used to
Commodore. Despite the slowing print density of 50 to 240 dots per gether. The series, developed by
sales of Commodore 64s and the inch. The new printer also offers a Thorne/EMI, is designed to operate
steady decline of Commodore stock choice of four character sizes: 80, in the 128's 80-column mode. Each
in the past several quarters, Smith 96, 132, or 160 characters per line. program is expected to retail for
and other company executives Price is expected to be under $300. $69.95. Micro Illustrator, a graphics
stressed their optimism for the suc The 1670 Modem/1200, originally program previously available for

cess of the 128 and promised con announced at the Winter CES, is the 64, uses the 128K mode, allow
tinued support for the 64. Thomas now available. This 300/1200 baud ing more features than the original
Rattigan, the new Commodore unit uses "AT" Hayes command version. Suggested retail price is
NoTth America president, an protocol and includes a built-in £39.95. Other 128 titles planned for
nounced that 100,000 advance or speaker for monitoring dialing release are Typing Professor and A
ders for the 128 had been received (Touch Tone or rotary phones), Comprehensive Course in BASIC.
by June 1. He also noted that Com auto answer, auto dial, auto baud,
modore was expecting to sell the and auto mode selection. As with Several major third-party soft
128 "to over 15 percent of the near earlier Commodore modems, a user ware publishers have also com
ly three million plus U.S. owners of ID, password, and one-hour sub mitted support for the 128. Batteries
Commodore 64s and to hundreds scription to CompuServe are in Included is offering versions of
of thousands of first-time computer cluded with the purchase. Sug three popular 64 programs, Paper-
buyers." gested retail price is approximately Clip, HomePak, and The New
COMPUTEI's Garerte September 1985 31
Consultant. The upgraded versions hardware interface, with its own
take advantage of the 128's extra RAM, ROM, and realtime clock,
memory, processing speed, 80- connects to the 64's user port and
column display, and larger key can control various household
board. Suggested retail prices for appliances, such as TVs, stereos,
these packages are $89.95 (Paper- lamps, thermostats, wall switches,
Clip), $79.95 {The New Consultant), electric hair curlers, and coffee pots.
and $49.95 (HomePak). A 128 ver It runs on a standard 9-volt alkaline
sion of Pro-Line Software's popular battery and controls lights and
word processor has been intro appliances using existing house
duced, WordPro 128, which also wiring. After installing and
uses the new computer's memory, programming the interface, it may
speed, and 80-column display. Sug be disconnected, thus freeing your
gested retail is $99.95. 64 while the X-10 runs the program
Timeworks announced Word you've entered.
Writer 128, Data Manager 128, and The accompanying software
Swiftcaic 128. Word Writer includes features icons you can arrange to
The 1670 modem from Commodore fea
an 85,000-word spelling checker tures 300/1200 baud, built-in speaker, simulate various rooms in your
and five-function calculator. Data auto answer, autodial, auto baud, and home. You can then graphically
Manager is a general information auto mode selection. display up to nine rooms on a single
storage and retrieval system with screen and program any lights or
report-writing and label-making appliances in each of them. The
capabilities. Swiftcalc, a spread software also has on-screen instruc
sheet, includes a special feature. tions. The X-10 Powerhouse can
Through a licensing agreement store up to 128 timed events and
with Funk Software, Timeworks is will control up to 95 screen icons
including Sideways, a best-selling inside or outside your home. A pro
spreadsheet/printer utility pre grammer's guide will be available
viously available for only the Apple for those wishing to write their own
and IBM PC. Sideways prints an en software. Price for the interface,
tire spreadsheet report at one time software, and cable is $150. Sepa
on one page by rotating the spread rate lamp and appliance modules—
sheet 90 degrees as it prints out, which plug into outlets—are re
thus eliminating the need for cut quired for use with the system. X-
ting and pasting several sections to 10 has these available for $8-$30
gether. It also offers a variety of each (or less if purchased in larger
type sizes and control over line quantities).
spacing, left and top margins, and Cardco announced S'More (Su
spacing between characters. De per Memory Optimized RAM/
signed to be used with any other ROM Expansion) BASIC, a cartridge
Commodore-specific spreadsheet utility for the 64 that provides over
that can create ASCII files on disk, 60K RAM for programming and
Sideways can be purchased sepa adds 60 new commands, many of
rately for $29.95. A version for the which eliminate the need for PEEKs
64 is available also. Word Writer and POKEs. With S'More BASIC, the
128, Data Manager 128, and function keys have specific assign
Swiftcalc 128, each carry a sug
ments (f2 runs a program in memo
gested retail price of $69.95. ry, f3 reads and displays the disk
More software for the 128 from drive error channel, f5 lists a pro
Commodore and third-party gram in memory, f7 displays the
publishers will be available later disk directory, and so on). Suggest
this year, noted Goheen. The X-10 Powerhouse, a programmable ed retail price is $69.95. Cardco is
interface for the 64, allows control of also planning a fall release of the
While the 128 is off to a more household lights and appliances without
S'More BASIC Compiler. The price is
tying up the computer. The accompany
auspicious start than the $39.95.
ing icon-based software lets you simulate
Plus/4 and 16, the venerable 64 is Abacus Software introduced
the layout of your home and program
far from abandoned. Dozens of Super C, a C compiler for the 64. It
individual rooms or outside lights.
new hardware and software prod features a full-screen editor with
ucts for the 64 (and the 64 mode of horizontal and vertical scrolling. It
the 128) were introduced. allows source files up to 41K long,
An interesting product for and is compatible with most other
those who wish to use their 64 as a versions of C. Price is $79.95. Aba
home control unit is the X-10 cus was also showing its new Super
Powerhouse. This programmable Pascal System, which includes a
32 COMPUTEI's Gazetta September 1965
Get more out of your Commodore with


More fun Children will learn and

develop new skills with States ■. ii.
''■■•;■ i ■ ■

& Capitals Tutor, Wordmatch, ,....! . ...


Munchmath, Wordspeli, Con ■ i * ,

, .,
' '
i . .T
LJ -- ("I > ■
nect the Dots, Aardvark
.... ...

■ . k .- . -
'.•r >•?»-. :- ■-■■::
-- -.-out- 1,^-.v:-»,

Attack, and Alfabug. Comput In

■-. . ■ i
■■ ■

. , 1I . . .

ing for Kids, a regular monthly f>l"<^ r

■ .-
: . . ■
.J ]
■ .:
- .
. -
. :
■■■ I .: , i . - ... ( i ,
feature, will uncover new
ways to involve your children
in computing,
Quickfind, Word Hunt, Disk
Menu, VIC Timepiece, The
Automatic Proofreader and

Martian Prisoner, The Viper,

Skydiver, Snake Escape, De
mon Star, Cyclon Zap, and Oil More buying
Tycoon are just a few of the
ready-to-run games you'll find guidance
exclusively in COMPUTERS
You'll profit from comprehen
Gazette each month. Just
sive reviews of everything from
type in the programs and
data-quality cassette tapes to
watch your screen explode
software to graphics plotters
with colorful new computer
and modems. Virtually any
game excitement.
thing that's compatible with
your Commodore is reported
on in COMPUTE'S Gazette.
With this kind of expert help,
More challenge every computer purchase you
make can be the right one!
Ready to tackle more ad
vanced projects? In COM-
More programs
PUTE's! Gazette, you'll learn Programs to help you balance
how to use tape and disk files, your checkbook, store your Order now
how to program the function addresses, keep tax records,
All you do is mail the postpaid
keys, writing transportable manage your personal busi
card bound into this issue. But
BASIC, how to make custom ness. You can create your
don't delay! Subscribe now to
graphics characters, new own programs and games,
start receiving every issue of
ways to enliven programs with improve your word processing,
COMPUTEI's Gazette.
sound, one-touch commands spreadsheets, and data base
for the 64, how to use ma management, load and run For Faster Service
chine language, speeding up faster with 64 Searcher, Call Toil-Free
the VIC-20—and much more! VIC/64 Program Lifesaver, 1 -800-334-0868
compiler. It retails for $59.95.
Another C compiler an HdmlHtfi Qurg^r picks up

nounced for the 64 is the C Power l flun Irom the evldflrrce

compiler from Pro-Line Software.

The $99.95 package includes all "IS TWS REVOLVER
programming tools for the C lan OBJECTIOM
guage, including the source code,
. Vou *i*ip lor b nwiniint
and will be packaged with a 531- THE QUESTION ABKB FOK AH lo ^HJo a* ma OtttttfiQ brlMtVim ■>*

page introductory book on C. OPINION,

Access Software debuted Hurger itttmt b*Sfc to hrs

Beach-Head II. This sequel to the
best-selling Beach-Head features
more graphic violence than its Two of Spinnaker's newest offerings are Perry Mason: The Case of the Mandarin
namesake but is brilliantly pro Murder (from the Telarium Series) and The Wizard of Oz (from the Windham
Classics line).
grammed. Unlike Beach-Head, it of
fers the player a choice of roles
(Allied Forces Commander or the
evil Dictator) and a choice of foe
(the computer or a human oppo
nent). The game also improves on
the not-so-shabby graphics of its
predecessor. The realistic human
animation is based on a study of
videos of humans running, jump
ing, climbing, and falling. The au
thors, Roger and Bruce Carver, then
broke down these movements into
digital format and translated them "Log on please" is the only clue you're given in Hacker, a new computer mystery
into data for the game. Beach-Head game from Activision. Fast Tracks: The Computer Slot Car Construction Kit, also
II also has impressive voice syn from Activision, lets you design and race on your own courses.
thesis. Suggested retail price is
5pinnaker Software an
nounced several interesting new
products. Two carefully designed
educational offerings, Homework
Helper Malli Word Problems and
Homework Helper Writing, are for mystery, begins with "LOG ON MicroProse announced three
students in grades 7-12. Both are PLEASE." The rest is up to you. All new simulation games for the 64:
positioned to help in two of the you know is that you've acci Aerojet: The Advanced Flight Simu
most difficult areas of homework. dentally broken into an unknown lator, Silent Service: The Submarine
Spinnaker also augmented its two computer system with no infor Simulation, and Gunship: The Heli
graphics-and-text adventure series, mation, rules, or clues. Fast Tracks: copter Simulator. Each carries a sug
Telarium and Windham Classics. The Computer Slot Car Construction gested retail price of $34.95.
The new Telarium products are Kit lets you design your own
Perry Mason: The Case of the Man courses and race. The program has
darin Murder and Wine Princes in a number of interesting features, Although much more software
Amber. The latter is based on the one of which allows you to save a for the 64 was announced (see
popular Amber book series by course you've designed and upload "CES Perspective: The End of the
Roger Zdazny. Both packages retail it to a friend to try. GamcMaker, a Tap Dance," following this article),
for $32.95. Spinnaker also an full-featured game design kit, al there was little new hardware at
nounced three new Windham lows you to select commands and this CES. However, Atari was
Classics titles—The Wizard of Oz, characters from menus to create showing what could be a major
Treasure Island, and Alice in your own arcade-style games. Alter technological breakthrough for the
Wonderland. Each is priced at Ego puts you into real-life situations personal computer market: a CD-
$26.95. and asks you to make choices— ROM (Compact Disc-Read Only
Infocom announced Wish- thus building a unique personality Memory) peripheral. This is an au
bringcr, a clever and intriguing fan to experience life as someone other dio compact disc player modified
tasy game designed for newcomers than yourself. The three-disk pack for data storage with a computer.
to the world of text adventures. age was designed by psychologist Atari demonstrated a 23-volume,
Price is $34.95. Dr. Peter Favaro. Each of the new nine-million word encyclopedia
Several new titles for the 64 Activison packages will be released which, remarkably, fit onto only
were announced by Activision. this fall or winter. Prices will be one quarter of the space of a com
Hacker, an open-ended computer announced. pact disc (550 megabytes can be

34 COMPUTEI's Gazelle September 1985

The complete 1541 enhancement system ...


The 1541 is the slowest disk drive on planet earth.

Even simple operations seem to take forever. Ouickloaders
and Fastloaders that software-patch the operating system
are vulnerable to being knocked out ol memory, rendering them
totally useless. Even Flashier products that require permanent
modifications to the 64 and 1541 can't compete with the blinding
speed of STARDOS.

STARDOS accelerates every (yes, we said every) function of the 1541 disk drive.
Other fast loaders only load PRG files faster. STARDOS also speeds up SEQ, REL, USR
and DIRECT ACCESS files. Everything including FORMAT, VERIFY, SCRATCH, VALIDATE,
INITIALIZE and COPY are much faster. In addition STARDOS adds a vast array
of easy to use commands and utilities all at the touch of a key.

A sampling of STARDOS features:

■ Accesses ALL types of files up to 1,000% faster! • Harness the full power of your disk drive with the
built in DOS wedge
• Saves up to 300% faster than normal (with extended
verify) • Lock/unlock files and protect/unprotect disks from
the keyboard
DRIVE MOTOR SPINS ■ Powerful sector editor allows direct viewing of diskette
• Makes your 1541 MORE RELIABLE and LESS PRONE • Upgrades computer and drive to the latest Commodore
TO BREAK DOWN or OVERHEAT! specifications
■ STARDOS is fully expandable for multiple fast • Instant access to the built in mini-wordprocessor
disk drives for short notes and memos

• Easy (5 minute) plug in installation. User friendly • Built in copier copies ail file types (even relative)
manual easily and effectively

• 100% compatible with software and serial bus • Built in disk duplicator copies an entire diskettte
peripherals in less than 3 minutes

■ Adds years of life to your disks and drive in ■ Fully expanded machine language monitor, always
reduced wear on line
• Cures a number of bugs in the Commodore 64 and 1541 • Quality hardware. Full 120 day repair or replace
disk drive including : warranty

• The damaging 'Head Knock' that can mis-align • Satisfaction guaranteed or money back—no questions
your 1541 asked

• The®: Save with replace bug!! - (Oh, by the way, we lied, STARDOS makes LOUSY
• The Editor lock-up bug

Simply the best. $74.95

ffake advantage of our introduction special at $64.95]

Personalize your C64! for a $10 (non-refundable) cnarge i. WRITE OR PHONE

we will include a 21 character power-on message with
your favorite screen, border and text colors. Example:
Slsr Route 10 GazeNe. CA 96034 [916)435-9371
K |E C|O|AlMo|D|O|fl|E|- |6|¥
When ordering by mail.
Rarikqmtmrt fj/JcX Bortit;r. Red Ten!
• 16495 * 3.00snipping -Calif, residents add 6% sales tax
Write ol phone lor additional information. • 164 95 + 4.00 COD orders • VISA or Mastercard accepted
V ol CofnrnaJOfP Bu5"ie95 • Shipping out of USA S6 00 Please allow 4-6 weeks lor delivery.
stored on a CD, about the same as
3,400 disks on the 1541). Articles
can be read into an Atari 520ST's CES Perspective:
memory in a matter of seconds, and
search time for any subject is less

than four seconds. The CD-ROM er booth, or sharing booth space
should be available late this year or with other companies. And even
in early 1986. (For more details on those companies which had rented

the CD-ROM, see the August issue large booths kept their new product
of COMPUTE!.) While Atari will be offerings down to a minimum.
the first to offer such a product, The main reason for all of this
look for this technology to be avail frugality, of course, was to keep
able for the Amiga and virtually all costs down during this lean period.

future personal computers. But software developers have not
The long-awaited Amiga com been sitting idle, waiting for the
puter was not a popular topic with next generation of home comput
Commodore representatives at ers, the Commodore Amiga and

_ The
CES. Although the machine was Atari ST. They've continued to
said to have been ready, Commo wrestle with the untapped capabili
dore was putting full emphasis on ties of existing hardware, and pro

the 128 at the show. The Amiga vide richer software packages for
was scheduled to be introduced in the Commodore 64 in the areas that
late July. (See a full report on the consumers want:
Amiga elsewhere in this issue.)

For more information about the Several new adventure games were
products mentioned here, please introduced at CES. The Alpine En
contact your local dealer or write: counter ($29.95) is Random House's
Abacus Software first text/graphics adventure. As an
P. O. Box 72II undercover agent, you have 12
Grand Rapids, Mi 49150
Kathy Yakal, Feature Writer
hours to uncover a political conspir
Access Software, Inc. acy being played out in a ski resort.
925 East 900 South s the crowds began to thin To coincide with this fall's
Sail Lake City, UT 84105
the second and third days paperback release of Frederick For-
Activision, Inc. of this summer's Consum syth's The Fourth Protocol, Bantam
2350 Baysbore Frontage Rd.
er Electronics Show, you Electronic Publishing announced
Mountain Vim, CA 94043
could see the question in the eyes of an adventure game of the same
Batteries Included
the exhibitors in McCormick West, name. In Protocol, you take the role
30 Mural St.
Richmond Hill, Ontario the building that housed the home of John Preston, a high-ranking
Canada L4B 1B5 computer industry's booths. How British Intelligence Officer who
are we doing? must stop a plot to smuggle and
17875 Sky Park North, Suite P
The question was different this detonate a nuclear device in Eng
Irvine, CA 92714
time. No more, Who is going to sur land. The game is icon-driven; it
Cardco, Inc.
vive?, but How can those of us who uses a Macintosh-type interface for
300 S. Topeka
Wichita, KS 67202
survived best support each other until accepting commands. Suggested
things pick up again? retail price is $34.95.
htfocom. Inc.
55 Wheeler St. "I'm glad to see they're here," Software prices in general have
Cambridge, MA 02138 said one educational software pub continued to fall from the $40-$50
MicroProse lisher—of his competition. range to $30 and under. Several
120 Lakefront Dr. The sentiment voiced most entertainment publishers at the
Hum Valley, MD 21030 often at the winter show six months show introduced products for un
Pro-Line Software before had been this: It's time to der $20. BCI Software offered a line
755 The Queensway East, Unit 8 start moving from the manic pace of of trivia games for $4.99, and a
Mississauga, Ontario a new business to the more mea number of other computer games
Canada L4Y 4C5
sured strides of a young, evolving for £9.99, including Super Black Belt
Spinnaker Software Karate, Hydrax, and Mummy's Tomb.
One Kendall Square
That movement was evident at Every product in Green Valley
Cambridge MA 02139
the summer show. Many compa Publishing's Load 'n Go, a line of
nies chose not to exhibit, sending traditional board, adventure, and
444 Lake Cook Rd.
Deerfield, IL 60015 representatives to meet individ maze games, sells for under $10.
ually with the press and to see what And ComputerEasy has begun
X-W(USA), Inc.
185A Lcgrand Ave. new products were showing. Oth producing Commodore games for
Northvale, N] 07647 ~ ers exhibited, but chose to keep $19.95.
their costs down by having a small Epyx brought out two sequels

36 COMPUTE!1* Gazette September 1905


Super C Super Pascal

Compiler Super C Development SupBr Pascal
This is most advanced
Compiler System Package

C development pack Full C Compiler

Complete pascal
age available for the forC-Wi.C-128
Super Pascal is Compiler and Tools
C-64orC-128. Super not just a compiler,
C comes with a very but a complete
complete source development system.
editor; a full K&ft It rivals Turbo
compiler (without bit Pascal© In both
fields); a program speed arm features.
linker (binds up to 7 Super Pascal
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components are available from single menu. includes an advanced source file editor; a
Supports single and double precision integer and complete Jensen & Wirth compiler with enhanced
float, arrays, structures, strings, more. Very system programming extensions, a new high
complete editor handles search/replace, 80 speed DOS (3 times faster than standard 1541)
column display with horizontal scrolling and 41K and builtin assembler for specialized machine
source files. The I/O library supports standard code requirements. Compiler supports overlays,
functions like printf and fprintf. Free runtime 11-digit arithmetic, debugging tools, graphics
package included. For C-64/C-128 with routines, produces compilation statistics, much
1541/1571 drive. Includes system diskette and more. Free runtime package. ForC-64/C-128and
user's handbook. $79.95 1541/1572 drive. Includes system diskette and
complete user's handbook. $59.95

Basic Video Basic ,

Compiler Development
This is the most
advanced BASIC
compiler available for Fast, Complete BASIC This is the most Qrapliks (.Sound
Compiler for Ihc Davelopment
the C-64. This has advanced graphics
Commodore 64 Software
been our best-selling development package
for the C-54
software package lor available for the C-64.
the past few months. VIDEO BASIC
BASIC 64 compiles adds dozens of
to either superfast powerful commands to
6510 machine code or standard BASIC so
to very compact that you can.use the
speedcode. You can even mix the two in one hidden graphics and sound capabilities of the C-
program. Compiles the complete BASIC 64. These include commands for hires,
language. Its very flexible memory management multicolor, sprite and turtle graphics, simple and
and overlay options make it perfect for all of your complex music and sound, hardcopy to most
program development needs. BASIC 64 will printers, memory management, and more.
increase the speed of your programs from 3 to 20 VIDEO BASIC is currently used by
times. Free runtime package is included. And at professional programmers for commerical
our very affordable price, can you afford to be software development. Free runtime package is
without BASIC 64? For C-64/C-128 and included. For C-64/C-128 and 1541/1571 disk
1541/1571 drive. Includes system diskette and drive. Includes system diskette and user's
user's handbook. $39-95 handbook. New tow price. $39.95

Other software also available! For free catalog, please return this coupon to:
Call now (or the name o( your nearest dealer Abacus Software, P.O. Box 7211,
Grand Rapids, Ml 49510

Abacus E9 Software Name

P.O.Box 7211 Grand Rapids. Ml 49510 616/241-5510
For fast service call 616/241-5510. For postage and
handling, include $4.00 per order. Foreign orders include City
$8.00 per item. Money orders and checks in U.S. dollars
only. Mastercard, Visa and Amex accepted. State Zip.
Dealer Inquiries Welcome
Gazette 9/85
to its successful Summer Games. clude Zorro ($29.95), a game based synthesis. In Prokofiev's Peter and
Winter Games and Summer Games II on the legendary character; and Al the Wolf MUSIC, children can learn
will be available this fall for around ternate Reality, a series of seven fan about music theory while playing
$30. They have also released two tasy/role-playing games ($39.95 listening games with characters in
games developed by the Lucasfilm each). the story. And First Men in the Moon
Games Division, The Eidolon and MATH, based on the H.G. Wells
Koronis Rift, in the $30 price range. Education novel, teaches math functions in an
Another sequel is First Star Educational software publishers outerspace atmosphere. Each pro
Software's Spy vs. Spy: The Island have also begun to draw on the gram in the line retails for under
Caper ($29.95). Based on the popu name recognition of familiar $20.
lar comic strip in MAD magazine, entertainment characters. Random
Fine art is coupled with intense
the game uses First Star's propri House's line includes several. Char
intellectual challenge in The Dol
etary Simulvision and Simulplay lie Brown's 1-2-3's calls on Snoopy
phin's Rune: A Poetic Odyssey from
techniques, which allow both play and the rest of the Peanuts gang to
Mindscape. Designed by British art
ers to play and watch each other's help teach counting and number
ist John O'Neill, it's a quest for un
actions at the same time. recognition. Snoopy Writer en
derstanding—both ancient dolphin
Carriers at War ($50), a World courages creativity while instruct
lore, and the meaning to the verse
War II historical simulation game, ing children in the fundamentals of
that the dolphin seeks. Suggested
and Reach for the Stars ($45), a sci word processing. Garfield, the
retail price is $29.95.
ence fiction strategy game, will be wise-cracking comic strip cat, helps
distributed by Electronic Arts. build vocabulary skills in Garfield Play Together, Learn Together
Datasoft has acquired the li Double Dares. And Mr. and Mrs. Po ($24.95) is a combination book/
censing rights to Steven Spielberg's tato Head tests memory and software package from Grolier
latest movie, The Goonies. In its ac concentration skills, while letting Electronic Publishing. It encour
tion/strategy game by the same children create and animate myriad ages children and adults to work to
name, players must work their way variations of the two characters. All gether in developing computer
through eight increasingly difficult retail for $29.95. skills while teaching fundamental
screens, trying to reach pirate's Spinnaker's Fisher-Price series reading skills to children. It retails
treasure while avoiding various pit features familiar faces and voices; for $24.95. Grolier also introduced
falls. Available in early September, Peter Rabbit READING and Jungle a new series of curriculum-related
it will retail for $29.95. Other offer Book READING are some of the first programs, featuring Miss Mouse
ings in Datasoft's fall line-up in educational programs to use voice and her Forest Friends. The first six

hy settle for
hen you can have Mo?

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To order your COMPUTE) Books,
mall this form with your payment
Commodore 64 Games
to COMPUTE! Books, P.O. Box 5058. Edited, $12.95. ISBN 0-942386-64-7
Greensboro, NC 27403. For tostest Outstanding games plus articles showing
service, coll toll Iree 800-334-0868 how to design videogames and write text
(In NC 919-275-9809). adventures,

Ploaso lend me the loll cm Ing bonks I've Included $2.00 shipping and handling charges lor
each book. ($5.00 per book lor airmail outilde the U.S.)

COMPUWi Fin! Book or Commodore M Gomes {34-5) S12.95 oach

COMPUWs Second Boon or Commodore M Gomes (64-7) $12.96 each
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SPECIAL SAVINGS—All Ihroo books lor $29 00
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□ Pavmeni enclosed (check or money order) Total paid October 10, 1985. J
D Charge D MasterCard □ Vita QArrwrlcan Express

Account No Exp. Dale

COMPUTEI Books are available In the U.K.,

Europe, the Middle East, and Africa Irom
Holt Sounders, Ltd., 1 St. Anne's Road, East
Address . bourne, East Sussex BN21 3UN, England.
City .Stole ZIP

COMPUTE! PuWications.lna©
pieces in the line promote reading Painter, Suggested retail price is compatible disk drive. It retails for
skills, and introduce children to $49.95. $219.
concepts like weather and the QRS Music Rolls, Inc. has be Simplified programming was
world around them. Each program gun selling MID! Magic, an inter offered by Search Consultants
retails for $29.95. face that connects a Commodore 64 International. Their new DOS
Gessler Educational Software, to synthesizers and musical in board for the Commodore 64 and
which specializes in foreign lan struments equipped with a stan 128 combines a numeric and
guage versions of educational pro dard MIDI (Musical Instrument macro-function keypad along with
grams, introduced French, Spanish, Digital Interface). Cost, including a a new disk operating system. RAM
and German versions of Davidson six-song demo disk, is $49.95. QRS is left untouched. The keypad con
& Associates' Word Attack!. Bataille also offers a line of Music Disks nects to the cartridge slot through
de Mots, Batalla dc Palabms, and featuring the works of artists like an interface cable. Expected price is
Wortgefecht are available for $49.95 Liberace and Gershwin. Each is $99.95.
each. Gessler has also obtained $19.95. Research In Speech Technol
exclusive rights for foreign rights Know Your Own IQ/Ktww Your ogy, Inc., announced that its Easy
translations of several Spinnaker Own Personality helps computer Speech 64 ($29.95) could be used to
programs. owners do just what the title says. make selected games "talk"—

Arrakis Technologies an
Published by Bantam, it's based on including the Infocom line.
the works of psychologists H.J. The Voice Command Module,
nounced that it would produce edu-
cational software under the Eysenck and Glenn Wilson, authors from Eng Manufacturing, Inc., al
auspices of OMNI magazine. First of books by the same names. The lows you to use spoken commands
in this Magazine Ware group is The package contains four IQ tests, each to control compatible software. The
Cosmic Cookbook, a series of pro with 40 questions, and three package includes a microphone,
grams dealing with scientific topics. personality tests with 210 questions command module, connector and
Arrakis has also reached an agree each. It retails for $34.95. Another cables, and software for $49.95.
ment with Sail magazine to produce new product in their Selfware line
tutorials. Arrakis' software devel is The Complete Scarsdale Medical ix months of tap-dancing—of
opment system, Socrates, makes it Diet, an electronic version of the waiting for new hardware an
easy for nonprogrammers who are bestselling book, priced at $39.95. nounced at Winter CES—had worn
experts in a given field to be very Scarborough Systems released on everyone. And though the at
instrumental in a program's design. a Commodore version of another mosphere may have been more
popular diet plan, The Original Bos subdued than usual, and the exhib
Henson Associates announced ton Computer Diet. Suggested retail itors and products more sparse,
that several publishers have adapt price is $49.95. there was a more upbeat—almost
ed educational products for use surprised—feeling among those
with the Muppet Learning keys, de
Third-party hardware manufac people remaining at CES on the fi
veloped with Christopher Cerf As-
turers were in attendance with nal day than had been felt for a
sociates. These include CBS
some new product announcements, while:
Software's Dr. Seuss Fix-Up the Mix-
too. The Comtel Group introduced We're still here. We've made it
Up Puzzler, Simon & Schuster's this far.
the Enhancer 2000, a Commodore-
Muppet Institute of Technology se
ries, and Brederbund's Welcome For more information about the products mentioned here, please contact
Aboard. Henson Associates and your local dealer or write:
CBS Software will also be co-pro Arrakis Technologies Eng Manufacturing Mindscape
ducing Fraggle Rock software, 1425 Dorchester W., Suite 400 4304 W. Saturn Way 3444 Dundee Rd.
based on the television series. Montreal, PQ H3G 1T7 Chandler. AZ 85224 Northbrook, IL 60062

BCl Software Epyx QRS Music Rolls

P.O. Box 730 1043 Kiel Cl. 1026 Niagara St.
Personal Productivity Ringwood, N/ 07456 Sunnyvale, CA 94089 Buffalo, NY 14213
Personal productivity software, as
Bantam Electronic Publishing First Star Software Random House
the industry has come to define it, 666-5thAve. IS E. 4Ut St. 201 E. 50th St.
encourages personal growth and New York, NY 10103 New York, NY 10077 New York, NY 10022
helps manage home matters. Computer Easy Gessler Educational Software Research In Speech Technology
Though it may be enjoyable and 414 E, Southern Rd. 900 Broadway 1825-74th St.

entertaining, that is not its main Tempe, AZ 85282 New York, NY 10003 Brooklyn, NY 11201

function. Many new products in Comtel Croup Green Valley Publishing Scarborough Systems
this category were introduced at 1651 £. Edinger#209 7122 Shady Oak Rd. 25 N. Broadway
P.O. Box 15485 Eden Prairie, MN 55344 Tarrytown, NY 10591
summer CES.
Santa Ana, CA 92705
The Works!, from First Star Grotier Electronic Publishing Search Consultants International
Datasoft 95 Madison Ave. P.O. Box 401
Software, includes 13 different pro
1980S Nordhoff PI. New York, NY 10016 Haslett, Ml 48840
grams in four categories: or Chatsworth, CA 913U
Henson Associates Spinnaker Software
ganizers, tools, learning, and arts.
Electronic Arts 717 E. 69th St. 1 Kendall Square
The programs include Typing 2755 Campus Dr. New York, NY 10021 Cambridge, MA 02139
Teacher, Music Composer, Letter San Mateo, CA 94403
Writer, Stock Portfolio, and Graphics
40 COMPUTEi's GazoltO September I9B5
The Programmer MIKE J. HENRY has done it AGAIN with



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Drawing Lines And Borders

Michael S. Tomczyk 148 Insert function makes all succeeding

1S7 Cursor left
characters print in reverse, until
173 Lower left corner
174 Upper right corner
you either turn off reverse or print a
Michael S. Tomczyk is a former Commodore
176 Upper left corner carriage return.
marketing executive and product designer.
189 Lower right corner
His recent book, The Home Computer
Wars, describes the rise of Commodore and Drawing A Vertical Line
is published by COMPUTE! Books. Drawing A Horizontal Line Now let's print a vertical line:
We begin by drawing a horizontal 10 PRINT CHR5(147);:FOR V-l TO
Did you ever try to print a character IB:PRINT CHRSU8) CHRS{32>:NEXT
line across the screen. Type the
in the bottom right comer of the
following line as shown and press This line looks the same as our
screen? That's just one problem you
RETURN (if you have a VIC, sub previous example, except we left
have to solve if you want to draw a
stitute the number 22 for 40 in all of out the semicolon after CHR$(32).
border all the way around the
these examples): Without the semicolon, the com
screen. This month we're going to
10 PRINT CHRSU47);:FOR H-l TO puter automatically puts every
solve this problem, and learn how
40:PRINT CHRS(96);:NEXT PRINT statement on a different
to1 draw lines and borders as well.
We begin by clearing the line. It adds a carriage return, which
All of these examples work with the
screen. The FOR-NEXT loop is used
moves the cursor to the beginning
Commodore 64, VIC-20, Plus/4,16,
to repeat actions. Everything be
of the next line down, to each item
and the 128.
tween the FOR and NEXT portions printed. Here, there are 18 PRINT
Before we begin, find the statements—and 18 solid blocks—
ASCII and CHRS codes appendix in of the command will be repeated
the number of times shown. In this and they each get printed on a dif
the back of your owner's manual. ferent line, which makes them look
You'll be using these codes case, we PRINT CHR$(96) 40 times.
like one solid vertical line. Because
throughout this lesson. The semicolon causes the 40 graph
a carriage return turns off the
You can print a CHR$ code just ics symbols to be printed next to
reverse function, we have to put the
like any letter, character, or com each other (otherwise they'll be
CHR$(18) between FOR and NEXT,
mand. There's even a CHR$ code "stacked" down the screen on dif
to make sure the spaces are printed
for inserting characters and chang- ferent lines).
in reverse.
ing colors, as you'll see in a Now let's start building our
moment. Drawing Lines With Reverse border. Enter and RUN this pro
To show you how it works, the Spaces gram (for the VIC, use C = 22;L= 18
CHR$ code for clearing the screen Did you ever notice your keyboard in line 5):
is CHR$(147) and the CHR$ code does not have a solid block graphics
for the heart symbol is CHR$(115), symbol? That's because you can use 5 C = 40 :L = 20
10 PRINT CH8S(147)riPOR H = 1
so if you want to clear the screen a reverse space as a solid block. To {SPACEJTO CiPRINT CHR$(IS)
and print a heart, type the do this, you must print the RVS ON (SPACE3CHRS(32)fiNEXT
following: command followed by a space. In 20 FOR V = 1 TO Li PRINT CHRS(1
this example, we're going to use 8) CHRS(32)iNEXT
CHR$ symbols: 8) CHRS(32);iNEXT
Type RUN and press RETURN. For
your convenience, here's a handy 10 PRINT CHR51I47) CHR$(18);:FOR
H=l TO 40:PRINT CHE$(32);:NEXT
chart showing the CHR$ codes Well, we almost have our bor
we'll be using in this lesson; Type RUN and press RE der. How do we get a vertical line
CHR$ Code Function or Symbol
TURN. This line clears the screen, on the right side of the screen? In
then prints 40 reverse spaces this case, we'll modify the "verti
17 Cursor down
18 Reverse on
across, which appears as a thick cal" section of our program (line 20)
19 Home solid horizontal line. CHR$(18) so instead of printing 20 vertical
29 Cursor right turns on the reverse function. blocks (18 on the VIC), we'll print
32 Space CHRS(32) is the space character. 20 lines and each will contain one
96 Horizontal line
Notice that CHR$(18) is needed reverse space, 38 blank (empty)
115 Hear! graphic
146 Reverse off only once, before the 40 spaces are spaces, and another reverse space.
147 Clear printed. Turning on the reverse The final reverse space will create
COMPUTE'S Gazelle September 1985
COMPUTE! Books Announces

with more than 70 never

before-published articles
nd programs for the
Commodore VIC-20. COMPUTE'S
ncluded In this giant collection are over 30
games, plus utilities, applications, tutorials,
and much more, most of which wilt run on an
unexpended VIC. COMPUTEfs VIC-20 Collec
tion contains something (or every Vic-20 user.
Even If you use just a fraction of the programs
fnslde, this book will prove extremely valuable.
Typing In the programs is made easy with "The
Automatic Proofreader," an error-checking
program that tells you right away If you've
made an error. A giant assortment of over 70
Edited, S12-95, ISBN 0-87455-007-6 never-before-published articles and
programs for the VIC-20. Action games,
There's also a disk available which Includes all thinking games, utilities, graptTics,
the exciting, challenging programs from the sound, and tutorials.
book ready to run on your VIC-20, COMPUTE!'?
VIC-20 Collection Disk saves you typing time
and prevents many typing errors. It's fast,
convenient, and Inexpensive. You can order
the Disk from COMPUTE, Boo*s for only$,2.9S

Please send mo copies ot COMPUTEIS ViC-20 Collodion, (007) at

S12.95 each. "(Ada S2.00 db' book In U.S and surface mail, S5.00 per book oifrnoU (or
snipping chaious)

Please iond ma . .copies ot COMPUWs VIC-20 Collection Dim al

Look for COMPUTE!
S12.95 each. '(Ada1 S2 00 per oiik Hupping ciiafoej > books at your local
NC residents add 4.5% lax .
book or computer re
'Shipping charges
All c-rdeis must be prepaid.
tailer, or mall the order
Total poyment enclosed $.
□ Payment enclosed (check or money order) (orm to COMPUTE!
: D Charge DVlia a MasterCard n American Express Books, P.O. Box 5058,
Accouni No. Exp. Date Greensboro, NC 27403.

For fastest service, call
Name toll free 800-334-0868.

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COMPUTE! Pudications,lnc©
the vertical line on the right side of To properly position our title SERT editing command, CHR$(148),
the screen. (Again, use C=22:L = 18 inside the border—and leave the to push the character one space
if you have a VIC.) border on the screen when we print over to the right—into the last (bot
the title—we start by using PRINT tom right) position on the screen!
5 c =• 401 l - 20
10 PRINT CHRS(147);!FOR H - 1
CHR$(19) to HOME the cursor. The inserting action pushes the
(SPACE)TO CiPRlNT CHRS(18) HOMEing the cursor doesn't reverse space character over to the
(SPACE)CHRS(32):iNEXT change or erase anything else on last position and leaves the com
the screen. It simply sends the puter positioned in the second to
8) CHRS(32);
25 PRINT CHRS(146) SPC(C-2) CH cursor to the HOME position, the last position. PRINT a
RS(18) CHRS(32);:NEXT which is the top left corner of the CHR$(32) space here and the bor
30 FOR H = 1 TO C:PRINT CHRS(1 screen. Next, we use two PRINT der is finished. Now we can HOME
commands to move two lines down the cursor and position it to display
the screen. A FOR-NEXT loop then a title, or even a series of titles,
Line 20 starts out the same as repeats 10 cursor right commands. instructions, or educational prob
the previous line 20. Then in line 25 This positions the title 10 spaces lems inside the border.
we PRINT CHR$(146) which turns from the left edge of the screen. Fi Line 50 is a GOTO to "hold"
off the reverse function (RVS OFF). nally, we print our title, which in the border display. If you don't
Then we use a special command— this case is the word COMPUTER. have a FOR-NEXT time delay loop,
the space command (SPC)—to put The title could be longer, on several a GOTO, or a continuation of the
spaces across the screen. Because lines, or other information or rest of your program, the program
we turned off the reverse function, graphics can be presented inside will END and the "READY" mes
these are regular spaces which ap the border. Use HOME and sage will mess up your border.
pear as empty blanks on the screen. PRINTed cursor commands for
Finally, we add a single reverse positioning or centering. A Thin-Line Border With
space at the end of the line. Custom Corners
So here's what we have: Line Printing A Full Screen Border
Here's a variation on the border, us
10 clears the screen and prints a The program below prints a border ing "thin-line" graphics. The key
horizontal line across the top of the around the entire screen—includ difference here is that we have to
screen. Line 20 prints 20 lines (18 ing the tricky bottom right corner put comer graphics in all four cor-
on the VIC)—each of these lines (use C = 22:L = 21 for the VIC). ners of our border (use
begins with one reverse space, fol
C=22:L=21 for the VIC).
lowed by 38 (40 — 2) blank spaces
5 C = 40 :L = 23
(20 on the VIC), and ends with one 10 PRINT CHRS(147);iFOR H - 1 5 C - 40 iL » 23
reverse space. Line 30 is the same (SPACE)TO CiPRINT CHRS(ie) 10 PRINT CHR?(147) CHRS(176);.
as line 10. Put them al! together and (96);iNEXT
you have a border. 20 PRINT CHRS(174);iFOR V = 1
8) CHRS(32);
You can change the up-and- 25 PRINT CHRSU46) SPC(C-2) CH (SPACE)TO LtPRINT CHRS(125)
SPC(C-2)f CHR$(125);iNEXT
down length of the border by RS(IS) CHRS(32)fiNEXT
30 FOR H = 1 TO C-2iPRINT CHRS 30 PRINT CHRS(173);:FOR H - 1
changing the value of L in line 5 to a [SPACEjTO C-3:PRINT CBRS(96
(18) CHRS(32)jiHEXT
smaller number. 40 PRINT CHRS(18) CHRS(32) CHR );:NEXT
However, if you want to make 5(157) CHRS(148) CHRS(32)i 40 PRINT CHRS(189) CHRS(157) C
HRS(14a) CHRS(96);
a complete border around the edge 50 GOTO 50
50 GOTO 50
of the screen, you need to know an-
other trick because printing a Line 10 draws a horizontal line
character on the last line of the across the top of the screen; lines A Rainbow Border
screen automatically causes the 20-25 set up the next 23 lines (21 You can set the color of the border
screen to scroll up, and printing a for the VIC)—each screen line con however you like, either by using
character at the bottom right corner tains a solid block at the beginning the CHRS codes that determine
is especially difficult. and end with spaces in between; color, or by using standard CON
line 30 draws a horizontal line 38 TROL color commands inside
Printing Titles In The Border spaces long on the bottom line of quotes, where appropriate. This
Before we tackle our most difficult your screen (20 spaces long on the border is used a lot by software
problem—the bottom right corner VIC). developers. It prints reverse spaces
of the screen—let's see how to in But the key that makes a full in different colors, using a random
sert a title or other information in border possible, by placing a number formula to pick the colors.
side the border. character in the bottom right comer You can also vary this by "shrink
Add the lines below to your of the screen, is line 40. Line 40 be ing" it down and making a smaller
existing program. To do this, just gins by printing a reverse space on border, perhaps in the center of the
type each line and press RETURN. the bottom line at the second to the screen. Here it is (use C = 22:L = 21
They will be automatically added to last position. We then cursor left for the VIC):
the program shown above. one time, with CHR$(157). This po
5 C - 40 :L = 23
40 PRINT CHRS(I9);:PRINT:PRINT sitions the computer on top of the
10 PRINT CHRS(147);;FOR G = 1
50 FOR M = l TO 10:PRINT CHR$<29); reverse space just printed. Next, (SPACE)TO CiGOSUB 500iPRINT
:NEXT:PR1NT"COMPUTER" and most important, we use an IN CS CHR?(18) CHRS(32)ijNEXT

44 COMPUTEI's GazoriB September 1985

20 FOR G - 1 TO LiGOSUa 500:PR
25 PRINT CHRS(146) SPC(C-2):


CHRS(157) CHRS(148) CHR?(3
60 GOTO 60
500 R = INT{8«RND(m+l:GS = "

KfcMt If you have a Commodore

64, Plus/4, 16, or 128, you can in
clude up to 16 colors instead of 8.
Change the number 8 in the random
number formula to 16 and type alt 16
colors in line 500, in quotation marks.
To get the first eight numbers, hold
down the CONTROL key and press
each color key in order, then hold
down the Commodore key and press

those same keys, to get the next eight
Also, to make the display look
better, eliminate the color of the back
ground screen. For example, if the Now, for the first time, are included in the course
screen is colored blue, eliminate blue you can take real courses, prices.
from the colors in quotation marks from live instructors, right in Degrees available through
and type a 7 instead of 8, or 15 instead your home or office, right on the Electronic University
of 16 if you use 16 colors. This helps your own personal computer. include: Associate Degrees in
because if you use the same color as You can use an Electronic Business and General Studies,
the background in your rainbow bor
Library for research, tune-in Baccalaureate Degrees in
der, those cyan blocks may look like
to interactive seminars, and Business and the Arts, several
"empty" spaces.
take advantage of a full MBA Degrees, and specialized
counseling center. Certificate Programs. There is
The key to this program is the
The Electronic University also a variety of non-credit
GOSUB in line 500. Line 500 selects
is a national educational sys courses offered over the sys
a random number from one to
eight, then defines the variable G$ tem that connects your per tem, as well as Tutoring

as a group of eight color com sonal computer to recognized Programs for children.
mands, and finally uses the MID$ colleges and universities Isn't it time to involve
function to define CS as one of located throughout the coun yourself in education once
those colors selected at random. For try. You can study nearly any again? Have some fun, become
example, if the third color is red and subject at your own pace, and part of the spirit of a national
the random number is 3, then C$ on your own schedule. university system, and better
will equal the color red. This means Finally, technology is eli yet, open up a world of new
if you print C$ it will be the same as
minating those barriers (time, opportunities for yourself and
printing CTRL-RED—in other
location, and high cost) that your entire family. Call us
words, wherever you see a GOSUB
have prevented you from today:
500 in the program, it tells the com
puter to jump down to line 500, completing your college edu
pick a color, then jump back to cation, entering a Master's 800-22LEARN or

where it left the main program and Degree Program, or just taking
keep going. The RETURN com that course you've always
in California.
mand in line 500 sends the program wanted to take.
back to its previous position. The No computer knowledge
result is that every GOSUB 500 in The Electronic University
is required to use the system 505 Budt Sttttt, San Franciscu, CA 94133
this program resets the color of the
and all communication costs 415/928-2800
characters being printed at that
point. O
Recycling Selected
DATA Statements

Gordon). LeVee rate, you'd need 50 lines to put all gave Y a value of 999. It's the POKE
50 state names into the array. that led to an error. The computer
READ and DATA give you a better doesn't know when you READ
// you've discovered a clever time-
saving technique or a brief but way to do the same thing: whether you're going to try to put
the number into memory or not
effective programming shortcut, 10 DIM SSI 50)
send it to "Hints & Tips," c/o (READ-DATA can be used for a
variety of purposes besides

we'll pay you $35.

A POKEing ML programs).
510 DATA ARKANSAS,CALIFORNIA,C Most BASIC loaders have long
lists of DATA statements full of
Line 10 DIMensions the string numbers. If you've made a mistake,
Certain BASIC commands—IF-
array S$ to a size of 50. Line 20 then like the 999 in line 40, one obvious
loops from 1 to 50, reading state way to find it is to search through
RETURN—travel in pairs. The first
names from the DATA statements all of the numbers, looking for one
word starts a series of actions, the
not in the 0-255 range. But there's a
second wraps things up. READ and (a comma separates each item, so
you can put more than one on each quicker and simpler way.
DATA are another such pair. The
general idea is to put some infor line).
mation into-DATA statements and If you run this program, you'll Checking The Pointer
then use READ to do something get an OUT OF DATA error be DATA statements are read only
with that information. cause there are only six items in the once, and the computer knows
READ and DATA are often ex DATA statements and line 20 is try which ones have been read (or not).
plained with an example like this: ing to READ through 50 of them. As you may have guessed, there's a
The computer keeps track of which pointer in memory that can tell you
DATA statements have been used, how far into the DATA the program
30 DATA 2,3,4
and each entry in a DATA state has gone.
ment is read only once. We'll see in Run the program above; it
In line 10, values 2,3, and 4 are a moment how you can READ them stops with an ILLEGAL QUAN
assigned to variables A, B, and C. more than once. TITY error. The problem in line 10
Line 20 multiplies them. This isn't a Another common use for is that it's READing and POKEing,
particularly good example, how DATA statements is POKEing ML and has reached a number which
ever—10 A = 2: B = 3: C = 4 is a programs into memory. ML pro can't be POKEd. Now type PRINT
shorter, simpler way to accomplish grams can be set up via a BASIC PEEK(63) + 256*PEEK(64) and
the same thing. "loader" program like this: you'll see a 40. Locations 63 and 64
Two cases where READ- point to the DATA line most re
DATA is the best method for han [SPACElX,Y:NEXT
cently read. LIST 40 reveals the
dling a lot of information are arrays 20 SYS32B problem: 999 is too big. Change it
30 DATA 169,72,32,210,255,169, to 0 and the program will run.
and machine language (ML)
programs. PEEKing 63-64 can save a lot
40 DATA 999
of time if you've made an error in
Information In Bulk When you type 5YS 828, this DATA statements and need help
short ML program prints the word pinpointing it. You can zero in on
Arrays are designed to handle long
lists of information. You need only HI. But once again there's an error. the offending line, rather than
two steps to set up an array. First, If you run it, you get an ILLEGAL searching tediously through a long
tell the computer how big the list QUANTITY error in line 10. Num list of numbers.
bers POKEd into memory have to You could also add the PEEKs
will be—its dimension. Second, fill
out the list. Here's an example: be in the range 0-255. Anything to your program to see which
higher or lower, like the 999 in line DATA statement is being read, a
10 DIM SS(50) 40, leads to an error. useful technique when you're
20 SS(1)="ALABAMA" The error message is some debugging a program with several
30 SS(2)="ALASKA"
40 SS(3)="ARIZONA"
what misleading because the prob sets of DATA statements.
lem is caused by the 999 in line 40,
Unfortunately, the variables but the computer says the error is in Rereading The DATA
are defined rather clumsily. At this line 10. The READ worked fine; it Suppose you've written a short

46 COMPUTE!'! Gentle Septamber 1985

MSD Sure Copy • Copy Protected Disk
• Copy Files
• Scratch a File
• Rename a File
At last a complete utility package for the MSD Dual • Format a Disk • View Directory
Drive. This is the first MSD utility program that does
• Change Disk Name
it all. The main menu options include:

Sure Copy will put all errors automatically on disk: 20,21,

• Quit
• Copy Unprotected Disk
$39 95
22, 23. 27 and 29's.


DM5 — New Wedge All C128 Compatible
Vi i '.id. I icni'T — ID Check — Split Scetm (Horiiontally) — Write Protect Dlik
Vi Track Formal tar — Unteratch — Smooth Sciolllng — Unwrll* Protect Dlik
□rive Mon — Vltw RAM — Save Ram From Undet Rc-mi — Mini D.O.S. Wedge
The Doc — ' Writ-- Teil — No Drive Ratlle On Erron — Fail DIM male her
Sync Maker — Repair a Track — Triple Dm.i- Head Speed — Data Statement Maker
Sync IL-iidi-r — Fail Formal — An to boot Maker — Unnsw
Change Drive No. — Koala Screen Dump — 3 Mlnule Copy

□Ilk Logger — □ lip lay GCR — D.M.S.
Dltk Match — Fait Dl»k Eraicr
— Protect Scheme For Your Dlika


• Translates any machine language program Intoeasy-to-
AUTODIALER reafl English descriptions with complete explanations ol
each command!

i-Aulo DM -■- • automatically dial a sal ol numbers you choose '-_ , • Makes complete notations of all Important memory
2-flavlaw Numbtr* mil review numbers Thai were answered by a computer locations accessed by the programl (SID. VIC. MOS,
3-SktVt Numbcri will save numbers where a computer answered KEHNAL, etc.]

4-mrdcnpy of Numbfln will print out list 0. nurntxjrs wherfl a compute" answered • Gives you three ways ot accessing programs:
You Now Longer
•• I OAf) Ni.Ndiirr-i will load n numbers 10 COnnnue where it lefl oil 1) Will read and Hit progiami from DISK
ntotl to b* an
2} Will read and Hit progiami (ram MEMORV
G-Contlnytj will pick up dialing wtarn i: was mtarrupied EGGHEAD to
3} Direct uaer Imput (from magazines, etc.]
read Machine

• Can be used to locale and examine any machine Language.
langjage program's protection routines1

• Can be used to easily break apart machine language

programs for study and examination1

• Printer option lor complele hard copy listings!

S19 95
N-CODER The perfect companion

3rd the machine

language manipulator..
program to D-CODERI

Allows you to easily make changes in machine language

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• Rewrite ability allows code to be altered and then

'HRNDBDDH rewritten directly lo the disk1

■ Features sector-by-sect Or scrolling assembly language
display of machine language programs!

THIRO EOITION! NOW AVAILABLE! • Notation of ASCII text equivalents lor easy spotting of
embedded text strings'
If you're ured ol being harassed by protected loftwira and too many copy

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gambit from legalities to prelection methods 10 step-by-slep back up pro commands and their ML numerical equivalents!
cedures Now you can learn bolh how to protect and unpfoteel sottware1 • Byte splitter lor easy splitting ol decimal addresses into
The techniques covered include copying cartridges lo tape or disk, tape pro low byte-high byte formal!
tection, and disk protection. Disk protection covets error no.'sZD, 21, 22. 23,
21 ano 29 pJua Single track formatting, header modification, header awapp-
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Of two diSH dfirOl mij Onatw i.1 ^ri.hfi.rn ■.,<.■'
plalna, tells how to detacl and how lo write them with included software
you can custom/it it oaiity rotitxt'i.
Eleven useful utilities and many protection listings' Our disk analysis programs
reveal the protection methods used on your originals A diskette wilh all soli-
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THIS MANUAL DOES NOT CONDONE PIRACY Private Message Base Open Chalk Board tor
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Enclosa Caiftiiri Chacn Monar OrOer

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Was 96604
Phone [2061 687-5116 • BBS 6B7-5205 *i*• >m,ii Comourip >o Comeut

COMPUTE!'* Gazelle September 1985 47

STARPOINT SOFTWARE proudly presents melody to be played at certain points in a program.
You translate the notes to the correct numbers and
put them into DATA statements. A FOR-NEXT loop
then reads through them and plays the tune.
But items in a DATA statement are used only
once. To play the music again, the program has to be
n+n+n+n+n+n+n=n able to go back and reread the DATA. The solution?
Insert a RESTORE command before the loop. RE
[say Icepick], a revolutionary new concept in STORE tells the program to forget about which
software de-protection for the Commodore DATA has been read and return to the beginning of
64. ISEPIC is not a disk duplication system, the list.
but an extraordinary hardware/software
combination that actually bypasses any disk RESTORE To A Selected Line
protection scheme. ISEPIC captures and With the exception of relative files, all tape and disk
saves the protected program as it runs in the files are sequential. This means information is read in
64's memory, this "snapshot" becomes ac the same order as it was written (first in, first out).
cessible to the user for complete inspection As we've seen, DATA statements are essentially
and alteration. From this image. ISEPIC can sequential files stored in memory rather than on tape
automatically create a compact, auto-booting, or disk. They're read from beginning to end. RE
fast-loading file which is completely un STORE sets a pointer to the beginning.
protected and self contained. With a few PEEKs and POKEs, we can transform
the READ-DATA combination from sequential to
if Copies ALL memory-resident software random access. This method allows us to choose
•& ISEPIC'd programs load many times which DATA statements will be used next.
faster than originals Why wouid you want to RESTORE to a certain
line? Say you have a program containing several dif
a ISEPtC is invisible to software—cannot ferent types of DATA statements: an array or two,
be defeated custom characters, sprites, an ML routine, and music.
it Eliminates drive "knock" due to antique If you wanted to use the music more than once, RE
STORE might not be enough. It only sets the pointer
protection schemes—adds years of life
to read from the beginning of the DATA (which could
to your drive
be the information for sprites or arrays).
* Automatically "cracks" protected pro- The improved BASICs in the Plus/4,16, and 128
grams into single, auto-booting, super- have the ability to RESTORE to a certain line number.
fast loading files RESTORE 200 sets the pointer to line 200, for ex
ample. The VIC and 64 can't do this directly, though.
■& Place multiple programs on a single
You need to add this line to your program (change the
line number to put this line right before the READ}:
■& Create auto-booting, fast-loading 300 FOR X-Q TO 3r A«X) = PEEK (63 + X>: NEXT
versions of your own programs
Locations 63-64 hold the line number of the last
it Cracked programs are completely self- DATA statement to be read and 65-66 keep track of
contained and run independently of the where in memory the line begins. By keeping this
ISEPIC adapter information in an integer array, you can later POKE
the values back and reset the pointers. (To save a little
■& Copies software with a flick of a switch
memory, add DIM A%(3) at the beginning of the pro
■fr ISEPIC comes complete and ready-to- gram.) Perform the PEEKs before you start READing
run, just plug into expansion port the section of DATA statements you'll be returning
■ft Programs cracked by ISEPIC may be
To go back to the selected section, insert this line
used on MSD or 4040 drives as well
before starting to read the DATA:
as hard disks regardless of original pro
490 FOR X = 0 TO 3: POKE 63 + X,A%(X): NEXT
tection schemes
You can repeat this for other sets of DATA in the
When ordering by mail:
program by changing the variable name (B% or C%,
* £64.95 + 3.00 shipping
for example). Or use a two-dimensional array to keep
* £64.95 + 4.00 COD orders
" Calif, residents add 6% sales tax
all of the pointers together.
* VISA or Mastercard accepted These four PEEKs and POKEs give you a choice
* Shipping out □( USA £5.00 of where to start reading information you've already
Please allow 4-6 weeks for delivery. looked at—random access to DATA. Q

. . . WRITE 01 PHONE . . .

Star Route 10 Gazelle, Cfl 9503d |916] 435-2371
User Group Update
When writing to a user group for inform.! lion, please remember to enclose a
stamped, dressed envelope. COMPUTE! Publications
Please note that COMPUTE'S GAZETTE will no longer publish telephone P.O. Box 5406
numbers of user groups or bulletin board systems. Greensboro, NC 27403
Send additions, corrections, and deletions for this list to: Attiv. Commodore User Croups

User Group Notes New Listings

Those interested in astronomy and/or the space program might want to contact
a new special interest group (SIG), which is forming now. For more information,
write to Astro 64, 9 Lynda Rd., Portland, ME 04103.
Also, those living in Alberta who are interested in starting a user group can
contact Randy R. Coutts, Box 1584, Slave Lake, Alberta, Canada TOG 2A0. ALABAMA
Sequoyah Users Group (S.U.G.I, Larry Henderson,
The Fresno 64 Users' Group has a new address: c/o Greg Edwards, 689 IV.
2301 Godfrey Avb, NE, Lot 4, Ft. Payne, AL 35967
Santa Anna *102, Clovis, CA 93612. East Alabama Uten' Group, P.O. Box 249, Jackson
The Pasadena Commodore Club in Monrovia, CA, has asked to be deleted ville, At. .1ft2r.5
from our listing. ALASKA
The Ft. Walton Beach Commodore Users Group has a new contact person Sitka Commodore User's Group, P.O. Box 2204,
Sltkfl, AK 99835
and phone number. Information may be obtained by writing the group in care of
Chris Poole. ARIZONA
L'ser Group 64, Jeff Miller, 4937 W, Townley Ave.,
A users' group is forming in Bloomfield, NJ. For information, contact Eric Glendale. AZ S5302
Williams, P.O. Box 1874, Bloomfield, NJ 07003. ARKANSAS
The Suncoast 64s have a new address: c/o Ray Crisp, P.O. Box 5112, Palm Commodote Computer Club of Pine Bluff, Paul
Harbor, FL 33563-9512. Harper, pmldent, 2H11 Belmoor, Pine Bluff, AK
71 Ml 3
The former C-64 U.S.E.R.S. of Rochester, NIT, are now 64 Users, and may
Ark-La-Tei Commodore Users E:*ch.inge (CUE),
be contacted at Box 878, Rochester, NH 03867-0009. P.O, Bus 1)473, Tm.iik.irui, Ali-TX 75503
RAM ROM 84, a user group in Englewood, FL, has a new address: P.O. The Persona! " Touch Commodore User Group of
Box 1369, Englewood, FL 34295-1369. Honle and Walnut Ridge, Laity Simmons, c/o
Cleans! DflHvfliy, WjIiiui Ridge, AR 72476
Both the Monmouth and the Galesburg chapters of the Western Illinois
Commodore Users Group (WICUG) have dissolved, and their memberships have The 20/64 Group, 2170 W. Broadway, Suite 529,
been absorbed by WICUG. Information about WICUG may be obtained by writ Anaheim. CA "2R04-2JJ6
ing to the club in care of Robert Cokel, president, 906 West 6th Ave., Mon Occana-61 Commodore User Group, 5am Biooks,
1004 Plovet Way. Oce.insidc, CA 9205ft
mouth, !L 61462.
CivicM User Group, Nathan Okim, P.O. Box 2442,
The Decatur Commodore Computer Club (DC3) has a new contact person Ounarii. CA 93D34-2442
ami address. Inquiries should be sent in care of Eric F. Martin, 664 W. Grand, Computer Users Croup of Ukiah ICUCU), Glen
Decatur, IL 62526. CIjss. 9500 Wesl Hd., Polter Vjlley. CA 95469
Sin Francisco Commodore Users Group, Roger
There has been a name and address change for the Rancocas Valley User Tierce, 27H 27ih Ave. =103, San Francisco, CA
Group. It is now the Rancocas Valley Commodore Users Group, P.O. Box 505, 94121
Mt. Laurel, NJ 08054. Commodore Users Group of Santa CftO, FlhGould,
P.O. Bn> 8068, Santo Cna, CA 95061-8068
The Folklife Terminal Club also has a new address: Box 555-R, Co-op City
Station, Bronx, NY 10475,
Rocky Mountain Commodore Chib, Ray Brooks,
The Western Indiana Commodore Users (W.l.C.U.) has a new contact per P.O, ikm 377, Aspen, CO H1612
son and address. For information, write to Steve Han, W.l.C.U., P.O. Box 1898, Colorado PET Users Group, (.7li S. QuenHn St., Au
Terre Haute, IN 47808. rora, CO 80012
Ft. Collins C, |»dy Di Francesco, 1625 Centennial
Another new address is for the Montgomery County Commodore Com Rd., Ft. Collins, CO 80535
puter Society. Contact Dave Menaker, P.O. Box 2689, Silver Spring, MD 20902. CONNECTICUT
Persons trying to contact the Brooklyn, New York, Commodore Users The Naugatuck Valley Commodore Users Group,
Group by phone should note that the number published in the [une issue is a lames Ihompson, Ray Si., Waturbury, CT 0670S

voice phone, not a bulletin board system. Please call the number only between DISTRICT OF COLUMBIA
6:30-9:30 p.m. on weekdays, and from 10:00 a.m.-1:0(1 p.m. on weekends. No C-64 Commodore Club, 1947th HBG-MWR AF Rec
SVCS. Pentagon, Washington, dc 20330
modems, please.
The Albany-Corvallis (OR) C64 Users Group has changed its name to the Ciearwater Commodore Club, lanice Sleffens,
Albany-Corvallis Users Group. The address remains the same: c/o Nellie Srrat- pres., 1250 Cleveland, Cleanvatn. FL 33516
ton, 800 S. 19 St., Philomath, OR 97370. Commodore Users Group ofSW Florida, PO. Box
6399, Ft. Myers, FI. 33911
The Newport Computer Club, in Newport, RI, has a new zip code.
St. Lucie Users Group (SLUG), atm: Fred Brock.
Correspondence should be sent to: Newport Computer Club, P.O. Box 1439, P.O. Bo\ I29H, 1-t. I'ieice, IT. 3,1454
Newport, RI 02840-0997. Suncoasl Hytcs Commodore Computer Club,
The bulletin board number published recently for the World Wide User George R. Sloll, [ires., 3413 Si\ir*dale Trail, New
Flirt Richly, FL 33552
Group in Tacoma, WA, was incorrect. The correct number for the 24-hour, seven 64 Society, 4071 Edgtwatsr Dr., Orlando, FL 32804
days a week board is (206) 535-0574. Commodore Stuff, Wade A, Guggino, 2260 17th Si.,
Vero Beadi, FL 32960
User Croup Support From Commodore GEORGIA
User groups interested in joining "Commodore World," Commodore's new sup Commodore Craze International, 1284 Lynn Dr,
port network for user groups, should contact the company for further details: Waycrofis, GA 31301
Commodore Business Machines, Inc., 1200 Wilson Dr., West Chester, PA 19380,
Attn: User Group Coordinator.

COMPUTEfs Gazello September 1985 49

Makai Commodore Uset Group (MCUGr, P.O. Box PUlIC Valley Commodore Users Croup ll'VCUC), Buller Commodore 64 User Group, P.O. Bu< 2408,
6381, Honolulu, HI 96818 Jim Parks. 1720 O St., Gering, NF_ 6934! Butler. PA 16U0!
IDAHO Lincoln Commodore Users Croup, P.O. Bo< 30655, Environmental Protection Agency (E.P.A.) Com
GBM-64, Ken RuEtxani, 407 N, DeCIark, Emmett Uneoln, NE 6B503, attn Secretary modore Users Group, Edwaid H. Cohen, 1712
ID 83617 NEVADA Aidonn Lair Rd., Dresher, PA 19025 (Nate: Open to
all ftdtrai gmimmial tmploi/ee) unit their families)
The Bljckfuut Users Group (B.U.G.I, Cllttll Smith, CAT. F.U.N., I'.O. lim 2153, Pollotl, NV 89406
pros., 417 S. I20D West, Pingree. ID H3262 Blue Junlata Commodore Users-Group, Cliium H,
Silver State Compuler Users Croup, P,O, Box
B.'M, |r., 107 Wmhington Ave., Lewiilon, PA
Hest Western Ul>I Croup (H.W.U.G.), Greg Edgar, B1075. Ui Veyas, NV H9IN0
Ki 2, Bo\ 2H5, Rupert, ID B33S0
NEW JERSEY P.C.U.C, C. Rhoads. !33B Lynn Dr., Puttslown, PA
ILLINOIS South Jersey Commodore User Group, Fred 19464
Tri-County Commodure Users Group, Ki-nnelli Herrmann. P.O. Box J2C5, Cherry Hill, NJ 08034
Hall, pros., P.O. Box 564, trie, IL 61250 C-64 East Brunswick Users' Group IC.E.B.U.C),
Burrillville Commodore Users Group, David
IOWA Brian Serle, 346 Rydor-. l.n.. i-j--t Brunswldi, NJ
Mlsneanll, 38 Cherry Farm Rd.. Harrisville, RI
N| Comcnoilore b4/Computer Users Group, Emilia
A. C-iircu, 11 Cheerful PL, Highland!, N| 07732 SOUTH CAROLINA
I. & 1. Commodore 64 User Croup, Auiuti I I ftvlns, Commodore Compuler Club of Columbia, P.O.
One Longstruel Kil . Mjtuljpjn, N] 07726 Bon 2775, Cayce-lVesl Columbia. SC 29171
Commodore Software Exchange. Box 2B1, CAZZUG 64, 100 Ojk Pjrk Dr.. Mauldm, SC 29662
Iowa City Commodore Users Group I1CCUG),
Phyllis I. Stumba, P.O. Box 2412. low* Citv. IA Plimpton Plaint, NJ 07444 TENNESSEE
522-14 Jersey Shore Commodore Users Gruup, Bob Mo Clarksville Commodore Users Group. P.O. Box 67.
Kinley, 39 Stratford Rd.. Tinlon Halls, NJ 07724 Clarksvillt-, TN 37040
Lawrence Commodore User's Group, P.O. Bos NEW YORK Dungeons and Dragons User's Group, Glenn
Astoria Commodore Users Group, Brian Kuhn, 26- Halliburton, Rt. 1. Box 2BA, Cumberland Cily,
2204, Lawrence, KS 66045
23 Cresti-nt Si., Astoria, NY 11102 Krin, TN 37050
KENTUCKY Hay Shoif Users Group, Mowbray St. Cafe. 82 W. Greeneville Computer Home Users Croup, Harry
Opiial city Commodore Club 14" O, Tcnry Haine-.. M.un Si., Ray Shore, NY 1170n ' |. I'orler, Rte. B, Box 138-T, Greeneville. TN 37743
Kit s. lones Lane, Frankfort, ky 4060]' B.N.Y. Commodore User Group, Kyk1 SlOverulcy, 71 Tri-Cities Commodore Club, Vickie Davis, c/o
Commodore User* Gruup of Madisonville. Headol Neck Rd., Bcllporl, NY 11713 Compuler Corner. 114 5pringbrook Dr., Johnson
(C.U.G.O.M.). e/o Richard Byrd. P.O. Hoi 849, Ray Shore/Brightivaters Commodore b4 Users City, TN 37601
Madiwnville.KY 42431 Group, c/o B.w Short/ Bright waters Public Li TEXAS
LOUISIANA brary, ^ South Country Hd., Bri^htvvaim, NY Abilene Cursor Control, Roman Reynolds. P.O. Bo\
Lake Charles 64 Users Croup, P.O. Box 226, Lake 11718 6261, Abilene. TX 79608
Charles, LA 70602 Commodore & VIC Enthusiasts (CAVE), Bob Frost El Paso Commodore User Croup (EFCUG), Jesse
Commodore Users Group of Slidcll (CUGSI, Bd P.O. Bii> 10. Hokomb, NY 1«69 Moore, 173f> Dean Martin Dr., El Paso. TX 79936
Bunnv. 1326 Sunset Dr., Slidi'll, LA 70460 Cumniodoie Users Group of Massena (C.O.M.A.), Meadows User Croup (MUG), David WhiltlngrOn,
MunnA Compuler Center. Harte Fl.iven Pl,i/J. 11923 5C0tUdal«, Meadows, TX 77477
M.i"i-na, NV 1.1662 Middand Commodore Users Group, Dave Taylor.
COM-VICS, P.O. Box 1541, Auburn, ME 04210
The New York City V1C-20/C-64 U»ci Group P.O. Bm 7355, Midland, TX 79708
Your Commodore Users Croup, BnlDBwICll ChJp
(Ciligtoup), liiy.elyn WiKxfa/Alten Moblv,, 4,lh E. Commodore User's Croup of Odessa (CUGOI,
ter, I'clcr O'Brien. 211 Cuiumha Ave., Brunswick.
69th 5L New York, NY 10021 Charlotte Holley, 2904 N. Alleghnney, Odessa, TX
ME 04011
Frisco's Users Group, Frisco Baum. 41 Sunsel Dr., 79764
Your Commodore Users Group, Mike Prods*, P.O.
Ossinin;;. NY 10562 Society of Computer Owners and P.E.T. Enthu
Box 611, Wesibrook, ME 04092
Riverhead Commodore Club, Marge Lament*, 330 siasts (SCOPEI, Allen Yoder, P.O. Box 3095,
MARYLAND Court Si., Kivethcad, NY 11901 Richardson. TX 75083
Federation of Commodore User Societies, Inc. (FO Commodore SIC, Computer Club tif Kockland, lTe- Inlerlace Computer Club, Chrislopher Bordovsky,
CUS), P.O. Box 153, Annapolis [unction, MP tct Bellin, PO. Bi>\ 233, Ttllmnn, NY 109H2 pres., 7532 Triple Oaks. San Antonio, TX 78263
207O1. (Nolf: llii* iy a friieratioti consisting of J3 Commudore User Group of West Chester, Hen
hut groups \« the VA/MO/OCant, not 9 dub offer UTAH
Wevw, P.O. Bim 1280, While PUlm, NY 10602
ing individual fn&nbtnhips.) Cache Valley Commodore Users Group, Cecil
NORTH CAROLINA ClospelL 3S0 W. 550 North =4. Logan, ut 84321
Soulhern MD Commodore User Group, Tom
Unifour Commodore Users Croup, P.O. Box 9.124, I'ayson Area Commodore 64 Users Croup (PAC
Helmke, 6B00 Kilamy Si.. Clinton, MD 21)735
Commodore Users Medium—Baltimore Area
Hickory, NC 28603-9314 64), Mark Shepherd, P.O. Box 525, Salem, UT
Compuler Club (CUM-BACC), P.O. Hot 479, OHIO 84653
Rdsterstown, MD 11136 Bowling Green State University User Group, Chris VIRGINIA
MICHIGAN Hunt, S19 Midge =18. Howling Green, Oil 43402 Dale City Commodore Users Group, Inc., P.O. Box
Battle Creek Commodore and VIC FnlhusiaMS, Commodore Preference Users Connection 2265. Dale City, VA 22193-0265
(C.P.U. Connection], LXinni lludak, P.O. liov Piedmont Users Croup, David Gray, 135 Beverly
David McKay, 1299 S. 24ih. Baule Creak, Ml
42032, Bmiik Park, OH 44142 Rd., Danville, VA 24541
The Cincinnati Commodore Computer Connec- Capitol Area Commodore Enthusiasts, c/o M.
Columbia Commodore Computer Club (C1),
bara Herion, 133 liinesl, Brooklyn, Ml 49230 lion, Fed St.ilel>, «!6 Bwrher St., Cincinnati, OH YmlL'r, 6512 Truman Ln., Rills Church, VA 22043
45206 Commodore User Croup, Douglas A. Muliins, Box
Commodore Kids, Jason Shubter, 124 E. Maple St.,
Gladwin, MI 48624 Southwestern Ohio Commodore Users Group 625, Ridilands, VA 24641
(S.W.O.C.U.G.), P.O. Box 46644, Cincinnati, OH Commodore 64 Computer Users Group of Rich
Commodore Users Group of Durand, Ml, Maria
45246 mond, Virginia. R S. Armstrong, Jr., ^ec, P O. Box
Rominc, sec. P.O. Box 1S8, Unnon, Ml 4H449
UCOM-64, 340 'lan^emjui University Cenler, Mill] 9(17(1, Richmond, VA 23225
O.C.U.G., Bon 343. Rockland, Ml 49960
location 136, University of Cincinnati, CindnnBtt. NASA Commodore Users Croup, c/o Harris
MINNESOTA OH 45221 Hamilton, 713 York Warwick Dr., Yiwklnwn, VA
Commodore Hemidji User Croup, Ginlld Mauley, Youngslown C-64 UHer's Croup, Charles 23692
Rt. 3, Box 3CJ2. Bflndd)], MN SS501 Lonabotiom, 20') N, Paatl, Columbian,!, Oil
Pacific Northwest Commodore Club, Jell Jones.
Marion County 64 Users Croup, Tndd Pound*, P.O. The South l[ait Cleveland Commodore Crazies
17214 3rd Ave. SE, BotMl, WA 98012
15™ 709, Columbia, MS 39429 User Group (S.E.C.C.C.U.C.I, Jim iiersh, I'.O. li™
Longview Commodore Users Group, Stephen
37116, Maple Heights, OH 44137
MISSOURI Jones, 626 26th Ave., Longvkw, WA 98632
C.A.M. Area Uaers Group, I.oren Hines, 334 Fair-
Carthage Commodore Computer Club, Gary Balrd, Spokane Commodore Users Group, P.O. iiu>
view SE, North Canton, OH 44720
P.O. Box 842, Carthage, MO 64R36 13201, Spokane, WA 99213-3201
Commodore Hannibal Area Users Group OKLAHOMA
Greater Oklahoma Commodore Club, P.O. \Ui\
(C.H.U.G.I, Lynn Uhl Baumgartner, .1400 Geron- Rlklnq Area Commodore Users Croup, Chris Les-
hno, Hannibal, MO 634H1 96731, Oklahoma City, OK 73143
ler, P.O. Bin 2381, Elkinv WV 26241
Joplin Commodore Compuler User Group, K.I). Stillivaler C-M Users Group, 3124 N. hnailn. Still-
water, OK 74075 LewUburg Commodore User Society, David L.
Conndy, 422 S Florida Ave., loplin, MO 64HII1
Haynes, 17 Silo Sq., Lewisburg, WV 24901
Association of Commodore User Grnups (ACUCi), OREGON
Tony Ott, 1037R Cobura Lands, St. Louis, MO WISCONSIN
Lane Counly C-64 User's Croup, P.O. Bo* 11316,
63137 Eugene, OH 97440 Milwaukee Area Commodore Enthusiasts
(M.A.C.E.), P.O. Box 183, Creendale, Wl 53129
MONTANA Springfield Commodore User's Group, 4400
Franklin Ave., Stc. "1443, Eugene, OR 97403 Fond du Lac Area Commodore Users Club, Dick
Cascade County Users Croup, Jerry Spmbsek, P.O. Lend!, 1504 Shelley Ct., North Fond d\i Lac, Wl
Bon 739, Great Falls, MT 59403 Springfield Commodore User's Group, Mark
JoiTger. 5324 B St.. Springfield, OR 97478

50 COMPUTES Gazollo September 1985

Ftee software

Commodore 64
^U W e're giving away Videotex software advice to math. Shop at home Get the stock
T T worth as much as $99.95 FREE! quotes and the sports scores. Do your hanking in
If you're a Commodore 64 owner, it will let you bed. lest your knowledge of trivia and play elec
access your local information services such as tronic games. Bid in electronic auctions. Check
VIEWTRON, GATEWAY, GRASSROOTS, restaurant prices, travel bargains and movie
KEYCOM, COMPUSERVE or DOW JONES reviews. And much, much more
NEWS RETRIEVAL SERVICE* It's a whole new way of getting more out of your
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Commodore 64.1 enclose $5.00 for postage and handling.




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Mail to: Addison Systems Inc.

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"Ibaccuss the information ser.vicua modem is needed.

Contact individual services for subscription Information.


F-15 Strike Eagle range missile (1/2- to 10-mile dis

tance), and M with a medium-range
you are to succeed at each successive
missile (10-40 miles). There is even a F-15 Strike Eagle is an excellent
One of the problems with flight simu
bail-out option if the mission goes package for anyone interested in learn
lators as a whole is that, no matter how
badly, with a message telling you how ing about flying a modern fighter under
good they are, they tend to be unexcit you fared after landing. the threat of being shot down any num
ing. This is not their fault; it simply re
F-15 Strike Eagle contains seven ber of ways. More intense than a
flects the fact that nothing much missions of increasing difficulty. In straight flight simulator, it combines
happens in a simulated airplane.
"Libya 1981," the introductory mis the basic realism of a flight simulator
Microprose Software's F-15 Strike Eagle
sion, you bomb several SAM sites, air with the tension of a good arcade game.
for the Commodore 64 solves this prob
fields, and a command center, all the 1 highly recommend it for anyone with
lem by putting you in the cockpit of an while avoiding a MiG-21, a MiG-23, an interest in either.
F-15 jet fighter, then threatening your and an Su-22 with a heat-seeking mis —Neil Randall
life with enemy aircraft, radar-homing
sile. Mission 3, "Haiphong 1972," is a
missiles, SAM (surface-to-air missile) Microprose Software
night bombing mission against a SAM
sites, and the ever-present danger of 10616 Beaver Dam Rd.
site, this time against the threat of Hunt Valley, MD 21030
crashing while trying to avoid them all.
radar-homing missiles. Mission 7, the S34.95 (disk)
most demanding scenario, asks you to
bomb several targets while evading a
MiG-23, an Su-22, and several high-
performance radar-homing and heat-
seeking enemy missiles. All the
scenarios are extremely challenging,
and your skill as a pilot must increase if

The screen display is a realistic with COPY II 64
view from the cockpit. Pitch lines indi
cate your rate of climb or dive, as well
Rom the learn who first brought you COPY II PLUS (Apple), COPY II PC
as your degree of turn. Fine-lined
grids—"reticles"-—show the location of [IBM) and COPY II MAC (Macintosh) comes a revolutionary new copy
enemy aircraft and also allow you to set program for the Commodore 64, COPY II 64!
up bombing runs. Other indicators on
the many-featured display include alti
• Copies most* protected software — automatically
meters, heading indicators, a missile- • Copies even protected disks in just '.\V> minutes.
designation box, and a mach Indicator,
to name just a few. As in any detailed • Maximum of four disk swaps on a single drive.
flight simulator, flying the aircraft takes • Copies half and full tracks.
practice, but in F-15 Strike Eagle flight is
not frustratingly complex. More impor • Requires just one 1:341 drive on the Commodore 64.
tantly, it seems to feel just right.
Call M-F 8-5:30 (W. Coast time) with your 2S t& ■_ 503/244-5782.
The rest of the controls take more
Or send a check (add S3 s/h, S8 overseas) lo
time to master, but this is as it should be
since these are the heart of the program.

■■\-; :: v' $39.95

Flight is handled by joystick, but weap POINT
ons and speed controls are sensibly laid Software, Inc.
out on the keyboard. Pressing B arms 9700SWCapitol Hwy. °]1M)
your F-15 for a bombing run (a real Fbrtland OR 97219
challenge, by the way); E activates elec
Wfe update Cojy \\ 64 regularly to handle new proltxlions; you a.-, a registered owner may update at any
tronic countermeasures to jam and de
lime lor 1/2 piice! (To update, jus! scud original disk and S2l),)
coy radar-homing missiles; F releases a
flare, which can fool a heat-seeking This piuduct Ispmi ithil foritw atenabling you in matteaitlmvilmpta imly.
missile; S arms your craft with a short-
52 COMPUTEVs Gazoue September 1985
On-Court Tennis Only NRI teaches you to
Tennis fans can now serve, volley, lob,
and even double fault in this fast-paced
computer game for the Commodore 64, service and repair all
On-Court Tennis from Gamestar. You'll
be surprised at the flexibility and
subtleties of this colorful and challeng computers as you build your
ing program.
On-Court Tennis is not an easy
game to master at first. The joystick
own 16-bit IBM-compatible
controls such a variety of shots that
you'll need to play a few games before
you begin to feel comfortable with the
action. Once you learn the moves, how As com- ■
|)liters move
ever, you'll find them easy to use and
into offices and
remember. You'll also discover that this homes by ihe
is one of the most enjoyable games in millions, ihe de
mand for trained
your computer collection. As with most
computer service
sports simulations, game play is more technicians surges lor-
fun against a human opponent. But On- ivanl. 'Hie Dqurlrnenlof
Labor estimates lhal com-
Court Tennis is better than many pro
I nil it service jobs will actually
grams of this type in letting you have a doable in Ihe next ten years—
fair chance against the computer. The a faster iirowlh than any other
program supports two-player and
Total System Training
human-computer choices. You can
As an NRI student, you'll yet
even pick up pointers watching two IoIeiI hands-on training els you
computer-directed players battle it out. actually build your own
Sanyo MIJC-55O2
computer Irom the
kcvlKun! up. Only a
pason who knows oJ)
the underlying fun
damentals can cope
with till the significant
brands ol computers.
And as an NRI
graduate, you'll
possess the up-io4he-
miniitc combination
ol 11 m i ry and practical
experience thai will
lead you to success on
the job.
You learn at your own convenience,
in your own home, at your own comfort
able pace. Without classroom pressures, will give you a total mastery ot compulet operations
without rigid nighl-school schedules, without and servicing techniques. You'll do piMranuriinj
Your options for different types of wasted lime. Your own personal NRI instructor in BASIC language. You'll prepare interfaces for
and NRI's complete lechnicjl siafl will answer peripherals such as printers and joysticks, Using
players, shots, and strategies are exten
your questions, give you guidance and srxt'UI utility programs, you'll check oiil HOBS functioning.
sive. Choose from among four different help whenever you may need it. And IM entire system, including all Ihe bundled
players—-who bear strong resem The Excitmq Sanyo MBC-650-2— solln'are and extensive data manuals, is yours Id
blances in names and playing styles to Your* To Keep kiiii U |>an ol ycul training.
Critics hail Ihe new Sanyo as the 'most intrigu 100-Page Free Catalog Tolls More
real-life pros Bjom, John, jimmy, and
ing" ol all the IBM-PC compatible computers. It uses Send the coupon today for NRl's biij IOO-|>ase
Ivan. Play on a fast grass court, a Ihe ame 8088 microprocessor as Ihe IBM-It and color catalog, which gives you allthe locts about NRI
predictable hard surface, or the slower Ihe MS/DOS operating system. So. you'll be able Id Iraining in Microcomputers. Rolwlics. Data Cum-
clay court. Move your shots around, fire Choice llioiisands oi off-the-shelisoihvare programs muniratkins, TVA'id™/Audio Servicing, and other
to run on your completed Sanyo. growing high-tech career fields. If tin' coupon is
a hard serve down the line, and hit
As you build Ihe .Sanyo from Ihe keyboard up, missing write to NRI at 3939 Wisconsin Ave., NW.
slices, flat shots, topspins, lobs, drop you'll iierform demons!rations eiihI experiments thai Washington, DC 20016.
shots, and smashes. All of these vari IBMIsa Registered Trademark of Inlornatl onal Bu31 ne33 M ac h i nos Corpora! i on.
ations are accomplished with joystick
movements and the fire button. 'SCHOOLS For Career courses
Your computer controls the move McGraw-Hill Continuing Education Center
3939 Wisconsin Avenue, Washington, DC 20016 US aoprovedunilerGI bill.

ments of both players relative to the po We'll give you tomorrow.

D check (or details
sition of the ball. But you're in charge of
all the shots. Timing is crucial as you I | Cmnputar EWclronici wAh Microcomputer] (_J Communicatrons Electronics □ Aulomctiva Servicing
watch the movement of the ball and ils [ j Djia Cooimunications □ InOuslrul Eteclronici □ Ait Conditioning. Healing.
'^J RoDotiCS 4 inausirial Conirols G Basic Eleclramcs Hefrigeraiujn, A Sorjr Technology
changing shadow. Appropriate sound
(J Color TV. Audio, anil VOeo Sistem Seincing 1 Teleprwne Servicmg □ Building CMislruclion
effects and impressive three- (_J Eleclranic DeEjgn Technatogy □ Small Engirt Servicing Q LDcksmiitimg & Eleclronic
dimensional graphics add to the game n Digital Eieclronlcs Cl Applance Servicing Security

as well. Another nice touch is the way

in which your computer opponent will
vary its playing level to give you a good
match. If you're weak, your opponent
develops some weaknesses of its own.
I Gi1y^l«iDl^l[> AcCrwllt« t>y LMo Nalk^rNBl Mur"*S,uilT Coufltil I&0H |
If you're strong, the computer will com antees many hours of enjoyment. ond, when she showed it to her class,
pensate there as well. —Kevin Martin her teacher immediately bought a copy
With On-Court Tennis, Gamestar for the school, and currently all the
Gamester, Inc.
has created a first-rate sports simulation 1102 Stale SI. grades are using it.
with a balanced mixture of action and Saula Barbara. O\ 93101 Third, I decided late one night to
strategy—a combination that guar $29.95 try my hand at the game's most difficult
word list (there are ten lists), confident
that I would have no problems since
Cave of the Word Wizard spelling has always come easily to me.
The Wizard led off with three words I
Schools today, at least those which use enthusiastic. If you're wrong, he gently handled easily (although "supercil
computers, are filled with instructive informs you of the error, displays the ious" caused me a moment of thought),
software. But there seems to be a sense word on the screen, and asks you to then downed me on three straight
that students will find it delightful sim type it in before continuing. There's wrong answers. (Naturally, I de
ply because it appears on a compuler. nothing at all frustrating about the nounced the game iis ridiculous, claim
This just isn't so, as anyone with a procedure, and next time you see the ing that no one really cares if
school-aged child knows; thankfully, word you're likely to spell it correctly. "inoculate" only has one "n.") Cave of
teachers and software designers alike In game terms, correct spellings give the Word Wizard is sensational if only
are beginning to realize it as well. you extra bandages, while incorrect for the Wizard himself. Many educa
spellings consume energy in your tional products hide the lesson inside
flashlight. the game; Timeworks has managed to
Since Cave of the Word Wizard is an make the student play the game in or
educational product, it must be judged der to get to the lesson.
for its ability to educate. I can attest to —Neil Randall
its excellence in three ways. First, my Timemorks, Inc.
seven-year old daughter plays it fre 444 Lake Cook Rd.
quently, and she almost never spells Detrficld, II 60015
the same word incorrectly twice. Sec $24.95 (disk) W

B. C //; Grog's Revenge

Cave of the Word Wizard is one pro With the notable exception of only a
gram which delights as it instructs. The few movies, sequels are seldom as good
game is a romp through several levels as the original—and usually they're not
of a dungeon-like cave, with ladders to even close. The same holds true with
climb up and creatures lo avoid. Your software sequels, again with certain
goal is to find four crystals and get back exceptions and those usually in the fan
out of the cave. You begin the game by tasy and adventure game genre. How
choosing a character (either Becky or ever, on rare occasions, a truly good
Mark) and one of four levels of diffi arcade game is succeeded by an equally
culty, then you move through the cave good sequel. Sierra On-Line has pro
by jumping over holes, rocks, and such vided just such an occasion with the re
things as spiders and snakes. If you trip lease of S. C. //: Grog's Revenge.
over a rock or allow a creature to touch B. C.'s Quest for Tires was one of
you, yon use up a bandage. You start the first graphically exceptional games mountains, collecting clams {which are
the game with five bandages, and re that didn't rely solely on graphics to used to pay the tolls required to ad
ceive one periodically if you spell the carry it, having a simple but challeng vance to the next mountain) as you go.
words correctly. If you run out of ban ing game format to go along with its However, it just isn't as simple as it ap
dages, the game is over. The game cartoon-like animation. Thor, the hero pears. Plenty of sound strategy is re
plays much like Pitfall, except that it's of Quest [or Tires, has returned in B. C. quired in order to outwit Grog and get
easy enough for children as young as //: Grog's Revenge and is now searching him off your track, and an equal
kindergarten age. The graphics are not for Sweet Chick, but for the mean amount of hand-eye coordination is
colorful and entertaining. ing of life. An easy task, considering necessary to manipulate Thor over, un
No matter how fun the game itself that the only things standing in his way der, and around the various obstacles
is, though, the spelling portion is even are wheel-munching Tiredactyls, greedy that litter the mountain trails and fill
more enjoyable. This game talks to you! attendants collecting tolls, dangerous the dark caves.
caves, twisting mountain paths—and To reveal too much about the little
As you walk and jump through the
cave, ever)1 so often the Word Wizard the clam-loving monster. Grog. delights that add to both the play and
will appear out of nowhere, freezing Grog's Revenge brings with it not the aesthetics of Grog's Revenge would
only the central character of its prede be to deprive the buyer of some of the
you in place and commanding you to
cessor, but also the delightful graphics enjoyment of playing a game for the
spell a word. He booms out his request
in a deep, remarkably clear voice, and and animation that made the first B. C. first time. Suffice it to say that Greg's
you must spell the word (by typing it). game 50 notable. Further similarities Revenge leaves the gamer hoping for a
If you didn't hear the word, he repeats exist in that the game presents the sequel to the sequel.

it for you. If you spell it correctly, he re player with a single objective that is, at —James Trunzo
sponds with "Fantastic," "Keep up the first, deceptively simple. You must Sierra O>i-Line, Inc.
good work," or one of several other maneuver Thor, transported by his uni- Coarsegoltt, CA 93614
phrases, and his voice even sounds wheeled vehicle, up three mullileveled $34,95 Idisk) tm

54 COMPUTE!'s Gazette September 1905

Legionnaire a Breakthrough in Value!

Chris Crawford's Legionnaire for the ULTRABYTE

Commodore 64 is, as computer war
games go, very unusual. First, it is a NEW PRODUCTS-ALL
realtime simulation. Second, it takes
less than 20 minutes to play. Third, its with FREE BACKUP COPIES
subject is tactical warfare in the age of
Caesar. Realtime map-oriented war NOW IMPROVED FOR HIGHER QUALITY
games are rare in themselves, 20-
minute wargames even more so, and
tactical war games from the Roman era
practically unheard of. Uses proprietary revision of disk operating system [DOS) to make
Despite its uncommon features, a bit by oil copy. This process, called nibbling, copies the formal,
or perhaps because of them, Legionnaire data and errors, all at the same time. Errors are not recognized
is a very good game. You begin by and do not hammer the drive. Built in fast load environment allows
specifying how many legions you wish copies in 8 minutes with a single 1541 disk drive.
to control (between one and ten), and • Easy to use. No separate analysis or error production
then select the two barbarian tribes
who will oppose you. The tribes are fic • Copies up to 38 tracks including half tracks. Optional
tional, but each possesses characteris starting & ending tracks to copy partial disks
tics appropriate to the historical era. • Makes up to 5 copies of each original — (UNIQUE FEATURE)
The computer then puts your legions
• Tone signals disk swaps
and their enemies on the map. Using
only the joystick, you scroll around the ■ Backs up 99% ol all protected software automatically
map (it occupies several screens in to
tal) and formulate an overall plan for
the battle. The two enemy tribes begin
separated, with your legions some DISK NIBBLER
where between.
plus S4.00 shipping and handling. Mastercard. Visa. Check or M.O.. Foreign orders
Trees and multilevel slopes are or COO add S2.00. Call I. add 6.5°= |S2.60| sales tax. Additional backup copies are
the only terrain features, but they are as $20.00 plus $3.00 shipping.
vital to your defense as they were
historically. You must make full use of
the height advantage offered by the
slopes, and the strategic location of the
trees. As the battle progresses, you IVIclVIURPHY'S MANSION THE DISK SURGEON
must try to keep your legions in combat AN ULTRABYTE AN ULTRABYTE
formation, with infantry in the middle
and cavalry—the main offensive
force—on the flanks. You represent the II seems that an unknown uncle has died In • Read data from, edit and write la disk
legion commanded by Caesar, and if faraway Scotland and left you his vast • Analyze disk errors without "hammering"
Caesar dies, the game is over. Other fariune. S1D.0D0.00D Id be exact If • Write errors 20. Zl, 22.23.27 & 29 on disk
wise, the game ends when all the units There Is only one small problem. Dear old • Read data under errors, erase errors
on one side are eliminated. uncle McMurphy was a bit demented and • Decimal. HEX, Octal & Binary conversions
As Caesar, you command your le has hidden your Inheritance somewhere in
• Formal a single track with any 10
gions to march. All play is joystick-con his mansion.
• Detailed Instructions lor beginners
trolled and, after a few practice games, He lell you only one small clue, a brass key. • Much mare
very fluid. Using the joystick, you "pick
II Is now up in you 1o Nnd your fortune. INCLUDES THREE PUBLIC DOMAIN COPY
up" a legion with the on-screen cursor,
• 30 -60 hours ni challenge PROGRAMS THAT ARE NOT PROTECTED
then plot its movement up to eight
"spaces." Quickly repeating this for 1| FILE COPY to copy portions ol a disk
■ Sealed envelope of hints
each legion, you then scroll around the lor beginners 2| SINGLE TRACK COPY
map watching the battle develop. After 3| A MINUTE COPY ol entire disk.
• Instruction manual Included
each legion reaches its ordered destina Protected disks also require error
tion, it will stop and await further or • Solution sheet available production
ders. Frequently it will be necessary to
$29.95 for 2 disks $29.95 for 2 disks
revise or cancel orders as the barbarian
strategy unfolds, or as the legions be
plus $4.00 shipping. COD or plus $4.00 shipping. COD or
come fatigued and losses mount. En Foreign add SZ.OO. CA (ax $1.95 Foreign add SZ.OO. CA tax S1-95
emy units automatically fight each
other when they try to enter the same All Products for Commodore 64 & 1541 Disk Drive Only
"square." Write or Call 24 Hour Order Line
The manual is well-written and in ULTRABYTE (818) 796-0576
formative, with tactical hints, descrip
tions of the strengths and weaknesses P.O. Box 789 La Canada, CA 91011
of each tribe, and historical notes. The
program is true to its objective of a fast- DEALERS & DISTRIBUTORS WANTED
moving game which forces you to

COMPUTE! s Gazsrte September 1985 55

combine your own strategic thinking highly entertaining as well. You can choose to work within a paging
with historical legionary tactics. With —Neil Randall format or a scrolling format. Paging
terrain, battle formations, and the enor gives you eight separate screens to
Microcomputer Games
mous effects of fatigue as your main The Avalon Hill Game Company work with, each 40 columns by 22
considerations. Legionnaire is a true 4517 Hartford Rd. rows. You use paging when the pro
learning experience. And with its short Baltimore, MD 21214 gram demands several sub-sections.
playing time and smooth action, it is S25 (cassette), S30 <disk) For example, the expense report has
one page for each type of expense
(travel expenses, miscellaneous ex
penses, mileage report). A grades pro
Adventure Writer, Dialog, And gram might have a separate page for

The ELF System

each assignment. Scrolling allows one
large report, 80 by 88 columns. It's used
for a program needing only one large
The Codewriter Corporation (formerly subtracted for a wrong answer, the section rather than several sub
Dynatech) literally made its name with messages which will accompany each sections.
its product called Codewriter. That mas answer, and even prompt and help
Designing a screen will be familiar
ter product has now spawned smaller messages to guide the reader along.
to anyone who's used a database or
products, each designed for a specific More importantly, you guide the pro spreadsheet, but experience is not nec
type of program. We'll look at three of gram from one page to another. For ex essary. Each field is delineated by a
them here, each of which allows you to ample, you might specify that a correct
symbol depending on its type. A dollar
design a program without a knowledge answer will send the reader to page 14,
sign indicates a money field, a number
of programming. After you've designed while an incorrect answer will send him sign a numeric field, and an "@" an
it, the master program generates your to page 15 (perhaps a less difficult new open field. These symbols let the pro
specific program, which you can then question). Dialog also allows you to gram know how you want it to manipu
load and run independently. send the reader from the current chap
late the information in the fields. An
Dialog allows you to design inter ter to a different one. In this way, you ELF program can handle up to 700
active screens, to carry on a dialog with can tailor the quiz to the reader's in fields, 250 which you enter from the
the reader. Primarily, it's useful for dividual needs, or, if you are creating a keyboard, 200 in which the computer
creating educational programs geared game, to his wants. does the calculations, and 250 label and
towards a specific class or a particular After you've created the dialog, repeat fields.
student. In addition, though, it can be you save it in a three-step process. First, The program's sophistication
used to create any type of program In you save the dialog. Next, you load the shows when it's time to manipulate
which the reader must respond, such as boot program from the master disk and information. You print out the screens
quizzes and trivia-type games. In fact, save it to your new disk. Last, you load you've designed (a printer is recom
to test the program, 1 redesigned Trivia! the BASIC compiler from the master mended but not essential), and each
Pursuit so the reader could choose cate and save it to your disk. When this is field is numbered. Then you command
gories without rolling dice and would done, you can load and run your new, the program to perform mathematical
score a varying number of points compiled program without the master. calculations by combining fields in sev
depending on the difficulty of the The Dialog manual is well-written eral ways. There is even an open win
question. and instructive. It guides you step-by- dow to BASIC for those who prefer to
Each screen either instructs the step through a complete dialog, then work on the calculations directly. This
reader to do something or asks a ques gives somewhat more technical details part of the design is the most difficult,
tion. The questions are of three types: on each of the program's functions. Al but using it properly will give you a
true/false, multiple choice, or fill-in- though there is nothing difficult about great deal of control over your
the-blanks. When you create a dialog, Dialog, it is open-minded enough to programs.
you instruct the program how to re allow a great number of different types Once the program is complete,
spond to the reader's answers. For in of applications. Teachers in particular save it to an applications disk. Doing so
stance, in a true/false question, you will find it useful. Of all the Codewriter is easy, and it's great fun watching the
may want something different to hap programs reviewed here, Dialog is the code flash by on the screen. At such
pen depending on which answer the easiest to use, and this only adds to its moments you can easily justify spend
reader chose. Dialog lets you do that overall excellence. ing the money on The ELF System sim
and much more. The ELF System is less easy to use, ply by figuring out how long it would
Each dialog you design consists of but it compensates with greater have taken you to write the code.
an unlimited number of chapters. Each versatility. Its purpose is to let you de
ELF programs are saved in BASIC.
chapter contains 15 pages, and each sign a program which, as the manual
Unlike Dialog, The ELF System does not
page has two parts, the parameters suggests, "only you and maybe one
come with a BASIC compiler, but if you
page and the text page. On the text page other person in Alaska" would ever
use ELF frequently, you'll probably
you write whatever the user is to need. It resembles a spreadsheet more
want one to speed up execution. Hav
read—-instructions or questions. After than a database (in fact it does not pro
ing the program saved in BASIC is an
filling in the chapter's 15 pages (you vide the cross-referencing feature of
advantage for anyone familiar with
don't have to use all 15), you save that databases), but it is more simply an
programming, though, as you can alter
chapter and design the next (if needed). open-ended data manipulator. The ex
the program even further to suit your
By linking chapters, you can create a di cellent manual contains a tutorial in
needs. For a nonprogrammer, The ELF
alog of unlimited size. which you set up an expense report
System does the work for you; for a pro
The parameters page is the heart of program, the type of program it's de
grammer, it will eliminate much of the
Dialog. Here you tell the program what signed for. It would be equally ap
tedium of screen and field creation.
you want it to do. You choose the type plicable for small sales reports and as a
of page you are designing (true/false, small grades program for teachers. Different from both of these prod
etc.), how many points (if any) you The ELF System allows you to de ucts, but also a program generator, is
want awarded for a correct answer and sign the screen exactly as you want it. Adventure Writer. This product is
56 COMPUTEfs Gazatto SeplomOet 19B5
Is Believing
don't have enough time orspace to list all the good points!" -HoiandBmwn, MiDNiTEsorrwAREGAZEnt:

"This disk is fantastic!" -Tomiynch, the users port

"Why all the enthusiasm? Because COMAL is a composite of the best features of the most popular
programming languages... the familiarity of BASIC commands with the structural programming
environment of Pascal and the turtle graphics of Logo." -- nark Brown, into 64

"COPIAL was just What I was looking for." - Colin Thompson. Run

Seeing is Believing. Take a look at what COMAL has to offer:

the complete COMAL0.14SystemforCommodore64™includesthe
Tutorial Disk* (teaches you the fundamentals of COMAL), plus
the Auto-Run DEMO Disk* (demonstrates 26 COMAL programs
including games, graphics, sprites and sounds),
all for just $7.00!
You can add the reference book, COMAL from A toZ,
forjust $4.00 more.
$7 or $11 --either way you're a winner!

"Everybody Who gets it, likes It! (I'll guarantee it.)" -- ten Lindsay, President, COMAL Users Group

Call TOLL-FREE: 1-800-356-5324 ext. 1307

VISA or MasterCard Orders ONLY.
Questions and information must call our
Info Line: 608-222-4432.
All orders prepaid only - no C.O.D.

Send check or money order in US Dollars to:


6041 Monona Drive. *104, Madison, Wl 53716
{£CP phone: (6081 222-4432

■ FtcHjum* will (ommn J dlik-ior I douftlr ildtd diih -r^hil^k lndud«C0rtAl.

Commodore 04 n j (!.■'!■ i i i1. ■■' i ■■!.-■ ii i I ■ i tn:in: -.
designed for those who enjoy text ad 254 entirely separate vocabulary entries 40 "chips" on its main panel {a five-by-
ventures (such as Infocom's) but want (a word and all its synonyms count as eight matrix) and nine subpanels. The
to write their own. Where Dialog has one word only). The adventures are instruction chips are executed in an or
the educator in mind, and The ELF Sys written in machine language, so they der based on their position and connec
tem the home computerist, Adventure play very quickly. tions. Program control is passed from
Writer appeals to the storyteller and Once again, an excellent manual one chip to another through "output
puzzle-maker. In its extensive range of guides you through the system by way wires,"
special features, Adventure Writer is the of a tutorial, which helps you create a The various actions to be carried
most impressive of the three products. mini-adventure, then takes you back out by a Chipwit are represented by
To create an adventure, you con into it to add a good deal of sophistica symbolic pictures, or what Epyx calls
struct a database and then tell the com tion. Once finished, you should be IBOI. (Icon-Based Operating Lan
puter how to control it. The database ready to try one on your own. guage). A Chipwit can only follow the
contains the descriptions of the loca There is not nearly enough space program created for it, but that set of in
tions and the objects, as well as the here to mention all the extra features in structions may be quite sophisticated.
game's vocabulary and the messages Adventure Writer. Suffice it to say that Different operators such as Look,
certain actions will invoke. Nicely, all you will be able to create some very Smell, and Feel are used to program
of this is left up to you. complex adventures. Your parser will each Chipwit, and these operators are
You have complete control of eight never be as sophisticated as some used in conjunction with any of ten dif
separate "tables" (or sections) within commercially available text adventures, ferent parameters. A true-false test is
the database. One allows you to de but you can make up for that if you can used with the operators to make
scribe each location (each with up to a write a good story. The story, after all, decisions.
screen of information). In another you not the game system, is what adven
describe each object, again allowing tures are all about.
extensive description. A third is used to Codewritcr has provided a valu
establish where each object begins the able service to those interested in de
game (objects can be picked up and car signing their own programs. If you're a
ried, if you wish). In the Vocabulary programmer, you can use them to elim
Text Table, you insert the words you inate some of the drudgery of design
want available to the player; the master ing, then modify them to suit you. But
program provides a good core of for nonprogrammers they're even more
vocabulary, but you will want to add to valuable. The Codewriter products
the list. The Message Text Table allows make the computer work for us, rather
you to create the messages which will than the other way around. If you're
follow certain actions, and the Move creative in any way, you can now use
ment Table determines how the loca your computer to prove it.
tions are interconnected. For example, —Neil Randall For example, suppose you program
there may be three exits from the living the Chipwit to test for an oil can (one of
Codewriter Corporation
room (East, West, South) but only one 5S05 West Hotiwd
its favorite snacks). If the robot detects
from the torture chamber. Nilrs, IL 60648 an oil can, a branching function could
Two other tables, by far the most £40 each litisk) be used to lead the Chipwit to pick it up
difficult to create, form the core of your and eat it. If the original test (to find an
adventure. The Vocabulary Action Ta oil can) proves false, your next instruc
ble provides the player with the ability Chipwits tion might be to look for a bomb and
to play the game. It controls what hap destroy it before moving to the next
pens when the player enters a com Combining educational value in an en square in the game grid.
mand. For example, INVENTORY (or a tertaining program is a good way to de A Chipwit may also be pro
synonym) will list what the player is scribe Chipwits from Epyx. This grammed to move or turn in any direc
carrying, TAKE THE FLASHLIGHT "edutainment" package is a game in tion, sing, go to a subroutine, choose a
will cause the object (flashlight) to be which you program on-screen robots to random direction, and other options.
come part of the inventory, etc. The explore rooms and mazes filled with There is an advanced programming fea
program works on the principle of a different kinds of objects. As you train ture which allows a Chipwit to remem
two-word command (e.g., GET the robots to "think" for themselves, ber numbers, moves, and objects.
FLASHLIGHT), but the player may you can sharpen your analytical skills Chipwits is an excellent game, both
type as many words as he wishes; and learn some of the basics of com in concept and implementation. The
words not in the vocabulary are simply puter programming. use of pull-down menus and icons
ignored. Chipwits lets you create, edit, test, makes the human-computer interface
The Status Table tells the computer and delete your robots, debugging unobtrusive. There are a number of fea
how to handle the player's actions. them as you go along. There are also tures that combine to make learning the
Each time the player enters a com eight adventure games included which basics of programming effective and
mand, the computer checks the Status you can play with the robots you've put fun, especially for children accompa
Table to see if anything is supposed to together. Your options are presented nied by adult supervision or receiving
happen. For example, you may want through pull-down menus, and selec programming instruction. Although
night to fall on turn 15, or the player to tions are made either by joystick or a Epyx doesn't offer an intended age
feel the effects of a poison 31 turns after Koala Pad. range, it seems to me that ChipwltB
eating the food and die 10 turns later In each of the mazes, your Chip might be a little too complex for chil
unless he finds the antidote, etc. The wits must avoid colliding with walls dren under ten.
Status Table is extremely flexible, and it and stepping on bombs while searching —Arthur Leyenbergcr
lets you control the adventure entirely. for food to keep energy levels high. Epyx, Inc.
Adventure Writer will allow you to Every Chipwit needs a program, or set 1043 Kiel Court
create 252 location descriptions, 255 of instructions, to tell it what to do. A Sunnyvale, ca
object descriptions, 255 messages, and Chipwit's program consists of a set of $29.95 (disk)
58 COMPUTB's Gazetto September 1985
belt classes, throwing kicks and punch
es through the use of paddles or joy
sticks (recent versions allow keyboard
Competition Karate is a challenging
and enjoyable product ami one that will
be especially appreciated by those with
an interest in the martial arts.

White Lightning Six-Gun Shootout MotiWtld Softieare Inc.

It's your gunslingers against the other so Rancho Dr.
White Lightning is a Forth-based devel
Mill Vathy. CA 94941
opment package for the Commodore player's (or computer's) in this strategy
$34.95 (disk)
64. Although Forth is a low-level lan game based on the Old West frontier of
guage, in some ways closer to machine the late 1800s. An abundance of scenar
Summer Games II
language than to BASIC, it is extensible, ios—the OK Corral, Billy the Kid, plus
Following on the heels of its successful
meaning programmers can create their eight more—and the ability to build
Summer Games arcade-style action
own new high-level commands. In ef your own characters' capabilities make
package, Epyx has released a sequel
fect, you build up your own customized this a game you can play for a long time
every bit as good as the original. Eight
language. In addition to the standard without repeating yourself. Six-Gun
new Olympic events are included: row
Forth vocabulary, Oasis has included a Shootout is as violent as the Old West,
ing, triple jump, javelin, high jump,
high-level graphics development sys but the emphasis is on your strategic
fencing, cycling, kayaking, and eques
tem which includes over 300 new com planning. Arm your men and set up the
trian contests. You can play up to seven
mands, offering much of the speed and various gunfights, battles, and cam
opponents in each event, or play
power of machine language with less paigns. Combat rules in the game are
against the computer. The crowd
effort. realistic—only six bullets in a six-shooter,
noises, smooth and colorful graphics,
The documentation is excellent if for example. Documentation is excel
and carefully designed joystick control
you are an experienced Forth program lent, although it may be a bit complex
help make this an exceptionally good
mer. Newcomers to Forth might find it for youngsters. On the other hand, you
action game. Contests in Summer Games
a bit technical (there are several good can enjoy this game without a complete
I! are slightly less difficult than in its
introductory books available for those knowledge of all the rules.
predecessor, but payability, animation,
just starting out with Forth). The soft StralegU Simulations, Inc. and graphics are improved throughout.
ware developed with White Lightning 883 Sth-rlin Rrf.
can be used—and sold-—independent Builithij! A-200 Epyx, Inc.
of this development system. Oasis Soft Mountain View. CA 94043-1983 1043 Kid Ct.

S39.95 Sunnyvale, CA 94089

ware also markets BASIC Lightning, a
BASIC-level graphics development sys
tem, and Machine Lightning, an ad Wishbringer
vanced machine language system. Each This is an excellent all-text adventure Tales Of Me
package comes with software on disk, a game for beginners, providing an easy With Teles of Me, any child—with occa
manual, and a user supplement of ex initiation into the world of adventuring sional help from an adult—can write,
tended explanations and examples. All without presenting insurmountable ob edit, print, illustrate, and bind a com
three are recommended for the serious stacles from the start. Each puzzle be plete personalized hardcover book. The
programmer. comes progressively more difficult, but finished product contains facts about a
no illogical solutions are employed. The child and his or her friends, family,
Oasis Software
game may be played at two difficulty pets, and adventures. And what you
377 Oyster Paint Blvd.
Unit i5 levels—using magic as an aid in solving end up with are very entertaining sto
San Francisco, CA 94080 the mystery, or deciphering the puzzles ries which almost any child—ages
White Lightning—$49.95 using logic and deduction. WiBnbtingeT 7-14—will enjoy. Tales of Me consists
BASIC lightning—S3&9S includes the usual clear, concise Info- of four chapters, with the author choos
Machine Lightning—S84.95 com text. A very enjoyable game. ing who the hero/heroine will be. Not
lnfocom, Inc. only is the program fun for children, it
Racing Destruction Set 55 Wheeler St. also reinforces reading, spelling, and
Customize your Baja bugs, dirt bikes,
Cambridge, MA 02138 writing skills.
sports cars, and six other exotic vehi $34.95 (disk) Other programs in VVoodbury's
cles—even lunar rovers. Build any race PlayWriter series include Adventures in
track with any combination of obsta Competition Karate Space, Castles and Creatures, and Miys-
cles. Or, use one of the 50 built-in This action/role-playing game allows letyl, Each set only contains enough
tracks. Change the gravity of the planet any number of players to create teams material to make one book. If the user
on which you're racing. Add jumps, of martial arts fighters and develop in wants to create more, a refill kit ($9.95)
forks, crossovers. In the "destruction" dividual fighters as they train in the can be purchased from Woodbury. (In
mode, you can carry armor, drop land dojo, engage in sparring matches, and conjunction with Grolier Electronic
mines, and leave oil slicks. The options ultimately face the challenge of real Publishing, Woodbury will sponsor a
and variables in Racing Destruction Set combat in the arena.1 It can be played national writing contest this fall with
are amazing, making this as complete against another opponent or against the entry blanks handled through schools
and enjoyable a computer racing game computer. Individual players begin as and retailers.)
as you could want. Nothing has been awkward white belts and through
Woodbury Software
left out. Play against the computer or training and competitive matches im
127 White Oak Lane
another racer. Jovstick required. prove their abilities until they are
CN1001 Old Bridge, NJ 08857
awarded the legendary red belt. The S39.95 (disk) O
Electronic Arts
2755 Campus Dr. heart of Competition Karate is, of course,
San Matfn, O\ 94403 the tournament combat, Mere fighters
$52.95 compete against opponents in similar

COMPUTEIs Gazoiro September 1985 59

Programming The 128

Charles Brannon The goal of Litter Patrol is quite game doesn't encourage you to try.
Program Editor simple: Pick up all the bits of litter
and fill all the trash cans. Your The Time Eaters
By now, many of you have seen or heavy-duty (but sluggish} truck can Litter Patrol is fun to play, but a ca
even own a Commodore 128 (for a move in eight directions almost veat is in order. I didn't intend to
hands-on review, see "Inside the anywhere on the screen. The cars, program the game for its own sake,
128," in the June 1985 issue). This zooming back and forth on the but for its educational value. Keep
successor to the 64 incorporates a highway, are constantly throwing ing in mind that the game is in
64 mode that runs all 64 software, out bits of tiashj which appear as
BASIC, you may find it too slow.
and can use virtually all 64 hard bright dots (periods) on the road.
The main problem is the automatic
ware and peripherals, making it Move the claw of your truck over sprite movement. The cars move by
easy to upgrade to the 128, and giv the trash bit, and press the fire but themselves once set up, but they
ing first-time Commodore owners ton. Your truck picks up the litter. are time eaters, stealing time during
instant access to the large 64 soft Now move the claw over any the interrupts from the mainline
ware library. trash can (which looks like a hollow BASIC program. More about this
To use the expanded keyboard, circle), and press the button. The below.
full 128K memory, and RGB color trash drops in the can, and the lid We'll take a walk through the
80 columns, you need to run in the closes. Each trash can can only hold program listing. The program is too
true 128 mode. The 128 mode is a one load of trash, so it turns solid to big for a line-by-line analysis, so
real upgrade of the 64, but has a fa show you not to use it again. After we'll tackle it in chunks. You might
miliar feel to it. The same VIC chip you've filled all 12 trash cans, you find the program listing and put
is used to display 40 columns, bit proceed to the next level. The cars your thumb there for cross-
map graphics, and sprites, so the go faster, and you move more slow reference purposes.
screen even looks the same, except ly—quite a handicap. Lines 100-190: The GRAPHIC
for Commodore's new power-on The game would be easy (and 0,1 command switches to the 40-
color choice—light green text on a pointless) if not for the zooming column text screen and clears the
dark gray screen with a light green cars. Dodging them provides the screen. The COLOR 0,12 statement
border. You need an RGB monitor entire challenge for the game. If sets the background color to dark
(or a monochrome monitor with an you get hit, you lose your trash gray (even though this is the default
adapter cable) to use the full-color bit—if you're carrying one—and color), and COLOR 4,6 sets the bor
80 column mode, which is entirely one truck. The game ends when der color to green. Note that the
independent of the 40-column you lose all five trucks. Just to make colors are numbered 1-16, not 0-15
screen supported by the VIC chip. things more interesting, you have a as in POKEs. We GOSUB 760 to fill
The new BASIC 7.0 is one of time limit, represented by a blue sprite shape strings from the DATA
the most feature-packed BA5ICs bar at the top of the screen. The bar statements.
I've seen. To learn about the drops by one segment every two The roadways will be the back
BASIC, I wrote a simple Frogger- seconds, so you have about 80 sec ground color showing through oth
type game, taking advantage of the onds to complete each level. The er areas printed with reverse
automatic sprite-movement feature game ends instantly when you run spaces. This lets us put yellow and
supported by BASIC. It seemed that out of time. white lines on the road. We'll print
if the game were designed around There are some safe zones for green reverse spaces to represent
the special BASIC features, I could your truck where you can't be hit, grass, delineating the roadways. To
get machine-language animation medians between each roadway, print the median lines and grass,
and playability. I was half right. and at the top and bottom of the we create 40 character strings with
The game, "Litter Patrol," will run screen. There's a secret safety zone, in the FOR-NEXT loop. It may be
only in BASIC 7.0 in the 128 mode, too, but I'll leave its discovery up to easier for the programmer to just
but could be converted to run on you. You must move your truck define the literal strings as 40 char
the 64 with the Super Expander. halfway onto the roadway to fill a acters within quotes {like
trash can, though. This makes a SP$ = "{40 SPACES}"), but it's
Playing Litter Patrol tough game even tougher. The easier to type in the program if we
Litter Patrol uses a joystick plugged hardest part of writing a game is in use a FOR-NEXT loop. 1 didn't
into port 2. A joystick plugged into making it challenging but not too want any confusion over listing
port 1 still interferes with the key frustrating. Almost any game gets conventions for the first 128 pro
board in 128 mode. easier with practice, but an unfair gram published in the GAZETTE. For
60 COMPUTEfs Gazotla September 19B5
For Better: Many of our customers have paid up to twice as much and owned as many as 3 other
interfaces before purchasing a PPl and becoming satisfied. So, if you plan to buy a
Commodore and a printer, or if you already own a system, save yourself some time,
trouble and money. Buy a PPl and get the features (that others charge up to twice as
much for) at the lowest price nationwide: $49.95.

For Worse: You'll have to talk to our competitors.

Think about it.

IMPORTANT FEATURES that may not be found on other interfaces.
High Speed Graphics Buffer. 15 page easy to follow Users Manual.
Works properly with all Commodore compatible FCC Approved.
software. Expanded Alpha, Numeric, and Graphic Characters.
Transparent Mode Lock Controls. Expanded Reverse Alpha, Numeric, and Graphic
Total Emulation of Commodore's Graphic, Character, Characters.
and Command Set. Condensed Reverse Alpha Numeric Characters.
True Commodore Graphics. Commodore Print Function Lock Controls.
Combining of Emulation and Transparent Modes. Combining of Expanded and Condensed Print features.
No confusing DIP switches. Fully Shielded from end to end.
Smith Corona Fas)
Fast Texi
Tfexl Royn! 610****
610**" MPI
MPIXX Printer" . Citizen Brother CE-58*"
J10 Panasonic:
Panaso KXP BMC Brother DM-40
Smith Corona DP series Radix Inforunner
Inforur M.innesmnnn Tally Brother DX-5
Smilh Corona 200* Star Gemini X & SG Delta
Star Dt MT160 Fujitsu
Smith Corona 300" series Blue Chip
C Olympra Compaci NP Epson
Smith Corona 400* MPI SX Printer" Brother CE-50"*
Royal GOO"*"
The PPf works with all Centronics compatible parallel printers Ihat utilize standard ASCII characters and command se!5 in the Iransparen! mode.
• Must have the Smith Corona Messenger Module #17376 interface.
" Special adapter cable is required.
"■ Must hflvt' the Brother IF-50 interface.
"" Musi have the Royal I(:-6(K) interface.

Distributor and dealer programs available. Call 316-264-6118 for immediate information.

dsi T,M.


717 South Emporia- Wichita. Ks. 67211-2307 • 316-264-6118 • Telex: 650 193 4977
DSI is a major OEM anO private label manufacturer. Can (or complete m!c*mation and quotations.
Commodore 64 Accessories

Summer Sixxler Sale

Sale Positively Ends 9-15-85 Summer
Reg. Sale
Prices will go back to regular sale prices List Price Sixxler Sale

C128 Commodore Computer *349°° $289"

Expandable to 512K, runs C-6d. CPM. and 7.0 Programs.
(Add SIO Shipping)

15%" Commodore 150-170 CPS Printer s 709 00 $l99,s

Near Letter Quality, Multiple Pin Tractor Friction Feed.
Best Printer Value in U.S.A. (Add SI 7.50 Shipping)

Commodore-64 IEEE Interface M09" 9M.K9S

Allows you to run Pet Peripherals on the C-64. including the
One Megabyte Disk Drive and 1 5' i" Printer

Juki Printer/Typewriter 534900

Letter Quality, daisy wheef, use as typewriter a
and or printer
(auto correction] (Add S10 Shipping)

SCM 80 CPS Printer S29900 S159°°

Tractor Friction 10 Famous Name Printer does Graphics
w Interface. (Add SIO Shipping)

Cardco G Plus Interface M0900

1 cq
ie g 00

Converts Commodore to Centronics (or use with mosl printers, plus

does Commodore graphics on graphic printers

Alphacom 40 Column Printer 59900

Thermal technology - does graphics, (Add $7.50 Shipping)

Alphacom C-6J or Atari Interface £8.95.

190K Slim-Line Disk Drive

Cooloi, 20°o faster, quietoi thon 1541 drive (Add S10 Shipping)
$139 95'
One Megabyte Disk Drive (1000K)
Double sided drive hooks up to C-64 with IEEE interlace, perfect as a
second drive. (Add SIO Shipping)
^889°° $19900
*179 95*
13" Premium Quality Color Monitor S39900
I19900 r m Mm " 95*
Belter lhan 1702. with separated video inputs. (Add S' 4.50 Shipping)

Voice Synthesizer S89oo $4900

*30 95
Allows you to talk through your computer. Optional software lets
you play talking adventure games [Zork. elc.)

80 Column Board - 4 Slot Expander 149 oo

S79 "°
Allows you to program In SO columns, plus gives you a A slot switch
selectable expander

Auto Dial Modem with Super Smart Software

Uplood. Download, Print. Catalog, This Package has it oil! ! !
Best Modem Value in the U.S.A.! !
129 $399$
Musicalc I Software
The Best Musical Software for the C-64. allows you to change all
'29 $ia9s

Oil Barrons Software 95

Bellor lhan Monopoly, tomes with gome board, disks and
instruction manual. Strike Oil or Live in the Poor Farm plus Software Coupon Discounts

Add $3 00 tor shipping handling and insurance. Illinois residerm

pleose add 6'= IQ«. Adtl S6.O0 for CANADA. PUERTO RICO. HAWAII
ALASKA AfO-FPO orders. Canadian orders must he in U.S. dollars.
Enclose Cashiers Check Money Order or Personal Chotk Allow 14
We, Love Our Customers
days lor delivery. 1 To 7 days for phone orders 1 doy eipress rnoHI 22292 N. Pepper Rd.. Borhngton. Illinois 60010
No C.O.D. to Canodo. APO-HI'O. 312/382-5244 to order

Tractor Friction Printer
13O-15O CPS

List $499

ir ■! I ■■■ rip niii Minn "ir"iirirr n i.iurlililii ■ i.niiiiill '

COM-STAR 15%" 150-170 CPS Printer S31900
• Lowest Sale Price, Premium Quality, Tractor/Friction Printer in the U.S.A. (Best Value}
• High Speed 130-150 Characters Per Second • 40.46,66,80,96, 132 line Spacing
• Word Processing, Letters * Business Forms ' Labels, Graphics, Tables * List Programs
• Fantastic Graphics * Print Modem Data • The Most Important Accessory For Your Computer

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130-150 CPS 10X COM STAR m CORONIV OOlympia
High Speed Printer $199 10" HO CPS Printer Executive Letter Quality $299.1(0
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8t£"xll" standard single sheet or Friction/Tractor Bidirectional Dot 15" Daisy Wheel Printer
continuous feed paper, Bi-directional, Matrix printer with six pitches This is the world's finest daisy wheel I
impact, dot matrix, 130-150 CPS, 9x9 including condensed and enlarged printer. Fantastic letter quality, up to
20 CPS bi-directional, will handle 14.4"
dot matrix with double strike type for impeccable printing. Drop in
capability for 1H x 18 riot matrix (near Cassette ribbon: Centronics interface forms width! Has a 2!iB character print I
letter quality), hl|»h resolution bit buffer, special print enhancements.
Image, underlining, downloadable List $299.00. Summer Sate $149.00
built in tractor-feed [Centronics!
characters, true lower descenders (Limited Quantities)
Parallel and RS282C Interface) (901
witli super and subscripts, prints day warranty i.
standard, block graphics, and special List $649.00. Summer Sale S299.00
characters. It gives you print quality
Super Summer Sale Ends 9-15-05
and features found on printers costing
twite as much!! (Centronics Parallel
Interface) (Better than Epson FX80
and Gemini lOx).
■JUKI OOlympia
List (489,00 Suit- Printer/Typewriter
Combination $229.00 Printer/Typewriter Combination S399.0
Premium Quality 150170 CPS Better than IBM Selectric. Superb I
-JUKI11 Superb letter quality, daisy
computer printer combined with the
16I/2X COM-STAR Business wheel printer/typewriter
world's finest electronic typewriter.
combination. Two machines in one —
Super High Speed Printer $319.00 just a flick of the switch. 12" extra
Two machines in one. just flick the
Has all the features of the 10X COM- switch for up to 20 CPS printing (aim
large carriage, typewriter keyboard,
STAR PRINTER plus 15&" carriage Words per minute) on a 15" carriage
automatic margin control and
and more powerful electronics that handles up to 14 1/8" In. paper.
relocate key, drop in cassette ribbon!
components to handle large ledger Drop in cassette ribbon — express lift
(90 day warranty I Centronics
business forma! (Better than Epson
parallel or- RB2S2 serial port built In
off correction. Centronics parallel |
FX 100& Delta 15), interface (HO day warranty).
(Specify). List$849.00, Sale$289.00.
List $590. Sale $31(1.01). List $74y.oo. Summer Sale f399.00,

• IS Day Free Trial — 1 Year Immediate Replacement Warranty

For VIC-20 and COM-64 — $59.00. Apple — $59.00. Atari $59.00.

Add SM 50 for shipping handling and insurance. Illinois resident

pleoss add 6X la". Add $29.00 lor CANADA. PUERTO RICO. HAWAII.
ALASKA. APOFPO orders. Canadian orders must ho in U.S dollars.
Enclose Cashiers Checli Money Order or Personal Check. Allow 14 22292 N. Pepper Rd.. Barrington, Illinois 60010
doys delivery. 1 To 7 days (or phone orders. 1 day express mail1
VISA — MASTERCAHO - C.O.D. No C.O.D. loConada or APOFPO 312/382-5244 to order
Commodore 64

One Megabyte A _ A Sale
179 Disk Drive $i79
Store Spreadsheets, Databases, Wordprocessing Data, Etc.
• Commodore 64 • PET • 8032 • B128
The one megabyte disk keeps you from hunting through hundreds of disks for your programs: plus running out of
room on your drive for Data base Data, Word processing Text, Spreadsheet Data, Business program Dato, etc.
With the One Megabyte Disk Drive you can store over 5'/j times the capacity of the 1541. You can store your
own progroms and any backupable commercial programs plus data from your business programs". Perfect as o
second Drive! ! ! ! Enter the world of professional computers todoy. C-64 requires IEEE interface.
List S899.OO. SaleS179.00. LIMITED QUANTITIES! -Require* 2 drive soliware.

19900 Sale H9900

15%" High Speed
150-170 CPS

The 8023 is o highly advoneed 136-250 column 1 5'; " professional tractor/friction printer with full Bit image graphics and
downloadable characters for custom reports ond progrom listings. The paper feed includes o multiple pin tractor for
smooth error free operation. With the ribbon rated at 1 million characters (no mess cartridge] and the print head at 100
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VALUE IN THE U.S.A. List $899.00 Sale S199.00. LIMITED QUANTITIES!

Serial Impact Dot Motrix 136-250 ! Million Characters Bit Image

PRINT RATE PAPER WIDTH Programmable Characters

150-170 Characters per 3" to 15';" tractor or Reverse Characters
second(CPS) single sheet friction
3. including original
Near Letter Quolity IEEE Protocol
Bi-directional Cartridge ($14.95) 0.116" high. 0.08" wide Microprocessor

Commodore 64 IEEE Interface

This interface plugs into your Commodore 6d Disk Drive port and allows you to hook up the 1 Megabyte Disk Drive and
8023 Printer as well as other IEEE devices. Separte power supply insures reliability. Fantastic Interface.
List SI09.95. If bought with printer or disk drive S69.00.
(no inlerface needed lor PET. B-128. ond 8032 computers)

Add 517.50 for shipping hondling ond insurance, Illinois residenu

pieos« odd b\ In. Add S35 00 for CANADA. PUERTO RICO. HAWAII.
ALA5KA APO-FPO orders Conodian orders must be in U.S. dollars
Enclose Coshieis Check. Money Order of Personal Check. AHow 14 We Love Our Customers
days tor dul ivory. 2 lo 7 days foi pliorw orders. I day express rnail'
22292 N. Pepper Rd., Barrington. Illinois 60010
No C.O.D. lo Canado. APO-f PO 312/382-5244 to order
(Premium Quality} (Premium Quality)
Beautiful Color
• Built in Speaker and
High Resolution
• Front Panel Controls
Separated Video
• For Video Recorders Sharp Clear Text
■ For Small Business Anti-Glare Screen
Computers 40 Columns x 24 Lines
• Apple - Commodore - Supports 80 Columns
Atari - Franklin - etc.

Add SI J 50 shipping handling end insurants List $32900

Illinois ri-iirtenlv please odd &% to*. We do
nol ihip ro I o reign caunliie* (including
Conadnl AFg*ktt Puerio Rico APO-FPO
13" Color Computer Monitor
Eiiloic- Coihnrn Check Money Qider o'
Ppr>onol Che(V Allow H days for delivery 7
\o 7 dayi lor phone orders 1 day express
mail I ■Connecting coble S9.95


179 00
Super Summer
Si/iler Sale
(add$14.50shipping) List $299.00

15 Day Free Trial - 90 Day Immediate Replacement Warranty


BO Columns x 2-1 Lines. Super Hi-Resolution 1000 lines Green or Amber Sizzler Sale 109 95
Super-Clear "Easy to Read" text with speciol anti-glare screen' (Ltd. Qty.l List $249.00


80 Columns x 2i Lines, Hi-Resolution, crisp clear easy to Super Summer $ Q A 95
read tent with anti-giare screen! A MUST for word processing, (lid. Oly.) Lls1 bl".UU jj^ig,. 50|e O *


Lisl $159.00
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80 Columns x 24 Lines, easy 1o read up front controls tlid. Qiy.)


Super Summer
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Must be used to get 80 columns with Cl 28 & A tori ST.
* Connecting coble S9.95



Add 510.00 lor shipping, handling and insuroncc. Illinois residents

please add b\ tax Add 510.00 tor CANADA. PUERTO RICO. HAWAII.
ALASKA APO-FPO orders. Canadian orders mutl be in U.S. dollors.
We Love Our Customers
Enclose Cashier; Check. Money Order or Personal Check. Allow 14 22292 N. Pepper Rd., Barringlon. Illinois 60010
doys rordebvory 2To7daysforphnneorders. ldaye*pressmail!
VISA MASTERCARD —CO D. No COD loCanada APO-FPO 312/382-5244 to order
this reason, you'll find no embed the built-in sprite editor to design the program, the sprites continue.
ded cursor controls. Everything is the sprites, then made DATA state You can LIST your program, and
done with CHR$ codes. Instead of ments for them. The DATA state the sprites still whiz by. However,
printing color codes, we use the ments are read into strings, then you'd notice a suspicious slowness
COLOR command to change the each string is assigned to a sprite to the listing. When you use auto
text color. However, you'll occa with the SPRSAV command. Sprite matic sprites, everything else slows
sionally see a {SPACE}. Just type strings are 67 characters long, not down drastically. The more sprites
one space instead of the bracketed 64 as you might expect. are moving, and the faster they go,
word. For the six sprites (FORI = the less time is available for the
Line 140 turns off all sprites 2TO7), we read the sprite X and Y main program. This made the truck-
that may have been active from a positions from a DATA statement moving part of Litter Patrol quite
previous RUN of the game. We at line 1110. Notice that you can sluggish, and explains why the
then print the roadways with green now RESTORE to any line number. truck moves more slowly as the cars
bars above the road, white or yel The SPRITE command turns on the go faster.
low median bars for the middle of sprite, sets its- color, and specifies While automatic sprites give
the road, and blank lines for the multicolor mode. It can also be used you smooth, fast motion, this mo
road itself. The time line is printed to select sprite/foreground priority, tion is not under your control.
in blue at the top of the screen. and X/Y expansion. Nonexpanded Speed is the reason you would use
Lines 200-250: Line 200 is try sprites offer the greatest detail. the automatic sprites in the first
ing to print a 40-column inverse place, but the time saved by the
The MOVSPR command can
string at the bottom of the screen. automation is stolen from your
move a sprite to any position, up or
You can't normally do this without main program. You can achieve a
down by any amount, or automati
scrolling, but it's possible if you cally at any angle and at 16 speeds.
workable compromise if you plan
print 39 characters, cursor left, use your game around the limitations.
the INST key to insert the thirty- Lines 340-360: We synchro
ninth character into the fortieth po nize the truck's position with the
sition, then print another character character screen so that the claw
to fill the gap created by INST. will cover the dots that represent
The title of the game is printed trash bits. The truck always moves
with the CHAR command. CHAR eight notches at a time, as if it were
is a usable substitute for PRINT AT. a character. Therefore, it's always
It lets you print any string at any synchronized with the character
X,Y position on the screen, and in grid.
normal or reverse field. Combine it Line 350 turns on the collision
with COLOR to change the text interrupts. Any time a sprite hits a
color. The subroutines at 720 and sprite, the program goes to line 580.
730 are used to display the score Since all the sprites are in separate
and number of trucks ("lives") re lanes, this can only happen when
The crafty truck has dodged the car and
maining. The FOR-NEXT loop in rests momentarily on a median strip in the truck is smashed. When we RE
lines 220-230 draws all the trash "Litter Patrol." TURN from the subroutine at line
cans, at rows 2, 9, 16, 23, and col 580, the program picks up where it
umns 8, 20, and 32. left off when the collision occurred.
We then build a music string. We use the automatic syntax (the We play the tune in line 360
It's a cutesy, happy melody, but all two arguments are separated by a # only at the beginning of the first
that's important here is to notice sign instead of a comma). The angle level (IF DF= 1). The colon after the
the PLAY syntax. The letters CDEF- is either 90 (right) or 270 (left). An THEN is necessary to avoid a syn
GAB stand for notes. The VI sets gle 0 is pointing straight up in the tax error. This is inconsistent with
the voice to voice 1, 02 sets the oc sprite angular system. Whether a the way BASIC is supposed to
tave to 2 (that's an O, not a zero), sprite goes left or right depends on work, but is a familiar necessity
and TO selects a piano-like instru its sprite number. If (SN = 2) is true with many language extensions on
ment setting. The letter I sets the (-1), then 180 is added to 90, giv the 64. Apparently some of the
note duration to eighth notes; Q is ing us 270. Otherwise, the angle is BASIC 7.0 commands are consid
used for quarter notes, with a peri 90. ered extensions of BASIC.
od for a dotted quarter. The sharp The speed, which can range Lines 370-470; We enter the
(#) precedes the note it modifies. from 0-15, varies from up to 5 main loop here. While the car
And R is used as a rest. We'll play speeds from the base speed, DF. sprites move automatically, we
the string in line 360. This sets the difficulty level. A must move the truck ourselves.
Lines 260-320: The automatic higher DF gives generally faster First, if two seconds have passed
car sprites are set up. SPRCOLOR cars. We save the angles and speeds (TI —T>120), we erase a character
sets the sprite multicolor registers in arrays so that we can later pause from the time line. If the time line
to white and black. All sprites share the game (all speeds go to zero), hits zero, we go to the "game is
these colors. White is used for the and restart it from the arrays. over" routine at line 640. In 380 we
windshield (or the claw on the The automatic sprite move check for a keystroke. If a key is
truck), and black for the tires. I used ment is amazing. Even if you stop pressed, we halt all sprites and wait
66 COMPUTE!1! Gazelle September 1985
for a new keystroke with GETKEY, 12 trash cans are full, we award a A = BUMP(1), then decrease the
then turn all the sprites back on. 1000 point bonus and increment number of trucks. If there are still
In line 390, we check for the the difficulty level, without letting trucks remaining, we continue with
highly probable: Is the value of the difficulty level exceed 3. The the game by RETURNing from the
RND(l) (which randomly varies game is restarted at line 140. sprite interrupt.
between 0 and 1) less than .95? Notice the use of BEGIN and For the "game over" routine,
About 95 times out of 100, it will BEND. BEGiN starts a block of code we play another tune, print the
be, skipping lines 400 and 410. Five that is only executed if a preceding GAME OVER message, and wait
percent of the time, though, IF was true. BEND ends the block. for the fire button to be pressed
RND(l) will be greater than or So BEGIN/BEND lets you extend while we redraw GAME OVER in
equal to .95, so we pick a sprite the statement after a THEN into different colors. Before we check for
number, read its X/Y position, several lines. I placed a colon on the button press, we first wait for
translate the sprite coordinates to these extended lines to remind my the player to let go of the button in
character coordinates, and draw a self that they are part of a BEGIN- case the player was picking up or
white period to represent an empty /BEND block. dropping a trash bit. Otherwise, the
cola can (or whatever litterbugs Lines 580-700: This is the collision game would instantly restart.
throw out car windows). They all routine, called automatically when Lines 720-1110: These are sim
look like little dots, though, from ever the truck is hit. The function ple subroutines. Line 720 updates
your aerial perspective. The ran BUMP(l) reads the sprite-to-sprite the score; line 730 updates the
dom statement controls the timing collision register. The collision rou number of remaining trucks; 740
of litter dropping. Without it, there tine should only be called when the stops all sprites; 750 restarts them;
would be a stream of trashy bits sprites collide, but I found it was and 760-780 read in the joystick
flowing from all cars. entered twice for every time the displacements and sprite shapes.
Lines 420-460 move the truck. truck was hit. The check in line 580 The rest of the program is DATA
The JOYstick command returns a prevents false collisions. I still don't statements for the cars and the
number from 0-8, and is greater know why this is necessary. truck.
For the collision, we print a sil The descriptions above can
than 128 if the fire button is
ly message, make a high-pitched give you an idea of the detail re
pressed. We use the JOY value as an
index into the DX and DY arrays. sound effect, move the truck back quired to program even a simple
to the bottom of the screen, remove game. This is not meant to discour
These arrays contain the values
any trash bit the truck may be car age, but to challenge.
— 8, 0, or 8 for each position. For
rying, reset the collision with See program listing on page 102. a
example, the southwest position of
the joystick is down eight ( + 8) and

left eight (-8). Remember that
we're moving eight spaces at a
time. We add this displacement to
the current X and Y positions of the
sprite, then relocate the sprite to the for everyone in your family,
new position. We subtract the dis
placement if that would put the
No disk drive necessary?
sprite off the screen.
Lines 480-570: This is the fire
Menu driven? E ALL-IN-1
Flexible, powerful, practical? 0
button routine, called by line 430 if C-64
Affordable? 0
it's pressed. It first figures out the
position of the character under DECISION MAKING COMMUNICATIONS
neath the truck claw, then PEEKs • Choosing a family car? • 300/1200 BAUD
screen memory to see what the • Considering vacation alternatives? • Access information systems
character is. If it's a period (a trash • Buitd decision models • Complete parameter setting

bit), and if the truck is not carrying a FINANCE CALCULATIONS

trash bit, we POKE directly into the • Compute loans and investments • Checkbook balancing
sprite shape to put a dot in the claw, • Compute payment schedules • Insert formulas

then POKE a space into the position • Menu driven • Fullscreen display

where the period was. So even in

BASIC 7.0, you sometimes need to r*rowar& solutions
use PEEK and POKE. One point is 575 E-REMINGTON, NO. 9H • SUNNYVALE, CALIFORNIA 94087
added to the player's score, which
is redisplayed using the subroutine
at 720. D S19.95 (Disk) □ S24.95 (Cart.) Name
If the character is an empty Add S3.00 Shipping and Handling
trash can (hollow ball), and if the Address
Enclose Check or Money Order Payable to
truck is carrying a piece of trash, we PROWABE SOLUTIONS
change that hollow ball to a solid
ball, increment the filled trash can Signature Slate Zip.
counter, and award ten points. If all
COMPUTED Gazette September 1985 67

Mark Turtle, Kevin Mykytyn, And Philip Nelson

It's easy to find your way through this maze, but

can you make it within the time limit while
avoiding the fast-moving cubots? A ten-level
game with two variations (for the stouthearted
only) for the Commodore 64. A joystick is
StoHing at the left, this player (the
white ball) has made it almost halfivay
through the maze. In a safe position, he
Here's a written guarantee that you to plot your course. But don't study
waits for the cubot to move out of the
won't find this game easy or dull. too long, or time will run out.
From the start, "Maze-Mania" puts Sitting back and moving care
your brain and hand to the test. The fully and deliberately works well,
object is simple: Travel through the but you won't succeed this way. vous, are not for the timid. The
maze and exit. But getting there You must complete the maze in less rules of the normal game apply, but
within the time limit is a rare than a minute. If time expires or either variation should be seriously
occasion. you collide with a cubot, you lose undertaken only if you've mastered
one life. The timer, at the top of the the normal game. In the Fade
Move Fast And Think Ahead screen, starts at 200 and counts Game, the cubots fade and re
After entering the program and down very quickly. A successful appear. Only with careful study can
saving a copy, plug a joystick into trip through the maze earns points you succeed. The Nervous Game
port 1, Load the program, type (the level completed multiplied by will be familiar to those who have
RUN, and select the game you wish the time remaining) and an extra been seasick. The entire maze
to play: Normal, Fade, or Nervous. life (two is the maximum you can shakes repeatedly. If you make it
Start with the Normal Game—it's have in reserve). You then enter the through level 10 in this game, con
hard enough. Next, choose a one- next, faster level with a different sider a career in the Navy.
or two-player game (more on the
two-player game below). Then get As the levels increase, so will The Two-Player Version
ready—the action begins immedi your strategy. At the higher levels, All the rules discussed above apply
ately, and the time starts ticking you'll have to move so quickly that
in the two-player version. Note,
away. You begin at level 1 (there you'll rely solely on instinct. Be however, that both players must
are ten) with three lives. On the left sure to have a good supply of
share the same joystick. Each
side of the maze, you're repre adrenaline on hand.
player continues until completing
sented by the white ball. Using When you've exhausted your
the maze or losing all three lives. If
your joystick, maneuver to the exit lives or completed level 10 (we've one player loses, he receives a
on the right side of the maze, avoid never completed level 9 here at the "Game Over" message and passes
ing the fast-moving cubots. A col GAZETTE), you receive a final score,
play to his opponent, who may
lision is costly. highest level completed, and an in then try for a new high score. Also,
The key to succeeding is to vitation to play again.
the final screen appears only after
move fast and think ahead. The both players have exhausted all
cubots create a lot of traffic, and At Your Own Risk lives or completed level 10.
you have to study their movement The game variations, Fade and Ner- See program listing on page 101. 0
68 COMPUTEI's Gtuotla September 1985
if you're playing for points. If
Herbie dead ends or stalls (runs
into a Deadly X, for example), move
Tracker quickly to Herbie's area (he
can move diagonally if the fire but
ton is not pressed) and erase any
track you don't want by moving
over it without the fire button

pressed. Press1 the fire button again
to lay new track if necessary. Also
note that Tracker can "wrap
around" the screen (right edge to
left edge and vice versa) and lay
track. You might need to use this
feature occasionally, such as when
Ned W. Schultz a Meanie leaves a Deadly X in a
strategic position.
You begin each game with
Can you help Purple Herbie get home? This three Trackers (lives). If time runs
game for the Commodore 64, written by a child out before Herbie is home, or if

psychologist, is designed for the whole family:

level 1 for children and the higher levels for
adults. A joystick is required.

In this strategy game, you're copy to disk or tape, then run the i

Tracker the robot, and your mission program. First, you're presented
is to lay track across the wilderness with an option (Y/N) for game
so Purple Herbie can get home. If instructions. These should be read
you lay track cleverly, Herbie can the first time you play.
collect lots of valuable objects on Next, select a skill level from
his way home. But that's only part 1 to 5. Level 1 offers the fewest
of the strategy. You must watch out Meanies and Deadly X's (and no Purple Herbie (allows the track you've
for the Meanies and the Deadly X's penalty points). The prizes increase placed.
they leave behind. They'll destroy in value across the five levels, as do
your track. And you have to work the number of points for getting
quickly—your time is limited and Purple Herbie home. A higher skill
the clock is always moving. Tracker runs into a Deadly X, you
level, then, is important if you're
With five skill levels, lose one life. The game ends when
playing competitively for high
"Tracker" is designed so that it can score. The level you select remains you've lost all three Trackers.
be played by young children as well the same through each round of the
as adults. It requires creative solu game. A Competitive Challenge
tions, risk-taking, and racing Move Tracker with a joystick If you're playing competitively for
against time. On the lowest level, it (port 2), and press the fire button to highest points, you can risk going
has educational value and provides lay track as you move. Wind a trail for all the points and a special bo
a challenge. On the higher levels, of track through as many objects as nus. Be sure to capture at least half
the game can be very difficult for you wish and direct Tracker the available points or you'll re
even the most seasoned game "home" (the pink square at the ceive a penalty (except in level 1).
player. lower right). Only when Tracker is It's a good idea to get Tracker home
Tracker has no "pattern"— home will Herbie start out to follow as fast as possible and let Herbie
each game is designed by the the track and collect points. Be care start moving—the longer you wait,
player. And because getting Herbie ful not to linger—the Meanies are the more Meanies and Deadly X's
home even without collecting any constantly on the move, and the appear. You can modify your track
prizes provides a sense of "win timer (at the top of the screen) ticks when Herbie is closer to home. The
ning," children as young as three or away without pause. Herbie must best strategy is to collect as many
four can have fun with Tracker. be home before it reaches 0. prizes as you can while still leaving
Adults will find a different chal If track is laid in a disorderly enough time for Herbie to make it
lenge: collecting the maximum fashion (by creating branches home.
number of points while getting rather than a single, continuous No one has ever captured the
Herbie home. route, for example), you may con perfect round bonus above level 2,
fuse Herbie, so you should design so this is a goal to aim for. The
Choosing The Right Skill Level your track efficiently, going record at level 5 is 16,900 points.
After typing in the program, save a through as many objects as possible See program listing on yage 91. O
COMPUTED Gttzetle September 1985 69
gram before you run it.
Two short loaders (Programs 3

and 4) for the VIC are included to
allow an automatic check for suf
ficient memory, automatic adjust
ment for any memory expander,
and automatic loading of the main
program. Program 3 is for disk

users, Program 4 for tape users. If
you use tape, first type in and save
Program 4, then type in and save
Program 2 immediately following
the loader. With tape you can name
either program anything you wish
Cal Overhulser since the tape loader loads the next
program regardless of the name.
VIC disk users may type in and
candy while avoiding the cola and, save Program 2 and Program 3 in
A stranded visitor from
of course, the flu bugs. Drinking the any sequence. However, the main
another galaxy needs to cola causes an allergic reaction,
get home and doesn't making the alien's movements a bit
unpredictable (you may have to
have much time. Can drink some of the cola at the higher
you help? A fun game skill levels to get to the candy). The
for children of all ages. flu bugs are more serious threats—
they're fatal. Avoid them at all
For the Commodore 64 costs. Be particularly careful around
and VIC-20 (at least 3K the moving (yellow) bugs. They
expansion). A joystick often hover near pieces of candy.
After you eat all the candy, a
is required. phone appears at the upper left,
and the visitor reappears at the bot
tom right. You must guide him to Avoid the flu bugs while you help the
the phone so he can call "home" for friendly alien collect candy pieces (64
Designed especially for children,
a spaceship, again avoiding the cola version).
"Friendly Alien" is a nonviolent
and the flu bugs. After hearing the
game which requires strategy and a
phone ring three times, the visitor program (2) must have the same
little dexterity with a joystick. The
again appears at the bottom right name as found in line 60009 of the
object is simple: You must guide a
and the spaceship arrives. A ramp loader program. (I've used
stranded visitor to a phone from
is lowered for the friendly alien to "VICFRIENDLY"—with no spaces.
which he can call home, then lead
board. Move him to the ramp with You can change this if you like.)
him to the ship when it lands.
out allowing him to drink a cola or
That's easy enough, but what
catch the flu, and he's home safe. Notes To Programmers
presents a challenge is the visitor's
You must work quickly—es Descriptive REM statements are in
sweet tooth and his susceptibility to
pecially at the higher levels, where cluded before each major program
human viruses.
there is more candy (and more ob segment to aid those interested in
stacles, too). In the Commodore 64 understanding how the program is
Candy, Cola, And The Two- version, you have two minutes to written. None of these REMs are
Minute Flu get the visitor to the spaceship
the destinations of GOTOs or
When you first run the program, ramp; in the VIC version, one
GOSUBs, so they can safely be
you're given game instructions and minute and 30 seconds. Be sure to
asked to choose one of five skill lev keep an eye on the time.
Joystick movement in the VIC
els. First-time players should start version is checked with a machine
with level I (the easiest) and move Typing It In language routine contained in
up as each level is mastered. After If you have a Commodore 64, type DATA statements. The routine is
the screen is drawn, the game be in Program 1 and save a copy POKEd into the cassette buffer in
gins immediately. Using a joystick before typing RUN. The VIC ver line 94. The SY5 in line 1000 calls
(port 2 on the 64), move the visitor sion is approximately 5.5K, so the routine and puts the joystick
around the screen. You'll see three you'll need at least a 3K expander to direction in address 830. The 64
kinds of randomly placed objects: type in the program and run it. version uses a more conventional
candy (the small dots), cola (red Don't add any spaces as they could BASIC joystick reader in line 1000.
cans), and flu bugs {blue and yellow cause some lines to go beyond the In both versions, the variable AA is
stars). allowable 88-character limit on the made equal to the joystick direction
The object is to eat all the VIC. Again, be sure to save the pro in line 1000. The ON-GOSUB in
70 COMPUTEts Gazette September 1985
line 1050 checks this variable and pointer. Line 40 moves the charac
ters into the protected area. In the
adjusts the alien's location by
choosing one of the subroutines in 64 version, lines 36 and 48 are also MULTI-PASS SYMBOLIC
lines 11-18. needed to switch in and out the DISASSEMBLER
In both versions, custom
character ROMs. Beginning in line FOR THE COMMODORE 64*
character information is found in 50, the custom character infor disassembles any 650216510
the DATA statements. Any typing mation replaces some of the normal machine code program into
error here could be critical and diffi characters. The numeric and most beautiful source
cult to find. I've included a DATA of the alphabetic characters are not • I ciin lo program ]iVc the e<pcn»'
• AdJpi rusting program* ro jour necJ>!

statement checksum checker in line replaced, thus allowing readable er • Automatic LABEL generation.
• Output fame code fifes to Ji»t fully compatible
70 (64 version) and line 95 (VIC ror printouts should you have cus with vna MAE,' PAI.,* CUM' ur Develop-64" a^-

version). The checksum is cal tom characters enabled while senihlcr. reiiUy far re-assembly niul editing!
• Output* formatted listing to wtten ami printer.

culated after each READ in the debugging your program. The • AulMDUTCllly L»cs NAMKS o( KcnuL jump luMe
routine* und all Lipr-rnlinc *y*[cm v-irmMc
switch to the new character set is in • Centime Ii%t (if equald fiH CMrJiul jdJie"cv
preceding lines. This will greatly re ■ (jcnei^lc* c<impltfe n't*— referenceJ Ijmbd table
duce the chance of typing errors in line 515. • RaD4|D]»4 innrucuon* hidden under UIT
The time limit can be changed
the DATA statements. • IIX/v marfiinccodt forspetd

When there is more than one if you want the game to be even (Symbol Master™ i* not copy prtXcCled >
QKDHR NOW] A.silahle on (fid: onl> Introductor>

moving flu bug (skill levels 2-5), more challenging. (The best time price HV 95 poslpsiJ USA.

not only is their direction random I've managed on skill level 5 is 1 mMAh u <i tr&leniark vf Ewifit It'iuif.
I'Af.ii titnitltr>wrk"fPm-J.iti

(line 1510), but also selected ran minute, 15 seconds on the VIC and Ci64 t Uk
fi "J Ci't't'

domly is which flu bug moves (line 1 minute, 45 seconds on the 64.) To j- m is a inu

1500). This adds suspense to the change the time limit, change the
game and, more importantly, keeps value of TU$ in line 830. For ex
it from running too slowly at the ample, to change it to 1 minute, 15

higher skill levels. Notice that the seconds, change the value of TU$
movement subroutines in lines to 000114 in line 830. The value
11-18 are also used to move the se should be one second less than the
limit you want. To keep the game UNLEASH THE POWER OF
lected flu bug by the ON-GOSUB
in line 1515. instructions correct, you'll also YOUR COMMODORE 64
The game screen has a solid want to change line 169 in the VIC WITH THE ULTIMATE
frame (border). This makes version and line 170 in the 64 ver
sion to your new time limit.
ntii. ligrils&
If you'd rather not type in the wcuni) \\ sie m

program (VIC or 64 version), send a ln[cll^cnll> cor.(T

Cimnett in Anilog
blank tape or formatted disk, a self- CHOI)! HutXif^
t'cTlnfm JuMnu
addressed, stamped return en Aa|uirt lLL:l fntr i f)1 ft inner inM rumen (a! ion
p Ef
velope, and $3 (U.S. funds) for each • Mjny oilier usa.
Dofl'l make the mistake of buying j limited uupubilily
copy. Outside the U.S., don't send mlcrfLKc. Invcsii^aie out unhmulh B^OlhU I3ual
<>522 Vcotflk iTiKrface AdurHer (VIA] Hoard, whfch
stamps but include the extra cost of \<\u$-- intflthc expansion CnnncCtiir and pCDvLdcu
postage. Please note the name of Kiir R-hir fully biJirccnonjt I/O ]"►"< 6t tifht hand
shake line^ • Four 16-bil limcrVtLiuntcn • Full IRQ
the program, which computer you jnicnupl capabitiij • Fuur cfinstnicrti Ih-pm RIP
wkci imcTfacc connciiiont ■ l;ipjnJjrn|ji^ up io
own, and if you want the disk or Uwi t"u[>i» A Mirccn pur[\
oktii.w NOW' Ptkc Sifty, [H-vtpdKi USA. Bxicailvc
tape loader included (VIC version iLH.umcritj|]Lin included kjzh -nJJilmfial T

only). Send it to:

A phone call brings the spaceship winch Cal Overhulser

will carry the alien home (VIC version}. P.O. Box 494 COMMODORE 64™
Westford,MA 01886
See program listings on page 93. m "What's Really Inside the
programming simpler by allowing
the programmer to keep the mov
Commodore 64"
• Mini complete jsjLljhlereton«l;uclcJ j^veruM> tan.'
ing characters on the screen with a fii^c tourec code for ihe C-M'» B^dd and Kcrna]
ROM1.. A] [hK • tta will fully undcntjnd »lh ta
simple check for collision with the undocumented ROM roultno, Jnd lwiiMclncrTecti\oly
use them iny»uTLS*npfO£r.imv ■ HictLAEIIiLS. No(j
border character code rather than mere ortc-llnc disasscmlil>. AN bunch [jr^ci^ jnJ sub-

using lengthy position checking rimtirtc tnlry period me shown, • TARLEi arc fully
Wfted out ami derived. • Cetopiti^f commflOKd, no
calculations. £\ip\ vrinUMVer, You will see iind undcrMand ihc puc-
COMPUTERS GAZETTE pmc ti everj rciuimc jnJ pvtry line of mJcl ■ Cum-
p(eie Ihtinj of Hfflitn La BWml label rdcrcnccs. »
Invalu^hle fully enr^-referenced symrnJ mhle

Custom Characters llrJcr C-M Source. S29 « pi«tpjiJ USA

The custom characters are created Subscription

by first moving the normal upper All orders shipped frum \tuek uEEhin 24

case and numeric characters (screen

Order Line hours via UPS. VlSA/MastcrCard wel-

codes 0-63) into RAM. This is done 800-334-0868

in lines 20 and 40. Line 20 protects SCHNEDLER SYSTEMS
1301 N. Ivanhos. Dep,. G-'l . AMlii(ilmi. VA 2ZiOS
the upper part of memory by 919-275-9809 I nf.piiiBlidnltclcplu.iic Oulen ( 237-4 7%
changing the top-of-memory
In Search Of
The Computer Sandbox

Fred D'lgnazio dress-up with powerful ideas and find her way through a mazelike
Associate Editor problem-solving styles. We should castle (in Memory Castle). She can
put them on, try them out, and see practice methods of hypothesis
Since I was a child 1 have been fas
how they "fit." This" playful ap generation and testing while she
cinated with learning. Learning, to
proach can turn problem-solving plays mad scientist and builds
me, has never meant the mindless from a chore into a game. And it monsters (in The Incredible
accumulation of facts. Instead, it can give us the momentum and Laboratory).
has meant the careful acquisition of self-confidence we'll need when we
thinking and communication come up against the many nasty,
skills—-much in the way a back thorny problems that life throws
packer shops for durable light
our way.
weight supplies that fit him just
right, and that he can carry with
him and use when he is on his own
in the wilderness.
The Computer Sandbox
The computer is like a sandbox, a H Jfli LtX
playful environment where we can
The microcomputer offers us a
confront all sorts of problems and
chance to become active learners.
try on all sorts of problem-solving
As Bill Higginson of MIT and
styles and never get hurt. It's all
Queens College has said, we can
make-believe, so it's safe to go any
use microcomputers to build a cur
where and say and do the most out Building monsters in The Incredible
riculum around us. Instead of fol
rageous things. We can use the Laboratory.
lowing a top-down curriculum of
computer to learn cause-and-effect
learning that has been mandated by
and responsibility for our decisions, In my May column, I wrote
society for all learners, we can start
but we can also experience the free that one of real-life software's nec
from the bottom and build our own
dom to experiment and be creative. essary ingredients is a hefty man
curriculum, based on our own
There's lots of good "sandbox" ual. The manual doesn't describe
unique gifts, genius, needs, and de
software for the Commodore 64. how to use the software, since real-
sires. What do we have a special
Some of the best comes from Sun life software should be easy to use
knack for? Whatever it is, it should
burst Communications. Sunburst's and self-explanatory. Rather it
be in our curriculum. What are our
rich assortment of over three dozen should be an introduction to the
obsessions, our passions in life?
Commodore 64 programs (includ skills and knowledge that the soft
These too should be in our cur
ing Memory Castle, The Incredible ware is teaching and a resource
Laboratory, The Pond, The Factory, book full of activities. All of the
The King's Rule, and Teddy's Play Sunburst programs come with this
Playing Dress-Up With ground) create environments in kind of manual.
Powerful Ideas which children of all ages can learn Next month we'll look at a
Almost everything we encounter in powerful problem-solving styles by checklist to help evaluate computer
life can be seen as a problem. But making important decisions in programs and activities and see if
we don't have to see problems as make-believe worlds. they're up to sandbox standards.
pranksters and villains waiting to Lou Roberts, of EPIE (the We'll also see how to turn your
ambush us, trip us up, and spoil our Educational Products Information computer into a computer sandbox
fun. Instead we can adopt a playful Exchange) has said that the using software you already own.
approach to solving problems, and computer's power comes from let (For more information on Sun-
microcomputers can help us de ting you learn powerful ideas, not burst software, write: Sunburst
velop this approach. through abstract theory, formulas, Communications, 39 Washington
There is no single failsafe or descriptions, but through Avenue, Plcasantvillc, NY 10570. Or
problem-solving style. Instead experiencing the ideas in a make- call 300-431-1934 or 914-769-5030
there are many styles, and it's help believe setting. For example, a child for a free catalog. You might also ask
ful to experiment with as many as can learn advanced strategies of about their free videotape (cither Beta
possible. I liken this experimenta pattern recognition while she navi or VHS format) on problem solving:
tion to playing "dress up." Just as gates a frog through an array of lily- "Bears, Monsters, and Frogs." It's a
young children love to dress up in pads (in The Pond). She can master good introduction to teaching prob
all sorts of colorful, oversized, and techniques to strengthen her se lem solving and to the educational
outlandish clothes, we should play quential memory while she tries to philosophy of Sunburst.) <B
72 COMPUTED Gazella September 1985
Weather Prophet
George W. Miller, Assistant Technical Editor

tomorrow will be pretty much like

We all look at the forecast to see whether we
today, and you'll be right more
should go on a picnic or stay home to read a often than not. But 50 percent accu
book, or carry an umbrella or put on a short- racy isn't a very good average. Or
you could memorize weather folk
sleeved shirt. This program for the 64 and Plus/4
lore, such as red sky at morning, sail
can give you a pretty reliable idea of what ors take warning; red sky at night,
weather to expect in the next day or two. It could sailor's delight. Some of these
sayings are remarkably accurate, al
also make a good school project. A disk drive is though they may be true only in
required. certain areas.
Meteorologists have deter
mined that three factors greatly in
fluence local climatic conditions:
Everyone talks about the weather; perature and rainfall or snowfall barometric pressure, the rate of
it's one of the safest topics to dis amounts for your area should be, change of the barometer, and the
cuss. You can't argue with some and keeps track of the cumulative wind direction.
body who says "Beautiful day amounts of rain and snow, for you In the northern hemisphere,
we're having." With "Weather to compare against the average. the winds of a low pressure cell
Prophet," when you make a new Weather Prophet will also calculate (also known as a cyclone) rotate in a
acquaintance at a social gathering the "heating and cooling degree counter-clockwise direction. A high
and the weather comes up, you can days," so you'll know what to ex pressure system (or anti-cyclone)
say "My computer is predicting pect on your utility bills. It can even has winds rotating' in a clockwise
rain," or "I think the forecast is generate a monthly summary re direction. If you were to face into
wrong, my computer says it will be port. You choose whether all of this the wind, a low pressure cell would
sunny." information is printed on the screen generally be located to your right,
You'll have to keep some or a printer. and an area of high pressure would
records, of course. Ideally, you Professional weather forecast exist somewhere to your left.
should load and run the program ing services such as Accuweather Weather Prophet uses this knowl
every day and spend a few minutes and the National Weather Service edge to decide which type of
to update the weather files. The have access to millions of dollars weather system is influencing your
payoff is that as your weather data worth of state-of-the-art equip local climatic pattern.
base grows, your forecast becomes ment, and they still have problems The rate of change of the baro
more accurate. giving a reliable forecast. How can metric pressure helps determine
After entering the necessary a BASIC program hope to emulate how quickly a weather system is
information (temperature, humid the mainframe computers used by approaching and what type of sys
these services? tem it is. A low pressure system
ity, wind speed and direction, and
During our testing period, usually brings in clouds and bad
so on), you're given a short forecast.
In addition, Weather Prophet looks Weather Prophet maintained an ac weather, while high pressure is
back into the database for similar curacy rating of over 98 percent. usually accompanied by clear skies
weather. It reminds you of what That's surprising, considering that and fair weather. The barometric
the information needed to generate pressure reading determines how
happened for several days after the
last occurrence of any similar con the forecast is very easy for anyone strong the approaching system is.
ditions, allowing you to better eval to obtain. You can gather this infor
uate the short-range forecast mation yourself very easily. Barom
generated by the program. Predicting, Not Guessing eters can be purchased at most
Weather Prophet tells you It's been said that to predict the hardware stores. You can use a
what the normal high and low tem weather, all you have to say is that weather vane to judge the direction
COMPUTE! s Gazette September 1985 73
of the wind or just observe the though this can be influenced by its through December.
smoke from a chimney. Go outside location and may not give a true in- If you're not using a Com
and face north. East will be on your dication of the actual relative modore printer, it may be necessary
right hand, south is behind you, humidity. To measure the high and to change the commands to send
and west is to your left. You can low temperatures yourself, you'll information to your printer. All
easily decide which direction the need a Mini-Max Thermometer, that's necessary is to enter the
wind is coming from. which indicates temperature proper commands in lines 140 and
As you gather data to develop extremes. 150. Be sure to include a RETURN
your own historical file of local command at the end of each line
climatological data, you'll need Typing In Weather Prophet because these are subroutines.
information about the wind speed, Carefully enter the program
Enter the program carefully using
too. This can be estimated quite ac exactly as listed with the exceptions
"The Automatic Proofreader," (pub
curately, using this table: of your customized DATA state
lished frequently in the CAZETTE).
Lines 10-40 allow you to set the ments and printer commands.

screen and border colors for your Weather Prophet uses relative files,
computer. If you're using a 64, de and the syntax must be exact.
Wind Speed Observed Effect lete the REM in line 20 when you're
(mph) ready to save Weather Prophet. For Putting Weather Prophet To
0-1 i .ill:-., smoke rises the Plus/4, delete the REM in line Work
vertically 40. All other program lines are the
1-3 direction seen in smoke, Load and run Weather Prophet. Be
same for both computers.
but not in a weather sure to leave the disk which con
vane You'll have to customize tains Weather Prophet and your
4-7 leaves rustle Weather Prophet to display the lo
8-2 leaves and small Iwigs
data files in the disk drive at all
cal normal high and low tem times. The program checks the disk
13-18 small branches move peratures, and rainfall and snowfall for information frequently as it
19-24 small trees sway amounts for your area. Weather runs.
25-31 large branches move Prophet currently holds the normal You first see the main menu. If
32-38 trees sway, walking into
conditions for Greensboro, North you have a printer connected and
the wind is difficult
39-46 Iwigs break off trees, Carolina. would like a printout of any infor
cars veer on road This weather information is mation from Weather Prophet, en
47-54 roof slates may blow available from several sources. ter 0 to enable output to the printer.
Many almanacs list highs, lows, The screen will clear for a second,
55-63 trees are uprooted
and precipitation. You could also then return, but will now indicate
64-72 widespread damage
apparent check with your local newspaper or that the printer is on. Be sure your
73 and up hurricane winds television station. The best source printer is turned on before you use
for climatological data is the this option. You can turn off the
National Oceanic and Atmospheric printer by entering 0 again. The dis
Administration: play will indicate the printer is off.
You'll need the daily high and
low temperatures, relative humid The more you use the program
ity, and the amount of precipitation and accumulate information, the
National Environmental Satellite,
as well. This can be obtained from Data, and Information Service more intelligent Weather Prophet
newspapers, the news on tele National Climatic Data Center becomes. Try to collect and enter
vision, or from NOAA (National Federal Building data at the same time each day.
Oceanic and Atmospheric Admin Asheville, NC 28801 This will help the program main
istration) Radio broadcasts. In most tain some degree of consistency as
areas this public service band radio Request a copy of "Local it evaluates the data.
station broadcasts a continuous Climatological Data, Annual Sum First, tell the program about
weather forecast from the National mary with Comparative Data" for the day's weather. Press 1 to begin
Weather Service, and, usually be your area. entering the data. You'll be
tween 7:00 and 9:00 a.m. and again When you have the infor prompted for the date, in month,
between 6:00 and 9:00 p.m., broad mation, change the DATA state day, and year format. Separate each
casts a weather summary for the ments in lines 3400 and 3410 to the entry with a comma. (For example,
preceding day which includes all values for the monthly high tem July 4, 1985 would be 7,4,85.)
the information you'll need. peratures in your area. Lines 3430
Of course, it would be more and 3440 should be changed to the Have the information you
fun to collect the information your average monthly low temperatures. gathered on hand. Answer the
self and make your data truly Finally, lines 3460 and 3470 will prompts as they appear. If you mis
unique to your specific location. contain average monthly precipita type an entry, press RETURN until
Rain gauges may be purchased at tion, and line 3490 will be average you reach the end of the data entry
many stores, or you can make your monthly snowfall. routine. The information you typed
own with a coffee can and a ruler. The values for each category is displayed on the screen or
Your barometer may have a gauge begin with January for the first printer, and you'll be asked if it's
for relative humidity built into it, al- value and are entered in order correct. Answer no if you've made a
74 COMPUTEVs Gazelle September 1985
mistake and you'll return to the the record. This is handy when
beginning of the routine, with no you're updating a file with several
days' data after being away for a SYNTHESIZER/
harm done. Data must then be
retyped. long weekend and can't remember DIGITAL RECORDER
Describe the cloud cover as a whether you entered data on Friday
evening. Just search for the last Features:
number between 0 and 100 percent,
record number, and see what that • Excellent suund quality! Sounds like lapel
which represents the amount of the
sky obscured by clouds. On a to entry holds. ■ Full speech synthesizer wiih unlimited
Enter F to search by field, and vocabulary.
tally overcast day, for example, the
you can choose to search for a spe • Record and speak in anyone's voice!
cloud cover would be 100 percent.
cific date, generate a monthly re • Includes CU-DELTAMOD RECORDER UNIT.
The comment line is for your HEADSET MIKE, and all software on disk
port, or return to the main menu.
notes about the weather (fair, partly (or lape|
To search for a specific date, enter
cloudy, rain, and so on). Any com • Includes sollware to be used with optional
the date (in month, day, year for light pen.
ments are OK, but be sure not to use
mat), and the program will search • Light pen available lor $29.95
for the record for that date. • Even records music onlo disk!! to be
When you've finished, the
Generating a monthly report is played back by your program.
information you typed is displayed
where Weather Prophet can really • Comes with demo programs including a
on the screen, along with the nor talking clock.
show off. It takes several minutes to
mal high and low temperatures for • Plugs into user port. Connector on back
sort through the data, primarily be
the month, rainfall and snowfall allows tor olher perlphirals to remain
cause of the slow speed of the 1541 connected.
amounts, and heating or cooling
disk drive. The program lists the ex
degree days. A cumulative total is • Can be played back willi or without
treme conditions for the month you recorder connected.
also displayed.
selected: highest temperature, low • Make |sell?| your own talking programs!!
Next, the data is stored on the est temperature, days with rain, Send S99.00 lor delivery or send S4.00
disk and Weather Prophet searches and so on. (refundable on purchase) lor demo
for similar conditions in the file and diskette including tree talking alarm
If you'd like to check how
generates a short term forecast. It clock and others"
many degree days have accu
only attempts to forecast for the pe OHOtH NOW FROM:
mulated since you've been running
riod during which it has a reason SEYMDR-RADIX
the program, enter 4 from the main
ably reliable forecast. This may P.O. BOX 166055 IRVING. TX 75016
menu for the Degree Day Register.
cover between 12 and 72 hours.
The value of heating and cooling
Press any key to continue be degree days will be displayed,
yond the forecast. If any data simi along with options to clear each
lar to previous weather data is
found, it is displayed, and the fore
register separately, or to return to
the main menu.
cast conditions from that situation Your 5W" single side disks are usable
The Degree Day Register needs
are shown. Use this historical on the oil er ■- de You pa d for one
to be reset once each year. Gen ijde .-.'•;• r A l.m' the other ..IT'S FREE!
record to evaluate the current Nibble Notch will open your new
erally, the Heating Degree Day
forecast. disk.K'seasy. worft harm existing data,
Register should be set to 0 in July, SATISFACTION OR MONEY BACK
At times you may want a new and the Cooling Degree Day Reg
forecast but don't want to store the
nibble notch I
ister to 0 in January. Enter the
information in the file, especially appropriate response and continue
when weather conditions are with the program.
changing rapidly. To generate a For Apple. Franklin, Commodore, &
Option 5 allows a smooth exit Atari (vWAtari Drives); square notch.
forecast, enter 2 from the main
from the program, without pressing
menu, and follow the prompts to
the RUN/STOP key. It's a good
enter barometric pressure, rate of
idea to always use this option to
change of the barometer, and wind
end the program, because pressing
direction. A forecast will be dis
RUN/STOP while the program is
played, and the disk will be read in
running could cause the files being
a search for similar conditions, as in
written to your disk to be damaged.
data entry mode. No information
Try to take a few minutes every
will be stored on your disk.
day to update the data file. The
Option 3, Search Data, allows
more you use Weather Prophet, the ■ Add W (IS I or eign) f 01 postag e B
you to review and analyze the
more reliable it becomes. Daily up handling Fl 'indents ddd 5% sales iai
information already stored. The TOLL FREE 1-800-641-1536
dates are also necessary to keep the
program asks if you want to search FL 13OS|74B-377O
degree day registers accurate, and or send check
by fields or for a specific record
to develop accurate information for or monuy order to:
number. If you wish to look at a
a monthly report. You'll find the
specific day and happen to know
information useful on a day-to-day
the record number, this is the computer products
quickest search. Press R and answer
4211 NW75thTerrace«Dept143
the next prompt with the number of See program listing on page 97. a Lauderhill, FL33319


Daan Deenik
I'l ■ ■ ■
pt it iririni,n.«,«.«,«.".".b,».H,b
&l tPiirfllt.ll.'lJl1,tP,p'.H,VIH.hJ«,fl
If your eyes get tired while checking
long listings on your screen, tiiis
program will be a real aid. It high
lights the current screen line, mak
ing it easier to keep your place
while scanning the program. Orig
inally written far the 64, we've
added a version for the VIC. ^"'""m'iL.1

"QuickScan" is like a highlighted ruler It's especially helpful for debugging

Everyone who's written a program that moves up and down the screen DATA statements (64 screen).
or typed one in from a magazine (VIC display).
knows the sinking feeling you get
when you realize you've made a ideas for modifications. 0-255 into location 719 (POKE
mistake and you'll have to go back If you change the zeros in lines 719.x where x is a number from 0 to
and check your work. Programs 1001 and 1003 to 255s and run the 255). The user's manual contains a
which contain long lists of DATA program again, you'll see a bar complete list of screen/border color
statements are especially annoying; three lines high. The upper and combinations.
it's easy to accidentally check a line lower parts of the bar are the same See program listings on page 101. ffl
twice or miss a line here or there. color as the characters on the
Have yon ever wanted a ruler screen, so you won't be able to see
that would automatically move up them. But the middle part is visible.
and down the screen? "QuickScan" You can change the color of the
is just that, a bar that highlights
screen lines. Just use the cursor
middle part by POKEing 53285
with a number from 0 to 15. You
from this publication
keys to control the location of the
can split the bar by giving the first
four sprites low and the other three
are now available
How To Use The Highlighter
high priority (POKE 53275,15). from the UMI Article
This might come in handy with
The instructions aren't com question and answer programs. Clearinghouse.
plicated. Type in QuickScan and
save it to tape or disk. When you The VIC Version Yps' I would lifcf toknuv, more Jb-uut UMI Art-de Clear
run it, a short machine language Since the VIC doesn't have sprites
inghouse I am intrmltii mfjefirunii;
ordering through Ihcfoll^Lfifi syitemii):
program is POKEd into memory or raster interrupts, a different tech 71 DIALOG tti-ilardtr LJ ITT Dialcom
and a message (describing how to nique was used to create the bar in "OnTymf DOCLC ILL5ubi>j[f[T.

start it) is printed on the screen. To the background. The computer

n Olhtr \pltait tpcnfyf
H I am in[crntcd in irndinU ni>-nrtffrby mail
enable the 64 version, type checks for the position of the cursor H Clean: send mt your current t fl anJ mti htt
5Y549152. The VIC version runs and calculates how long it will take
lians t<ff th*»yitcmli) I thctk

with or without memory expan until that line will be printed. It

sion, and is enabled by SYS679. then quickly changes the color of Title

The ML program is loaded into the screen and border to the second lnEtHu(Jon;Campany_

RAM by a BASIC loader. Although color and back again to the first. Depar t m ent

there is a built-in checksum to help Since the program has to wait until
in entering the program, accurate the time is right, everything runs a
typing is still required as any mis little slower, especially when the Phonr (

take could crash the computer. cursor is near the bottom of the
Modifying QuickScan You can change the color of
Aoar ouse
QuickScan for the 64 uses seven the border and background (even
Mail (n1 Univf r->Lt>- Micrtftimi [nlernalional
multicolor sprites to create the change the line to reverse charac 300 North Zceb HmJ, Bul SI Ann Aihor. Ml J8106
highlighting bar. Here are a few ters) by POKEing a number from

76 COMPUTE'S GazDlfe September 1985

From Machine Language

Richard Mansfield from my Second Book of Machine We'll have to create two "fingers"
Senior Editor Language. Other assemblers will re which will always point to our cur
quire some minor modifications. rent positions in memory. One fin
This month we're going to create a
Program 1 will be presented next ger will point at our location within
kind of bridge between machine
month also; this month, however, the ML program being moved; the
language (ML) and BASIC and,
we'll discuss only through line 225. other finger will point at our loca
along the way, learn some new
Line 100 tells LADS that the tion within the BASIC program be
techniques which help manipulate
program is to start at address SCO0O ing built. (In ML parlance these
data in ML.
{49152 in decimal). Line 110 tells it fingers are, perhaps with greater
Frequently, you'll see program
to actually store the program in dignity, called pointers.)
listings like "Datastuffer" {Program
memory. That's one option. You A pointer is a two-byte area in
2). Sometimes that's all there is; at
could also store it to disk and leave RAM somewhere and it's up to us
other times this mass of DATA
memory untouched. to decide where. It should be lo
statements is part of a larger BASIC
Next there is a series of label cated somewhere within the first
program. However, in both cases,
assignments. All this means is that 256 bytes because that lets us use
the data mass is actually a machine
we're going to give names to some the Indirect Y addressing mode,
language program waiting to be
important locations in memory that which is an easy way to access
brought to life. The user doesn't
we'll be using in the program. whole chunks of memory at once.
need to know anything about ML to
Then, when we want to access The computer likes to use the first
type RUN and let Program 2 POKE
them, we don't need to remember 256 bytes too (and for the same rea
all those numbers into RAM. When
the numbers are in RAM, they com any numbers—we can just use the son), but there are some safe places
prise an ML program and the user names. between $A3 (163 decimal) and
can type SYS 49152 to activate it.
$B1 (177), so we'll put our pointers
Two Fingers in that area of memory.
In line 150, we assign the label
BASIC Builder Nevertheless, by understanding
PF to address $A3. You could give it
But how, if you've written an ML what these labels do, we'll pretty
any label you prefer, as long as
program, do you transform it into much understand the way the en
that's the way you refer to it
DATA statements? You could PEEK tire program works. So this month
throughout the rest of the program.
every location in your ML program let's discuss each label; next month
PF will be the finger pointing at the
and write down each number and we'll look at the program proper.
current (while the program is
then type them all into DATA state First: what is the main goal of
executing) location within the
ments. There are easier ways, how this program; what's it basically
BASIC program we're creating.
ever. Both compute! and the trying to accomplish? Essentially,
gazette have published BASIC we'll be moving a series of numbers
utilities, called DATAmakers, (our ML program) from one place in What BASIC Looks Like
which do this job for you. This RAM to another, from the location Line 170 defines, with the label PC,
month, however, let's make an ML of the ML program down to the the other finger, the one pointing to
utility which asks for the start and lower RAM where BASIC programs within the ML program. Line 160
end address of an ML program, and go. As with any large-scale moving takes care of a housekeeping func
then rapidly builds a BASIC pro job, we've got to keep track of tion for the BASIC program we'll be
gram like Program 2, complete with where we are, within both the building. The figure illustrates what
line numbers, DATA commands, source and the target of the move. a BASIC program looks like in RAM.
commas, and, of course, all the The computer does things one at a A BASIC program always
numbers. time. So, to move a chunk of mem starts with a 0, each line ends with a
Program 1 does just that. It's a ory, we'll pick up the first byte from 0, and the end of the whole pro
program which creates another the source zone, put it down in the gram is signified by 0 0 0. The first
program, a BASIC program. This is target zone, pick up the second byte byte (at address $0800 in the ex
the 64 version, but the only adjust from the source zone, etc., until all ample line above) is a 0. Then the
ments you need to make for the the bytes are copied. next two bytes form a pointer to the
VIC (with at least 16K expansion) To do this, we've got to know, start of the second line in the BASIC
are indicated in lines 100-220. The while the program executes, where program which is located at address
complete version of Program 1 will we are in two places at once (the $080B. As you can see, the com
work as is on the LADS Assembler source zone and the target zone). puter expects pointers to be in re-

COMPUTErs Gnzena September 19B5 77

where a BASIC program ends in
A BASIC Program's Structure memory and where variables be
gin. We'll need to adjust this point
Nothing Is Pointed To Now
er when we're all finished so the
T computer doesn't think our newly


created program is larger or smaller
0 0 D
than it actually is.
Start at
Now that we've defined all of
End of Line Program
BASIC Ends our special routines and pointers,
we are ready to go ahead and put

10 PR1NT"HI"
them together to create the ML pro
20 END gram, "Datastuffer." Next month
(addrws in RAM)
we'll explore the internal structure
OB0O OS0U 0811
(actual by tin) 00 OB 08 0A 00 99 22 -IS 49 22 00 11 08 14 DO 80 00 00 00 of the program itself, but you can
(line of BASIC) LINE 7 "HI" LINE END still play around with the utility.
10 20
Type in Program 2 {Program 3 for
the VIC) and just run it. You'll end
versed order so that the pointer OB takes a floating point number and up with a runnable ML program
08 is, really, referring to address turns it into the ASCII code. The which will create a BASIC DATA
$080B. In any case, we'll need to number 25 can take the form of a mass. Even a mass of itself.
keep track of the proper location for single-byte true number (when you Program 4 is necessary. It's a
each of these pointers as we build POKE 500,25 you're storing the real little BASIC program which asks for
our BASIC program. They've got to number 25 in location 500). How the start and end addresses of your
be there or BASIC won't be able to ever, when you type a BASIC pro ML program and POKEs them into
LIST or RUN the program. So we'll gram in, you are using the ASCII the pointers. You could do these
keep them in the location defined in code of numbers. ASCII numbers things in ML, but the resulting pro
line 160, LINELINK. are characters, not real numbers; it's gram would be a bit too large to use
The variable defined in line as if the characters "2 5" were in as an example in this column.
180 will hold the address where the quotes. In an ML program in mem Here's how to use Datastuffer:
ML program ends, so we'll know ory, each byte holds a true number, Load and run Program 2 (for
when we've finished our job. The but in a BASIC DATA statement, the 64), or Program 3 (for the VIC).
user provides this address along the string of numbers are in the Load the ML program you want to
with the starting address {which ASCII code. So, we've got to bor transform into BASIC DATA state
will be stored in PC) before the pro row these routines from ROM ments (make sure it doesn't load
gram is activated. which transform the real numbers into the area 49152-49361 in the
Line 200 names a routine we're which comprise the ML program 64, or 20480-20689 in the VIC).
calling INTAFP which is located in into the "character code" numbers Type NEW. Load and run STUF-
BASIC ROM and which we'll want which make up a BASIC program. FERBAS {Program 4). That's it.
to use. It translates an integer num Line 215 defines the place we STUFFERBAS will be overwritten
ber (like 3) into a floating point can jump to within ROM which will by your new BASIC program.
number (3.0000, the same thing, gracefully end our ML program, When Datastuffer has finished,
but with a decimal point). Normally landing us back in BASIC mode you can LIST the new program it
this routine is used by BASIC, but without damaging anything. Line has created. You'll have to add the
we can use it too. 220 shows where BASIC programs FOR-NEXT loop that POKEs the
start in RAM and, thus, where we ML program into memory. Finally,
Numbers As Characters will start building our DATA mass. save the program to tape or disk.
Line 210 defines INTASCII as an Finally, VARS in line 225 is defined
other built-in ROM routine which as the pointer BASIC uses to tell See program listings on page 93.

Program 1: Datastuffer—Source Code

100 *= SC000; (S5000 VIC) 215 WARM = SE37B; (SE467 VIC)
140 230 J

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Printer Wedge
James Chandler, )r.

If you have a 64 and a Commodore 1525, MFS-801, wedge inserts one blank column at
the right of a user-defined charac
or MPS-803 printer, here's an easy way to create, ter. This allows proportional spac
save, and print out your own custom characters. ing of characters. For replacement
characters to be in the same seven
With "Printer Wedge," you can have true de
by five format of the 1525, 801, 803
scenders, foreign language character sets, and character set, do not allow two ad
customized graphics. jacent blank columns in the first
five columns of the character cre
Creating Custom Characters ation grid. In addition, do not leave
The Commodore 1525, MPS-801,
column five blank.
and MPS-803 printers are inexpen When you load and run Printer
To specify characters that can
sive and generally reliable printers. Wedge, you get a character creation
not meet the above requirements,
But the printed characters leave screen. Characters are created on a
calculate the column values as in
much to be desired —no de grid seven high by ten wide. Move
the 1525, 801, or 803 users' man
scenders. If you own one of these around the grid using the cursor
ual. Append a DATA statement to
printers, you know how difficult it keys, and plot dots with f7. Delete
Printer Wedge using the following
is to discern the difference between dots with f8. When the character is
a lowercase and capital "?" or a complete, assign the character with
fltne number 3000 + 10 * ASCII] DATA
lowercase "g" and the number "9." fl. The computer then prompts you
[ASCII value of character],[number af
This program, "Printer Wedge," for the key of the character. Press character columnsj,[column Tl,[a>lumn
lets you define a new character the key representing the character 2],.,.,[last column]
set—including true descenders or and the program appends a DATA
You can find the ASCII value of a
foreign language characters. statement to itself describing that
character by typing (in immediate
The program is written in character. That character will no
BASIC, but it POKEs a machine longer be available to you—it will
PRINT ASC("[c)iaractcr]")
language "wedge" into memory. be replaced by the new character
You don't have to know machine you've designed. It then loops back The line 10000 DATA 0 tells
language to make it work, however. to the character creation screen. Printer Wedge it has read and
The wedge prints the user-defined When you're through creating POKEd all characters into memory.
characters in conjunction with the characters you wish to use, A replacement character for the
many programs, including press f2. The program asks for a double quote (SHIFT-2) should
SpeedScript. starting address, then POKEs the normally be specified (line 3340).
Printer Wedge characters can wedge to the specified location. Otherwise, printing a double quote
be any width from one to ten pixels, You are then given the option of character causes a graphic
and any number of characters can sending sample lines to the printer nightmare.
be created, from one replacement so you can inspect the new I've included three character
character to an entire upper/ characters. sets as options for you to try. Any of
lowercase font. Also, foreign lan If you wish to alter any of the these can be appended to Program
guage character sets can easily be characters you've created, run the 1. Character Set 1 (Program 2) re
defined (within the limits of printer program again and press f2 when places the lowercase g, p, and q
resolution). you finish. Since the character set is with less ambiguous characters.
The program also has another stored as part of Printer Wedge, you Character Set 2 (Program 3)
mode which allows substitute can create many character sets and proportionally spaces without de
character strings of up to 40 charac save each by its own name, such as scenders. Character Set 3 (Program
ters. For example, one could specify PWEDGE/ELITE or PWEDGE/ 4) squeezes characters into the top
text replacements for LISTed SPANISH. six rows, allowing one row for de
graphics symbols (cursor controls, Create characters starting from scenders. Program 5 allows for
colors, etc.), allowing the printing the left column of the character cre- converting graphics symbols to
of more readable program listings. ation grid. When printing, the text.

BO COMPUTE'S Gazette Sepiambei 1965

cde-f 3h i -j K1 ninop


The standard lowercase character set

of the 1525, MPS-B01, and MPS-803

The letters with descenders—g, p,

and q—are made more readable
with character set 1.


Part 3
Character set 2 offers more propor
tional spacing between letters. Lawrence Cotton

Character Strings
Press f3 to assign a string of charac
ters to a key. This can be useful in a
couple of ways. You can make pro
gram listings more readable by
replacing the reverse-heart that In this final installment, the author presents
means "clear the screen" with the six more impressive 64 sound demos.
easier to read string [CLR], To do
this, type in the string [CLR] and as
Before looking at the last six sound Program 2, "Hear See Chord,"
sign it to the SHIFT-CLR/HOME
programs in this series, it would be is the longest program in the series.
key (by pressing f3). After entering
helpful to review the introductory It shows how to gradually combine
all replacement strings in this man
discussion in Part 1, found in the three notes produced by indepen
ner, save PWEDGE/LIST. Pro
July issue. If you missed the first dent voices into a chord. The con
grams can then be listed to disk or
two installments, you can still ventional square waveform (64) is
tape, then read back and printed
benefit from the demos here. used here.
with a short BASIC routine. To do
They're short and can be added to For a little variety, try Pro
this, first open a file to tape or disk,
your own programs simply by gram 3, "Rubber Band In A Drum."
then enter CMD (file number):UST,
renumbering the lines appro This program is unique in two re
After the file is created, type
priately. You can also omit the RE- spects. First, random frequencies
PRINT* (file number):CLOSE (file
Marks in each of the demos. Even if (F2) are interspersed with a fixed
number). To read the file (and list it
you don't wish to use these in your frequency. Second, waveform 23 is
to the printer), open the file for in
own programs, I think you'll be sur POKEd to turn the sound on (rub
put, open a line to the printer, use
prised at some of the "zounds" ber band), but the noise waveform
GET# to get characters, and
your 64 is capable of producing. 128 is POKEd to turn it off (drum).
PRINT# to send it to the printer.
Probably the most unpredict
SpeedScript allows the use of
able sound is "Harmonix." Voices 2
the Commodore key subset of the
In The Ear Of The Beholder and 3 are POKEd with waveforms
keyboard (left graphics symbols on
The first program, "Waveform 23," 21 and 23, respectively. The step
the keys). [Commodore-D] could
is only four lines. This waveform, sizes of -10 and -50 determine
represent "Dear Friends," [Com-
largely undocumented, uses sync the harmonics being generated.
modore-Y] could represent "Yours
and ring modulation together with This sound seems to be long
Truly," and so on. This would
the triangle waveform. Several of enough without repetition.
allow automation of the repetitive
the demos in this series use this "Falling Sitar," Program 5,
parts of letters or of any document
waveform, but this program best sounds just like its name. It too uses
form you use frequently.
illustrates its enormous potential. It a random frequency (Fl) super
If you'd rather not type in the
plays only once, so you might add a imposed on a gradually decreasing
program, send $3, a self-addressed
loop to go back to line 10 if you frequency (F2) at a gradually
stamped mailer, and a formatted
wish to study the quality of the increasing rate (controlled by Q).
disk or tape to:
sound. Try changing the waveform Last, but certainly not least, is
James Chandler, Jr. (line 20) to a 17 (triangle) or 33 "Glissando." How can such a
204 California Ave. (sawtooth) or 21 (triangle plus ring sound be produced? Only on the
Chattanooga, TN 37415
mod). How blah. But with a 23? Commodore 64.
See program listings on page 104. V Listen! See program listings on page 92. W
COMPUTE! s Gazette September 1985 81
For The 1650 Automodem
Preston Douglas

This short telecommunications program automati bers from line 310 and wait for you
to press a key. If you want to dial
cally dials the phone numbers of your favorite one of the three built-in numbers,
bulletin boards. If the number is busy, it redials press a number 1-3. To input a
until it makes a connection. For the 64 or un- brand new number, press 4.

expanded VIC. TinyTerm In Action

The program dials the number

If you belong to a local bulletin expanded VIC. It's very short, so it you've chosen until it makes con

board sys'tem (BBS), you probably doesn't have extras like upload/ tact with the BBS. If the line is busy,
know the frustration of reaching a download, or file access. a message prints that the program is

busy signal again and again. The stili trying. If the line is free and a
most popular, most active boards carrier tone is detected, your VIC or
Setting Up The Program 64 will make a sound (to get your
can be nearly impossible to reach.
One night while my 64 and I First, type in the program and save attention). You can then log on.

were working hard trying to get it to tape or disk. If you own a 64, If you have previously defined

through to a busy bulletin board, it make the following changes: your name, ID, and password in

occurred to me that my VIC-20 was line 60, press f2, f4, and f6 in that
20 Zl = 56577i7,2=56579;POKE53281
just sitting there doing nothing. If I order. (Be sure to hold down SHIFT
could program the VIC to do the POKEA,0:NEXT irem 71 while you're pressing these keys.)
boring job of redialing, ! could do 610 POKE54273,50:POKE54296,15:
The program is written in
something more interesting with POKE54277,25:POKE54276,32: BASIC, which has one advantage
the 64.
POKE54276,33:GOTOB0:rem 70 and one disadvantage. The good
I found "MiniTerm-20," a news is that programmers who are
In addition, you can customize curious about how terminal pro
terminal program for the VIC, in
TinyTerm in two ways. First, grams work can trace through the
the September 1983 issue of com
change the phone numbers in line listing and make modifications if
puted GAZETTE. It was written for
310 to three bulletin boards you be they wish (see below for details on
another type of modem, so I set
long to. Don't use any dashes or ex the program flow). The bad news is
about converting and modifying it
tra characters like spaces, and that once in a while, TinyTerm
to work with the 1650.
remember to put the number "1" in drops a character. This usually hap
Several things had to be
front of any long distance numbers. pens when a long message or menu
added. First, the program had to be
Line 60 can be changed to include is received from the BBS. It doesn't
able to redial repeatedly until it de
your name, ID, and password for happen very often, though. BASIC
tected a carrier tone (the signal that
one of the bulletin boards. If you do can keep up with 300 baud pretty
the call has been completed). Sec
this, you might not want to save a well.
ond, it had to reject the occasional
copy of the program with your real
false carrier hits that can happen
password, in case someone else How It Works
with some busy signals. Third, it
might try to use it.
should sound an alarm to indicate The VIC version barely fits into an
to the user that the connection has Before you start, check the unexpanded VIC. You may think
succeeded. Finally, there should be switches on the 1650 Automodem. you have a lot of memory after
a screen display to show that the They should be set to originate {the loading the program, but the vari
program is getting busy signals and O/A switch), data (D/T), and full ables and the buffer will quickly use
is still working. duplex (F/H). most of it. Be careful if you start
"TinyTerm" does all four When you run TinyTerm, it making modifications.
things. Plus, it fits into an un- will list the three telephone num Line 10 opens the channel to

B2 COMPUTED Gazette September 1985

the modem and sets the baud rate. long time to ring through.
Next, the opening screen is printed. Lines 570-590 check three
Line 50 goes to the subroutine times to make sure we've really got
at 230-290, which creates an array ten through. If the phone has been
for translating Commodore ASCII answered, we branch to 610, where
to true ASCII. Note line 270, where
the function keys are defined:
the alarm is sounded. The program
jumps back to line 80, the begin iBASF
ning of the main terminal program. DISKETTES
f3 ASCII 19 (CTRL-S) A busy signal sends us back to the
f5 ASCII 17 (CTRL-Q) dialing routine. BASF Diskettes at compe
17 ASCII 16 (CTRL-P) Line 90 GETs a character from titive price. Coll TOLL FREE
These control characters are the modem. If the BBS is not send (800) 235-4137 for pricea and

used by some bulletin boards for ing, we jump to 130, to GET a Information. Visa and Master

character from the keyboard. If you Card accepted. All orders sent
special functions. Line 60 sets the
postage paid.
values for the shifted function keys. have not pressed a key, it jumps
In 70, the program jumps to 300, back to 90, alternately checking the
the dialing routine. modem and the keyboard for a
Lines 300-400 print the three character. Because of the dif PACIFIC
numbers and prompt you for input. ferences between Commodore HKl Fooi hi 11 Bl «J
If option 4 (manual dial) is chosen, ASCII and standard ASCII, the Qbi'»po CA

lines 410-420 ask you for a num characters have to be translated, 93401 (In Gil call
(805) M3-1 (M7 I
ber. Line 430 is the beginning of the using the arrays 1% and O%.
dialing routine. The numbers are If you're tired of hearing busy
extracted one by one, and the sub signals from your favorite busy bul
routine at 540-560 does the actual letin board, give TinyTerm a try.
pulse dialing, with pauses between Your computer wili take care of the
the clicks. TinyTerm then checks dialing, giving you a chance to do
for a connection in lines 480-510. other things while you wait to get
Change the 300 in line 480 if your through.
phone circuits take an unusually See program listing on page 100. <E


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VIC Emulator
Fausto Ibarra

If you've upgraded from a VIC to a 64, here's a

way to keep your VIC BASIC programs from
becoming obsolete.

Those who have upgraded from a normal 64 configuration at any time emulated.
VIC-20 (o a Commodore 64 know by entering SYS 64738. For games and other programs
that both machines have the same If you press RUN/STOP- requiring input, joystick and pad
BASIC language, but won't run the RESTORE, the computer will forget dle, reading can be made as in the
same programs. Memory locations where the screen is and you won't VIC (they must be connected in
and screen, graphics, and sound see what you're typing. You can re control port 1), and PEEKs to loca
differences make a translation nec cover your program by blindly tion 197 will return the key values
essary if you want VIC programs to entering SYS 49152. After selecting of the VIC.
run on the 64. the appropriate memory configura
"VIC Emulator" makes your tion, enter SYS 51055. You can use A Word Of Caution
64 behave just like a VIC. You can this command at any time if you VIC Emulator works with any pro
run most of your VIC programs accidentally type NEW and wish to gram written entirely in BASIC.
written in BASIC without translat recover your program. Joystick and paddle reading
ing them, including games using routines written in machine lan
custom characters and sound ef What Does It Emulate? guage will work if they don't use
fects, utilities, and so on, and you The 64 screen is changed to the locations 0 and 1, which are used
can emulate programs written for VIC's 22 characters. The program by the 6510 chip. Machine lan
the unexpanded, 3K, 8K, or 16K emulates all POKEs and PEEKs to guage routines which use the
VIC. screen and color memory, as well as Kernal jump table will still work
The program is written entirely alternate screens controlled with since they are compatible with all
in machine language, so you need POKEs to locations 36866 and Commodore computers.
MLX, which appears frequently in 36869. If you clear the screen, color
the GAZETTE, to aid in your typing. memory is filled automatically with Wedge Works
After loading MLX, answer the color code 1 (white). It also emu The program works by wedging into
prompts for the starting and ending lates the VIC's tone generator using the BASIC routines for PEEK and
address with 49152 and 51124, the SID chip (it's good enough for POKE. It intercepts the execution of
respectively. Next, type in the pro most sound effects, but will not these commands to change them to
gram and save it to disk or tape. work correctly with programs using work properly on the 64. This is pos
Load it at any time with the com music.) sible by copying BASIC memory
mand LOAD "filename",1,1 for POKEs to change the screen from 40960 to 49151 ($A000-$BFFF)
tape, or LOAD"filename",8,1 for and border color also work without into the RAM beneath it, changing
disk. After it's loaded, type NEW. modification. (Screen colors 8-15 the routines to suit our needs, and
To run the program, enter SYS are different on the 64, so you may telling the 6510 microprocessor to
49152. You are first asked to select get other color combinations when use the RAM memory by clearing bit
the memory configuration of the using them.) Custom characters 0 of location 1.
VIC program. After this, you'll see will work perfectly without any It also wedges into the PRINT
the number of free bytes. At this modification, as will multicolor routine to make the necessary
point, load any VIC BASIC pro characters. High-resolution graph changes to reflect the VIC's 22-
gram and it will run normally. It's a ics will work if they don't use dou character screen. Also, an interrupt
good idea to use the emulator ble height characters. routine is added to the normal IRQ
before loading any program be POKEs and PEEKs to locations service routine to permit joystick
cause some programs change mem 0,1, and 2 are changed to reflect the and paddle reading from machine
ory pointers when using custom 64 USR vector. POKEs to start and language.
characters. You can return to the stop the cassette motor are also See program listing on page 103. a

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86 COMPUTERS Gazette September 1985

Tom R. Halfhill, Staff Editor

Each month, COMPUTE!'* GAZETTE Logo is known for its turtle graphics win a pennant in their respective
tackles same questions commonly and recursive (self-repeating) struc leagues to pay off the bet. Logical
asked by Commodore users and by tures; it's often the first language operators work the same way in
people shopping for their first home taught to children. Pascal is a popu BASIC. Since computers must see
computer. If you have a question lar structured language in colleges everything in terms of numbers, —1
you d like to see answered here, send and universities. Forth is extensible, means true and 0 means false:
it to tins column, c/o COMPUTE'S ga which means you can create new IF A=-lORB=-lTHENC = 10
zette, P.O. Box 5406, Greensboro, JVC keywords and build your own cus IF A= -1 AND B= -1 THEN C = 10

27403. tom language. PILOT lends itself to Again, the first IF-THEN state
instructional and educational ment specifies that if the variable A
programming. COMAL is a rel equals —1 or the variable B equals
atively fast, structured language -1, then the variable C becomes
^ BASIC is too slow for some that strongly resembles BASIC and 10. Only one of the two possible
programs I want to write, but I is very popular in Europe. conditions must be met for this to
don't think I want to tackle ma PROMAL is a new compiled lan happen. But in the second IF-THEN
chine language yet. What other guage that has much in common statement, both conditions must be
languages are faster than BASIC with Pascal. met for C to equal 10.
but easier to learn than machine Logical operators are often
language? combined with IF-THEN state
I've noticed that a lot of
BASIC programs use words like ments to form decision points in
/»• Perhaps the easiest solution OR and AND. Can you explain computer programs. The program's
is not to learn another language at what they are and how they work? flow and reaction to user input can
all—instead, try a BASIC compiler. vary according to how it evaluates
A compiler is a sophisticated different conditions. It's up to the
/»• One reason these keywords
program which takes another pro programmer, of course, to make
are so confusing is that they're used
gram written in a high-leve! lan sure the program can respond to
in BASIC programs in two com
guage such as BASIC and transiates any possible condition. Otherwise,
pletely different ways. Like the
(or compiles) it into machine lan it may "crash."
English word "star"-—which can
guage. Although a compiled pro In another context, AND and
denote either a point of light in the
gram won't run as fast or be as OR are used in BASIC to directly
sky or a leading actress—the mean
compact as a program written di manipulate bits in computer mem
ing depends on the context.
rectly in machine language, it still ory. All digital computers store
Usually, AND and OR are used
runs much faster than an ordinary information in the form of binary
in BASIC with IF-THEN statements
BASIC program. The speed gain numbers, and those numbers are
as logical operators. A logical op
can range from 10 to 1,000 times composed of bits, which are like
erator is a keyword which defines
faster, depending on what the pro tiny switches that can be turned on
how an IF-THEN statement should
gram is doing. or off. For instance, the number 97
be resolved under different con
Most compilers require you to is stored in memory as a pattern of
ditions. Here are some examples in
observe a few extra programming eight bits (l=on, O = off):
rules, but it's still much easier than 01100001
IF the Cuba win Ihe pennanl OR Ihe
learning a whole new language. Keywords such as AND and
Indians win Ihe pennanl THEN I'll
Several BASIC compilers are avail pay you $10. OR allow programmers to change
able for Commodore computers IF the Cubs win the pennant AND the these bit patterns in certain ways.
and have been advertised and re Indians win Ihe pennant THEN I'll pay Bit manipulation is beyond the
viewed in COMPUTED GAZETTE. you $20. scope of this column because it real
If you're dissatisfied with According to.the first IF-THEN ly has more to do with machine lan
BASIC for reasons other than statement, the $10 bet will be paid guage than with BASIC. In fact, the
execution speed, the other alter off if either baseball team—the keywords AND and OR correspond
native is to explore different lan Cubs or the Indians—wins the pen directly to machine language com
guages. Versions of Logo, Pascal, nant. The OR operator specifies mands. To learn more about this
Forth, PILOT, COMAL, PROMAL, that only one of the two conditions subject, follow the "Machine Lan
and others are available for Com must be met. But in the second IF- guage for Beginners" column,
modore computers. Some of these THEN statement, the AND op which appears regularly in the
are compiled languages as well. erator requires that both teams must GAZETTE. QB

COMPUTEI's Gazetta September 1985 87

Modifications and Corrections

• Two problems affect the RENUM running the third program, "TDISK By printing one screen at left mar
command from "MetaBASIC" (April). GENERATOR." It will create a file gin zero, rewinding the paper, and
The first is relatively minor: After called "TURBODISK.OBJ" on your printing another screen at margin 40,
renumbering, the definition given to backup disk. But TURBODISK BOOT you can create a double width, two-
the f8 function key is garbled. A mem tries to load TURBODISK (without the screen picture.
ory conflict causes this quirk, which .OB]). So, you'll need to change line 10 Readers Eric Thosteson and Robert
cannot easily be fixed. of TURBODISK BOOT so it loads Lewis own MPS-802 printers, which
A more serious bug is that RENUM TURBODISK.OBJ rather than are functionally identical to the 1526,
can ruin the second index number in a TURBODISK. After making the correc except for the line spacing. The MPS-
two-dimensional array. When tion, save TURBODISK BOOT to the 802 allows more vertical positions per
MetaBASIC renumbers a program, it backup disk. inch. If the lines seem to overlap when
looks for GOTOs, GOSUDs, THENs, using the 802, add a POKE 49289,24
and other references to line numbers. • VIC owners have reported that al before the SYS49152. Or, change the
Within an ON-GOTO or ON-GOSUB, though "Screen-40" (|une) converts the second number in line 330 from 18 to
the line numbers are separated by com VIC screen to 40 columns and works 24, and change the last (checksum)
mas. So, if a line containing ON-GOTO well when printing to the screen, it has number in 330 from 885 to 891. Num
or ON-GOSUB is followed by a two- problems sending anything to a printer. bers larger than 18 on a 1526, or 24 on
dimensional array—A$(20,10), for ex- Reader D, J, Stauffer has found a the 802, will cause more spacing be
amplt!—the second number in the array solution: tween the lines.
will be treated as part of the ON state 1. Load Screen-40. Finally, because the program starts
ment, because it is preceded by a 2. Type POKE 8402,104: POKE 8403,76: at 49152, it will not work with some hi
comma. The array variable will, in ef POKE 8404,122: POKE 8405,242 res programs which use the same loca
fect, be renumbered. To fix this, load 3. Enter the necessary POKEs from the tions. Paul Kroculik suggests the
MetaBASIC, type NEW, and enter this article: POKE 43,1: POKE 44,44: following changes to allow screen
line: POKE 11264,0: NEW. dumps from Simons' BASIC, "Screen-
4. Load and run MLX, enter the starting 80" (September 1984), or "Hi-Res
FOB A=39243 TO 39246:POKEA,2
34: NEXT
and ending addresses (8192 and Graphics Made Simple" (August 1983):
10240), and press SHIFT-S to save
You can now use the BSAVE com the new copy of 5creen-40.
mand to save the altered MetaBASiC to TO BEGIN HI-RES DUMP11! EN

disk. Tape users will have to use MLX: • Reader David Gunderson writes that D
140 DATA 52736
Enter POKE 644,144: SYS 58260 to pro the score in the 64 version of "Heat
150 DATA 53121
tect memory, load MetaBASIC, type Seeker" (March) may be difficult to 160 DATA 169,18,133,10,32,33,2
NEW, enter the line above, load and read if you own an older 64 or a black- 06,32,633
run MLX, enter the starting and ending and-white television. To change the 170 DATA 67,206,32,81,206,76,1
addresses (36864 and 40805), and then background color and make the score 00,207,975
1B0 DATA 32,177,206,162,9,230,
use SHIFT-S to save the new copy to more legible, load Heat Seeker, POKE
tape. 2076,6, and save it back to tape or disk.
190 DATA 2,230,4,202,208,247,7
• There are no bugs in the 64 version of • As reported in the June "Bug-Swatter,"
200 DATA 207,173,0,221,41,3,73
"TurboDisk" (July). Some GAZETTE the number 100 in line 130 of "1526 Hi-
DISK subscribers have had trouble mak Res Screen Dump" (April) should be 505 DATA 162,53,120,134,1,177,
ing a backup copy of the program, how changed to a 130. This does not affect 3,162,812
ever. The program works correctly the program if all DATA statements 510 DATA 55,134,1,88,234,234,2
when loaded from the GAZETTE DISK, were correctly typed. The program 34,234,1214
515 DATA 234,234,37,16,240,16,
but n slight modification is necessary to works as listed, and several readers
make a backup. have sent in modifications.
540 DATA 165,17,201,8,203,208,
There are three TurboDisk pro 1526 Hi-Res Screen Dump is writ 70,16,893
grams on the GAZETTE DISK. ten in machine language and Peter Hei 550 DATA 230,15,165,15,201,6,2
"TURBODISK BOOT" is a short BASIC ne Jorgenson has noted that it exits back 08,194,1036
to BASIC via a BRK, rather than an 580 DATA 96,76,13,206,169,0,13
program which loads and enables the
main machine language program, RTS. To make it a little easier to use
610 DATA 206,76,19,206,32,250,
"TURBODISK," which is called from BASIC programs, POKE 4948B,96. 206,76,1071
"TURBODISK.OBr In the July issue of Also, if you prefer not to have the 620 DATA 16,206,222
the GAZETTE. If you're using a copy screen centered on the page, pick a left
program, these are the two programs margin between 0 and 40 (variable L) Since the starting address has been
you'll need to put on the backup disk. and add these POKEs before starting moved to 52736, readers are cautioned
They'll work correctly if they're copied the screen dump: not to use the Commodore DOS
directly from the GAZETTE DISK. R = L + 40: POKE 49153.L: POKE 49393.L: Wedge, which loads into the same area
You can also make a backup by POKE 49389.B of memory. •

88 COMPUTE! s Gaiette September 1985

a ji V Machine Language Entry Program
/VILA For Commodore 64 and VIC-20
Charles Brannon, Program Editon

MLX is a labor-saving utility that line. That's because each line has MLX recognizes these
allows almost fail-safe entry of seven numbers—six actual data commands:
machine language programs pub numbers plus a checksum number. SHIFT-S: Save SH1FT-N: New Address
lished in COMPUTEI's GAZETTE. The checksum verifies that you SHIFT-L: Load SHIFT-D: Display

You need to know nothing about typed the previous six numbers cor
When you enter a command,
machine language to use MLX—it rectly. If you enter any of the six
MLX jumps out of the line you've
was designed for everyone. There numbers wrong, or enter the
been typing, so we recommend you
are separate versions for the Com checksum wrong, the computer do it at a new prompt. Use the Save
modore 64 and expanded VIC-20 rings a buzzer and prompts you to command to save what you've been
(at least 8K). reenter the line. If you enter it cor working on. It will save on tape or
rectly, a bell tone sounds and you
disk, as if you've finished, but the
MLX is a new way to enter long ma continue to the next line.
tape or disk won't work, of course,
chine language (ML) programs with MLX accepts only numbers as until you finish the typing. Remem
a minimum of fuss. MLX lets you input. If you make a typing error,
ber what address you stop at. The
enter the numbers from a special press the INST/DEL key; the entire
next time you run MLX, answer all
list that looks similar to BASIC number is deleted. You can press it
the prompts as you did before, then
DATA statements. It checks your as many times as necessary back to
insert the disk or tape. When you
typing on a line-by-line basis. It the start of the line. If you enter
get to the entry prompt, press
won't let you enter illegal charac three-digit numbers as listed, the
SHIFT-L to reload the partly com
ters when you should be typing computer automatically prints the
pleted file into memory. Then use
numbers. It won't let you enter comma and goes on to accept the
the New Address command to re
numbers greater than 255 (forbid next number. If you enter less than
sume typing.
den in ML). It won't let you enter three digits, you can press either the
To use the New Address com
the wrong numbers on the wrong SPACE bar or RETURN key to ad
mand, press SHIFT-N and enter the
line. In addition, MLX creates a vance to the next number. The
address where you previously
ready-to-use tape or disk file. You checksum automatically appears in
stopped. The prompt will change,
can then use the LOAD command inverse video for emphasis.
and you can then continue typing.
to read the program into the com To simplify your typing, MLX Always enter a New Address that
puter, as with any program: redefines part of the keyboard as a matches up with one of the line
LOAD "filename",l,l (for upe) numeric keypad: numbers in the special listing, or
LOAD "filetiame",a,l (for disk)
else the checksum won't work. The
U I O 7 8 9
To start the program, you enter H J K L become 0 4 5 6 Display command lets you display
a SYS command that transfers con M , . 12 3 a section of your typing. After you
trol from BASIC to machine press SHIFT-D, enter two addresses
language.The starting SYS number within the line number range of the
MLX Commands
always appears in the appropriate listing. You can abort the listing by
article. When you finish typing an ML list pressing any key.
ing (assuming you type it all in one What if you forgot where you
Using MLX session) you can then save the com stopped typing? Use the Display
pleted program on tape or disk. Fol command to scan memory from the
Type in and save MLX (you'il want
low the screen instructions. If you beginning to the end of the pro
to use it in the future). When you're
get any errors while saving, you gram. When you reach the end of
ready to type in an ML program,
probably have a bad disk, or the your typing, the lines will contain a
run MLX. MLX asks you for two
disk is full, or you've made a typo random pattern of numbers. When
numbers: the starting address and
when entering the MLX program you see the end of your typing,
the ending address. These numbers
itself. press any key to stop the listing.
are given in the article accompany
You don't have to enter the Use the New Address command to
ing the ML program.
whole ML program in one sitting. continue typing from the proper
You'll see a prompt correspond
MLX iets you enter as much as you location.
ing to the starting address. The
want, save it, and then reload the Sec program listings on page 106.
prompt is the current line you are
file from tape or disk later.
entering from the listing. It in
creases by six each time you enter a

COMPUTEVs GazoltB September 1985 89

low To Type in m
Each month, computers gazette Special Characters This can be entered on the Com
publishes programs for the VIC-20, Most of the programs listed in each modore 64 by pressing the CTRL
Commodore 64, Plus 4, and 16. issue contain special control charac key while typing the letter in
Each program is clearly marked by ters. To facilitate typing in any pro braces. For example, {A} means to
title and version. Be sure to type in grams from the GAZETTE, use the press CTRL-A.
the correct version for your ma following listing conventions.
chine. Also, carefully read the The most common type of con
instructions in the corresponding trol characters in our listings appear The Quote Mode
article. This can save time and as words within braces: (DOWN} Although you can move the cursor
eliminate any questions which means to press the cursor down around the screen with the CRSR
might arise after you begin typing. key; {5 SPACES} means to press keys, often a programmer will want
We publish two programs, the space bar five times. to move the cursor under program
appearing in alternating months, To indicate that a key should control. This is seen in examples
designed to make your typing effort be shifted (hold down the SHIFT such as {LEFT} and {HOME} in
easier: The Automatic Proofreader, key while pressing another key), the program listings. The only way
and MLX, designed for entering the character is underlined. For ex the computer can tell the difference
machine language programs. ample, A means hold down the between direct and programmed
When entering a BASIC pro SHIFT key and press A. You may cursor control is the quote mode.
gram, be especially careful with see strange characters on your Once you press the quote key,
DATA statements as they are ex screen, but that's lo be expected. If you're in quote mode. This mode
tremely sensitive to errors. A you find a number followed by an can be confusing if you mistype a
mistyped number in a DATA state underlined key enclosed in braces character and cursor left to change
ment can cause your machine to (for example, {8 A)), type the key it. You'll see a reverse video charac
"lock up" (you'll have no control as many times as indicated (in our ter (a graphics symbol for cursor
over the computer). If this happens, example, enter eight SHIFTed A's). left). In this case, you can use the
the only recourse is to turn your If a key is enclosed in special DELete key to back up and edit the
computer off then back on, erasing brackets, § 3, hold down the line. Type another quote and you're
whatever was in memory. So be Commodore key (at the lower left out of quote mode. If things really
sure to save a copy of your program corner of the keyboard) and press get confusing, you can exit quote
before you run it. If your computer the indicated character. mode simply by pressing RETURN:
crashes, you can always reload the Rarely, you'll see a single letter Then just cursor up to the mistyped
program and look for the error. of the alphabet enclosed in braces. line and fix it.

When You Read: Press: See: See: Press: See:

{CLR] [SHIFT] [ CLK<h"0ME"|

For Commodore G4 Only

90 COMPUTE!'* Gazalia SeplBmber 1985

l"9tIFJVO0THENGOSUB550 : rein 164
irem 36 510 GETAS:IFAS=""THEN510
(Ankle cm page 69.) 175 IFP<2023THENPOKE2023,160tP :rem 79
OKE56295,10iGOTO80 irem 67 515 IFA$="Y"THEN20 trem 250
5 P0KE52,48iPOKE56,48tCLR
210 IFA+40>2023THEN230trem 187 520 END :rem 110
:rem 234
220 IF(PEEK(A+40)=SORPEEK(A+40 525 POKET+5,0!POKET+6,240:POKE
)-OORPEEK[A+40)-28)THENA-A T,15:POKET+1,67 :rem 188
+40iF-A-40iGOTO300 irem 95 530 POKET+4,17iPOKET+4,16:POKE
irem 245
15 GOSUB9000 irem 175
QORPEEK(A+l)=28)THENA=A+li trem 101
20 POKE53281,ltPOKE532B0,7iPOK
F-A-liGOTO300 irem 97 550 POKET+5,0tPOKET+6,240:POKE
ET+24,15tTS=0iTL=3 irem 55
240 IF(PEEK{A-1)=SORPEEK(A-1)= T+1,12:POKET,143 trem 226
QORPEEK(A-l)-28)THENA-A-11 5 55 POKET+4,1291POKET+4,128tPO
F-A+lIGOTO300 trem 104 KET,0:POKET+1,0 t RETURN
250 IF(PEEK{A-40)-SORPEEK(A-40 :rem 212
irem 158
)-OORPEEK(A-40)»2B)THENA=A 600 POKET+5,96:POKET+6,0
-40:F=A+40iGOTO300irem 104 irem 142
:GOT035 irem 2
260 GOTO80 trem 57 605 POKET,751POKET+1,341rem 98
32 IFAS--N-THENGOTO35 irem 248
300 IF{A-1983ORA=2022)THEKPOKE 510 POKET+4,33tFORN=lTO40:NEXT
33 GOTO30 irem 2
NPUT"(5 RIGHT]SKILL LEVEL ( 0440 irem 198 515 POKET,52:POKET+l,43iPOKET+
l-5]-fSK , :rem 4
A+T,4iGOTO60 1 ram 167 T+4,32 irem 100
40 IFSK<1ORSK>STHEN35 irem 71
45 BV»10*SKiBS«24*BViSK=INT{30
)tGOSUB600 tram L93 4,33tFORN=lTO10B:NEXTN:POK
/SK-1.5) irem 221
420 IFPEEK(A)=28THENSC-SC+BViG ET+4,32 irem 149
50 P=I065iS-91iA=1064iC=-9iY-30
O5UB600 irem 46 625 POKET,01POKET+1,0iRETURN
iCl-9iSC-0 :rem 252
430 POKEA,FCiP0KEA+T,4tP0KEF,X irem 11
F,86:POKEF+T,0 :rem 173 T+12,0 tPOKET+13,240:POKET+
(BLK} K§ 21+ ( BLK} E § 21 + [ BLK]R"
SPC{13)"SCORE:" i renl 223 435 GOTO70 trem 60 19,0:POKET+20,240 trem 37
440 POKE2023,FCtPOKE56295,4tPO 702 FORI=1T03 irem 13
,160iPOKE56295,10tPOKEP,YiP KEA,XiSC=SC+(4*BV) 1rem 90 704 POKET,195:POKET+1,I6:POKET

OKEP+T.6 irem 224

450 PRINT"[CLR)"SPC(6)" +8,4:POKET+7,4B:POKET+15,3
(11 DOWN![BLUlHOORAYl HERB 3iPOKET+14,135 i retn 190
64 F0RB=lTO5:MN^INT(RND(l)*(19
GOTO470 trem 108 GOSUB760 irem 155
EMN+T,5iNEXT irem 176
455 PRINT"JCLR]"SPC(6)" 705 POKET,31iPOKET+l,21:POKET+
66 FORN=1TO10:MN=INT(RND{1)*(1
BY A DEADLY XI":GOSUB9001 :P0KET+14,62 :rem 79
OKEMM+T,14iNEXT :rem 39
TL=TL-1 irem 17 710 GOSUB750:FORN=lTO300tNEXTi
6a GOSUB700iTI$-"000000"
460 GOTO470 irem 110 GOSUB760 irem 151
irem 33
465 PRINT"(CI,R)"SPC{6)" 712 POKET,96:POKET+1,22:POKET+
(11 DOWN](BLU)OH, NO1 HERB 8,5:POKET+7,1521POKET+15,4
irem 155
IE IS STRANDEDI"iGOSUBB00i 4:POKET+14,193 trem 189
80 IFTIS>"000159"THEN465
TL-TL-1 irem 55 714 GOSUB750:FORN=lTO500:NEXTt
irem 55
82 IF(INT(Tl/60)/SK)-INT(INT(T 470 PRINTTAB114)"[9 UPHrEDJlE GOSUB760:NS=150 irem 75
I/60)/SK)=0THEN2000trem 135 VEL "BV/10lPRIKTTAB(12)" 716 FORJ=lTO2:P0KET,135:P0KET+
{RVS) HIGH SCORE {OFF)1 1,331POKET+8,81 POKET+7,97 t
84 PRIKT"fHOME)"SPC(15)N|41"( 1
20-INT(Tl/60))"{LEFT) (BLK]"HS trem 9 POKET+15,67iPOKET+14,15
475 IFBV>10ANDSC<(BS-(4*BV))/2 :rem 68
irem 243
NSC-0 irem 207 NS=50iGOSUB760iNEXTJ:NEXTI
IONJVGOTO96,104,92,102,98,1 480 TS«TS+SCiIFSC=BSTHENTS-TS+ irem 253
00,94,106iGOTO90 irem 96 500 irem 147 720 POKET,223iPOKET+1,29iPOKET
482 PRINTTAB(2)-{DOWN}§23THIS +8,7 1 POKET+7,1191POKET+15,
88 ONJVGOT096,86,92,86,98,B6,9
4,86 irem 138 (SPACE 3 ROUND:E 43"SCSPC(2}" S9iPOKET+14,190 irem 243
90 S=YiC1=6iGOTO150 irem 124 B23GANE TOTALt{BLK!"TS 722 GOSUB750:FORN=1TO200iNEXTi
92 P=P+1:GOTO120 irem 170 GOSUB760 irem 153
ireni 231
94 P=P-1:GOTO120 irem 174 464 ifsc=«bsthenprint-1(h0me3 724 POKET,30tPOKET+l,25:POKET+
96 P-P-40IGOTO120 irem 227 (rvs!E4§(2 spacesJspecial
tPOKET+14,60 trem 78
98 P=P+40tGOTO120 irem 227 (space]perfect round bonus
100 P-P+39tGOTO120 irem 11 —500]111(2 SPACES] 726 GOSUB750iFORN=1TO300iNEXT:
102 P-P+41iGOTO120 irem 6 (5 DOWN]" irem 52 GOSUB760 irem 158
104 P=P-39iGOTO120 irem 17 486 IFTS>HSTHENHS=TSiPRIHTTAB( 728 POKET,96iPOKET+1,22iPOKET+
106 P=P-41 ,rem 6 10)"fDOWN)(RED]A NEW HIGH 8,441POKET+7,19 31POKET+15,
120 IFP<1064THENP=P+40 irem 20 {SPACE)SCORE 111":PRINT" 16iPOKET+14,195 irem 253
130 IFP>2023THENP=P-40 trem 21 (H0ME)(4 DOWN][BLK)"SPC(25 730 GOSUB750:FORtI=lTO900:NEXTt
)HS irem 117 GOSUB760 trem 159
+T,CiGOTO80 trem 185 488 IFTL»0THENPRINT<1(9 DOWN)"i 732 POKET,0:POKET+l,0tPOKET+7,
145 IFPEEK(P)=86THEN455 GOTO500 irem 225 01POKET+B,0:POKET+14,0:POK
490 PRINTTAB(10)"(9 DOWN](BLK] ET+15,0 trem 58
irem 103
150 IFPEEK(P)-QTHENY-Q.C-5tGOT TRACKERS LEFT=" trem 231 740 RETURN trem 123
0160 irem 136 492 TC=26iFORN-1TOTLiPRINTTAB( 750 POKET+4,17iPOKET+11,I7iPOK
155 IFPEEK{P)='28THENY=2BiC-14 TC)"(UP](BLU)t"lTC-TC+2iNE ET+1B,17tRETURN irem 239
irem 229 XT irem 78 760 POKET+4,16iPOKET+ll,16tPOK
160 IFPEEK(M)-QTHENS=QiCl-5:G0 494 FORN=lTO8000:NEXTtIFTL>0TH ET+1B,16:RETURN irem 237
TO170 irem 178 EN50 irem 147 800 POKET+5,O:POKET+6,240:FORH

165 IFPEEK(M)=2STHENS=2SiCl-li 500 PRINTTAB!10)"|43(RVS) SORR N=255TOlSTEP-2tPOKET,50iPO

trem 14 Y, GAME OVER. (OFF]":PRINT KET+l.HH :rem 254
170 POKEP,YiPOKEP+T,CiY-30iPOK TAB(11)"(2 DOWN)E23lRVS] P 910 POKST+4,17iPOKET+4,16iNEXT

COMPUTE!* Gaza/re September 1985 91

N irem 117
LN=72iFORV-lTOB i rern
850 POKET+5,9:POKET+6,0:POKET, );CTS(V)" tBLKj— "jCN?(V
(Article on page 81.)
246iPOKET+1,2:POKET+4,33 ) irem 239
:rein 9 8120 POKET+5,9iPOKET+6,210iPOK Program 1: Waveform 23
iPOKET,0 IPOKET+1,0iRETURN i rern 91
10 FORL-54272TO54295iPOKEL,0iN
i rein 22 8125 POKET+12,9iPOKET+13,210iP EXTiPOKE54296,15 irem 16
900 POKET+5,0iPOKET+6,236iPOKE OKET+8,LNtPOKET+7,210iLN- 20 POKE54277,8iPOKE5427B,255iP
T,5iPOKET+1,1:POKET+4,129 LN-3 trem 32 OKE54276.23IREM COMPARE WIT
: rem 53 8130 POKET+19,9iPOKET+20,210iP H 17, 21 OR 33 trem 154
128:RETURN : rein 28 ,F2 irem 244
N=LN-3 irem 133
1000 SN=SNANDliJS=PEEK(PA+SN): 8135 POKET+4,17iPOKET+11,17iPO 50 FORF1-1TO255STEP4iP0KE54273
JV=JSANDJM irem 73 KET+18,17 irem 10 ,F1iNEXTFl1NEXTF2iPOKE54278
1010 FORJI=1T08:IFJV=JV(JI)THE 8140 FORI-lTO500iNEXTIirem 101 .15 trem 215
N1030 trem 162 8145 POKET+4,16tPOKET+ll,16iPO
1020 NEXTiJI=0 irem 60 KET+1B,16 irem 8
Program 2: Hear See Chord
1030 JV=JIiFB=-((JSANDFM)-ZR)i 8150 FORJ-1TO200iNEXTJiNEXTV 10 FORL=54272TO54295iPOKEL,0iN
RETURN irem 8 irem 52 EXTiPOKE54296,15 irem 16
2000 MI=INT(RND(1)*(1933-1424) 8155 FORN»TTOT+23!POKET,0:NEXT 20 Vl-54276iV2-54283iV3-54290t
)+1424:FORN=lT04tXX=X irem 178 W-65tQ-100 irera 201
:rem 163 8160 PRINTTAB(B)"{2 DOWN)E4lHI 30 POKE54275,8tPOKE542a2,8iPOK
31)THENMI=MI+1IGOTO2010 TINUE" irem 42
:rem 199 40 POKE54277,2tPOKE54278,12tRE
2020 IF(PEEK(MI)-91ORPEEK(MI)» M ADSR VI trem 203
irem 203
280RPEEK(MI)-QORPEEK(MI)= 50 POKE54284,2iPOKE54285,12iRE
8170 IFAS"CHRS(13)THEN8160
86) THENXX=*86 irem 200 M ADSR V2 irem 201
iren 242
2030 POKEMI,27:FOBG=11T02STEP- 8175 RETURN irem 131 60 POKE54291,2iPOKE54292,12iRE
1:POKEMI+T,G:NEXTG:GOSUB8 9000 PA=56320:JM-15iFM=16iZR=0 M ADSR V3 irem 199
50:POKEMI,XX:POKEMI+T,0 iT-54272iX-32 trem 210 70 POKE54273,16tPOKE54272,195t
irem 82 9010 FC-31tO=164iFORN-TTOT+24i REM C trem 199
2040 MI=MI+1:NEXTiIF(PEEK(HI)< POKEN,0iNEXT irem 107 B0 POKE54280,21iPOKE54279,31iR
KEMI,86iPOKEMI+T,0irem 44 T trem 225 90 POKE54287,25iPOKE54286,30iR
2050 GOTO80 :rem 104 9030 POKE56334,PEEK(56334)AND2 EM G trem 155
8000 PRINT"[CLR} [D0WN)"TAB(8)" 54iPOKEl,PEEK(1)AND251 100 FOR2-1TO30iPOKEV1,WiREM TO
[PUR}*§21+++++ (BLK)TRACK irem 237

ER E21+++++lBLU)f ED irem 45
9040 FORI=0TO2047iPOKE12288+I,
LAY irem 100
B010 PRINT"[2 DOWN)§43(RIGHT}U irem 154
E TRACKER." irem B8 4,PEEKt56334)ORl .rem 189
URNS OFF VOICE 1 irem 231
8015 PRINT"(2 RIGHT]FIRE BUTTO 9060 POKE53272,(PEEK(53272)AND
N LAYS TRACK." irem 183 240J+12 iron 238
504+CH,NWtNEXTCH irem 169 (SPACE)VOICE 2 irem 154
RBIE" irem 127 90B0 PORV-lT08iREADCCS(V),CTS(
URNS OFF VOICE 2 irem 237
irem 243 10000 DATA14,6,7,5,13,9,11,10
8030 PRINT"{DOWN)[RIGHT)THE ME irem 166
[SPACE)VOICE 3 irem 15a
ANIES LEAVE DEADLY X1 S, " 10100 DATA255,195,255,219,219,
irem 205 219,219,219 irem 35
8035 PRINT"{2 RIGHT}DON'T LET 10200 DATA60,60,195,219,219,19
{SPACE}TRACKER RUN INTO T 5,60,60 irem 79
irem 126
HEM." irem 179 10300 DATA219,219,219,126,126,
8040 PRINT"(DOWN](RIGHT)TRACKE 219,219,219 trem 28
irem 49
R 6 PURPLE HERBIE AHE PAR 10400 DATA60,36,255,255,255,21
ALYZED"SPC(4)"WHEN MEANIE 9,24,126 iram 129 Program 3: Rubber Band In A
S APPEAR." irem 210 10500 DATA255,219,219,255,255, Drum
195,231,255 irem 33
10600 DATA -{BLUl","T",TRACKER
EXTtPOKE54296,lS irem 16
iron 122
10700 DATA "g2I","+",TRACK
irem 215
8050 PRINT"{D0WN3[RIGHTjDON'T irem 219
10600 DATA "{PUR}", "-4", PURPLE
30 FORZ-lTO40tA-INT(60*RND(l))
'RE IN A RACE" irem 105 [SPACE]HERBIE irem 117
+1 iQ»INT(100*RND(1))+liREM
{OFF}",20-100 PTS
trem 209
EI"iGOSUB700 trem 254 irem 241
11000 DATA "g7I","£\ 10-50 P
irem 25
11100 DATA "|33","(RVS) [OFF)"
ONTINUE" irem 33 50 F2-lNT(55*RND(l))+liREM VAR
8065 GETASiIFAS»""THEN8065 ,HOME 40-200 PTStrem 106
11200 DATA "[RED)","[-,MEANIE
8070 IFAS<>CHRS<13)THEN8060 trem 20 irem 85
irem 240
11300 DATA "fBLK}","V",DEADLY
60 POKE542S7,P2 irem 67
[SPACEjX " ,rem 96
RS (OFFUDOWN)'1 trem 222 tram 53

92 COMPUTED Gazette September 1965

50050 DATA173,209,80,105,0,141
Machine Language ,209,80,200,169 :rem 207
50060 DATA131,145,163,200,140,
For Beginners
iron 247
90 FOKE54276,126iNEXTZiREM TUR 210,80,160,0,177irem 242
S OFF VOICE 23 WITH A 12B Y 50070 DATA167,168,169,0,32,145
IELDS UNIQUE SOUND trem 153 (Article on page 71.) ,211,32,221,221 irem 209
50080 DATA162,1,172,210,80,189
Program 4: Harmonix Program 2: Datastuffer—64 ,0,1,240,7 irem 210
10 FORT-54272TO54295iPOKET,0:N Version 50090 DATA145,163,200,232,76,a
EXTtPOKE54296,15 i rera 32 10 FORI=49152TO49361iREADDtPOK 5,80,238,211,80 irem 220
20 AD=15iSR=190iREM ENVELOPE V EI,D:CS=CS+D:KEXT :rem 196 50100 DATA169,44,145,163,200,2
ALUES TO BE POKED INTO VOIC 30,167,208,2,230trem 254
ES 2 AND 3 NEXT LINE 50110 DATA168,173,211,80,201,1
irem 203
50000 DATA169,0,133,163,169,B, 0,240,3,76,64 :rem 103
30 POKE542B4,ADiPOKE54291,ADiP
133,164,169,80 irem 174 50120 DATA80,136,169,0,145,163
50010 DATA141,208,192,169,195, ,141,211,80,165 :rem 210
iretn 235
141,209,192,169,0irem 68 50130 DATA163,133,165,165,164,
40 POKE54283,21iPOKE54290,23iR
50020 DATA141,211,192,168,145, 133,166,200,140,210
163,230,163,200,200 trem 145
2 AND 3 iren 126
:rem 137 50140 DATA80,24,165,163,109,21
50 FORFl=200TOlSTEP-10iPOKE542
73,Fl irem 65 50030 DATA173,208,192,145,163, 0,80,133,163,169 irem 10
60 FORF2=200TOlSTEP-50iFORF3=l 200,173,209,192,145 50150 DATA0,101,164,133,164,16
TO4IPOKE54288,F2iPOKE54287, :rem 161 0,1,145,165,136 trem 200
F3iNEXTF3 irem 47 50040 DATA163,24,173,208,192,1 50160 DATA165,163,145,165,56,1
70 NEXTF2iNEXTF1iFORQ»15TO0STE 05,10,141,208,192:rem 51 65,169,229,167,133
P-.11POKE54296.QiNEXTQ iREM 50050 DATA173,209,192,105,0,14 trem 135
(SPACE]STOP5 SOUND GRADUALL 1,209,192,200,169:rem 55 50170 DATA2,165,170,229,168,5,
Y irem 93 50060 DATA131,145,163,200,140, 2,176,26,169 trem 82
Program 5: Falling Sitar 210,192,160,0,177irem 38 50180 DATA0,136,145,163,200,14
50070 DATA167,168,169,0,32,145 5,163,200,145,163:rem 46
10 FORL»54272TOS4295!POKEL,0iN
,179,32,221,189 trem 235 50190 DATA56,152,101,163,133,4
EXTtPOKE54296,15 irem 16
50080 DATA162,1,172,210,192,18 5,169,0,101,164 irem 209
20 POKE54277,4iPOKE54278,12iRE
9,0,1,240,7 irem 6 50200 DATA133,46,76,103,228,76
M ADSR irem 68
50090 DATA145,163,200,232,76,8 ,28,80,0,0 ,rem 218
30 F2-150iQ-50:REM Q IS STARTI
HG SPEED,{2 SPACES}DECREASE 5,192,238,211,192trem 68
50100 DATA169,44,145,163,200,2
Program 4: Stufferbas
30,167,208,2,230.rem 254 10 INPUT"START ADDRESS"jSA
iran 79
40 FORZ=1TO50[REM NO. OF CYCLE 50110 DATA168,173,211,192,201, irem 152
10,240,3,76,64 :rem 155 20 INPUT"END ADDRESS";EA
S irera 92
45 Fl-INT(100*RND(l))+10iPOKE5 50120 DATA192,136,169,0,145,16 irem 212
4276,23:REMEMBER THIS WAVEF 3,141,211,192,165irem 58 30 H%=SA/256!L3=SA-256*H8iPOKE
ORM? iram 111 50130 DATA163,133,165,165,164, 167,L%iPOKE168,H% trem 143
50 FORT-lTOQiNEXTT i retn 207 133,166,200,140,210 40 H«=EA/256iL%=EA-256*H%iPOKE
60 POKE54273,F1iREM RANDOM FRE trem 145 169,LSiPOKE170,H* .rem 111
Q trem 74 50140 DATA192,24,165, 163, 109,2 50 SYS49152:REM VIC USERS SYS
70 POKE542B7,F2:REH DESCENDING 10,192,133,163,169 (SPACEJ20480 .rern 248
FREQ trem 100 :rem 114
81"! POKE54276,20iQ=Q-1iF2=F2-3i 50150 DATA0,101,164,133,164,16
NEXTZiPOKE54273,30iREM 30 G
0,1,145,165,136 :rem 200
50160 DATA165,163,145,165,56,1
Friendly Alien
65,169,229,167,133 (Article on page 70.)
Program 6: < .lissando
irem 135
10 FORT-54272TO54295iPOKET,0:N 50170 DATA2,165,170,229,168,5, Program 1: Friendly Alien—64
EXTiP0KE54296,15 irem 32 2,176,26,169 :rem 82 Version
50180 DATA0,136,145,163,200,14 6 GOTO20 irem 209
(SPACE)TO BE POKED INTO ENV 5,163,200,145,163:rem 46 7 PRINT"[HOME](BLU]TIME: ";MID
50190 DATA56,152,101,163,133,4 S{TIS,3,2);-in;RIGHTS(TIS,2)
t rem 5
5,169,0,101,164 irem 209 trem 177
50200 DATA133,46,76,123,227,76
,28,192,0,0 irem 15 E IS UPlll(4 SPACES]"iFORI=l
2B5,DtPOKE54292,D irem 99
TO1500iNEXTiGOTO1300irem 106
40 POKE54286,50iPOKE54287,40iR
Program 3: Datastuffer—VIC 10 RETURN trem 65
CIES FOR VOICE 3 irem 127
Version 11 LO=LO-Q2iRETURN irem 159
12 LO=LO-QltRETURN irem 159
50 POKE54276,33tPOKE54283,23tP 10 FORI=20480TO20689:READDtPOK
EI,D:CS=CS+D:NE)CT : rem 191 13 LO=LO+P:RETURN irem 108
14 LO=LO+Q3tRETURN irem 161
15 LO-LO+Q2iRETURN irem 161
16 LO-LO+Q1iRETURN trem 161
17 LO»LO-PiRETURN irem 114
irem 231 50000 DATA169.0,133,163,169,18 18 LO-LO-Q3iRETURN irem 167
70 FORF2-30TOlSTEP-SrPOKE54280 ,133,164,169,80 :rem 223
20 POKE56,48iPOKE52,48tCLR
,F2iREM VOICE 2 FREQUENCIES 50010 DATA141,208,80,169,195,1
trem 23
irem 232 41,209,80,169,0 trem 220 30 POKE532Bl,liPRINT"{CLR}
75 NEXTF2iNEXTFl irem 19 50020 DATA141,211,80,168,145,1 [6 downj(8 spaces]jrvs]
80 POKE54276,32iPOKE54283,32iP 63,230,163,200,200 {blu!***"«friendly alien***
OKE54290,32iREM TURNS VOICE :rem 85 •*fOFF] :rem 1
S OFF trem 140
50030 DATA173,208,80,145, 163,2 35 PRINT"E4 DOWN}[4 RIGHT)
00,173,209,80,145irein 57 (10 SPACES)(BLK]SETTING UP.
50040 DATA163,24,173,208,80,10 irem 218
5,10,141,208,80 :rem 203 36 POKE56334,PEEK{56334)AND254

COMPUTE'S Gazelle September 1985 93

irem 138 OKEB,35:POKECM+B,6:NEXT trem 78
40 NM=12288iFORI=NMT0NM+5UiPO trem 129 1299 REMi ***FLUBUG COLLISION
KEI,PEEK(1+40960):NEXT 530 FORB=SC+998TOSC+960STEP-li irem 226
irem 199 POKEB.35tP0KECM+B,6tNEXT 1300 POKELO,37iPOKELO+Q2,3BtPO
42 FORI=0TO7iPOKENM+8*59+1,PEE irem 134 KELO+CM,3iPOKELO+CM+Q2,3
K(53248+81*B+I)iNEXTiPOKENM 535 FORB^SC+960TOSC+Q2STEP-Q2: irem 87
+8*59+3,255 ,reni 0 POKER,35iPOKECM+B,6iNEXT 1310 POKESL,150iFORL=lTO5:POKE
44 FORI=0TO7iPOKENM+8*61+I,PEE irem 182 WF,17tP0KESH,25tF0RX=lTO3
K(53248+8*77+I):NEXT 600 REMi "'PLACE FLUBUGS 0iNEXTiPOKEWF,16 trem 56
irem 219 :rem 175 1320 POKEWF,33iFORX=lTO50:NEXT
48 POKE1,PEEK(1)OR4!POKE56334, 605 FORI=1TO9*A irem 128 i POKESL,0:FORX=1TO200iNEX
PEEK(56334)ORliCK=0trem 144 610 GOSUB4000 trem 219 TiNEXT:POKEWF,32 irem 149
50 FORI=NM+272TONM+311tREADAiC 612 IFPEEK(X)=35THEN610trem 97 1325 GOTO2000 irem 198
K-CK+AiPOKEI,AtNEXTtrem 112 irem 219 1400 POKELO,37iPOKELO+02,38iPO
KENM+I,AtNEXT irem 6 700 REMi ***PLACE COLAtrem 183 trem 90
69 FORI-0TO7tREADA:CK=CK+AiPOK 705 FORI=1T01S*A trem 174 1410 POKESL,150iFORL=1TO4iPOKE
ENM+8*60+I,AiNEXT irem 205 710 GOSUB4000 :rem 220 WF,17iPOKESH,15:FORX=1TO1
70 IFCK=15391THEN100 irem 132 720 IFPEEK(X)=35ORPEEK(X)=420R 5iNEXTtPOKEWF,16 irem 59
K LINES B070-8093"1'iEND 7 25 POKEX,36:POKECM+X,2:NEXT irem 106
irem 162 irem 13 1415 POKELO,32tPOKELO+02,32iPO
100 X-RND(-TI)iPOKE532B0,0iPOK 800 REMi ***PLACE CANDY irem 8 KELO+CM,1:POKELO+CM+Q2,1
E53281.0 trem 1B0 803 C=2iFORI-1TO20iC-C+1iIFC>7 irem 79
101 print-IclrHdownHgrn) THENC=2 irem 229 1416 AA-INT(RND(l)*8)+ltGOTO10
[rvs)guide the little alie 810 GOSUB4000 irem 221 50 :rem 36
n with a joystick 820 IFPEEK(X)<>32ORPEEK(X+1)<> 1499 REMt ***SELECT & MOVE FLU
\2 spaces 5 in port 2"; 32ORPEEK(X-l)<>320RPEEK(X+ BUG :rem 85
irem 243 Q2)<>32THEN810 irem 240 1500 D=INT(RND(P)*A)+Pirem 238
CANDY. irem 55 trem 80 )*8)+PiFT=F(DJ irem 133
135 PRINTiPRINT"(RVS){RED]THEN 825 POKEX,34tPOKECH>X,CtNEXT 1515 ONXGOSUB11,12,13,14,15,16
GUIDE HIM TO THE PHONE AN irem 29 ,17,IB :rem 161
D THEN TO THE SPACESHIP. B30 RP=20iLO=SC+918tTIS="00000 1634 F(D)-LO irem 129
irem 10 0":TUS="000159" irem 164 1635 LO-LTlIFPEEK{F(D))<>H2AND


OUT POR THE CANS OF COLA. 900 IFRP=.THEN3000 trem 39 ))<>38THENF{D)=FT irem 71
"; irem 22 920 POKELO,37iPOKELO+02,38iPOK 1700 POKEFT.H2 irem 55


LERGICj irem 101 922 G0SUB7 irem 84 ,H3iGOTO13ia irem 181
ND CAN'T BE GUIDED.:rem 39 ,17iGOTO1500 trem 98 IGOTO935 irem 244
168 PRINTiPRINT"{RVS)(CYN)lF H 935 POKEWF.16 trerri 0 2000 POKEVL,.iPOKESH,. trem 75
irem 140 irem 210 E CAUGHT THE FLU FROM THE
(2 SPACES}OUT OF TIME, HE 7,18,16,10,13,12,14 NOT GO HOME." :rem 122
[SPACEjWILL GET THE FLU AN trem 145 2002 GOTO2040 irem 195
170 PRINT"(7 RIGHT)[RVS)(DOWN) trem 155 [3 DOWnHBLK){15 SPACES)
i rein 68 t rem 16 2030 PRINT-{DOWN) [11 SPACES)1";
[OFF]" irern 41 1102 IFTL=HlORTL=H3ORTL=H50RBL trem 148
irem 81 IGOTO900 irem 192 [13 SPACESfSKILL LEVEL"A
503 A=VAL{A$)iIFA<1ORA>5THEN50 1103 IFTL-H2ANDBL-H2THEN900 trem 1
0 Irem 63 irem 139 2040 PRINT-U DOWNJ(3 RIGHT)
505 SD-1024 irem 52 1110 IFTL=H7ORBL=H7THEN1300 [12 SPACES)[RVS]PLAY AGAI
510 CM=54272tPRINT"[CLR)"iPOKE irem 140 N?" trem 247
53280,14iPOKE53 281,liP5=15 1115 IFTL=HBORBL=HBTHEN3500 2045 POKE53272.21 irem 140
i rein 44 irem 151 2050 GETA5iIPAS=""THEN2050
511 O=0iHl-liH2=32iH3=-3tH4=34t 1120 IFTL=H6ORBL=H6THEN1400 irem 17 7
H5=35 iH6=36 :H7=>42 :H8=61 :H9 irem 140 2055 IFAS»"Y"THENRUN100irem 79
■2 i P6=45iP7-46:PB-47 1130 IFTL=H4ORBL=H4THENRP=RP-1 2060 PRINT"[CLR)":END irem 61
irem 31 iGOTO1200 irem 217 2999 REMt ***BUILD SPACEPHONE
512 VL=54296tSL=54272iSH=54273 1135 IFTL-P6ORTL-P7ORTL-P8ORBL irem 207
:WF-54276iQl=39102=40iQ3=4 =P8THEN3100 trem 174 3000 Q=SC+a0tR-SC+160tGOSU!!600
1iQ4=42iiP1-56320iP-1 1140 GOTO900 irem 152 0iGOSUB7iPOKELO,3 2iPOKELO
t rem 125 1199 REMi ""CANDY PICKUP +Q2,32iLO"SC+918 irem 89
515 POKE53272,(PEEK(53272)AND2 irem 171 3002 PRINT"{HOME)[2 DOWN)
40)+12 t POKESL+5,17:POKESL+ 1200 POKELO,37iPOKELO+Q2,38iPO [RIGHT)ECYNj+,[2 SPACES)"
6,241 irem 226 KELO+CM,4iPOKELO+CM+Q2,4 iPRINT"fRIGHT)-.(YEL)/ ":
519 REMi ***HUILD BORDER :rem 88 RP-20iGOTO900 irem lai
irem 105 1210 POKESH,150iPOKEWF,33iFORL 3099 REMi ***RING SPACEPHONE
520 FORB-5C+Q2TOSC+80!POKES,35 =1TO25iNEXT irem 70 irem 135
iPOKECM+B,6iNEXT irem 141 1220 POKESH,200iFORL-1TO25iNEX 3100 LO-SC+84iPOKEDD,37iPOKELO

94 COMPUTE'S Gazorre September 1985

+Q2,3B:POKEL0+CM,4iPOKELO 36,66,66 irem 125 165 PRINT"[DOWN)[BLKjERVSllF H
+CM+Q2.4 irem 152 80B0 DATA,,31,127,127,255,255, E TOUCHES A FLU[3 SPACES)B
3110 POKEWF,17iFORL=lTO3tF0RM= 25 5,,,248,240,224,192,12B UG, OR IF YOU RUN OUTOF TI
1TO50IPOKESH,150 t FORN=1TO ,,254,253,246,240,224 ME,"i trem 206
13iNEXT irem 221 trem 202 167 PRINT" HE WILL GET
3120 POKESH,0iNEXTiGOSUB7iFORM 8065 DATA192,128,,,,128,64,32, {2 SPACESjTHE FLU AND CAN'
-!TO1000tNEXTiGOSUB7iNEXT 18,9,6,63,33,63,63,43,53, T GO{2 SPACESlHOME.
iPOKEWF,16 irem 16 235,63 item 243 irem 199
3399 REMi •••BUILD SPACESHIP 8090 DATA7,31,63,127,127,25S,2 169 print"(down)£blu]{rvs)you"
55,255,255,255,255,127,12 VE 1 MIN. 30 SEC. :rem 255
:rem 132
3400 Q=SC+200iR=SC+440iGOSUB7t 7,63,31,7 item 151 500 PRINT"{DOWN)JPUR)tRVS)ENTE
GOSUB6000IGOSUB7 ! rein 44 8092 DATA224,248,252,254,254,2 R SKILL LEVEL 1-5{OFF)
3401 PRINTh{HOMEH2 DOWNf 55,255,255,255,255,255,25 :rem 157
[RIGHT) {4 SPACEST'iPRINT" 4,254,252,248,224 item 51 502 GETASiIFAS=""THEN502

{RIGHT)f4 SPACES)"irem 19 8093 DATA,,,255,255,255,, :rem ai

3402 LO-SC+918tPOKELO,37:POKEL irem 246 503 A-VAL(A?)iIFA<1ORA>5THEN50
O+Q2,38 IPOKELO+CM.4iPOKEL 0 irem 63
Program 2: Friendly Alien—VIC
O+CM+Q2,4 :rem 211 505 SC-4'(PEEK(36866)AND128)+6
3406 GOSUB7:GOSUB3600:GOSUB7 Version
irem 248 See instructions in article before typing. irem 10
3408 PRINT"(7 DOWN)"SPC(20)" 6 GOTO20 Irem 209 510 CM=>37888+'t*(PEEK(36866)AND
[CYN)j irem 172 7 PRINT-[HOME)[BLU}TIMEi ";MID 128 ) - SC : P RI NT " {CLR} "
3410 GOSUB7iGOSUB3600iGOSUB7 S(TIS,3,2);-i";RIGHTS(TIS,2) : rem 161
stern 24 3 trem 177 515 POKE36869,PEEK(36869)AND24
3425 PR1NT"{