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The Peripheral Connection: Enhancing Your 64

March 1985 m
Issue 21, Vol. 3, No. 3
02220 S3.50 Canada


Of The Future '

What new peripherals .A ■

we be using in the next j^ifi imm

decade? A look at some

new devices on the way
and some already here.
In This Issi Peripheral Ports
Computing For Families An in-depth look at
communication with your
Machine Language For
computer. For the 64, VIC,
Beginners: Memory
Plus/4, and 16.
Disk Handler

Software Reviews

And More

Heat Seeker
Heat seekers are faster than
jets, and you can't shake
them—but if you're good
enough, you can eliminate
their land base. An
action/strategy game for the
VIC and 64.

4 '

Disk Directory Sort

A short, useful utility that alphabetically sorts your disk
directories. For the 64, VIC, Plus/4, and 16.

DISTRIBUTORS: H rg Brothera/NSMC-227-6239 ■.FrtscKfiectr 512-657-7741

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fii ?/Utah 801-566-4117 Ihern Micro DtetributOre/TX 214-258-6636

Compare these specs before you buy...



ACTUAL PRINT MPS 801 MPS 802 MPS 803 VIC1525 VIC1526

PRINT SPEED (CPS) 105 50 60 60 50 60




m 11


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Same as. above except:
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■ LQ is available
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For Commodore owners, the latest
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COMPUTERS Commodore Collection, Volume I
Twenty-eight original programs for the VIC and 64
The Commodore Collection, an anthology of 28 previously
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continues the COMPUTE! tradition of practical programs in COMPUTE! 's
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tions to make your Commodore computer an exciting part
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COMPUTEE's Commodore Collection, Volume 2

Programs for the VIC and 64
Exciting games, sophisticated applications, versatile educa
tional routines, and helpful programming aids for the VIC-20
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PUTEf's Commodore Collection series. Included are some of
the best articles and programs from recent issues of COM
PUTE! and COMPUTERS Gazette, as well as many programs
published here for the first time. Designed for Commodore
computer users of all levels, it's a book that every VIC or 64
owner will want to have.

$12.95 ISBN 0-942386-70-1

To charge your order, call toll free 800-334-0866 or send in this

coupon with your payment to COMPUTE! Books, P.O. Box 5406,
Greensboro, NC 27403.
Please add $2.00 shipping and handling per copy ordered,

□ Payment enclosed (check or money order)

D Charge: a Visa D MasterCard a American Express
copies of COMPUTE'S
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2 COMPUTE'S GamtO March 19B5

COMPUTE! Books brings you the companion volume to the best
seller, Machine Language for Beginners, about
which the critics have said:
"If you know BASIC and want to Jearn machine language, this is the
place to start .... Building on your experience as a BASIC programmer,
Manafield very gently takes you through the fundamentals of machine
language."—Whole Earth Software Catalog

"Understandable"—The New York Times

"Presents the machine language novice with a very good tutorial in

simple, understandable terms."—Antic

"I highly recommend Machine Language for Beginners as your first in

troduction to the world of machine language."—Commodore Power/Play

The Second Book of Machine Language for the

Commodore 64, VIC-20, Apple, Atari, and PET/CBM
The Second Book of Machine Language picks up where Machine Language
for Beginners left off. This new book contains one of the most powerful ma
Release chine language assemblers currently available. The LADS assembler is a full-
featured, label-based programming language which can greatly assist you
in writing machine language programs quickly and easily.
Book It's also a clear, detailed tutorial on how large, complex machine language
programs can be constructed out of manageable subprograms.
Of There are powerful computer languages and there is good documentation,
Machine but rarely has a sophisticated language been so completely documented

Language as it is in this book.'When you finish with this book, you'll not only t\ove a
deeper understanding of machine language—you'll also have one of the
most powerful machine language assemblers available. And since every
thing is thoroughly explained, you can even add custom features to the
assembler to create a custom language that does just what you want it to
(the book shows you precisely how to modify the assembler).

For Commodore 64, Apple (II, II+ , He, and lie. DOS 3.3). VIC-20 (8K RAM
15% Discount expansion required), Atari (including XL, 40K minimum), and PET/CBM (Up
Buy both books for grade and 4.0 BASIC). Disk drive recommended.

$25.00 and save IHE MDSDIlk

$4.90! That's 15% LADS, the assembler used in The Second Book of Machine language, is available on disk lor only
$12.95 This is a great accompaniment to the book, saving you hours of typing time by providing
off the retail price! the complete source and object modules for all versions of the assembler. And LADS disks are spe-
citlc to your Apple. Atari, or Commodore computers.
Offer Expires March 15, 1985

To Order: Call Toll Free 800-334-0868 (In NC 919-275-9809) or mall fhis coupon with your pay
ment to COMPUTE! Books, P.O. Box 5406, Greensboro. NC 27403. Offer Expires March 15, 1985
The Second Book of Machine Language, $14.95 1 Book for S 14.95
Machine Language for Beginners. $14.95 2 Books for S25.00
LADS Disk (Apple) $IJ. 95 LADS Disk for S12,95
LADSDisk(Atari) $12.95
NC residents add
LADSDisk(Commodore). $12.95
4.5% sales tax
D Payment Enclosed (check or money order)
Shipping and handling
a Charge D MasterCard D Visa a American Express
($2.00 per book
Acct. No $1.00 per disk)
Signature. Total Paid

Name All orders must Oe pieca-a

Pleose aBow A-t weeks foe deliv

City _

Stale Zip COMPUTE! PublicafonsJncgft

BIH |«ga gMgg ^^m. |^_ ^^_ ^^_ ^__ ^^_
^^ ^^ ^^ ^^" ^^ ^^» ^^m ^^m ^h ^^B ^Bfl a^m M
How do you
How many plates can moonwalk, snake What's the capital
the Juggler juggle? and tut? of Alaska?
V".'1-'''''' 7 ^^


TJ. Tt
■Vi * i


w *¥% 1 1;


Chinese Juggler Break Street Roll Call USA
rhat depends on you. You are 'ou'll soon become a break Do you know? Get ready to
#the Juggler and your act is the rdancing expert with our latest outwit your family and
/delicate art of plate spinning. bestseller, Break Street. Now friends with Roll Call USA's
Yours will be a tough act to follow that combination of gymnastics, fun facts on states,capitals and
if you succeed in matching colors mime, funk, and just plain show-off, major industries.
and spinning plates on all 8 poles leaves the sidewalks and comes Roll Call USA combines history
at the same time. home to your Commodore 64. and geography facts into a colorful
As your skill increases, so does Individual play guides you question and answer game that
the pace and the challenge of the through the footwork of moonwalk, challenges your knowledge of the
game. You must act with speed and backspin, windmill, tut, and the 50 states, their capitals, major
precision or the curtain will come rest of those sidewalk moves. Slow industries and statehood dates,
down and your act will be all motion and lively musical accom Feel confident? Drill yourself
washed upl paniment help you perform each with a Flash Test. The game is
Chinese Juggler is a refreshing move stBp by step. String together speeded up, so think fast. Your
departure from the usual shoot- a whole series of moves and answers are tallied up at the end
em-ups and strategy games. It's record them for future replay. for a final score.
fun, fast-paced and will delight Catch the beat of the street with Roll Call USA, a game of USA
players of any age. For Commodore Break Street. For individual or team trivia for team or individual play.
64. New from Creative Software. play. New from Creative Software. For Commodore 64. New from
Creative Software.

$24.95 $24.95 $14.95

Call and order today! Use your Visa,
The answers are at MasterCard or personal check. Toll
your finger tips. Free 1-800-331-7990 (outside
California), 1-800-448-1001
(in California), or 1-408-745-1655.
"Commodore 64" is a
completely satisfied,return within
trademark of Commodore Electronics, Lid 10 days for full refund.

230 East Caribbean Drive, Sunnyvale, CA 94089 c 1984 Creative Software
March 1985 Vol. 3, No. 3

The Peripheral Connection: Enhancing Your 64 Selby Bateman 25 64

Peripherals 01 The Future Sharon Darling 30 *
Commodore Peripheral Ports Ottis R. Cowper 40 V/64/ * 4/16
Inside View: David Crane, The Designer Behind Ghostbusters Kathy Yakal 50 •

Microsoft Multiplan Harvey B. Herman 80 64

Also Worth Noting 84 64

Heat Seeker Jell Wolverton 56 V/64

Digger Ron Long 60 V/64

Computing For Families: "Easy-Play" Computer Peripherals For The Family Fred D'lgnazio .... 64
Alpha Anxiety Craig Howarth 71 V/64
AVAIL Tom Prendergast 74 V/64/ 14/16

BASIC Magic: Computer Math For Beginners Michael S. Tomczyk 96 V/64/: 4/16
Machine Language For Beginners: Memory Richard Mansfield 103 V/64
Hints & Tips: Abbreviated Printer Codes John Crookshank 105 V/64
Power BASIC: Quick Character Transfer Fabio Coronet 109 V/64/ 14/16
Baker's Dozen: Part 3 Lawrence Cotton 111 64
Disk Directory Sort N. A. Marshall 113 V/64/ 14/16
Disk Handler 8. R. Carson 114 V/64

The Editor's Notes Robert Lock 6

Gazette Feedback Editors And Readers 10
User Group Update 70
Horizons Charles Brannon 107
News & Products 117

Bug-Swatter: Modifications And Corrections 120

How To Type In COMPUTEI's Gazette Programs 121
MLX 122 V/64

Product Mart 147

Advertisers Index 160

General, V VIC-20, 64=Commodore 64, +4=Plus/4, 16 = Commodore 16.

COMPUTE!1) GAZSTTEU ppuWlshi-J nwnthiyy hy
y COMPUTE! Publication),, Inc.,, Poll Ofiicc- Bern 541)6, Greensboro,, NC 27403 USA Phono
hono ((ln°) 173-9809, 6dlior!«J office) are
located at 32-1
321 Weil
Wl W&utover
W&tove Avtmuo,
Ao Crwnsboro,
Cb N"C 27408.
27408 Domestic
Dti suhscripiions:
hii u Issues,
I $21 Bend
$2-1. Bd subscription
b orders
d or change
h g "II addrcu
dd [P.O, I'orm 3579) tn
Circulation Pi'jit,, COMPUTE-'1* GAZETTE, I'.O Ho* %l, rjmnnydali', NY 11737. Second class applkjuon
app pending
pen o, NC
at Grucnsbnro, NC 274
03 amii Iddftlonil
ddftll malUnitoffices
Entire contents copyright 6198) !■;■ COMPUTEI PubHnUOnt. Inc. All rlihti ts arved, ISSN 0737-3716.
COMPuTEl Publluiloni, Ine, <)nr nl \\w Alit.11'litill^hlii^ Comp^nlrs! Alif I' i^HihJn^ Pniddtnt Kob^rt G. Burton; vciiud "I the Ampnc,u: New1 YorV. Maw Vurk

Gazette Editor Lance Elko contrib one better than many of its coverage. The "News & Prod
utes an editorial this month. competitors. It's powered by four ucts" section will undergo a
AA alkaline batteries, has non similar change. Also, next
Robert Lock, Editor In Chief
volatile memory (you don't month is the final appearance of
have to save files with storage one of our regular features,
Anticipation is high on the eve devices—they stay in the ma "Inside View." However, we
of the Winter Consumer Elec chine), is programmable, and will continue to print relevant
tronics Show. The home com contains an LCD display with and interesting interviews as ap
puter industry, mired in a sales 80 columns and 16 lines. It con propriate for feature articles.
slump for the past several tains seven built-in programs: a Also in the works are a va
months, needs a boost, and this word processor, file manager, riety of outstanding programs
CES promises to reveal the di spreadsheet, scheduler (with and articles which you won't
rection of the market for the programmable alarm), calcu want to miss: "MetaBASIC,"
months ahead. There will surely lator, memo pad, and address a powerful utility that adds
be surprises. Next month, we'll book. And all are integrated. 32 commands to BASIC; "Pro-
have a first-hand report on the A 300-baud, auto-answer, BASIC," which takes the pain
show. auto-dial modem is built in, and out of programming sound and
With the introduction of RS-232, Centronics parallel, and sprites, plus much more; some
new Commodore computers in Commodore serial ports are in interesting telecommunications
1985, it will be interesting to see cluded. Commodore BASIC 3.6 items; excellent tutorials and
how they're marketed. Commo (a slightly enhanced version of programs on sorts and program
dore recently hired a new vice- the BASIC in the Plus/4 and crunching; and some of the best
president of marketing, Frank 16) and a machine language games we've ever offered. Plus
Leonardi, an ex-Apple market monitor are resident. We'll have a few surprises. See you next
ing strategist. a hands-on report next issue. month.
We can look forward to at
Lance Elko
least three new machines from Looking Ahead
Commodore: the Amiga Lor Editor
In the months ahead, we're
raine {probably fall or winter), planning some changes in the
the C-128, and the surprise LCD GAZETTE. Beginning with the
lap {or "notebook") computer. April issue, we'll take a different
The latter two are expected to approach in the "Reviews" sec
be introduced at CES. Unlike tion. We'll review more prod
Commodore's past ventures ucts, but, so as not to sacrifice
with new computers, the lap space, in shorter and tighter
computer (officially nameless at
this writing) was not subject to
premature announcements and
conjecture. With 32K usable
RAM, the lap computer goes

6 COMPUTE'S Gazette March 1985

Meet MasterTypeyliew

-S3 . |

For agas Bio adult js., Forages 7 to aduli

Apple lie (128K), lit Apple II-.Me. He

dows, a database and simple for: Apple II family, Commo

1. Introducing New 2. Introducing Master-
Type's Classic Software correction commands make dore 64.
Improved MasterType"
Library. These three new writing efficiently a breeze. MasterType's" Filer. It's
that makes it even more
Color highlighting and multi the only lisi manager and
fun to be an expert typist MasterType programs —
ple typefaces challenge kids database for kids and adults
even faster. plus New Improved
MasterType — are the to write creatively. Available that employs functional color
We've added on-screen fin
basics. You can't begin to for: Apple llc/lle (128K), and sound. This powerful
ger positioning and sentence
Commodore 64, IBM PC/PCjr. program organizes, sorts and
practice. Now the #1 best- get the most from your
home computer without MasterType's"1 Figures + prints addresses, insurance
selling educational program
Formulas."1 A "computing records, household invento
in America produces all the them.
MasterType's'" Writing encyclopedia" of weights and ries and all sorts of lists.
results of a traditional touch
Wizard."1 This easy-to-use, measures for kids and adults. Available for: Apple II family,
typing course, and it's fun,
full-function word processor Converts currencies, adapts Atari,Commodore 64, IBM
fast-paced and entertaining.
and "writing teaching tool" recipes, translates metric PC/PCjr.
Available for: Apple II family,
Macintosh, Commodore 64, helps the whole family write measures to American stan
Atari, IBM PC/PCjr. more effectively. Dual win dards and more. Available

IIV «#ttff
© Scarborough Systems, Inc., 25 N. Broadway, Tarrylown, New York 10591
Jules E. Thompson, Inc.
COMPUTE! "PublicationsJnc. National and Canadian Sales Representatives
1290 Howard Avenue, Suite 303
One of the /iSC Publishing ComponuK
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Address all advertising materials to:
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COMPUTE! Books Division; Gail Cowper, Production Editor; Ottis R. Colorado 303-595-9299
Cowper, Technical Editor; Charles Brannon, Program Editor; Selby
Batenun, Features Editor COMPUTEI Publications, Inc., publishes
Gregg Kelzer, |. Blake Lambert (Books); |ohn Krause, George Miller,
Philip Nelson (Technical); Kathy Yakal, Feature Writer; Sharon Corporate Office:
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Administrative Staff
Executive Assistant Debi Nash ut Ln|I10
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Assistant Anita Roop <r cimimiDi
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Editors And Readers

Do you have a question 01 3 problem? Have pressed, GOSUB to the appropriate routine. If not,
you discovered something fh^f <~ould <elp other i/nt/ forget about launching the laser until the next
VIC-20 and Commodore 64 us*1": Do you have time through the loop. Once you've launched the la
a comment about something you'vp «-eact in ser, you want it to continue moving, which is the
compute's gazette? Wp want to he?«- frorn you reason for the laser flag. Whether or not the button
Write to Gazette Feedbark, compute's gazette, was down, you next PEEK the joystick to see if the
P.O. Box 5406, Greensboro, NC 27403. planer wants to move, and update the ship's po
sition. Third, you check the jiffy clock, the variable
U or 17$, to sec how much time has gone by. If a
One Action At A Time second (or whatever time period you've chosen) has
passed, play the next note of the song. Next move
How can you make morp than one thing happen
the laser sprite, if the flag is set, and go back. The
on the screen at one time—for example, a
program loops around and around, checking the joy
joystick-controlled sprite a laser sprite triggered
stick twice, the time, and a variable, taking any
by the fire button, and background music, all at
necessary actions.
the same time?
Walter R. Klis
The computer works quickly, so the individual
actions seem to be coordinated, all happening
Computer games might seem to do many things at simultaneously.
once, but they're actually doing only one thing ai a To convert the above outline into a playable
time. Computers follow instructions sequentially, game, you would need a few more subroutines. One
one after another. A system that does several dif would check the collision register, in case the laser
ferent things at once is possible, but you would need has hit something. Another would erase the sprite
more than one computer or microprocessor (each and unset the flag as soon as the laser reaches the
operating sequentially). top of the screen. And, of course, you'd have to
To give your program the appearance of translate the outline into BASIC.
simultaneous action, you need to plan ahead. Sepa There's another technique which is even closer
rate the actions into subroutines. IF-THEN can de to simultaneous action. But it requires an intermedi
cide whether oi not you want to COSUB to the ate to advanced knowledge of machine language
appropriate routine. U might help to write, in plain (ML). Sixty times a second, the computer stops what
English, the conditions and their consequences. For it's doing and takes some time to redraw the image
example on the screen. The main program is being constantly
IF (button is pressed) rHEN (launch lasei and interrupted. Using a wedge, you can divert the
set lasn flag) interrupt to your own Ml program which could
IF (joystick move) THEN (move ship sprite) play music, move sprites, or whatever you choose.
IF (one second has passed) THEN 'play another Such interrupt-driven routines are sometimes diffi
note of the song) cult to implement, but can be very effective.
IF (laser flag is set) T'UEN (mow laser sprite
again} Breaking And Entering
REPEA1 (tht- above loop I'd like to know if there is a terminal program
First, you check for the joystick button. If it's that would allow someone calling my computer
10 COMPUTE'S Gazette March 1935
The Evelyn Wood Dynamic Reader™
Now, the world's most renowned
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Learning to read faster isn't good enough. With
the Evelyn Wood Dynamic Reader, you'll (earn
to read three to ten times faster-but with
better comprehension and retention.
OnlyTimeworks brings this highly
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drills and exercises at your own comfortable pace, automatically
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If it takes you more than Reading Dynamics

is not a skimming or

30 seconds to read this ad, "key word" association

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you need Evelyn Wood. that registers every word,
every idea, every shade
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Reading dynamically is more enjoyable than reading the old
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individual bits and pieces of
information and putting them
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you will see total concepts.
Reading dynamically is like
living in the material.
The Evelyn Wood Dynamic
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exercises and tools you need to
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You learn the essential techniques of Dynamic Reading in your
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OnlyTimeworks offers the Evelyn Wood Dynamic Reader, Now
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Available for Commodore 64* IBM* Apple* Atari?
Timeworks Programs:
w Data Manager 2 ;■. Word Writer Swiftax
3 Money Manager;;: Electronic Checkbook
■ Business System Series % Dungeons of
Algebra Dragons m Spellbound ■ Cave of the
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Reading Dynamics, inc. and Timewoffcs. inc. All ngtits reserved. "Hegrsiered trademarks tf
Commodore Comculsr Systems International Business Machines C«p. Apjjlo Comrjuloi. Inc. Alan. Inc
to take control of it—being able to catalog the We encourage GAZliTTE DISK buyers to make
disk in my drive, for example. backup copies of their disks. Although our disks are
Timothy Yates write-protected, they're not copy-protected. You can
save any BASIC program to another disk with the
If you think oilier modem users might call your usual SAVE "filename",8. If you want to save a
computer and get information about what's on your machine language program (such as "Sprite Magic"),
disk, don't worry. If the computer is turned off, no you'll need a special utility program. We've pub
one can break into i/our computer (unless they break lished several such utilities: Program 4, "Machine
into your house first). Language For Beginners," (December 1984
On the other hand, if you do want to upload GAZETTE); "File Copier" (April 1984 GAZETTE);
your directory (to a friend, for example), there are a "Single Drive Copy" (September 1983 GAZETTE);
couple of ways to do so. It's unlikely, but your and "Unicopy" in the October issue of our sister
terminal program may allow you to send a directory magazine, COMPUTE!. Vow can also use MIX to copy
to your friend—check the documentation to be sure. ML programs. You might want to make a separate
Or you can create a program file which contains the copy of any programs which create new files (such
current directory. Before you go on-line, toad the as "Sprite Magic") so you won't have to continually
directory (L0AD"$",8) and then save it back to the swap disks.
disk under another name. Then you can upload the
file (which contains the directory information) to Quashed Question Marks
your friend. In either case, you, not your friend,
Is there any way to INPUT information without
would be controlling the computer.
getting those stupid question marks? I tried using
Also, many bulletin board systems are designed GET statements and adding them together, but
to allow remote users access to the disk directory of you can't see the cursor.
the host system. The system operator (sysop) usuaih/ Coleman Nee
controls which files can be accessed by users. Again,
GET is one of the ways to avoid seeing question
the users don't actually take control, rather they are
marks, as you've noted. The advantage to GET is
permitted to read the directory. Bulletin board sys
tems are specialized terminal programs which allow that it accepts all characters, including commas and
colons, which aren't normally allowed in INPUT
the caller to save or load files and messages to or
statements. And it is possible to make the cursor
from the host disk. Once you connect to these sys
blink during a GET statement.
tems, you typically select from several options and
But there's a better ivay to turn off the question
the bulletin board program reacts by accessing the
mark. Close!}/ related to INPUT, the INPUT* com
mand allows you to retrieve information from a pre
viously opened file or device. And it doesn't print
Write-Protected gazette disks question marks.
I ordered your August 1984 gazette disk, which Since the keyboard is device zero, you can open
featured "Sprite Magic." The disk is write- a file to the keyboard and use INPUTS:
protected, so I can't save any of my pictures. 10 OPEN1,0: INI'UT#I,A$: PRINT AS: CLOSE1

Please tell me how I'll be able to save things It won't accept null input (typing RETURN),
with "Sprite Magic." nor will it accept spaces by themselves. You can in
Jason Miller clude spaces between words. Like INPUT, it will
read anything up to a comma or colon, but (unlike
Insert another disk in the drive before responding to
INPUT) won't give you back an 7EXTRA IGNORED
the final prompts to save in "Sprite Magic." By the
same token, insert the disk with sprite data if you
wish to load previously saved sprite data back into
MLX Upgrades
Sprite Magic.
The MLX program has been a great help in typ
From May through She first disks of August
ing machine language programs. When version
there was a notch in the GAZETTE DlSKs. Users
2.02 came out, I typed it into my 64 and it ran
could read from and write to the disk. We began to
fine until I tried to save a program to tape. It
write-protect (no write notch on the disk) GAZETTE
kept saying "Error On Save. Try Again." I com
disks with the later versions of the August disk.
pared an older version to the new one and found
This ti'its done in the interest of safety. "Disk
a new line 766, with K = E+1. Does this "+1"
Purge," the first program on the menu of the
serve some purpose I don't know about?
August disk, deletes disk files. Some disk subscribers
Diane D. Junes
received their disks and ran the program without
reading the article, deleting programs from the Between December 1983 and December 1984, the
GAZETTE DISK. gazette has published four versions of MLX (plus
12 COMPUTE!! Gazelle March 1985
Fleet System T.
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Up till now, you'd have to spend a mini You can even add over 15,000' 'custom'h out of the most heavy duty typing tasks,
mum of about S70 to get a good word words to the built-in 70,000 word dictio There's Built-in 80 Column Display — so
processor for your Commodore 64™. nary. And at a suggested retail price of what you see is what you get, Horizontal
And if you added a small, separate spell 179.95, Fleet -System 2 really spells Scrolling During Typing, F.asy Correction
checking program, you'd be out well V-A-L- U-B, and 70,000 other words too! and Movement of Text, Page Numbering,
ovcrS 100! Fleet System 2 helps people of all ages Centering, Indeming, Headers and Foot
Now there's Fleet System 2! It's two to learn to spell correctly and write heller ers, Math Functions, Search and Replace,
powerful programs in one, and it's per too. It's the ONLY full featured word Mail Merge, BUILT IN 70,000 word
fect for book reports, term papers or full processor that provides you with helpful SPELL CHECKING and much, much
office use. writing and vocabulary feedback such as: more!
Fleer System 2 combines the EASIEST the total number of words in your docu Askfor Flee! System 2,
and most POWERFUL word processor ment, the number of times each word Exceptionally Easy. Packed
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APSI Professional Software, Inc., 51 Fremont Street, Needham, MA 02194 (617) 444-5224 Telex: 951579
one which ran once in compute! Magazine). Ver venlories, etc. Instead of SAVE, you use OPEN,
sion 1.00 (December '83 only) had three lines which PR1NT#, and CLOSE to write to the file. To read it,
were too long to enter into a 64 without abbrevi you must OPEN, INPUTS or GET#, and CLOSE.
ations. MIX 1.01, not much different from the orig Information in such files is accessed sequentially,
inal version (except for splitting the long lines in one item after the other, starting from the first entry
half), ran in the first half of 1984. in the file. So to get to item number 319, you xoould
To save ML programs, you must specify the have to read through the 318 prior entries.
starting address and the ending address (plus one). Relative files (REL) are also used to store infor
The first two versions of MIX did not add one to mation. They're harder to work with, but can save a
the ending address, resulting in problems with some lot of time when you're working with many files.
programs like "BASIC Aid." That's why line 766 Such files are accessed with the OPEN command,
was added. but the data records are numbered, so before you
MIX version 2.00, in the March issue of read in the data, you have to position a pointer.
COMPUTE! (our sister magazine) fixed the ending ad This allows you to home in on the desired record.
dress problem, but did not save the first byte of the To reach record number 319, you just set the
program. Version two also added a numeric keypad pointer to 319 and the disk drive finds it right away
option and a disk save-with-replace. (rather than having to search through all of the pre
Versions 2.01 (first in the July GAZETTE) and vious records). Relative files are faster than sequen
2.02 (November) are essentially the same. Both cor tial files for individual records and do not require
rectly save the beginning and ending address, both much of the computer's memory, as the entire file is
have a numeric keypad, and both scratch-then-save not read into memory. An unexpanded VIC with
(rather than use error-prone save-with-replace). The 3.5K of memory can manage up to 163K of infor
only difference is a slight change in line 300, to re mation using relative files.
move the vestiges of sprite graphics from the orig USR files have a very specialized purpose and
inal MLX. Versions 2.01 or 2.02 are reliable, and we you'll rarely see them in use. You can OPEN and
recommend you use one of them rather than the write to them as if they were sequential files
earlier versions. (replacing the S for sequential with a U for user).
And since the Validate command scratches random
files, some programmers will create dummy USR
Disk Files
files to protect data written directly to disk. There's
What's the difference between disk files like
also a machine language technique for writing DOS
programs into USR files.
Bob Ideker
A deleted file (DEL) is one which no longer ex
The 1541 Disk Operating System (DOS) provides for ists in the directory and has no blocks reserved for
five types of disk files: PRoGram Files, SEQuential it in the BAM. When you scratch a program or file
Files, USeR Files, RELative Files, and DELeted from the disk, it is not actually erased. The direc
Files. tory entry is marked as a deleted file and the BAM
When you save a program, your computer has is updated, to de-allocate the space formerly used by
to read through program memory and send infor the program. The file still exists on the disk—at
mation through the cable to the disk drive. The least until you write other information to the blocks
drive could put the program anywhere on the disk, occupied bi/ that file. By using a disk editor, you can
but you wouldn't want it to overwrite other pro change the byte in the directory which indicates a
grams or files. So the Disk Operating System has to deleted file back to the original value, then VALidate
keep track of where the programs or other files are. the disk (OPEN 15,8,T5: PRJNT#15,"VO":CLOSE 35;
It puts the name of the file into the disk directory, to update the BAM and restore the file. If other files
marks it as a program, looks at the Block Allocation have been saved on the disk since scratching the
Map (BAM) to find some free space on the disk, and file, you may not be able to restore the file.
then saves the program.
A program file (PRG) is just what the name im Searching For Zero-Page
plies. It's information that was saved as a program.
It could contain a BASIC or machine language pro
gram. Or it might be a section of memory trans- 1 own a Commodore 64 and 1 discovered that
ferred to disk using the SAVE routine in BASIC each time 1 store a value in a zero-page location,
(SpeedScript and WordPro, for example, both save the computer crashes. I'd iike to know what
text to disk as PRG files). To get the program back zero-page locations are free !:or the programmer.
if any.
into the computer, you use the LOAD command.
Yoav Ben
LOAD works only on PRG files.
A sequential file (SEQ) is most often used for Zero page (locations 0-255 <$00-$FF)) is used
storing information such as mailing lists, in- heavily m/ the compute} as a "scratch pad" for stor-

M COMPUTEts Gatetto March 1985

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ing important information. It's also a favorite area Also, the Commodore 1526 printer has the
of memory with machine language programmers be equivalent of PRINT-USING. If you own a 1526,
cause programs which use zero page take up less you can use the built-in formatting commands (use
memory and execute faster than those thai use other a secondary address of 2) to automatically print
areas of memory. And there is a zero-page address trailing zeros and align the numbers into columns.
ing mode which requires the use of zero-page
The popularity of zero page sometimes leads to A Printer's Gremlin
memory conflicts. If you're not careful, you may be I'd like to know why sometimes when I have de
trying to use a location that the computer is already leted something and hit RETURN, the cursor
using for something else. This can cause the com does not take its normal position, but jumps over
puter to act strangely, forcing you to turn it off and to the right, past the last word on the line.
back on to regain control. CM. Woods
Fortunately, the 64 doesn't use alt of zero page.
Without knowing the full details of the situation, we
Locations 2-6 (S02-S06) and 251-254 (SFB-SFE) are
can only guess what's wrong.
always free. Other locations are free only under cer
You may have listed a program to the screen
tain circumstances. For example, locations 139-143
and then listed it to a printer (OPEN4,4:CMD4:L1ST)
!$8B-S8F) are free as long as you don't use the
without properly closing the file to the printer after
BASIC RND function. Jf your ML program doesn't
wards. Try to edit a line on the screen, and the
need BASIC at all, locations 7-143 (S07-S8F) are
cursor will act as you have described. The thing to
free. If you don't need the Kernal, locations 144-250
do is close the printer file (PRINT#4:CLOSE4). The
($90~$FA) are free.
cursor will be back to normal. The same thing may
If your ML program uses BASIC and the Kernal
happen if you've used CMD to send output to an
and needs lots of zero-page space, you can use any
other type of file—a cassette or disk drive, for ex
location as long as you restore thai location to its
ample. Always remember to close files you have
original value before returning to BASIC. The easi
est way to do this is to have your ML program
move the entire contents of zero page to a safe area
of RAM before executing, and then move it all back
Going Off-Line With Gemini
just before returning to BASIC. I'm using a Gemini 10-X printer interfaced to my
Commodore 64 with a CARDCO +G interface.
For a detailed discussion of each zero-page
The Gemini manual indicates that the printer can
location, see COMPUTE!'s Mapping the Com
be turned on- and off-line using CHR$(17) and
modore 64 or COMPUTED Mapping The VIC.
CHR$(19), respectively. Using SpeedScript's print
command, CTRL-P, these commands do not
Printing Pennies work. But using the SHIFT-CTRL-P command,
I've been writing programs which use a lot of selecting device 4 and secondary address 4, these
dollars and cents. My problem is, how do I get commands work. I also have to place a reverse
$12.50 instead of $12.5? The zero never shows. video a (CTRL-C a) at the beginning of the file to
Chuck Stehley get the proper upper- and lowercase lettering.
Some versions of BASIC, including BASIC 3.5 on the The commands are useful, for example,
Plus/4 and 16, offer a PRINT-USING command. when you want to edit the tenth page of a docu
You define a format for numbers or strings, in effect ment, and print from that point to the end. The
forcing the computer to print pennies or dollar off-line command is placed in the document
signs. wherever you want printing to cease—at the
One way to include pennies on a VIC or 64 is beginning in this case. Print the document to the
to first multiply by 100, to put in the zeros. Then screen once to determine where the page begins.
convert the number to a string and insert the dollar To resume printing, place the on-line command
sign and decimal point. followed by a form feed code, at the place you
want to start printing—just after the last charac
10 A=12.5
20 B=INT(A*100)i B$=STRS(B): L=LEH {B$) ter of the previous page. If the last character of
30 PRINT'S"; LEFT$(B$,L-2); "."; RIGHTS(B the previous page is a return character, place the
9,2) command codes before it.
In line 20, the number 12.5 is multiplied by Larry Hollovvay
WO to get 1250, then converted to a string " 1250" This useful tip can be used with other interfaces as
(the space in front would be a minus sign if the well, and with some other printers (consult your
number were negative). Line 30 prints a dollar sign, manual). And it should work with word processors
all but the last two characters of BS, a decimal other than SpeedScript, as long as the word proces
point, and the last two characters. sor allows you to send ASCII characters 17 and 19
18 COMPUTES Gazette Marcfi 1985
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and your printer recognizes these as commands for the VIC-20, it worked every once in a while, and
going on-line and off-line. Commodore printers do on the 64 it doesn't work at all. In the User's
not have this feature. Guide, it says SYS 64759 will restore the com
The secondary address of four is for the Cardco puter to the state of just being turned on. Is
graphics (or transparent.) mode. Use the correct there a SYS number that does the same thing as
secondary address for your interface, and remember RESTORE, but doesn't erase the program in
that some interfaces require you to send commands memory?
in unusual ways. Allen D. Brewer
To print to the screen so you can preview the Unlike any other key on the keyboard, RESTORE is
page breaks, use the SHIFT-CTRL-P command fol wired directly to the chip that controls your VIC or
lowed by device 3 and secondary address 3. Use of
64. When you lap RESTORE, the computer checks to
the above codes requires you to use the reverse
sec if RUN/STOP is being pressed. So you must
video numbers, which can be assigned values in
hold down RUN/STOP before pressing RESTORE.
SpeedScript. At the top of the file, define three of
On a VIC, RUN/STOP-RESTORE works well,
the reverse video numbers to the desired values, 17, but on a 64 you may have to smartly tap the RE
39, and 11 (for form feed). STORE key. Gently pressing it doesn't always do
For example, to define the form feed command, the job, for some unknown reason.
use [5] = 12. (The brackets represent a reverse video Your 64 User's Guide contains a misprint—SYS
number, obtained by pressing CTRL and £ simulta 64759 does not perform a cold start. That particular
neously, followed by the number 5.) If you define SYS enters the cold-start routine from the wrong
[6] = 17 and [7] = 19, you would insert [7] to stop
place and eventually hits a BReaK (BRK) instruction
printing, and [6][5] to resume, with a form feed. (see below). The Programmer's Reference Guide cor
You may have to experiment to get (he results you rectly lists the cold-start routine—SYS 64738 (SYS
want. Remember thai SpeedScript doesn't know 64802 on a VIC). The Commodore Plus/4 and 16 do
what you're doing, so the printout can look strange not have a RESTORE key. On those computers you
in some cases. For example, when you send the code have to hold down RUN/STOP and press the reset
to go back on-line followed by a code for a form button on the right side. You'll end up in the built-
feed, the printer knows to go to the top of the next in machine language monitor (type X to exit back to
page, but as far as SpeedScript is concerned, the BASIC).
form feed was just another character. SpeedScript
The cold-start SYS will erase the program in
might think it's printing the middle of a page, and memory (although you can get it back with an
headers and footers will print incorrectly. UNNEW program)^ RUN/STOP-RESTORE leaves
the program intact in memory. Us equivalent in ma
Long Tapes chine language is the BRK instruction, with a value
of zero. SYS to a memory location that holds a zero
Do you really think that cassette tapes over 30
and the computer will perform a RUN/STOP-
minutes will affect the Datassette?
RESTORE. For example, POKE 828,0: SYS 828.
Rick Stockhorst
No, long tapes probably won't do any harm to your
cassette drive. But you might want to consider some Self-Modifying BASIC Programs
of the reasons not to store programs and data files Is there a way to make a program write its own
on them. DATA statements from user input?
Tapes over 30 minutes are generally thinner Todd Swearingen
and less reliable than shorter tapes. And it's harder
to find the right spot on the tape; you may have lo Yes, you can write a program that changes itself via
wait for a while before a program is located. Tapes the dynamic keyboard technique.
should be tightly wound, and a long tape is more To understand how it works, you should know
prone to slip and slide, leading to loss of data; the thai Commodore computers have two different types
solution is to fast-forward and then rewind the tape, of carriage returns. In program mode (when a pro
which (again) takes time. gram is running), printing a CHR$(13) carriage re
Finally, think what would happen if the tape turn moves the cursor to the beginning of the next
was lost or destroyed. Loss of a long tape with many line. But that's all it does: move down a line. But in
programs could be a disaster, especially if you don't immediate mode (when you're writing a program),
have backup copies. RETURN moves the cursor to the next line and
does one of two things. If there's a number at the
beginning, the line is added to the BASIC program
The RESTORE Key in memory. If not, the commands you typed are im
I own a VIC-20 and now have a Commodore 64. mediately executed.
I've had problems using the RESTORE key. On Thus, to write a program that adds DATA
20 COMPUTE! s GaiBttB March 1985

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color mixing to create over ■
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drawn shapes are included an puter art. So versatile that young
may be added at any time. A children are able to use it like a
printer dump for most dot matrix coloring book, yet sophisticated
printers is included. enough for a computer artist to
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statements to itself, you have to toggle back and different as you might think.
forth between the two modes. You print to the There are a couple of ways to put a character
screen in program mode, END the program, and on the screen in BASIC. You can do a POKE to
have the computer automatical!}/ hit RETURN over screen memory, followed by a POKE to color mem
the lines. The following program illustrates: ory. Or you can use the PRINT command. Both op
10 DL=1000 tions are available in machine language.
20 D$="DATA" In BASIC, to POKE a yellow letter A into the
30 INPUTAS upper iefthand corner of the screen on the 64, run
40 PRINTCHR$(147);DL;D$;A$ the following program:
50 PRINT"10 DL=";DL+1
60 PRINT"RUN" 10 POKE 1024,1: POKE 55296,7
70 POKE631,19:POKE632,13:POKE63 3,13:P0KE6 The equivalent in ML is:
828 LDA #1
830 STA 1024
Lines 10-30 define two variables and input an
833 LDA #7
item which will be added to the program. Line 40 835 STA 55296
clears the screen and prints the line number (DL), 838 RTS
"DATA", and the user input. Line 50 prints a new
line 10, where DL is increased by one (for the next Or, in hexadecimal:
time). Line 60 prints "RUN". 033C LDA #$01
The dynamic keyboard technique happens in 033E STA $0400
line 10. Four numbers are POKEd into the keyboard 0341 LDA #$07
0343 STA $D800
buffer (ten memory locations from 631 to 640) and a
0346 RTS
4 is POKEd into 198 (which keeps track of how
many keys have been pressed). Then the program Once the ML program is in memory, SYS 828
ends. to activate it.
The computer switches from program mode to First, using the LDA/STA method, you have to_
immediate mode, and it thinks four keys have been store a value into both screen and color memory,
pressed. The first key is HOME (CHR$(19)). The just like BASIC. And if you're SYSing from BASIC,
next three are carriage returns (CHR$(13)). The car you have to end the ML program with an RTS (Re-
riage returns are the kind we want: They'll add the Turn from Subroutine), which is similar to a RE
lines to BASIC memory. A DATA statement is en TURN in BASIC The LoaD Accumulator (LDA)
tered, line ten is changed, and RUN is executed. instruction has many different addressing modes.
The program loops back to get more input. Press LDA #$01 puts the actual value $01 into the accu
RUN /STOP-RESTORE to get out of the INPUT mulator. LDA $01, on the other hand, will take
statement and end the program. Then save the pro whatever value is in location 1 and put it in the
gram, which contains the newly created DATA accumulator. This may be the cause of your
statements. problems.
The dynamic keyboard technique can do more The number sign (#) after LDA is important,
than add DATA statements. You can use it to erase signali)ig you want the value one. Also, some ML
a block of lines from a program by printing a monitors or assemblers alloio either hex or decimal
CHR$(13) over a series of line numbers. numbers. You may have to mark hex numbers with
a dollar sign, as in the example above.
Finally, there are two numbers for the letter A,
Printing Characters In Machine
just like in BASIC. If you're POKEing (LDA followed
Language by STA in machine language), you use 1, the screen
I've been trying to put Commodore or ASCII code. But if you're printing, you print a CHR$(65),
characters into screen memory in machine lan the ASCII value.
guage. I've converted the POKE values into To print in ML, you do a JSR to SFFD2. As an
hexadecimal and then "stored" the value into the alternative to the above program, try this:
screen location. But I always get characters that 033C LDA #$41
are wrong. How do I solve this problem? 033E JSR $FFD2
Drew McKenna 0341 RTS

You've got the right idea, and it should work. A ma Again, SYS 828 makes the program run. Hexa
chine language store instruction works just like the decimal $41 is the same as decimal 65 (the ASCII
POKE command in BASIC. value of "A"). When you Jump to SubRoutine (JSR)
When you're writing a machine language pro $FFD2, the letter A is printed to the screen in the
gram, it often helps to think about hoio you would current cursor color. $FFD2 is a Kernal entry point
do something in BASIC, and then translate the idea for PRINT. The Kernal routines occupy the same
into ML. BASIC and machine language are not as locations on the VIC, 64, and Plus/4 computers. <Qf

22 COMPUTE'S GazoHe March 19B5


: —^T

laae Runner
mulatorH U)GIC
: «7wc brTGfTO

INTRODUCING THE FAST LOAD of your Commodore 64 and goes to work automatically,
loading your disks with ease. And that's only the
CARTRIDGE FROM EPYX. beginning. You can copy a single file, copy the whole
disk, send disk commands, and even list directories
You're tired of waiting forever for your Commodore 64
without erasing programs stored in memory.
programs to load. But it's no use glaring at your disk
drive. Calling it names won't help, either, ft was born And unlike other products, the FAST LOAD
slow — a lumbering hippo. You need the FAST LOAD CARTRIDGE works with most programs, even copy
CARTRIDGE from EPYX. FAST LOAD transforms protected ones, including the most popular computer
your Commodore 64 disk drive from a lumbering hippo
into a leaping gazelle. With FAST LOAD, programs The FAST LOAD CARTRIDGE from Epyx. Easy
that once took minutes to load are booted up in a matter to insert, easy to use and five times faster. So why
of seconds. waste time waiting for your disks to load?
FAST LOAD can load, save and copy your disks five Speed them up with FAST LOAD!
times faster than normal. It plugs into the cartridge port epyx
Selby Bateman, Features Editor

Peripherals can bring much more power and flexibility

to your Commodore 64. And they're available as never
before. That translates into a multitude of opportunities—
and changes—as you continue to enhance your computer's
capabilities. Here's an overview of the expanding
peripheral marketplace for the 64.

nee you've made the

choice to purchase a
Commodore 64 com
puter, your decisions
begin to multiply. If you
thought choosing a microcom
puter to suit your needs was
challenging, you'll soon find
yourself overwhelmed by the
peripheral options open to you.
Even experienced computer
owners discover it's hard to stay
abreast of the rapidly growing
inventory of peripherals de
signed for the 64.
But this proliferation of
products means that some peo
ple are making mistakes, says
Tom Dow, product manager for
Commodore's Computer Sys
tems Division. "It's obvious—
but a very important consider
ation for people who are buying
64s or any computer—that they
get involved with applications
that are really going to benefit
them. It's important for people
to understand what they need
COMPUTED Gazette Mart* 1985 25
to do and get themselves Over 90 percent of these pur
plugged into a product that is chases from Commodore were
best going to suit those needs. ' 1541 disk drives rather than the
And that means before you more inexpensive Datassette
make peripheral purchases recorders.
which may be two or ?ven three "That was one of the things
times the cost of the 64 itself. that really threw us for a loop,"
Many people buy says Commodore's Dow. "The
peripherals without first fully percentage of people who actu
understanding what they are ally bought disk drives to go
going to do with them, how with the 64 was vent high."
they interact with the Commo Commodore was caught by sur
dore 64, and what software is to prise and there was a period
be used, adds Dow. about a year ago when 1541s
If you foilow the general were in very short supply.
rule that a peripheral is any Since there are some other
piece of hardware which can be sources for inexpensive cassette
plugged into your computer to tape drives compatible with the
enhance its function, the list of 64, it would be wrong to pre
such products includes literally sume that the 90 percent figure
hundreds of items from scores would apply throughout the
of manufacturers. The good Commodore 64 marketplace.
news is that there's plenty of The USD Super Disk drives. However, the combination of
information at hand foi the dis- low price (about $250 for the
ceming consumer. And the pe ers could be listed as an alterna 1541), the relatively faster ac
ripheral options really aren't tive display device, their cess times of a disk drive over
difficult to categorize and com importance and special func tape, and the trend toward
pare if you'll take the time to tions require a separate cate putting more and more commer
think through your choices and gory. Commodore 64 owners cial software on disk rather than
your needs. have more choices here than cassette has dramatically altered
ever before, generally at lower the situation.
prices for better quality. "For the majority of the
There are basically five major 4. Communication devices— people who purchase the 64,
categories of peripherals for Modems (and telecommunica the first buy will be the disk
most microcomputers, including tions software) are now among drive ' says Dow. 'When the 64
the 64. When you begin to the hottest items for Commo first came out, there was a lot of
think about building a system dore 64 owners. The popularity software on cartridge since there
around your computer, your of bulletin boards and the was skepticism about how many
choices include the following; growth of major telecommunica people would purchase the disk
1. Mass storage devices- -An tions services are changing the drive." That is true no longer.
absolute necessity tor your com race of personal computing. As any Commodore 64
puter since it is this attachment 5. Input devices—There are owner quickly learns, the com
which lets you store information many ways other than your puter accesses data from a cas
(on tape or disk) for later use computer keyboard for you to sette tape drive in a sequential
and also allows you to run com interact with the 64. Joysticks, manner. The tape slides by the
mercial software not on car light pens, touch tablets, and read/record head in a linear
tridge. For the 64, the choices track balls are just a few. And fashion. You can't get to the
have grown rapidly during the soon, even the popular table-top third program on a tape without
past year. controller called a mouse should winding past the first two pro
2. Display devices--Essen be available for the 64. grams. The disk drive, however,
tially the television set or video Let's take a look at some of is a random access device. The
monitor which lets you see the changes affecting these pe read/write head can jump from
what you and the computer are ripheral product lines for the spot to spot on a disk much as a
doing together. There are sur Commodore 64. record player needle can be
prising indications here that 64 Commodore officials were placed anywhere on the surface
owners are changing their pref pleasantly surprised during 1984 of a record. Such accessibility
erences about what display they by a significant change in the and speed have proven too at
wish to use (more on this later). buying patterns of 64 owners tractive for most 64 owners to
3. Printers— Although print- looking for storage devices. ignore.

26 COMPUTtrs Gazette March 1985

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Compiny. Inc.
Although the first purchase Datassette recorder, the com and you're in business.
for 64 owners may be a disk pany offers the Computer Patch Commodore 64 owners are
drive, that doesn't necessarily Cord (CPC-1000), a $29.95 cord turning toward disk drives for
mean it will be the 1541. As the which lets you use a 64 or VIC- much the same reason they're
installed base of Commodore 20 with an ordinary cassette now using dedicated video
64s has increased, the peripher recorder. monitors in increasing numbers:
al marketplace has become Another surprise for offi greater performance for more
crowded with competitors. And cials at Commodore last year serious applications. Especially
that includes disk drive was the popularity among 64 with the rising interest in pro
manufacturers. owners of the 1702 color video ductivity programs such as word
monitor. It became, on average, processors, data bases, and
For example, MSD Systems,
Inc., has developed single and
dual Super Disk Drives for the
Commodore 64 aimed at being
faster, cooler running, and more
dependable than the 1541. "It
was clear to us that if we were
to compete in Commodore's
market, we would have to pro
duce products of superior qual
ity," states Jim Gragg, MSD vice
president of engineering.
MSD's dual drive, the Super
Disk II, is more expensive than
two single Commodore drives—
about $695—but will reportedly
format, copy, and verify in less
than two minutes what two l J

1541s would need 35 to 40 min The Indus GT disk drive.

utes to complete. The single-
the next most-purchased Com spreadsheets, owners of the 64
drive Super Disk I is priced at
modore peripheral after storage are more often asking for the
devices. greater clarity of a video moni
Other disk drives now "Again, we were relatively tor, Even on the best color tele
available for the 64 are the $399 shocked with the percentage of vision sets, an 80-column line of
Indus GT from Indus Systems, people who will buy the 1702," printed characters (now avail
which is reportedly 400 percent says Dow. "It boils down to a able in several word processor
faster than the 1541, and the number of different reasons. and spreadsheet formats for the
$369 Commander II from Com Obviously, resolution is much 64) is all but unreadable. Not so
mander Electronic Systems. better on the 1702 than it would with the variety of video moni
Here again, as with the MSD be on a television set. The sec tors on the market from compa
drives, there are price/ ond thing we've found—al nies like Cardco, Commodore,
performance tradeoffs in relation though we give the proper Roland DG, Samsung, Teknika,
to Commodore's 1541 drive. hookup requirements to attach a Amdek, Sakata, and others,
While the competition heats 64 to a television set—a lot of Some Commodore 64 own
up between 64 disk drive manu people don't like to tie up their ers are opting for both color
facturers, there is a clear move TV set with the computer. So by television and the high-quality
away from the slower sequential buying the 1702 monitor, it of direct video monitors.
access tape drives which so gives them the ability to have a Cardco's $199.95 MT/1 Monitor
dominated during the early days dedicated work station without Tuner, for example, is a remote-
of the VIC-20 and 64. As the " interrupting a television set." controlled, 60-channel, cable-
market matures, so do the tastes Just as inexpensive tape ready tuner which provides
and demands of 64 owners. drives bring you functionality at separate video and audio output
For those who wish to use a low price, so your television matched to composite input
a cassette drive, Electronic Com set can bring you a computer's computer monitors. It works
ponents of Elma, New York, has video images without additional with any color or monochrome
engineered a way for you to expense. All you need to do is monitor, transforming it into a
save even more money. Rather attach the RF modulator to your television set with the flip of a
than buying a Commodore black and white or color TV, switch.
28 COMPUTE's Gazette March 1985
Compose music, even
ifyou cant read a note.
simplicity. It's not a toy It's a
In fact, MusicWriter has
everything you need to com
pose a serious symphony
It has repeats, endings and
triplets. It has articulation and
transposition. It can shape
tones, store 75 staffs, and play
up to 4 voices.
But even if you don't know
With the Bank Street what all that means, it won't
MusicWriter by Glen Clancy stand in your way Because
you compose by computer if you can hum a tune, you
It's so simple, people who can write a tune.
don't know a pianissimo
from a pizza can start com
posing in less than an hour
All you do is match the
sound that you hear in your
head. And the MusicWriter
writes it down.
But don't be fooled by the

Bank Street MusicWriter from Mindscape ^fc

C0fri£i3"i[>lewfhAiv'arYlCcTinicdcf!" Unwrap* ^.3-M*IX-'.aeeReid Ncr"Of^o» - piKOG: X
For more tnformation, call 1-800-221-9884. In Illinois, 1-800-942-7315.
Sharon Darling, Research Assistant

if you've never heard of brain wave input, • Laser disks: More and more uses are
read/write laser disks, flat screen video, or being found for laser disks as computer
sound sampling, you're in good company. peripherals. For now, most applications are
Many of these products are still in develop- commercial or governmental, things like
ment, stil! in prototype in laboratories. Nev- employee training, says David S. Backer,
ertheless, these peripherals could add great director of videodisk research for Mirror
power to your computer. Some are available Systems Inc., a firm that is developing uses
now, some will be soon. Here's an overview for laser disks in the business market.
of the next generation of With the ability to put more
input and output devices, than 50,000 live action images
• Compact disks: The disk on one side of a disk, and the
that is revolutionizing the availability of inexpensive inter
recording industry can also faces, the future looks bright for
work with computers. Cur this peripheral. Digital Research,
rent models can oniy act as for example, markets a $49 inter
Read Only Memory (ROM) face which attaches a Commo
data storage devices. Elec dore 64 to a laser disk player.
tronics giants Sony and "I think you're going to
Philips are both working begin to see large image data
on computer applications bases, or big slide-a-thons pro
for compact disks, and duced by various institutions—
Nippon Columbia of Japan everything from museums like
has introduced a compact the Smithsonian on up to
disk that has a storage publishers—people who have
Compact disks, U'hich measure
capacity of more than 550 about five inches across, have
some kind of interesting image
megabytes per side—the the capacity to become mass file. That [area] has consumer
equivalent of 500 to 1,000 storage devices for computers. potential," Backer predicts.
floppy disks.
Measuring about five inches across, a
compact disk uses the same type of laser
mechanism as audio compact disks. Sound
and data, as well as digitized images, can be
stored on the disks.
However, engineers are at work on a
read/write CD that would provide home
computers with astounding amounts of on
line memory and would quickly replace cur
rent floppy disk devices.
• Electromyograph/Brain Wave Input:
Synapse Software Corporation already sells
a headband controller-based biofeedback
system called Relax, And Atari, Inc., (before
corporate reformation) exhibited a similar
system, MindLink, at the Summer 1984
Consumer Electronics Show. Both are based
on electromyographic impulses—slight elec
trical pulses from muscles in the forehead— Laser disks will probably be a major force in inter
which permit the user to control onscreen active video over the next few years. More than
computer action without touching a key 50,000 live-action images can be contained on each
board, joystick, or other input device. side.

30 COMPUTE! 's Gazelle March 1985

Simulator II

ourself in the pilot's seat of a Piper 161 Cherokee A

from New York to Los Angeles. High speed color-filled 3D graphics will give you a beautiful panoramic vie
as you practice takeoffs, landings, and aerobatics. Complete documentation will get you airborne quickly
even If you've never flown before. When you think you're ready, you can play the World War I Ace aerial battle
game. Flight Simulator II features Include • animated color 3D graphics ■ day, dusk, and night flying mode,
■ over 80 airports In four scenery areas: New York, Chicago, Los Angeles, Seattle, with additional scenery I
areas available ■ user-variable weather, from clear btue skies to grey cloudy conditions ■ complete flight
instrumentation « VOR, ILS, ADF, and DME radio equipped* navigation facilities and course plotting « World \
War I Ace aerial battle game ■ complete Information manual and flight handbook.

>ee your dealer

or write or call tor more tnfonnalion. For direct orders enclose $49.95 plus $2.00
for shipping and specify LIPS or first class mall delivery. American Express,
Diner's Club, MasterCard, and Visa accepted,
713 Edgebrook Drive
Order Line: 800 / 637-4983 Champaign IL 61820
(2l7)359-!S482To1ex: 206995
• Laser Printers: The price for a good laser Hitachi has a 3-inch disk; and Tabor markets
printer has already dropped from about a 3'/4-inch version. No matter which format
$20,000 down to the $3,500-$7,000 range, prevails, expect to trade in your 5>/4-inch
and the decreases will continue as this tech disks eventually. It's something of a race:
nology gets cheaper. Much like a photo Will compact discs or these 3-inch disks cap
copying machine, a laser printer creates an ture the market first?
image on a rotating drum that has been Tlie new disks come in hard plastic
electrically charged. A powdered plastic, housings, and can already store almost a
also charged, sticks to the portion of the megabyte of data per disk side. That, too,
drum that has been neutrally electrified by wil! increase as the technology improves.
• Musical keyboards/sound sampling de
the laser. Then, using heat, the powder is
transferred onto paper.
vices: Synthesized music is another area
where prices have been driven low enough
to make sophisticated musical tools available
to home computerists. Waveform, Sight &
Sound, Roland, Sequential Circuits, and
Sweet Micro Systems all make keyboard
products available for as low as $50 on up
to around $500. That's quite a bargain when
you consider that similar devices retailed for
thousands of dollars each in the not too dis
tant past.

Another breakthrough has come in the

area of audio sampling. CompuSonics, a
The $3495 HP LaserJet Printer (Hewlett-Packard)
Denver-based electronics firm, has intro
print* eight pages a minute, including graphics, by
duced an audio system that allows users to
using lotivr cost laser technology.
make digital disc recordings at home—on a
Inexpensive plastic drums and cheaper floppy disc. The company's machine, the
laser technology are making these printers DPS-1000, digitally records sounds as ones
more popular. Manufacturers like Hewlett- and zeros on the disc, resulting in the im
Packard and Canon have made rapid ad pressive fidelity of ordinary compact discs.
vances in this field, although there are still The DPS-1000'can be plugged into any au
problems to be overcome. The laser printers dio system. If attached to an IBM PC, the
don't print in color, can't process multipie- music can even be edited or synthesized.
copy forms, and are still more expensive Computerized musical devices are pop
than dot-matrix and daisy wheel printers to ping up everywhere, and some are truly as
operate. tounding in their versatility and power. For
• LCD screens: New technology is making example, Ensoniqs, a new company in Mal-
color liquid crystal displays (LCD) possible vern, Pennsylvania, which includes engi
in everything from television screens to per neers who invented the Commodore 64V
sonal computers. While monochrome LCD SID sound chip, has announced an impres
displays have been around for years, and sive digital sampling synthesizer, the
are found on many appliances, color has Mirage, which sells for $1795. If you're in
been a problem because of the way an LCD terested in more details about this fast-
receives and responds to electrical signals. growing area of home computing, see "Music
Now, however, using silicon thin-film In The Computer Age" in the January issue
transistors (TFTs), color is becoming avail of COMPUTE!.
able on small screens. Epson has marketed a • Invisible Modems: These »iodulators-
television with a two-inch color flat screen df?modulators, which transmit data between
LCD, and several other firms are working computers via telephone lines, are very
on new applications in larger formats. popular peripherals among computerists.
• Microfloppies: The fight is on among sev Advances are turning them from stand
eral manufacturers to market smaller com alone units, however, to accessories built in
puter disks with larger storage capacities. side the computer itself.
Sony is promoting its 3'/2-inch microdisk A number of companies have intro
(adopted by Apple for the Macintosh); duced board modems that plug into a

32 COMPUWs Gazelle March 1985

by Michael Tomczyk

16.95 hardback ISBN 0-942386-75-2

$9.95 trade paperback ISBN 0-942386-78-7

COMPUTE! Publications, the leading home computer publisher, brings

you the exciting story of the home computer industry. This book takes the
reader into a vivid, dramatic world where a powerful, brilliant businessman
almost single-handedly fashions the American consumer computer industry.

A survivor of the Nazi Holocaust Jack Tramiel took a tiny typewriter parts company and
built it Into a major American corporation. In the process, he became a modem corporate
legend. Some1 of his vice presidents thought he was a saint; some thought he had the
world's hardest heart But few deny the brilliance of this complex entrepreneur.

For the frast four years, Michael Tomczyk has been Tramiel's right hand man. Through
out Commodore's explosive rise to leadership in the computer field, Tomczyk was a close
insider. And, most importantly, Tomczyk is a keen observer and takes you where the action

To order your copy, send the attached card, with your payment, to COMPL
Books, P.O. Box 5406, Greensboro, NC 27403 or call toll-free 1-800-334-0868.
Add $3.00 shipping and handling to hardback copy; add $2.00 shipping and handling to trade
computer's internal circuitry, and one firm, Michigan, are making these super-peripherals
Code-A-Phone Corp. of Portland, Oregon, both more practical and functional.
has developed a two-line telephone with a • Vertical Recording: Your present floppy
modem built inside. According to the market disk stores information by rearranging mag
research firm International Resource Develop netic particles which are aligned end to end,
ment, Inc. (IRD), digital telephones will horizontally. But a significantly larger stor
build a significant market niche in the late age space is created on that same disk if the
1980s, which could eventually mean the de particles can be aligned vertically. Expect to
mise of the modem altogether. see some vertical recording floppy systems,
• Radio modems: A device that can send possibly with several megabytes per disk, in
software, text, articles, and photographs via 1985, particularly from the Japanese com
an ordinary AM or FM radio to personal com pany, Toshiba.
puters has been developed by The Micro- In general, growth in the computer
periphera! Corporation of Redmond, Wash peripherals market is predicted to increase
ington. Called the Shuttle Communicator, it almost 300 percent by 1994, to $17.6 billion,
plugs into the receiver jack on a radio and according to IRD. Total peripheral sales for
the RS-232 port on the computer. It works the office and home computer markets in
essentially like the demodulator portion of a 1984 were $4.5 billion. IRD predicts that
modem. most of the sales by 1994 will be made to
The company is negotiating with a na
manufacturers, however, and not retailers,
tional radio satellite network to syndicate a
as computer firms move toward including
radio show which would offer computer
peripherals with their basic systems.
news and free software, and hopes to have
"By and large, customers buy a single
the system on-line near the end of February.
label computer system—keyboard, console,
Since a telephone is not involved in the pro
and disk drives—and don't care which sup
cess, the Communicator can download
plier makes the various parts," states IRD.
information at 4800 baud, much faster than
"There is little, if any, incentive for a cus
most modems. At that speed, a IK program
tomer to buy a different disk drive and dis
could be downloaded in two seconds.
play monitor when the original price of the
computer already includes them."
The largest growth in the peripherals
market will be in communications hardware,
according to IRD analyst Maureen Fleming.
By 1994, factory sales in that portion of the
market will grow 1334 percent, from $230
million in 1984 to $3.3 billion, she says. The
input device market, including voice recog
nition systems, mice, and optical scanners,
should grow 424 percent, from $420 million
to $2.2 billion.
The Shuttle Communicator can download infor While interest in modems and mice is
mation from a radio station to any home computer,
expected to remain high over the next ten
at speeds of up to 4800 baud.
years, IRD is projecting that the printer
market will have a somewhat slow growth
The device is scheduled to retail for rate of 82 percent during that same time
about $70, and will come with the necessary span. Price wars among manufacturers will
terminal software. Versions designed espe contribute to this lower growth rate. IRD
cially for the Commodore 64 and Atari com figures show printer sales of $1.2 billion in
puters are also planned. 1984, and $2.2 billion by 1994.
• Robots: The prices range from $350 up to Eventually, the very nature of
$5,000 or more for these programmable peripherals themselves will probably
computer extensions. Their utility is still lim change, as manufacturers increasingly make
ited, but recent personal robots from such intelligent peripherals, equipped with their
companies as RB Robot in Golden, Colo own microprocessor brains, much like many
rado; Androbot, Inc., of San Jose, California; of today's cars, cash registers, and washer-
and the Heath Company of Benton Harbor, dryers.

34 COMPUTE'.i's Gazette Match 1985







■ - - , •" '
■■ ;■ tmm

At Mimic we believe that you and your computer should
dictate the choices of hardware and software you can use.

The Spartan'" was developed to allow you to choose the

hardware and software that best suits your needs.
Our goal in designing the Spartan'" was simple.
To take what you already have and give you more. nnwiii i '

Mimic Systems is proud to give you the Spartan'"

The Apple'" II + emulator for the Commodore 64'"

Spartan1" Suggested Retail Prices:

The Spartan'" (includes BUSS, CPU, and DOS cards) $599.00
BUSS card S299.00
CPU card (requires BUSS card) SI 99.00 1112FORTET..FL.6J
DOS card (requires BUSS and CPU card) SI 99.00 CANADA V6V 4V2
(All prices In U.S. Funds. Freight not Included.) ■■s""r ■■"-"'-'■
Amerlcon Express. Visa ona MoslerCoia accepfeo.
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SporTrjn"' i$ a TroOfftnar* or miti-c $>jitJni Inc. QnQ fini no QHociaiion with Commodore
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unOor Uconto grorriQtl «v flTG fioci'onici Inc of Victoria. BC , ConaOQ. (663-8527) ■"■■"V.v
As the 64 became the clear
leader among home computers
in 1984, printer manufacturers
raced to provide the best print
quality at the lowest price for 64
owners. That is continuing,
making your purchase of a
printer a potentially formidable
task. Companies such as
Alphacom, Blue Chip Electron
ics, Cardco, C. Itoh, Epson, Ergo
Systems, Leading Edge,
Okidata, Star Micronics, and
Cardco's monitor tuner offers television for your monitor at the flip of many others provide printers
a switch.
which you'll want to compare
before deciding.
While the choice between you'll need a printer that han Joining the list are two new
monitors and television dles standard paper (single dot-matrix printers from
sets is usually an easy one, no sheets or formfeed) and offers Riteman: the R 64 and the
peripheral for your Commodore correspondence-quality charac Riteman C + . Both include a
64 is likely to be trickier to ters. And make sure the soft built-in Commodore interface
choose than a printer. The many ware you own will work with and offer Commodore graphics
different companies, the various the printer you choose. characters.
types available (dot matrix, Commodore currently offers The R 64 has both parallel
daisy wheel, thermal, thermal three dot-matrix printers for the and serial capacity, so it can be
transfer, ink jet, etc), and the 64, the MPS-801, the MPS-802 used with other computers as
continuing price cuts by manu (an enhanced version of Com well as the 64. It prints at 120
facturers make this an exciting modore's 1526 printer), and the cps and employs bit image
but potentially frustrating deci new MPS-803. "Someone who graphics. It sells for $449. The
sion for the 64 owner. We'll dis is doing more in the business or Riteman C + , priced at $349,
cuss the ins and outs of buying productivity end of applications prints at 105 cps.
and using a printer in an up normally will buy the MPS- Perhaps the fastest growing
coming issue, but for now a few 802," says Dow. "We're seeing area of home computing is tele
warnings should help you in the MPS-803 being bought by communications—the sending
your search. individuals interested in the and receiving of data between
Compatibility is the watch educational and recreational as computers.
word here. Ignore it and you pects of the product itself— "This is really becoming a
may wind up taking home a more of an all-purpose printer very hot item, not just for Com
printer which at best doesn't because it does standard text modore, but for the industry in
fully use the power of the 64 printing, but also has the ca general," says Commodore's
and at worst is almost worth pability to do dot-addressable Dow. "And I think we're going
less. The built-in graphics char graphics." to find more demand for
acters which are directly
accessible from the 64 keyboard,
for example, can't be repro
duced by some printers, at least
without the addition of a ROM
chip or some other modification.
Before you begin to look for a
printer, decide on what your
uses are likely to be. That will
make the tradeoffs on price,
performance, compatibility, and
other factors much easier to

If you want to print pro

gram listings, an inexpensive
printer will suit your needs. For
letters or business applications, new $349 Ritemntt C+ printer
has a built-in Commodore interface.
36 COMPUTE'S Gazette Marcli 19B5

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And much more!

Available at a computer slore near you. Or call for more information:

800-22LEARN or 800-44LEARN in California TeleLearning Systems, Inc.
505 Beach Street
For Commodore 64®
San Francisco, California 94133
Tolal r<'lceorrimunlmtion5 >nd The Info Ccnlrr ore Iradenwks of TrleLcamlng Syllemi. Int.:
Commodore 64 is j reglsitrfil iiddumark o! Commodore Electronic*. Ltd. 415/928-2800
modems as we find more and dore modems, there are a vari To combat this problem, a
more people offering different ety of 64-compatible modems number of companies have
types of services. Modem sales that have become available from come out with products aimed
for us have been strong, and it's other manufacturers. Human at easing a child's first exposure
going to get stronger as time Engineered Software (HES) to computers. Simplified plastic
goes on." manufactures two HESmodems, keyboard overlays are now be
The modem is simply a de one priced at $74.95 and the ing used in many early learning
vice which modulates digital other at $109.95. Anchor Auto programs, such as in CBS Soft
data from your computer into mation now offers the $99 ware's Sesame Street series.
analog sound transmissions car Westridge 64-20 modem, Taroco Koala Technologies released the
ried by the telephone lines, and is selling the $99.95 Mitey Mo, Muppet Learning Keys in 1984,
then demodulates those same
type of analog signals when
your 64 receives data from an
other computer via the phone.
There are two types of modems.
An acoustic modem has rubber
cups into which your tele
phone's handset fits and sends
signals acoustically through the
telephone; a direct-conned
modem plugs directly into the
phone lines, as its name implies.
Acoustic modems are older and
less reliable, and are therefore
being superseded by the newer
direct-connect devices.
You should be aware that
the 64's RS-232 {a Recom
mended Standard, hence RS) se
rial port—through which your
modem will communicate—is
not compatible with the
industry-accepted RS-232 port. Commodore's new 1660 Automodem.
Make sure that the modem you
buy is compatible with the 64, and other modems by Intec Cor a plug-in pad which features
or you'll have to buy an adapter poration, MF] Enterprises, Inc., easy-to-use letters, numbers,
to make it work. and The Microperipheral Corp., colors, and other functions.
Commodore now offers are all compatible with your 64 "Alternative input devices
three different modems, each of without the need for an inter are becoming more and more
which connects directly into the face. (See "A Buyer's Guide To important as time goes on in
64's user port, but offers differ Modems" in the November just about every segment of the
ent capabilities. The 1600 1984 gazette for more detailed marketplace, particularly the
VICModem (about $50-$70) information.) home," says Dow. "We're work
and the 1650 AutoModem ing on a variety of different
{about $79-$100) have been The expanding base of forms of input devices."
joined by the 1660 AudoModem peripherals for the 64 in* At last year's Consumer
(about $100). The latter two eludes a variety of input de Electronics Shows, for instance,
allow your computer to auto vices. As more and more people Commodore displayed its Touch
matically redial numbers when have been brought into the Screen, a plastic overlay which
necessary and to automatically world of computing, an increas fits over the front of a monitor
answer incoming calls from ing percentage are unaccus or television set. By touching
other computers. In addition, tomed to typing, and hence, the screen with your finger or a
the 1660 has a speaker built keyboards. Children especially pointer you gain access to
into it so that you can monitor can find the array of 67 differ menus and other controls in a
the audio status of the modem. ent keys on the Commodore 64 variety of programs. Although
It works with the Plus/4 as well a daunting and frustrating not yet released, the Touch
as the 64 and VIC-20, notes Dow. means by which to learn about Screen—'in some form—is ex
In addition to the Commo- computers. pected to be available soon,
38 COMPUTED Gazette March 1985
perhaps by the time you read
this, notes Dow.
Even novice computer users
are at least somewhat familiar
with the joysticks, game pad
dles, touch tablets, keypads, and
light pens which are the most
familiar alternative input de
vices. Making decisions about
these peripherals is usually not
as difficult as is the case with
printers, modems, or storage de
vices. But, as with all
peripherals, what you plan to
do with them can make the dif
ference between wasted money
and a genuinely useful addition
to your 64 system. !■■■
Among the newer input de
vices are music keyboards Navarone's $39.95 three-slot cartridge expander for the 64 lets you plug in
which, with accompanying soft up to three cartridges that are switch-selectable.
ware, make use of the Commo
able shortly. The complete pack a respected computer market re
dore 64's Sound Interface
age, called The Spartan, is search firm. That's a $17.3 bil
Device (SID) chip. Companies
expected to retai! for just under lion increase over the 1984
like Passport, Sight & Sound,
$600 and allow your 64 to use figure. The choices will continue
Tech Sketch, Sequential Cir
standard Apple 11+ hardware to increase as manufacturers
cuits, Waveform, and others are
and software, according to a take advantage of the huge in
selling a variety of these key
company official. stalled base of Commodore 64s.
boards, with prices generally
The U.S. home and office With proper planning and a
around $200 or less. (See
personal computer peripherals clear understanding of your
"Commodore 64 Music For
market will probably reach needs, choosing peripherals can
Non-Musicians" in the February
$26.4 billion in retail value by be another interesting aspect of
1989, according to figures com computing rather than an ex
Over the past year or so,
piled by Future Computing, Inc., pensive exercise in frustration.
the mouse—a rolling desk-top
device which controls the screen
While space limitations prohibit Indus Systems
cursor and other onscreen func
us from listing addresses for all of 9304 Dcering Avenue
tions—has become a very popu
the companies mentioned in this Chatsworth, CA 91311
lar alternative input device for
article, the following should help Inforunner Corporation
Apple, IBM, and some other
you get started: (Riteman Printers)
computers. While Commodore
Anchor Automation, Inc. Airport Business Center
reportedly has no plans to de
6913 Vatjean Avenue 431 North Oak Street
velop a mouse, a number of
Van Nuys, CA 91406 In%lewood, CA 90302
other companies are rumored to
plan to produce them for the 64. Cardco, Inc. Mimic Systems, Inc.
300 S. Topeka 1112 Fort Street, FL. 6)
Beyond the five major pe
Wichita, KS 67202 Victoria, B.C.
ripheral categories mentioned
Canada V8V 4V2
here, there are still many more Commander Electronic Systems
products which can make sub P.O. Box 15485 MSD Systems, Inc.
Santa Ana, CA 92705 10031 Monroe Drive
stantial differences in what you
Suite 206
can do with your 64. Memory Commodore Business Machines, Inc.
Dallas, TX 75229
expansion devices, surge sup Computer Systems Division
pressors, reset switches, and car 1200 Wilson Drive Navarone Industries, Inc.
Westchester, PA 19380 510 Lawrence Expressway
tridge slot expanders are among
the peripherals you'll want to Electronic Components
Sunnyvale, CA 94086
leam more about. Even an Apple P.O. Box 173
Elma, NY 14059 Taroco
11+ computer emulator for the
19 Rector Street
64 (from a Canadian company, Human Engineered Softxvare (HES)
Neiv York, NY 10006 -_
Mimic Systems) should be avail- 150 North Hill Drive
Brisbane, CA 94005
COMPUTEVs Gazollo March 198S 39
Commodore Peripheral Ports
Ottis R- Cowper, Technical Editor

Commodore computers provide rate than the others, which is provided by the operating sys
their users with a variety of one of the reasons the VIC is tem, you can avoid worrying
methods for communicating listed as incompatible with the with the details of controlling
with the outside world. The de 1526 printer, and why the origi the individual signal lines. Any
vices from which the computer nal 1540 disk drive was only for peripheral addressed with a de-
receives input or to which it the VIC. Obviously, this port is vicenumber between 4 and 31
sends output (or both) are ge- bidirectional—data can flow (the highest device number al
nerically called peripherals, and both in and out with equal ease. lowed) is assumed by the com
the connectors where peripherals The signal format used to puter to be connected to this
are attached to the computer are exchange data over the six lines port.
referred to as ports. Each of the provided through this port is Commodore has established
several ports has distinctive unique to Commodore. The for several standards for device
characteristics that make it suit mat should not be confused numbers: Printers are usually
able for particular applications. with the more standard RS-232 device 4, although some can be
For some, the computer's op serial communications format changed to device 5, the 1520
erating system—the ROM used by numerous peripherals; Printer/Plotter is designed to be
which controls the machine's RS-232 communication is han device 6, and device numbers 8
functions—provides routines dled through the user port (see and above usually refer to disk
that handle much or all of the below). The serial port is essen drives. Device 8 is the default
"dirty work" of communicating tially a stripped down version of number for the disk drive, and
with devices attached to those the parallel IEEE-488 port used almost all software assumes the
ports. To use other ports, you for most data communications disk drive will have this device
must program all the necessary in Commodore's earlier number; device 9 is the most
support routines yourself. That PET/CBM models. As the term common choice for a second
task can range from very easy serial implies, data can be trans drive. Commodore 1541 drives
(for example, reading a joystick) ferred only one bit at a time allow you to select any device
to quite complex (interfacing (and in only one direction at a number via software, or num
with a parallel printer through time, either in or out). Three of bers 8-11 via hardware.
the user port, for example). the other lines control the direc The use of a unique signal
Here's a rundown of the tion of data flow, and whether format for communication with
features of all the ports: the signals on the data line are the disk drive is not unusual; al
to be interpreted as data or as most all computer manufactur
The Serial Port commands to the peripheral de ers use a proprietary disk
For most users, the serial port is vice. The computer's RESET line interface compatible only with
the major data artery of the is also present at this port, their own products. What is un
computer. As the connection which explains why the disk usual is that this same nonstan-
point for disk drives and print drive resets whenever the com dard format is also used for
ers, it's the port through which puter is turned on or off. communications with printers.
most information exchanges The operating system fully Since so much software assumes
take place. This is the one port supports communications that printers will be connected
that is the same on the VIC, 64, through this port. By addressing through the serial port (as de
Plus/4, and 16. Well, almost the a peripheral attached to this vice 4), most third-party inter
same—there are some signal port with a device number, and faces for non-Commodore
timing differences. The VIC using OPEN, CLOSE, PRINT#, printers also attach to this port.
transfers data at a slightly faster INPUT* and related routines These interfaces act as interpret-
40 COMPUTE!'* Gazette Marcli I9B5
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Commodore 16

ers, reading the Commodore- sumably there will be some RS-232 is the name of the
format serial signal from the compatibility of cartridges for most common serial communi
port and converting it to the these models, although no VIC cations standard. If you use the
more standard parallel (eight or 64 cartridges or memory port operating system to address de
bits at a time) format used by peripherals can be used. vice 2, data directed to that
most printers. Examples of other types of device will be transferred
devices which attach through through the user port in an ap
The Memory this port are the CP/M cartridge proximation of RS-232 format.
for the 64, which contains a sec Actually, the signal format is
Expansion Port
ond microprocessor that takes true RS-232, but the voltage lev
This is often referred to as the
complete control of the 64's els are different from those pre
cartridge port, since ROM car
RAM and input/output chips, scribed. The standard calls for
tridges are the peripherals most
and the Magic Voice speech voltage levels of —12 to +12
often attached through this con module, which is attached volts, and the user port only
nector. In the VIC, this is also
through this port because it con provides levels of 0 to +5 volts.
the port through which RAM
tains additional ROM to allow Adapters are available—from
memory expanders are added.
the computer to support voice Commodore and other sources—
The lines available at this port output. to convert the signal voltage to
include most of the address,
the proper levels. These adapt
data, and control lines of the
microprocessor chip that is the The User Port ers are not necessary if you're
going to use Commodore's
heart of the computer. Thus, This port (sometimes called the
modems, but are required to use
any peripheral which needs to RS-232 or modem port) was de
any standard RS-232
be intimately tied to the work- signed with the experimenter in
ings.of the computer—for ex mind. Just as the memory ex
ample, ROM that must be pansion port gives you access to The 24 pins of this port
addressed by the micro a number of the microprocessor's have a similar configuration on
processor—is connected through control lines, this port gives you both the VIC and 64, so many
this port. The operating system access to many of the control devices designed to interface to
does not support any devices lines of one of the interface this port can be used on either
through this port; in essence, adapter chips (VIAs for the VIC computer, although the software
anything attached here is no or CIAs for the 64). Using these to run the devices will generally
longer a peripheral, but part of lines, a wide variety of be different. The VICmodem
the computer itself. peripherals could be connected, and Automodem, for example,
This port is present on the since both serial and eight-bit work with either model. The
VIC, 64, Plus/4, and 16. Many parallel communications are Plus/4 appears to have the
of the same lines are available available. same 24-pin connector, but the
on corresponding pins of the ex Unfortunately, most of this computer casing around the
pansion port connectors used in flexibility goes unused since it connector is smaller, so neither
the VIC and 64, but the connec isn't supported by the operating the VICmodem nor Automodem
tors themselves are different system. Most home computer can be plugged into the Plus/4.
sizes, so cartridges designed for users today are more interested (Commodore's new 1660
the 64 cannot be used on the in software than in tinkering modem works with the VIC, 64,
VIC, and vice versa. The Plus/4 with hardware projects, so this and Plus/4.) The Commodore
and 16 have identical 50-pin port is most frequently used for 16 has no user port, so it is as
connectors for this port (as op its one function supported by yet unclear if or how a modem
posed to the 44-pin connectors the operating system: RS-232 may be used with that
used in the VIC and 64), so pre- serial communications. computer.

42 COMPUTEfs Gazelle March 1985

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duce radio frequency (RF) inter

Since eight-bit parallel data The Control Ports
communications are available ference. The joystick mechanism
These ports (or port, in the case is exactly the same, it's just the
through this port, it might seem
surprising that it's not com
of the VIC, which has only one) plug on the end of the cable
monly used for interfacing with are usually referred to as the that's been changed. And the
joystick ports, since they are new plug isn't one you'll be
printers. After all, it would ap
most commonly used for joy able to find easily, so—until
pear on the surface to be sim
sticks. In fact, on the Plus/4 someone comes out with an
pler to write a machine
and 16, these ports are labeled adapter plug—you'll be limited
language program to simulate
JOY1 and JOY2. The operating to buying only Commodore's
the commonly used Centronics
system ROM does not support
parallel format through this joysticks. On the other hand,
any devices through these ports, the improved BASIC in the
port, than to go to all the trou
ble of designing the hardware so BASIC must communicate Plus/4 and 16 includes a JOY
interface to convert the data using PEEKs and POKEs. function to read the joysticks, so
from the seriai port to the In addition to joysticks, the complicated PEEKs required
proper parallel format. which are simple devices con to read joysticks on the VIC and
The reason this isn't often sisting of five switches—one for 64 can be avoided.
done is that almost all Commo each of the four principal direc In addition to the joystick,
dore software expects the tions, plus one for the fire but this port in the VIC and 64 can
printer to be device 4 on the se ton—the ports can be used to be used to read paddle control
rial port, and in the long run it read other devices that behave lers, (The Plus/4 and 16 have
proves easier to seek a hardware like joysticks, such as trackballs. no circuitry for reading paddles.)
solution to allow you to use the Although the computer nor Paddle controllers, which al
built-in operating system mally uses the five joystick lines ways come in pairs, are actually
routines as provided in ROM. strictly for input, it's possible to just variable resistors which pro
That way, you don't have to program them for output as vide variable voltage levels to
worry about having to load your well. We've never seen any two lines on the port. Circuitry
printer handler routine into peripherals for Commodore within the computers (in the
memory before you can use it, computers that attempt to out VIC chip in the VIC-20, and in
finding a safe place in RAM to put through this port, but there the SID chip in the 64) calcu
store the handler routine, etc. are printer interfaces for the lates a digital value correspond
For more information on in Atari which use Atari's nearly ing to the voltage level. The
terfacing through the user port, identical joystick port. (Atari value ranges from 0 to 255 as
see the article "Using the User and Coleco joysticks are function the voltage on the lines changes
Port" in COMPUTE.'* First Book ally identical to Commodore joy from 0 to 5 volts. Other devices
of Commodore 64. VIC users sticks for the VIC and 64, and which operate like paddles—
might also be interested in two can be used interchangeably.) providing a varying voltage in
articles which show how to use A warning to those contem put—can also be read through
the user port to provide a sec plating the purchase of a Plus/4 this port; graphics tablets are a
ond joystick port: "Fighter or Commodore 16: On those good example.
Aces—Add A Second Joystick" computers Commodore has Each paddle usually also
(COMPUTEI's Second Book of abandoned the widely used DB-9 has a button, but instead of be
VIC) and "Tankmania: Adding joystick connector in favor of a ing read like the joystick but
A Second Joystick To The VIC" nonstandard connector, so exist tons, the paddle buttons are
(COMPUTED GAZETTE, April ing joysticks cannot be used. connected to the lines for two of
1984). Apparently, this was done to re the joystick directional switches.
44 COMPUTE! s Gazelle March 19B5
What you get ifyou cross
a Commodore 64 with a Fferrari.
\ you get (he incredible And, you get the only disk drive LED display that keeps you in
[Lj Indus GTTi diskdrive. that comes with free software. control of your Commodore to
You get brains. You gel beauty. Word processing. Spreadsheet. the air-piston operated dust
But, that's not all you get. Database manager. Plus, a carry cover that protects your disks
You got a disk drive that can ing case that doubles as an 80 and drive.
handle 100% of Commodore's disk storage file, So, you know what you really
software. Up lo 400% faster. Most of all, you get luxury. get if you cross a
You get the disk drive with the From the sleek lines of its sound Commodore 64
best service record around. With proofed chassis to the respon with a Ferrari?
a one year warranty on parts and sive AccuTouch'" controls at the You get the
labor lo prove it. Indus Commandl'ost7 From the best.

CIndus Systems, <HtM Dewing Avenue, Chatjworth, CA 91311 iBIHj BBI-%00. The Indus GT is ,i iiroducl of Indus Syjlwis. Commodore It ■>
registered trddennirk fit Commodore Ruirneii Machines, Inc. Fertari is a reROteieil Irndvnidrk of Ferrari North Ami'rica, Inc.
Commodore 64

One paddle button corresponds When the video chip re which are available at the same
to the joystick's right directional ceives the signal from the pen, pins on all four models, a com
line, and the other to :he line it latches (stores) the current po posite video signal and an audio
for reading joystick left. By con sition of the raster (electron signal. Corresponding video and
vention, the paddle that uses beam) in a set of registers audio inputs are found on most
the right directional line for its (memory locations within the black and white or color moni
button is called the right paddle, chip). The stored value can then tors. The Commodore 1701/1702
and the one that uses the be read, and the position where color monitor also provides for
joystick-left line is the left the pen is touching the screen the input of a luminance signal
paddle. can be calculated. (As with joy via the rear connections. Sepa
Unlike Atari joysticks, Atari sticks, Plus/4 and 16 owners rating the luminance provides
paddles are not completely in will have to wait until someone increased contrast, and drasti
terchangeable with those made manufactures a light pen with cally reduces color smearing.
by Commodore. While Atari the proper plug to fit the unique Television users can attach
paddles can be used with the socket used for this port by a thin wire between the com
VIC and 64, they have a higher those computers.) posite and luminance signals on
resistance and thus are less ac the video port to improve televi
curate for Commodore systems. sion contrast, but some TVs
(A half turn on Atari paddies
The Audio/Video can't take the extra luminance
corresponds roughly to a full Port and produce a distorted screen.
turn on Commodore paddles.) This connector is not really a The more recent 64s use an
One additional type of pe port, since data cannot be trans eight-pin jack rather than the
ripheral—the light pen—can ferred through it. Instead, it pro five pins used on the VIC and
also be connected to this port. vides a connection point to the 64, but a five-pin monitor plug
The pen contains a phototran- computer's video and audio sig will still work. The eight-pin 64s
sistor that switches when it de nals. With the exception of an have a purer color signal avail
tects the electron beam of the audio input line on the 64, all able for use with the rear con
video display sweeping past. A lines at this port are outputs nections of the 1701/1702, so
line is connected from the photo- only. Like the serial port, this you may want to use an eight-
transistor through the port to port is compatible on the VIC, pin cable. The 64's audio input
the chip that generates the 64, Plus/4, and 16, but compat line attaches directly to the au
video signal (the VIC chip in the ible doesn't mean identical. dio input on the SID chip. Be
VIC, the VIC-II chip in the 64, When attaching the computer to careful to feed in only low-level
and the TED chip in the Plus/4 a video monitor, you need a ca (unamplified) sound sources.
and 16). ble that brings out two signals There's no way to process the


46 COMPUTEIS Gazelle March 1985

announces 19 exciting ways to
bring people together.
Now thereS ;i Home Computer Network

that lets you communicate with all kinds GAMES! There's on-line updating of
of people—-all over the country! Make new GAMES! your PlayNET Software as
friends, play exciting games, barter—shop PlayNET lets you games and services are added.
—trade, all from the comfort of your home. play exciting games with real people, not You have access to PlayNET's Shopping
The network operates 6PM-7AM every just a computer. All our games have full Center and Information Center, and every
weeknight, and 24 hours on Saturday, Sun color graphics, and They're all interactivei month you'll get our Newsletter.
day and Holidays. All you need to access
• Plus the added feature WYOUR SATISFACTION IS
of being able to talk with GUARANTEED for 30 days
your opponent while you (or your full subscription

TALK. play. Discuss strategy, price will be refunded upon
By typing on-line you can talk to comment on moves, even receipt of the package).
anyone, or everyone, on the sys try and psych your oppo This is all you pay;
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make new • New games are added all Package (3 disks and a User Man
W: T«r* 1 H-M-Jfl lh 1* J? friends from the lime, and there are ual) Monthly Newsletter, and 90
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CURRENT GAMES INCLUDE; • $2 an hour on
line time (The
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Boxes the telecom
Capture munication

the Mag charges). Thats much
You can send private messages to
Checkers less than a long distance phone call.
people on the system, and the
message will be waiting when they Chess Here's how you can become a member!
Chinese It's easy to join, simply call PlayNET on the
sign on
Checkers toll-free number, 1-800-PLAYNET, or send
Contract the coupon below and access all your Com
Bridge modore 64 has to offer. The sooner you do,

Four-In- the sooner PlayNET can pui the whole
You can post announcements, or
A-Row country at your fingertips]
check the listings of other mem
bers. There arc lots of boards for
hobbies and spe Hangman
cial interests! If Quad 64™
you don't find Reversi The Network
the one you're Sea Strike1"
that has people-talking
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create your
or call 1-800-PLAYNET

You can even transfer non-com subscription price will be refunded upon return of <he package) I m.iy cant-el my
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mercial programs to other mem
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line (labeled Cassette Sense) to INPUT* statements provide all
sound, but it can be mixed with
test the buttons, it's only possi the features necessary for stor
the sound of the SID chip, and
ble to check whether any but ing and retrieving data on tape,
the SfD chip's filters can be
tons are pressed, not which so programmers rarely need to
used as a programmable equal
particular button or buttons are worry about the intimate details
izer for the sound coming in.
pressed. Thus, if you're sup of interfacing to this port, such
posed to press PLAY and as what sort of magnetic pattern

The Cassette Port RECORD and accidentally press is actually used to represent a
only PLAY, the computer won't byte of data on tape. Neverthe
This port is designed for one
be able to detect the mistake. less, it's possible to program
particular peripheral, the Com
Other lines supply power to the several of the individual lines of
modore Datassette recorder.
There are now two models of tape motor (9 volts) and for the this port to achieve special ef
the Datassette, the 1530 (or electronics in the Datassette (5 fects; for an example, refer to
equivalent C2N) for use with volts). Some other peripherals— the "TurboTape" articles in the
the VIC and 64, and the 1531, for example, several brands of January and February issues of
for use with the Plus/4 and 16. printer interfaces—also make COMPUTE!, the GAZETTE'S sister
As with joysticks, the only dif use of the 5 volt power source magazine. <B
ference between the two is the available here.
plug on the end of the connect Communication through COMPUTERS
ing cable. Commodore has used this port is fully supported by
a new and incompatible type of the operating system, with the GAZETTE
connector for this port on its Datassette being designated as TOLL FREE
new models. device 1. Device 1 is the default
Three of the six lines from storage device; unless you spec Subscription
this port are used for writing a ify otherwise, all your SAVEs Order Line
signal to the tape, reading a sig and LOADs will be directed to
nal from the tape, and testing the Datassette. In addition to
In NC 919-275-9809
whether a button is pushed. SAVE, VERIFY, and LOAD, the
Note that since there is onlv one OPEN, CLOSE, PRINTS, and

For the 64 or VIC
Cartridge for the 64.
Alternative to Ihe 1M1 Disk Drivel
Itiis cartridge has a push-button switch on It that allows
Load or save 8K m 3D seconds' It's less e<pensive than disk and can
you Id1 1] Load and then automatically run Ihe first program
even be used as a backup ta the flaky 15411 on disk, and 2} O.splay the disk directory - either ot the
¥es. ihe RABBIT is that and much more Uses the Commodore cassette
deck but loads and saves much, much faster lhan regular Commodore
LJJ touch ot a button! It may not sound like much but it is abso
lutely one ol the most convenient accessories you can
looaVsave Think about it- loadsorsavesanflK program in almost 30
seconds. loKin 1 rrinuie.eic Thalsnearlyaslastasthe tSdidisk RABBIT o install on your 60 rioused in an attractive plastic cartridge
complete wilh easy to Install instruclions. works with every
is on cartridge so its always there Also has other useful commands software package [including menus ond commercial
Specify for use on Ihe 64. or on tne VIC 20 — software] we have tried ana d doesn't take away any memory
Think about it Ihe nevt lime you type- LOAD M*",8,1 RUN or
It was the best putchase lor my Congratulations on your bA
computer that I have ever made1" r?abbii lisa super piece of work " a LOAD "S".B LIST. Remember, it's only S19 95

B ■ A ■■ NOW Please lor your own protection

|\ #1 #\ ^_ Tuc dcct consider Ihe MAE lirsi before you TM
llflMI ' '"„"' . buythot .thero! em bier We've
B w ■# %■■ FOR LESS! had numerous customers who
wosted then money on some cheaper off brand assembler lei I us
how much better the MAE Is.
The most powerful Macro Assembler.'Efliior availoble lor the Jby Eastern House
Commodore MandoiherCBMPET computers, and also foi ihe
ATARI BOQ'XL and Apple MIL A Communications Cartridge
MAE Includes on Assembler, Editor, Word Processor. Rolocoling (or the Commodore 64.
Loader, and more all foi lust $3^5 $39.95
We could go on ond describe the MAE but we thought you would Hi Upload/Download, Stalus Line, etc Works with
like to read our customers' comments. The following are actual your Commoaore 1600 or 1650 Modem
unedited comments tram correspondence about the MAE: Auio-dialmg. elc when used with Ihe new
"Excellent Development "I like MAE and wish thai you naa CBM 1650 Modem
ftackoge" it on ihe Macintosh"
■Compares lo DEC and INTEL' 11 is o superb program'
Cartridge and Manual- S29.95

48 COMPUWs GetBtw March 1985

Get more out of your Commodore with

VIC-2<TAnd 64" Personal Cc

i-Jii I I-i I

More fun Children will learn and

develop new skills with States
t-J ■

M i

& Capitais Tutor, Wordmatch,

. i p ' .
•■.■• i t i i ■ • '

Munchmath, Wordspell, Con ■■"-■I '-J \ -• ■...-

-" I i > n ':i
nect the Dots, Aardvark '■ ■
■ ' - |: -* r
IT +
-h :-

Attack, and Alfabug. Comput

I ■ . IHPI .T-

ing for Kids, a regular monthly l h-h »

I - .-
feature, will uncover new j ■ 1' ,|. , ..

ways to involve your children

in computing.
Quickfind, Word Hunt, Disk
Menu, VIC Timepiece, The
Automatic Proofreader and

Martian Prisoner, The Viper,

Skydlver, Snake Escape, De
mon Star, Cyclon Zap, and Oil More buying
Tycoon are just a few of the
ready-to-run games you'll find guidance
exclusively in COMPUTEI's
You'll profit from comprehen
Gazette each month. Just
sive reviews of everything from
type in the programs and
data-quality cassette tapes to
watch your screen explode
software to graphics plotters
with colorful new computer
and modems. Virtually any
game excitement.
thing that's compatible with
your Commodore is reported
on in COMPUTEI's Gazette.
With this kind of expert help,
More challenge every computer purchase you
make can be the right one!
Ready to tackle more ad
vanced projects? In COM-
More programs
PUTE's! Gazette, you'll learn Programs to help you balance
how to use tape and disk files, your checkbook, store your Order now
how to program the function addresses, keep tax records,
All you do is mail the postpaid
keys, writing transportable manage your personal busi
card bound into this issue. But
BASIC, how to make custom ness. You can create your
don't delay! Subscribe now to
graphics characters, new own programs and games,
start receiving every issue of
ways to enliven programs with improve your word processing,
COMPUTEI's Gazette.
sound, one-touch commands spreadsheets, and data base
for the 64, how to use ma management, load and run For Faster Service
chine language, speeding up faster with 64 Searcher, Call Toll-Free
the VIC-20—and much morel VIC/64 Program Lifesaver, 1-800-334-0868
David Crane
The Designer Behind
Kathy Yakal, Feature Writer

Who ya gonna call?

hard-pressed to find some
one who can't hum that
tune. Ghostbusters was one
of the top-grossing movies
in 1984. Now there's a com
puter game based on the box
office nit, designed by
David Crane, one of the co-
founders of Activision.

How could the movie

Ghoslbusters have
been anything but a
smash hit? It had Bill
Murray. It had a great theme
song. It gave us heroes to cheer
for. Its villains were not really
very scary—one of the most
ominous bad guys was a giant
marshmallow man. And from
the first ghost to the final fail of David Crane
Zuul, its special effects were
David Crane went to see
Ghostbusters before it became for and co-founder of Activision, than 500 hours of my time, and
the movie to see in the summer was approached a few days later I was getting married in six
of '84. "I think I may have en about doing a computer game weeks. So I had to think long
joyed it a lot more than some based on Ghostbusters. Though and hard."
people because it was sprung on he had really enjoyed the One of the reasons he fi
me," he says. movie, he hesitated. "To do jus nally agreed to do it was that he
Crane, a program designer tice to any game takes no less had already started writing the
50 COMPUTE!'* Gazelle Maich 1985
Most printers don't work with performance against cost—it's The Blue Chip Personal Printer costs
Commodore or Atari. And to get difficult to find a printer that com a lot less than anything similar...
one that does, costs too much. pares to the Blue Chip M120/10. without compromise in quality.
That's why the engineers at Blue Top speed with a Blue Chip M120/10 Highly powerful and relentlessly
Chip designed a new personal is 120 characters per second. To beat practical.
printer called the M120/10. If that in any other make of printer, you See one today. Blue Chip printers
you own a computer read on: have to spend about $400 more. are available at Best Products,
Of the ten high speed dot matrix LaBelle's, Jafco, Dolgin's, Miller Sales,
Special print modes on an M120/IO
printers most often used with Rogers, Great Western catalog show
include graphics; condensed, bold
Commodore, Apple, and Atari, none rooms, and other fine stores. Or call
faced and expanded characiers; as
is less expensive than the Blue (800) 556-1234 Ext. 540. In California,
well as superscripts and subscripts,
Chip M120/10. Or more powerful. call (800) 441-2345, Ext. 540, (or
and near letter quality characters.
Fully equipped, it's about $50 less And to beat that In any other make more information and name of your
expensive than a comparable, yet of printer you have to spend nearly closest Blue Chip dealer.
much slower Commodore printer. $300 more.
And in the vicinity of $300 less than
And since it also has the IBM-PC*,
an Epson* set-up to work with a
Apple Macintosh* and IIC*, Serial,
and Centronics interfaces'* you can
Despite its low price, the Blue Chip use the Blue Chip M120/10 with just
Ml20/10 is not a stripped down, about any computer you may
bargain basement printer. eventually own.
In fact, when you judge it by the
same stringent standards computer
professionals use—by weighing total

2 Wesi AlamodA Drive Tempe, Arizona H52H2 (603) tf> I '$&'$

Lirnjn i\ 4 Frui\rpT"l IriHlrrrurh or Kjrt-jn Ariirriia. Im

IHM i% j rrriitU'lnl UAdrnjmk nJ I Hu^iin-s* Vl« Min"^ L'lh|
Crane attended the De Vry "After two years at Na
Institute of Technology in Phoe tional, I felt I could do just
nix, Arizona, to learn electronic about anything in electronics,"
engineering. He had already says Crane. "So what did I do? 1
studied Fortran, RPG, and took a job as a game designer at
COBOL, so he decided not to Atari, where I didn't use any of
take the fourth programming my engineering skills
class, BASIC. "Computer skills whatsoever."
■a jnvsiiri to comirdi
3£oo mbki are the kind of thing you learn Crane had always been an
once and you don't use," he avid game player, participating
says. "Once you know a couple in national foosball tournaments
Outfitting the Ghost mobile.
of computer languages, all you in college and playing any me
need is about a one-page sum chanical games he could find—
mary of what the instructions pinball, Pong when it came
do." along, and later, videogames. As
game without realizing it. For
a student, he built a tic-tac-toe-
the previous few months, he playing computer using only
had been working on a game
discrete electronic components
for the Commodore1 64 that was
("That was in the era before
going nowhere. It had some
thing to do with equipping a car
He had written programs to
and driving it through city
play games and built machines
streets, but there was no story
to play games through the
there. "It was a game concept in
years, so he knew game design
search of a theme," says Crane.
was fun for him. "But it was
"It's an amazing coin
questionable whether I wanted
cidence that what I was doing
to do computer programming
followed the script of the movie.
for a living. I had been doing
I was able to put the theme and
Who yu gonna call? engineering for the past two
game together in such a way
years, so it was kind of a leap
that 1 could have what's really
off the deep end for me to be
an original game concept that
paid for doing computer
embodies the spirit of the
movie." After graduation, Crane felt
he had a firm enough grasp of
David Crane grew up in computer technology to get a
Nappanee, Indiana, a very good job in that field. "But in
small town with a population of stead of doing that, I asked my 7]
about 500 and not very much self, 'What don'l I know enough i! >■-■•■ .': in .'- ■ ■ ,■'■ ml'!
• I 11 •" i1: in ,'= Hi .■■ an ,' .
■ .; »•' .': ■■' ,'; 111 ■■ III-/
going on. In high school, he got about to work in that field?' So .' , III.1 Ill ■ 111 .' III.' .

involved with a local career cen I took a job in that field to

ter that helped provide students round out my expertise and
j:.;!|J|iH|| ||J| 1 x

with vocational training. experience." :

: E
"Though their intention was to So he started working at
teach you a skill that would
help you go out and get a job-
National Semiconductor in
1975, in a department that CHIT'S n ENEROV: 1114 %
* i
300 1
programming for a bank or made chips for non-computer
something—some of us just electronics. It was his job to in Ghostbusiers!
used it to learn how to program troduce computers to the engi
computers in three languages neering department, and he
and then went on to college." built his own computer to do it.

52 COMPUTB'S Gazette March 1985



INFO/TECHNICAL LINE - (805) 682-4000, ext. 95



t/7"//./r/ES PACKAGE

INFO/TECHNICAL LINE - (805) 682-4000, ext. 96

After a couple years at the world—all the things you
Atari, Crane was ready to move might want to do as a hero. I
again, as were some of his co- tried to put those things into the
workers. "There was a group of game."
us that knew we were good, so And many of the important
we set out to start a company," images from the movie are, in
he says. deed, in Crane's computer ver
While consulting an attor sion. At the game's start, you
ney to find out whether they must buy a car and outfit it with
should be a corporation or a equipment like ghost vacuums
partnership, they were referred (to suck up ghosts), ghost bait
Not such a bad-looking bad guy: the
to Jim Levy, a friend of the at {to lure the intrepid marshmai
marshmailow man.
torney. "It was a very serendipi low man), and traps (to store
tous meeting," says Crane. Levy the ghosts after you've nabbed
became one of the original them),
founders of Activision, where he Once equipped, you're
remains president today. shown a map of the city; build
Activision's corporate char ings flashing red are ghost-
ter describes the company as a never have attempted nor de ridden. You drive to those
provider of entertainment soft sired to run the company." buildings, aim your weapons at
ware for computers—rather for Which is not to say he the elusive ghost, and fire (with
ward looking for 1979, when punches a time clock. Though in out crossing the streams). If
games were still being played his "off" times, he might put in you're successful, the little
on video cassette systems. Their 30 hours a week, he's working ghostbusters jump up and down
first products were four 80 when it's busy. "You basi and shout "Ghostbusters!" If
videogames for the Atari VCS: cally work when you've got the you miss, you get "slimed," The
Dragster, Fishing Derby, Boxing, inspiration. game ends when you get past
and Checkers, "When you're program the marshmailow man and into
"We've always known that ming, you have to maintain Zuul. (Ray Parker Jr.'s funky
we would start with the simple more than a thousand details in theme song plays at the opening
form of homo computer, which your mind at one time to make and throughout the game.)
is the VCS, and move into the sure that when you're finally
more elaborate home computers done, it all comes out the way
that we knew would exist about you envisioned it in the begin It may be that David Crane
this time," says Crane. ning. It's pretty intense. I work will be on top of one of the
until I can't see straight, which next new technologies or game
is quite often early in the genres to come along, possibly
Crane is rather an anomaly in afternoon." before many people even envi
today's software develop sion it. "Back in the days when
ment industry, where many de people were still playing space
signers have gone independent The movie Ghostbusters was a games, I had tired of space
and contract their programs to hit because "... it was well games," he says. "I've been suc
publishers. Activision is his em done, funny, and treats a subject cessful because of that. I end up
ployer, -and he and the other that may not be funny with hu producing what people are ready
game designers go in every day mor. They managed to carry it for about the time they're ready
and work in an office. off with only a few people be for it.
But that's always been his ing scared," says Crane. "It had "I will design computer
plan. "We were all game de that rousing sense of adventure games for as long as I find it
signers and we knew that that of driving through the streets run, and I still foresee a few
was and is our strength. I would with a police escort and saving more." 8B
54 COMPUTE'S Gazelto March 1985
I Why settle for less
v when you can have Mo?

Introducing Mitey Mo, COMMODOBE easy to use. With the other modem
the ready-to-go modem you'll have to remember to check
that turns youi Commodore 64 Auto Dial YES
three switches, otherwise you may
Into a telecommunications giant. Auto Answer YES YES be answering when you mean to
Auto Redial YES NO be originating.
Mitey Mo is the complete-and
Smart 64 Software Mitey Mo gives you access to
affordable—telecommunications Included YES YES 14 pages ol memory (28.000 bytes),
system loryour Commodore 64. It will Upload/Download so you can store data and review
open up a world ol practical and Capability YES NO
or print it later, The other modem
exciting uses foryour computer, and VT-52/VT-iOO Emulation YES NO
Menu Driven YES NO doesn't let you store or print
it will take you online faster and
28K Software Buffer YES NO anything.
easier than anything else you can buy
Printing Capability YES NO Mitey Mo is half the size of
Now you'll be able to send and
Easy-to-Use Manual YES NO the other modem. The very latest
receive electronic mail, link up with
Bell 103 Compatible YES YES technology allows miniaturization
community bulletin boards, play Multiple Baud Rales YES YES and increased reliability as well.
computer games with people in dis Cables Included YES YES
Mitey Mo is so reliable, we gave it
tant places, do electronic banking, Single Switch Operation YES NO
a full one-year warranty. The other
and tap into library resources to find Warranty 1 year 90 days
modem gives 90 days, then you're
the material you need for your
on your own.
reports. All at your convenience. Some mighty Interesting features -
Not only will you find Mitey Mo
Until Mitey Mo, Commodore's ours and theirs. Yours to decide.
mighty useful, you'll find it mighty
1660 Automodem was the obvious
reasonably priced. Call us at (415)
choice when you went looking for a
633-1899 and order your Mitey Mo
modem for the C-64, Like Mitey and you find that it's busy Mitey Mo has
Mo, it has "auto-answer"- it "auto redial"- it hangs up and redials
receives data while immediately until it gets through. With
unattended. And the other modem you have to redial
both modems each time-and somebody with auto
are "auto dialers", redialing can slip in ahead of you.
—you dial right Mitey Mo is menu-driven.
on the compu It lists the things you can do on
ter's key the screen. Select a number
board. But and you're on your way. Since
lhat's about , Automodem isn't menu-
where theirj driven, you'll be hunting
similarity through the manual a lot.
ends. Mitey Mo has only one
CDi/Compuler Devices lnt'1
Suppose! switch, the customized soft

1345-A2Doolitlle Drive
you dial a ware does the rest. Every
San Leandro, CA 94577
number. family member will find it (415)633-1899
Heat Seeker
Jeff Wolverton

Your jet climbs upward to avoid the missile, Notes On The 64 Version
then dives for the ground. But it's still on in translating from the VIC to the 64, several
your tail. You can't shake a heat seeker. A modifications were made. The jets and missiles
fast action game originally written in are now sprites (rather than redefined charac
BASIC for the unexpanded VIC, we've ters), so the movement is smoother. And the 64
added a machine language 64 version. Joy version is written entirely in machine language,
stick required. so it plays much faster.
You can fire at heat seekers on the ground.
Heat seeking missiles are dangerous. They sense But it does no good to fire at a moving heat
the heat from your jet engine and home in on seeker. They're equipped with an Improved Elec
you. They'll catch you too—they're faster than a tronic Evasion (IEE) circuit which makes them
jet. impossible to hit. The only way to get rid of a
Your assignment: Eliminate the heat seeker seeker is to make it crash into the ground. When
base. It's easy enough to strafe the missiles on you're being pursued, dive for the ground and
the ground, but if any are launched, you'll have pull up at the last second. Seekers are faster, but
to take evasive action, And air mines can get in they can't turn as quickly.
your way. Unlike the VIC version, the plane can't
shoot itself. And there are no air mines. If your
jet is destroyed, all missiles reappear. In VIC
Piloting The Jet
Heat Seeker, no bases are rebuilt until all of
Use the joystick to control the movement of the
them have been destroyed.
plane. The controls may seem to be a little
A two-player mode has been added, it's not
confusing at first. You pull back to loop upwards
competitive: The players take turns flying the
(counterclockwise) and push forward to loop
plane, trying for the highest possible score. The
down (clockwise), like a real airplane. The jet
game reads both joystick ports, so if you're using
moves at a constant velocity—you can't speed up
two joysticks, the inactive player should put
or slow down. Press the fire button to launch a
down the joystick to avoid interfering.
missile at the heat seekers on the ground.
There are three levels of difficulty: Novice,
in the VIC version, you can also fire at the
Intermediate, and Expert. The higher levels have
heat seeker pursuing you (see below for details
faster action and tighter curves. A flight-time
about the 64 version). Also, you must avoid run
bonus of ten points is awarded every few seconds,
ning into the air mines {VIC version only), which
just for staying in the air.
block your way. You can shoot the mines to
score a few points. It's also possible to acci
dentally shoot yourself. Special Instructions
If you manage to eliminate all the heat seek VIC Heat Seeker is written in BASIC for an un
ers, you get to start all over again, with a new expanded VIC. Remove or disable memory
group of heat seekers. You have eight jets to expansion, type it in, save to disk or tape, and
work with—the number'remaining is displayed type RUN.
on the screen, next to the score. To pause the. The 64 version is written in machine lan
game, press SHIFT/LOCK. guage and loads into the area usually used by

56 COMPUTED Gazelle March 1985

See, while you've been master
ing them, we've been advancing
them. Making them even more run
than before. So now we have two
new mindblasters.
Frogger II Threee-
Deep, a three-screen
nightmare. Starting
with an undersea
battle against deadly
; creatures and the
cruel undercurrent. If
you do make i t to the surface,
it just gets worse. The on ly hope
is to leap into the sky where even
more frog-eating monsters lurk.
And Super Zaxxon, taking you
beyond the outer limits in
your space fighter.
Tunneling through
enemyattack, firing
at Zaxxon's forces,
dodging mine layers.
And Beyond the last
electron barrier, the
ultimate test. Zaxxon
is now a killer dragon hurtling
heat-seeking fireballs.
Hope we haven't scared you.
But if Sega doesn't keep you ahead
of the game, who will?

i U
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Enlctpriscs, Inc.

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Unlaunched missiles are sitting ducks, but become deadly A heat seeker homes in on the jet, which has nearly
once they're airborne (VIC version). cleared the screen (64 version).

BASIC programs. You'll need the MLX machine 3. Load MLX and type RUN.
language entry program to enter 64 Heat Seeker, 4. Answer the prompts:
but first you'll have to move the start of BASIC Starting Address: 2049
up. Follow these directions: Ending Address: 6470
1. If you don't have a copy of MLX for the 5. When you've finished typing in Heat
64, type it in and save to tape or disk (MLX ap Seeker—and have saved a copy to tape or disk-
pears in alternate months of the Gazette). turn off the computer and turn it back on.
2. Turn the computer off and then on and 6. The enabling SYS is built into the pro
type: POKE642,32:SYS58260. If you omit this gram. After loading 64 Heat Seeker, type RUN.
POKE and SYS, you'll get an error in line 550 of See listings on page 131.

jj J irtitmark of CommaJorp fiKitontcs. Inc

PUSHED is a luOenw* ot QxtortJ CoMDuia Sysitms tSotiMB}, L10
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Developed by Parents and Educators L. P. Money I I.. P. Money II
by Aaron Grant by Tom Wanne
... Hearing.,. Seeing... Doing Teaches money Teaches money
values — one cent values — one dollar
In a way that makes LEARNING lo one dollar — loone hundred
using a gum ball dollars — using an
more fun and more effective machine. En ice cream ma
courages money chine. Encourages
No Synthesizer Needed saving. money saving.

L. P. Shapes L, P. Traltic Signs L.P. Child

by Doug Knapp by Tom Wanne Protection
Leatn lo recognize Teaches Idenltlica by Tom Wanne
geometric shapes tion and meanings Teaches children
^K and how lo spell ol traltic signs and how lo protect
iheir names. signals. Increases themselves against
salety awareness. the possibility 01
being kidnapped
Excellent graphics

L. P. Colors L. P.'s Farm L.P. Addition

by Aaron Giant by Aaron Giant by Doug Knapp
Teaches names Teaches names Teaches addition
^H^^^HHt and identification and idenlill cation using numeric
ol colors and ol farm animals. figures and
retnlorces learning objects. Nine levels
ol colors and of difficulty. Great
shapes. Introduction lo
Humpty Dumpty Little Bo Peep
Alphabet program Number program by L.P. Subtraction L.P. Opposites L.P.
by Dave Paulsen Joe Sams and by Doug Knapp by Tom Wanne Multiplication
Put Humpry together Scolt Barker F ■
Teaches Teaches opposiles by Aaron Grant
again and learn: the Biing Bo-Peep's subtraction using such as large, Teaches multipli
Alphabet, the sheep home and numeric figures small; tall, short. cation using
Computer Keyboard, learn: to Count, to and objects. Nine Multiple choice numeric figures
levels of difficulty. quiz. Excellent and charts.
haw ta spell your spell your Name, the
Great introduction graphics. Varying levels o!
Name ... and more. Computer Keyboard to math.
... and more, ■;-;■■/ dilliculty.

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-..■■; sal
The goats are in hot pursuit. They're al
most invincible as they relentlessly munch 64 Version Notes
their way through the underground world
Gregg Peele, Assistant Programming Supervisor
you call home. Your only defense is to
strategically lure them under a falling
boulder. A fast-action game originally In the 64 version, Digger is a happy elf who
written for the VIC, we've added a version survives in a subterranean world by eating
for the 64. her surroundings. Only one problem faces
Digger. She is constantly pestered by three
trolls who dig around her. Digger's only de
fense is to lure the trolls to dislodge under
The object of "Digger" is to avoid three billy
ground rocks. These rocks may then fall on
goats who are pursuing you through under
the unsuspecting troll causing it to vanish
ground terrain. Press fl to start the game. You
temporarily. Digger must be very careful not
can make the goats vanish by digging the soil
to touch any of the trolls or the rocks since
from under any of three rocks. Once the rocks
all vanished trolls will immediately return.
are free, they fall until they hit soil again, remov
As Digger's controller, you get 10 points
ing any goats that may be in their way.
for each vanished troll and 100 points for
The goats can also be immobilized momen
clearing the screen of all-trolls. Using a joy
tarily by inflating them with your trusty air
stick in port 2, you may move vertically or
pump. The air hose is fired by pressing the fire
horizontally. Digger keeps moving until you
button while running toward the target. Once the
stop her by moving the joystick diagonally.
hose has engaged a goat, press 17 to inflate the
You can pause the game by pressing the
goat, You cannot disengage until the goat is com
SHIFT LOCK key. Note that the 64 version
pletely inflated. Meanwhile, the other goats con
does no! have the air pump feature.
tinue to hunt you down.
The action of the fire button may take some Digger uses hi-res graphics and sprites
getting used to. You must be moving and press
to represent the underground world and the
ing the fire button at the same time to activate characters which "eat" their way around
within it. A raster interrupt separates this
the hose.
world from the text area used for the score.
When all three goats are removed, a second
As the game progresses within a particular
screen is started by pressing the space bar, and
play continues with increasing scores. For each
screen, fewer characters must "eat" their
screen completed, you are awarded a flower background. Thus, the game becomes
which appears at the top of the screen. If a goat substantially faster.
touches you in any round, the score returns to Digger must be typed in using 64 MLX
zero and all flowers are removed. (published periodically in the GAZETTE).
The VIC version of Digger must be typed in Enter 49152 and 52187 for the starting and
using VIC MLX (published periodically in the ending addresses, respectively. After typing
Gazette) on a VIC with at least 8K expansion in the program and saving to disk or tape,
memory. Before doing so, however, turn your you can run Digger by typing SYS49152.
computer off, then back on and type the
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FREE PEEKS A POKES POSTER WITH SOFTWARE residenls include 4% sales tax

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You Can Count On

P.O. Box 7211 Grand Rapids, Ml 49510 - Telex 709-101 - Phone 616/241-5510
A goat is immobilized and inflated with the air hose (VIC

following line, pressing RETURN at the end:

Now load and run VIC MLX and enter 4097 and
7684 for the starting and ending addresses,
respectively. If you don't want to enter the whole
program in one sitting, be sure to enter the above
line each time before you load MLX. When
you're finished typing in Digger, save it to tape
or disk. To run Digger, load the program into an
rinexpanded VIC and type RUN.
See listings on page 138.

A troll has just met his demise by the stone (bottom of

screen) in the 64 version.

COMPUTE!'s Gazette
Subscription Order Line
In NC 919-275-9808

62 COMPUTE'S GaiBtto March 1985

language barrier

VIDEO BASIC 64 • ADO 50+ graphic and ADA TRAINING COURSE - teaches XREF-64 - indispensable tool for BASIC pro
sound commands to your programs with this super you the language of the future. Comprehensive grammer cross-references all relerences to variable
development package. You can distribute tree RUN subset of the language, editor, syntax and line numbers.
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ISBN* 091643926-7 $59.95 page guide.
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complete 8ASIC language into either fast 6510 FORTRAN-64 ■ based on Fortran 77. Com
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for £amilie

Computer Peripherals
For The Family
Fred Dlgnazio, Associate Editor

My First Teaching Machine The Personal Computer As

Ever since I was little, I have been fascinated by
Teaching Machine
the idea of self-directed learning—learning at When personal computers began appearing on
home, learning on the job, learning outside class the scene in the late 1970s, my hope was revived
room walls. Associated with this fascination has that here, at last, was a teaching machine that 1
been the compelling belief that an average per could use to learn all sorts of new things. Un
son could learn almost any subject if it was fortunately, the early computers were such prim
taught right. itive devices that I spent most of my time trying
to master the computer itself, and very little time
Even the most complex subjects—computers,
learning anything else.
mathematics, astronomy, physics—can be excit
ing and understandable if they are introduced
correctly to a beginner. What matters is how they
Turning Beginners Into Experts
are introduced. As the personal-computer revolution advanced, I
discovered that there were many other people
When I was a kid, I sent away for a "teach
who shared my interest in using computers as
ing machine" advertised in the mail by Grolier,
teaching machines. A couple of years ago, for ex
Inc. 1 had visions of the machine teaching me all ample, I had a conversation with Alan Kay, one
sorts of exotic subjects like analytical geometry,
of our country's leading computer scientists. At
nuclear physics, and molecular biology. 1 saw
the time he and I talked, Kay was working on
myself zooming ahead of the other kids in my
the Smalltalk project at Xerox's Palo Alto Re
class and skipping grades right on through
search Center
Although Smalltalk was an extremely ad
When the machine arrived, it was just a blue vanced "operating environment," Kay was frus
plastic box, and 1 was terribly disappointed. The trated because it did not measure up to his
machine let me take "courses" by placing a stack vision. Kay wanted personal computers to lead
of lesson pages inside the box. The box was naive beginners efficiently and painlessly into
really just a "high-tech" textbook with multiple- any subject until they would be thinking and act
choice questions at the end of each lesson. I ing like experts.
rolled the pages through the machine, and the Kay and his colleague Adele Goldberg tested
questions appeared in a little window at the top. Smalltalk by ushering a steady stream of chil
When I had filled in my answer, I could open an dren, musicians, artists, businesspeople, and
adjoining window to peek and see if my answer homemakers through their labs at Xerox. Every
was correct. one played with Smalltalk while Kay and
W COMPUTE'S Gazetta March 1985
Required Reading for

treasure chest ot easy-to-use programming techni bestselling handbook available on using the floppy programming quickies that will simply amaze you.
ques Advanced graphics, easy data input, enhanced disk. Clearly explains disk files with many examples This guide is packed full of techniques for the BASIC
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I/O. extending BASIC commands, interrupts. Dozens
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Dozens of samples. Fourth printing.
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P.O. Box 7211 Grand Rapids, Ml 49510 - Telex 709-101 - Phone 616/241-5510
Goldberg watched. They learned that Smalltalk When you operate your computer, are you learn
was, indeed, a simple yet powerful personal- ing anything?
computer environment. Even little children could So far, manufacturers have not converted
operate it at a superficial level. But Smalltalk did computers into total black boxes with their "easy
not, on its own, convert a beginner into an expert play" mass-market philosophy. They have cre
in any subject. ated products that can be operated at two lev
els—the easy-play, beginner's level and the
Pathways To Powerful Ideas expert level—but there is nothing in between.
If you're a beginner and you just want to sit
Another person fascinated with using the com
down at your computer and make fantastic doo
puter as a "self-directed learning machine" is
Seymour Papcrt of MIT. In his work in MIT's
dles, then you can use the easy-play mode. Or, if
you are an expert, and you are already trained in
Artificial Intelligence Lab, Papert has attempted
visual arts, music, or whatever, you can read the
to build pathways beginners can follow to learn
manufacturer's manual and do serious work (or
more about new domains of knowledge—what
serious play) on the computer.
Papert calls "powerful ideas."
But what if you are somewhere in between?
In his landmark book, Mindstorms: Children,
How do you go from easy-play to the expert
Computers, and Powerful Ideas (Basic Books,
level? So far, there are no products that offer this
1980), Papert wrote about how even young chil
feature—and make it work.
dren can learn complex concepts and subjects by
using the programming language Logo, and vari
ous "discovery learning" methods that Papert in Beyond Computer Popcorn
troduced during the 1970s in his AI Lab and in In January 1984, I wrote an article called "Com
various Boston-area elementary schools. puter Popcorn" for my "World Inside The Com
Today Logo has become a major educational puter" column in COMPUTE!. In that article I
computer language. However, educators are just described new products like the KoalaPad touch
beginning to realize that Logo, on its own, can tablet from Koala Technologies and the music-
not do all the wonderful things Papert en composition program, Music Construction Set
visioned. On its own, Logo is a rather simple from Electronic Arts, as popcorn: They were so
graphics and list-processing language. Like good that once I started using them, I couldn't
Smalltalk, and like my Grolier teaching machine, put them down.
Logo is not the vehicle that automatically whisks But I have now.
eager beginners into new realms of knowledge. For me, "computer toys" are still fun, but
they aren't taking me anywhere. They're great for
Easy Learn Vs. Easy Play doodling and "fooling around," but 1 no longer
learn when I use them. In fact, they have taught
Today there's a flood of new software products
me very little. They are too diffuse, too open-
and peripherals appearing on the market for per
ended, too undirected. They are super tools, but I
sonal computers like the Commodore 64. Re
have only the fuzziest idea about how to make
cently I've noticed the use of the word "Easy" as
them work.
a prefix to many product names—such as Easy
Plus, they make me feel guilty. After all,
Key, Easy Type, Easy Play, and so on. To read the
they have such great learning potential. Why am
manufacturer's claims for its products, you'd
I so dumb and so lazy that I can't pick them up
think that the age that Kay, Papert, I, and many
and learn on my own? After all, Beethoven and
others had hoped for had finally arrived. "With
Picasso never had a personal computer, and look
these simple yet powerful tools," claim the
how well they did.
manufacturers, "you can learn to use your com
puter to - (fill in the blank) like an expert
in just a few minutes." Skating Along The Surface
The age of "Easy Play" has indeed arrived. Last spring I moderated a panel at the Billboard
With the right software, your Commodore com Conference on Computer Software. Bill Budge,
puter can now fit in the same category as your the designer of Pinball Construction Set and other
Easy-Click camera, your Easy-Roast microwave marvels, spoke at that conference and said that
oven, your Easy-Music organ, and your Easy- he was worried that software designers were
Coal foam rubber football. designing new products that might outstrip peo
With "easy-play" software and peripherals, ple's ability to use them. The products were get
personal computers are on their way to becoming ting so deep, so powerful, and so complex, that
mass-market home appliances, because to be they were intimidating to the average user.
mass-market they must be an appliance that Today, after looking at some of the new fan
everyone can operate. But the question is this: tasy games, some of the graphics and music-

66 COMPUTERS Gazette March !985


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synthesizer products, and some of the new through directed play, the mastery of different
productivity tools like Lotus's Symphony, I agree. techniques commonly associated with expertise
And what a shame. The personal computer in a given field.
revolution is not succeeding if all we can do is After a person learned a technique, he or she
create more and more powerful computer tools would be free to play with it on a word proces
and make them off-limits to regular human beings. sor, music processor, art processor, or whatever.
It's terribly frustrating to read about newer, more Then return to the curriculum and learn some
powerful computer tools and realize that if I used thing new. A person could continue dipping into
them I would spend all my time skating along the curriculum as schedule and interest allowed.
the surface and never learn how to plumb their And the reward for following the curriculum
depths, would be the incremental mastery of all the fea
tures offered by the software tool. A beginner
could take pleasure knowing that the result
A Hidden Curriculum looked like it was done by an expert. And that
Because the new computer tools are dazzlingly the expertise acquired and the music or artwork
complex, many manufacturers have incorporated created were not just computer sleight-of-hand.
an "easy play" operating level for most of us,
and they have thrown in the "expert level" com
mands to try to appeal to people who already Self-Teaching Tools
know what they're doing in a particular area. When 1 was a child, I had a fantasy that one day
But how about something in between? How I would slip into an empty orchestra pit and be
about a hidden curriculum for the thousands, or allowed to play with all the musical instruments
millions, of us who are eager—but very timid— the musicians had left behind. I saw myself play
learners, who want to learn some of the tricks of ing violins, oboes, harps, and grand pianos. I
the experts but who want to remain in control tooted tubas, banged on drums, and strummed
and not just "play" the computer like a black bass violins like a jazz virtuoso.
box? Now, as an adult, I realize the futility of this
Unfortunately, a hidden curriculum does not dream. Even if 1 had been left alone with a score
translate into more user-friendly manuals, help of musical instruments, I wouldn't have been
screens, mice, or icons. These give us a firmer able to play them. No one had ever taught me
grip on the computer "lever," but they don't tell how.
us how or where to direct the lever. The same is true of
Likewise, onscreen tutorials and computer most of the new com
activity books are also not part of this curricu puter peripherals and
lum. Tutorials teach us only the mechanics of the software tools becom
tools, not how to use them artfully, expertly, and ing available. We
creatively. And activities are things we do when can play with
we have reached a learning plateau, and when them and use
we need to practice skills we have already them to tinker,
learned. But first we need someone—or some toot, and scribble,
thing—to teach us the skills. but mostly we are
What we need are tools that teach us about just making noise.
themselves and about the powerful ideas that un-
derly their existence. We need music products that
give us a grounding in musical theory and compo
sition; graphics products that teach us about
art, drawing, and painting; flight simu
lators that teach us what all those controls
on the dashboard are for; and astron \
omy programs that start with the -
sun, the moon, and the Big Dipper,
and not some fictitious faraway galaxy.
We need the manufacturers to put
us on some kind of learning path—the
hidden curriculum—without shackling
us to anything that would be too
long, too technical, or too demanding
for a home recreational environment. The
curriculum should have as its goal,
68 COMPUTEIs Gazelle Marcn 1965
But what if the tools taught us the powerful like an Undo button (to undo mistakes), a holder
ideas embedded inside them? Then they might for the plastic stylus you use in drawing on the
become the teaching machines I dreamed of as a tablet, and a pair of legs to prop up the tablet on
child. the table where you are working. In addition,
DesignLab, the drawing program that comes with
Some Easy-Play Toys For Your Animation Station, has a wraparound menu that
lets you view your picture and the drawing com
Commodore 64 mands at the same time; a variety of character
The theme of this month's GAZETTE is "computer fonts for labeling and titling your drawings; and
peripherals," so I'd like to mention a few other color-selection and "cut-and:paste"
peripherals that have the greatest potential to be commands.
come self-teaching tools—if they are supple However, both products lack self-teaching
mented with the right print materials and materials and a "hidden curriculum" that would
software. make them much more educational than they are
In fact, the major limitation with the prod now.
ucts I'm going to mention is the scarcity of any
kind of support materials. On the other hand, all
the products mentioned below are "plug-and-go"
Musical Keyboards
products. You plug them into your 64, and at Many companies are beginning to make musical
least you can do something. keyboards for the Commodore 64, including
Waveform, Inc. and Sight & Sound Music Soft
ware, Inc. The Waveform keyboard is a flat,
Educational Keyboards membrane keyboard with a cable that attaches to
The Muppet Learning Keys keyboard from Koala the Commodore 64 via user port 1. Sight &
Technologies (with Sunburst and Henson Asso Sound's keyboard is a plastic overlay that slips
ciates) is intended for children ages 3 and up. over the top of the Commodore 64 keyboard,
It features colorful graphics, big letter keys Each keyboard includes 25 keys spanning two
arranged in alphabetical order, and all sorts of octaves. Both companies back up their products
useful keys like Go, Stop, Oops, Zap, Eraser with an impressive array of music-synthesizer
(which looks like a pink rubber eraser), and software. However, my family has taken a liking
Help. One disk comes with the keyboard, but to the Sight & Sound keyboard for three reasons:
much more software and print materials are It has more musical games (such as "Tune
needed to turn this product into an entry-level Trivia," "Music Video Hits," and "Solid Gold")
keyboard and reading, writing, and arithmetic for the family to play; it has a disk (3001 Sound
tutor. Odysscij—sold separately) that teaches you some
Some software packages are appearing with of the fundamentals of operating a computer mu
their own keyboard overlays. Three CBS Soft sic synthesizer; and it has "real keys" that move
ware products, for example, come with EasyKey, up and down instead of flat, membrane keys.
a plastic keyboard overlay produced for CBS by Both products have great potential but lack a
Neosoft, Inc. One of these products is Letter-Go- hidden curriculum or "courseware" to introduce
Round, written by software designers at the Chil the rank beginner to music's many powerful ideas.
dren's Television Workshop (CTW is the home of
Sesame Street and Big Bird). Lcttcr-Go-Round is a Light Pens
simple letter-matching and spelling game, but it
Two fairly inexpensive light pens for the Com
is significantly enhanced by the EasyKey overlay.
modore 64 are the Edumate light pen from
The overlay fits atop your Commodore 64 key
Futurchouse, Inc. and the Tech Sketch light pen
board and "customizes" the keyboard for the
from Tech Sketch, Inc. The Tech Sketch pen
Letter-Go-Round program. Instead of having to
comes with the Micro Illustrator graphics-and-
cope with dozens of keys arranged in a mysteri
drawing program. Futurehouse sells the Periph
ous order, your child just has to search for pic
eral Vision drawing program for its Edumate pen,
tures of Grover, Barclay the dog, Cookie
but you must buy it separately.
Monster, and a big pink Stop button.
Both pens are easy to use, and the drawing
programs are a lot of fun. Also, Futurehouse has
Touch Tablets a variety of educational and productivity pro
The two favorites around our house are Koala grams for the Edumate pen that enable you to
Technologies' KoalaPad and Suncom's Animation use it as an alternative to the computer keyboard.
Station. Both pads come with lots of separate However, neither pen has materials that teach an
software packages and a drawing program (on unskilled beginner how to create any advanced
disk). Animation Station also has helpful features art or graphics beyond making circles and boxes
COMPUTED Gazette March 1985 69
and filling them in with pretty colors. Both pens Colortone Keyboard (musk program included)
have great potential as self-teaching tools once Waveform Corporation
the right software and print materials are made 1912 Bonita Way
available. Berkeley, CA 94704
(415) 841-9866
The Muppet learning Keys (includes Sunburst disk) $79
Koala Technologies Corp.
MOO Patrick Henry Drive
The Incredible Musical Keyboard (disk/books included)
Santa Clara, CA 95052-8100
Sight & Sound Music Software, Inc.
(408) 986-8866
3200 South 166th Street
New Berlin, Wl 53151
Letter-Go-Round (disk and EasyKcy included) (414) 784-5850
CBS Software $49.95
One Fawcctt Place
Greenwich, CT 06S36
Edumate Light Pen (pen and Peripheral Vision drawing
(203) 622-2500
Futu rehouse
Kottlapad (drawing program included) P.O. Box 3470
Koala Technologies Corp. Chapel Hill, NC 27514
3100 Patrick Henry Drive (919) 967-0861
Santa Clara, CA 95052-8100 $59.95
(408) 986-8866
599 Tech Sketch Light Pen (pen and Micro Illustrator
Animation Station (drawing program included) program)
Suncom Inc. 26 Jusl Road
260 Holbraok Drive Fairfieid, NJ 07006
Wheeling, II 60090 (800)526-2514
(312)459-8000 (201) 227-7724
S89.95 $39.95; deluxe version, $119.95 ffil

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70 COMPUTED GazeflO March I9B5

Alpha Anxiety
Craig Howarth

Sure, everyone knows the alphabet—but hum the alphabet song to get it right. "Alpha
how well? You may go back to the ABC's Anxiety" makes the seemingly simple scenario of
after tackling this puzzle. It's a good naming the letters of the alphabet a difficult
example of a program that's educational challenge. The game displays a five-by-five grid
for children, and entertaining for game (a total of 25 boxes) containing each of the letters
players of all ages. The article includes of the alphabet except Z. The computer randomly
simple program modifications to make the places letters behind each of the boxes at the
game playable for children. For the VIC beginning of each round of play. Your job is to
and 64. A joystick is required. move to a square using a joystick (port 2 on the
64) to reveal the hidden letter. When you find
the letter A, press the fire button and A is
permanently displayed. Next, move to B, C, and
You can probably recite the alphabet without so on. That's easy enough, but that's only the
even thinking, although some people have to beginning.

E o jr •3 \/


U V F* M S

N T R C l_

W K Tf r=i I


The first round is nearly completed (VIC version). Searching for a G in the 64 version of "Alpha Anxiety."

COMPUTEls Gazelle March 1985 71

The Going Gets Tough is still in effect (look at the bottom of the screen
Finding the letters in the right order isn't so diffi if you forget which letter is next).
cult, but finding them within the time limit is. If your score reaches 5000, your average
You start with 150 seconds, plenty of time—or time per round is computed and this becomes
so it seems. The time allotted for any following your time for all subsequent rounds. But, for
rounds is based on how well you did in the pre every 1000-point increment up to 10,000, five
vious round (time " previous time remaining X seconds are subtracted from your starting time
2 + 40). So, even the first round cannot be taken for each round. After 10,000 points, no changes
lightly. You are penalized for slow play, and re are made to game play.
warded for speed. As the game gets increasingly difficult, you
To make matters worse, if in your hurry to may want to use a "look ahead" strategy. For ex
bent the clock you choose a letter out of se ample, if you need the letter B, look also for C
quence, ten seconds are deducted from your cur and D. Once you find B, you won't have to
rent time. If you accidentally press the fire button search for the next two.
while on a letter already chosen, there is no pen
alty (although in later rounds a penalty is Modifying The Game
given—see below). Ten points are awarded for Alpha Anxiety is challenging for adults. Children
each correct choice. Your score builds from round who aren't dexterous with a joystick or haven't
to round, but one bad round (not beating the memorized the alphabet may find they don't
clock) can wipe you out and end the game. have enough time to complete the first round.
When you reach 1500 points, the rules To make the game more educational and
change. You must find the letters in reverse se practical, you can increase the allotted time.
quence—Y to A. Be sure to keep an eye on the Change the value of DL in line 260 (VIC version)
"Next Letter" indicator at the top left corner of or Sine 220 (64 version). Also, you can make the
the screen if you're having trouble with the se game easier by changing the equation for
quence. At this level, any keypress other than computing time for the next round. To do this,
the correct one costs ten seconds. If you reach change 40 to a higher number in line 970 (64
2500 points, the "Next Letter" indicator is no version) or line 1010 (VIC version).
longer displayed, although the reverse sequence See listings on page 125. ©

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clude S3M snipping per sollware order. Include 3is shipping on all Hardware oilers, minimum 13 00 Mastercard S Visa please inolude Milwaukee Wi 53!1T
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will NOT t>o accepted for replacement or repair Prices anil uvailaoility are subjecl lo change wiihout nolico. Sat 13 PU ■ 5 PM CSI
A Very Artificial Intelligence Lesson
Tom Prendergast

Give your Commodore a little personality stead of rights or wrongs, correct or not correct.
with this short program. It demonstrates There have been programs which can fool
the basic principles involved in creating people into thinking that the computer is think
artificial intelligence. For the 64, VIC, ing. Probably the most famous is Weizenbaum's
Plus/4, and 16. Doctor, or another version called Eliza after the
beautiful Cockney girl who was taught to sing
about the rains in Spain in very proper upper-
Do you ever get frustrated with your computer class English. Eliza was originally programmed in
and all those SYNTAX ERRORs it throws at you COMIT, a pattern-matching language designed to
when you're trying to program? It's not really the match and "mask" patterns of English words and
computer's fault, though. It's the way it was phrases. And this is what our AVAIL program
"hard wired," very businesslike and impersonal. does, except it does it in BASIC.
In fact, it's downright inhuman. The trouble with a program like Eliza in
So, how about plugging a little human BASIC is that your computer's BASIC "inter
warmth—you—into the computer? You can do preter" has to translate every single byte and bit
that by feeding your Commodore computer this of your English into binary code, then put it
AVAIL program. Your computer's response may through thousands of steps of processing, deter
be so human that you'll be glad to get it back to mine the right SYNTAX for the replies from
its usual state. "look-up tables," and then go through the whole
First, though, let's talk a little about artificial business in reverse, retranslating from binary
intelligence. AI, as it's often abbreviated, is a term back into English for you. If you try an E/i'zn-type
coined by John McCarthy back in 1956 B.C. program on your home computer, you may find
(Before computers were on chips) for a summer yourself waiting a while for a reply.
symposium at Dartmouth College. They were AVAIL, however, will give you snappy an
very optimistic back in the dark ages of comput swers in just microseconds after you press
ers. Most people at the Dartmouth conference RETURN. But there's a penalty for this speed.
were sure somebody would be able to program a Sometimes the computer's English is so bad that
computer to think like a human being—not like it's pitiful. You can call this a "bug" if you will,
an adding machine—in the next year or so. But but I think it gives the program a loveable human
they were much too optimistic, as it turns out, quality—-almost as if you were talking to a preco
because it's almost 30 years later and nobody's cious three-year-old. In fact, it might seem
succeeded in doing that. there's a little person back there behind the
screen. And as you continue with the program
Not The Way We Think and the computer "learns," it starts sounding
A computer "thinks" in binary—yes/no, on/off, more like a ten-year-old, an eleven-year-old, and
right/wrong—but the way a human being thinks then a fresh teenager. So be careful what you
is usually in very fuzzy logic, in "maybes" in say. Your computer picks up things so fast that it
74 COMPUTED Guzelto Maich 1385
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Commodore 64 is a trademark ol Commodore.
may tell you a lot you'd rather it didn't. At the you recall your high school grammar, is what
very least, you'll find out how difficult our SYNTAX essentially is. (Syntax is from the Greek
English syntax is for anyone not born to it. syn 4- tassein, meaning to put in order.)
Line 130 transfers the words to another
Like Learning A New Language string array—W$(l) becomes X$(l), W$(2) be
Essentially your computer starts off with a blank comes X$(2), and so on, so that they can be pro
memory slate, much like we did when first born. cessed further, and empties the first array for
It doesn't know a word of non-BASIC English. another go-round when we return to line 20 for
Remember that it's learning English the way you fresh input and an even fresher reply.
learned BASSC when you first started out—word The subroutine in lines 210-400 is a pattern-
by word. So you have to teach it every word of matching syntax table that changes "you" to "I"
its new vocabulary, and also how we put those and so on. Line 370 is a little tricky and you may
words together in English. This won't take very want to change it later to "W$(I)=*X$(I)" not
long—several inputs on your part and the two of X${1+1), but it will give you a few surprises as it
you are off and rolling. Lines 20-50 are the input is.
module, which allows you to use commas with Now we're at line 160. After you've seen the
out your getting those EXTRA IGNOREDs from computer's reply, if you press RETURN you'll get
regular INPUT. You could replace these four another "?:" prompt. But if you type N {for
lines with a one-line INPUT 1N$, but then you "No—it's not OK") when the computer asks if
wouldn't be able to use commas or any other it's OK, then the program performs a GOSUB to
punctuation in your dialogue. It's also a nice rou . 410 for a more or less random response.
tine to add to your bag of tricks. Here's what you can expect when you run
Lines 60-120 and the subroutine at line 200 AVAIL:
break up your input sentences into individual An input prompt "?:" will appear, signaling
words so that the words of your 1N$ sentence you to type in your first question. Type anything
become substrings of IN$: Word no. 1 becomes you wish and enter it by pressing RETURN. The
W$(l), word no. 2 becomes W$(2), and so on. computer will respond immediately (The
This is so the computer can rearrange and play computer's response is shown in CAPITAL
the words back in the correct order—which, if LETTERS in the sample run below.)

?: (You) How are you, little buddy? [Hit RETURN]

USING ONLY WORD! ?: What's your name?
A compile. fully-Jnregraled progpnm dtvtflopment iytrem
?: Is that your name? Link1 Buddy?
Mortff IJte, feif Gq^gb. G'apmtv Dolu AcquJuQun Busings. Mum
Real Tune P-o(ps* Conirol. Cor-invicoiioii. fioboi.i* StienN+K. Arrrfmal Inrfll.genEO IS THAT MY NAME LITTLE BUDDY OK?
A Pov-erW iup.n.l of MVPFORTH FORTH 7<J ■ En. lor Ihe beginner 01 prufciilsna
■ 20 Is 6CC ■ lo»er Ilian hai • SPSIIE EDITOR
?: That's not what I meant!
* l'J ■ |f*e p rog'Q m ming fii • An«H al Crj4 ppr ahp.oi* inrlvij,ng 40*
* Eaiy lull <o"P*0& o' oH V>W dri-4 end IPOQV, PfOflro~^»r
■ J.ngle di.<e boihuo u*-l'*>
• t^ii & CoMffit* baled D.jk ^ic^drd
?: How can I explain ihis to you?
■ Cofli.ollatil* if • lull d.ifc ^iag» 680 ^>-M&.i HOW CAN YOU EXPLAIN THIS TO 1 OK?
• Lntludfl <« ■ E-upuorti all Com>nodo'e 4.1* lypti end
• totfh . Foih Viriuol dilk
• F^U (u.*or &. i«en Editor • fisten lo 20K RA^ undrrnooih BOM
?: That's lousy English, you know!
• PiQ.mon \ot a^plKutum program □ real THAT IS LOUSY ENGLISH, I KNOW TO I OK?
• Vectored liarnai word^
• FOflTrt eqv»al>"it KtrnQl Bo^inei
• Candifionol r^acre fliEemblpr R in hfy
?: And that's even worse!
• iiCII error n-effagei
» CumDotitlf *i"i iho booh "5to-ting Fo«h • tlOW4<* POINT *\fiTn SrN COS & SORT
b, Leo K'odi* • Con.p'mi.oial uier delmed C^~iii'i]i
[You type "N" for No, it's not OK]
• Mctu to oil I O po"k "^232 itEE • Tu'ona eio^pln p'O..d#d in tilenine NO? WHAT'D YOU EXPECT ME TO SAY?
?ol poge crort -ttfi-t-t*-. "o^wal
• I?1!!^?U^I ro«'ir|P' P'O-idt »a>) conkol
• SOMilJLI iohJ* gtMFDTar
• MJSIC EDITQH ol hurd*uie limen. a I a""' and dp-nn
?: Syntax t'rror!

?: And you forgot the line number


?: 1 wonder if you'll ever loarn English?


?: There's more truth to that than poetry!

" "p^oVoV '°" (415)651-3160
$96 PARSEC RESEARCH --._; ?: You can say that again!
fc Drawer 177*. freinonl. CA «J^33 j3B -** 1 CAN SAY THAT AGAIN POETRY OK?

Set' listing on page 124.

76 COMPUTERS Gazelle March 1985
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COMPUTE'S Gazette March 1985 77

User Group Update

When writing to a user group for information, Utah, has a new name and contact person. The
please remember to enclose a stamped, self- club can be contacted at the following address:
addressed envelope. When calling a user group, Wasatch Commodore Users Group (WACUG), care
please don't forget to take time differences into of Mike Murphy, P.O. Box 4028, Ogden, UT
account, and call during reasonable hours. 84402. The club's bulletin board can be reached
Send additions, corrections, and deletions to at (801) 773-5512.
this list to: The Tri-State Commodore Users Group also
has a new address. Write to it at P.O. Box 2501,
COMPUTE! Publications
P.O. Box 5406
Huntington, WV 25725-2501.
Greensboro, NC 27403 A user group is forming in Brooklyn, New
Attn: Commodore User Groups York. Those interested should contact Malcolm J.
Gottesman, 1735 East 13th Street, Brooklyn, NY
11229. The phone number is (718) 375-5278.
Changes The listing for The Exchange, a Commodore
The new address for the Tuesday User Group 64 user group in Long Beach, CA, should be re
(T.U.G.) is Box 1787, Port Perry, Ontario, Canada placed with the following information: C64
LOB 1N0. Helpers, P.O. Box 9189, Long Beach, CA 90810.
Correspondence for the Santa Rosa Com The phone number previously listed for the club
modore 64 Users Group (SRCUG) should now be should no longer be used.
sent to Rusty Stuart, P.O. Box 4512, Santa Rosa, The Central Florida Commodore Users Club
CA 95402. The phone number is (707) 578-3481. has a new post office box number. For infor
Mark Bender is no longer the contact person mation, contact Thurman Lawson, P.O. Box
for the Logansport Commodore Club. Inquiries 7326, Orlando, FL 32854, phone (305) 886-0390.
should be sent to the club in care of Howard C. COMCOE, the Commodore Club of
Peoples, 2329 Myers Lane, Logansport, IN Evanston, Illinois, has disbanded.
46947. The phone number is (219) 753-9353. Commodore Owners of Lafayette (COOL),
Another user group with a new address is has a new address. Correspondence should be
the Lane County Commodore 64 User Group sent in care of Ross Indelicato, 3942 Kensington
(LCCUG). Information can be obtained by writ Drive, Lafayette, IN 47905. The phone number is
ing the group at P.O. Box 11316, Eugene, OR (317)447-1326.
97440. The Commodore Computer Club, Evansville,
Dr. M. H. McConeghy, former contact per Indiana charter, also has a new mailing address.
son for the Newport (R[) Computer Club, is nq Send inquiries to Commodore Computer Club,
longer associated with that group, and asks that P.O. Box 2332, Evansville, IN 47714.
correspondence no longer be directed to him. The Longview Users Group has a new ad
Further information about the club is not avail dress: c/o Dorothy Metzler, P.O. Box 9284,
able at this time. Longview, TX 75608. The phone number is (214)
The Commodore User Group of Clearfield, 759-0699. @
78 COMPUTE! S Gazerre Marcd 1985
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5 aft wire Submliiloni I
The power of the
Microsoft Muliiplan spreadsheet depends largely on
the way it handles formulas.
Change the number in just one
Harvey B. Herman, Associate Editor
cell and any other cell depen
good use of spreadsheet pro dent on the same formula will
Think back to the early days of
personal computing, before the grams for calculating budgets or change. Think back to the last
time you did your income tax.
PC was a twinkle in Big Blue's averaging grades, using VisiCak
Wouldn't it be nice if when you
eye. At that time, why would a or one of its clones. 1 have the
ren'gure your adjusted gross in
business want to purchase a same feelings watching my wife
come, all other related "cells"
small computer? Surely, the cost using VisiCak to prepare reports
could not be justified on the ba which incorporate extensive cal on the IRS form would also
change? You might never have
sis of all the neat games it culations. Would I ever be able
to file an amended return again.
would play or its ability to tutor to do likewise? Well, you have
basic number facts. No, there to devote a little effort to learn
probably was no compelling any new applications software Practical
reason for a commercial firm to and there always seemed to be Applications
buy one until early 1979, when some excuse not to bother. 1 had a favorable impression of
the first spreadsheet program, However, when I was ap Microsoft Muitipian even before
VisiCak, was introduced. proached about a review of i started the review. The opin
I am reminded of the now Microsoft Muitipian, it was just ion of people I trust was consis
popular theory of evolution the stimulus needed for me to
tently favorable. My first
called "Punctuated Equilib learn the technique that! envied impression was also positive.
rium." For the most part, evolu others using and one I was cer The program comes in a sturdy
tionary change is gradual, but tain 1 would put to good use im package with a 427-page
on rare occasions a significant mediately. 1 jumped at the looseleaf manual, Cheatsheets,
step occurs. Before 1979, small chance. and a function key overlay. No
computers had made only a Most readers know what a preliminary, smudged, mimeo
modest inroad into the business spreadsheet is, but just in case graphed instructions—a good
community. However, in 1979, some don't, here's a brief ex sign.
the perception of the utility of planation. An electronic I tore open the wrappings,
personal computers for business worksheet, or spreadsheet, is a remembrances of birthdays past,
applications underwent a radical matrix of rows and columns and jumped right in. My ap
change. Computers running called cells, containing data, proach, a method I don't recom
VisiCak, in a few short years, headings, and formulas. Nu mend for everyone, is to read a
virtually replaced the hand cal meric data is entered into cells little, try something useful, and
culated spreadsheets of the past. at the intersection of the grid of read a little more when I get
A milestone had been reached, rows and columns. The head stuck. Most people will prefer to
and it was largely due to this ings are letters, numbers, or go carefully through the fine tu
one program and others of that special characters, information torial in the manual before at
ilk. which makes the sheet more tempting a real problem.
understandable. The formulas, The program was easy to
Procrastination and they can be quite compli load, but I found the initial
I too am in business, the educa cated, perform calculations on chatter of the protected disk
tion business, and for years I've specified data taken from the annoying. When the program
envied colleagues who make matrix of cells. begins to run, a blank sheet of
80 COMPUTE'S Gazone March 1985
empty rows and columns faces gave me a little more trouble. reason. The minor mishap was
you. What to do? I decided to pretty things easily corrected by making all
For review purposes, 1 set up by adding a two-column title variables relative.
up two typical applications. to the sheet. I moved everything After adding a few more
First, I investigated the possibil down two rows using the IN headings, I was ready to print
ity of maintaining my grade SERT command. However, this out. The final sheet looks like
book with Multtplan. Then, I messed up the average calcula this:
looked at the preparation of a tion, as the variables in the for
1984 Grades Average
budget with the aid of this mula were absolute rather than
spreadsheet program. Tom 75 77 89 80.3
relative. For example, you can
Dick 82 85 75 80.7
For the grade book test, 1 use the formula AVERAGE using
Harry 71 75 80 75.3
began with a class of six having either absolute variables or rela Jean 88 87 82 85.7
three grades each. I've learned tive variables. Both calculate the Jane 85 90 87 87.3
that you save yourself a lot of average, but the latter is pre Joseph in 90 87 92 89.7
grief if you use a small sample ferred if the sheet needs to be
Average 81.8 83.5 84.2
to begin with. In the first ex moved up or down later for any
panded column, I typed the stu
dent names (alphabetic data
rather than numeric): Tom,
Dick, Harry, Jean, Jane, and
Josephine. In the second
through fourth columns, I typed
the student grades on each test.
In the fifth column, 1 replicated
a formula calculating the stu
dent's average grade. Later, I
learned how to do this without
the need to edit the replicated
So far, so good, but there
were a couple of minor prob
lems. Josephine's name was
clipped off, but 1 was assured by
a more experienced user that all
letters were saved and could be
displayed if the cell was wid
ened further. Also, the decimals
in the calculated average
weren't quite right. I corrected
this easily with the FORMAT
Since my familiarity with
the program had steadily im
proved, I had no trouble adding
additional formulas which calcu
lated the class average on each
exam. The next step, however,

Incidentally, I also saved the only figures which would prob the manual or help files
printer output on disk and in ably change are the amount required.
corporated the output file di budgeted and the relative merit. There are a few negative
rectly into the word processor Multiplan would then do the points which many people
which is being used to write this calculations in a fraction of the won't object to, especially if
review. time 1 could and, more impor they are new to spreadsheets.
For the other test applica tantly, do them without error. The notation for rows and col
tion, I prepared a budget. Again, The final spreadsheet bud umns is awkward compared to
a simple example is best to start get is shown below. Again, it similar programs. Multiplan has
with. On occasion I receive fixed came directly from a Multiplan no search and replace feature,
sums of money which are to be file into my word processor. and sorting, a very useful com
distributed to the members of mand, only works on columns.
the department on the basis of 1984/85 Allocations Also, it does not feature pagina
merit. For example, salary incre Rel. Mcr. Supp. Equip. tion on printouts.
ments and research allocations Tom 5 714 357
Multiplan is protected and
are treated this way. It always Dick 2 286 143 can't be copied in the ordinary
takes me a long time fiddling Harry 6 857 429 manner. (However, the com
Jean 8 1143 571 pany will provide one backup
with the numbers to make the
Jane 3 429 214
sum come out right. Here was a for $10 with proof of purchase.)
Joscphin 4 571 28b
perfect use for a spreadsheet. To avoid wear and tear on the
I took research allocations 28 1000 20(10 source disk, the manual recom
as my example. As before, I mends that you store your
used an expanded column for worksheets on a separate disk
names. The second column rep which can be duplicated. Never
An "Intuitive" theless, there is no way to avoid
resented relative merit—the
larger the number, the more Program wear on your disk drive as the
merit. The third and fourth col The cover of Multipian's manual protection method causes the
umns held formulas which cal quotes Computer Retail News: head to kick against its stop. To
culated the individual "Microsoft's Multiplan may well be fair, bAultiplan is not the only
allocations for equipment and be the best electronic commercial program that does
supplies, respectively. The spreadsheet product on the mar this.
amount budgeted is shown at ket." Hype aside, I think it's an Other than those few nega
the foot of columns three and excellent program and have no tive points, I believe the pro
four. The formula for each allo hesitation recommending it. gram is a great value,
cation divides the relative merit The program is chock full considering its many features
by the sum of merits and multi of features (427 pages worth); it and relative low cost.
plies by the amount budgeted has more functions than I prob Microsoft Multiplan
for that category. In mathemati ably will ever use. I particularly Human Engineered Software
cal terms: rel. merit / sum {rel. liked the instruction manual, the 150 North Hill Drive
merit) * $4000 for supplies. The sorting feature (rows only), the Brisbane, CA 94005
cells were formatted so only an help files, and screen read of di $100 m
integer result was displayed. rectory names. The one feature
If this were a real situation, that stands out is that, with just
I would now have a template a little practice, the operation of
which could be used any lime I the program becomes intuitive,
need to distribute funds. The with only occasional recourse to

82 COMPUTE'S Garerfe Marcti 1985


• Quick Access to Over 8,000 Chords With Sound

• Chords Displayed on Color Graphic Guitar
Fretboard with Each Note Played

• Chord Formulas Displayed Showing

Corresponding Notes

• For Beginner to Professional

• Easy and Fun to Use - Just Enter Chord

Desired and it Will be Displayed and Played
In addition to being an excellent chord reference.
CHORD-POWER will help unravel the mysteries REVIEWERS SAY:
of chord construction and advance your chord and ■This is the besl typing tutor
we have seen yel; •*#•+"
solo playing! INFO-64

- Program Runs on C-64* With Disk Drive - 'Computer aided instruction at

ils Best." Commander
"This is an excellent program
ORDER TODAY! Check, Money Order or C.O.D.
lhat makes typing practice an
Plus $2.00 Shipping and Handling.
enjoyable pastime instead o!
boring ilrjdgory."
C A residents add 6% Sales Tax.

NewArts Co. Bated the BEST educational

program lor the VIC 20
P.O. liOX 2700. HUNTINGTON BEACH. CA 92647 Craaiko Computing
■C-tiJ ISTKADr.MAKK UK 1'OMMODOKE BUSINESS MACHINES. INC". ". . . delighted with my son's
progress ... he is Ihe only one in his second grade class
who touch types at (he computer."

"Your Typing Tutor is an excellent program . . . our 4

children literally wail in line to use it."
SCREEN DUMPER 64 "Thoroughly satislied. can't believe how fast I've learned lo
COPYRIGHT 1984 BY M1CRO-W DISTRIBUTING INC. lype. I've never typed before."

How would you like lo have a copy of all of the text or graphics In daily use by schools across the USA.

thai appear on your moniior screen? Well SCREEN DUMPER NEWI CommoOOre PluS/4 Or 16 . . .Tape 121 95 Disk S24.B5
Commodore 64 Taps $21 95 Disk S24.95
64~ may be what you are VIC-30 (uneipanaed] Tape S21 95
looking for. This program will
transfer to your printer* a copy
of whet you see on your monitor
screen including hi-resolution
graphics, text, and multicolor
"Has a quality of realism which
sprite, etc, It even works with sets n aparl from others, even
the KOALA PAD~. You can Ihose I're tesled in flight school."
Compute's Gazette
load this program into your
"Great program1" INFO-64
computer in a hidden location
"II is iremendous fun."
so that it shouldn't interfere Computes Gazette

with your programs. This means "Flight tested by an an tiallic

controller, iwo skilled pilots and
that you can use your Commo an elementary school class.
dore 64 normally and then call Highly recommended by all."
Midnlte Gazette
up this routine to dump what is
"This is an unbelievably realistic
on the screen. Colors are repre Simulation of Ihe difficulties
sented by 16 shades of gray for facing a pilot rn instrument fly
ing. I'm a 747 pilot and I think lhat this simulation could do
faithful reproductions. a lot to improve the reactions and instrument scan habits
ALL THIS FOR ONLY ol even very eipenenced pilots." 747 pilot

$29.95 NEWI Commoflore Plus/4 or 16 Tape or Disk S29.95

Commodore 64 Tape or Disk $29.95
VIC-20 |une>panded) Carlridge $39.95
Call: 1201) B38-9027 To Order
Shipping and handling Ji 00 per
DISTRIBUTING, INC order CA resident add 6% lax

Butler, N I 07405
P.O. Box 6277 San Rafael, CA 94903 (415) 499-0850

for offense and defense, and a teams, or 1960s, 70s, or 80s

rosters and highlights book. World Series teams. Each is
You can play against the $19.95.
Also computer, manage both teams, MicroLeague Baseball is for
or watch the computer manage serious baseball aficionados and
Worth both teams. Offensive options would-be managers. It's sure to
include setting the lineup, bring a lot of joy to Mudville.

Noting choosing to swing away, sacri

fice, surprise bunt, steal, hit and
MicroLeague Sports Association
28 E. Cleveland Ave.
run, and run the bases aggres Newark, DE 197U
sively or cautiously. Pinch hit $39.95
ters may be inserted at any
time. Defensively, you can put
MicroLeague U. S. Adventure
any player at any position,
Baseball (Original lineups are in place if When an educational computer
Pro baseball buffs will love this you wish to use them, although package can bring a sense of ad
game. Arcade action players in playing the '82 Brewers, the venture to enhance its instruc
may not. In MicroLeague Base- lineup put Ted Simmons at tional value, the result is often a
hall, for the Commodore 64 shortstop and Cecil Cooper at much richer learning experience.
(Apple and Atari versions avail second base.) You also call the First Star Software's U. S. Ad
able also), you manage a team pitch—fastball, curve, slider, or venture (Commodore 64, Atari,
of your choice by calling the off-speed/changeup—or opt to Apple, and IBM PC versions
plays and controlling the lineup. pitchout, intentionally walk, available) is an example of just
On the disk are 25 teams com bring in the corners (first and such a program.
plete with reserve fielders, relief third) or the whole infield. A Using the keyboard or a
pitchers, and pinch-hitters. In pitching or fielding change can joystick, you move chronologi
cluded are many recent World be made at any time. cally and geographically across
Series teams, the 1984 All Star Research for this game was the continent as states join the
teams, and several combina extensive, as minor details such Union. At the same time, you
tions, such as A.L. Greats and as fielding range and throwing pick up historical events, match
Philadelphia Greats. For nostal arm were taken into consider ing them to the dates on which
gia buffs, the '55 Senators are ation. Curiously, however, in they occurred. The program is
included. our first test game, Steve targeted to preteens and high
Graphically, the game is so- Carltqn,. pitching in his Cy schoolers, but it's intriguing
so, but the audience for Young ('80) year, uncharacteris enough for the entire family to
MicroLeague Baseball won't tically, gave up six runs, seven enjoy.
mind. The game's strength is in hits, hit a batter, and threw a You score points by cor
providing realistic probability wild pitch in just two innings— rectly targeting which states en
based on real situations with and we used his best pitches, tered the Union and when.
real players. Complete statistics the fastball and slider. Information on the states, their
for every player are included for If the 25 teams included capitals, historical events, and
your perusal when you choose with the game aren't enough, geography are all part of the
starting lineups or go to the the manufacturer offers other game play. Enter a time tunnel,
bench or bullpen. Documenta disks: 1982, '83, or '84 teams correctly identify the date of a
tion is good and includes a (American and National certain event, and you accumu
rulebook, quick-reference cards Leagues), AL and NL All Star late more points.

W COMPUTE'S Gazelle Marctt 1985

I ■ ■

© ©

"Quality printers are too expensive."

© r
T >
got different printing needs,

but I don't want two printers.

«( T •
I'm tired of waiting around for my

printer to finish."

© : ©


: *



This new dual-mode SG-10 is only $299.

In most cases, hooking up is no more
complicated than putting a square peg in a
square hole. But it's a lot more rewarding.

o printer could be more appealing

than one you design yourself. READY FOR
And, in effect, that's what you've done.
The new "S" series printers from Star
Micronics have been designed not to our spec
ifications, but to yours. With values that con The new "S" series
found our accountants but will make great printers make printing
sense to you. as easy as 1-2-3!"
These printers are faster than ever. More Which is just one
compatible and reliable. With more added in example of the many
and fewer add-ons. spreadsheet programs
And yet they cost less. they're ready for.
Don't try to figure it out. Just enjoy The new Stars can work
with word processing programs
like WordStar.® Educational software
NLQIS1OF2 like Dr. Logo™ And even the new integrated
formats like Framework'" and Symphony.1"
Because we've So Star printers match hardware to software
increased our print without disk-driving you crazy
ing throughput by They handle many functions faster. They're
20%, you can now m^ "^ more compatible. Less expensive. More reli
finish 6 pages in the time it able. And have a full year warranty. "S" series
used to take to print 5. And even though we've printers have been designed with so many of
upped our speed, we've kept up our quality. your needs in mind, it's as if you'd done it
In fact, on three of our new models, both yourself.
draft and near-letter-quality are standard (no And what a great job you did.
extra charge). A fourth model, the SB-10, prints For a free demonstration, visit your local
draft and letter-quality standard (again, not Star dealer.
SD-10 types
So now, with just one printer, you're ready draft and NLQ,
for data processing and word processing.
That's like owning two printers for the price
of just one.

SR-10 prints
ZOO cps for only S649.
JUST PLUGGING IN SR-15 includes lSKmemory
for spreadsheets, $799.

The new Star "S" series IL

printers are fully compatible
with even the most fickle of
And they're especially 200 Park Avenue, New York, NY 10166
friendly with IBMW-PC, Appier Chicago. IL (312) 773-3717 • Boston, MA (617(329-8560
Irvine, CA (714) SB6-BB50
Commodore;1'and all compatibles. Ibices shown are manufnclurnr'SSUBOestedielail puces

The high-resolution graph pop over or crush other vehi which is important—you're
ics are well done, as is the docu cles. That's important, for given bonus points based on
mentation. The user's guide there's an endless stream of how long it took you to grab all
includes game play information strange-looking things coming the flags.
and worksheets to help you re your way, or trying to run up Hills are steep, sometimes
member historical details as you your rear bumper. you'll have to roll back down
go through the game. Using an The object of Up n' Down is and get a running start. But you
onscreen menu format, you'll fairly simple: Collect all the can pick up speed on the down
quickly find your way around. course flags (and other objects— hill stretches. Displays show
Although you must move ice cream cones, hats, and bal how many flags you've already
slowly from one state to the loons) that you can find. Jump snapped up, and which colors
next—rather than occasionally over the menacing opponents are still left somewhere in the
zipping across the country as before you end up as a cloud of wilderness.
you may wish to—the state-by- metal fragments. Complete each Up n' Down, graphically en
state movement reinforces much course before the time dwindles tertaining, is a frantic race
of the information about each and your bonus evaporates. It's against time and the computer.
state. only the execution of those More often than not, your dune
Importantly, the game in goals that gets to be a problem. buggie ends up as a pile of
cludes three different levels: Coordination and reflexes metal. Fortunately, you don't
Beginner, High School, and are important in t/;i »' Down, have to pay the insurance.
Tournament. The first level has just as in the video arcade ver Sega Enterprises, Inc.
HELP options, as does the sec sion of this game. You have to Scga Consumer Products
ond level. However, in the High press the joystick fire button (or 360 N. Scpulveda
School mode, you must pay the space bar if you're using Suite 3000
with some of your points for keyboard controls) at just the El Segundo, CA 90245
disk or cartridge
every bit of help you request. right moment to leap an ap
(price unavailable)
The Tournament mode lets you proaching truck. You have to be
wing it on your own. quick when you come to a fork
U. S. Adventure is an in in the road. Left or right? There Guitar Master
triguing, informative educational may be an uncollected flag one If you're a beginning guitar
package which doesn't sacrifice way, a dead end another. Leap player and own a Commodore
content to achieve payability. ing is an art in itself. It takes 64, you might do well to forego
practice, and just the right mo some formal lessons and try
First Star Software, Inc.
ment, to jump over a vehicle or Guitar Master from MasterSoft.
18 East ilst Street
New York, NY 10017 soar from trail to trail. This package, which includes a
$29.95 (disk) The roads scroll beneath disk and 78-page instruction
you as you drive north. Al manual, is a good introduction
though you can back up, it's not to the basics.
Up n' Down usually a good idea; there may The software is menu-
A dune buggie, twisting roads, be something lurking behind driven and simple to use. The
hills to climb, and flags to col you. If you miss a flag the first main menu offers eight choices:
lect might be all you need for a time, you can catch it the next. Tuning, Chords, Chord Ana
good arcade game. Up n' Down, The roads wrap around, as if lyzer, Progressions, Pick and
for the 64, has a bit more. Your you were driving around the Strum, Transposing, Scales, and
buggie can jump, literally leap, outside of a cylinder. The only Fret Notes. The software teaches
from road to road. It can even thing that's wasted is time, well by showing and playing

88 COMPUTED Gazelle March 1985

the exercises so you can see and in nonjudgmental ways, and
hear how you should sound, gently probes your thoughts and
and it lets you learn at the feelings. It remains an interest OR MONEY BACK
speed you choose. Guitar Mas ing experiment in artificial intel
1984 TAX
ter, however, can only take you ligence simulation, even if the
up to a point. Techniques which program routines soon become RETURN HELPER
can really make you sound good obvious to you. Fast and easy
(like hammers, pull-offs, bends, The Commodore 64 version income tax preparation.
and trills—best learned from of Eliza produced by the Artifi
• Form 1 MO and Schedules A.B.C,
close work with a teacher) are cial Intelligence Research Group
D,E.G,SE,W and Form 2441
not—and probably could not has two attributes which make
• Plus TAX DBASE - a data base
be—considered in this package. it well worth the $45 purchase program for lax related records
The manual is written well price. First, it's a full equivalent that can be diredly used in any o(
the forms (disk only)
and full of clear, useful infor of the original MIT mainframe
• Enter and modify data on a screen
mation. It also teaches timing program, employing the same copy of thB form.
and standard musical notation. conversational power that • Works like a spreadsheet ■ all the
In conjunction with the soft makes Eliza seem so human. lines affected by a change are in
stantly updated.
ware, you can learn correct fin Some other versions available
• Automatic lax compulation.
gering, hundreds of chords, how are reduced in power and there
{and why) they're constructed, fore in function. Second, the • Forms can be printed or saved.

major (only) scales, and the BASIC source code is unpro • Price is tax deductible.
Tape $23 Disk S33 (+ S1.50
principles of transposition. At tected. You can break into the S&H). Specify C64 or VIC 20 (16K
$49.95, the package is roughly program anywhere and make all RAM).

equivalent in cost to five lessons the changes you want. Add • Previous users discount S11 (disk),
S7 (tape).
from a private instructor, and it color and sound—-even speech
teaches more than any virtuoso synthesis. Build the vocabulary. KSOFT CO.
could hope to teach you in that Personalize the program. It's B45 WELLNER HD
time. also a good piece of work for 1312) 901-1250

MasterSoft beginning programmers to Dealer inquiries welcome

P.O. Box 1027 study. m

Bend, OR 97709 Artificial Intelligence Research Group
$49.95 921 North La Jolla Avenue
Los Angeles, CA 90046
Eliza $45 (disk) vji

Eliza is not a new product, but

many readers may be unaware
of this fascinating and instruc
tive "computer psychotherapist"
program which traces its history
back to a mainframe computer
at MIT.
In 1965, computer pioneer
Dr. Joseph Weizenbaum created
Eliza as a spoof of nondirective
psychotherapy. Eliza asks ques
tions, responds to your answers
COMPUTE'S GatettB March 1985 89
Commodore 64 SALE DIAL MODEM
(with $12.95 Bonus Pack Purchase) (Best communications package in USA)


$79 00
have: HAVE
THE1 : 1 THE

1 Computer Learning Pad $39.95

• 170K Disk Drive $199.00 ♦ New Voice Synthesizer S59.00
• Tractor Friction Printer $169.00* SERVICE PRICES
12" Green or Amber Monitor $79.00
• 13" Hi-Res Color Monitor $199.00*
13" Daisy Wheel Printer $249.00
"less coupon discount


You Day only 11 75 OO *hen yuu order [Me powerful 84 K We pack a SPECIAL SOFTWARE DISCOUNT ErtSy toltsi? Just plui; into your Comnioriori.'64 comuiFTer
COMMOO0HE 64 COMPUTER1 I ESS me value oi me COUPON with every COMMODORE 64 and you re ready To Iransrriit and receive messages
SPECIAL SOFTWARE COUPON we pKi. «vi|ll your COMPUTER DISK D R IVE PR INTE B- Easier to use tfian tlulir^g your telephone nist pusfi one
compultv thai allows you to SAVt OVER IWO ott key un your computer' Incliiilei eicJusive easy Tu use
MONITOR we Belli Tins coupon nllows von to
Klhvarft gala prices" With only SlOOol ^hyii^s ■wpiii"<l program lot to JiiO Oown mariiiiH 10 pimlw and disk
you' net computer cosl it i?B OO11 Brnei Il?9 00 SALE J79.OO.


[Examples! mafctfs other Eraphics [atnel ribiurele This new TECH
You piy only 1199.00 ivnen you order me WOK Disk
Drive' LESS the value ol inp SPECIAL SOFTWARE SCETCH LEARNING PAD allows you lodrawnn your 1 V
COMMODORE ■54 or MpniTor and inert you t_an print whatever yundrawon
COUPON we pack wilh your disk drive that allows you to
SAVE OVER 1100 oit software sale prices!! With only the screen Ml your prmleri FANIASIIC" List 179 95
1500 or saving* applied. T... r net dish dnve cost is SALE J39.95
Ni me lul Sim COuQOfl
J99 00 £'«vlmc Word Profe^sDi 199 0O 139 00 179 95*
EuPCiii'vp Dai a BdM- 169 OO 934 95 11995 NEW VOICE SYNTHESIZER S59.0O
* 80 COLUMN 80CPS 20 COO Woid Oitimn.iny 1149b S10CO For CL>rn fiJ nr VIC ^Ocoinpulers Jull plUK irin.'iidyQii'
IRACTION FRICTION PRINTER $169.00 ElKttWM Spread Slml Ib9 3b 119 00 139 00
can urogrdin words and sent«'iict's ^Oinsl yoiuine ami
Sou p.iy Drily 1169 00 when you UffJer the Canister T/F Accounting Patk U9 0O SHU 00 129 00
134 95 pittri nidkr [jiki»i; ailviTHure games sumid rfCTiuii
dplune Line printer trial prints 8 ill full si/e. single PrKlEtfc 153 » ■ 39 95
gainer and ciislo.injfd Mlkiei" FOH ONLY t!9 1b you
■jficet roil or lohd pjper. laDmeTc Impact not matrii tan .ida TEXT TOSPEECM |iii1 lype J "onlnJldtifdr your
Gu.Oe 520 9i SIS 95 513 50
bidirectional LESS tne value ot Itie SPECIAL SOFTWARE PToyrdrnmers Helrier compulertJik-ADDSOUNOIO /OR" .SCOTTAOAMS
COUPON we pack with youi printer thai allows you 10 [Dofci 139 9^ 129 9S AND AARDVAHK ADVEN I URE GAMES'1 (Disk or tape)
SAVE OVER 1100 ott software saip prices!! Wiln only SO Column Screen IDislu S55 9b 139 9b S29 9b
$500 nl s-jviriK applied your net prniUT tost li only FI.U& Fill- Div. Fllur S3U ■>!> '3lu *J'j 5la 95
Dffluu Tflyn C.iiHtllb 139 00 • 29 95 12" GREEN OR AMBER MONITOR $79.00
Jro Ju, Slick »J4 9b 115 91 ll?O0
Liflttl Ppn •39 95 IH95 19 96 Your chuif e of flrnn or amber1 monitor. Idd nuarliTy. BO
• 13" HIRESCOLOR MONITOR S199.00 □ ubl CSV*! SB 95 • G95 14 CO
colijrnri5 * 24 lines, easy to read anli glsri!. PLUS 13 9ij
Pi-UU Jew 11 "J 95 Slu 9S
You liny only SI99 when your order Ihis 13° COLOR PilfcliHill Eny 139 96 429 9!: 5I6OO lor connecling caljle commodore bi or Vic 20
MONITOR with sharper arid durflr resolution ihnn any Plul □np filEE
other colaf rncmiors we have TeSTedl LESS valufl of Ihcr Vliibi. thill SS9 9 b i'J9 9b S3J 9b
SPECIAL DISCOUNT COUPON we pack wilh your monitor FrfnvriUri 153 D5 5 39 91 134 95 13" DAISY WHEEL PRINTER $249.00
that allows yoj 10 save aver S5G0nll soil ware Sal □ prices "JUKI" ^operD teller duality daisy ftrieet printer. 13"
Wilh only 6100 of savFngs applied, youi nvl color monilo' (See Over 100 coupon items in on' CStatQgi
eilra large carriage, ud lo 12 CPS Di Onectionai printing,
cost is only 59900 [16eoloisr Wrile or call lor
Sample SPECIAL SOFTWARE COUPON! drop m cassette ribbon. Centronics parallel or R232
80 COLUMN BOARD 199.00
Nuw you prn^rdni SO COLUMNS on llu- v_repn .it imr- serial uort Euilt ml (st>eci*y)
liine1 Converts ydur CninriioUore M to BO COLUMNS List 1399 00 SALE 9249.00
whin you uiun hi 1Mb aO COLUMN UPANSION BOAIU)"
PLUS 4 slot e-pander1 Can use witti most e>islin« COM-64 4 SLOT EXPANSION GOrtRD S29.95
Easy !<> Listi. switi.ti ^.L'lectafjli-. ri-si>( IjuITuh mill LEU
EXECUTIVE QUALITY intiicdtor - sflvei yOLif corunnlpp dtirl|r>r^a
The Cadillac of Business Programs FLOPPY DISK SALE 98C
.iv.ul,lt»i> tor Ihe COMMODORE M Uliiilliil."' [lie
for Commodore G4 Cornnulers
ULIIMAIt FOR PROFESSIONAL Word Pruci'Kinjt Lowest pnees in the US A !! Single sided single
SALE Coupon density, with hub rings, quality guaranteed! (100
While1 Siiiinie \v uiieirflf. puive.'tul teit editing witti 2bO
W0W[> DICIIONARI lonlplpti- cihsoi ami iim'rt. di'lcte agtrm i}9 OO l?9 00 bulkpaclt 984 ea ) (Boi ot 10 112 00)
Aostni li
kiky (unlmls mil1 hind l>Hiro*LraDli insertion ,»utiiiil.ltiL
hecou 54 ofl ki §5
dlHtfllQIt (irih'rinn MMrghii s-?tlm>:$ anri uutpiit tu AH PHONE ORDERS
printers' I lICT a powrrlui null mrr»;i'
SAM BPM Weekdays
List 99 00 SALE 139.00 Coupon {29.95
SAM ■ 1 2N Saturdays



Add S10 00 lor shipping handling and insurance Illinois 'endenis

pleose odd 6% tax Add $20 00 for CANADA. PUERTO PICO. HAWAII
AlASKA APO-fPO orders Canadion orders muil be <n U.S. dollors.
Enclose Cashiers Check Money Order or Per tonal Check Allow 14 ENTERPRIZES -
day\ tor delivery 2 lo J days for phone order* I day exprcii moil1
Phone 312/3825244 to order




8050 DUAL DISK DRIVE (over 1 million bytes) 1795.00


Professional SO Column PRICE Payroll S149.95 599.00
Word Processor $149,95 J«.OO S49.00 Inventory 5149.95 $99.00
Professional Data Base SM9.95 J«.OO S49.00 General Ledger 5149.95 sw.oo
List S29.95
Accounts Receivable SM9.95 m.00 Financial Spread Shee' 5149.95 Sff.00
Sale $24.95
Accounts Payable SM9.95 m.00 Order Entry 5149.95 199.00

Olympia Executive Letter Quality Printer 5699.00 S379.00I
PRINTER REPLACEMENT OPTIONS Comslar Hi-Speed loO CPS I 5 ''i " Business Printer S779.0O 1469.00
(replace Ihe 4023 with Ihe tallowing ot these sale prices) Telecommunications Deluxe Modem Package 5199.00 $139.00 |
IEEE to Centronics Parallel Printer Interface S179.0O 5139.00,

15 DAT FREE TRIAL. Wo give you 1 5 days to try out this SUPER SYSTEM PACKAGE! ! If it doesn't meet your expectations, just send it back
to us prepaid and wo will rotund your purchase price!!
90 DAY IMMEDIATE REPLACEMENT WARRANTY, If any at tho SUPER SYSTEM PACKAGE uquipmont or programs tail duo to faulty
workmanship or material we will replace it IMMEDIATELY ot no charge!!

Add SSO.OO for shipping and handling!!

Enclose Cashiers Check Money O'dc< 0' Perionol Check. Allow IJ days lor
delivery 2 10 7 days tot phono orders. 1 day express mail' We occcpl Visa ENTERPRIZES *«-»-«-
and MasierCord We ship C O 0. to conlinenlql U S addresses only BOX 550, BARRINQTON, ILLINOIS B0010
Priori* 312/382 5244 to ordtr


(Japanese Highest Quality Award Winner)


List Price $399 SALE $249

Superb "Daisy Whofil" Computer

I 'ri liter
100 Characters
Bi-directional with special print
enhancements-many type atyles-
Pitch 10, 12, 16CP1
Print Speed uj> to 12CPS
Print line width: 115, l.'IH, 172
l.'f" Extra law citrriiigf!
limp in cassette ribbon
(replacement SH.9:">)
Centronics parallel RS 2H2
Serial interface luiill in (specify)


List Price $499 SALE $299

Superb Computer Business primer

combined with world's finesi
electronic lypswnier1
Two machines in one—just a flick
of the switch!
Superb letter quality ('orn>-
Bpondenco—home, office, word
13" Extra large carriage
Drop in coBBetta ribbon—
replacement SH.95
Precision daisy wheel printing—
many type styles! $18-95
Pitch sefector-10, 12, iTiCPS,
Automatic rnlocate key!
Automatic ma ruin control and
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Computer Math For Beginners

Last month we presented a brief introduction to This is a short program, but it contains some
computer math. This month and next we'll look unusual BASIC concepts, and an interesting use
at some more computer math—as well as some of the variables A and B. Before analyzing the
important general programming concepts, with program line by line, let's take a very simplified
emphasis on using variables, our special focus look at what this program does, using the
area for 1985. accompanying illustrations.
The heart of this month's lesson is a short
little program called "A Simple Adding Ma
chine." Actually, it's simple if you know how it
works—but confusing if you don't.
ADD: 5
Dissecting a program and understanding
how it works is one of the hardest things to learn
as a beginning programmer. That's why we're
going to spend some extra time this month work
ing with our first program example. We'll start
by introducing an "adding machine" program,
then we'll walk through it in detail and see how B=B+A
it works. Finally, we'll dress up our program by
adding a pinch of this and a dash of that—and
learn how to use the mysterious DEF FN
Let's first review computer math symbols. Add: 2
Total: 7
+ for addition (PRINT 4+4)
- for subtraction (PRINT 9-5)
* for multiplication (PRINT 2*5)
/ for division (PRINT 10/5)
/ for fractions (PRINT 1/2-1/3)
T for exponents (PRINT 2*3)
. for percent (.12) or decimal (.99)
0 for formulas (PRINT (2/5H12.5))—always use same
number of left and right parentheses .. . AND SO ON

Imagine you have two storage boxes marked A

A Simple Adding Machine and B. At the beginning, both boxes are empty,
We'll start with a simple computerized adding which means their value is zero. The computer
machine. This short program lets you add num asks us how many items we want to put in box
bers like a calculator. The program displays the A and we answer by typing our first number—
current total, as well as the number you want to let's say five—which is stored in the A box.
add. To see how it works, enter the program, If we add the contents of both boxes (B + A),
then type RUN and press RETURN: the total is five items because there are five items
in the A box (but the B box is still empty).
10 PRINT CHR$ (144) CHRS (147)
Before we can put more items into the A box
we have to move its contents (five items) into the
40 B=B+A B box to make room.
50 GOTO 20 Now we put two items in the A box. This
96 COMPUTE!1! Gazette March 1985



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means the B box holds five items and the A box defines B as B+A which is the same as 5 + 2. So
holds two items, so the total of B and A is seven. now B becomes 7 and A is ready to receive an
Again, we move the contents of A into the B other number. The result is an "adding loop." To
box, which means the B box now holds seven break out of the loop and stop the program, hold
items. Then we put more items in the A box, and down RUN/STOP and press RESTORE
so on. And that, in general, is how our adding (RUN/STOP-RESET on the Plus/4 and 16).
machine works. Let's take a look at the BASIC
commands to examine the entire program in
detail. REM: You can enter dollar amounts or decimal
Line 10 contains two CHR$ {character string) numbers such as 52.49, but if the outside digit on
codes. Every symbol and editing command on the right side of the decimal is a zero, as in the
your computer keyboard has its own CHR$ code. number 52.40, the computer will truncate the zero
These codes are listed in a special appendix in and display 52.4, mathematically identical to 52.40.
your owner's manual. CHR$ codes are used with
the PRINT command, without quotation marks. Here's a variation you may want to try which
You can "stack" or "line up" several CHR$
adds a title at the top of the screen, and repeats
codes after one PRINT command—for instance,
the TOTAL and PLUS (ADD) lines in the same
here we used two CHR$ codes on the same
position every time. You may want to save the
PRINT line. CHR$(144) sets the display color to
previous program on tape or disk, then type
black. CHR$(147) clears the screen.
NEW and enter this version:
Line 20 prints the word ADD on the screen
10 PRINT CHR${144): GOSUB 100
(we'll skip the semicolon and colon for a mo
20 B=B+A: A=0: GOTO 10
ment). INPUT A automatically displays a ques 100 PRINT CHR$(147); "(RVS) ADDING HACHIN
tion mark (?) and waits for a number to be E "i PRINT
entered. You might think of A as box A. To put a 110 PRINT "{RVS] TOTAL " B+A
number in the "box," you have to type a number 120 PRINT "PLUS";: INPUT A: RETURN

and press RETURN. Let's say you type the num This program starts at line 10, uses a GOSUB
ber 5. The variable A, no matter what value it command to jump down to lines 100-120, then
held before, now stands for the number 5. From uses a RETURN to jump back to line 20, and re
now on, when we use the variable A, it's the peats the loop.
same as using the number 5 (until we decide to Line 10 uses PRINT and CHR$(144) to set
put another number in the box). the color to black, and GOSUB to go to lines
Incidentally, the semicolon (;) in line 20 is 100-120 to display the title and total. GOSUB
like "programming gfue." It links things together. stands for GO to SUBroutine. It tells the com
If we left it out, the question mark would appear puter to jump to the subroutine in the line speci
by itself on the next line down instead of im fied (in this case line 100). The RETURN
mediately after the word ADD. The colon (:) is command at the end of the subroutine (line 120)
used to separate commands whenever two or tells the computer to jump back to the point
more BASIC commands are used on one program where it left off in the program.
line. Line 100 uses CHR$(147) to clear the screen,
Line 30 uses the SPC command to print nine then on the same PRINT line displays the words
blank spaces, then it displays—in reverse charac ADDING MACHINE in reverse (RVS) characters.
ters—the word TOTAL followed by the sum of The {RVSf means hold down the CTRL key and
the numbers represented by the variables A plus press the RVS ON key at the same time—you
B. Since B is "empty" and equals zero, B4-A is don't need a RVS OFF because the reverse fea
the same as 0 + 5 (or 5). The PRINT command all ture is automatically turned off at the end of the
by itself inserts a blank line on the screen be line. The PRINT command by itself inserts a
tween the TOTAL and ADD lines. blank line.
Line 40 defines the variable B as the sum of Line 110 prints the word TOTAL in reverse
B plus A. What it really does is add the value of letters, followed by the current total, which is the
A to the value of B so that B now equals (B + A). sum of variables B and A.
For example, if B is 0 and A is 5, B now equals Line 120 prints the word PLUS in normal
54-0, which is 5. For a moment, both B and A letters. The INPUT command displays a question
hold a 5, but not for long. mark and waits for the user to type a number,
Line 50 recycles the program back to line 20 which becomes variable A. The RETURN com
and asks for a new value for variable A—let's mand signals the end of the GOSUB routine and
say, the number 2. This time when the program sends the computer back to where it left off,
reaches B + A in line 30, B equals 5 and the new which was the end of line 10.
A equals 2 so the second total is 7. Line 40 re- Line 20 is executed next. B = B + A is the
98 COMPUTE!? Gazette March 1985
same as the previous version. Here, we really repeat itself. This time the computer prints the
empty box A by letting A = 0 before we GOTO new value of N, which is 1,
line 10 and repeat the adding process. The next time the program goes around, N
You can modify the program we've been equals 1, so in line 30, N = N + 1 is the same as
working with to display a running average of the N —1 + 1, which is 2. This is how we get N equal
numbers you enter. An average is obtained by to 0, 1, 2—and so on, which gives us a counter.
adding together a group of numbers, then divid Sometimes you may want to start the
ing the total by how many numbers there are in counter at 1 instead of 0. This is necessary if you
the group. For example, if you have two num want to divide the value of N into another num
bers, let's say 10 and 4, you add them up to get ber, because the computer will not divide by
14, then find the average by dividing the total zero. If you try to divide by zero, an error mes
(14) by how many numbers there are in the sage is returned. You can avoid this by starting N
group (there are 2 numbers in this group). So at a value of 1 by switching the sequence around
14/2 is 7 and we see that the average of 10 and a bit, like this:
4 is 7. 10 N=N+1
But first we have to learn about something 20 PRINT N

called a program counter, which helps us keep 30 FOB T=l TO 500: NEXT
40 GOTO 10
track of how many numbers we're adding so we
can calculate their average. In line 10, the old N equals zero because it
hasn't been defined yet, so N = N + 1 is the same
Using A Program Counter as N = 0+l, which is the same as N = 1. Notice
A program counter usually adds one to itself how this type of counter, beginning with N = l,
each time an action occurs in a program (you is used in the averaging program which follows.
could also count by twos or by any other inter
val). Here's an example of a simple program Adding Numbers With A
using a program counter: Running Average
It's easy to adapt our adding machine program so
20 FOR T-l TO 500! NEXT
it keeps track of how many numbers we're add
30 N=N+1
40 GOTO 10 ing and gives us a running average. There are
many uses for running averages—for example, a
Type RUN and press RETURN. To stop the pro
teacher might want to add up all the test scores
gram, press RUN/STOP. The key to this counter
in a class to find the average score. This tech
is line 30: N = N + 1.
nique can also be modified to calculate the
Line 10 displays the value of N. But the
"mean" and find other statistics as well.
variable N hasn't been given a value yet—-it's
still an "empty box"—so the value is zero and 10 PRINT CHR$(144): GOSUB 100
20 B=B+A: A=0: N=N+1: PRINT "[HOME}
the computer displays a zero on the screen.
Line 20 is a time delay hop, which is an 30 FOR T=l TO 750: NEXT: GOTO 10
application of a FOR-NEXT loop. Time delay 100 PRINT CHRS(147); "{RVS} ADDING MACHIN
loops slow down your program. Changing the E": PRINT
number 500 to a larger number causes a longer 110 PRINT "(RVS} TOTAL" B+A
delay and slows down the program. Changing it
to a smaller number makes the program run The key modifications are found in line 20.
faster. We use a time delay loop here to make it Line 10 begins with CHR$(144) which sets the
easier to see what's happening. (Incidentally, the color to black. The GOSUB sends the computer
variable T in this line can be any numeric vari to lines 100-120. Line 100 clears the screen, sets
able, but it's a good idea to use T wherever you up the title in reverse letters, and uses the PRINT
have a time delay loop because FOR-NEXT loops command by itself to insert a blank line on the
are used for different purposes and using T helps screen. Line 110 prints the word TOTAL in
you identify which loops are time delays.) reverse letters along with the total of B + A. The
Line 30 increases the value of N by one. We opening total is 0 because B and A haven't been
say the N "is adding one to itself." One way to defined yet. They're still "empty boxes."
look at this line is to think of the first N as the Line 120 prints the word PLUS, waits for the
new N you want to define, and the second N as input of the variable A, then returns to the end
the old or current N, like this: {new N) = (pld of the GOSUB and moves to line 20.
N)+l. The first time through the loop, this is the Line 20 has B "adding A to itself." Then we
same as saying N = 0 + l, which is the same as find our counter. N = N+1 sets the value of N at
saying N = l. 1, so we begin our counter at 1. We then use
Line 40 sends the program back to line 10 to PRINT to go to the HOME position and move
COMPUTE'S Gazelle MajcM985 99
down the screen with five "cursor downs," Here's a simple one:
which gives us the position where we will dis 10 DEF FN A(X)=(5+X)
play the word AVERAGE and the averaging 20 PRINT FN A(4)
formula. Line 10 contains the DEF FN (DEFine FuNc
The averaging formula is simple. As we tion) command. What this says is that we're go
noted earlier, an average is the total of the num ing to take a number represented by X and plug
bers being added together divided by how many it into the formula (5 + X). This formula will be
numbers there are. The first TOTAL is 0 and called Function A, and from now on when we
there is no average yet. If you type the number 1 want to use this formula in our program we'll re
after the word PLUS, the TOTAL becomes 1 and fer to it as FN A (Function A).
the average becomes 1 also because the total (B) Line 20 is where we use the formula. FN
divided by the counter (N) is 1/1, which is 1. On A(4) tells the computer to replace the X with the
the second go-rornd, the counter moves to 2. tf number 4 in the formula in line 10. PRINT FN
the second number you add is 3, the second A(4) means "calculate and display the result of
TOTAL becomes 4 (1 +3 = 4} and the AVERAGE the formula using the number 4." Got it? Try this
is 4/2, which is 2. This process continues be example using some other numbers. Try chang
cause every time you go around through the pro ing the formula from (5 + X), for example, to
gram and add another number, the counter keeps (X/2) or some other formula.
track of how many numbers you added and di We inserted the number 4 in our example,
vides the total by how many numbers you've but you can use a numeric variable obtained
added. The AVERAGE is flashed on [he screen from an INPUT statement, too. Type NEW and
with a time delay of 750. press RETURN, then enter this example:
You may want to save this program on tape 10 DEF FN A(X) a (X*100)
or disk before going on. Then type NEW and 20 PRINT "ENTER A NUMBER";: INPUT N
press RETURN to erase it and get ready for the 30 PRINT "100 TIMES" N "EQUALS" FN A{N)
next example.
Type RUN and press RETURN.
Line 10 contains the DEF FN command.
The DEF FN Command What this says is that we're going to take a num
One of the best computer math tools is the DEF ber represented by X and plug it into the formula
FN (DEFine FuNction) command. DEF FN lets (X*100).
you create a long calculation or formula and plug Line 20 prints a prompt message and asks
your own number(s) into the formula and display for an INPUT which is given the variable name
or use the result in your program. N. From now on the variable N is ^e same as
This command can be confusing because it the number you typed in. For example, if you
uses two or three different variables, but it really typed 6, then N stands for 6.
looks much more complicated than it is. It takes Line 30 prints the words "100 TIMES" and
most people a little practice to understand how it then goes outside quotation marks to print the
works, but the result is worth the effort. Let's number you typed in {represented by the vari
look at the structure of a DEF 1:N command: able N) and then prints the word EQUALS.
DEF FN A(X>Mformula containing X) FN A(N) is the Function A formula from line
The letter A is a variable which you insert; it's 10 with your number (N) plugged into the for
the "variable name" of the function. If you want mula. If your number is 6, then N equals 6 and
to use this function in your program you'll refer FN A(N) is the same as saying FN A(6), which is
to FN A (Function A). You can have several dif the same as saying {6*100), which is the same as
ferent functions in one program, each with a dif 600. The computer displays the result from the
ferent variable name. FN A(N) formula, which is 600.
The X in parentheses determines the position A reminder if you're still confused: The X in
of the working number in the formula. In a mo the DEF I:N line is only used for this position. It
tells the computer where to plug in the number
ment we'll see what a working number is. For
or variable. The part of the program that actually
now, just remember that we're going to plug in
inserts the number and performs the calculation
our own working number wherever the variable
is: PRINT FN A(N) or PRINT FN A(6).
X appears in the formula. The use of X as a vari
able here is purely arbitrary. We could use other Here's a more practical example. Type NEW
and press RETURN.
variables such as Nl or Y just as easily because
the only purpose this variable serves is to des 10 DEF FN A{F) = 5*(F-32)/9
ignate the position of the working number we
want to plug into the formula. Confused? OK, F) "DEGREES CELSIUS"
let's try a real example to try to clarify things. 40 GOTO 10

100 COMPUTED Gazeflo Match 19B5

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and Peripherals
BOX 1006
Now type RUN and press RETURN. you can use to test your program to make sure
Hold down RUN/STOP and press RE it's accurate.
STORE (or RESET) to exit the program, then
LIST it. A DEF FN Rounding Formula
Line 10 defines the formula. In this case, the Did you ever want to round off a number? You
formula converts a Farenheit temperature to Cel can use the DEF FN command to do it. Try this:
sius. The conversion formula is represented by 10 DEF FN R(X)=INT(X*100+.5)/l00
5*(F — 32)/9 where F stands for any Farenheit 20 A = 1.6666: PRINT A
temperature. 30 PRINT FN R(A)
Line 20 requests a temperature INPUT and The Function R rounding formula in line 10 can
assigns the variable F to the temperature number be used to round any number to the nearest
which is typed in. "penny." To show the difference, first we print
Line 30 prints the temperature you typed in the number 1.666 in line 20, then we insert this
(remember that variables are always printed out number into our formula using FN R(A) in line
side quotation marks), then goes inside quotation 30 and the result is 1.67.
marks to display the message DEGREES Here's how the rounding formula would be
FARENHEIT EQUALS, then back outside quotes used to round the averages in our adding ma
to display the result of Function A, and back in chine program:
side quotes for the rest of the message. 5 DEP FN R(X)=INT{X*100+.5)/l00
When you PRINT FN A(F), you're really 10 PRINT CHRS(144): GOSUB 100
inserting the Farenheit temperature number 20 B=B+A:A=0: N=N+l: PRINT "{HOME)
represented by F into the formula where the F
30 FOR T=l TO 750: NEXT: GOTO 10
.appears, and printing the result of the calculation L00 PRINT CHR?(147); "{RVSi ADDING MACHIN
which results. E": PRINT
Line 40 repeats the program. 110 PRINT "[RVS] TOTAL" B+A
See if you can rewrite this program to con 120 PRINT "PLUS";: INPUT A: RETURN

vert Celsius degrees into Farenheit. Incidentally, Next month we'll conclude our computer
100 degrees Celsius equals 212 degrees math discussion with some practical programs for
Farenheit, and vice versa—which is one INPUT home, school, and business. @

Create your own
COMMODORE-64™ video game and program cartridges.
Follow the simple and easy screen instructions lo:
• Copy your BASIC or ASSEMBLER • Copy your cartridge to diskette or
programs to cartridge cassette
• Copy from cartridge to cartridge • Erase and reuse cartridges

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Computer memory structure is worth taking a
few minutes to learn. After you know the fun
damentals, some machine language tasks become
easier to accomplish.
The smallest quantity of computer memory
is a bit. It is so small that it can only have two
states: on or off. A bit is quite limited; it conveys
very little information. It's like the candle in one
of those stories where someone rides by at night
looking for your signal: Either the candle is in
the window, or it's not. Bits can only signal one
of two possible pieces of information: yes or no,
on or off, up or down, true or false, the British
are coming or they're not.
But when you gather many bits together—
the Commodore 64 has over half a million bits
inside it—you can store and manipulate a great
deal of information.

An Immense Honeycomb
When working with computers, we think of a bit
as holding either a 0 or a 1. These aren't really
the numbers 0 and 1, they're just a convenient Here's an easy way to keep these ideas
way of signifying whether a bit is "on" or "off." straight. Several centuries ago, there was a coin
(The 0 means it's off.) which was soft enough to be cut into eight seg
You can visualize a computer's RAM mem ments. That's where we get the phrase pieces of
ory chip as a huge lattice, an immense honey eight. Each of these segments were themselves
comb of bits. In the figure below, you can see used as coins and were called bits. The bit coin
that eight of the bits are "on" and that, by com couldn't be sliced down any further, just as there
bining bits together, we've greatly increased our is no way to slice computer memory any smaller
ability to express information. These eight bits than a bit. We still use the word bit this way
are forming the letter T. when we refer to a quarter as "two bits."
Humans see the letter T in this graphic
representation, but the computer stores letters When Ganged Together
and numbers somewhat differently. Bits are So, a byte is eight bits. Yet even within just eight
ganged together in bundles, in groups of eight. bits we can store a considerable amount of infor
When you put eight bits together, this new eight- mation. For one thing, we can count up from
bit unit is called a byte. zero to 255. Here's how:
COMPUTED Gazeiio March 1985 103
128-5 txTs 16't 4'S 2s
doing mathematics, they will be seen as pure
numbers. There are other contexts, too, other
codes. For example, you might write a program
that turns your screen blue whenever you enter
o byte
the numbe'r 65. In that context, 01000001 doesn't
mean the letter A or the number 65 any more; it
When ganged together like this into a byte, the
means the color blue. Bytes are wonderfully resil
bits are each given a different value, depending
ient-—they can mean pretty much anything you
on their position. The rightmost bit has a value and the computer want to agree on. They can
of 1. It's the l's column. Next comes the 2's col
even stand for instructions.
umn, then the 4's, 8's, and so on up to 128's. If you'd like to play around with binary
This might seem strange, but it's quite like the
numbers, type in Program 1. It's a quiz that will
way we use ordinary decimal numbers: show you a binary number and ask you to figure
it out. Actually, there's not much real value in
1000's lOO's 10's 1*1
knowing how to work with binary numbers,
though. It's worth knowing about them, but you
don't really need to use them much in most ML
ordinary docimal
programming. You'll probably be using an
Assembler program to enter your ML programs
Notice that a number in the rightmost cell would and Assemblers can use ordinary decimal
be in the l's column, a number next to it would numbers.
be in the 10's column, etc. But back to bytes: A Nevertheless, there are ML instructions
number made up of bytes is figured the same which operate on bits (ASL, ROR, etc.) and so
way, but these byte-numbers (they're called bi you'll at least want to be able to visualize the
nary numbers, meaning they have only two bits within a byte. For a complete display of all
states) have different column values. Each "on" the binary numbers between 0 and 255, type in
bit is worth (from right to left) 1, 2, 4, 8, 16, 32, Program 2.
64, or 128, depending on its column position. See listings on page 125. iy
Can you figure out the value of this binary

)2flS >-■■■ Id's 8'S ji'i l's

Program Your Own EPROMS
0 0 0 0 0 0 ► vie 20 (jqq j-n
a binary numbor ► C64 $yy.ou
Calculate it by adding (2) plus (8). As you
can see, all you need to do with binary numbers
• Read or Program. One byte or
is add the column values wherever you see a 1
32K bytes!
and ignore the columns with a zero. The answer
is ten. (D OR Use like a disk drive. LOAD,
If there is a one in every column (11111111) OPEN, CLOSE—EPROM FILES!
Our software lets you use familiar BASIC commands to
the number would be 255. That's why we say
create, modify, scratch files on readily available EPROM
that a byte can hol'd any number between 0 and c chips. Adds a new dimension to your computing capability.
255. But how does a byte store a character like Works with most ML Monitors too.
the letter A? It's just a code, an agreed upon
• Mako Auto-Starl Cartridges of your programs.

convention called the ASCII code. All computers • The promenade" C1 gives you 4 programming voltages.

know that when they see a byte with this pattern 0 2 EPROM supply voltages. 3 intelligent programming
algorithms, 15 bit chip addressing, 3 LED's and NO
of bits on (01000001) that it means the letter A. switches. Your computer controls everything (ram software!
01000010 is B and 01000011 is C. a Textool socket. Anti-static aluminum housing.
• EPROMS, cartridge PC boards, etc. at extra charge.
How Does The Computer Know? • Some EPROM types you can use wilh the promenade"
U we think of these bytes as holding binary 275B
2716 27CJ2 276J 66764 2815" 4B01GP'
numbers, they would be 65, 66, and 67. This 27CIG 2732A 2.7C1M 6B7B6 IBIi'

leads to an interesting question: How does the

computer know whether to think of the byte Call Toll Free. 800-421-7731
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It knows by the context. If it's doing word
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processing, it will see these as characters. If it's
l(M COMPUTED Gazollo Match 1985

Abbreviated Printer Codes

John Crookshank

If you've discovered a clever timesaving A few of these combinations are useful in

technique or a brief but effective program programming. Others are not; why press two
ming shortcut, send it to "Hints & Tips," keys for delete when there's already a single key
c/o COMPUTED GAZETTE. If we use it, we'll that does the same thing? The real advantage to
pay you $35. Due to the volume of items using these equivalents comes when you need to
submitted, we regret that we cannot always send commands to your printer.
reply individually to submissions. To print expanded characters, for example,
you send a CHR$(14) to the printer. But first you
must be in quote mode. So to print a wide hello,
you would use OPEN4,4:PRINT#4,"N HELLO"
In order to make your printer do special things (the N is a CTRL-N). If you're not in quote mode,
like expanded or italic printing, you have to something quite different will happen. The
sprinkle CHR$(xx) values throughout your pro screen will suddenly switch to lowercase
gram. That's seven or eight keystrokes, not characters.
counting the shifting and unshifting.
But did you know there are one-key abbrevi
Printer Codes For Gemini
ations for many of these codes right on the 64's
If you own a non-Commodore printer, check
keyboard? The ASCI! characters 1-27 are easily
your manual for the various printer codes. With
accessible by just holding down the CTRL key
my particular setup, I use the following
and pressing another key. It effectively subtracts
64 from the normal Commodore ASCII value for
the key being pressed. In other words, the CHR$ ASCII Values (Gemini 1'rinter)
value is the same as the position of the letter in
the alphabet. CTRL-G CHR$(7) ring bell
You can use these special codes even if you CTRL-H CHR$<8) backspace
don't have a printer. As a simple example, CTRL-I CHR$<9) printer tab
CTRL-J CHRS(IO) line feed
CHR$(13) is a carriage return, and M is the thir
CTRL-L CHRSU2) form feed
teenth letter in the alphabet. So CTRL-M should CTRL-N CHRSU4) expanded on
be a carriage return. Sure enough, the combina CTRL-O CHR$(15) expanded off
tion works just like a carriage return (try it). And CTRL-R CHR$<18) reverse on

CTRL-S acts as a CHR$(19)—the cursor jumps to CTRL-T CHR$(20) compressed on

the home position at the top left of the screen. escape

CTRL-Q is the equivalent of cursor down, and so

The most valuable of the above is escape,
on. Here's a list of the ASCII values available di
which prefaces dozens of additional Gemini
rectly from the keyboard (unfortunately, they
don't work on a VIC):
Some interfaces may translate the numbers
differently (some will switch 15 and 20, for ex
ASCII values (64, Plus/4,16) ample), depending on whether the DIP switches
CTRL-E CHR$(5) white are set to emulate Commodore printers or to
CTRL-H CHR$(8> disable case change work transparently. It doesn't hurt to experiment.
CTRL-I CHR$(9) enable case change If your interface is set to emulate Commodore,
CTRL-M CHR$(13) carriage return
some of the codes in the following table may
CTRL-N CHR$(14) switch to lowercase
CTRL-Q CHRSU7) cursor down
also work.
CTRL-R CHR$(18) reverse on

CTRL-S CHR$(19) cursor home Commodore Printers

CTRL-T CHR$(20) delete
CTRL-: CHRSI27) escape (Plus/4 and 16 only)
The Commodore 1525 and MPS-801 are software-
compatible printers. A program written for one
COMPUTED Gazotle March 1985 105
will work on the other. The 1526, however, is
ASCII Values (1525, MFS-801, 1526)
not completely compatible with other Com
modore printers. For one thing, the 1526 lacks ' CTRL-H CHR$<8> set graphics mode
the built-in graphics commands of the 1525 and CTRL-J CHR$(10) line feed
+ CTRL-L CHR$(12) form feed (new page)
801. It has a single custom character. To print in
CTRL-N CHRS(14) enhanced/double-width on
high-resolution, you must define the character, CTRL-O CHR$(15) enhance off
print it, define it again, print it, and so on. CTRL-P CHRS(16> lab setting
The 1526 has its advantages, though: CTRL-Q CHRSI17) upper -/lowercase (cursor down
formatting commands (similar to PRINT USING), mode)
CTRL-R CHRSU8) reverse printing
a paging feature (to skip over the perforations),
+ CTRL-S CHR$(19) paging off
and flexible line spacing. • CTRL-Z CHR$(26) repeat graphics
Here are the Commodore printer codes (note • CTRL-; CHR$<27) set graphics dot address
that certain commands work only on certain
printers): • 1525, MPS-801 only
+ 1526 out\,

If you wanted the printer to tab to column

39 and print an enhanced "The End" you would
Subscription Type the characters in bold with the CTRL
Order Line key held down. The CTRL-P (followed by 39)
800-334-0868 performs a tab to the 39th position, and the
InNC 919-275-9809 CTRL-N sets enhanced mode. Experiment with
these abbreviations, and you'll find it much
easier to control the many features available. <B


• 40 to 160 column video display
• Single pass double column output
• 100D/o proportional printing capability
• Double sided printing with margin offsets
• Over 30 printers fully supported
• "Bump free" loading — MSD — 2 compatible
• Automatic spelling corrections with Spellpro1^

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1-800-387-3208 PRO-LINE

755 The Queensway East, Unit 8, Mississauga, Ontario. Canada L4Y 4C5 . Phone 416-273-6350

106 COMPUTEVs Gaiotta March 1985

Charles Brannon
Program Editor

SpeedScript 3.0, the latest revision of our popular print on any kind of paper and are generally
all machine language word processor, premieres faster. The Blue Chip printer can use either single
in the March 1985 issue of our sister publication sheet or fanfold paper by using either friction or
COMPUTE!. The VIC-20 version will appear in tractor feed. Unlike many tractor feed units, the
April, to be followed in subsequent issues by an Blue Chip printer pushes the paper from behind
Atari and Apple version. the platen rather than pulling from in front. This
This new version significantly upgrades can sometimes cause the paper to bunch up and
SpeedScripfs power and flexibility, yet retains tear loose from the tractor feed, and in day-to
compatibility with files created on earlier ver day use I've suffered this problem periodically.
sions. We are indebted to you for your sugges The Blue Chip printer uses a drop-in carbon
tions and criticisms, and many of the film ribbon cartridge. Since there is no ink,
improvements were in response to your there's no problem with messy fingers or
feedback. smudges on the paper. Continuous cloth ribbons
can be reused several times, but since a carbon
The Blue Chip Printer film ribbon loses a bit of itself to paper when
printed on, the second time the ribbon comes
The low cost of the new Blue.Chip printer from
around, the print is significantly lighter. Carbon
Blue Chip Electronics, Inc., has attracted a lot of
film gives a much sharper image, though. In
attention from GAZETTE readers. With most 80-
cidentally, the Commodore 1526 printer uses the
column printers costing upwards of $250 to $300,
same ribbon cartridge.
Blue Chip Electronics has broken the $200 bar
rier, selling a full-featured printer for $189. The
Blue Chip printer is not Commodore-specific; it Many Modes
can be used by any computer with a Centronics This printer provides a plethora of printing
parallel printer interface. The VIC and 64 use modes and styles. Text can be printed in several
their own proprietary serial interface, so you sizes: pica (80 columns/line), elite (96 columns),
need a special interface module that converts condensed (142 columns), and double width (40
Commodore's stream of bits into 8-bit chunks columns). Other printing modes include double
that are acceptable to the printer. Blue Chip sells strike, proportional spacing, true underlining and
a version of the Cardco Card/? G+ interface, super/subscripts (see the accompanying figure
customized for the Blue Chip printer, at $39.95. for a sample of the character set and printing fea
The Blue Chip printer can also be attached using tures). A removable panel on top of the printer
most other Commodore parallel printer gives access to 12 slide switches which let you
interfaces. customize the power-up state of the printer.
If you already have a Centronics parallel
printer interface, chances are it will work with
the Blue Chip. Some interfaces, however, are NORMAL (PICA! CHARACTER SET:
' ; I*-1, -.
specific to a particular brand of printer, Since the
Blue Chip is code-compatible with the Epson 1 abede-f ghl j klmiiDpqrstuvwxyz' I 3
family of printers, you can use an Epson-specific I IIIM-H-H F"-l In >-> .- '-'
interface or select the Epson option on your
interface to make the most of the printer. Al
though the Blue Chip interface effectively makes
the Blue Chip's price $228, the printer can be EMPHASIZED MODE!
used with whatever computer you buy in the fu @ABCDEFGHIJKLMNOPQRSTUyUXYZr\]"_
ture, as long as it can communicate with a
Centronics parallel printer. Even at the combined DOUBLE-STRIKE MODE:
price of $228, this printer matches or exceeds the
capabilities of the higher priced Gemini-lOX and
Unlike some low-cost thermal printers, the
Blue Chip is a dot-matrix printer. Although nois DOUBLE-WIDTH:
ier than thermal printers, dot-matrix printers can 0ABCDEFGH X JK.LMNOP

COMPUTE'S Gazelle Marcti I9BS 107

other printing modes are significantly slower,

The Blue Chip's Achilles heel is in the docu
@ABCDEFGHIJKLMN0P9RSTUVUXYZr.\J mentation, poorly translated from Japanese. We
are advised to be sure the printer "is in working
ELITE CHARACTES SET properly," and told how to "install the ribbon
cartridge in the manner of followings," and in
formed that "all datas following this code are
printed out in the characters of selected character
set specified by n." It's a shame that such a good
PROPORTIONAL SPACING value in a printer is handicapped by its manual,
@ABCDEFGHIJKLHNOPQRSTUUUXYZ[\:r_ but if all you care to do is list programs or print
out unembellished text, you may never need
most of the manual. It's even fairly simple to fig
ure out how to install the paper, ribbon cartridge,
SUPER AND EUE-SCRIPTS: and interface on your own. But if you want to
H3C 2>*=65536 use the richness of type styles and modes avail
able, you'll be better off if you know something

about programming. By the way, the example

programs in the manual need a minor modifica
tion to the OPEN command to work on Com
GRAPHICS MODE: 1280 DOTS/LINE modore computers. However, the manual does
include a handy quick-reference table of all the
printer codes.

The standard character set is very readable. Blue Chip Electronics, Inc.
Two West Alameda Drive
Since the printhead produces square instead of
Tempt; AZ 85282
round dots, the gaps between printed dots are
not as easily visible, a step closer to letter-
Blue Cliip Commodore Printer Interface, S39.95 <Q
quality. An emphasized mode prints more
slowly, overlapping dots to give a very dark,
solid image, but disables the use of some printing
features. The text is formed from 9 vertical pins,
r copied ftetieA. 11
giving true descenders for lowercase characters.
You deserve to protact your software mvestmoni.
Also built into the standard character set is a You can with the lirsl land only)
set of Japanese Katakana characters (evidencing BIT-FOR-BtT DISK COPIER lor the C-64.

the printer's country of origin) and several graph 1541 Disk Drive and now MSD>

ics characters like those used on the VIC or 64.

Several international fonts are supported, giving
the special characters needed in foreign lan
guages. One of the sets replaces the special
characters with italics.
This printer offers several programmable fea
tures like horizontal tabulation, vertical forms
The next generation in archival
control, left and right margins, reverse paper methods is here today!
feed, form feed, automatic skip-over-perforation • No oollfir disk copior at any price

(used with fanfold paper), programmable line • Easy-to-use — no complicated

spacing, and true backspacing. You can even ring • Totally automatic — no knowledge
the printer's internal bell. ol DOS required
• You'll LOVE MR NIBBLE" — it not.
The graphics modes let you program from return within 10 days tor lull refund
640 to 1280 dots per line, which is up to four
times the horizontal resolution of the 64. Unlike FULL CIRCLE SOFTWARE, INC.
some printers, there is even a way to fire the P.O. Bo* 1373
Dnylon. Olno 45401
ninth pin. You can print screen graphics with Phone (513) 223-2103
any software that supports the Epson family of
printers. LpQea shipping fl handling

Although no speed demon, the Blue Chip '□ resident* add V/t ulea I 10 day return privilege

printer is fast, printing up to 100 characters per

"When cloning and dlsedlng (all. turn to MR. NIBBLE _i
second in the normal printing mode. Almost all
100 COMPUTE'S GazottB March 1985

Quick Character Transfer

Fabio Coronei

Setting up a custom character set can be It can also be used by itself as a demonstra
painfully slow. This machine language tion. Type in the appropriate version for your
routine will greatly speed up the process. computer and save it before running. The charac
For the VIC, 64, Plus/4, and 16. ters on the screen will momentarily appear as a
random pattern of dots as the pointer to the start
of the character set is changed to point to the
random bytes in RAM. Then the characters
Well-designed graphics can add a lot to almost quickly return to normal as the patterns in ROM
any program. Sometimes pictures can commu are transferred to RAM.
nicate better than words. The easiest type of Now you can change any character to look
graphics to use is character graphics, those odd like a spaceship or a bird or a foreign language
shapes shown on the front of the keys. Another letter. Just POKE the character pattern into the
type of graphics is achieved with redefined RAM area used by the new character set. To
characters, which allow you to create shapes in show that the characters are indeed in RAM,
much greater detail. But they're also more diffi lines 1000-1010 change the @ character into a
cult to use. happy face. Type the @ key to see it. To return
First, you must reserve space for the new to the normal character set, press RUN/STOP-
character set in RAM by lowering the top-of- RESTORE (RUN/STOP-RESET on the Plus/4
BASIC pointer. Next, you change the character and 16).
set pointer to point to the location of the new
characters. You then transfer the character pat The 64 Version
terns from ROM to RAM and change-selected
The 64 version transfers the entire
characters to their new shapes. uppercase/graphics character set (256 characters)
The major drawback is the time it takes to
from ROM to RAM. You can transfer the
transfer the character patterns. It may take
uppercase/lowercase character set instead by
BASiC almost a minute to PEEK the bytes from
changing the 208 to 216 in line 170 (thus altering
ROM and POKE them to RAM, depending on
the checksum in line 120). The location of the
the number of characters transferred.
character set in RAM is determined by the two
"Quick Character Transfer" creates a ma
14s in line 90. These values represent the num
chine language routine to instantly transfer the ber of Kbytes from the start of the video hank.
character patterns from ROM to RAM. The ML
When selecting a place for the character set
routine is POKEd into the cassette buffer, but it's
on the 64, remember that it must be placed
completely relocatable. You can put it elsewhere
above your BASIC program on a 2K boundary in
by setting variable AD in line 100 to the start of
the same video bank as the screen. If you were
the new location.
frightened by that last sentence, just 1eave the
values at 14. This puts the start of t1 a character
Adding It To Your Programs set at 14336, leaving 12K free for your BASIC
To use Quick Character Transfer, it must be
added to your program. It can be placed at the
end as a subroutine, or at the start as part of the The VIC Version
initialization as long as it's executed before you The V!C version transfers the first 64 characters
redefine your characters. You may have to from ROM to the location specified by the POKE
change the line numbers to make it fit. to 36869. POKEing 255 here puts the start of the
COMPUTED Gazette March 1985 109
character set at 7168, room enough for 64
characters. You must also protect the characters
Finally, a complete disk drive alignment program! No special
from BASIC by POKEing 7168/256 - 28 into equipment needed! A two disk IpriHiram and calibration) pro
location 56 as in line 90. You'll have 3K left for gram allows anyone with average mechanical skills to properly

your program.
align the 1541 disk drive. Complete Instruction manual. Don't
j r o
be io.ii.-d by cheap Imitations! This is the alignment program
If 64 characters aren't enough, just change lhat works! See Ihe review In Ihe October 1984 Gazelle.
line 90 to:
90 l'OKE56,24:CLR:IlOKE36869,254 "In less than two hnurs [mm the start 0/ reading the accompanying
manual, my clink drive iu(s running as good as new — perhaps better "
Also, change the 2 to 6 in line 190. This gives D. D.. North Carolina
you 192 characters starting at 6144, leaving 2K
free for your program. "Your software was an enjoyable change from many programs 1 houe
bought. 1 recommend you to all 1 knotr.
The value in line 160 determines which
K J P.. Colorado
characters will be transferred from ROM. A value
of 128 transfers the uppercase
r r
characters,■ 132
"... with 1541DbkMveAllgnment/romCSMSo/tiuanj. youcan
transfers reverse uppercase, 136 gives lowercase, lix il (ihe disk drive| yourself in an hour or sn and ifie program will
and 140 gives reverse lowercase. If you make pay for rise// the first time you use it. ... No technical expertise is re
quired to accomplish the alignment procedures. Qnd the manual ac-
these changes, don't forget to also change the
COrnponylnQ the program thoroughly describes the procedures.
checksum in line 120. Or you can simply delete COMPUTED Gueite. Octobflr 1<JH4
this line once you've saved a working copy of
the program. $44.95 v 3.50 Shipping (U.S.) j

The Plus/4 And 16 Version C S M SOFTWARE, INC.

The Plus/4 and 16 version transfers the upper P.O. Box 563
case character set to the location specified by the
Crown Point IN 46307
high byte in lines 90, 150, and 220. To transfer
(219) 663-4335
the lowercase set, change the 208 to 212 in line
See listings an page 137. <&


We'll pay for your mistake!

We know that it's difficult, especially since everyone
is trying to come out with one. Now that error track
protection is going the way of the dinasaour, you
probably purchased an obsolete piece of software. Well
we will give you $25.00 credit*ior any original copy
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now back up non-standard sectors with complete con
trol, detect and reproduce density-frequency alterations,
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reference sectors (including a single sync Bit copy) PLUS
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Other back up programs have only recently caught
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Baker's Dozen
Part 3
Lawrence Cotton

In this final installment, we'll see four Rectangles

more programs for the 64 which offer some Another short program, "Rectangles" draws ran
interesting techniques—and results.
dom size rectangles in random colors. They start
at random locations, and are superimposed on
each other. Here's the way the program works.
Line 5 defines increments, rectangle size,
and the value added to screen memory locations
If you've been following this series, you'll recall to POKE a color (Q in line 20).
that most of the programs we've seen include Line 10 clears the screen and changes border
routines and techniques which may be used and background colors to black (as in line 10 of
interchangeably with each other. If you're new to "Mondrian").
programming sound and graphics on the 64, you Lines 20 and 30 choose random screen loca
might study the listings—they're short and con tions, and color and rectangle dimensions (N by
tain ideas you can use in your own programs. Z). Lines 40-75 check to be sure the rectangle is
drawn on the screen.
The rectangles are created in lines 80-150.
Line 160 loops back to choose another size,
This program, only seven lines, is a good ex color, and location.
ample of how much we can get for as little typ
ing as possible. Let's look at each of the lines:
Line 10 clears the screen (CHR($147)), prints
white (CHR${5)), and changes the border and Program 3, another short program, is fairly
straightforward in programming technique and in
background colors (53280 and 53281) to black. In
execution. The key to the program is the sub
line 20, R is the amount to be added to screen
routine beginning at line 200. This subroutine is
memory locations, and A is an increment of 1.
Lines 30 and 40 choose random sizes of what performs the hard work in the program. It
paints a square block with a random color and
blocks to be "painted." Both color and starting
increments it diagonally four times in four
screen location are determined here. The maxi
mum block size is ten by ten characters {line 30). locations.
Try your own dimensions here. Lines 10, 40, 70, and 100 modify the values
Lines 50 and 60 ensure that the block to be plugged into the subroutine, redefine starting po
sitions, and choose another color.
painted will appear on the screen; if not, another
Lines 30, 60, 90, and 120 erase unnecessary
block size is selected.
blocks by POKEing a space (32) to the appro
Line 70 is where the blocks are painted; a
priate locations.
loop within a loop paints a block of size N
characters (reversed spaces) by P characters, in
color Q, starting at location V. It then loops back Noodle Doodle
to pick another block size, color, and starting Probably the most interesting of the programs
location. this month, "Noodle Doodle" integrates sound
COMPUTE's Gazalto March 1985 111
and graphics. It doodles endlessly (press Our Customers Call Us
The Commodore Consultants!
RUN/STOP-RESTORE to exit), in color, to the
accompaniment of a double tone (two voices)
synchronized with the doodle. If the doodle's It's A Great Computer.
random direction goes up or right, the tones Use It for All It's Worth!
Send for Our Cnmpklo Cntaliij;
climb; if it goes left or down, the tones lower.
The effect is strange and hypnotic. GEMINI LOX
Let's see how the program works. acpswith $oiqoo
arden + b O X Z7
Lines 10-30 set up the screen, clear the
sound chip, and set up parameters for musical
voices one and two.
Powertype Daisywheel 18 Cl'S Epson R.\ HO
Variables are assigned in line 40: F in ivilh CskIco B $369 with Tynuc Conned ion . . . S299
crements the frequencies up or down, depending Okldota 92 160 CPS Commodore MPS 802 . 279
with Tyniac Connection .... 449 full l<ir prlcu on Dlhoj modclf
on the movement of the doodle as described ear
lier; G is a multiplier for voice two's frequency FT? F V STARI?R KIT: Bt iaiy '" P[inl w'.lh ISU shctls lamped paper,
50 mailing labels k replacement ribbon with every printer
(G times voice one's); L is the low-byte value of
the frequency POKEd into locations Z and ZZ; H
MSI) Super Drive Call Commodore 1541 .... Call
and I are the high-byte starting values for fre Indus GT Call I'lioni-mark Da I use Hi- $29
quencies POKEd into locations Y and YY; 2, Y, One Kay Data Drive... Cull
ZZ, and YY are the low and high locations for MONITORS
voices one and two, respectively; V is the screen Teknika Mjlo $239 ZenithZVMGtJAmb S89/99
Com m oil ore 1702 .... Call
location where the doodle starts, and C is the
value added to the screen location to color a COMPUSERVE STAHTEK KIT
wiih purchase of
Wetridge or Mijhiy Ma
Lines 100, 200, 300, 400, 500, 600, 700, and
800 generate a random number from 0 to 5
(controlling the length of the doodled line seg MODEMS
Wedtridge 6420 S7») VIP Terminal . S44
ments) and choose a random color (1-15). Note: Mighty Mu 79 Vidtex 27
These lines can be entered by typing line 100, then DATABASE MANGERS
typing a 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, or 8 over the 1 in 100 (press The Consultant SfiS • NEW • NEW • NEW •
RETURN each time). Super Biisc 64 5r> PFS:PUe S59
The Manager 35 PFSiReporl Call
Lines 105, 205, 305, 405, 505, 605, 705, and
805 do most of the doodling by POKHing the WORD 1'ROCESSORS
Paper Clip S59 liusy Scrip! S3S
horizontal and vertical lines {67 and 66) and w/speller 7lJ Busy Spell 17
their colors to the screen.
Lines 108, 208, 308, 408, 508, 608, 708, and Calt Result Easy $35 Commodore
808 increment screen location V, and POKE fre CnlC Result Advanced 65 G/L.A/P.AIR.INV.PR muddle S34
Alnill i i'l.ii. 65 • NEW: Peachtrec
quencies H, I, and L to control the pitch of tones GJL.A'P,A/R system 139
and increment them by R Changing the value of
F in line 40 can create some interesting effects.
"With Software
Lines 110, 210, 310, 410, 510', 610, 710, and Purchase
810 check to make sure legal frequency values
are POKEd into Y, Z, YY, and ZZ. rminr at ^IJ: I cn'i I Inki, Boarjam,
JViinlhriish, Log}cAlUtCr4 I'mgriimrrHn^
Last, lines 120, 220, 320, 420, 520, 620, 720,
and 820 POKE the corners which connect the
Com Cool Drive Fan S49 Com Cool Plus vl surge S69
horizontal and vertical lines. A random number
(X) is chosen (either 1 or 2) to determine which BLACK NAUGAHYDE COVERS
way the doodle is to go next. This is dependent C-64or 1541 Drive... ca S5 1702Monitor ill)
MSD Drives W2 5/6 1525/MPS80I 7
on the the direction it came from and which cor
Gemini 10X 9 1526/MPS802 8
ner was POKEd.
MOM ORDERS SKIPPED WltlllK 41 IIOL'BS' Advniivd puns «c for lunk ihtrk or money ordcl.
In all the programs of "Baker's Dozen," values VtWMC mdm *M J SS MJCO.UOKDERJ Prr-onjl o: (Deipjgr .hnki dcU) tidrn 21 d»). All ail
jrt hn«l drlrElivf mcfLhanJur ciLliin^d for 'jmc dtbAkI only Add IS for shipping [U 50 min,|
can be changed to create different effects. Feel Pliivr u -&LL t'ji <liippinE iin jnonmirs Ohio n'jdrnl* ii!d 5 j^ ulr^ ijt JVuri 6 avdiljhihl> *uhicrl in ihsn^1

free to experiment. The real merit of this series, HOURS: MON-PR t lOAMtolOPM ■ SATIOAMtoBPM • SUN Noon In SPM

however, is in offering some effective techniques

which don't require a lot of programming time or
INFORMATION & IN OHIO 216/758-0009

See listings on page 123. c$

112 COMPUTEVs Gazette March 1985

Disk Directory Sort
N. A. Marshall

This short program can help space bar. No damage is done, With 8K or more, no modifica
you better organize your and your original directory re tion is necessary—up to 144
disks by alphabetically mains intact. filenames can be sorted.
sorting each of your disk di A word of caution: The pro Sec listing on page 127.
rectories. For the VIC, 64, gram reads the directory, al
Plus/4, and Commodore 16. phabetizes it, and writes it back
to disk. If you make any typing

mistakes while entering it, the
program could ruin the directo
An alphabetized disk directory ries on your disks. There's a
can be a timesaver, especially if chance you would lose some
you have a variety of disks. It's programs. After entering and FOR COMMODORE
particularly helpful when you're saving it, you should test it on
looking for a filename in a long an unimportant disk, in case
directory. you incorrectly typed a line.
"Disk Directory Sort" is a The program works on any
short (35-line) BASIC program size directory (up to 144
that works on the VIC (with or filenames are allowed on
without expansion—see below 1540/1541 disk drives). Here's a
for details), 64, Plus/4, or Com brief summary of the program
Designed to work with Commodore Disk
modore 16. Operation is simple. routines:
Drive Models 1540, 1541, and 1542. the
Load "Disk Directory Sort",8. Lines Description quiet C-100 Ian enclosure moves cool,
filtered air through the top vonls ot tho disk
Then insert the disk you wish to 20-140 the sort drive cooling the drive and thereby reduc

alphabetically sort. Type kUN, 150-210 read in (he file entries

ing the misalignment problems caused by
heal build-up. A custom filler keeps room
and the directory is read into 220-290 write the directory dusl from entering the disk loading opon.
300-310 process the directory header ing. This greatly increases the lite span ot
memory and sorted. You see the the disk drives, and decreases the mainte
320-330 read a block
sort happening on screen. Note 340-350 initialize the program
nance required lo keep the drive tuncllon-
ing properly. Only 539.95 plus 52.00 (or
that all deleted files are written shipping and
to the end of the sort. After all insurance.

files have been sorted, you're Notes To VIC Users Money

prompted to press the space bar If you're using an unexpanded Checks *•
to write the newly sorted direc VIC, change the value of X to Only

tory (still sorted only in mem 45 in line 340. A maximum of 6-month warranty

ory) back to disk. If you change 45 filenames (including deleted

your mind at this point, remove filenames) is allowed. With 3K
Uni-Kool (503|476-1660
909 Williamson Lood, Grants Pass, OR 97526
the disk before pressing the expansion, change X to 115. |C<jmn>«on ii i regiiirna "Iffami'k ol Commtfori Buiiniii &rilvnu>

COMPUTE'S Gazette March 19B5 113

Disk Handler
B. R. Carson

Are you curious about how your 1541 disk you're interested in learning more about how the
drive stores information on disk? This pro drive works, there are several good reference
gram helps you examine—and change—in books. Or see "Disk Tricks" (September 1984
dividual bytes on a disk. For the 64 or VIC GAZETTE).
with at least 3K expansion. Requires
"Display T&S" program from the Using Disk Handler
Test/Demo Disk packaged with the 1541. "Disk Handler" is a utility that must be ap
pended to the Display T&S program (see the
instructions below before you start typing it in).
Engineers and mathematicians use the term It extends the value of Display T&S by
"black box" to describe a machine you can't allowing you not only to read the bytes from
open up and look inside. You don't talk about disk, but also write new bytes to the disk. It adds
what it's made of or what parts are inside. It's three new commands: Change, Rewrite, and End.
explained according to its function—something After appending Disk Handler and running
goes in and something else comes out. it, you'll see 16 lines of four bytes each, a total of
There are a lot of black boxes around. To 64 bytes. Since each sector contains 256 bytes, it
use a television, you have to know how to turn it will take four screens to cover a sector.
on and tune in a channel. You don't need to Near the bottom of the screen will be four
know about transistors and circuits, however. prompts:
And a lot of people drive automobiles without
knowing the first thing about pistons and CHANGE (C)
carburetors. REWRITE <W)
Some computer owners treat their disk drive END (Et

as a black box. They use it to save and load pro To go to the next 64-byte section, type Y. if
grams, never wondering how it works or why. you type N, you'll return to the main menu.
The Change option allows you to change a
Delving Into Tracks And byte on the disk. Enter the letter C and you'll be
Sectors asked for a starting point. Type the number of
the first byte you want to change (in hexa
If you're interested in how information goes onto
decimal, as it appears on the screen).
the disk, load "Display T&S" from the
The changes will not be made directly to the
Test/Demo Disk you received with the disk
disk (in case you change your mind later). They
drive. Before you type RUN, insert a disk into
are written to a buffer inside the drive.
the drive {or use the Test/Demo Disk). When the
Let's say the byte you want to change con
program asks for track and sector, answer 18 and
tains a 64 (hex $40). You enter the location and
1, which is where the disk directory begins.
the program responds:
You should see a lot of hexadecimal num
bers, along with the CHR$ characters represented
by some of the numbers. You'll also see the You can now do one of three things:
names of the programs on the disk. 1. Press RETURN to end the change routine
In Appendix D of the 1541 User's Manual and return to the four prompts.
(also packaged with the disk drive) is an explana 2. Type a new value (in hex), to replace the
tion of what some of those numbers mean. If current value, The next byte will then be printed,
114 COMPUTE!'s Gazelle March 19B5
so you can change more than one byte at a time.
3. Press the comma key if you want to leave
the value as is.
If you make a mistake, press RETURN and
select the change option again (remember the
change is not permanent yet). A subscription to the 'Cassette of the Month' gets
Once you're satisfied with the changes, you a tape or disk full of 10 quality Commodore 64
choose the rewrite option. This copies the infor programs delivered to you by first class mail every
month. The documentation included will help you run
mation from the memory buffer onto the disk.
great utilities like 'Word Processor,' and 'Budget
The final choice, End, allows you to exit the Analyzer,' or enjoy great games like 'Frogjump' and
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ble density diskettes!
Disk Handler will not work by itself; it's de
signed to be appended to Display T&S. |—PRICES
First, load Display T&S from the Test/Demo TAPE DISK
Disk. With that program in memory, type in Disk 1YF1(1JISSUES) 60" 75°"
Handler and save it to one of your own disks. 6 MO (6 ISSUES) 35°° 45°°
I recommend that you first experiment with Single Copies 7" Qft]

an unimportant disk in case you've made a typ

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I've used Disk Handler for patching up over three years! acquiring and Si DO lo single issues
Over 4000 satisfied color
scrambled disk directories, correcting errors in PERSONAL CHECKS WELCOME'
computer owners
sequential files, and salvaging scratched pro Commodore 64 required
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If you aren't careful, this program can do a lot of
HOLLAND, Ml 49423
harm to programs and files. (616)396-7577
See listing on page 128. ®


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COMPUTE! s Gazette March 1985 115

JULY 1983: Commodore 64 Video Update; MAY 1984: Exploring.64 Sound
Snake Escape; Alfabug; VIG Marquee; Word jpeedScript Revisited; Sound Sculptor For
Hunt; Learning To Program hi BASIC; The 64; Props; Mind Boggle; Memo Writer;
Quickfjnd; 64 Paddle Reader; Machine I.... The Beginner's Corner: Teaching Music
guage For Beginners; Enlivening Programs With Computers.
With Sound; Using Joysticks On The 64.

OCTOBER 1983: The Anatomy of Com 1984: The Future Of Computer

puters; Telegaming Today And Tomorrow; Games: Software That Thinks For Itself;
Commodore's Public Domain Programs; Oil Tic-Tcic-Toe; Castie Dungeon; Therapy; File
Tycoon; Re-Beep; Aardvark Attack; Word Copier; Power BASIC: One-Touch Keywords;
Match; Machine Language For Beginners; The Beginner's Corner: Planning A Game
How To Use Tape And Disk Files; Under Program.
standing 64 Sound; Speeding Up The.VIC;
HOTWARL"; Improving 64 Video Quality;,
Using The VIC's Clock. -iNiHil
JULY 1984: In Touch With Your Computer:
Graphics Tablets And Light Pens; Space Pa
MARCH 1984: The Electronic Cast It.*: trol; Robot Math; Ultrafont +; Machine
Managing Your Home With Your Computer; Language For Beginners: What Is Machine
Getting Started With A Disk Drive, Part 5; Language?; The Beginner's Corner: Quilt
■ CUT-OFF!; Poker; Tree Tutor For Tots;.'. Squares.

■ii. i
Guess America!; Sea Route To India.

APRIL 1984: Robots: The New Mobile AUGUST 1984: A Survey Of Printers For
Computers; How To Start A User Group; The VIC And 64; Selecting A Printer Inter
Bingo 64; Making .Calendars; French Tutor; face; Campaign Manager; Sprite Magic; Bal
Hints & Tips: Adding A Second joystick To loon Blitz; Disk Purge; The Beginner's
The VIC; Power BASIC: Numeric Keypad. Corner: Using A Printer.

Issues not Us
wSvav.-- . ■ \\\\\\w ...... ■ ■.mWWNvW-1- ^aaskwvv
Back issues of computes gazette are $4 each. All prices include freight in the U.S. Out
side the U.S. add $1 per magazine order for surface postage, $4 per magazine for air mail
^J ■ - !_'__ w\\W>V.

In the continental U.S. call

TOLL FREE 800-334-0868
(in North Carolina call 919-275-9809)

Or write to:
P.O. Box 5406
Greensboro, NC 27403

Prepayment required in U.S. Funds. MasterCard, VISA, and American Express accepted.
North Carolina residents please add 4V2% sales tax.

116 COMPUTE'S Gam* March


64 Draw Poker the cassette port on Commodore

computers, and can reportedly
Game read data from the tape into the
computer 15 times faster than
an audio cassette.
Silicon Slick's Lowbail Draw The Quick Cassette has a
Poker, a game, instructor, and slow speed read mode that em
analysis tool for the Commo ulates an audio cassette, and is
dore 64, has been released by fully compatible with Commo
Snake River Software. dore BASIC and audio cassette
The program teaches the commands. It also features a
user to play California-style A three-dimensional racquelball game
connector allowing programs to
lowbail draw poker using a screen from Breakthru, one of the
be copied from either a Commo
new games for the Commodore 64
game simulation. As a tutorial, dore cassette or another Quick
from Microcomputer Games, Inc.
the program comments on all Cassette. A file management
facets of play, including before World War II simulation In utility also is included.
and after draw betting and which you must defuse a series Suggested retail price is
drawing cards. Game options of bombs; and Breakthru, a around $85.
include ante size, before and three-dimensional arcade-style Entrepo Inc.
after draw betting limits, size racquetball game. 1294 Lawrence Station Road
and number of blind bets, and Suggested retail prices are Sunnyvale, CA 94086
skill level and number of $25 each on disk. Breakthru and (4O8)'734-3133
opponents. London Blitz are also available Circle Reader Service Number 212.

The game retails for $34.95. on cassette for $20 each.

Snake River Software Microcomputer Games, Inc.
2100 Behtwnt Avenue
Idaho Falls, ID 83401
The Avalon Hilt Game Co. Adventure,
4517 Harford Road
(208) 524-5464
Circle Header Service Number 210.
Baltimore, MD 21214 Sports Games
(301) 254-9200
Circle Reader Service Number 211.

64 Arcade, Strategic Simulations, Inc. has

Cassette introduced a number of new
Strategy, games for the Commodore 64:
Storage For 64, Broadsides, a naval battle simu
VIC-20 lation set during the Napoleonic
Games era; President Elect, an election
simulation; Computer Quarter
Entrepo, Inc. has introduced the back, a football simulation; and
Among a number of games re Quick Cassette storage system Breakthrough in the Ardennes, a
cently introduced by Microcom for Commodore 64 and VIC-20 simulation of World War II's
puter Games, Inc., a division of computers. Battle of the Bulge.
the Avalon Hill Game Co., are: The drive is designed as a Each of the games retails
Fortress of the Witch King, an ad replacement for audio cassette for $39.95, except Breakthrough
venture game; London Blitz, a storage systems. It plugs into in the Ardennes, which has a
COMPUTED Gazette March 1985 117

Uit any portable cmrllr

ordii to ,incr save pii>
ms Gcnirols craseilp motor
to flail «nd sUftP m-* rapr

etTe recorders together in make

suggested price of $59.95. are four skill levels, and a play
ing vocabulary of more than
Strategic Simulations, Inc.
PARALLEL PRINTER 883 Stierlitl Rd., Building A-200
12,000 words.
INTERFACE Mountain View, CA 94043-1983 Suggested retail price is
(415) 964-1353 about $30.
39 Circle Reader Service Number 213.
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da'fi ASCII Sfl'tfai ti'\n\\»ii jthjiJos allow you complete

64 Home
COrtliul Ovur ynnler I'rjnl f'ET <jr rip h n3'CO nHO I charo<:U'rs
as mnemonics and ChHScuoMi1 n [CLH|oi ji?4|
ly any p/lnl*/ witn (jilm^D ijipiiHil abiMy cm prlnl actual
The popular board game Scrab
ble has been converted into a
Control System
graphics cAvicifj. EmoJafion of most an CBM pririlrjr
functions Software arjus b PUST command tor BASIC
program hs'ing Primer Orr^ei software consumes no nor
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wJlh man- DBJ5 con-
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set up lor graphlci prtnling on «ny Kr|*i priniw with bit • menu driven
map cajntniily
[_l :. ill! Same ai abom. H/2" HldalorNan-
q Adjustable PrtnUr*. (tl.OO a«lra}. Q • right lustily text
VOLKSMODEM L J S-102 Ho'ds Elgni !-3/f itS-l/*' Canadian
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Con nods ji \VolKS- _ D S-MJHoldsFlre3-S/B-.B-1/!-Erwlopei. _ -' manual included
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or FTLjri tothp,ii!d'rt^Deio* Grip yeaiuncunQilional guar
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CA r*1 nderm ddiJ (>% \ntei Tfl* pWa&i1
including lamps and relays.
Light displays, security systems, New Product releases are selected from submissions for reasons of timeliness,
and energy controllers are three uniqueness, available space, and general interest. Readers should be aware
options available for system that News & Products often contains an edited version of material submitted
configurations. by vendors. We are unable to vouch for its accuracy at lime of publication. (flf
The Simple IF card plugs
into the expansion port on the
64, and comes with data and
sample programs and diagrams.
Operation can be achieved
through BASIC commands or New Technological Breakthrough
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Also available are con i ULTRABYTE
ditioning boards which plug
into the Simple IF. These boards
include an eight-input and
eight-output board, a barrier
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strip board, and a four-position
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The Simple IF retails for
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Call). Add 6.5% (S2.6O) Sales Ta>

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The disks explain the ma same as ordinary data.
chine's graphics and sound ca
• Simple to use. Just load and run
pabilities, and provide
instructions to the features of • Fast. Copies entire disk on single 1541 in 8 minutes
the Commodore 64, as well as • One easy step. No separate analysis or error production
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Progressive Peripherals & Software P.O.Box 789 La Canada, CA 91011
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Circle Reader Service Number 216.
• In "VIC/64 Assembler" from the November
1984 "Machine Language For Beginners" column,
it's necessary to change the 256 to a 255 in line

Bug-Swatter: 20(15, because POKEs to memory must be within

the range 0-255. If you try to enter an instruc
Modifications And Corrections tion such as LDA #256, the program stops with

• Line 250 of "Supertank" {November 1984) was

listed correctly, but not printed correctly. The
• Readers who typed in "3-D Labyrinth" fourth statement should be POKEV + 3,X1. In
(December 19H4) may have discovered that cor some copies of the November issue, the bottom
ridors leading to the right did not look like the
corner of the 1 was cut off, making it look like a
left corridors. To fix this glitch, insert a space in
right bracket. (SI
line 54, just after {3 DOWN[. Also insert a space
in line 57, just after {7 DOWN].
We appreciate receiving bath corrections and sug
gested modifications from readers. Address thum
• Music Patterns, Program 1 from "Baker's to:
Dozen: Part 2" (February), contains a bug that Bug-Swatter
occasionally causes I'OKEs outside of screen c/o COMPUTE'S GAZETTE
memory, These POKEs to the BASIC program P.O. Box 5406

area will garble the program and cause it to Greensboro, NC 27403

crash. Change line 20 as follows: Please indicate the type of error you have
20 K=INT(959*RND(0) )+1024 :13=160 :C=54272 found, as well as the line number.


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^Y.VO U.S. (8191 333-9973

120 COMPUTE'S Gazette March 1985

How To Type In
TE!'s GAZETTE Programs
Each month, COMPUTE!'? GAZETTE publishes programs down the the SHIFT key and press A. You may see
for the V1C-20, Commodore 64, PhiS-4, and 16. Each strange characters on your screen, but that's to be ex
program is clearly marked by title and version. Be sure pected. If you find a number followed by an under
to type in the correct version for your machine. Also, lined key enclosed in braces (for example, |8 A}),
carefully read the instructions in the corresponding type the key as many times as indicated (in our ex
article. This can save time and eliminate any questions ample; enter eight SHIKTed A's). To type 'SHIFT-
which might arise after you begin typing. SPACE}, hold down the SHIFT key and press the
We publish two programs, which appear periodi space bar.
cally, designed to make your typing effort easier: The If a key is enclosed in special brackets, § 3 , hold
Automatic Proofreader, and MLX, designed for enter down the Commodore key (at the lower left corner of
ing machine language programs. the keyboard) and press the indicated character.
When entering a BASIC program, be especially Rarely, you'll see a single letter of the alphabet
careful with DATA statements as they are extremely enclosed in braces. This can be entered on the Com
sensitive to errors, A mistyped number in a DATA modore 64 by pressing the CTRL key while typing the
statement can cause your machine to "lock up" (you'll letter in braces. For example, {A} means to press
have no control over the computer). If this happens, CTRL-A.
the only recourse is to turn your computer off then
back on, erasing whatever was in memory. So be sure
The Quote Mode
to sai'c a copy of your program before you run it. If your
Although you can move the cursor around the screen
computer crashes, you can always reload the program
with the CRSR keys, often a programmer will want to
and look for the error.
move the cursor under program control. This is seen
in examples such as {LEFT}, and {HOME} in the pro
Special Characters gram listings. The only way the computer can tell the
Most of the programs listed in each issue contain spe difference between direct and programmed cursor
cial control characters. To facilitate typing in any pro control is the quote mode.
grams from the gazette, use the following listing Once you press the quote key, you're in quote
conventions. mode. This mode can be confusing if you mistype a
The most common type of control characters in character and cursor lefl to change it. You'll see a
our listings appear as words within braces: {DOWN} reverse video character (a graphics symbol for cursor
means to press the cursor down key; {5 spaces) left). In this case, you can use the DELete key to back
means to press the space bar five times. up and edit the line. Type another quote and you're
To indicate that a key should be shifted (hold out of quote mode. If things really get confusing, you
down the SHIFT key while pressing another key), the can exit quote mode simply by pressing RETURN.
character is underlined. For example, A means bold Then just cursor up to the mistyped line and fix it.

When You Read: Press: See: When You Read: Piess: See: When You Read: Press: See:

ICLR) [pur!


lUP) [BLUi
For Commodore 64 Only

{LEFT) [Fl! c=;

[RIGHT) [F2} ° I '
[ RVS i (F3) £33 C=

(OFF! (F4) S"3 O

!blk} !F5] E53 "EH E

Iwht) [F6I

(red} IF7) o ED □
(cyn) IF81

COMPUTE'S Gazette March 1985

Machine Language
MLX Entry Program
For Commodore 64 And VIC-20
Charles Brannon, Program Editon

MLX is a labor-saving utility that allows almost vance to the next number. The checksum automati
fail-safe entry of machine language programs pub cally appears in inverse video for emphasis.
lished in gazette. You need to know nothing To simplify your typing, MLX redefines part of
about machine language to use MLX—it was de the keyboard as a numeric keypad:
signed for everyone. There are separate versions for U I O 7 8 9
the Commodore 64 and expanded VIC-20 (at least H I K L become 0 4 5 6
8K). M , . 12 3

MLX Commands
MLX is a new way to enter long machine ianguage
When you finish typing an ML listing (assuming you
(ML) programs with a minimum of fuss. MLX lets you
type it all in one session) you can then save the com
enter the numbers from a special list that looks similar
pleted program on tape or disk. Follow the screen
to BASIC DATA statements. It checks your typing on
instructions. If you get any errors while saving, you
a line-by-line basis. It won't let you enter illegal
probably have a bad disk, or the disk is full, or you've
characters when you should be typing numbers. It
made a typo when entering the MLX program itself.
won't let you enter numbers greater than 255 (forbid
You don't have to enter the whole ML program
den in ML). It won't let you enter the wrong numbers
in one sitting. MLX lets you enter as much as you
on the wrong line. In addition, MLX creates a ready-
want, save it, and then reload the file from tape or
to-use tape or disk file. You can then use the LOAD
disk later.
command to read the program into the computer, as
MLX recognizes these commands:
with any program:
SHIFT-S: Save SHIBT-N: New Address
LOAD "filename",!,! (for tape)
SHIFT-S: Load SHIFT-D: Display
LOAD "filename",8,l (for disk)
When you enter a command, MLX jumps out of
To start the program, you enter a SYS command
the line you've been typing, so we recommend you do
that transfers control from BASIC to machine language.
it at a new prompt. Use the Save command to save
The starting SYS number always appears in the
what you've been working on. It will save on tape or
appropriate article.
disk, as if you've finished, but the tape or disk won't
work, of course, until you finish the typing. Remem
Using MLX ber what address you stop at. The next time you run
Type in and save MLX (you'll want to use it in the MLX, answer all the prompts as you did before, then
future). When you're ready to type in an ML program, insert the disk or tape. When you get to the entry
run MLX. MLX asks you for two numbers: the starting prompt, press SHIFT-L to reload the partly completed
address and the ending address. These numbers are file into memory. Then use the New Address com
given in the article accompanying the ML program. mand to resume typing.
You'll see a prompt corresponding to the starting To use the New Address command, press SHIFT-N
address. The prompt is the current line you are enter and enter the address where you previously stopped.
ing from the listing. It increases by six each time you The prompt will change, and you can then continue
enter a line. That's because each line has seven typing. Always enter a New Address that matches up
numbers—six actual data numbers plus a checksum with one of the line numbers in the special listing, or
number. The checksum verifies that you typed the else the checksum won't work. The Display command
previous six numbers correctly. If you enter any of the lets you display a section of your typing. After you
six numbers wrong, or enter the checksum wrong, the press SHIFT-D, enter two addresses within the line
computer rings a buzzer and prompts you to reenter number range of the listing. You can abort the listing
the line. If you enter it correctly, a bell tone sounds by pressing any key.
and you continue to the next line. What if you forgot where you stopped typing?
MLX accepts only numbers as input. If you make Use the Display command to scan memory from the
a typing error, press the INST/DEL key; the entire beginning to the end of the program. When you reach
number is deleted. You can press it as many times as the end of your typing, the lines will contain a ran
necessary back to the start of the line, if you enter dom pattern of numbers. When you sec the end of
three-digit numbers as listed, the computer automati your typing, press any key to stop the listing. Use the
cally prints the comma and goes on to accept the next New Address command to continue typing from the
number. If you enter less than three digits, you can proper location.
press either the SPACE bar or RETURN key to ad- See listings on page 129.
122 COMPUTE'S Gazette March 1985
Baker's Dozen 40 V=1215:A=-l:B=40:C=lsD=-40:R=INT(15*RN
D(l))+1 :rem 129
50 GOSUB200 :rem 119
(Article on page 111.) 60 POKE1995.32 :rem 254
70 V=1893!A=-1sB=-40:C=l:D=40:R=INT(15*RN
D(l) ) + l :rem 144
BEFORE TYPING . . . 80 GOSUB200 srem 122
Before typing in programs, please refer to 90 POKE1073.32 :rem 244
"How To Type In COMPUTED GAZETTE 100 V=1191:A=1:B=40:C=-1iD=-40sR=INT(15*R
Programs," which appears before the Program ND(1))+l srem 177
110 GOSUB200 srem 164
120 POKE2011.32 :rem 23
130 PORT=lToa000;HEXT:GOTO5 :rem 194

Program 1: Mondrian 200

srem 50

10 PRINTCHRS(147)CHR$(5):POKE53280,0:POKE +A:NEXT :rem 146

53281,0 srem 242 220 FORX=lTONsPOKEV+B,Q:POKEV+S,R:V=V+B:N
20 R=54272:A=1 :rem 222 EXT :rem 159
30 N=INT(10*RND{1))+1:P=INT{10*RND(1))+l: 230 N=N+1:FORX=1TON s POKEV+C,Q:POKEV+S,R:V
Q=INT(15*RND(1))+1 :rem 29 =V+C:NEXT :rem 17
40 V=INT(1000*RND(1))+1024 :rem 118 240 FORX=1TON:POKEV+D,Q:POKEV+S,RsV=V+D:N
50 IFV+N>2023THENV=V-N:GOTO20 :rem 48 EXT :rem 165
60 IFV+(40*P)>2023THENV=V-(40*P):GOTO20 250 N=N+1:FORX=1TON:POKEV+A,Q:POKEV+S,R:V
:rem 243 =V+AsNEXT srem 15


A+R,Q:V=V+AsNEXTsV=V+40-N:NEXTZ:GOTO30 EXT :rem 163
:rem 210 270 NEXTP :rem 40
280 RETURN : rem 122

Program 2: Rectangles
5 A=1:B=-1 sC=40:D=-40:E=10:P=54272srern 77
Program 4: Noodle Doodle
10 PRINTCHR$(147)sPOKE5 3 2B0,0sPOKE53281,0 10 PRINTCHRS(147)CHRS{28):POKE53280,1:POK
:rem 107 E53281,l srem 41
20 V=INT(1000*RND(1))+1024s:Q=INT(15*RND( 20 FORL=5427 2TO54295:POKEL,0:NEXTsPOKE542
1))+l :rem 4 96,15 srem 17
30 N=INT{E*RND(1))+l:Z=INT{E*RND(1))+l 25 POKE54277,190:POKE54278,255:POKE54282,
srem 153 190 srem 212
40 IFV+N<1024THEN:V=V-N:GOTO20 :rem 103 30 POKE54285,25 5:POKE54 276,65:POKE54283,6
45 IFV+N>2023THEN:V=V-NsGOTO20 :rem 110 5sPOKE54275,8:POKE54282,8 srem 22
50 IFV-N<1024THENsV=V+N:GOTO20 :rem 104 40 F=lsG=1.5sL=10:H=10:I=H*G:Z=54272:Y=54
55 IFV-N>2023THEN:V=V+N:GOTO20 :rem 111 273:ZZ=54279:YY=54280:V=1398sC=54272
60 IPV+(40*Z)<1024THEN:V=V-(40*Z):GOTO20 srem 147
65 IFV+{40*Z)>20 23THEN:V=V-(40*Z):GOTO20 E TURN UP VOLUME" :rem 19
70 IFV-(40*Z)<1024THEN:V=V+(40*Z):GOTO20 TO STOP" :rem 232
:rem 64 60 FORT=1TO2000:NEXT:PRINTCHRS(147)
75 IFV-(40*O)>2023THENsV=V+(40*Z):GOTO20 srem 162
:rem 60 100 A=INT(5*RND{1)):B=INT(13*RND{1))+2
80 FORX=1TON:POKEV+A,67:POKEV+A+P,QiV=V+A :rem 86
:NEXT :rem 245 105 FORN=lTOA:POKEV,67sPOKEV+C,B srem 16
100 FORX=lTOZsPOKEV+D,66:POKEV+D+P,Q:V=V+ ,L:H=H+F:I=I+FsNEXT :rem 223
D:NEXT :rem 50 110 IFH>243THENH=10:I=H*G :rem 206
110 POKEV,73:POKEV+P,Q :rem 100 120 POKEV,73:POKEV+C,BsV=V+40:X=INT(1*RND
(1))+lsONXGOTO700,800 :rem 231
B:NEXT :rem 35 200 A=INT{5*RND(1)):B=INT(13*RND(1))+2
130 POKEV,85:POKEV+P,Q :rem 105 :rem 87
150 POKEV,74:P0KEV+P,Q :rem 105 ,LsH=H+FsI=I+F:NEXT :rem 224
160 GOTO20 :rem 50
210 IFH>243THENH=10sI=H*G :rem 207
Program 3: (1))+l:ONXGOTO500,600 :rem 232
300 A=INT{5*RND(1)):B=INT(13*RND(1))+2
5 PRINTCHR${147)CHR$(5):POKE53280,0:POKE5 :rem 88
3281,0 :rem 198 305 FORN=1TOA:POKEV,67:POKEV+C,B srem 18
10 V=1873iA=l:B=-40:C=-l:D=40:Q=160:R=INT 308 V=V-l:POKEY,HsPOKEZ,LsPOKEYY,IsPOKEZZ
(15*RND(1))+l:S=54272 :rem 181 ,LsH=H-F:I=I-F:NEXT :rem 231
20 GOSUB200 :rem 116 310 IFH<12THENH=10:I=H*G :rem 152
30 POKE1093.32 :rem 240 320 POKEV,85:POKEV+C,B:V=V+40:X=INT(2*RND
COMPUTE'S Gfliorro March 19B5 123
:rem 252
(1})+1:ONXGOTO700,800 :rem 236
400 A=INT{5*RND(1)):B=INT(13*RND(1))+2
20 PRINT:PRINT"?:";:GOSUB30:IN$=B5:BS="":
:rem 59
405 FORN=1TOA:POKEV,67:POKEV+C,B :rem 19
:rem 69
,L:H=H-F:I=I-F:NEXT : rem 232
410 IFH<12THENH=10:I=H*G :rem 153
420 POKEV,74:POKEV+C,B:V=V-40:X=INT(2*RND ) :GOTO30 :reln 25
( 1))+1:ONXGGTO500,600 :rem 233 50 B$=B$+C5:GOTO30 :rem 2l4
500 A=INT(5*RND(1))rB=INT(13*RND(l)J+2 60 L=LEN(IMS):P=1:H=1 :rem 209
FORN=1TOA:POKEV,66:POKEV+C,B :rem 19 200 :rem 91
Z,L:H=H+F:I=I+F:NEXT s rem 24 90 WS(W)=MIDS([N5,P) :rem 79
510 IFH>243THENH=10:I=H*G :rem 210 100 E$=RIGHTS(WS(W),1):IFE$="-"ORES="?"OR
515 POKEV,73:POKEV+C,B:V=V-1: IFV<1384THEN E?="l"THEN120 :rem 195
300 :rem 191 110 GOTO130 =rem 95
520 X=INT(2*RND(1))+l:ONXGOTO300,400 120 W5(W) = LEFTS(W$(W),LEN(W?(W))-1 )
:rem 65 rem 147

600 A=INT(5*RND(1)):B=INT(13*RND(1))+2 130 FORJ=1TOW:XS(J)=W$(J):NEXT :rem 74

:rem 91 140 GOSUB210 rem 168
605 FORN=1TOA:POKEV,66:POKEV+C,B :rem 20 150 PRINT" OK7"; rem 123
Z,L:H=H+F:I=I+F:NEXT : rem 25 170 IFOK$="N"THENGOSUB410 rem 248
610 IFH>243THENH=10:I=H*G :rem 211 180 J=W
615 POKEV, 85: POKEV+C,B:V=V+1 : II-'V< 1384THEN rem 223
100 :rem 191 190 IN$="":COTO20 :rem 171
620 X=INT(2*RND(1))+l:ONXGOTO100,200 200 W$(W)=MID$(IN$,P,I-P)tP=l!W=W+l:RETUR
:rem 62 N :rem 21
700 A=INT(5*RND(1>):B=INT(13*RND(1))+2 210 PRINT:PRINT:FORI=1TOW :rem 185
:rem 92 220 IFXS(I)="WAS"ORX$(I)=" WAS"THENW$(I)=
705 FORN=1TOA:POKEV,66:POKEV+C,B :rem 21 " WERE" :rem 192
Z,L:H=H-F:I=I-F:NEXT :rem 28 RLEFT$(XS(I},2)="I'"THENWS(I)=" YOU"
710 IFH<12THENH=10:I=H*G :rem 156 :rem 183
715 POKEV,75:POKEV+C,B:V=V-1:IFV>1683THEH 240 IFX$(l)=" WERE"THENWS(1)=" WAS"
400 :rem 200 :rem 159
720 X=INT(2*HND(1))+l:ONXGOTO300,400 250 IFX$(I)=" MY"THENW$(I)=" YOUR"
:rem 67 :rem 119
800 A=INT<5*RND(1)):B=INT{13*RND(1))+2 260 IFX$(I)=" AM"THENW$(I}=" ARE":rem 233
;rem 93 270 IFX${I)="YOU"ORXS(I)=" YOU"THENW$(I)=
805 FORN=1TOA:POKEV,66:POKEV+C,B : rem 22 " I" :rem 255
Z,L:H=H-F:I=I-F:NEXT !rem 29 W$(l)=" I'M" :rem 240
810 IFH<12THESH=10:I=H*G :rem 157 290 IFX${I)="YOUR"ORX$( l) = " YOUR"THENW$ (I
815 POKEV,74:POKEV+C,B:V=V+1:IFV>1683THEN )=" MY" :rem 2
200 :rem 196 300 IFRIGHT?(X?(I),2)="'S"THENW?(I)=LEFTS
820 X=INT(2*RND(1))+l:ONXGOTO100,200 {XS(I),LEN(XS(I))~2)+" IS" :rem 151
:rem 64 310 IFRIGHT$(X$(l),3)="I'M"TUENW5(I)=LEFT
$(XS(I),LF.N(xS{l))-3)+"YOU ARE"
:rem 22

AVAIL 320 IFX$(I+1)=" ARE"ANDXS(I)+X${I+1)="YOU

ARE"THENW$(I+1)="'M" :rem 96
(Article on page 74.) S(XS{I),LEN(X$(I))-3)+" HAVE":rem 108
(XS(i) ,LEN(XS(D)-2 ) + " would11!rem 123
Before typing in programs, please refer to T${XS(I),LEN(XS(I))-4):REM DELETE"THE
"How To Type In COMPUTERS GAZETTE :rem 242
Programs," which appears before the Program 360 IFRIGHT$(XS(D,3}=" AN"THENW$ ( I ) = " " : R
Listings. EM DELETE"AN" :rem 9
370 IFRIGHT${X$(I),2)=" A"THENW$(I)=X$(1+
Note: The checksums (Terns) in the program below are for 1) :rem 69
380 NEXT :rem 218
use with "The Automatic Proofreader—VIC ami 64 only.)
390 FORI=1TOJ+1:PRINTW?(I);:NEXT :rem 19
1 A=40:REM ON VIC, SET A=22 COLUMNS 400 return ;rem 116
:rem 203 410 X=INT{7*RND{0) )+l:PRINT" NO? " ,-
5 PRINT"{CLR]{9 DOWN)"TAB((A-8)/2)"(RVSiA :rem 170
VA1L":FORI=1TO2000:NEXT :rem 43 420 ONXGOTO430,440,4 50,460,470,480,490
10 DIMW$(20),XS[20),INS(20):PRINT"{CLR)" j rem 2

124 COMPUTE'S Gazel/o March 19B5

[2 SPACES)";INS(X) : RETURN : rein 231 (8)"(BLU){3 DOWNjALPHA" :rem 248
:rem 92 190 FOR J=1TO100:NEXT :rem 230
470 PRINT:RETURN :rem 66 (8)"[BLU}{2 DOWN}tRVSiALPHA" :rem 243
490 PRINT:RETURN :rem 68 :rem 54
220 FOR J=1TO100: NEXTI :rem 41
230 DIMP%(25),RL%(5,5) :rem 114

Machine Language
240 GOSUB1240 :rem 221
250 RF=0:AT=0 :rem 216
260 DL=150 :rem 251

For Beginners 270

290 IFRF=1THENLC=25 :rem 146
(Article on page 103.)
300 PRINTCHRS(147) :rem 14
310 PRINTTAB(10)CHRS(144) "flA^ER^R^Ri
Program 1: Binary Quiz j^R^S3" :re.n 191
320 FOR I=l
130 C1=209:C0=215
140 X=INT(256*RND(1)): D=X: P=128 ^ :rem
160 PRINT CHR$(147) 330 PRINTTAB(10)"zg + 3-^+3-:g + |-g + 3-E + 3-"
180 FOR 1= 1 TO 8 :rem 92
190 IF INT(D/P) = 1 THEN PRINT CHRS(Cl);: 340 PRINT TAB(10) "gZl^EE^^E^gE^^E^
D=D-P; GOTO 210 |X^" :rem 223
:rem 171

Program 2: Binary Table 370 PRINT"ERED!{DOWN}[2 RIGHT}";HS

:rem 168
110 L=8:B=2:C=1 380 IFSC< 2499THENPOKEQ2+CL,5:P0KEQ2,LC
120 FORX=0TO255:PRINTX? ;rem 119
150 K{C)=48 rem 227
400 TI$="000000":CS=102 rem 150
170 K(C)=48
180 B=B*2:IFO8THEN200 410 GOSUB570 rem 177
420 IFFG=1THEN280 rem 233
190 GOTO160
430 IFMA=0THEN480 rem 236
200 FOR I=0TO7:PRINTSTR$(K(L)-48) ; :L=L-1
440 POKES2.0 rem 168
210 NEXT
220 C=0:PRINT 450 TL=DL-INT(Tl/60) rem 161


[2 SPACES}" :rerc 248
470 IFTL>0THEN410 :rem 252
480 IFSOHSTHENHS=SC : rem 55

Alpha Anxiety 490 PRINTLEFT$(CR$,18)SPC{11)"GAME

500 P0KES1,185:FORI-1TO300:NEXT:POKES1,0:
(Article on page 71.)
GOSUB1240 :rem 99
Program 1: Alpha Anxiety—VIC E BUTTON" rem 111


rem 161
100 IFPEEK(44)=18THEN120 :rem 102 530 WAIT37137.32 : rem 99
110 SM=7735:CL=30720:01=8141:Q2=7793:GOTO 540 WAIT37137.32,32 rem 245
130 :rem 233 550 PRINTCHR$(147):FORT=1TO500:Nl r
120 SM=4151:CL=3 3792:Q1=45 57:Q2=4209 rem 169
:rem 224 560 GOTO2 50 rem 107
130 JC=37154:J1=37151:J2=37152:S1=36874:S 570 POKEJC,127:P=PEEK(J2)AND128 : rem 69
2=36876:HS=0 : rem 157 580 JE=-(P=0) rem 164
140 CR? = CHR${19) :FORI = 1TO23 :CR$ = CR$-t-CHR$ ( 590 POKEJC,255:P=PEEK(J1 | rem 218
17):NEXT :rem 110 600 JS=-((PANDS)=0) : rem 7
150 POKE36878,15:POKE36879,25 :rem 116 610 : rem 59
160 FOR I=1TO15 :rem 62 620 : rem G

COMPUTE'S Gazette March 19BS 125

630 JF=-((PAND32)=0) : rem 42 1230 RETURN =rem 166
640 TH=PO:T1=L1:T2=L2 :re m 6 1240 FORI=1TO25:P%(I)=I:NEXT :rem 183
650 IFJFTHENGOSUB790:GOTO720 : rem 21 1250 FORI=1TO5 =rem 62
660 IFJETHENPO=PO+2:L1=L1+1:FL=1 : rem 200 1260 FORJ=1TO5 :rem 64
670 IFJSTHENP0=P0+44:L2=L2+1:FL=1 :rem 15 1270 R=INT(RND(1)*25+1) :rem 232
680 IFJWTHENPO=PO-2:L1=L1-1:FL=1 r rem 224 1280 IFP%(R)=0THEN1270 :rem 216
690 IFJNTHENPO=PO-44:L2=L2-1:FL=1 : rem 16 1290 RL%(I,J)=R sretn 46
700 IFFL=0THEN780 ; rem 243 1300 P%(R)=0 Tern 73
710 POKES2,175 s rem 21 1310 NEXTJ srem 78
720 IFFG=1THEN780 :rem 241 1320 NEXTI irem 78
730 IFPO<SMORPO>SM+207THENPO=TH:L1=T1-.L2 = 1330 RETURN =rem 167
T2 :rem 33
TH:L1=T1:L2=T2 :rem 142 Program 2: Alpha Anxiety—64
:rem 102
760 POKEPO+CL,2:POKEPO,RL%(L1,L2)srem 242 100 SD=54272:FORI=SDTOSD+24:POKEI,0:NEXT:
770 PL=0 :rera 157 POKESD+5,26:POKESD+6,191iP0KE54296,15
780 RETURN srem 127 :rem 26
790 IFRL%(LI,L2)=LCTHENSC=SC+10:GOTO830 110 SM=1280:CL=54272:Q1=1905:O2=1227
srem 104 :rem 210
800 IFRF=1THEN910 :rem 246 120 HS=0:JC=56320 :rem 159
810 IFRL%(L1,L2)<LCTHEN940 :rem 250 130 CR$=CHR$(19):FORI=1TO23:CR$=CR$+CHR$(
820 GOTO910 :rem 109 17)jNEXT:POKE53281,l :rem 54
830 POKES2,245:FORT=1TO25:NEXT;POKES2,0 140 FORI=1TO7 ;rem 13
:rem 198 150 PRINTCHRS(31)CHRS(147)LEFTS(CR$,9)SPC
:rem 44 160 FOR J=1TO50:NEXT :rem 183
850 P0KEQ1+LCLC : rem 195 170 PRINTCHRS(31)CHR$(147)LEFTS(CRS,9)SPC
860 IFRF=1THENLC=LC-1:GOTO880 : rem 46 (12)"[3 DOWN](RVS)ALPHA ANXIETY"
870 LC=LC+1 :rem 36 :rem 50
880 IFSO2500THEN900 :rem 146 180 FOR J=1TO100:NEXTI :rem 46
890 IFLCO0THENPOKEQ2,LC :rem 5 190 DIMPS(25),RL%(5,5) :rem 119
900 CS=RL%{L1,L2)JGOTO930 :rem 182 200 GOSUB1150 :rem 217
910 POKES1,250sFORT=lTO30sNEXTsPOKESl,0 210 RF=0:AT=0 ;rem 212
:rem 187 220 DL=150 :rem 247
920 DL=DL-10:POKE36879,2 5+MAsGOTO1230 230 SC=0:MA=3 :rem 208
:rem 133 240 L1=1:L2=1:LC=1:FL=1 PO=SM:FG=0 :rem 2
930 PRINTLEFTS(CRS,15)SPC(2)SC"{LEFT] 250 IFRF=1THENLC=25 :rem 142
(2 SPACES)" :rem 244 260 PRINTCHR$(147) trem 19
940 IFRF=0THEN970 irem 0 270 PRINT " (4 DOWN} "TAB ( 15 ) " E BLK i E A^& R^
950 IFLCO0THEN1230 : rem 91 ^^^ :rem 246
960 GOTO980 :rem 121 280 FOR I=lTO4:PRINTTAB(15)"-fRVS) {OFF}=
970 IFLC<>26THEN1230 :rem 149 [RVS} {OFFj^tRVSJ {OFFj^TRVS) fOFF]z
980 IFSO5000THEN1040 :rem 189 [RVS} tOFF]-":PRIHTTAS(15)"^Qg*+*+*+'
990 AT=AT+DL-TL :rem 145 :rem 45
1000 IFSC=5000THENDL=INT(AT/20):GOTO1090 290 NEXT:PRINTTAB(15) "zlRVS] (OFF)r(RVS]
:rem 131 [SPACE)[OFF]-[RVS} {OFF}-[RVS! [OFF]z
1010 IFTL<150THENDL=TL*2+40:GOTO1090 [RVS] [OFF]-17 srem 213
:rem 135 300 PRINTTAB{157 "EZi_^E3^1?E^fiE3^.1 E3.^X3
1020 IFTL>300THENDL=TL*.5:GOTO1090:rem 41 :rem 224
1030 DL=TL :rem 49 310 PRINT"{BLU}{HOME)[DOWN}{RIGHT}NEXT"iP
1050 IFSC=7000THENDL=DL-5 :rem 221 [DOWN} {2 RIGHT] gA^ES3" : PRINT" {RED}
1060 IFSC=8000THENDL=DL-5 :rem 223 [2 RIGHT]- -"sPRINT"[RED][2 RIGHT)EZ3
1070 IFSC=9000THENDL=DL-5 :rem 225 ^EX3" srem 108
1090 FORI=1TO3 :rem 62 [BLU][3 DOWN)[RIGHTlSCORE:"sPRINT"
1100 POKES2,225jFORT=1TO250:NEXT :rem 209 [RED]{DOWN}[2 RIGHT]"SC: :rem 142
1110 POKES2,0:FORT=1TO25:NEXT :rem 57 330 print"{blu}{down](right)high"sprint"
1120 NEXTI srem 76 (RIGHT]SCOREs" :rem 178
1130 FORI=1TO2 :rem 56 340 PRINT"{RED}(D0WN}(2 RIGHT}";HS
1140 POKES2,231:FORT=1TO250:NEXT srem 210 srem 165
1150 POKES2,0sFORT=lTO25sNEXT srem 61 350 IFSC< 2499THENPOKEQ2+CL,6:POKEQ2,LC
1160 POKES2,225sFORT=lTO250:NEXT :rem 215 :rem 117
1170 POKES2,0:FORT=1TO25:NEXT :rem 63 360 FORI=Ql+CLTOQl+CL+26:POKEI,0: NEXT
1180 NEXTI srem 82 :rem 59
1190 POKES2,240:FORT=1TO250:NEXT:POKES2,0 370 TI$="000000":CS=160 :rem 160
:rem 33 380 GOSUB530 :rem 179
1200 IFSO1250THENRF=1 :rem 35 390 IFFG=1THEN240 :rem 235
1210 GOSUB1240 :rem 11 400 IFMA=0THEN450 :rem 230
1220 FG-1 -rem 192 410 POKESD+4,17:POKESD+1,0 srem 6

126 COMPUTE'S Gazelle Marcfi 19B5

420 TL=DL-INT(Tl/60) :rem 153 :rem 97
430 PRINTLEFTS(CR$,11}SPC(2)TL"(LEFT} 980 IFTL> 300THENDL=TL*.5:GOTO1050 :rem 3
{2 SPACES}" :rem 245 990 DL=TL :rem 15
440 IFTL>0THEN380 irem 255 1000 IFSC=6000THENDL=DL-5 :rem 215
450 IFSOHSTHENHS=SC :rem 52 1010 IFSC=7000THENDL=DL-5 :rem 217
460 PRINT'fCLR] {BLUl (9 D0WNJU5 SPACES} 1020 IFSC=8000THENDL=DL-5 :rem 219
[RVS}GAME OVER" :rem 30 1030 IFSC=9000THENDL=DL-5 :rem 221
470 PRINT"fBLU]{3 D0WN}[9 SPACES)PRESS TH 1040 IFSC=10000THENDL=DL-5 i rem 6
E FIRE BUTTON" :rem 46 1050 H=SD+l!L=SDsPOKEH,8!POKEL(97 fGOSUB10
480 PRINT"fDOWN}{13 SPACES}TO PLAY AGAIN" 80 :rem 129
:rem 183 1060 POKEH,12sPOKEL,143:GOSUB1080 : POKEH,1
490 POKESD+1,85:FORI=1TO400:NEXT:POKESD+1 4:POKEL,24:GOSUB1080 srem 213
,0:GOSUB1150 :reni 25 1070 POKEH,12sPOKEL,143:POKESD+4, 17sFORI=
tram 124 0 srem 99