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Commodore 64 Music For Non-Musicians

$2.95
February 1985 ®
Issue 20, Vol. 3, No. 2
02220 $3.50 "anada

For Commodore VIC-20 & Personal Computer Users

Address
FiEe
Get organized with this
easy-to-use filing system
which offers many extra
features, such as an alpha
betical sort, instant search,
and simple menu operation.
For the VIC and 64.

The Forbidden Crypt


The treasure is for the taking, but aggressive
bats, snakes, spiders, and ghouls do all they can
to prevent you. A multi-level action game for the
vie, 64, pius/4, and 16. mg^aEmmi^mm Name
. , . Also In This Issue:
Horizons Machine Language
An in-depth look at the For Beginners:
new Okimate-10 color Self-Modifying
printer. Programs
Let your computer help
Inside View: your children learn the
Ryo Kawasaki scales. A valuable
(I C

w
User Group Update educational program for
0 the VIC, 64, Plus/4,
And More
and 16.
71486 02220
RITEMAN
AKES THE RIGHT
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T-f/- ' printer tor people who want to make the right impression!
f-Piug and software compatible with the Commodore 64'^— It's ready to run without any set-up hassles.
It even has a second parallel port and comes with Epson"* software so It can be used with many other
:/■ ""' personal computer systems.
i with true descenders.. .on cut paper or continuous computer paper.
Compact, hard-working, and backed by a full one-year warranty. The Riteman R64. Call toll free for the dealer
or department store nearest you: Toll Free number (800) 824-3044 (outside Calif.). (800) 421-2551 (in Calif.).

Check out these Impressive spec

• PftiNT METHOD ItnpBO Dot MaW» COLWilHS _-Hwiral


132
• SOFTWARE COMPATIBILITY (It CommnCorH MPS
{tee printing mod* 4) EipwiSM 40
m RrraiAH plus, epotn mx-so CompnttMl E»wnO*d 66
Tvpe3fi+ • \m SFACIKO 1fl". W, 7/72", N^T, WIW
(us pfinUno mode 2) PAPER Hpl i Frlellon F»«d
• PRINTING MODE (1) Htvmid. EtpiMtO en* tnmninitiiin Sprocket FHd
R) Normal. Expander), Compratttd; • PAPEH WOTH Cut Paper
Itallct. Double Strike. Emphasised, Roll Paptr 4 - 9"
Undertint, Supsr/SubsctlpH and Fanlotd Paper
combhwUM ■ BtB8QH UFE i. 1 mimon tiwtirt«r» ^
• CHARACTER MATRIX B I 9 • INKED RIBBON _ Eicluslue Cassotla Rlbhon pack)
- CHARACTER TYPES ASCII
HEAD UFE -, 100 million chimciere
Katlu 96
Evml-gnphlu 3Z INTERFACE LI.., Ser)*l (Commodore)
Parallel (Centronle«|
Commodore OnpMc 64
SIM 2 7ffl" (H) < 10 9J1B" (D) % 14" (W)
. PRWT SPEED , 1» CPS
WEIOHT ..; „, 11 Ibi.
• LINEFEED SPEED W mi
WARRANTY .V I (tar (P»rti end Labor)
• THHOUOH PUT SPEED ;...'. 63 LPM
ACCESSORY -'■■•■ WfllS Cable (Cornmoaoro)
. COPV Original + Z . OPTION TiaciDr UnH

'Cammadore d Commodore G4, MPS-8O1, B03, VIC 1525. are registered tradsmarks oi
Commodore Business Machlnas. Inc.
BOislereO trademarks ol Epson America Corp.

1NFORUNNER CORPORATION
Alrpoit Business Center 431 N. Oak St. Inglewood, CA 90302
THE BANK STREET APPROACH TO WORD PROCESSING:

"SIMPLIFY! SIMPLIFY! SIMPLIFY!"


of each line. Never worry about chang
ing your mind—you can add, move,
IV" »l*tl C3 FOR MENU insert or delete single words, lines or even
TVPE IH TEXT AT CURSOR entire blocks of text and then restore the
«= ERASES deleted copy if you want it back. Using
Ihe search and replace option, the Bank
1
Street Writer will scan your document for
a particular word, replace it with another,
and then verify the replacement. And
-
when you're ready to print, you can
format your text in any way you'd like.
Answer a few simple questions and you
can set margins and line spacing. The
Writer will number pages either at the top
or bottom or not at all—whichever you
prefer. You can easily save your text on
a disk, then retrieve it later to re-read,
print or do more editing.

And to make your writing letter perfect,


soon there will be a spelling checker
available for use with the Bank Street
Using the Bank Street Writer is almost as simple us sitting daum with a blank sheet Writer. Bank Street Speller finds errors
af paper—just load the program and start writing.
instantly and corrects them by looking up
entries in its electronic dictionary.
n the weeks following its intro
duction, the Bank Street Writer SIMPLY MORE POWERFUL.
SIMPLY MORE AFFORDABLE.
became a leading best seller,
and for some very simple reasons. For all its simplicity, the Bank Street
Best of all, Bank Street Writer's suggested
Writer offers some very impressive fea
Here, finally, is a word processor that lives retail price of $49.95jbr the Commodore 64
tures. You can center titles or indent with
up lo its promise to be easy to use. Most makes it simply the best word proces
ease, and automatic word wrap lets you
people (children included) can begin sing value around. And it comes with
forget about pressing "return" at the end
using it in a matter of minutes. Yet it puts everything you need, including complete
you in full control of the powerful fea documentation and a free back-up disk,
tures most wanted in a sophisticated to begin simplifying your life today.
word processing program. All at a price THE HANK STREET WRITER It altn available lor
titt Apple, IBM tfid Altiri home computers. Avpte is
lhat makes it as easy to buy as it is to use. u trademark of A>ivle Computer, Inc. Commodore OJ
ic d rniiirrr[£irk" uf Commodore rAtctrotiics, Ltii.
Atari i* a trademark of Atari Corp. IBMiha imrfu-
■■w-Il of International Bulinas Siachiites, Inc. For
SIMPLY MORE SIMPLE. pUnhv Information about rtraderbumt and our
^m>J<it-tj, uirirp ro id at: 17 Paul Drive, Sirri Rafael,
Oltrforrii.l 94903. C IV81 Brederbund Soflimra.
The Bank Street Writer was developed in
association with the Bank Street College
of Education in New York. Designed to be SIMPLICITY. POWER. VALUE.
its own tutor, the Writer will guide you IT MAKES GOOD SENSE.
along with on-screen prompts and easy- THE BANK STREET WRITER
to-follow menus so you can concentrate FROM BRODERBUND.
on what you're doing instead of /ioui
On-screen prompts and selections are in
plain English, so there's no memorizing

Braderbund
complex computer codes, keys or sym
bols. You'll be writing, correcting and
rearranging your words with just a few
keystrokes.
RAID ON BUNGELING BAY"
When you shopped for a computer, you wanted one with a lot of intelli
gence. This game may lead you to regret that choice, as your friendly little
computer becomes the brains behind the most fantastic enemy you will ever
face: The War Machine.
A monstrous artificial intelligence directs an endless army of self-
replicatins robot weapons and a complex of factories hidden on six heavily
defended islands. Even as you strike at one island, robots beyond your field of
vision continue to multiply... to repair the damage you've done... to attack
and destroy.
Before all of Humankind is crushed beneath the Bungeling Empire's iron
heel, one faint hope remains: you in your helicraft.

THE CASTLES OF DOCTOR CREEP "


Ever dream that you were locked in a haunted castle, wandering blindly
through darkened corridors, never knowing what ghastly demons await you?
Then you'll feel right at home in The Castles of Doctor Creep.
It's a maddening maze of 13 separate castles, more than 200 rooms in all.
Sinister surprises await you behind every door: mummies and monsters,
forceficlds and death rays, trap doors and dead — very dead—ends. Remember
where you've been and watch where you're going.. .there's got to be a way
oul somewhere1.
Better hurry, or you'll wind up playing a rather unpleasant role in one of
Docfor Creep's experiments.

SPELUNKER1"
Who knows what fabulous treasures—and unspeakable dangers—await
you in the world's deepest cave? This is one game you can really get into...
and into...and into.
Wander through miles of uncharted passageways, swinging on ropes and
ladders, tumbling over subterranean fails and plunging to the very depths of
the earth on an abandoned mine railroad. Deadly Steam vents and boiling lava
pits threaten you at every turn. Chattering bats and the Spirits of dead
Spelunkers beg you to join them, permanently.
Let's face it: you're in deep, deep trouble.

WHISTLER'S BROTHER™
You're the star of a full-fledged arcade adventure—and the big question
is whether it'll turn out to be a comedy or a tragedy. That's because your co-star
and beloved brother, Archaeologist Fenton Q. Fogbank, is rather absent-
minded and extremely accident-prone.
As you search for priceless treasures in steaming tropical jungles, ancient
cliff villages, musty old tombs and glittering crystal caverns, you control both
your character and your brother. The only way to keep him on track and out
of trouble is to whistle and pray that he follows you to safety.
Poison arrows, runaway boulders, fearsome frogs and mysterious
mummies are only a few of the hazards that'll make you wish you weren't your
brother's keeper.

STEALTH™
You're all alone on a strange and forbidding planet. On the distant horizon,
looming thousands of meters above the blasted landscape, lies your destina
tion: The Dark Tower, home of the mysterious Council of Nine, cruel overlords
of a conquered world.
You must maneuver your Stealth Starfighter through an unending assault
by the Council's automated arsenal — jets ana heat-seeking missiles, photon
tanks and anti-aircraft batteries, vaporizing volcanoes and deadly energy fields.
Outgunned and outmanned, you must press ever onward, with only your
stealth to rely on.
You must reach the Tower. You must destroy it. There's no turning back.

All tttlM aoaUabta on Ctimmoilarr 64- Ch impton'.hm lAKU'KunnerulioiitiiitaW.'iiN/VW*'"*. I'ph Me. Whistler's Urolhtr Spdunker and Stcillh also iiviiilablpfor Atari
Homi Computtrt. Cammodoi? 6^ i'*<i tnuiemark ofCommadorf Electronic*. Ltd-Apple is [i tmoinuHi of Apple Compute?; Inc. Atari It a irnitrnuirk of Atari Corporati
NO
MERCY FOR COMMODORE

CHAMPIONSHIP LODE RUNNER1"


It has come to our attention that some of you
out there think you're pretty good at Lode
Runner, 1983's best computer game. For those
foolhardy few, we offer a challenge of a higher
order; Championship Lode Runner,
With fifty fiendish Treasury Chambers:
more intricate, more elaborate, more insidious
than anything you've seen before. You'll need
lots of skill, lots of smarts, and every ounce
of your lode-running experience to have any
hope at all of survival.
And if you haven't yet paid your dues
on the original Lode Runner, don't even think
of attempting this championship round.

Broderbund
iliinirilKiul Hp^tfrrliuiulomJpur products, tvrilr la us HI-- 17 Paul [>rivr. San Ka/arl, Cutifamia »|O0J or rail 1415) 479-1170. OI98-I Brtiti-rlwtl Sofluiiiv. Inc.
Quick.
How do you
How many plates can moonwalk, snake What's the capital
the Juggler juggle? and tut? of Alaska?

Chinese Juggler Break Street Roll Call USA


y hat depends on you. You are ou'll soon become a break "\ o you know? Get ready to
a the Juggler and your act is the ';," dancing expert with our latest / Joutwit your family and
I delicate art of plate spinning. bestseller, Break Street. Now £—/friends with Roll Call USA's
Yours will be a tough act to follow that combination of gymnastics, fun facts on states,capitals and
if you succeed in matching colors mime, funk, and just plain show-off, major industries.
and spinning plates on all 8 poles leaves the sidewalks and comes Roll Call USA combines history
at the same time. home to your Commodore 64. and geography facts into a colorful
As your skill increases, so does Individual play guides you question and answer game that
the pace and the challenge of the through the footwork of moonwalk, challenges your knowledge of the
game. You must act with speed and backspin, windmill, tut, and the 50 states, their capitals, major
precision or the curtain will come rest of those sidewalk moves. Slow industries and statehood dates.
down and your act will be all motion and lively musical accom Feel confident? Drill yourself
washed up! paniment help you perform each with a Flash Test. The game is
Chinese Juggler is a refreshing move step by step. String together speeded up, so think fast. Your
departure from the usual shoot- a whole series of moves and answers are tallied up at the end
em-ups and strategy games. It's record them for future replay. for a final score.
fun, fast-paced and will delight Catch the beat of the street with Roll Call USA, a game of USA
players of any age. For Commodore Break Street. For individual or team trivia for team or individual play.
64. New from Creative Software. play. New from Creative Software. For Commodore 64. New from
Creative Software.

$24.95 $24.95 $14.95

The answers are at Call and order today I Use your Visa,
MasterCard or personal check. Toll
your finger tips. Free 1-800-331-7990 (outside
California}, 1-800-448-1001
(in California), or 1-408-745-1655.
MONEY BACK GUARANTEE.If not
"Commodore 64" \\ a completely satisfied,return within
Ifufernnrkoi Commodore Electronics. Ltd. 10 days for full refund.

CREATIVE SOFTWARE
230 East Caribbean Drive, Sunnyvale, CA 94089 ■c 1984 Creative Software
February 1985 Vol. 3, No. 2

Commodore 64 Music For Non-Musicians Katby Yakal 30 64


Inside View: Ryo Kawasaki Sharon Darling 38

Sight & Sound Music Software Arthur B, Hunkins 82 64


The Factory and The Pond Neil Randall 88 64
Also Worth Noting 92 64

The Forbidden Crypt Ted Reynolds 53 V/64/+4/16


Cypher J. L Calvin 56 V/64

Computing For Families: The Computer Piano Teacher Fred D'lgnazio 24 *


Address File Robert D. Gunn 60 V/64
Name That Note Carlos Esteves 62 V/64/+4/16
VIC Quiz Generator George Trepal 66 V

BASIC Magic: Beginning Computer Math Michael S. Tomczyk 46 V/64/+4/1G


Hints & Tips: Disk Lock Kevin Hawkins 70 V/64
Machine Language For Beginners: Self-Modifying Programs Richard Mansfield 98 V/64
Power BASIC: Color Swap Lee Noel, Jr. 108 V/64
Debugging BASIC: Part 2 Todd Heimarck 113 V/64
Line Number Cross Reference Heinz Wrosch 118 V/64
Baker's Dozen: Part 2 Lawrence Cotton 120 64

The Editor's Notes Robert Lock 6


Gazette Feedback Editors And Readers 10
Simple Answers To Common Questions Tom R. Hallhill 44
Horizons Charles Brannon 74 V/64/+4/16
News & Products 123 ■

How To Type In COMPUTEI's Gazette Programs 126 *


Bug-Swatter: Modifications And Corrections 127 *

Product Mart 150 *


Advertisers Index 160 *

* =Genera[, V-VIC-20, 64=Commodore 64. +4-Plus/4. 16=Commodore 16.


COMPUTE'* CAZFTTUf. published monthly by COMPUTfl Publication*, Int.. Post Office Boi 5-HWi, Grl-rn'bcm, KC 27(03 USA. Phone (SI*) 275-9509. Editorial Dlflfl* U
located at 324 Wc« Wendover Avenue, Greensboro, NC 27400, Domntfc subscriptions: 12 issues, t24. Send hlittCripilcTJ orders or change fi UCtau (t\Or Form 3579) Ic
Circulation Dept,, COMPUWa GAZETTE F.O, BOX *61, Farm I update. NV 117.17, Second class Application [lending ai Greensboro, NC 27403 Ind additional inailinc oflicci.
Entire nmttnll c»|>yriRht (01985 by COMPUTI! Publications, Inc. All righli mervnl, ISSM 0737-3716, 3i^
COMPUTE rublkiHons, toe One of the AHC niH, In,- . Companies: ABC E'ubltahEnft Pccsidcnt, Roberl G. Ilurtonj 1330 Avcnui' of IhV Americas; New York, Ntw York 1U019.
THE EDITOR'S

X
am writing these notes on a segment struggling to meet orders. The
distinctly non-winter day in crunch, as verified in Wall Street Journal
early December. One could stories almost daily, continues to reach
argue that the strangeness of less visible groups.
this Christmas computer We've seen layoffs at software
sales season is weather re houses, shake-ups in sales forces, shrink
lated, and perhaps that argument has as ing manufacturer budgets, and even evi
much merit as any of the others. The re dence that such diverse suppliers as disk
ality is that our selling season this year drive manufacturers are now falling victim
is a mere ghost of Christmas past, and to the shakeout. Since last we wrote, the
(many argue) bodes poorly for Christmas slow-down has continued, and at this
future. Has the home computer market point the industry-critical Christmas rush
vanished? We're firmly convinced, in has failed to materialize in size.
spite of sales figures to the contrary, that So where do we go from here? Is it
it hasn't. We may have collectively over for the industry? Are we going to
stumbled or slowed, but the industry, in return to being a hobbyist fad? We think
a state of collective gyration, has its not. The millions of you who own and
bright spots. use home computers will be, in large
Early reports are that the Commo part, responsible for the next wave of
dore 64 continues to sell quite well, growth. Out of your ranks will come the
thank you, notwithstanding the awaited software, the enthusiasm, the reality-
debut of the Commodore Plus/4 and 16. based vision of computing that will make
Retailers are in a somewhat confused personal computing a durable reality.
state, not quite sure what to push, what We're sure of it.
to pull, etc, We're seeing direct evidence
of that confusion at the book retailing
level.
Naturally, IBM's PCjr would pick a
season such as this to begin a surge in
popularity. Feedback we're getting indi Editor In Chief
cates that retailers have had a very hard
time keeping up with demand for the
package IBM launched in early Novem
ber. It's refreshing to see some market

6 COMPUTE'S Gazelle February 19B5


Compose music, even
ifyou cant read a note.
simplicity It's not a toy. It's a
tool.
In fact, MusicWriter has
everything you need to com
pose a serious symphony.
It has repeats, endings and
triplets. It has articulation and
transposition. It can shape
tones, store 75 staffs, and play
up to 4 voices.
But even if you don't know
With the Bank Street what all that means, it won't
MusicWriter by Glen Clancy stand in your way Because
you compose by compute/: if you can hum a tune, you
It's so simple, people who can write a tune.
don't know a pianissimo
from a pizza can start com
posing in less than an hour
All you do is match the
sound that you hear in your
head. And the MusicWriter
writes it down.
But don't be fooled by the

Bank Street MusicWriter from Mindscape §«%=


Compatttewitti Aiwi'anaCcnvnooora." Mindscaca Ire. 3J" Dundee RoM. Northtnoo*. niirws 60061 J-
Fbr more information, call 1-800-221-9884. In Illinois, 1-800-942-7315.
COMPUTE! Publications
Jules E. Thompson, Inc.
National and Canadian Sales Representatives
Cna o( the ABC PuEtowis COnpows 1290 Howard Avenue, Suite 303
Burlingame, CA 94010
Address all advertising materials lo:
Patti Stokes, COMPUTED GAZETTE
Publisher Gary R. [ngorsoll 324 West Wendover Ave., Suite 200, Greensboro, NC 27408
Editor in Chief Robert C. Lock Sales Offices, The Thompson Company
Director of Administration Alice S. Wolfe New England 617-720- 1HSH
Senior Editor Richard Mansfield Mid-Atlantic 212-772-0933
Managing Editor Kathleen M.irtinek Southeast 919-275-9809
Editor Lance Elko Midwest 312-726-6047
Assistant Editor Todd Keimardc Texas 713-731-2605
Northwest, Nevada 408-354-5553
Production Director Tony Robots
Northern CA 415-348-8222 or 408-354-5553
Editors Southern CA 213-378-8361
Tom R. Halfhill, Editor, COMPUTE! Magazine; Stephen Levy, Editor, Arizona 213-378-8361
COMPUTE! Books Division; Gail Cowper, Production Editor; OtHfl R. New Mexico 213-378-8361
Cowpcr, Technical Editor; Charles Brannon, Program Editor! Solby Colorado 303-595-9299
Uateman, Features Editor
Assistant Editors COMPUTE! Publications, Inc., publishes
Gregg Keizer, J. Blake Lambert (flunks); John Krause, George Miller, COMPUTE! COMPUTE! Books COMPUTEI's GAZETTE
Philip Nelson (Technical); Kathy Yakal. Feature Writer; Sharon Corporate Office:
Darling, Research Assistant (Features), Randall Fosner, Assistant 324 West Wendover Ave., Suite 200, Greensboro, NC 27408
Managing Editor (Books); Mark Tuttle, Submissions Reviewer
Mailing Address:
Editorial Programmers Post Office Box 5406, Greensboro, NC 27403
Patrick Parrish (Supervisor!, Gregg Peele (Assistant), Tim Victor,
Distribution Center
Kevin Mykytyn, Gary Black, Kevin Martin, Rob Terrell
500-A Radar Road, Greensboro, NC 27419
Programming Assistants
David Florance, Susan DoSS, David Henslcy Telephone: 919-275-9809
Copy Editors
Office Hours: R:30 AM to 4:30 I'M Monday-Friday
Juanita Lewis, Joan Rouleau, Ann Davies
Chief Executive Officer Robert C. Lock
Proofreaders
Ethel Silver, Dwighl Smith, Marty Selby President Gary R. Ingersoll
Administrative Staff Vice President, Finance & Planning Paul J. Megliola
Susan Young, Vicki Jennings, ljura MacFadden, Julia Fleming, Iris Executive Assistant Debi Nash
Brooks. |an Kretlow Assistant Anita Roop

Production Subscription Information


[rma Swain, Production Manager; fanlce Fary, Art & Design Director,
Lee Noel, Assistant Editor, Art & Design; De Potter, Mechanical Art COMPUTE!1:, GAZETTE Circulation Dept.
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Artists
TOLL FREE
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Harry Blair, Illustrator Subscription Order Line

Associate Editors
800-334-0868
In NC B1S-27S-9B09
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Fred D'lgnazio (Roanoke) COMPUTEI's GAZETTE
Circulation Subscription Rates
Charles C. Post, Circulation Manager; Patty Jones, Assistant Circula (12 Issue Year): US (one year) $24. Canada, Mexico and Foreign
tion Manager; Fran Lyons, 5ingte Copy Sales Supervisor; Jill Pope, Surface Mail S30. Foreign Air Mail $45.
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Customer Service
screened organizations with a product or service which may be of
Phillppa King, Customer Service Manager; Gail Jones, Dealer Sales
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please send an exact copy of your subscription label to: COmputei'i
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authors acknowledge that such materials, upon acceptance for
Data Processing publication, become the exclusive property of COMPUTE! Publica
Leon Stokes, Manager; Chris Cain, Assistant tions, Inc. No portion of this magazine may be reproduced in any
Accounting form without written permission from the publisher. Entire contents
Paul J. Megliola, VP, Finance & Planning; R. Steven VetLer, Director, copyright ffi 1984, COMPUTEI Publications, Inc. Rights to programs
Finance & Planning; Robert Bean, General Accountant; Karen K. developed and submitted by authors are explained in our author
Rogalski, Financial Analyst; Staff: Jane King, Dale Roberts, Shannon contract. Unsolicited materials not accepted for publication will be
Roesler returned if author provides a self-addressed, stamped envelope.
Credit Where programs are included in an article submission, a tape or disk
Barry L Beck, Credit Manager; Staff: Sybil Agee, Susan Booth, Anne must accompany the submission. Printed listings are optional, but
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Purchasing
lowercase, please) with double spacing, liach article page should bear
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Publications, Inc., assumes no liability for errors in articles or
Pro motion advertisements, Opinions expressed b'y authors are not necessarily
Mindy K. Kutcliei, Promotion Manager; Caroline Dark, Assistant those of COMPUTEI Publications, Inc COMPUTEI Publications as
Advertising Sales sumes no responsibility for damages, delays, or failure of shipment in
Ken Woodard, Director of Advertising Sales; Bonnie Valentino, Assis connection with authors' offer to make tape or disk copies of pro
tant Advertising Manager; Patti Stokes, Production Coordinator; Joyce grams published herein.
Margo, Production Assistant; Kathleen Hanlon, Sales Assistant PET, CUM, VIC-20, and Commodore 64 are trademarks of Commo
Sales Representatives dore Business Machines, Inc., and/or Commodore Electronics Limited,
fern' Thompson -115-348-8222 Other than as an independent supplier of quality information and
Phoebe Thompson 408-3a-l-5as3 services to owners and users of Commodore products, COMPUTEI
Ed U'inchell 213-373-8361 Publication!., Inc., is in no way associated with Commodore Business
Harrv Blair 919-275-98(19 Machines, Inc., or any of its subsidiaries.
Catch

"The Hottest
II
New Game In Town
Trivia Fever is absolutely unique — it's the only software entertain
ment package that can be enjoyed with or without a home com
puter! When played on your home computer. Trivia Fever is a
refreshing alternative to all those shoot'em up games. An elected
"Master of the Game" uses the computer to randomly select sub
ject categories, handicap players, generate questions and answers,
keep score automatically, and more! Instructive by its very nature,
Trivia Fever can be enjoyed by up to 8 individuals or teams. And
when played without a computer, Trivia Fever has all the best fea
tures of the "popular" trivia games plus more — all without the
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best Trivia game available anywhere. Here's why:
Trivia Fever offers thousands of challenging questions in 7 inter
esting categories, so there's something for everyone. Each category
has questions with 3 lev
els of difficulty, which
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What's more. Trivia Fever
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CAP all those so-called
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■''"'■" "■'""■ -,- r. igjM Trivia Fever is unique, entertaining, educational, and most of all
FUN. And at $39.95, Trivia Fever is destined to quickly become the
best selling software entertainment package of all time. There's
even a $5 rebate available to any non-computer users who return
the computer diskette.

Trivia Fever can be enjoyed on the Commodore 64, IBM PC & PCjr
and compatibles, Apple II series, and others. So don't delay. Catch
Trivia Fever at your favorite software retailer today!

For additional information call 617-444-5224, or write to:

At $39.95, Trivia Fevercomes complete with Question


APSI
P.O. Box 533
and Answer Book, Category Selector, andTally Sheets to Need ham, MA 02194
be used when played without a computer
GAZETTE FEEDBACK
EDITORS AND READERS

A Time-Saver correct version of the line.


The programs published in the GAZETTE are fed
I am new to programming on the 64. The other
into another program that adds up the ASCII values
evening I was working on a program when my
of the characters in the line, to generate a
wife (a professional programmer) came in to
checksum. You can't start with a checksum and
assist me. She came to the following four lines:
have the computer figure out what the line should
60 IFLEFT$<K$,1) = "A" THEN 200
be (Proofreader numbers range from 0 to 255, but
70 IFLEFT$(K$,1) = "S" THEN 400
80 IFLEFT$(K$,1> "M" THEN 600
there are many more than 256 different BASIC
90 IFLEFT$(K$,1> ■ "D" THEN 800 lines). Nor can you figure out what a checksum for a
line should be, unless there's a correct version of
She typed the first line, hit RETURN, then
the line to begin with, in which case you wouldn't
cursored back up to the line, changed the line
need a checksum.
number, cursored through the line making the
two changes, then hit RETURN. She then re
peated this procedure for the remaining two Software For The Blind?
lines. I teach computer science at a high school and
I understand how this would work, but at have a blind student in my class, His father re
the time I was very surprised. I think your read cently purchased a Commodore 64. At the
ers would like to know about this timesaver. school, we have a word processor called Braille-
John Stetar Edit which runs on an Apple computer.
Is there a version of Braille-Edit for the 64?
You've discovered a handy feature called onscreen
Do you know of any software for the blind that
editing, which can save some time. It's helpful
can be used with a 64? Do any of the current
when you're entering several similar lines, or when
word processors for the 64 come with Braille
you make a mistake you have to correct.
manuals? Does COMPUTED GAZETTE come in a
In general, every time you press RETURN over
Brailled version?
a line, it's entered into memory. If there's a number
Linda S. Lamb
in front, your computer assumes it's a line number,
and adds it to the program in memory. If there's no Sorry, tve know of no software specifically designed
line number, the statement is executed immediately. for blind users of the 64. Most computer programs
Some computers require that you go into a spe display the important information on the screen of
cial edit mode before fixing a line. You might have the TV or monitor.
to type EDIT 100 to correct a mistake you made in Nor have we heard of any word processors with
line 100, for example. Onscreen editing makes braille manuals. And the GAZETTE is not currently
things a lot easier. You simply cursor up to the line available in a Braille edition. Perhaps our readers
and fix it. And if you give it a new line number, it's know of some suitable software for the blind.
added to the program in memory. The good news is, there are a number of good
speech-synthesis programs for the 64 which can
Foolproof Typing pronounce English words. Some even say each key
as it's typed on the keyboard, providing unmediate
I would like to know how to make Proofreader
feedback. Such programs could be used with a word
checksum numbers for programs which don't ap
processor or in a programming class.
pear in COMPUTE! or COMPUTE!'* GAZETTE.
Tim Sitkiewicz NEWing A New Disk
If you're writing your own program or typing one Recently I purchased a dozen brand-name disks.
from another magazine. Proofreader numbers won't When I tried to save a program, the red light on
be able to tell you if it's correct or not. The logic of the drive started blinking, signifying an error. I
Automatic Proofreader doesn't apph/ to the line you read the error channel and the computer said
type unless you (or someone else) already have a "Drive Not Ready." 1 tried all twelve disks and
10 COMPUTEVs Gazette Fotyuary 1985
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got the same results, At first 1 thought it might POKE 642,0: SYS 58260 displays the usual open
be the disk drive, but 1 have no problems at all ing message, except there are 40959 BASIC bytes
with the demo disk included with the 1541. free. Is this actual BASIC memory?
Are some disks incompatible with a Com James Wolfe
modore system or am I overlooking the obvious?
That combination of POKE and SYS resets some
Kathy Gauvin
pointers for the start of BASIC. The equivalent SYS
An eight-inch disk is incompatible with a 1541 disk on a VIC is 58232. The technique can be very useful
drive, because it is too big for the door. But that's if you want to reserve some memory for machine
probably not the problem. language or custom characters. You can safely sub
The demo disk works, so it would seem that tract memory from BASIC (by POKEing a number
you have a working 64 and disk drive. It's possible, larger than 8 into 642 before the SYS), but the
but unlikely, that you got a bad batch of disks, in POKE and SYS can't be used to add memory. Here's
which case you could return them to the manufac why:
turer or to the store where you bought them. What you've done is put the start of BASIC
More than likely, however, you probably didn't down in zero-page. There's real memory there, but
format the disks. Saving to an unformatted disk it cannot be used for a BASIC program. Zero-page
won't work, and results in the error message you comprises memory locations 0-255 and is full of
described. Here's how to format a disk: pointers, vectors, and storage bytes which are essen
10 OPEN15A15 tial to BASIC. If you started typing in a program, it
20 l'RINT#15,"NEW0:diskname,id" would overwrite the usual values and would very
30 CLOSE15 quickly lock up your computer.
Line 10 opens the command channel to the So this technique will not work to add BASIC
disk. The NEW command in line 20 formats the memory to your 64. But you could fool a friend into
disk, creating a directory, block allocation map, tim thinking you have a computer with "extra" memory.
ing bytes, and so on, NEWO: can be abbreviated as Try the following line:
NO: (that's a zero, not the letter 0). It must be fol POKE641,1: POKE642,0; POKE643,255: POKE644,255:
lowed by a disk name of up to 16 characters, a SYS58260
comma, and a two-character ID for the disk. Make VIC owners should change the last command to
sure you use different IDs for different disks. You SYS58232. The line lowers the start of BASIC to
can also format a disk in direct mode (without line location 1, raises the top of BASIC to 65535, and
numbers), separating the commands with colons, as does the usual warm start. But the screen will say
follows: there are almost 64K bytes free. Unfortunately,
OPEN15,8,15:I'RINT#15,"N0:MYDISK,AA"; though, that memory can't be used for a BASIC
CLOSE15 program.

The NEW command completely erases any pro


grams that might have been on the disk, although The Not-So-High Cost Of
brand new disks are blank to begin with. Once the
disk is formatted, you can save and load programs.
Telecommunications
1 own a VIC-20 and have just purchased a
VICmodem. I know how to hook it up. My ques
Copying gazette Programs
tion is, do 1 have to pay outrageous amounts of
My friend subscribes to COMPUTE!'* GAZETTE, just money to join certain services to use my own
like me. Since we have both purchased it, isn't it modem? Please list specific services as well as
OK for him to give me a copy of a program he their rates.
typed in? Why should I spend hours typing it Walter Kimbrough
when he already did?
Todd Wolfe There are three different ways to use a modem and,
generally, only one will cost you money.
It's fine for your friend to give you a copy of the
First, you can call a friend who owns a modem,
program, as long as each of you subscribes to the
and type back and forth or upload and download
GAZETTE or has bought the magazine the program programs.
appears in. But you cannot legalh/ make copies for
Second, you can sign up with a local bulletin
people who have not bought the corresponding issue.
board system (BBS). Most are free, but a few have a
Nor can you legally make copies of the programs and minimal membership fee. They're often sponsored by a
sell them.
user group or a computer store. Call a fciv computer
stores in your area and you're likely to find the phone
Unusable Memory numbers of some local boards. Once you log on to a
I think I may have come across a way to get board, chances are good you'll find messages about
more memory out of a Commodore 64. Typing other BBS's in your area, and across the country.
12 COMPUTEfs Gazelle Fetxuary 1985
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Computer p^
daVinci, Shakesp
Al Capp would ha

5*tiffnr7~rrsggEsgj

FILL M
;rams for kids that
eare, Dickens and
ve loved.
If they were starting out today this BANK STREET STORYBOOK
is what they could start with. Pixelwerks. Dickens wouldn't be able to keep
THE OTHER WAY his hands off Bank Street StoryBook by
TO DRAW AND WRITE George Brackett.
Instead of a brush and canvas, a Not only could he write his own
pen and paper, theyd create on a com story but he could also illustrate the
puter. Because Pixelwerks is the first scenes and characters he sees in his
medium that can keep up with their mind.
imaginations. MR. PIXELS CARTOON KIT
MR. PIXELS Maybe Al Capp wouldn't be satis
PROGRAMMING PAINT SET fied with cartoons that just sit on the
With Mr Pixel's Programming Paint page after he tried Mr Pixel's Cartoon
Set, da Vinci (or any 8-year old) could do Kit. Because he could make his car
more than paint a picture. He could also toons come to life by animating them.
enlarge it, repeat it, move it around, and His characters could move around, and
change colors. Instantly. even react to each other
And at the same time, he Every kid has a touch of creative
developing his programming genius buried inside. The job of
skills. Painlessly Pixelwerks is to
SHOW DIRECTOR bring it out, with
. ■-. ...-, >bj

On the other hand, Shakespeare more features,


would love to play around with Show more options and
Director more flexibility than
He'd use it to create plots other programs.
and think up one scene after an In short, we supply the tools. Kids
other, and he'd get a big cast of supply the imagination.
characters, lots of backgrounds,
props, and musical sound effects to
act them out.
Mindscape
For more information, call 1-800-221-9884. In Illinois 1-800-942-7315.
!sDuDWea0,Mmoscape Inc
There are an estimated 4000-8000 BBS's currently You can use (PEEK(1)AND16) to check this bit. If it's
operating in the United States. value is 16, the buttons are turned off. If it's zero, one
Bulletin boards have a curious life cycle. Usually of the four buttons is pressed. You can't tell which
someone who owns an auto-answer modem decides to button is pressed, only that one of them is.
start one, sets it up, and posts messages on other On the VIC, the equivalents are
boards as publicity. Since there are not any members (PEEK(37137)AND64), and (PEEK(37151)AND64). You
yet, there aren't many messages either. Most start out can check either 37137 or 37151 to see if a button is
as free boards—anyone who calls can join immedi pressed on your Datassette. If the result is equal to 64,
ately at no charge. If a lot of people become members, the Datassette is off, and if it's zero, the Datassette is
more messages and discussions build up, which at on.

tracts more members. As the popularity increases, it The WAIT statement can make the computer
becomes more and more difficult to get through—you temporarily stop until a button is pressed:
can expect to hear a lot of busy signals calling a WAIT 1,16,16 (64)
popular service, WAIT 37137,64,64 (VIC)
A bulletin board that begins as a no-cost board
If you want the program to wait until the button
may start charging a membership fee when it becomes
is off, use:
too popular, to compensate for the time of the sysop,
WAIT 1,16 (64)
and to cut down on the number of calls (a lot of call
WAIT 37137,64 (VIC)
ers, like yourself, don't like to pay for
telecommunications). VIC owners can substitute 37151 for 37137 in
It's not feasible to publish the phone numbers of either of the lines above.
4000-8000 bulletin boards in the gazette, especially
considering that many might not be around tomorrow Lowering The Proofreader
or next meek or next month. We know of one area Checksum
code in California which had over 50 bulletin boards
Just one thing is wrong with the Automatic
at last count.
Proofreader. When you have a TV, you can't see
You should realize that a no-charge board doesn't
the number in the upper lefthand corner, is there
cost anything, unless it's out of town. Long distance
a way to fix this?
charges (whether they're voice connections or bulletin
Matthew Speakes
board calls) can add up quickly. You don't pay for
signing on to the BBS, but the phone company gets its This problem does not affect most TVs, but if you
share. can't see the Proofreader number, it can be fixed.
The third way to use your modem is to sign up First, load your copy of Automatic Proofreader.
with one of the major services: CompuServe, The Change the 17539 in line 110 to 17494. In line 970,
Source, Doio Jones, or Delphi (expect more to sprout change 018 to 013 and in line 976, change 058 to 018.
up as telecommunications becomes more popular). Save the new program before running it. If you make
You'll generally pay a connect fee, $6 or more per this change, don't press RETURN over a line with the
hour, depending on the time of day and baud rate. Proofreader checksum number; your computer will
think you've entered a program line number.
Most big services charge more during business hours
(8-5) and 1200 baud sometimes costs more than 300. An alternate solution for the 64 is to POKE
53265,31 before typing RUN. This may move the
Some, like CompuServe, have numerous entry
screen low enough to read the checksum number, al
points—local phone numbers in cities of 50,000 or
more—so you can avoid long-distance charges. though you'll lose part of the last screen line.
The charges for local and national BBS's are sub If you have a VIC, try POKEing a number larger
ject to change, of course, and even if you find $6 per than 25 into 36865. The larger the number, the farther
down the screen moves.
hour too expensive, there's a good chance you can find
a free board in your city or area.
Wedge Commands
Reading Datassette Keys I use the 64 wedge extensively. I would like to
hit one key and have the directory list. What
Is there any way to determine whether the keys
(record, play, rewind, fast forward, stop, eject) on POKEs do I need?
the Datassette are being pressed? David Lee
Jackson Moore
While the wedge is working, type @$ or >$ and the
You can't read the individual keys, but you can use a director}/ will list. And it won't affect any program
PEEK to find out if the motor is on (or about to be on). currently in memory. The director}/ is read from the
Bit 4 of location 1 on the 64 can tell you whether disk (but not loaded into memory) and printed to the
a key on the cassette drive is pressed. A value of zero screen.

means record, play, rewind, or fast forward is down. The commercial-at (@) and greater-than (>) signs
16 COMPUTE'S Gazette February 1995
Doubie your screen capacity between 80 and 40 col
Mix and match (he hard when using your favourite umn display at any lime
ware peripherals of your Batteries Included software completely eliminates Use the printer of your
preference. Increase your programs. 8.I.-80 turns your snow, fuzziness, hashing choice with your Com
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with one plug-in module. wilh PaperClip word- quality hardware com Take advantage of today's
processor and The Consul ponents throughout; one- high-speed, high-quaiily
• lets you use almost any tant database manager- year manufacturer's war printers with the B.I. Printer
combination of maximum readability and ranty is standard Interface.
Commodore-compatible comes complete with 80-
minimum eye-strain, even
floppy of hard disk drives • works with any
with a screen full of column operating system
and Centronics-type Centronics-type parallel
characters. It's ihe fast, easy, and comprehensive
parallel printers printer, which includes
plug-in, way to get twice the documentation, including
almost ull major printers
• all interlace functions and amount of data onio your full description of BASIC
device allocations ore set
on the market
monitor screen. And B.I.-80 4.0 commands,
• completely self-contained
by switches on the also gives you the easier-lo use with Commodore
BusCard if module; errors
and ready to run; no
use disk commonds, with 1701 and 1702 color
extras to buy, no hard
due to software incom BASIC 4.0 language built monitors, or ony
ware or software modifi
patibility are eliminated right into the module. monochrome video
cations to printer or
• includes 3ASIC 4.0, the monitor
• fully self-initializing, no computer are required
some powerful language
commands to enler; just • all print functions are con
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plug B.i.-80 into the car ■B.I.-80 Column trolled by switches on the
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puter,, plus a machine Adaptor coming soon for
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• swiich back and forth about it again

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are used to send commands to the disk drive. the section about the RS-232 port in the Programmer's
>RO:FINAL=TEST, for example, takes a program Reference Guide. Then find the section about the
called TEST and renames it to FINAL. Use @ or > Kemal routines. Three of them are used to open a
without a command to read the error channel. The left channel—SETLFS, SETNAM, and OPEN. Use the
arrow key, above CTRL, is used to save programs to hunt or search option in your ML monitor to find ail
disk. To load a program from disk, type a slash instances of JSRs to those routines (assuming the soft
(unshifted question mark) followed by the program ware calls the Kemal routines). For example. }SR
name. The up-arrow key loads and runs a program SETLFS would translate to 20 BA FF. Searching
from disk. through a disassembly is difficult. You may not be
Readers not familiar with the wedge can find it able to make the necessary modifications.
on the demo disk which is packaged with the 1541
drive. A short BASIC program loads the wedge and Perplexed By Duplex
starts it running.
I would like some information on the difference
between half and full duplexing. 1 read about it
Software/Interface Problems in your November issue, but am still not sure
I am one of those apparently rare ducks who has what duplexing means.
chosen not to buy a Commodore printer, in favor Scott Orr
of a letter-quality RS-232 printer. But I cannot
Most bulletin boards and information seivices operate
easily find programs offering an RS-232 option.
in full-duplex, so you can generally leave your modem
I've bought an assembler/monitor to look at ma
and software set for full-duplex.
chine language programs, but still have not been
Normally, pressing a key on the keyboard puts a
able to redirect printing commands to device 2.
character on the screen of your TV or monitor. The
Warren W. McCurdy
operating system polls the keyboard and decides what
There arc a few things you can do, but attempting to needs to be done (print a letter, stop the program,
make changes to a machine language program should clear the screen, etc.).
be your last resort. But if you call a bulletin board in full-duplex, the
Some programs will never ivork on a letter- software in charge reads the keyboard and sends a sc
quality printer. A high-resolution screen dump pro ries of beeps over the phone line. It does not print
gram usually works by addressing individual dots on anything on the screen.
a dot-matrix printer. Your printer doesn't have any At the other end of the phone line is a computer
such dots, and won't recognize the hi-res information. receiving the beeps you just sent out. It translates the
But most good word processors should let you in beeps and then scuds them right back to you. Your
put the type of printer you're using and the device computer hears the beeps and, finally, prints the
number (an RS-232 peripheral is device 2). It may be character on the screen, based on what came over the
necessary to do some POKEs before you run the pro phone line. Every time you type something, it makes a
gram, to set the baud rate (the speed at which the round trip to the other computer and back to yours
computer sends signals to the RS-232 channel) and before being printed on the screen.
other parameters. You may also be required to print in If your terminal software is set for half-duplex,
"true ASCII," rather than Commodore ASCII, some the character docs not make a round trip, the tetter or
times called PETASCII. number is sent through the phone lines and also
If the software documentation omits information prints to the screen (directly from your computer).
about using an RS-232 printer, or the information is This can cause ddoouubblleedd lieetteerrss if the bul
unclear, write or call the company that publishes the letin board thinks you're in full-duplex and automati
software. Many software publishers have excellent cally echoes all your characters.
customer service departments, which can answer There are two advantages to full-duplex. First,
questions like yours. And contact the manufacturer of you know the bulletin board received your message
the printer ami interface, describing the software and because every character goes full-circle. If there's elec
hoiv you have your computer, interface, and printer tronic noise on the line, garbage appears on the
hooked up. A user group, too, may be able to help. screen. Second, when you log on and type a password,
Some RS-232 printers (Brother, for example) have it can be made invisible (passwords are not echoed
two inleiface options: RS-232 or Centronics. There are back), in case someone is looking over your shoulder,
Commodore-to-Centronks interfaces available with an trying to get a peek at your password.'
emulate mode- -which makes your printer act as if
it were a real Commodore printer (with some excep Just Numbers In Memory
tions, like high-resolution plotting). One day 1 was going to work on one of your
If all else fails and you are an intermediate to MLX programs. I entered the POKEs, loaded
advanced machine language programmer, you could MLX, and typed 2049 and 6842 for beginning
try making modifications to the program. First, read and ending addresses. 1 then used the display
1B COMPUTED Gazotto February 1985
\

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up-yet, now, you can have any Mo for the fan return it at our expense.
enclosing chec* or money order lor $9.90 (thats S4.86 lor eecti selection).
tastic low price of only $4.95 each! That's our The selections you order will be mailed and I agree to buy 4 more selections al regular Club prices in the next 2 years.
way of introducing you to the Columbia Software billed at regular Club prices—which currently be
Club—a brand-new service that delivers the gin at $24.95 and are less than list prices! (A v/n:nln numbers
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How the Club works: about every 6 weeks (up a selection every lime you hear from us-your
to 9 times a year) you will receive the Columbia only membership obligation is to purchase four □ ATARI'HOMECOMPUTERSI [J APPLE'3
Software Club Magazine. In it you'll lind out selections, at regular Club prices, in the coming □ COMMODORE 64-4 DADAM" 5(cartridgesonly)
If you hn Vl- lalscled AUil Homa Computer Dr Commodore 64 BOftwarft-
about an exciting variety of the newest softwara two years. And you may cancel membership at
be lure to check the type of format you prtttf (check one rornul only):
available: simple shoot-em-up adventures, any time after doing so. II you decide to con
more challenging strategy software, learning tinue, you'll be eligible tor our generous money- DCAHTRIDGEA OOISKH
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your finances, and much more, tails of the Club's operation with your introduc
in addition, each issue of the magazine tory selections. If you are not satisfied for any Address — Apt
announces the "Pick-Hit Selection"—an out reason whatsoever, just return everything within
standing software selection specifically lor your 10 days for a full refund and you will have no Cny; Slate .2.0-
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command, just to see what would happen. I saw has been transformed into PRINT, because 153 is the
a machine language program until line 5223. I token for PRINT.
saved the mysterious ML to disk, turned off the Next is a 32, the ASCII value of a space, fol
computer, and loaded the program. It was the lowed by 49, 50, 51, 52, 53. These five numbers, too,
BASIC MLX program. How did a machine lan are ASCII values (for the characters 1-5). On the
guage program turn into BASIC? Can you clear twelfth line you see a zero, marking the end of line
things up?
10. The next two bytes are the line link, again. The
Peter Chu line link from line 10 pointed to the line link for line
Either MLX was already in memory when you did the 20 (which in turn, points to the next one). And the 20
POKEs, or you mistyped the POKEs. You saw MLX and 0 are the line number.
looking at itself. And then you used MLX to save You could continue PEEKing memory, seeing how
MLX. a BASIC program is changed into numbers, until you
Some computer users have the misconception found a zero (marking the end of a line) folloiocd by a
that machine language (ML) is a series of numbers line link of two zeroes. Three zeroes in a row mark the
POKEd into memory, while BASIC is made up of let end of the program.
ters, numbers, and other characters. They're right The numbers in memory are just numbers. They
about ML, but not about BASIC. A BASIC program could be a BASIC program, an ML program, or vari
may look like letters and numbers on the screen, but ables of some kind. You and the computer decide how
in memory it's numbers, just like machine language. they'll be interpreted. Type RUN and the computer
The following Short program illustrates: assumes there's a BASIC program in memory. SYS
makes it begin executing a machine language
10 REM 12345 program.
20 X=PEEK(43)+256*PEEK(44)jX=X-1
30 FORJ=0TO16:PRINTJ;J+X;PEEK(j+X):NEXT The Loop Doesn't Work
Make sure there's a space after the REM in line I own a Commodore 64 and am experiencing in
10. Type RUN (it works on the 64, the Plus/4 and 16, consistent results with FOR-NEXT loops when
or a VIC with any memory expansion). You'll see the step increments are not integers. For ex
three columns of 17 numbers. Line 20 figures out ample, FORX=1TO55STEP6: PRINTX: NEXT
works, but changing it to FORX = .1TO5.5STEP.6
where BASIC starts and line 30 PEEKs at the first 17
(dividing everything by ten) does not. Here are
bytes of the BASIC program.
the results of the two loops:
First there's a zero. Zeroes mark the divisions be-
l .1
tween lines, although they can be used for other pur 7 .7
poses as well. There must also be a zero in the first 13 1.3
byte, before the program starts. The next tivo bytes are 19 1.9
the line link, a pointer to the next line of BASIC. On 25 2.5
31 3.1
a 64, for example, you'll see a 13 and an 8. Type
37 3.7
PRINT13 + 8*256 and the result is 2061 (where the 43 4.30000001
next line starts). Note the zero in 2060, marking the 49 4.90000001
end of the first line. 55
Next you'll see the line number, in low- Whole numbers work as expected, but not
byte /high-byte formal, a 10 and a 0 (10+0*256 is 10). fractions. Not only does 5.5 not appear on the
If you were to POKE an 11 into the low byte and list, but what gives with the extra digits? Using
LIST the program, you'd see that line 10 has been real numbers in loops is a vital part of a program
changed to 11. I am working on.
Now the BASIC program begins. 143 is the token Richard Lake
for REM. The three letters of REM have been con Imagine a person counting up to ten by thirds. But
densed down to a single number. When you type before beginning, the person (who doesn't know how
RUN, BASIC uses this number to look up the to add fractions) converts 1/3 to .333 and finishes
corresponding BASIC command. Tokens are always with 9.99 instead of 10. The result is incorrect and
numbers between 128 and 255. When the operating you can blame the laws of math for not allowing 1/3
system sees this number, it looks up command 143 to be translated into a decimal fraction.
(REM) ami finds that it should skip over the rest of Your computer is like that person who can't add
the line. The computer looks for a zero, marking the fractions. Base ten numbers like .6 or .1 have to be
beginning of the next line. If you typed LIST, it would translated into their binary equivalents in floating
look up the spelling of command number 143 and find point format before any math is done. You ivon't have
the three letters R, E, and M. They zuould then be problems with numbers like .5 or .25, because they are
printed on the screen. made up of powers of two. But other numbers may
POKE a 153 into the location currently holding a contain a slight inaccuracy. As you add up the num
143, and LIST the program. You should sec that REM bers, the inaccuracy grows larger and larger, leading
20 COMPUTE!'* Gazelle February 1985
TheENDo/DINKETY-
DINK-DINK.
.nnouncing

the first computer


music program that
actually sounds like
music
LET'S FACE IT. Up till now, music
programs for your home computer
have all sounded, well, pretty lame.
There were the ones that resembled
little electronic music boxes, remem
ber? And then there were those that
sounded like so many burps.
Enter Music Construction Set™ It's to the little piano in the lower right the scissors to cut out whole measures,
the first music program that really and listen, because you'll hear the then use the glue pot to paste ihem
makes use of the power of that ma whole thing played back. in somewhere else. Got a printer?
chine you've got. If you're a serious Move those little scales in the mid Great. Print the score out and show it
student, this means you'll be able to dle up and down to vary the music's off to your friends.
work with an intricacy and range of speed, sound quality, and volume. Use But what if you're not up to writing
sound quality you've never heard be your own stuff yet? No problem.
fore on a computer. And if you know There are twelve pieces of music al
nothing about music, you'll find some ready in here, from rock n roll to
thing even more important. Namely, baroque. They're fun to listen to, and
that this thing is simple enough to even more fun to change. (Apologies
bealotof fun. to Mozart.)
Take a good look at this screen The point is, the possibilities are
because it, you, and a joystick are the endless. But if you're still skeptical,
whole story here. visit your nearest Electronic Arts dealer
That's you at the right end of the and do the one thing guaranteed to
staff of notes— the little hand. Move send you home with a Music Con
the joystick, and you move the hand. struction Set in tow.
Use it to carry notes up to the staff. Boot one up. Point to the piano.
Lay in rests, signatures, clefs, then point And listen.

ELECTRONIC ARTS1"
>4 cunnputcri Thr A['[i]r VrHuHi.wlifs il SWl kw 1,17|4iv* rhniikof up!L, in [tntcacach The G>nimiH.1iirr ^rJ*»Llipl.iyi
nl up eu three [tow itch Apple i» j rnmteteJ fifljemaik <.£Appl? Computes Co re i* j leputerrJ irnLipninrV i>t OmiimJi"C E k-" MlchgMlJftC fi» (flora mi'mm,]non :ihoi]( EkcBOfllC At!i."[Kc u>
Campm Dttvt, Sm, Mmci.CA WW1 ™ f*I mil S7I-7171
to numbers like 4.30000001.
WEST COAST COMMODORE As you have noted, whole numbers aren't subject
ASSOCIATION, INC. to rounding errors. Integers can always be expressed
PRESENTS as a binary number; your 64 translates them correctly
into base two.
THE The same type of problem is encountered with all
computers which use floating point numbers (includ
COMMODORE ing the Apple and IBM). Atari computers, however,
use a format called Binary Coded Decimal (BCD).
SHOW BCD is more accurate, but can be slower than floating
FEBRUARY 3th S. 1Oth point. A BCD number can also take up a lot more
CATHEDRAL HILL CONVENTION CENTER memory than a floating point number.
Coll BOO-227--473D 'or fiotei >VBervB[ionE One way to fix your FOR-NEXT loops would be
■ I00 VENDOR BOOTHS <S DISPLAYS to use Binary Coded Decimal. It's available on the 64,
• NATIONAL COMMODORE SPEAKERS but only in machine language, unfortunately.
• SHOW SPECIALS S DISCOUNTS
• SEE THE LATEST INNOVATIONS IN HARDWARE/
There are a couple of simple BASIC solutions.
SOFTWARE TECHNOLOGY FOR THE COMMODORE Since integers are accurate, use only integers in loops:
MARKET
FORX = lTO55STEP6:PRINTX/10:NEXT
REGISTRATION FEES:

PRE-REGISTRATION 2 DAY $10 00 This solution may not be entirely acceptable,


WALK.IN 2 DAY -$12.50
depending on what you want your program to do. If
ONE DAY J7.50
you must have fractional step sizes, try this:
FOR MORt INFORMATION AND DETAILS ON
ADVANCE TICKET SALES AND BOOTH SPACE CONTACT: FORX = .1TO5.5STEP.6: X = VAL(STR$(X)>: PRINTX:
NEXT
WEST CDAST COMDDQRE
ASSOCIATION. INC. By changing the number to a string, and then
P.O. BOX 21O31O
SAN FRANCISCO, CALIFORNIA 94121
taking its VALue, you effectively eliminate the slight
|.415|9B2-1O.4O BETWEEN BAM-5PM PST inaccuracies. They're still there, but they don't add
up. You may find it takes a little longer to complete
the loop, but the results will be more accurate. V

MICROSCI SHOWS Good news for people


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ir CUSTOM MADE TO FIT
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22 COMPUTE'S Gaietto February 1985


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COMPUTING

amilies

The Computer Piano Teacher


Fred D'lgnazio, Associate Editor

When I was a kid, I asked my parents for piano terested in the piano, and she wants my wife and
lessons on my eighth birthday. It was one of the me to let her start taking lessons.
biggest mistakes of my life. How can I explain to Catie that piano les
The piano lessons completely changed my sons killed my interest in the piano and smoth
attitude about the piano. Before the lessons be ered whatever ability I had to become a decent
gan, I had banged on the family piano every day. musician? How can I tell her how angry I am at
But, after my lessons began, I played less and myself, my parents, and all those poor innocent
less often, until, by my ninth birthday, 1 only piano teachers? All I know is that when I see
played two days a week: the day before my les that Catie is interested in the piano, I am very,
son and the day of my lesson. All the other days very wary.

I stayed as far away from the piano as I could.

Playing For The Teacher 1001 Ways To Play "Heart


Why the big change? Before I started taking les And Soul"
sons, I was playing the piano for myself. After What makes it worse is that Catie is just like !
my lessons began, 1 was playing for the teacher. I used to be (before the lessons): She is a piano
played what she wanted me to play, how she addict. She comes in from school every afternoon
wanted me to play, and when she wanted me to and heads straight for the piano. When she
play it. I was on her schedule, not mine, and I walks by the piano room door, she always slips
resented it terribly. into the room and plays a few bars of her favor
But since I couldn't articulate my resentment ite song, "Heart And Sou!." In fact, she plays the
at the time, I took the easy way out and became song incessantly. We hear it early in the morn
perverse. I "forgot" to practice. I "forgot" to ing, late at night, and all day long on weekends.
show up on time for my lessons. I "forgot" my Catie doesn't play the song mechanically. In
sheet music. I suffered through endless ailments stead, she has become a "Heart & Soul" vir
that affected my fingers and hands. I complained tuoso, She plays it fast. She plays it slow. She
of blurry vision, pains in my lower back, and plays it several octaves too high. She plays it
even spent one summer trying to sneeze my way several octaves too low. She reverses the chords.
through every lesson. She adds new chords. She plays it (at last count)
1 must have been pure torture for the end 23 different ways. And she adds a new variation
less stream of kindly women who had the mis every other day.
fortune of becoming my piano teacher. They
My wife Janet and I have heard "Heart And
would lecture me, harangue me, plead with me,
Soul" so many times, in so many ways, that we
and beg me to practice, but I never did. And in
are climbing the walls. When Catie slips into the
stead I wasted their time and my time for six
piano room and begins banging away, my wife
long years before my parents finally gave up and
and I sprint from the kitchen or study and slam
discontinued my lessons.
the door shut. We are desperate parents,
I was 14 when I stopped taking piano les
Catie is driving both of us crazy. Yet we are
sons, and in the 22 years since I stopped taking
very proud of her. We submit to this daily tor
lessons, I've probably only sat down at the piano
ture willingly because we value Catie's interest in
ten times.
the piano and her originality and experimentation.
We may soon invest in a couple pairs of
Catie's Turn extra-thick ear muffs, but we will not tell Catie
Now my nine-year-old daughter Catie is in- how to practice, when to practice, or what to
2A COMPUTE'S Gazette February 19B5
We dorft care
which computer you own.
We'll help you
get the most out of it.

CompuServe puts a world of ir turn, communication* tainment at your fingertips.


CompuServe is the easy lo use videotex sophisticated financial data. Plus, a The videotex service for you, no matter
service designed for the personal communications network for electronic which computer you own. To buy a Starter
computer user and managed by the com mail, a bulletin board for selling, swap Kit, see your nearest computer dealer.
munications professionals who provide ping, and personal notices and a multi To receive our informative brochure or to
business information services (o over one channel CB simulator. order direct, call or write:
fourth of the Fortune 500 companies. You gel games on CompuServe, loo.
Subscribers get a wealth of useful, Classic puzzlers, educational, sports and CompuServe
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An HSR Block Company
practice. We've made it clear to her that the Catie uses the keyboard to do six things she
piano is her project, and what she does on the cannot do by herself on the piano. First, she
piano is her business. plays the rainbow-colored "Touch Harp" strip
above the piano keys and creates beautiful se
Interviewing Piano Teachers quences of notes like waves breaking on a shore.
We have thought about getting Catie a piano Freeing her from pressing the individual keys on
teacher. About two months ago, I interviewed a regular piano keyboard enables her to create
five piano teachers, and finally gave up. All of melodies based on many more notes and from
them looked and sounded like my old piano more complex patterns of notes.
teachers. They wanted Catie to play the same Second, when Catie creates her own music,
kinds of introductory pieces. They emphasized certain keys are masked and are not playable.
sight-reading and other mechanical skills in place This helps her create songs that sound good
of musical enjoyment, creativity, and originality. without a great deal of painstaking effort. It's like
They didn't seem the least bit interested in putting Catie on a pair of musical roller skates.
Catie's interest in arranging and composing mu She creates songs twice as quickly as she does on
sic. And they had no plans to teach Catie about a piano because she can play more notes easily
the wider cultural and historical dimensions of (with her relatively short fingers), and she feels
music. Instead, the lessons would consist of 30 confident enough to experiment.
minutes a week of learning only those things the Third, when she creates a new song, she al
teachers wanted Catie to learn. most always records it and saves it to disk. Later
in the day, or that evening, we hear Catie creat
A Special Teacher for Catie ing new music, and we hear a "recital" of songs
I could imagine Catie's enthusiasm for the piano Catie has composed, played, and recorded earlier
drying up after only a couple lessons. So I said in the day.
good-bye to the teachers, and, instead, went out This ability to recall music she made earlier
and bought a special piano teacher for Catie— has helped give Catie a historical, or compar
the Colortone Keyboard. The keyboard works ative, perspective when creating new music. Now
with our Commodore 64; it costs $79.95 and is she can browse through songs she created yes
available from: terday or last week, and relate them to what she
is creating now. Often she creates new songs by
Waveform Corporation
borrowing, refashioning, and ornamenting por
1912 Botlita Way
Berkeley, CA $4704 tions of earlier songs.
(415) 841-9866 Fourth, Catie gets to see the notes on the
screen as she plays them. This has helped her get
The Colortone Keyboard is a flat membrane
(touch-sensitive) plastic keyboard, measuring an appreciation for "written music" as opposed
9-1/2" by 15", with two octaves of piano keys to music that she makes up herself or plays by
and 14 special-function keys, It plugs into the ear. Catie has learned how to sight read music by
first joystick port on the 64. A disk program noting which keys generate which notes on the
comes with the keyboard and must be loaded screen. She has taken this skill back to the piano,
before the keyboard will work. where she is teaching herself to read sheet music
and to copy down some of her own songs onto
sheet music paper,
Fifth, thanks to the Colortone Keyboard and
software, Catie now looks at creating music the
same way she looks at writing a story on a word
processor. She no longer whips out a piece of
music, then abandons it, going on to something
new. Instead, she edits, plays, and fiddles with
everything she creates. She chooses from 12
musical scales and changes the scale of the piece
up or down. She chooses from eight musical in
struments and shifts back and forth between
instruments. She speeds up the tempo of the mu
sic, or slows it down. And she fixes on certain
bars in the music that she really likes, and she
plays them over and over (like "Heart And
Soul"). Later, she uses these bars as musical
"ideas" in her new songs.
26 COMPUTE'.'* GszollG February 1985
"Now Your Commodore 64
Can Print Like a Prol"

Pinter Interface
The Revolutionary Printer Interface for the Commodore 64 TM
A New Era in A Uniquely Intelligent Interface:
Commodore Printing Power. • Prints Screen Graphics Without Software
Grappler CD offers the first complete answer to • Graphics Screen Dump Routines Include
your printer interfacing requirements, with many Rotated, Inversed, Enhanced and Double Sized
powerful capabilities unique in the Commodore Graphics.
marketplace. Complete signal translation allows • Full Code Translation From Commodore's PET
many popular name brand printers to operate ASCII to Standard ASCII, the Language of Most
perfectly with the Commodore 64, or to imitate Printers.
Commodore's own printer. Even Commodore's • Complete Emulation of the Commodore 1525
graphic character set can be reproduced on Printer for printing of Commodore's Special
Epson, Okidata, Star, ProWriter and other popular Characters.
printers. • Dip Switch Printer Selection for Epson, Star,
Okidata, ProWriter and other popular printers.
Exclusive Grappler CD features provide a variety
• Conversion Mode for Easy Reading of Special
of graphic screen dumps, texl screen dumps and
Commodore Codes.
formatting. No other Commodore interface can
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If you own a Commodore 64...
If you're serious about quality, trouble free
printing... You need the Grappler CD.
liOfQnge micro
Contact your nearest Commodore dealer or call 1400 N. LAKEVIEW AVE., ANAHEIM. CA 92807 U.S.A.
(714)779-2772 TELEX: 183S11CSMA
Orange Micro for a dealer near you.
64 and Cwnmodc t IMS Ira i ,.b;. - o -"-~jore EtKlrcmo I
£[!■■■■ .-. ,»
Last, she is developing a real sense of
rhythm from strumming, tapping, and sliding up
and down the harp strip and from synchronizing
her own playing with the 12 preprogrammed
songs that come with the Colortone software.

A "Pre-Teacher" For Beginners


The Colortone Keyboard is not meant to replace
a music teacher, ft cannot teach many of the im
portant ingredients of discipline, basic facts, and
techniques about playing the piano. As yet, only
a real piano teacher can do that.
On the other hand, when formal piano les
sons come too early, they can stifle a child's in
terest in the piano. What has been play for the
TYPING TUTOR ■ WORD INVADERS child becomes work. And the child's natural
curiosity and creativity are blunted in favor of
« REVIEWERS SAY: rote drills and the mastery of proper technique.
"This is (he DBSI lyping tutor
That's why computer products, like the
■■ l '"" ^*v--- M we have seen yet.* *•• + "
*■ «o^^r5 info** Colortone Keyboard, can fill a real need for a
S^ -Jkf -,fi "Computer aided instruction at child. They act as "pre-teachers" that prepare a
■V" sZ^t ..5 ils best CommanOBr
Mp * :-^L, ■. =£; rtvs is an eicellent program child for formal lessons. They can give her the
M~5!_jHifcL«' ^ Ihal nakes lyping practice an time and confidence to develop her own abilities
M:;::^^5^S^;e-' ^k enjoyable i isl m nstead of
■ ^jf-^f■ ■ ;;W ■■ ■ M ! ■ .:■.■■-. and attitude toward playing the piano. When she
IB ii'31 ft DI1ITMIUM PRESS has this foundation, she's ready for a teacher.
■Btffl ZjlfjM 5 Ratedthi Bl ;T educational Then she can take what the teacher has to offer
V^fl S^^^^^ Creative Computing and build it into her own schedule—her own
CUSTOMERS SAY:
". . . delighled wilh my son's
plan—for mastering the piano. (ffl
progress ... he is the only one in his second grade class
wlio touch types at the computer."

■Your Typing Tutor is an eicellent program . . our &


children literally wail m line to use It."

"Thoroughly satislierj. can'l believa how fast I've learned to Now there's PASCAL
lype. I've never lyped before."
In daily use by schools across the USA. for the Commodore 64.
NEW! Commodore Plus/4 or IS
Commodore M
.. .Tape S21 9S Disk $24 95
T&ae S21 95 Disk %24 95
And at a mini price.
VIC-30 |une»D»ndBti) Tape S21.95
Kyan PASCAL is a lull-featured implementation of PASCAL
-no! a subset1 Witfi theseleaiures:
IFR (FLIGHT SIMULATOR) □ high-pertormance compiler and comprehensive sel of
error messages for faster debugging
REALISTIC AIRCRAFT RESPONSE □ speeds up to 40 times taster than Commodore Basic
D built-in lull screen editor
"Has a Quality of realism which
sels it apart Irom otheFS, even
□ support tor files, pointers, record types, sets and ordinal
those I've tested in flighl school." types used in sophisticated data structures.
Compute's Gaieite □ plus, a comprehensive tutorial manual illustrating the
"Great program1' INFO-64 speed and power ol PASCAL through sample programs.
"It is tremendous fun." Kyan PASCAL lets you develop programs on your
Compute's Gazetls
Commodore 64 lhat are transportable to mosl mainframes
"Flighl lesled by an air traffic So Us perfect for students and working at home.
controller, two skilled pilots and
an elemenlary school class. Ti-yitforiSdays.
Highly recommended by all."
Order Kyan PASCAL, and if you're nol completely satislied.
Mldnile Gazelle
return the diskette and manual within 15 days fora full refund.
"This is an unbelievably realistic
simulation of the difficulties Kyan PASCAL with complete tutorial manual $49.95
lacing a pilot in instrument fly (Add S4.50 per copy for postage and handling. S9.50 out
ing I'm a 747 pilot and I think that Ihis simulation could do side North America. California residents add 6.5% sales lax.)
a lot to improve Ihe reactions and instrument scan habits
of even very eiperiencod pilots." JAT pilot To order, call 415/775-2923.
[VISA and MaslerCard accepted.)
NEWI Commodoro Plus/4 or 16 Tape or Disk $29.95
Commodore 64 Taoo or DisK $29 95 Or send checker money order to: Kyan Software,
VIC-20 (uns.panaedl Cartridge S39 95 Suite 183, 1850 Union Street, San Francisco, CA 94123.
Sorry, no CO D. orders accepted.

ACi\DEmy
Shipping and handling £1 00 per

Ekyan
order CA residents add 6% tai

SOFTkl//1RE
P.O. Box 6377 San Rafael, CA 94903 (415) 499-0850
FINALLY
A FOOTBALL GAME
THAT'S IN A LEAGUE
OF ITS OWN.
In 1983, Gamestar's STARBOWL™ FOOTBALL or schoolyard. That's why ON-FIELD™ FOOTBALL
claimed BEST COMPUTER SPORTS GAME honors features wide open, 4-on-4 action. Multiple
from Electronic Games magazine. formations where you call (create) your own plays.
Instead of resting on our laurels, we were And the ability to fine-tune your starting offense.
challenged to new heights. With award-winning So you can use the same plays and strategies
STAR LEAGUE™ BASEBALL, ON-COURT™ TENNIS you use when playing for real. It's the essence
and now ON-FIELD™ FOOTBALL, the most of football, finally brought to the home screen.
innovative gridiron game ever created for the
home screen. CHALLENGE SUPERBOWL-QUALITY
COMPUTER TEAMS

When you challenge a computer team you'll


learn the real meaning of awesome. That's
because "floating intelligence" lets the computer
vary its play with yours. Which means it'll take
more than luck or a few trick plays to beat these
guys. Whether you're a rookie or a pro.

dib^^ mm i'.vi- j ^1
; eaLL on 10 ccuh i to qj id
1
ON-FIELD™ FOOTBALL
Actual Commodore 64™ screen-Other versions may vary = 2
i~S E '? 1 «r
PLAYER PERSPECTIVE GRAPHICS™
MAKE THE DIFFERENCE ■=
"
=
5=
V =
i
"*
***

Most football games look pretty much alike. S3 o


They stick you up in the pressbox and make you ■■- ! »
play the game from a distance. That's why we I en u
created Player Perspective Graphics™. It's an
animation technique that let's you feel like you're
ON-FIELD™ FOOTBALL
on the field. So you're right in the middle of the Actual Commodore 64™ screen-Oilier versions may vary
action, not just watching it from the pressbox.

PLAY VIDEO FOOTBALL LIKE YOU ON-FIELD™ FOOTBALL is available now for the
Commodore 64™. Look for it at your local software
REALLY PLAY FOOTBALL
dealer. Or write, GAMESTAR, Inc., 1302 State
Most of us, frankly don't play pro-style football. Street, Santa Barbara, CA 93101. Or call 805-
We play pick-up games with friends on the beach 963-3487.

TM

WE BRING SPORTS ALIVE

C1984 GAMESTAR. INC. Commodore 64 Is s trademark


ALL RIGHTS HESERVED ol Commodoro Electronics. Ltd.
Commodore 64

MUSIC
For Non-Musicians
Kathy Yakal, Feature Writer

It doesn't matter whether you've ever touched a musical


instrument, or think "timbre" is something you yell when
a tree falls. New music software and keyboards now
available for the Commodore 64 are creating a world of
music you can participate in even if you're untrained or
inexperienced in music.

The theory may not yet or fifth lesson," says Bill Moul-
be confirmed by re ton, technical director at Wave
search, but it seems that form Corporation, a California
a lot of people who like company which produces music
computers like music. The act of hardware and software. "Lots of
writing a song and creating a people have dusty musical in
computer program are not dis struments in their closets."
similar; both involve taking a And lots of people have
multitude of individual notes or computers, machines which are
commands that by themselves capable of producing musical
are unimpressive and combining sounds. As computers have sim
them to create a cohesive plified other tasks, many people
whole. see them as potentially powerful
Not everyone who likes music machines. "I've seen
music is a musician, and many studies done by major corpora
computer owners have no inter tions that say 70-90% of the
est in programming. Rather than people would like to make mu
compose their own songs or sic on their home computers if it
software, they buy the compo was made easy," says Moulton.
sitions of others. "The if ii was made easy part is
"Three out of four people the crucial factor."
who buy traditional musical in Thanks to companies like
struments quit after their fourth Waveform, it is becoming easy.
30 COMPUTE!* Gazette February 1985
Introducing PlayNet™

D PLAmET. WC I9M

PlayNet" Brings People Together! Call PlayNet at


PlayNet brings you the excitement you've been waiting for your
computet to deliver. With PlayNet's unique system, you can communi 1-800-PLAYNET
cate with people all over the country.
Meet fascinating people, make new friends, exchange private mes
sages, post public announcements, and play all our exciting games with SEND TO PLAYNET, INC. 31
people from coast-to-coast! P.O. BOX 596,
WYNAMTSK1LL, N.Y. 12193-0607
You've Never Played Anything Like It!
PlayNet has many terrific games with Full color graphics, and they're YES11 WANT PLAYNET TO POT THE WHOLE COUNTRY AT MY
all interactive, including: Fbur-in-a-Row, Backgammon, Chess, Sea FINGERTIPS. I UNDERSTAND THAT MY SATISFACTION IS
GUARANTEED FOR 30 DAYS, (or my Full subscription price will be
Strike, Checkers, Bridge, Capture the Flag, and more games coming all
refunded upon relum of the package) I may cancel my membership at
the time.
any time by writing PlayNet
Join The Telecommunications Revolution! Bill me on my charge card for 534.95. No checks, cash or money
Only $2.00 An Hour On Llnel orders accepted. Please send me the PlayNel Software, user
Mow if you own a Commodore 64*. a disc drive, and any compatible manual, and 90 minutes of free on-line time.
modem, like The Commodore V1CMODEM', you can access PlayNet s
wide range of services—Games, Bulletin Boards, Electronic Mail, File Please print.
Transfer and more. Here's all it costs;
Name.
• 52.00 an hour on-line—less than a long distance phone
caD. Address.
• S34.95 for the PlayMet Software Package which includes City _Stale. .Zip.
games and program disks, user's manual, monthly
newsletter and 90 minutes on-line free. Phone—
• $6.00 monthly service charge. D MasterCard □ Visa
Check one:
Let PlayNet put the whole country at your fingertips, every night
Card # .Expiration date.
from 6 PM to 7 AM and 24 hours a day Saturday, Sunday, and Holidays.
Signature.

PlayNet I .J
The network that has people talking. ■Commodore M nnd VKMODEM aw liDdrmstki o( Commodore Business Machine! [ne
Musical instruments have no 14 function keys. Using the ac themselves, whether it's sports or
time to get dusty if their companying software, the func something like music. People just
owners are even casual musi tion keys allow the user to want to know if they have tal
cians. Mastering an instrument choose from eight different in ent. This way, if they do, they
takes more than understanding strument sounds (by touching can get encouraged right away.
theory and learning to read mu the desired note on the key And if they're inspired, they'll
sic. Training your lips to play a board or any spot on the harp) go on and learn more."
note on a trombone, or your fin to play along with any of the 12 For more advanced music
gers to strum a guitar chord, re songs included. applications, the Colortone Key
quires a lot of physical ability A musical staff displaying board can also be used in con
and daily practice. And to do the composition's notes scrolls junction with the Musicak
those things well can take years. by on the screen as the song series, Waveform's well re
Small wonder, then, that so plays. At the same time, a piano garded music software.
many people quit. "And once graphic shows which notes the
someone uses an instrument user is playing. If the user wants Think for a minute. Can you
and can't get it right, there is a to compose a tune, the back hum the tune Commodore
stigma. They won't pick it up ground song can be turned off. uses in its television ads? A lot
again," says Moulton. To make Everything can be saved for of their advertisements stress
music accessible to those peo later playback. the music capabilities of the
ple, "You've got to provide "When you sit down to Commodore 64, and well they
something that is both a lot of play Pacman, at the lowest level might: The S!D chip is still the
fun and entertaining and jumps you won't get shot out of the most sophisticated sound chip
all those hurdles that everyone sky right away," says Moulton. available on any home
thought was associated with "You have a little bit of computer, largely
learning music in the first place. a cushion, though
"The computer can jump you may not win
the hurdles, like calculators the first time."
helped kids learn their times ta- The same
bies. Teachers were afraid that should be true
they wouldn't learn them as with musical
well, but studies showed that instruments, he
those kids learned faster. Not believes. You
that the computer should take shouldn't get
the place of learning those shot out of the
skills, but it helps people not get sky. "People are
discouraged, people who love pretty shy about
music and have an ear for music doing things that
and can hum a tune or whistle." allow them
Waveform created the to express
Colortone Keyboard ($79.95) to
help jump those hurdles. It's a
touch-sensitive membrane key
board with 25 piano-like keys
(two octaves), a touch strip that
performs as a musical harp, and

Sequential Circuits'
keyboard for
the 64.
m

When we introduced Pitstop. opponent, a digital clock displays time and a lap
we created action in the pits. counter gives you your race position as you race
Now, with PITSTOI' II, EPYX against each other in pursuit of the checkered flag.
introduces true competitive auto You can also play against the computer or take a
racing, both nn the track and in few practice laps as you prepare for the real head-
the pits. Auto racing is not a one to-head competition. Step up to PITSTOP II because
man sport. With PITSTOP II, auto racing is not a solo sport.
you can now experience the thrill One or two players: joystick controlled; disk or cassette.
of speed and competition as you battle your opponent in
a race against the clock. Now, more than ever, the strategy
of when you make a pit stop and your pit crew"s speed
and performance, combined with your skill on the track, Epyx
will determine the winner.
A split screen shows you your position and that of your Strategy Games for the Action-Game Player
due to its three-voice, nine- thing, programs like this make
octave range and its indepen music easy to create," says
dently programmable features. Albano. "Music theory won't
What the commercials don't tell change. Digital technology just
you is that you'll have to learn a allows people to have easier
couple dozen POKEs just to get access."
a single note. The appeal of the Computer Hitware ($19.95)
new musical software is that it is the first result of Passport's
takes care of all the POKEs, joint venture with Hal Leonard
freeing the computer owner Publishing Corporation. Each
Sight & Soumfs 3001: A Sound from the petty programming disk in the series contains songs
Odyssey IS A complete tutorial on details. from groups like Duran Duran,
musical synthesis. "A lot of Commodore own The Police, and Bruce Spring
ers were influenced to buy be steen. And you can do more
cause of its musical than just sing along: You can
T -■ . c 1
capabilities," says Chris Albano, create your own rock video by
Kf vice-president of marketing at rearranging the screen graphics.

1H ■' Passport Designs, another com


pany producing music software
"As the technology in
creases, you can see the whole
and hardware for the Commo video and audio thing becoming
\7 dore 64. "Our main goal is to one medium," says Albano.
- ;:■>
bring as many musicians and "Someone will be able to sit

■■■'■■ 1 non-musicians into using their down with a synthesizer and a

r.:'
^L Commodore for music as
possible."
video machine and create a
piece by themselves. That's
Passport's MacMusic uses a Passport is perhaps best much more of a multimedia
Macintosh-style screen display to known as the first company to event than watching four guys
make composition simple. ship MIDI (Multiple Instrument from London play guitars. The
Digital Interface) software. audience is going to become
MIDI, fast becoming an industry much more sophisticated—their
standard, allows synthesizers eyes and ears will demand much
and drum machines to be more complex stimulation."
hooked up to each other and to "Up until a year ago, there
personal computers. It's still pri really wasn't any good music
marily for a professional market software for the Commodore
because of the cost of the key 64," says Joe Billings, vice-
boards, though Passport manu president for marketing and
factures interface cards for the sales at Sight & Sound Music
Commodore 64 and Apple II. Software. A 20-year-old music
For non-musicians, Passport publishing company, Sight &
DesignWare has introduced the first
has designed MacMusic ($49.95), Sound decided to start publish
package in its Music Teacher series. its first consumer product. ing music software about two
The Notable Phantom teaches chil MacMusic features a Macintosh- years ago.

dren to recognize notes on a musical style user interface, which fea "We saw music being a
staff and match them with the cored tures easy-to-use pull-down new application for computers,"
note on a VA octave plastic keyboard menus and icons. Using a joy says Billings. "I'll be honest
overlay. Above is one of the package's stick, you "draw" melodies on with you: I'm a 30-year-old guy
three games. If the correct note is the screen and shape your own and I play games on my com
played in time, it turns into a bat and
compositions, or modify popular puter at home."
flaps its way back into the bat cage.
pre-programmed tunes. Billings believes that most
A soilgbook containing 20 familiar
"It's a much easier way to people buy computers and then
tunes is included. (Suggested retail for
keyboard and software is $49.95.) look at music," says Albano, wonder what they can do with
"Pitch goes up when the line on them. "We're hoping they can
the screen goes up, and notes say, 'Oh! It's also an incredible
hold longer because they last musical instrument.' '
longer on the screen." The problem with some
If you want to be a good music software, he says, is that
composer, however, you'll still you're using the computer key
have to studv. "More than any board instead of a regular piano
34 COMPUTE's Gaitme February 1985
..;.-. w.-yjiss' -Kin- m
■ ■ ■'■ T.r;,»H.>"^.537S7?;/-.s^,Ti^.
' - "■,,'■"

BwyftiftB
I
-;-■_:■

■.'■--
- ■,

0PT1
i aui
Z PA*
3 PRE
4 VAL
■-'"'
^ 5 TIL
S Clfi
7 JUC
8 MI*
TOU MftNT TO PLftY ANOTHER GAME ?

Now, through the magic of score on each word. There are four different levels
your computer you can play of difficulty and, of course, there are double and triple
L SCRABBLE" even when you letter and word scores. There's even a "hint" option
don't have a human opponent when you're having problems. Now, you 100 million
handy. SCRABBLE/the SCRABBLE1 players have a new challenge: Are you good
- computer version, pits you enough to beat your computer?
(and up to two other players) One to three players. Keyboard-controlled disc or
against the computer in the most popular word game cassette.
of all time.The computer program provides you and your
computer-controlled opponent with seven letters, and
Marketed and Distributed by
the contest is on. The program displays the board status,
tracks the score, and deals out new letters. You and Ion »tp a 3* [Bglirrad tiHtfun VCNW

your computer-controlled opponent try to maximize your OCAbe F' >


Mclodifln's three-octave keyboard into your 64 and you can reproduce up to 16 instrumental sounds.

keyboard, so you don't neces complete music tutorial. Their phenomenal—real violins, real
sarily hit the key corresponding new Music Video Kit lets you trumpets, real voices. "They're
to the note you want to play. create your own music videos. bringing the sounds onto very
"That doesn't teach you music. (See a review of the Sight & small chips, digitally recorded.
Once you have a keyboard, you Sound music software elsewhere It's only a matter of time before
turn the computer into a legiti in this issue.) these computers have tremen
mate musical instrument." "The problem we have now dous sound capability, and
To that end, Sight & Sound is that the technology is there that's when you're going to see
has released the Incredible Musi on the very high end—expen music software really expand in
cal Keyboard ($49.95), a package sive synthesizers that you can terms of what it can do."
which includes a two-octave hook up to your personal com
plastic keyboard overlay that fits puter—but you need a $500 in Passport Music Software
over the top of the Commodore terface and drum machine," 625 Miramontes St.
64's keys, plus software which says Billings. "On the low end, Half Moon Bay, CA 94019
lets you perform a variety of you have some excellent (415) 726-0280
musical options. Pressing one of software. Sequential Circuits, Inc.
the piano-like keys activates the "The next step is really go 3051 N. 1st St.
computer key beneath it. ing to be the person who comes San Jose, CA 95134
Sight & Sound enlisted jazz out with a sound source or a pe (408) 946-5240
guitarist Ryo Kawasaki, among ripheral keyboard with electron Sight & Sound Software, Inc.
others, to help design software ics to expand voicing capability. 3200 S. 166th St.
for the IMK. This software se The price is going to have to be Nezo Berlin, WI 53151
ries, ranging in price from around $200. Once that hap (414) 784-5850
$29.95 to $49.95, includes the pens, it's like adding a printer, Waveform Corporation
Kawasaki Synthesizer, which it's like adding a disk drive, it's 1912 Bonita Way
transforms your Commodore 64 like adding a monitor." Both Berkeley, CA 94704
into a programmable synthe Passport and another music (415) 841-9866
sizer and sound processor; the company, Sequential Circuits, Melodian, inc.
Kawasaki Rhythm Rocker, which are expected to have relatively 115 Broadway
creates space sounds and high- inexpensive keyboards available Suite 1202
resolution graphics to the beat for tho Commodore 64 by the New York, NY 10006
of electronic rhythms; the Music time you read this. (212)406-5163
Processor, which lets you create, In the next two or three DesignWare
edit, record, and play your own years, Chris Albano believes, 185 Berry St.
musical compositions; and their the sounds in personal comput San Francisco, CA 94107
latest, 3001: A Sound Odyssey, a ers themselves are going to be (415)546-1866 ,$
36 COMPUTE'S Gazcne February 19H5
S TO LOAD?

SDOGSgOIR

1
1 1

loac Runner 1 :■

LOGIC 3

^ BASEBALteAME

™'l^^

INTRODUCING THE FAST LOAD of your Commodore 64 and goes to work automatically,
loading your disks with ease. And that's only the
CARTRIDGE FROM EPYX. beginning. You can copy a single file, copy the whole
disk, send disk commands, and even list directories
You're tired of waiting forever for your Commodore 64 without erasing programs stored in memory.
programs to load. But it's no use glaring at your disk
And unlike other products, the FAST LOAD
drive. Calling it names won't help, either. It was born
CARTRIDGE works with most programs, even copy
slow - a lumbering hippo. You need the FAST LOA D
protected ones, including the most popular computer
CARTRIDGE from EPYX. FAST LOAD transforms
games.
your Commodore 64 disk drive from a lumbering hippo
into a leaping gazelle. With FAST LOAD, programs The FAST LOAD CARTRIDGE from Epyx. Easy
that once took minutes to load are booted up in a matter to insert, easy to use and five times faster. So why
of seconds. waste time waiting for your disks to load?

Epyx
FAST LOAD can load, save and copy your disks five Speed them up with FAST LOAD!
times faster than normal. It plugs into the cartridge port
Ryo Kawasaki,
The Designer Behind
The Kawasaki Synthesizer
And
The Kawasaki Rhythm Rocker
Sharon Darling, Research Assistant

Ryo Kawasaki stood in a two music packages for the 64,


Manhattan computer the Kawasaki Synthesizer and the
A fascination with new
store two years ago and Kawasaki Rhythm Rocker, part of
technology coupled with
had to argue with a a series of integrated music pro
a desire to expose non-
salesman about buying a-Com- grams marketed by Sight and
musicians to the joys of
modore 64. Yes, he said, I'm Sound Music Software, Inc.
synthesized music led
sure. That's the computer I Understanding and enjoy
jazz artist Ryo Kawasaki
want. ing music through a computer
to develop two versatile
What the salesman couldn't symbolizes for Kawasaki the un
music programs for the
know as he talked to the slen derlying Japanese interpretation
Commodore 64: the
der Japanese-born jazz musician of music itself. "In Japanese, the
Rhythm Rocker and the
with the physics degree and 13 music is done by two letters—
Kawasaki Synthesizer.
albums to his credit, was that one is the sound, and the sec
Kawasaki had a vision. "I was ond is the joy, or pleasure. It is
interested in introducing what a two characters, so a joy and a
synthesizer could do to the pleasure of the sound is music.
mass of non-musicians, so they Music is not like notating a note
would understand and enjoy or writing a score—that comes
synthesized music." later. First you have to enjoy the
And what better computer sound, and that was my interest
to achieve that than the inex in the Commodore 64," he says.
pensive Commodore 64 with its Kawasaki saw the 64 as a
remarkable Sound Interface De good tool to bring music to the
vice (SID) chip? Three months masses because of its pro
after buying his 64, Kawasaki grammable filter as well as the
emerged with his first program SID chip. "To me, the filter is
ming effort—The Composer. the most important thing in
That original concept has now making synthesized sound," he
been expanded and refined into adds.
38 COMPUTE'S Gazette February 1985
The Rhythm Rocker and Katoa- Dance Theater," where the star while cartoon characters tap
saki Synthesizer were de performers, the Kicker Brothers, their feet in time to the music.
signed to be easy enough for kick-box in time to the music. (For more detailed information,
children ages six and up to op see the review elsewhere in this
erate. But the programs offer In the keyboard mode, users issue.)
enough depth, variety, and flex can choose from 21 different The composer sequence has
ibility to challenge and delight sounds, ranging from organ, pi four different screens, and
adults no matter what their mu ano, and trumpet, to more ex three-track recording capabili
sical backgrounds. With the Ka otic ones, such as space travel, ties. A sound editor can be used
wasaki Synthesizer, which comes outer space, waves, gun shots, also to create an unlimited num
ber of instrument sounds and
special effects.
With the Rhythm Rocker,
you have a choice of electronic
percussion, bass, and synthe
sizer sounds. Melodies can be
played and recorded over pre
programmed bass and rhythm
patterns, and compositions can
be complemented with high-
resolution graphics.
The demonstration mode
offers stunning geometric graph
ics, as well as a graphic inter
pretation of a keyboard, with
keys flashing on and off the
screen as notes are played.
Both the Rhythm Rocker,
which retails for $39.95,
and the Kawasaki Syn
thesizer, which has a
suggested retail price of
$49.95, can be used in con
junction with Sight & Sound's
Incredible Musical Keyboard,
an add-on overlay for the
computer.

It took Kawasaki about four


months to come up with the
prototype of his two programs.
He started out programming in

I
BASIC, but found it too slow for
what he wanted to accomplish,
so he switched to machine lan
Ryo Kaxvasaki guage. "Machine language is
much easier than BASIC be
cause I have been involved with
on two disks, users have two se or mystery sound. By pressing electronics and hardware all my
quences from which to choose— another key, the waveform and life, and it's just much easier to
the performer and the composer. octave can be changed to create understand and to change, to
In the performer section, more than 500 different sounds. transfer and to enhance," Kawa
you can choose from eight dif Pressing B adds a bass and saki says.
ferent screens, allowing you to rhythm line to your That was his first encounter
see a demonstration of songs composition. with computer programming.
written with the synthesizer; The sounds are accompa He demonstrated the prototype
special keyboard effects, such as nied by graphics—keys on the at a computer store in New
glissandos, vibratos, and slides; screen change color to represent York, and the owners liked it
and a visit to "Kawasaki's Space different notes being played, enough to start selling it. Within
COMPUTE!'! G&nKle February 1985 39
two weeks, about 30 copies doesn't mean serious musicians away one of the more frustrat
were sold, he recalls, "So I said can't benefit from the programs, ing elements of learning a tradi
'Oh, maybe I can do something says Kawasaki. "I'm a very seri tional instrument, such as a
with it.' 1 started rewriting it, ous musician, and I've been into piano or trumpet—tedious prac
and I finished it in about July or electronics and synthesizers for tice sessions just to learn notes
August of 1983.'■ a long time, and somebody else and basic patterns. To Kawasaki,
However, he didn't have as like that wouldn't mind having the main point of playing a mu
much luck with his second ver sical instrument should be to ex-
sion of Composer. "I was looking press something you feel inside.
for different people to sell the "When I started playing [as
program, but everybody was a child], I played the ukelele or
more interested in a word pro the harmonica or recorder or toy
cessor or games, and they didn't flute—something very simple—
have as much understanding of it but at least you can express
music programs at the time," he something. If you feel limita
says.

A trip to an exhibition in
My mother tions, then it's time to go to
something a little more sophisti
Japan in the fall of 1983 led him wanted me to cated or complicated. When you
to the people from Sight & start that though, what happens
Sound, who liked what they take piano is it gets very boring, to me. My
heard. They asked him to write lessons, but I mother wanted me to take pi
a simpler version of the com ano lessons, but I never wanted
poser, which turned into the never wanted to, to, because that is something
synthesizer. In March 1984, he you have to learn, like you have
because that is
started work on the Rhythm to learn to type, and to me, that
Rocker, finishing it in June. something you has nothing to do with music."
The design of the programs Just hitting the keys over
harks back to Kawasaki's youth, have to learn, and over until the chords and
when he first became interested like you have notes are learned is fine, Kawa
in music. "1 wasn't interested saki says, "if you want to be
because [I was exposed to] Stra to learn to type, come a great instrumentalist.
vinsky or Mozart or Beetho But if you want to be a com
and to me, that
ven—I was interested because [ poser, or want to express some
had one of those toy pianos has nothing to thing in you through the music,
with a songbook, and the black that's not really necessary."
keys were only painted on. I
do with music. Kawasaki believes a com
didn't even know what all those puter could never completely re
things stood for." He just 19 place a live musician, but he
wanted to see what different does feel there are definite
kinds of sounds he could elicit applications for a non-human
from his one-octave range toy, instrumentalist. "Session music,
he remembers. like for (commercial) jingles, or
"That kind of experience non-creative music, as I call it—
got me into music," he recalls. that could be completely re
"So my focus with the synthe placed by a computer. I've done
sizer is to get down to that a lot of jingle sessions, and they
level—so non-musical that even don't need you, they just need
little people [children] can just this program. I wouldn't expect your skill," he says.
play and express themselves, how much they could seriously However, he adds, "there is
and you don't have to know use it, but it would be some a creative and expressive music
anything—just enjoy the graph thing they could have." He has that should always have the art
ics and press some characters." used his Commodore 64 on some ist." When he uses rhythm ma
Most of the functions on his of his albums, and in some of chines or synthesizers, he says,
programs can be accessed by his concerts, especially to create "I would rather program them
pressing only one key, to make sound effects. to do something a human being
operation even simpler, and to could never do—I would ap
get down to the main purpose Learning music with a com proach it as a new instrument, a
of the programs: to make music. puter might be more inter new discovery, rather than try
But the programs' simplicity esting to a child because it takes ing to play something a human
40 COMPUTEVs Gaiorm Februa^ 1985
GREAT NEWS FOR
OWNERS OF COMMODORE,
APPLE, & A1ARI COMPUTERS!
Most printers don't work with performance against cost—it's The Blue Chip Personal Printer costs
Commodore or Atari. And to get difficult to find a printer that com a lot less than anything similar...
one that does, costs too much. pares to the Blue Chip M120/10. without compromise in quality.
That's why the engineers at Blue Highly powerful and relentlessly
Top speed with a Blue Chip Ml20/10
Chip designed a new personal practical.
is 120 characters per second. To beat
printer called the M120/10. If that in any other make of printer, you See one today. Blue Chip printers
you own a computer read on: have to spend about $400 more. are available at Best Products,
01 the ten high speed dot matrix Special print modes on an Ml20/10
LaBelle's, Jafco, Dolgin's, Miller Sales,
printers most often used wilh Rogers, Great Western catalog show
include graphics; condensed, bold
Commodore, Apple, and Atari, none rooms, and other fine stores. Or call
faced and expanded characters; as
is less expensive than the Blue (800) 556-123'! Ext. 540. In California,
well as superscripts and subscripts,
Chip M120/10. Or more powerful. call (800) 441-2345, Ext. 540, for
and near letter quality characters.
Fully equipped, it's about $50 less more information and name of your
And to beat that in any other make
expensive than a comparable, yet closest Blue Chip dealer.
of printer you have to spend nearly
much slower Commodore printer. $300 more.
And in the vicinity of $300 less than
And since it also has the IBM-PC,
an Epson* set-up to work with a
Apple Macintosh' and IIC\ Serial,
Commodore.
and Centronics interfaces'* you can
Despite Its low price, the Blue Chip use the Blue Chip M120/10 with just
M120/10 is tiol a stripped down, about any computer you may
bargain basement printer. eventually own.
In fact, when you judge it by the
same stringent standards computer
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being could play, because a hu when I compose music and would like to get back to music,
man being has a certain quality, when I perform instruments," and take a little rest from the
and a computer has a certain he says. "I have some artistic computer until some new hard
quality." goal I want to achieve while I ware comes out," he says.
am developing the software. His inspiration comes "from
The jazz music he performs, What 'artistic' means, to me, is seeing some new toy. I don't get
both solo and with his band, it has some feeling in the inspired because I like program
Golden Dragon, is perhaps the presentation of yourself, which ming. I see a new toy, and I see
hardest form to replace with communicates with other peo how far I can go with this little
synthesized music, since much ple's feelings, and that's a pri toy, and that occupies me for a
of the final outcome depends on mary connection between the couple of years, and I do some
improvisation and interaction programmer and the people." thing, and then I wait until
between the members of the That feeling, he hopes, will in something else comes up."
band, Kawasaki says. Compos spire creative energy among us Besides computers, any
ing for popular songs adapts ers of his programs. thing scientific and creative in
more easily to synthesizers and Kawasaki is currently work terests Kawasaki, who came to
computers, he adds, because ing on another program for the the United States in 1973. The
"anything that can be done in 64, a score writer. However, he 36-year-old Tokyo native, who
written music can be very easily says he doesn't know if he wilt makes his home in an artists'
adapted to computer music, but finish it or not. For the past two building in New York City,
if something is not in that area, years, he has been devoting his opted for a career in music
like in jazz, it still requires a lot time to the computer, and he rather than physics because "I
of human qualities." says he'd like to get back to re- found it [physics] a little quiet,
Kawasaki approaches soft cording albums and doing con underground kind of thing. I
ware writing the same way he certs. "I've been making music like to be a little more flashy—I
approaches music—as a com for 20 years, and I've only been like to go out in front of people
poser. "It is almost exactly as computing two years, so 1 and express myself." (IB

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SIMPLE ANSWERS TO COMMON QUESTIONS

QA
TOM R.HALFHILL, EDITOR

Each month, computers gazette tackles some umns. It simply means the monitor is capable of
questions commonly asked by new Commodore users clearly resolving 80 columns. You still have to
and by people shopping for their first home com equip your computer with an 80-column video
puter. If you have a question you'd like to see an converter or run a special program (such as
swered here, send it to this column, c/o C0MrUTE!rs "Screen 80," COMPUTED GAZETTE, September
GAZETTE, P.O. Box 5406, Greensboro, NC 27403. 1984).
Many people prefer 80-column screens for
extended word processing and programming. For
Could you tell me which computer one thing, the screen displays twice as much
monitors are compatible with the Commodore information. And for word processing, an 80-
64? I intend to use my computer for word column screen more closely resembles a sheet of
processing in 80 columns, but still would like paper in a typewriter, making it easier for you to
the monitor to also display the standard 40 col envision how the document will appear when
umns. I know a monochrome monitor is printed out. Some word processing programs
needed to display 80 columns of text clearly, have print-preview features which let you view
but does an 80-column monitor also display 40 the text on screen exactly as it will be printed on
columns? And does a green-screen monitor paper, so you can format subheadings, footnotes,
work with the color Commodore 64? I need running headers and footers, page breaks, out
some type of monitor to reduce eyestrain. lines, and so on. When formatting isn't too im
portant, 40-co!umn displays can be perfectly
Generally speaking, any monochrome or adequate.
color monitor with standard composite input Unless your computer has a direct-drive
should work with your Commodore 64 (or nearly video RGB (Red-Green-Blue) output—and Com
any computer, for that matter). All you'll need is modore computers do not—you'll most likely
the proper cable to connect the monitor to the need a monochrome monitor to make 80-column
computer. If necessary, you can make your own displays easily readable without eyestrain. When
cable without too much trouble. a 64 is plugged into the rear connections of a
The number of columns displayed on a Commodore 1701/1702 monitor, 80-column dis
screen—-that is, the number of characters in a plays are acceptable, but not optimum. There are
horizontal line—is determined by the computer, two ways to improve an 80-column display on a
not by the monitor. A Commodore 64 normally 1701/1702: Use the three rear connectors rather
displays 40 columns by 25 lines. It will always than the two front ones, and unplug the color
display 40 columns by 25 lines, whether it's signal (the one labeled Chroma). For long ses
plugged into an ordinary TV set, a composite sions of programming or word processing, you
color monitor, or an 80-column monochrome may want to buy a monochrome monitor as a
monitor. When you see a monitor advertised as second display device. Fortunately, prices of
an "80-column monitor," it doesn't mean that's these monitors have declined sharply in recent
all you need to convert your display to 80 col- years. They cost about $69 to $150.
44 COMPUTEI's Gazette February 1985
Three display colors are available: ordinary power strip and turned on at the same time? I
black and white, green, and amber. Each has its live in an area where power surges and spikes
advocates. Green is the most popular, but amber are rare, so a protector is not necessary. So far I
has gained ground recently. One study indicated have used my Commodore 64, 1541, and mon
that green was preferred for dimly lit rooms (as itor in this fashion with no apparent problems.
you might find at home) and amber for brightly
lighted offices. Largely, though, it's a matter of We thought we'd covered all possible
personal preference. If possible, try all three bases on this question in the August and October
before you buy. columns, but we forgot about the power strips.
The 16 colors on a 64 are a mixture of chro There's usually no problem with turning on
minance (color) and luminance (brightness). a whole computer system in this fashion, even
There are only four different luminance levels, though the sudden draw of current creates a tiny
which means you can choose four shades of power surge each time you do it. Some electronic
green, or amber, for text and background colors. devices have built-in buffer circuits to protect
Some monitors have a 40/80-column switch their delicate circuitry from power-on surges.
to adjust the width of the display so characters When you leave the power switches on and con
will appear properly proportioned in either trol them from a power strip, you could be
mode. Others have a horizontal-width knob negating this feature. But since most home com
which does the same thing. puter systems don't draw much current anyway,
Most monochrome monitors have a standard the small surge is usually nothing to worry
phono jack (RCA jack) for composite video input. about.
Since the Commodore 64 video output is a DIN To be absolutely safe, you could separately
jack, you'll need a cable to connect the two. The switch on the device which draws the most
"octopus cable" that comes with Commodore power (i.e., the monitor or TV). However, we've
1702 monitors works fine—plug the luminance never heard of any damage resulting from
output into the monochrome monitor. You can switching on an entire system with a power strip.
also buy these cables at Commodore dealers and If there are any isolated cases to the contrary,
some video supply stores. Some octopus cables we'll be sure to hear about them. ©
have five-pin DIN plugs, while others have
eight-pin DINs. Newer Commodore 64s have 1541 DISK DRIVE
eight-pin jacks, but the five-pin cables work with ALIGNMENT PROGRAM
both older and newer 64s. If you aren't sure Finally, a complete disk drive alignment piogiam! No special
equipment needed! A two disk (program and calibration) pro
which phono plug on the octopus cable is the lu gram allows anyone with average mechanical skills to piopeily
minance output, experiment by plugging them align the 1541 disk drive. Complete Instruction manual. Don't
into the monitor input one at a time until a read be fooled by cheap Imitations! This is the alignment program
that works! Seethe review In the October issue of the Gazette.
able display appears (you can't hurt anything by $44.95 + S2.50 shipping (U.S.)
making a mistake).
PROGRAM PROTECTION MANUAL
If you can't find an octopus cable, it's not
FOR THE C - 64 2ND EDITION
too hard to make a cable yourself. Five-pin DIN $29.95 + S2.50 shipping (U.S.)
plugs and shielded cables are readily available at PROGRAM PROTECTION MANUAL
electronics parts supply stores such as Radio VOLUME 2
Shack. Refer to the video output pin map in the COMING SOON
Commodore 64 Programmer's Reference Guide. Sol PROGRAM PROTECTION NEWSLETTER
der one end of the cable to the ground and lumi A monthly newsletter covering the latest advances in program protec
tion. This will be a complete 'HOW and 'WHY" approach to individual
nance pins of the DIN plug, and the other end to
program protection schemes.
the ground and positive contacts of the connector 135.00 per year post paid In the U.S.
which fits your monitor. Be sure not to create a OMNICLONE (C ■ 64 VERSION)
short-circuit by splashing solder across any two At last — a copy program that will not only copy the disk but is also
contacts, and keep the video cable as short as unprotected and documented. This will copy the disk and automatically
place errors 20. 21, 22. 23. 27 and 29 on the destination disk. Three
possible. If you can't solder very well or aren't passes, three minules. The source code is included on disk and printed
sure about which pins to hook up, pay a little ex out. Learn about hall tracking, high speed data transfer and much
tra to have the cable made for you by an expert more . . plus updates included in the newsletter.
J35.00 + S2.50 shipping (U.S.)
at a computer or video shop.

Q.. In the October issue there was again a


C. S. M. SOFTWARE
P.O. Box 563, Crown Point, IN 46307
question regarding which element of a system
(219) 663-4335
to turn on first. I have one further question VISA AND MASTER CARDS ACCEPTED
that has not been answered. Is there any prob DEALER INQUIRIES INVITED

lem in having all components hooked up to a


COMPUTE'S Gazette February 19B5 35
■■—i ill —

Michael S, Tomczyk
Magic

Beginning Computer Math


Some people think computer math is hard just The computer PRINTs the number on your
because it involves numbers. They're wrong. screen. We can use the PRINT command to cal
Math is easier to understand when you use a culate, too, like this:
computer.
PRINT 1985+1
For example, some teachers still think stu
dents have to be a certain age to learn algebra— When you place a calculation or formula after
nonsense! Every time you use a variable in a the PRINT command, the computer automati
computer program, you're using a type of al cally does the calculation and displays the an
gebra. If a child can use variables in BASIC swer (in this case, 1986).
programming, then he or she is already applying Notice that number values are always
the principles of algebra. PRINTed without quotation marks. Putting the
number outside
Common Math Functions Short Examples to Try
quotation marks
Display numbers 10 A = 100: PRINT A: PRINT"ONE HUNDRED- "A"."
tells the com
Counting with FOR/NEXT 10 FOR X = l TO 100 STEP 2: PRINT X: NEXT
Addition 10 A=3: B=4: PRINT A+B
puter that the
Subtraction 10 X=255; Y=55: PRINT X-Y number is a
Multiplication 10 Nl = 10: N2 = 20: PRINT N1*N2 value and can
Division 10 C-100: D-5: PRINT C/D be used in cal
Fractions 10 PRINT (2/3H3/2)
culations.
Decimals 10 L = 100000: I-.12: PRINT I*L
Negative numbers 10 PRINT .12*100000: PRINT -.12*100000 Putting a
Exponents 10 PRINT 3T!2 number inside
Ratio analysis 10 INPUT"DEBT";D: INPUT"EQUITY";E: PRINT"RATIO="D/E quotation marks
Formulas 10 INPUT X: DEF FNA(X)=X'.01: PRINT FNA(X) tells the compu
VAL=string to numeric 10 PRINT'TYPE A NUMBER": INPUT X$: X = VAL(X$>: PRINT X
ter that number
Random Numbers 10 FOR T = l TO 20; PRINT INT(20'RND(l))+l: NEXT
is part of a mes
But why do we say computer math is easy? sage and cannot be used as a value in calculations.
BASIC contains a whole set of built-in math Type these two lines and press RETURN
functions you can use to solve all sorts of prob after each line to see the difference (the first use
lems, from simple addition to trigonometry. is a calculation, the second use is a message):
That's what makes computer math so easy. In PRINT 2+2
this lesson, we'll skip the "trig" and focus on the I'RINT"2 + 2"
most common BASIC math functions.
If you want to combine a number value or
Our examples are designed for non-math
calculation with a word message, the number
people and you should enjoy them even if you're
value or calculation has to go outside quotation
not a math whiz. All of our programs work with
marks and the message goes inside quotation
the VIC-20, Commodore 64, Commodore 16, and marks, like this:
Plus/4.
PRINT'THIS IS THE YEAR"1985"!"

Using PRINT To Display In this example, the entire message goes on the
same PRINT line. The message begins inside
Numbers quotes, then we put the number outside quotes,
The first thing you should know is that most then we go back inside quotes at the end to dis
calculations work with the PRINT command. play the exclamation mark (!). Notice that the
Type this line and press the RETURN key: computer lets us go in and out of quotes on the
PRINT 1985 same PRINT line.
46 COMPUTEis Gazette FeWuary 1985
To teach your child to spell, we had
to design software that talks.
Cave of the Word Wizardry unique way word correctly, but each time you are wrong he will
to develop spelling skills using human draw energy from your light. When your flashlight
runs out of
speech and arcade action. energy you
Software that tries to teach spelling by jumbled will be
letters isn't a very good teacher. The software has doomed to
to talk. Now it does. Only on Cave of the Word Wizard roam through ;
from Timeworks. the cave in
The Wizard talks like a human being, not like darkness
a robot. This fascinating character thrusts you into an forever.
intriguing adventure as he teaches spelling in the During
most effective way possible on a computer. your search
You have wandered into a mys you will be
terious cave, and the entrance confronted
has been sealed behind you. with spiders, rocks, snakes, and other
Suddenly the Word Wizard dangerous obstacles that will make your
appears and informs you quest for freedom even more
that in order to leave challenging.
his cave you This state-of-the-art educa
must find four tional program includes 500
magic crys: spoken words in 10 spell
tals which ing skill levels and
have the makes full use of the
power sound capabilities
needed to of your com
open the puter. The
cave entrance. Wizard will
You have only a talk to you
flashlight to help in clear
you find your way human
through the cave, and speech. No
your batteries are run additional hard
ning low. ware is needed
The Wizard is a funny old for your computer
fellow who causes lots of mischief system,
for anyone who enters his cave. He Only Timeworks offers
will appear often and ask you to spell a Cave of the Word Wizard.
word-you will actually hear the old Wizard's Now at your favorite dealer. Or
voice!—and you cannot continue your search contact Timeworks, Inc., 405 Lake
until you spell the word correctly. Cook Road, Deerfield, IL 60015.
The Wizard will use his magic powers to Phone:312-948-9200.
replenish the energy in your flashlight if you spell the
Available for Commodore 64*

Timeworks Programs:
. Evelyn Wood Dynamic Reader ■ Dungeons of Algebra
Dragons ■ Spellbound ■ Computer Education Kits
■ Robbers of the Lost Tomb ■ Wall Street ■ Star Battle
■ Presidential Campaign ffl Money Manager n Electronic
Checkbook ss Data Manager m Word Writer
GI9M TVnawnfci, Iik. M righia maervod. Soltworo Snoodi by Electronic Speech Sy«ema
O19M.' Registered trademark of Commodore Computer SyMwra
shaped graphics symbol. Here's an example:
REM. You can PRINT numbers, calculations, PRINT 5*3
and answers to math problems directly on your Let's try a real-life example. What if we wanted
printer instead of the screen. For example, if you to buy a house for $80,000 and the interest rate
wanted to PRINT your number with your printer, on the mortgage was 12 percent? How much in
you would type: terest would you pay? The answer is 12 percent
OPEN 4,4: CMD 4: PRINT 1984; CLOSE 4 times $80,000. To show that on your computer,
you'd type the following line:
PRINT .12*80000

Using Your Computer As A Twelve one-hundredths (.12) is the same as 12


percent so .12 times 80,000 gives us our answer,
Simple Calculator which is $9,600. Notice we write 80,000 as
Let's try some calculations. Computer math is the 80000 and the answer appears as 9600 because
same as the math you learn in school or use at the computer doesn't use commas.
home or in business—with a few small dif Computers use the slash (/) sign instead of
ferences that we'il point out as we go along. the division sign (-*-) to divide numbers. The
To use your computer in direct for immediate) number to the left of the slash is always divided
mode as a calculator, just type in the calculation by the number to the right, like this:
you want to print and press RETURN. Presto—
PRINT 15/3
your computer automatically gives you the an
swer. Here's how it works: The number 15 divided by 3 is 5. If you divide a
To add several numbers, use the PRINT smaller number by a larger number, the result
statement followed by the numbers you want to will be a decimal number, like this:
add, as in these examples:
PRINT 3/15
PRINT 500 + 1484
PRINT 1+2+3+4 + 5 The answer to this calculation is .2, which is the
PRINT (1 + 2 + 3+4+5) same as 2/10, 20/100 or 20 percent. You can
PRINT 5000+25700 check the answer by multiplying 15 by .2 (the
The first example adds two numbers and prints answer should be 3).
the answer. The second example adds several The answers to problems involving fractions
numbers {as many as you want) and also prints are always given in decimal form by your com
the answer. The third example shows that puter. For example, the answer to 1 times 1/3 is
enclosing the calculation in parentheses gives 1/3, but the computer gives the answer in deci
you the same answer. The fourth example is es mal form as .333333333. Try this example:
pecially important because it shows you that PRINT 2/3*3/2
computers do not use commas in numbers. In or
dinary math, you might type 5,000 or 25,700, but This example demonstrates that if you multiply a
in computer math, you leave out the commas fraction times its inverse (opposite) fraction—for
and type 5000 or 25700 without any commas. example, multiply 2/3 times 3/2—the answer is
Subtraction works just like addition. Here's 1. Try a few others (10/1 times 1/10, 14/7 times
7/14).
an example:
PRINT 1984-10
Sometimes you have to use parentheses to
tell the computer which order to calculate the
If the number being subtracted is larger than the numbers. For example, if you want to divide
number you're subtracting it from, the answer
two-thirds by two-thirds, the answer should be 1
will be a negative number. For example, if the because any number divided by itself equals 1.
temperature is 15 degrees and it falls 20 degrees,
Try this example:
what is the temperature?
PRINT 2/3/2/3
PRINT 15-20
The answer is .111111111 because this calcula
The answer is minus five degrees ( — 5). So you tion doesn't say divide 2/3 by 2/3. It says divide
see, you can have both negative and positive 2 by 3, then divide the answer by 2, then divide
numbers (just like in regular math). that answer by 3—and the result is .111111111.
Multiplying numbers on your computer is a Try it this way:
little different from multiplying by hand or with
PRINT <2/3>/(2/3)
a pocket calculator because computers use the as
terisk (*) instead of the times sign (X) to mul Now the answer is 1 because we used paren
tiply numbers. This eliminates confusion between theses to tell the computer that we want it to
the multiplication sign, the letter X and the X- take the number 2/3 and divide it by (/), the
48 COMPUTE'$ Gazette February 19B5
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P.O. Box 5406
Greensboro, NC 27403
number 2/3. If you're ever in doubt as to and can be used in many creative ways.
whether the computer knows which order to cal Using a variable to stand for a number lets
culate, use parentheses to separate the parts of you use that number over and over again in vari
the formula. ous calculations.
If we define the variable A as the number 5,
The Order Of Calculation the computer will display the number 5 (the
value of the variable) when we print A. You can
If you have a long calculation involving many
also include variables in calculations and for
different math operations, your computer will al
mulas, like this:
ways calculate in this order: expojients first, mul
A-5: PRINT A: PRINT A + l: PRINT A+2
tiplication and division second, addition and
subtraction last. It there are several math opera In this example, we define the variable A as 5,
tions in the same category, it will calculate them then we print A, which is the same as saying
from left to right. print 5. Next, we add 1 to the value of A and
As we've already said, you can make your print the result, which is 6, then we add 2 to the
computer calculate individual operations sepa value of A and print the result, which is 8.
rately by enclosing them in parentheses. Try
these examples (which all give the same answer): Some Practical Examples
PRINT (2T2J/10 + I4 Let's try some simple math problems. For ex
PRINT «2T2>/10>+14
ample, how could we figure out what price we
PRINT («2T2)/10H-14>
can pay for a new home? One way is to see how
First, the computer performs the exponent opera much the interest payments would be if we took
tion by taking 2 to the second power—2T2); sec out a mortgage. Our bank will give us a mort
ond, the computer divides the answer by 10; and gage at 12 percent interest, so let's calculate how
last it adds 14. much interest we have to pay for houses costing
between $50,000 and $120,000—in $10,000 in
crements. This may sound a little complicated,
REMl Any calculation must contain the same but we can do the whole calculation in two pro
number of left and right parentheses. If you don't gram lines, like this:
"balance" the number of pareiitheses, you'll get an
10 FOR X = 50000 TO 120000 STEP 10000
error when you try to perform the calculation.
20 PRINT"INTEREST="XM2"ON HOUSE
COSTINCX: NEXT
You can change the result of a calculation line by
Type RUN and press RETURN. Impressed?
putting parentheses around different parts of the Computers can make math calculations very
calculation. Try this:
powerful, and fast, too. The first part of the FOR-
PRINT 2T 2/(10+14) NEXT loop tells the computer we're going to de
Now the computer first takes the exponent of 2 fine X as a range of numbers from 50,000 to
to the power of 2 (which is 4); second, it adds 120,000. STEP 10000 tells the computer to
10+14 (24); and last, it divides 4 by 24. "step" through the range at intervals of 10,000 at
a time. Line 20 displays the INTEREST= part of
the message. Then we go outside quotation
Calculating With Numeric marks to multiply our first house price ($50,000)
Variables times our interest rate (.12), which prints the an
If you read our January column, you know we swer. Then we print the rest of our message "ON

made a New Year's resolution to show you how HOUSE COSTING" and the X which at this
variables work—-so we're putting some special point is 50000. The NEXT command tells the
emphasis on numeric variables in our examples computer to go back and do it all over again—
(see the reference chart at the beginning of this except this time X will be 60,000—then 70,000
column). and so on up to 120,000 where the program

If I tell the computer the variable A now automatically stops because 120,000 is the top of
equals the number 5, the computer now treats the range defined by the TO part of the loop.
the letter A as if it were a 5—as in this example, You might note that we're using a 12% annual
which defines A as 5 and then prints the value interest rate; if you were really planning to buy a
of A: house, you'd have to factor in periodic payments
and the effects of compounding the interest.
A = 5: PRINT A
Here's another practical example:
A numeric variable can be a letter like A, two let
10 PRINT"ENTER A SAVINGS AMOUNT": INPUT SI
ters (like AB), or a letter and a number (like A2). 20 PRINT"ENTER AN INTEREST RATE"; INPUT Rl
Numeric variables are used to stand for numbers 30 PRINT'TIRST YEAR INTEREST IS:" Sl'Rl
50 COMPUTEl's Gazeae February 1985
EXPERIENCE THE THRILL OF REALISTIC
3-D HEAD-TO-HEAD AERIAL COMBAT!

IG ALLEY ACE
""'■'".■■ -VL-.:■'■'"■".'

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—Excellent
(or all serious computer users — and it is now available
Family Computing
lor the Commodore-64, too!!
Mig Alley Ace excites, stimulates and challenges "MicroProse Software ... did It all with MIG ALLEY ACE...
your lighter pilot instincts, It is the first simulator that Iho GRAPHICS ARE AMAZING!!!" Into World - Scott Mace
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Mig Alley Ace is available in disk or cassette
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The Action is Simulated — the Excitement is REAL!! (301)667-1151 Tor Oaring P\lt*%\\\
40 PRINT'TOTAL AFTER FIRST YEAR INCLUDING
INTEREST IS:"SI + (S1*R1) f SUPER FORTH 64- ♦ '
TOTAL CONTROL OVER YOUR COMMODORE-64 -
Line 10 prints the opening prompt message, fol USING 0 HLY WORD*
MAKING PROGRAMMING FAST, FUN AND EASY!
lowed by an INPUT statement which defines the MORE THIN JUST * LANGUAGE
A (Dmplala. fully-lnltgroitd progrorn d«v«ropmflnf lytfam.
number typed in as variable SI. Homo Us#, Fail Gamn, Graphrti. Dato Atqvmrion, ButmoM. Muvc
H«ol Tim* Proem Control. Co-imumcaT.oni. ffoboixr Sitinflfit, ArfcliciaJ InttHigt**.
Line 20 prints another prompt message with A Po-.rful Supiiwl of MVPKWtH/FORTH 79 • E.I. lo-ih. b*gino.r di pnlmlonal
an INPUT whose variable is defined as Rl. TO 10 6TO ■ loilir rhan Boh
1/4 i thfl p«og,o"m"ina ti"n A«»M oil C-64 penphvuli tndud.ng 4040
Line 30 prints a message followed by the toi, lull control of all wfand. hi f i driy« and EPUOM P
grophio. Eelof. ip*ite. plottmg Lng S.igl» dji4 di p
first year's interest earned—the result of mul Oitk & CoiuFTc boisd D.ik
Connollobli SPLIT. SClif EN pr Full ditV uiage — t&O ttaoil
tiplying the variable SI (savings amount) times Includti intHrojtr.c intBrprgigr 1 t S^pporti oil Commodore file fypfli and
Forth virtual mjnvtrv forth Virtual ditk
Rl (interest fate). Full iurior 5<rten Editor ACHH to JOK RIM underneath ROM
Pro-it*i» lor opplhtolntrv prag'aa*
Line 40 prints another message followed by
a real
d,itnbui,Dn "ilnout licenung Vxtared ktmgi »otd>
f OS III .qm.olBnl Knruil (Mnn n*qi facility
a calculation which shows the total savings plus Conditional Maffo Ainmbler DECOMPILES Io.iIit,
Meen all Forth 79 ilandardi- Full Siring Handling
interest earned (the total amount you have after Sav'Ee muni provided ASCII •I'O' r>iMiogv>
Compatible wirh lha book "Starling Forth" F1OITMG POINT MATH SIH/COS 1 SOIf
adding the interest you earned), This time the re hv l*o firodifl
Aiceu to oil I/O pom BS33J, IEEE. r*l tiomplai proridtd. in 4ilt"ii"t
sult is obtained by adding the savings amount to m&ru & inl

• INTErftfUPT louMiffi prcdp eair confrol


the interest earned (note the result of the calcula of hordiiore rimen. nlormi ond dr>i"i
• US£B Sjppoft
tion is automatically printed because it's still part SUPER FORTH SUPER FORTH M' ."-»'«■•"
of the PRINT statement).
The examples we've seen here have hun
dreds of variations, They're just a beginning. You
can perform all sorts of calculations for use in
school, at home, or in business. Try it. You'll find
it's easier than you thought.
Next month we'll continue with our dis A &UPEJHCW PRODUCT
in B**ty way. At a low
(415) 651-3160
cussion of computer math and include some ad
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vanced computer math techniques for beginners.
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This coriridge has 2 push-button switches on illhat allow
Lood or save 8K In 30 secondsl Us less expensive than Olsk anfl can
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on disk, and 2] Display the disk directory - either at The
Ves, Ihe RABBIT is thai and much more. Uses the Commodore cassette touch of a button! It may not sound like much but it Is abso
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seconds, 16K in 1 minute, elc Thai's nearly as laslaslhe 1541 disk. RABBIT complete wilh easy lo Inslatl instructions, works with every
Is on cartridge so It's always there. Also has olher useful commands. software package (Including menus and commercial
Specify lor use on Ihe 64. or on Ihe VIC 20 — software) we have Iried and II doesnT take oway any memory.
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52 COMPUTEVs GazBUe February 1985


The
Forbidden
Crypt
Ted Reynolds

//<.

You're a leading archaeologist who's hap The treasure is often difficult to get to as the
pened on a fabulous treasure. But spiders, guardians, four per room, pursue you. Their
bats, snakes, and ghouls guard the riches. touch is deadly. You can defend yourself by aim
How long can you survive in the forbidden ing the joystick at a guardian and pressing the
crypt? An action game for the VIC, 64, fire button. A hit eliminates a guardian. In the 64
Plus/4, and 16. A joystick is required. version, you have only three shots per room and
the guardians move faster towards you after one
of their companions has been eliminated.
After grabbing the treasure and avoiding the
A local legend, long dismissed as mere myth, guardians, head for the exit. You must leave the
speaks of a great and powerful king who once door opposite the one you came in (either door
ruled this area. While investigating the origins of in the VIC version). If you make it, you'll be
this tale, you've discovered a cenotaph covered back to the four-room overview, and the room
with unusual glyphs. They're difficult to trans you've just left will contain a mark to indicate
late, but seem to say something about the king that you've completed it. Sometimes, you'll be
and guardians and forbidden treasure. Un doing well just to escape the room, even without
daunted, you open the door and enter. The door the treasure. In this case, you'll have to return to
slams shut, leaving you stranded in the crypt. the room and try again. Remember, you can't get
Survival in "The Forbidden Crypt" is not to the next level until you've found a treasure in
easy. Each level contains four rooms into which each of the four rooms.
you must enter and retrieve a treasure. That's
easy enough, but avoiding the spiders, bats,
Extra Lives
snakes, and ghouls—guardians of the treasure—
In the VIC version, you begin with ten lives, and
is not. And the only way to get to the next level
you cannot earn bonus lives. In the other ver
is to claim the treasure from all four rooms.
sions, you begin with five lives, but get an extra
one for every four levels completed. Also, in the
Thrown Into Action 64, Plus/4, and 16 versions, the guardians speed
Game play begins with an overview of the four up after an extra life is awarded, so the game be
rooms, each with two doors, one on the left and comes increasingly difficult.
one on the right. Below the playing screen is The Forbidden Crypt is not an easy game
Score, Level, and Lives. You're represented by beyond the first few rounds. Success will come
the red dot on the screen, and you can begin in with some practice and devising a good strategy.
any room at any door. Using a joystick (port 2
on the 64, port 1 on the Plus/4 and 16), move
Special Instructions For The
into a room (hint: You'll have more success if
you enter from the door on the right), and you're VIC Version
immediately thrown into the action. The screen The VIC version requires at least 8K expansion
changes to a full view of the room you've memory (16K or 24K will also work). There are
entered. three programs in all. Program 1 changes some
COMPUTE! s Geierte February 1985 53
The player has completed two rooms and is about to enter
the one at the upper right (VIC version).

memory pointers to protect the memory used for


redefined characters. In line 130 of Program 1,
the line under the O means you should hold
down the SHIFT key when you type the O (L
SH1FT-O is the abbreviation for LOAD). Tape
users should change the 8 in that line to a 1, as
noted in the REMark in line 140. After typing
Program 1, save it to tape or disk (do not run it
yet). Then type in Program 2 and save it with
the name "A" (so it will load properly). Tape
users must change line 150 as noted in line 160.
Type NEW, and enter the main program (Program
3), which must be saved with a filename of "B",
Load and run the first program, which loads
Program 2 (A). Program 2 redefines the charac
ters and loads Program 3.
See program listings on page 132. <gj

Four approaching ghouls Stand between the player and


the treasure (64 version).
SO YOU THINK
YOU GOT THE BEST OF
FROGGER AND ZAXXON?
SORRY.
See, while you've been master
ing them, we've been advancing
them. Making them even moreTun
than before. So now we have two
new mindblasters.
Frogger II Threee-
Deep, a three-screen
nightmare. Starting
with an undersea
battle against deadly
creatures and the
cruel undercurrent. If
you domake it to the surface,
it just gets worse. The only hope
is to leap inlo the sky where even
more frog-eating monsters lurk.
And Super Zaxxon, taking you
beyond the outer limits in
your space fighter.
Tunneling through
enemyattack, firing
at Zaxxon's forces,
dodging mine layers.
And Beyond the last
electron barrier, the
ultimate test. Zaxxon
is now a killer dragon hurtling
heat-seeking fireballs.
Hope we haven't scared you.
But if Sega doesn't keep you ahead
of the game, who will ?

~ SB e
erf 1= in E.n.l«rprJM:sh]iJC,
8 IS
<
B
In

<
1 yd
y
si 51 dz
@
3^
w
"r!.
Cu
-T
/ParkerBroihen

'i:. PKOOQBB ii

'<";. SUPER ZAXXON

l:J-lvfpfiw-> Iry tj-i1 «.'i-ir,, _ii- iiii.siFui.it

INTRODUCING FROGGER II THREEEDEEP AND SUPERZAXXON.


J. L, Calvin

Logic and a little luck will help you un guessed colors is correct and in the right location
lock the secret code in this game of deduc (but this doesn't necessarily correspond to the
tive reasoning. Originally written for the location of the scoring marker).
64, we've added a version for the VIC. A zero (0) means that one of the colors is
correct, but its location is wrong.
An at sign (@) indicates that a color is not in
the secret code.
This game of logic is based on the popular game For example, suppose a score reads
Master Mind. After entering and saving the pro f +00@@. This means that two of your guesses
gram, type RUN, and you'll be given the option
are the correct color and in the correct location,
of receiving instructions. When the game begins, two of your guesses are the correct color but in
six red diamonds appear in the top left-hand cor
the wrong location, and the other two guesses do
ner of the screen. Beneath these diamonds is a
not exist in the secret code. Be sure to understand
six-element color code, The object of the game is
Hint the scaring marker locations do not correspond
to figure out and duplicate this code in the least
to the guess locations.
number of turns.
You have 12 turns to determine the correct
Enter your guess by using the color keys lo
color combination. As you proceed, carefully
cated at the top left of the keyboard. As each key
study the scores of previous moves to logically
is pressed, the color you've chosen appears on
deduce the secret code.
the screen, accompanied by a musical tone (the
If you accidentally press the wrong key
sequence of the eight colors plays a scale). After
while entering a guess, you can use the DELete
six keys have been pressed, the computer com
key. This erases all previous guesses in the cur
pares your guesses with the code hidden beneath
rent move. You can also press the 9 key to in
the diamonds. Your score is then displayed to
stantly see the secret code and end (and lose) the
the right of your guess. The secret code can
game.
duplicate colors. For example, the code may con
A score of nine or ten is very good, six,
tain two blues or three purples.
seven, or eight is exceptional, and five or less is
just plain lucky.
Scoring If you're using a black-and-white TV or
There are three symbols used in scoring each monochrome monitor, you'll need to make a few
round. (These are also explained in the screen modifications so you can easily distinguish be
instructions.) tween colors. If you're using a 64, make the
A plus sign ( + ) indicates that one of the following changes in Program 1:
56 COMPUTE'S Guzetlo FebruarY 1985
YOUR COMMODORE 64
CAN NOW USE STANDARD
APPLE 11+HARDWARE
AND SOFTWARE

COMPUTI

SOFTWARE PUBLISHING GAP SOFTW JLE BROTHERS

SORCIM APPARAT MICROPRO SOF TCUWARE

1GITAL RESEARCH JEWARE PEACHTRE

MICROSOFT fl.E.C.C

;orvus s
"/I *% B.P
m i
DUTEK VIDE

XAN RAh

WITH THIS
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The Spartan'" was developed to allow you to choose the 1


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One step away from victory in the VIC version. Winning requires a combination of logic and lucky
guesses <64 version).

410 POKEGLOC,Z(I)+49 :rem 161 410 POKEGLOC,Z%{I)+49:GOSUB1330:GLOC=GLOC


430 GL0C=GL0C+2 :rem 123 +1:NEXT:FORI=0TO7 srem 142
670 GLOC=GLOC+68 :rem 189 670 GL0C=GL0C+38 :rem 186
810 P0KEANS,A(T)+49 :rem 84 810 P0KEANS,A%(T)+49 :rem 121
820 POKECANS,0 :rem 74 820 POKECANS.0 :rem 74
1020 FORDE=I*2TOlSTEP-l:POKEGLOC-DE,32iGO 1020 FORDE=ITO1STEP-1:POKEGLOC-DE,32:GOSU
SUB1510tNEXTDE :rem 219 B1510:NEXTDE :rem 127
1040 GL0C=GL0C-(I*2) : rem 111 1040 GLOC=GLOC-{I*1) :rem 110

For the VIC, make these changes in Program 2: See program listings on page 129.

,^v^
x***

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SB COMPUTE!1! Gazette Fetouary 1985
Unlimited Free Programs - Unlimited Fun!

with VIP Terminal


A Powerful 80 Column Communication Program!
VIP Terminal is what you need to talk to the world! Communicate with ;
friends, work, school, bulletin boards, even information services like
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VIP Terminal is power packed to get the job done! It features a
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VIP Terminal Is Easy and Fun to Use!


VIP Terminal makes full use of the potential of your C64 - you get color,
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tasks to be done. In fact, VIPTerminal can almost be totally controlled with a
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even dial your phone without ever touching your keyboard! Just move the
hand to point to the colored icon, or the entry, press the fire button, and the ? u
-j
% » &■ I n d
5? rn ■— <-r -* ti ■• i
change is made. Of course, it all can be done from the keyboard too!
Help is built right into the program so you can't get lost or confused. The manual is even capsulizedon the
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VIPTerminal is connected to the whole VIP Library'" of programs through
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This short program functions as an address When you're finished entering data, choose
data base that's extremely easy to use and option 5 to save the file. Answer the DISK OR
very efficient. It works on the VIC or 64 CASSETTE? prompt by pressing D or C, and the
with disk or tape. file is saved. Tape users should use a new cas
sette rewound to the beginning and keep this
tape reserved only for this file. Disk users may
wish to use a fresh disk reserved for this file
only, especially if a growing file is anticipated.
If you collect slips of paper with addresses and
After the file is created and saved, the next
phone numbers, or if you have an address book
time the program is run, you'll want to select op
that gets more and more cluttered as you update
tion 1 (be sure the right tape or disk is inserted).
addresses and scratch out old ones, it's time for a
To continue adding to the file, choose option 2.
change. "Address File" provides instant access to
A new record number will appear, continuing
names, addresses, and phone numbers. It offers
from the end of the existing file. (For example, if
some special features, such as an alphabetical
you made five entries, saved the file, then re
sort and an instant find after you type in a per
loaded it, you'd see Record #6 when resuming.)
son's last name.
If you wish to edit the file (for example, change
Adding to or editing the file is simple. The an address or phone number), select option 3.
entire program is operated from a menu, and You're then asked to enter a last name. All the
responding to prompts is all that's needed.
current information for that individual is dis
It runs on a VIC (with or without expansion)
played and you're then given a choice:
or a 64, and automatically sets up the file on disk
1. LAST NAME
or tape. Just respond to the DISK OR CASSETTE?
2. FIRST NAME
prompt when saving or retrieving a file. 3. ADDRESS
4. CITY/STATE

Simple Choices 5. ZIP CODE


6. TELEPHONE
After entering and saving the program, type 7. DELETE ENTRY
RUN. The main menu appears:
Select any of the first six and the current infor
1. RETRIEVE FILE
mation for that field is displayed along with a
2. ADD/START FILE
prompt for new data. Choose option 7 to delete a
3. EDIT FILE
4. DISPLAY FILE record.
5. SAVE AND END Option 4, Display File, calls another screen
from which you choose to see an alphabetical list
To create the address file, choose option 2. A
record number (#1 if you're starting a new file) of all names, an individual name (enter a last
appears at the top of the screen. You're then name), or return to the menu.
prompted for last name, first name, address,
city/state (be sure to use the slash to separate Number Of Records
the two), zip code, and telephone. The program The program is written to accommodate 12
gets information from INPUT statements, so records on the unexpanded VIC and 200 on the
avoid using commas in records. If you choose not 64. To increase the number of records, change
to enter data in a" field (for example, you don't the value of L in line 10. VIC users must use
have a phone number for a person), enter expansion memory to have more than 12
NONE. After entering each item, press RETURN. records. Commodore 64 users should note that
At the end of each record, you're then given a only the second L value (at the end of line 10)
choice of Next (to continue entering data), Delete need be changed if any increase in record num
{to redo the record just entered), or End (to take ber is desired.
you back to the menu). Sec program listing on page 139. (Q)
60 COMPUTE'S Gazette February 19B5
~V ISVIFFERENT!
ICALLYOU By YOUR OWN
NAME IN EVERY ONE OF
\ MY PROGRAMS!

COMMODC

Little People Software


1 TLd W
mj^r
P
m L. P. Money I
Developed by Parents and Educators L.P. Money II
by Aaron Giant by Tom Wanne ':
m m
... Hearing.,. Seeing... Doing 1
m ,
M
M
Teaches money
values — one cent
Teaches money
values - one dollar 1
In a way that makes LEARNING m. / M to one dollar - to one hundred i
using a gum bail dollars - using an [
more fun and more effective machine. En ice cream ma- ;
\% courages money chine. Encourages 1
No Synthesizer Needed. saving. money saving. j

L. P. Shapes L. P. TiatUc Signs L.P. Child j


by Doua Knapp by Tom Wanne Protection J
Learn to recognize Teaches idenltllca- by Tom Wanne £
geometric shapes llon and meanings Teaches children '<
and how to spell oi Iralflc signs and how lo protecl j
their names. signals. Increases themselves against 1
i salety awareness. Ihe possibility ol '
; being kidnapped. 1
! Excellent graphics, 1
L. P. Colors L. P.'s Farm L.P. Addition
by Aaion Grant by Aaron Grant by Doug Rnapp j
Teaches namBs Teaches names Teaches addition !
and ideniutcatlon and identlllcallon using numeric '
oi colors and ol iarm animals ligures and
reinforces learning ob]eels, Nine levels 1
oi colors and oi ditllculiy. Great 1
shapes. introduclion to
math ■
Humpty Dumpty Little Bo Peep
Alphabet program Number program by ! L.P. Subtraction L.P. Opposites L.P. j.
by Dave Paulsen Joe Sams and i by Doug Knapp by Tom Wan no Multiplication
Put Humpty together Scott Barker ! Teaches Teaches opposites by Aaron Gicint [
again and learn: the Bring Bo-Peep's ; subtraction using such as large. Teaches multlplt- [
Alphabet, the sheep home and \ numeric ligures small; lal!, short. cation using
Computer Keyboard, learn: to Count, to . and objects. Nine Mulliple choice numeric figures t
how to spell your spell your Name, the 1 levels ol difficulty quiz. Excelleni and charts. 1
■ Grea! introduction graphics, Varying levels ol i1
Name , . . and more. Computer Keyboard i tomalh. dllliculty.
... and more.

Computer Profit Systems, Inc.


Mastercard and Visa
=: - zr~ ™ E 9661 Firdale Avenue
-=r = r=r- = Edmonds, Washington 98020 Save $2.00 per program
Shipping Charge by
Creators of Data Deli™ Comp-u-tutor,
purchasing at your local
Home Learning Systems
software store.
SAM. licensed from Don't Ask. Inc.
"Commodore 64 is a trademark of Commodore Business Machines
Name That Note

Learning the names of the notes of the answering means a better score, but errors get no
treble and bass clefs is one of the more points at all. At the end of a round of 20 notes,
tedious exercises for beginning music stu the final score and number of misses is displayed
dents. Why not let your computer help? with an option to play another round. Progress
Originally written for the unexpanded can easily be monitored by jotting down scores
VIC, we've added versions for the 64, the and comparing them.
Plus/4, and the 16.
The Plus/4 And 16 Version
Because sound is handled the same way in the
Plus/4 and the 16, Program 3 works for either
machine. As in the VIC and 64 versions, re
The first stumbling block on the way to pro defined characters are required. The custom
ficiency in reading music is learning the positions character set is located at 15360 with the aid of a
of notes in the treble and bass clefs. "Name That short machine language routine placed in the
Note" is a teaching aid, designed to help the cassette buffer at 819.
beginning music student develop instant recog When you run the program, any errors
nition of notes. After entering the program, save which occur after the characters have been re
a copy to. tape or disk. Type RUN, and you'll defined will cause random garbage to appear on
soon see a prompt, asking you to choose treble, the screen. This is because the character-set
bass, or both. If you're just starting out, selecting pointers have been set to point at the custom
the treble clef is the best choice. When this one is characters.
mastered, practice with the bass clef, then com At this point, there are several ways to re
bine the two. trieve your program (restore the character set
pointers) and determine the cause of an error.
Program Feedback One way is to press the RESET switch while
After selecting one or both clefs, a randomly gen holding down the RUN/STOP key. (Note: Be
erated note appears on the staff. The counter at careful when doing this since RESET alone performs
the upper-left corner of the screen begins count a cold start of the computer and thus erases any
ing down from nine seconds. If you don't name program from memory.) This operation puts you in
the note by pressing the appropriate letter on the the built-in monitor. Press X to exit BASIC. Then
keyboard within this time limit, another note is press the HELP key, and the statement where
chosen and the counter starts over. Another cate the error occurred will be printed (flashing) on
gory, Misses (upper right of the screen), includes the screen.
both wrong guesses and no guesses within the An easier way to recover from this situation
nine-second time limit. is with the aid of a user-defined function key.
A correct answer is rewarded by the playing Before you enter the program, define a function
of the note and a number of points added to key so that when you press it, the character set
Score (top center of screen). Promptness in pointers will position to their normal place.

62 COMPUTED Gazette February 1985


A Printer For All Reasons
Search For The Best High Quality Graphic Printer

II you have been looking very long, you have


probably discovered that theie are just too
many claims and counter claims in the printer
market today. These are pnnteis that have
some o! the features you want, but do not have
otheis. Some features you probably don't caie
about, others are vitally important to you We
understand. In fact, not long ago, we were in
the same position. Deluged by claims and
counter claims. Overburdened by rows and
I. ■■■;. of specifications, we decided to separate
□U the facts — prove or disprove all the claims
to oui own satisfaction. So we boughl printers
We bought samples ol all ma|or brands and
tested them,

Our Objective Was Simple


We wanted to find thai printer which had ail Iho
features you could wan I and yet be sold
directly to you at the lowest price. We wanted Do you sometimes want to emphasize a word? the ribbon loaded with ink at all times. You only
to give our customers the best printer on the It's easy, just use bold (double stake) to make replace the ribbon when it truly wears out, not
maiket today at a bargain price the words stand out. Oip if you wish to be even when it starts to run low on ink. Just another
more emphatic, underline the words. Or do example of the superb engineering applied to
The Results Are In
both. You may also wish to "headline" a title. the GP-5S0CD. (When you finally do wear out
The search is over. We have reduced the field Each basic font has a corresponding elongated your ribbon, replacement cost is only $10.95
to a single printer that meets all our goals {and (double-wide) version. You can combine any Ink cassette replacement cost is only $5.95,
more). The printer is the GP-5S0CD bom of these modes to make the variation almost both postpaid.)
Seikosha, a division o! Seiko (manufacturers of endless. Do you want to express something that
everything from wrist watches to space hard you can't do with words? Use graphics The Best Part
ware). We ran this printer through our battery oi with your text — even on the same line. When shopping for a quality printer with all
testa and it came out shining. This printer can
these features, you could expect to pay around
do it alL Standard draft panting up to a re You can now do virtually any line spacing you
S500 or more. Not any more/ We have done our
spectable (and honest) 88 characters pei sec want. You may select 6, 8, Th oi 12 lines per
homework. You don't have to worry about inter
ond, and with a very readable 9 (horizontal) by inch. PLUS you have variable line spacing of
faces or cables. Everything is included. We are
8 (vertical) character matrix. At this rate, you 1.2 lines per inch to infinity (no space at all)
now able to sell this fantastic printer for
will got an average 30 Line letter printed in only and 97 other software selectable settings m
only 5259.95! The GP-550CD is built espe
28 seconds. between. You contiol line spacing on a dot-by-
cially for the Commodore 64, VIC- 20, Plus 4
dot basis. If you've ever had a letter or other
"NLQ" Mode and C-16. All Commodore graphics are in
document thul was just a few lines too long to
cluded. This printer does everything the Com
One of our highest concerns was about pnnt fit a page, you can see how handy this feature
modore printers do but has more features. You
quality and readability. The GP-550CD has a is. Simply reduce the line spacing slightly
need absolutely nothing else to start print
print mode termed Neai Letter Quality printing and.. VOILA! The letter now fits on one
ing-juat add paper. We also have specific
(NLQ mode). This is where the GP-550CD page.
models for other computers. Call for details.
outshines all the competition. Hands down! The
character matrix in NLQ mode is a very dense Forms? Ye si
No Risk Offer
9 (horizontal) by 16 (vertical). This equates to Your Letterhead? Of Course!
We give you a 15-day satisfaction guarantee. If
14,400 addressable dots per square inch. Now
Do you print forms? No problem This unil will you are not completely satisfied foi any reason
we're talking quality printing. You can even do
do them all Any form up to 10 inches wide. The we will refund the full purchase price. A 1 ■ year
graphics in the high resolution mode. The tractors aie adjustable from 4'A to 10 inches. warranty is included with your printer The war
results are the best we've ever seen. The only Yes, you can also use single sheets. Plain ranty repair policy is to repair or replace and
other printers currently available having reso typing paper, your letterhead, short memo reship to the buyer within 72 hours.
lution this high go for $500 and moie without forms, anything you choose. Any size under 10"
the interlace oi cable needed to hook up to in width. Multiple copies? Absolutely! Put The Bottom Dollar
your Commodore! forms or individual sheets with caibons (up to 3 Tho GP-5S0CD is only $259.95. Shipping and
Features That Won't Quit deep), and the last copy will be as readable as insurance is $8.00 — UPS within the conti
the first Spread sheets with many columns? Of nental USA. If you are in a hurry, UPS Blue
With the GP-550CD your computer can now
course! Just go to condensed mode printing (second day air) is $18.00. Canada, Alaska,
print 40, 48, 68, 80, 96, or 136 characters per
and print a full 136 columns wide Forget ex Mexico are $25.00 (air). Other foreign is $60.00
line. You can print in ANY of 18 font styles. You
pensive wide-carriage printers and changing (air). California residents add E% tax. These
not only have the standard Pica, Elite, Con
to wide carriage paper. You can now do it all are cash prices — VISA and MC add 3% to
densed and Italics, but also true Superscripts
on a standard 8W" page. total. We ship the next business day on money
and Subscripts. Never again will you have to
worry about how 1o print HjO or X . This fan oiders, cashiers' checks, and charge cards. A
Consistent Print Quality
tastic machine will do it automatically, through 14-day clearing period is required lor checks.
Most printers have a continuous loop ribbon
easy software commands right iiom your TO ORDER CALL TOLL FREE
cartridge oi a single apool ribbon which gives
keyboard. Ail fonts have true descenders. 1-(800) 962-5800 USA
nice dark printing when new, but quickly starts
or 1 -(800] 962-3800 CALIF.
One of the fonts we like best is " Proportional" to fade after a while. To keep the printers'
because it looks mosl like typesetting. The or send payment to:
output looking consistently dark, the ribbons
spacing for thin characters like "i" and "1" axe must be changed more often than is healthy for APROPOS TECHNOLOGY
given less space which "tightens" the woid the pocketbook. The GP-550CD solves this 1071-A Avenida Acaso
making reading easier and faster. This is only problem completely by using a leplaceable, Camariilo.CA 93010
one example of the careful planning put into inexpensive ink cassette which is separately Technical Info: 1-{805) 482-360-1
the GP-550CD replaceable from the actual ribbon. It keepi ■: iea< apropos technology
CHORD-POWER
KE ^: 4t = ■=*

-5-
i-
FOR GUITAR
■ H
*j THIS DELUXE REFERENCE FEATURES:
• Quick Access to Over 8,000 Chords With Sound
• Chords Displayed on Color Graphic Guitar
Fretboard with Each Note Played

• Chord Formulas Displayed Showing


c Corresponding Notes

• For Beginner to Professional


,N A ME TH T NO • Easy and Fun to Use - Just Enter Chord
m ■ ■Hi ■■ 1^f Desired and it Will be Displayed and Played

A correct answer (Q lias added to the player's score. In addition to being an excellent chord reference,
CHORD-POWER will help unravel the mysteries
of chord construction and advance your chord and
solo playing!
- Program Runs on C-64* With Disk Drive -
Here's the line you need to enter in immediate
mode to redefine the fl key for our purposes: ORDER TODAY! Check, Money Order or COD.
<C "X Q Q ^ Plus S2-°° Shipping and Handling.
KEYl, "POKE65298,196:POKE65299,208:" +
3> J 7 .y J CA residents add 6% Sales Tax.
(Note: Since notes below the low A on the bass
clef are not available on the Plus/4 and 16, the pro NewArts Co.
P.O. BOX 2700, HUNT1NGTON BEACH. CA 92647
gram will not select these notes.) (DEALERINQUIRIES INVITED)
See program listings on page 142. .-^ TH IS TRADEMARK OF COMMODORE BUSINESS MACHINES. INC

Be the TRAIN
Play this fast-paced computer video game
iha! s so true-to-hfe that a major railroad In • . WORD GENIE • •
dicated they use it in dispatcher training. C-64 WORD PROCESSOR
TRAIN DISPATCHERS 24 displays help you USER FRIENDLY WITH:
make crucial decisions. RAPIDLY. You're Help screens
under pressure, but in control — throwing Simple text commands
switches, clearing and cancelling signals, Sample letter
constantly maneuvering both east and west Menu driven
bound trams. Keep the tracks clear ahead of
all your trains and watch your score go up! FEATURES:
Disk Utility
Action piicked, vet non-violent, TRAIN DIS Printer commands
PATCHER'S 5 levels of play challenge players Headings & Footnotes
from age 8 to 80. Work your way up from Double, Triple spacing
"Cub Dispatcher" to Chief Dispatcher" or Right justify
even Trainmaster." Centering

Created by designers of computerized traffic


Page numbering
Margin control
control systems for operating railroads, TRAIN
Columns (tabs)
DISPATCHER will increase your appreciation
for actual railroad operations,
Word search
Merge files
TRAIN DISPATCHER comes complete with
Instruction Manual and keyboard template. IDEAL FOR:
Personal letters
Themes & Reports
Business &, Form letters

Priced at only
. Zil). S39.95
CHECK ONE.
Vie 30' Tape U ui Duk D
USA ti CANADA .niil 12 50 polligg & li.indlir
(Disk only - shipping included)
(Sd 00 fijruiyflf fur uactl gameo'derod All pnynr
IBiiiiuiroi IS K Memory E»pindir] (IJJ.95I
■ruiAl t>l "i USA Funds, all lort-ign piymvntl rimM t Send check or money order to:
tain' 800 Tape □ or Dull O rjgnnil USA ij.n'ks PA residriiitt Mtfd 6% siiih* u^I
|Fto(|uires Bant)
Alan1 400 Tape D
. . , , (JI4 95|
III Or rfi.nyrr lu: GENIE SOFTWARE
(Require? Basrc) ... (124 95) D Mjslur Card D VISA Eip Dale
P.O. BOX 416 DEPT. G.
Cornmodoie'ea Tape O or Disk D . ,|S2495)
Appln II" Disk Q |S29.96) Card Nu
MALTA, OHIO 43758
_ Manual Only
Manual Only u
Lf [$4 ou
[»a 00 ir
>l [lurc'iaieo
[lurc+iaved iDparalolyl Ohio residents please add $2.20
Ij 1C SI.J...IIU.., — - J sales tax.

SEND IO SIGNAL COMPUItH CONSULTANTS, LTD. • P.O. Bo. I 8122 • PHublirgli. PA 1SM6 • 14III 655.7737
Get more out of your Commodore with ^Bi^^

COMPUTE'S
For Owners And Users Of Commodore VIC-20 And 64" Personal Computers

More fun Children will legjn and


develop new skills with States
fJror -'- '


-■ "■
r-'l'lilll';t
I I.
.

1 ,
I-F

I ■'
i ■! F-,

I f-1 1
bnn • .
8c Capitals Tutor, Wordmatch, ' ' I ' ' '
mat' . ■ ■ r !.-■,-!■
Munchmath, Wordspell, Con UJO»-C<
J ..I"-.-, T
f--l 'Ohz fp j _" ■". r"
. *".

■-IOH ctj". r.ofS^


nect the Dots, Aardvark £?ui;* t=
man i s-'.l l!te
r-- :- >~ • i)

Attack, and Alfabug. Comput


1 T-. nunv-'i-ou r o I. i-ivsi^
■"""ip . You o ■'■ n JtilJ'

ing for Kids, a regular monthly r ■'- :- - i ■'


.- 1
f
■ ■■ iiii i ..-. nor . ■ 'i
feature, will uncover new
ways to involve your children
in computing.
Quickfind, Word Hunt, Disk
Menu, VIC Timepiece, The
Automatic Proofreader and
more.

Martian Prisoner, The Viper,


Skydiver, Snake Escape, De
mon Star, Cyclon Zap, and Oil More buying
Tycoon are just a few of the
ready-to-run games you'll find guidance
exclusively in COMPUTEI's
You'll profit from comprehen
Gazette each month. Just
sive reviews of everything from
type in the programs and
data-quality cassette tapes to
watch your screen explode
software to graphics plotters
with colorful new computer
and modems. Virtually any
game excitement.
thing that's compatible with
your Commodore is reported
on in COMPUTEI's Gazette.
With this kind of expert help,
More challenge every computer purchase you
make can be the right one!
Ready to tackle more ad
vanced projects? In COM-
More programs
mmmmmmm
PUTE's! Gazette, you'll learn Programs to help you balance
how to use tape and disk files, your checkbook, store your Order now
how to program the function addresses, keep tax records,
All you do is mail the postpaid
keys, writing transportable manage your personal busi
card bound into this issue. But
BASIC, how to make custom ness. You can create your
don't deiay! Subscribe now to
graphics characters, new own programs and games,
start receiving every issue of
ways to enliven programs with improve your word processing,
COMPUTEI's Gazette,
sound, one-touch commands spreadsheets, and data base
for the 64, how to use ma management, load and run For Faster Service
chine language, speeding up faster with 64 Searcher, Call Toll-Free
the VIC-20—and much more! VIC/64 Program Lifesaver, 1 -800-334-0868
VIC Gtuiz Generator
George Trepal

The VIC can be a valuable educational pie. After deciding what kind of quiz and data
tool for parents and teachers. Here's a short you wish to insert, LIST the program and replace
program that sets up and manages a quiz the DATA beginning at line 1000 with your own.
for almost anything you wish to teach. Note that each question must be preceded by a
Simple instructions are included for those pound sign (#) and each answer with an asterisk
with expansion memory who wish to add (*). Be sure to put the question and answer on
more questions and answers. the same line in the DATA statement (see line
1000 for an example of how this is done).
To add more questions, simply continue
adding DATA statements, but be sure the last line
If you're a parent or teacher, "VIC Quiz Gen
of the program is DATA 999. This acts as a "flag"
erator" can help you in teaching nearly any sub
to tell the program that it's read all the data
ject. The program asks questions, which the
you've entered. Notice that line 1060 contains
student then answers. You can opt for the order
this flag. If you've created twenty DATA state
of questions to be generated randomly, so the
ments (questions and answers) and incremented
student will have to learn the material rather
the Sine numbers by ten, your DATA statements
than memorizing a sequence.
should run from 1000-1200 with the final line
Questions are displayed one at a time, and
being 1200 DATA 999.
the student's answer is then compared to the an
Whether or not you're using memory expan
swer in the DATA statements, beginning at line
sion, you'll have to make sure that your growing
1000. If the answer is correct, the computer
program fits into memory. After adding a num
makes a note not to ask the question again. If an
ber of DATA statements, press RUN/STOP-
incorrect answer is given, the correct answer is
RESTORE, then type PRINT FRE(0) to see how
shown, and the computer remembers to ask that
many bytes remain. Any memory expansion will
question later in the quiz. After a second in
allow for a large quiz.
correct answer, points are deducted from the fi
One other line you may have to change
nal score. No question is asked more than two
when modifying the program is line 140. If
times in the same quiz.
you're not creating a quiz about authors, you'll
At the end of each quiz, a final score is
have to change S$ to "WHO COMPOSED",
given—a standard percentage score, 90% for
"WHAT IS", or whatever phrase you need to
nine of ten answered correctly, for example—and
make the question appropriate.
the student has the option to retake the quiz.
An interesting technique used by the pro
gram is found in lines 110 and 120. The variable
Modifying Quiz Data N is defined by the number of DATA statements
The program includes six sample questions and read in line 110. So the program DIMensions the
answers found in DATA statements 1000-1050. number of questions and answers according to
Also, note line 140, which defines S$ as "WHO the number of DATA statements it counts. When
WROTE". The procedure for replacing these 999 is read, N is set throughout the program.
questions and answers and adding more is sim- See program listing on page 145. @
66 COMPUTE'S Gaiette February 19B5
The ultimate reference book
The complete encyclopedia for the Commodore VIC-20 is now available. COMPUTE! Books, one of
the leading publishers of application-oriented consumer computer books, has released
Programming the VIC by Raeto Collin West. And we offer this extraordinary volume to you at a very
special introductory price of $22.45 if ordered by December 15, 1984, a 10% savings off the regular
price of $24.95.
For $22.45 you can own the definitive book on the VIC-20. There has never been a book published
for the ViC-20 that gives you what this one does.

Here's just a sample of what


Programming the VIC includes:
• Detailed descriptions of every BASIC
command In the ViC's vocabulary
• Discussions and examples o( BASIC and
machine language programming techniques
• Comprehensive guides to VIC sound and graphics
Programming the VIC
Raeto Collin West
• A thorough mapping of the VlC-20's ROM
$24.95 • An annotated list of 6502 opcodes
ISBN #0-942386-52-3
• A practical guide to selecting and using
608 pgs.
printers, plotters, and modems
paperbound

1
Programming the VIC's 17 chapters ad
Mall your prepaid coupon to: COMPUTEI Books, P.O. Box 5406,
dress virtually every programming situation Greensboro. NC 27403 or call 1 J>:i' > W l'«M<
that you, a VIC user, are likely to en Vesl Send me , — copies ot Programming the WCat $24:95per copy.
counter, The book contains hundreds of "Limited offer. Save 10% If you order by December 15,1984.
Add $3.00 shipping & handling per book.
examples and dozens of complete pro All orders mu!i
N.C, Residents add 4.5% sales tax.
be prepaid
grams published in ready-to-type-in form. In U.S. fund). Totol payment enclosed. $ -

Beginning to advanced programmers d Payment enclosed (check or money order).


d Charge my a Visa □ MasterCard a American Express
alike will find Programming the VIC to be
an indispensable VIC resource, Whatever Fnp Date
Acct. No.
your programming level and whatever
Name
your VIC needs, this is a book that you'll
Address
refer to again and again. LCity
City . State - _ Zip _ _ .
Jloajo allow it wooki la doUvory, 752523GI
commodore B.I. 80 Column Display I 159.95
I-EITKR 01 AI.I l\ I'RIM>:RS
1541/Flash S 89.95
SOFTWARE FOR C-(vi Sock It To Me (For 8032) £ 29.00
6420 Westridge Modem Abati (20 CPS) W.'lnterface S 475.00
Business (Auto Answer/Auto Dial) S 89.95
Multiplan (Spreadsheet} S 63.00 Teleaming (Auto Answer/Auto Dial) DOT MATRIX PRIMERS
Cafe Result (Advanced) S 79.95 Modem With software 95.00
Supeibase 64 S 75.00 CBM 4023 Ribbons 10.95
Smith Corona Faslcx 80 (80 CPS) . S 259.00
Mirage Concepts (Data Base) $ 89.00 CBM 1526 Ribbons 10.95 Smith Corona 100 (120 CPS) S 315.00
Mirage Concepls (Ward Processor) CBM 8023P Ribbons B.75
Smith Corona 200 (140 CPS) S 456.0D
(40/80 column & SDK Dictionary) . 89.00 CBM 6400 Ribbons 8.75 Smith Corona 300 (140 CPS. 15in) S 589.00
B.I. Paperclip W/Spellpac (W/P) ... 85.00 L01 Ribbons 6.75
Home Accountant (Continental) ,.. 45.00 Diablo Daisy Wheel 13.95
Tax Advantage (Continental) 35.00 Abati Daisy Wheel 13.95 M'SEINESSSOtTVlAHE—B128
Into Designs G/L 19.95 Flip N1 file 10, 15,25,50 Call
Southern Solutions Accounting G<1, Power Strips (Surge Protector) ... 49.95 Superscnpl ff (40K Dictionary) .... S 199.00
A/R, A/P, P/R.l/M . .each .... S 49.95 Computer Glow Care Kit 10.95 Superbase (Data Base) . S 199.00
Tri Micro Accounting C64 S Plus 4 Disk Drrve Cleaning Kit 10.95 Calc Result S 199.00
G/L, A/R. A'P. P/R. I/M ..each .. 49.95
Complete Accounting System From
Emart64Term +3 39.95 MONITORS Software Design (Gl, A/R, A'P.
Hellcat Ace (game) 25.00 Pffl, I/M) each S 375.0D
Solo Right (game) 25.00
Panasonic TR120 (Amber] For Apple
Utilities or IBM Computers S 156.0D
Kl '.S]\E.SKSOHU1KK— 8032 ■80%
Printer Utility Program (Cardco) ... S 19.95 Green & Amber (For Apple & IBM) S B5.00
Disk Utility Program (Fast copy, File RGB Momlor Cable:
copy, Disassembler. For 1541) S 49.95 HT-101C (Apple) S 33.80 WordPro 4+or 5+ S 225.00
Bits and Pieces (Backup & Utility. Calc Result S 199.95
Screen Dump & More for INTERFACES SuperBase (8096 only) .. . S 225.0D
MSD Dnve) 49.95 Complete Accounting System From
Simon's Basic 39.95 Software Design (G.<1_. A'R. A'P
BussCard II (Batteries Included)
80 Column Expander (Cartndge) . . 60.00 P/R.l/M) each S 375.00
IEEE, Cartndge Slot. Basic 4.0 159.95
64 Relay Cartridge 45.00 BussCard Pnnter Cable 29.95
Oxford Pascal 69.95 SuperBox 64 (Handic) IEEE, Resel,
Tool 64 (Handic) 39.95 3-Slol S 139.95
Graf 64 (Handic) 39.95 InlerpoO (Intelligent IEEE
Slat 64 (Handic) 39.S5 & RS-232J 139.95
Forth 64 (Hand/c) 39.95 Cardco t G Parallel Interlace .. .. 79.95
Cardco B Parallel Interface 49.95 Orders under 50.00 add 10.00 Handling fee
ACCESSORIES The Connection (by Tymac) MasterCard. VISA, Money Order Bank Check
(Commodore Graphics t 2K COD (add 5.00)
MSD Super Disk Drive (single) 349.00 Buffer) Epson, Gemini, Okidata. Add 3% For Credit Cards
MSD Super Disk Dnve (dual) .. 575.DD Panasonic S 95.00
All Products In Stock Shipped Within 24 Hours
Hayes Smart 300 Modem 229.00 Turta'GT (Telesys) With optional
Vic 1530 Datasette 65.00 16K or 32K Buffer 89.95 FOB. Date, Texas
Cardco Datasette 55.00 Vic Switch (Handic) 149.95 All Products Shipped With Manufacturers
Cardco Numenc Key Pad 39.95 ADA1800 IEEE to Centronics 149.95 90 Day Warranty
Alien Voice Box 95.00 Pet to IEEE Cable 39.00
When I'm 64 (Voice Box Sings) 25.00 IEEE to IEEE Cable 49.00 PRICES ARE Sl'BJECT TO
Voice Box Dictionary 25.00 Networking For C-64 & CBM Call CHANCE WITHOIT NOTICE.

AUTHORIZED WHOLESALE DISTRIBUTOR FOR ALL


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An excellent resource for users


of the 64. with something for
everyone: BASIC programming
techniques, a memory map,
a machine language moni
tor, and Information abouf
writing games and using
peripherals This 264-page,
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includes many ready-to-
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COMPUTE! Publications, many revised or
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for almost any Commodore M user in this A collection of outstanding games, applica
289-page book, arcade and text adven tions, tutorials, and utilities from the most re
ture games in BASIC and machine lan cent issues of COMPUTE! magazine and
guage, a commercial software-quality COMPUTEI's Gazette, including several pro
word processor, a program which adds grams never before published. Commodore 64
41 new commands to BASIC, an electronic users of all ages and experience will tind this
spreadsheet, tutorials about programming sound and book informative, entertaining, and educa
graphics, and utilities for saving, copying, and retrieving tiles. $12.' tional. Create an 80-column display, play
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and see how to program more efficiently and
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COMPUTEI's First Book of Commodore 64, $12,95 (in NC call 919-275-9809)
COMPUTEI's Second Book of Commodore 64, S12.95
COMPUTED Third Book of Commodore 64, $12.95 or mail this coupon with your payment to:
COMPUTE! Books, P.O. Box 5406.
All Orders Must Be Piepaid Greensboro, NC 27403
D Payment Enclosed (check or money order)
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HINTS&TIPS

Disk Lock
Kevin Hawkins

If you've discovered a clever timesaving When a disk is formatted, it's organized into
technique or a brief but effective program tracks and sectors. Track 18, Sector 0 is a control
ming shortcut, send it to "Hints & Tips," block on (most) Commodore disks. It contains
c/o COMPUTED GAZETTE. If we use it, we'll the Block Availability Map, disk name, ID, and
pay you $35. Due to the volume of items other important information.
submitted, we regret that we cannot always Byte 2 of this sector contains a flag that in
reply individually to submissions. dicates the version of DOS used to format the
disk. Normally, you would find a value of $41
(decimal 65, ASCII value of "A") here. This sig
nals that the disk was formatted on a 1541 or a
Everyone knows that putting a piece of tape over 4040. These two drives are format-compatible. A
a disk's write-protect notch will prevent it from 1541 can read a disk formatted on the 4040, and
being written to by the disk drive. You can load vice versa. Theoretically, you can also write to a
programs but not save, read files but not write to 4040 disk, although in practice it won't always
them. work perfectly (because the 1541 is slower and
The tab is easily removed by any user may be aligned a little differently).
{which defeats the purpose of write-protection). There was once a Commodore drive called
And improperly positioned tape can be an the 2040 which put a few extra sectors on each
annoying hindrance when inserting or removing disk. The DOS version flag at track 18, sector 0,
disks. If the tape is loose, you may have to reach byte 2 contains a $01 if the disk was formatted
in with your fingers and pull the disk out. on a 2040.
In some applications, particularly those Disks from a 2040 are read- but not wrire-
involving children, you may want to add an ex compatible with the 1541 format. You'll get an
tra measure of protection. error 73 if you try to save a program or write to
a 2040 disk from a 1541. The red light will start
Compatibility And DOS Flags blinking because the 1541 refuses to write to a
The Disk Operating System (DOS) of the 1541 is 2040-type disk.
a descendant of operating systems from previous
Commodore disk drives. Commodore has man Software Write Protection
aged to keep a good deal of compatibility be If we change this flag byte on the disk, we can
tween the different drives. fool the disk drive into thinking we are using a
70 COMPUTERS Gfizolfo Fobruary 19B5
COMPUTE! Books

Second
Book
mi
Machine
Language
FfttEOfH C^TiA^r MaOnHC Uin^d^e
^->j'jmn;ifigfcclheCjnNiiodor£:&J, ViC-jti. Atiin.

Sv l' ■ ' '-'• ' ' ■■

SECOND BOOK OF MACHINE


LANGUAGE
Richard Mansfield
The follow-up to the best-selling Machine Language
for Beginners, this book leads the programmer
deeper into the most powerful and efficient program
ming techniques available for personal computers.
Fully tutorial, with easy step-by-step explanations, the
book shows how to construct significant, effective ma
chine language programs. Included Is a high-speed,
professional-quality, label-based assembler. Every
thing that's needed tor optimized programming on
the Commodore 64, Atari, VIC-20, PET/CBM, and
Apple computers.

$14.95
ISBN #0-942386-53-1

COMPUTE!' PublicationsJnc©
One ol the ABC Publishing Companies ^^^^
32d W Wendover Avenue. Suite 200 Greensboro. NC 27408 9I9-275-9S01!

To order your copy, call 1-800-334-0868.


2040 disk. The disk is effectively write-protected. A word of caution: The program contains
This is not the same as copy-protecting the some powerful disk commands, which might ir
disk. There is one exception: Programs such as retrievably garble information on a disk if en
Copy-All, which copy an entire disk to another, tered incorrectly. Be sure to type the program
may work only until track 18. After the DOS flag exactly as listed. A comma or semicolon in the
is copied, the destination disk will be write- wrong place (or missing altogether) couid cause
protected and subsequent files may be corrupted. many problems. After entering the program, test
People can still copy individual programs, it on a new disk (or an unimportant one) before
loading them and saving to another disk. But you begin to lock important disks.
they won't be able to scratch anything from your
disk, or add anything to what's there. 10 OPEN15,8,15:PRINT#15,"I0":OPEN2,8,2,"#
After altering the flag, you can open and " irem 27
20 PRINT#15,"Uli"f2 f 0;18;0:GOSUB1000
read files, and load programs. You won't be able
:rem 10
to save, write files, rename, scratch, or validate 30 PRINT#15,"B-P:";2;2 srem 188
the disk. The only DOS command you can use is 40 PRINT"{L)OCK OR (U)NLOCK":INPUTA$:IFA$
"N0:name,id" to reformat the disk (and you'll ="U"THEN70 jrem 54
lose all programs and files on the disk). 50 IFAS<>"L"THEN40 :rem 246
60 PRINT#2,CHRS(1);:GOSUB1000:GOTO100
:rem 177
Unprotecting A Disk 70 PRINT#2,CHR${65)?:GOSUB1000 :rem 232
Changing this byte is very easy to do with the 80 PRINT#15,"M-W";CHR?(1);CHR$(1};CHRS(1)
;CHRS(65) j rem 241
Block-Read (Ul) and Block-Write (U2) com 90 PRINT#15,"M-W";CHR$(2);CHRS(7);CHR$(1)
mands. But what happens if you change your ;CHRS(65) :rem 249
mind and want to write to the disk again? 100 PRINT#15,"U2:";2;0;18;0:GOSUB1000
Putting a $41 back into the flag would reverse :rem 58
110 CLOSE2:PRINT#15,"10":CLOSE15:END
the process, but the write-protection prevents
stem 154
you from making the change. It seems the only 1000 INPUT#15,EN,EM$,ET,ES irem 4
way to write to it again would be to reformat the 1010 IFENTHENPRINTEN,EM$,ET,ES :rem 158
disk. 1020 RETURN :rem 163
We can do it, but first we must fool DOS
again. This time we make the disk-drive think it
is a 2040, using the Memory-Write (M-W) com
mand, This command is similar to a POKE in
BASIC. But instead of putting a number into the
Introducing
computer's memory, we're changing values in
side the disk drive's memory. After doing the
Memory-Write, a Block-Write restores the flag to
normal.
KANGA!
Using Disk Lock for Commodore 64
Owners
Type in the program, but don't run it (yet). Save
it first. You won't be able to save it to a locked
disk.
It's very easy to use, and runs on the VIC or only
64. Load it, put the disk you want to alter in the
drive, type RUN, and the prompt "(L)OCK OR
(U)NLOCK" will appear. Press either L or U and You'll hop right out of your chair
the program changes the flag byte. A second or playing this exciting new arcade-
two later, the program ends. If you want to lock style video game ! Challenging fun .
or unlock another disk, change disks and type seven treacherous levels of play,
RUN again. That's all there is to it. hours of fast, colorful entertainment!
You might want to mark the disks you've • • •
locked by writing an "L" on the label. Use a felt- Planta IDaCily duk or tana
Sand chack or mooaydrdar for 59 05 to
tip pen, rather than a pencil or ballpoint, to
Future Computer Applications
avoid damaging the disk. The primary value of
P.O.Box 6I4O
"Disk Lock" is to prevent accidental scratching of
Santa Fe. New Mexico 875O2
important programs on archive or backup disks.
Don't lock all your disks, or you won't be able to Wi a*y ih loping. Klogi 11 in michins lingu'g*. jQyitlck riqd.

save anything to them.

72 COMPUTED Gazelle February 19B5


BEFORE LOADING YOUR SOFTWARE
MAKE A PERFECT BACKUP WITH

TEM FOR YOUR 64 & 1541 DRIVE!

.dually copies a FULL aiSK in oni. • 4 min. copier AUTOMATICALLY puts "errors" on copy
Easiest to use - TOTALLY automatic copy utility • Fastest & most advanced copier you can buy
State of the "ARTS" copy capability! • Writes errors 20,21,22,23,27,& 29 WHILE COPYING!
'UNLOCKS protected disks for backup copying • Transforms your 1541 into a SUPER-FAST copy drive!
Breaks through LATEST protection schemes • NO analysis required, just swap disks A NO damaging
■ Includes FAST copier, "ARTS" copier and TRUE drive knock during errors or format

Nibbler: you get 3 copiers for the price of 1 • Formats AS IT COPIES, detects & reproduces NON-
• HALF-TRACKING up to 4 including track 40! STANDARD formats & I.D. mismatch, DOS flags
' 100% machine code for fast, RELIABLE operation • PRODUCT SUPPORT tel. #, revisions, & upgrades

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dale CA residenls add 6% lax. Allow 2 weeks for clearance of personal 8 co. checks. Add $3.50 shipping S handling for continental
U.S./S5.50 for UPS air. AK, HI, APO, FPO, CANADA add S7.50. Other Foreign orders add $8.50. All APO, FPO, & orders outside
4B states must bo paid by certified U.S. funds. C.O.D.'s shipped to U.S. addresses only, add $4.00. School orders welcome.

DISKMAKER PAYS FOR ITSELF THE FIRST TIME YOU USE IT!

3463 State Street • Suite 1541A • Santa Barbara • CA 93105


HORIZONS!
Charles Brannon
Program Editor

Perhaps no recent hardware product has piqued noise storm, screeching like fingernails scratching
as much interest and curiosity as the Okimate-10 a chalkboard.
printer, first mentioned here in the CES feature
story in the September GAZETTE. Three qualities Fire Writing
of this printer are apparently responsible for the There are two variations of thermal dot-matrix
Okimate's appeal: low price ($239 with Com printing. Characters are formed as in impact
modore interface); quiet, good quality printing
printing, one thin column per firing, but instead
(via a special nine-wire thermal transfer printing
of using kinetic energy (the force of impact) to
element); and most importantly, color. Readers
transfer ink from a ribbon, thermal energy (heat)
became a little impatient, writing to ask us why
is used to change the color of the paper. The ink
we haven't reviewed the printer yet. An
is built into the paper, so to speak. One kind of
evaluation model arrived recently and we can
thermal paper merely darkens when heated. The
now report on the features and shortcomings of
other kind of thermal paper is inherently dark,
the Okimate-10. but coated with a thin white-sheened aluminum
Removing the Okimate-10 from the packag layer. The thermal element flash-heats tiny
ing, you are first impressed by its small size. The points in the printhead, which either darken the
printer is about two-thirds the height and some paper, or vaporize the light coating to reveal the
what less than the length and width of the 1541 underlying dark coloration. Thermal printing is
disk drive, yet can transport full 8-1/2 X 11 inch whisper quiet compared to the staccato shriek of
paper, either a single sheet at a time using fric an impact printer. However, the special paper
tion feed, or computer paper continuously. The used in thermal printing is not only expensive,
manual says almost any smooth paper can be but thermal paper (not aluminized paper) can
used; more on this later. darken as it ages—quite quickly if kept in a hot
environment.
The printing technology, called thermal
Okimate's thermal transfer is a synthesis of
transfer, is fundamentally different, yet similar to
existing technology. At the instant of printing,
existing printer technology.
paper, ribbon, and printhead are forced together.
Impact dot-matrix printers print by sweeping Tiny hot points in the printhead glow for the
a vertical column of pins across the paper. When briefest moment. In that moment, a small bit of
a dot needs to be printed, a solenoid behind the waxlike ink is melted off the ribbon and fused to
printhead forcibly strikes a tiny metal pin against the paper. Alternatively, the ribbon can be left
the ribbon, transferring a bit of ink onto the pa out, and you can use heat-sensitive paper, as
per. Text is printed a column at a time, each col with a thermal printer. Thermal transfer shares
umn being one dot wide, rather than a full thermal printing's quiet manner, yet can print on
character at a time (as in the case of letter-quality ordinary paper.
printers, which stamp out fully formed characters Unfortunately, you can't use ordinary inked
much like a typewriter). The disadvantage of im ribbons. Like carbon film ribbons, a thermal
pact printing is that these little pins stir up a transfer ribbon is not re-usable. When a bit of
74 COMPUTED Gaza/to Fobruarv 1985
f"Hi, were from Europe.Where's thegold?"J

A SECOND CHANCE to GET


the NEW WORLD RIGHT

IF COLUMBUS the way seasons change


I HAD LANDED IN and your men behave, and
I NEWjERStY;if the way your reputation
«JL. Cortez had been preceeds you gives you a
nicer to Montezuma; if sort of feeling that's
Pizarro had been a more unexpected in computer
generous soul, would games. It's deeper. Maybe
the world loday be any alirtledisquieting.lt
different? plays as much in your
TnJJ " EhIjt. j;
If you've ever won exu inir /<>t rfijv:«m rrriim later ta
head as it docs inside
dered about things like your computer.

that, you'll like Sei'en Set en Cities does all


Cities of Gold very much this with the real world or,
indeed. better still (since the"new"
It's a kind of adven world really isn't any
ture. An unusually rich more), it will construct any
and technically impres number of completely
sive one with new conti detailed hemispheres for
nents to explore, natives you to try your hand with.
to encounter, resources to Designed by Ozark
manage and trade routes ■ WmWmWKmm%W^m%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%m Softscape (the people
f uTf "\rr 28CO urccw to cxitoc m v Annvivd 'itiiiui luitinnu/ *u» They Kut nu
to establish. But beyond who made M.U.L.E.,
nil the neat stuff Sei'en (n/uuwMs"Stratcgy Game
Cities throws up on the of 1983"),Sm-n Cities is
screen, there's something about as near a recreation
else happening here. of history as has ever
It feels quite odd to - " . .-. ' .<-.< rWT.tli mitt mm ■»-('*" ■ - been accomplished, with
look at the map and see
71 *"••* rmte
or without a computer.
nothing. Of course you ■ " "! Find it. Stomp around
have to explore the more in it. See if you can't do a
than 2800 screen new better job than all the cel
world in order to map it. ebrated figures who got
1". . I'-rjrr.'fl ill r* »:-L^^V
1

But the way the natives us into the mess we have


H'H'ii-1 JjjnJTi yii* lieu fsa 'naps. («r yonrieJ/ on
act, the way you get older. the /■oi'li. jnJ toiis^T wnt riacr »i JiJ5[or%
to deal with today.

SEVEN CITIES o/GOLD


from ELECTRONIC ARTS'

MACHINE REQUlKEMKKTS:S«fTiCiWMff^ir-fJ is available for the Apple IU! I , Ilo &i lie, Commodotw 64 and Atart home CompUWn
iJ Ai-rli't+imrurrr Q»rr ( uiium-k^r. H- ImJ^iniik i-i (".■.!irm.t.rr KunrH-u M«cl"nc», Irk Amiih' tlujfnlll •<'
■■mid'r^A mn<ni«ii>ivi iii-.ir,-hi.,'.n .?7"r ■i[h in** '«m» ro«tw
ink is melted off, an inktess hole is left behind. If Okimate. Besides, the ribbons and glossy paper
the ribbon were rewound and reused, there come with the interface.
would be gaping white spaces in printed text. After this installation, you basically have a
The black ribbon is good for about 75 average thermal transfer MPS-801, with a few bonus fea
pages of text, according to Okidata. Replacement tures. The interface module completely cus
black ribbons cost $5.95. So what money you tomizes the printer, making it compatible with
save by using ordinary paper may be used up by the codes and modes of the 1525 or MPS-801
the cost of new ribbons. printer. You can LIST programs to the printer at
Even though thermal transfer can print on 60 characters per second (cps) and see al! the
any paper, nobody makes any claims for the graphics characters and cursor controls in the
quality. Because the ribbon is sandwiched be listing. The text is well-formed in a 9 X 9 matrix,
tween the paper and printhead, close contact is with full descenders (tails) on the lowercase let
required to smoothly transfer melted ink. Rough ters g, j, p, q, and y. The Okimate-10 uses the
paper, such as bond, has too many nooks and 1525/MPS-801 codes and secondary addresses
crannies to permit good transfer. Rub a soft lead for cursor up/down mode, elongated text, graph
pencil across such paper and you can see this ics mode, dot positioning, etc. Additional features
grain. Thermal transfer prints only on the raised include small characters, bold characters, forced
surface of the grain, so printing on rough paper paging, and automatic skip over perforation on
is spotty, as if the ribbon were worn out. We fanfold paper. You can run all Commodore soft
tried several kinds of common paper: the special ware confident that your printer will behave like
glossy paper that comes with the Okimate Plug the less glamorous MPS-801.
'n Print interface kit, ordinary fanfold computer
paper, smooth photocopy paper, letterhead
A Rainbow Machine?
(bond), and clear acetate. Only the acetate
It seems I've neglected to mention the Okimate's
yielded a clear, sharp image (perfect for overhead
strongest feature—color—but I'm not prepared to
projection). The print on the special smooth paper
call this a color printer without some qualifica
was acceptable, but a little lighter than desired. A
tions. It is a printer capable of color, and even
sliding switch on the Okimate-10 lets you adjust
though the quality of color images can be excep
the darkness of the print, but you would always
tional, there are several drawbacks.
want to leave it in the darkest setting.
All the other types of paper we tried gave
The first problem is software support. It is
not made clear in the manual how to program
unacceptable results, with the bond paper
providing illegible print. Standard computer color yourself, and it's no piece of cake. The only
paper was too rough. Even the rather smooth software for color printing is a demonstration
photocopy paper looked like it was printed on by program and a color high-resolution screen print
an impact printer with a worn-out ribbon. ing utility. The demonstration program is attrac
We haven't found a commonly available tive, and shows off the printer's skill at handling
source of extra-smooth paper, so even though both black-and-white and color text and graph
you can use any paper, in practical terms you ics. This program exists in versions for both the
will most likely want to use the special paper VIC and 64, though there is no software support
provided by Okidata. Extra paper can be ordered as yet for the Plus/4 and Commodore 16 (the
from Okidata at $9.95 for 250 sheets. printer does work with these computers, al
though you might occasionally get 7DEVICE
NOT PRESENT ERROR). The Plug 'n Print pack
Plug 'n Print age contains the software, on both tape and disk.
Okidata is to be congratulated for the consumer The tape holds a smaller version of the demo
orientation of this printer, evidenced in both the program, and lacks the color screen printing
style of the manual, and in the ease of setup. The utility.
basic Okimate printer is deaf and dumb, with a The screen printing utility reproduces 16-color
deep hole in its side. Unlike some printers which multicolor and high-resolution graphics screens on
use a Centronics plug, requiring an external the printer. !t prints graphics produced and saved
interface, the special Okimate interface is a car to disk by one of several supported commercial
tridge which plugs into the side of the printer. drawing programs. Packages currently supported
After you plug in the interface, you snap a face are Doodle!, KoataPainter, Superskelch, and
plate over the interface, then simply plug in the Peripheral Vision. There is also an option for
included Commodore serial cable, and you're in printing user-created pictures saved in a special for
business. Don't look at the price of this printer mat. The pictures are rather faithfully rendered,
($169.95) without the interface. If you already with most colors looking at least similar to the
have ,i printer interface, it won't work with the original. The biggest problem is that each
76 COMPUTE'S Gazelle FsWuary 1985
hy settle for
hen you can have

Introducing Mitoy Mo, COMMODORE easy to use. With the other modem
the rcady-to-go modem
MODEM rcATTJMS MITEY MO AUTOMODM you'll have to remember to check
three switches, otherwise you may
that turns your Commodore 64 Auto Dial YES YES
be answering when you mean to
Into a telecommunications giant. Auto Answer YES YES
YES NO be originating.
Auto Redlal
Mitey Mo is the complete - and Software Included YES YES Mitey Mo gives you access to
affordable—telecommunications Upload/Download 14 pages ol memory (28.000 bytes)
system for your Commodore 64. It will Capacity YES NO so you can store data and review
open up a world of practical and VT-52 Emulation YES NO
or print it later. The other modem
exciting uses for your computer, and Menu Driven YES NO
doesn't let you store or print
28K Software BuHer YES NO
It will take you online faster and anything.
Printing Capability YES NO
easier than anything else you can buy Mitey Mo is hall the size of
Easy-to-Use Manual YES NO
Now you'll be able to send and Bell 103 Compatible YES YES the other modem. The very latest
receive electronic mail, link up with Multiple Baud Rates YES YES technology allows miniaturization
community bulletin boards, play Cables Included YES YES and increased reliability as well.
computer games with people in dis 1 Single Switch Operation YES NO Mitey Mo is so reliable, we gave it
tant places, do electronic banking, Warranty [year 90 days a full one-year warranty. The other
and tap into library resources to find Suggested Price S 119.95 Si 29.95
modem gives 90 days, then you're
the material you need for your on your own.
reports. All at your convenience. Some mighty Interesting features— Not only will you lind Mitey Mo
Until Mitey Mo, Commodore's oura and theirs. Ybuis to decide.
mighty useful, you'll iind it mighty
1650 Automodem was the obvious reasonably priced. Call us at (415)
choice when you went looking !or a 633-1899 and order your Mitey Mo
modem for the C-64. Like Mitey and you find that it's busy Mitey Mo has
today
Mo. it has "auto-answer"- it "auto redial"—it hangs up and redials
receives data while immediately until it gets through. With
unattended. And the other modem you have to redial
both modems each time—and somebody with auto
are "auto dialers", redialing can slip in ahead of you.
—you dial right Mitey Mo is menu-driven.
on the compu It lists the things you can do on
ter's key the screen. Select a number
board. But and you're on your way Since
that's about Automodem isn't menu-
where theirj driven, you'll be hunting
similarity through the manual a lot.
ends. Mitey Mo has only one
CD I/Computer Devices Int'l
Suppose1 switch, the customized soft
1345 Doolitlle Drive
you dial a ware does the rest. Every SanLeandro, CA 94577
number. family member will find it (115)633-1899
printed line does not smoothly
align with the next, which
leaves thin horizontal gaps in
the picture. These lines are not
always noticeable, though, since
printed sections sometimes
overlap.
It's too bad there's not
more software that works with
or is available for this printer. It
would be ideal if Okimate pro
vided a "snap-shot" program
that could capture and print
graphics screens (including col
ored text, redefined characters,
and sprites) from any program.
It's also unfortunate that
programming your own color is
a tedious affair. To explain this,
we need to delve into how the
Okimate produces color.
Ptralo courtesy 01 Koala

Secrets Of Okimate
Color
The Okimate-10 seems to be
essentially a black-and-white
printer which has been adapted
for color. With only minor
changes and a special ribbon,
any printer could be trained to
print in color. The Okimate-10
capitalizes on a simple trick to
generate its color, though this
does not detract from the fact
that color prints look excellent,
though not comparable in qual
ity to a photograph or color
slide of a computer screen.
The review in this column
of the late MCS-801 color
printer pointed out that it gen
erated color by printing across a
four-color ribbon. The ribbon is
installed at a 45-degree angle,
permitting the head to strike all
The first picture above is a photo taken from the Coin- four colors in a single pass. This
modore 1702 color momtor. Beloiv is the same picture defines the nature of the MCS-
printed on the Okimate-W. Notice the minor differences 801. It's a color printer that
in color and proportion. The Okimate-W cannot exactly could act like a black-and-white
match the Commodore colors, and pictures tend to be printer, whereas the Okimate-10
printed wider an the paper than they are on the screen.
is a black-and-white printer ca
pable of color. The Okimate-10
uses a three-color ribbon, but
cannot print in all colors in a
single pass across the carriage.
The normal black ribbon is
a single strip of waxy ink on

7fl COMPUTE! s Gazette February 1985


Introducing The Gold Disk* Subscription Series

The Gold Disk is a brand new In the months ahead, the feature
way to get even more out of your programs include an Assembler, Word
Commodore 64 \ because now, you Processor, Information Management
can get a]l the programs you want System, Micro Forth, Debugger, etc.
and need at unbelievably low cost. Plus a great many other educational
Every month, subscribers to the and entertaining programs.
Gold Disk will receive a disk that To begin your subscription
contains a feature program thai in simply fill in the coupon below.
itself, is worth the price of the
The Cold Disk - all the programs
subscription. In addition there are
you need at subscription prices.
tutorials, games, a programming .
puzzle, music, sound effects, pro
grammers'corner on each disk. A
wealth of quality software for less
than $10.

Our January Issue includes: SUBSCRIBE NOW!


■ Word processing package
■ Loan and mortgage program
THE GOLD DISK SUBSCRIPTION SOFTWARE
■ Learning Basic - Part II
■ Multi-level 4 screen game
The 217y Dunwin Drive. 'S-Mississaufia, Ontario. Canada L5L1X3

GOLD
YliS. Plow; scud The Child Disk for □ 6months(ii S54.95' + S 6 shipping* handling
■ Numbers game fl 12 month* fi'IW.W * S12 shipping & handling

■ 8-Queen puzzle
■ Music, crossword of the DISK Orders out d'Norih Ainctica add $4 OOpcrisiiue
A lo 6 wMks,fcir subscription start.
l must accompany nil orders. Allow

month
Add ress
■ Tips, sound effects with
source code, editorial Cili . Slate Pmv . Code _

■ Visa "'. Maslt-irliarfiL' [ I American repress


and more
Aict Kvp. .... Sijinatun;
An Insider's
Account of
Jack Tramiel
and Commodore

I II I i " ' I I I I I

I
by Michael Tomczyk

i
$16.95 hardback ISBN 0-942386-75-2
$9.95 trade paperback ISBN 0-942386-78-7

COMPUTE! Publications, the leading home computer publisher, brings


you the exciting story of the home computer industry. This book takes the
reader into a vivid, dramatic world where a powerful, brilliant businessman
almost single-handedly fashions the American consumer computer industry.

A survivor of the Nazi Holocaust, Jack Tramie! took a tiny typewriter parts company and
built it into a major American corporation. In the process, he became a modern corporate
legend. Some of his vice presidents thought he was a saint: some thought he had the
world's hardest heart. But few deny the brilliance of this compJax entrepreneur.

For the past four years, Michael Tomczyk has been Tramiel's right hand man. Through
out Commodore's explosive rise to leadership in the computer field, Tomczyk was a close
insider. And, most importantly, Tomczyk is a keen observer and takes you where the action
is.

To order your copy, send the attached card, with your payment, to COMPUTE!
Books, P.O. Box 5406, Greensboro, NC 27403 or call toll-free 1-800-334-0868.
Add $3.00 shipping and handing to hardback copy; add $2.00 shipping and handling to trade
paperback.
plastic. The color ribbon is a series of colors then cyan, etc:
accessed sequentially. Each colored section is With dot-programmable graphics, you can
about eight inches long, the width of the paper. create colored pictures as well. The Okimate
The series starts with a clear plastic leader, a screen print program uses a trick known as
length of yellow ribbon, then magenta, cyan, and dithering to create extra colors. Dithering places
a small unused black segment. This series is re two colored dots side by side, rather than mixing
peated over and over again in the ribbon. To them. Prom the right distance, a magenta dot
print in color, the three basic colors are combined next to a cyan dot looks like a fat purple dot.
to give you seven secondary colors. Here's how Television pictures work on a similar principle.
it works: yellow + magenta = red, yellow + Checkerboard patterns are either overlaid or
cyan = green, magenta + cyan == blue, and interleaved to simulate light colors (alternate
yellow + magenta + cyan = black. with white, which isn't an ink color but the lack
To get all these colors, three sections of ribbon of one, as long as you use white paper), or new
must be used. The printer returns the carriage colors such as apple green (alternate green and
after it prints in one color, then overstrikes in the yellow). The accompanying figure shows how
next color. Therefore, it takes more than three colors are mixed.

HOW CK1MPTE "1IXE5 COLONS

times as much time and ribbon to print .1 single With this technique, you could get well over 40
line in color. All three segments must be used, possible colors. The color screen print program
even if you only want to print a single black dot. does a fair job of dithering the seven secondary
And if you only want to print in cyan, you still colors to give the 16 colors used on the Com
must skip past {and waste) the yellow and ma modore 64.
genta segments. In practice, all three segments The problems with Okimate color now be
must be fed through, since the printer syn come evident. Although the ribbon cartridge al
chronizes itself with the yellow segment at the lows quick, easy, and clean ribbon installation, it
start of each new line. limits the quantity of ribbon. If Okimate chose to
To program color yourself, you send a com use a longer ribbon, the printer would have to be
mand that tells the printer to feed ribbon until it physically bigger as well to hold a larger ribbon
finds the clear marker strip. This leader is im cartridge. Color printing must always use three
mediately followed by a yellow segment. You segments of ribbon, more than 24 inches per
know that the yellow segment is (not coinci- printed line. This uses up a ribbon three times as
dentally} a full line wide, so you print whatever quickly, a ribbon that can only print 75 pages in
text or pixels you want in yellow, or whatever black. You get about 10 color pages per ribbon,
parts of text or pixels that should use yellow (as by Okidata's estimation. Each ribbon costs $6.69.
in red). Even if you don't print a full line, the Due to inevitable ribbon waste, some have
printer is now in color mode, so it feeds in the suggested that you get more like 6-8 pages of
magenta section next, discarding any remaining color printing on the average. Overall, though,
yellow. The printhead stays on the same line. the Okimatc-10 is an inexpensive, good quality
Now you print the magenta portion or portions printer, suitable for everyday listings and word
that require magenta, such as red. You overstrike processing, as well as for art. Its low decibel op
yellow from the previous pass to create red. You eration lets you print late into the night without
continue with cyan, printing cyan sections or giving your family or roommates nightmares.
overlaying to give blue, green, and black. After True Commodore compatibility makes the
the cyan section is used, the printer skips over Okimate-10 an alternative to the MPS-801 worth
the clear section and is ready to restart the next considering.
line in yellow. Okiinatc-10 with Plug 'n Print kit
You have to carefully coordinate your pro Okidata
gram so that it overstrikes properly. If you just 532 Fellowship Road
dumped text out to the printer, it would print Mt. Laurel, Nj 08054
some of it in yellow, the next part in magenta,
COMPUTE'S Gazette February 19B<i 81
REVIEWS

reviewed) consists of eight ar


Sight & Sound Music rangements of current hit tunes.
They can be played back singly,
Software Arthur B. Hunkins or continuously ("jukebox"
mode). The user may select
among ten preset voices (a dif
The 64's advanced synthesizer guitarist/arranger from New ferent one for each of the three
chip, SID, has inspired a spate York City with considerable re parts), and specify the tempo.
of music software, much of it cording experience. (See "Inside Nine "special effect" settings are
good, some of it outstanding. View" elsewhere in this issue.) also available.
Now comes another entry that A recent live demonstration (at Aside from the dubious ef
stands with the best: Sight & a national music merchandising fects, the only point to ques
Sound Music Software. Sight & show) of his Rhythm Rocker and tion—the arrangements are
Sound, the company, is entering Synthesizer programs running to otherwise quite good—is the in
the market with a bang—11 gether on two 64s—with Kawa strument selection. Some of the
new disk-based software and saki alternately performing on choices are slightly off the wall.
hardware products. This is sig each—was very impressive. Most of the voicings are sus
nificant software, attractively These packages clearly have tained; few short, lively options
produced, and accompanied— commercial grade, live- are included (this makes the ar
for the more complex pack performance applications. rangements somewhat bland,
ages—by superior especially in conjunction with
documentation. the unvarying volume and
A sampling of these new LPs On Disk instrumentation).
products is reviewed here, in Let's begin with Peter Of course, instruments,
cluding two of four Computer Englebrite's Music Processor, the tempo, and effects can all be
Song Albums (On Stage and creative vehicle behind a major varied "on the fly" by the user.
Music Video Hits), a mini- projected series of "computer Indeed, several important cus
musical-keyboard overlay {the LPs," the Computer Song Al tomizing options are available:
"Incredible Musical Keyboard"), bums. Each album (Music Video Arrangements can be edited on
and two important performance Hits and On Stage were the two the Music Processor (instruments
and/or arranging packages—
Kawasaki Synthesizer (a two-disk
performer/composer package)
and Music Processor. I also re
ceived demos of the Kawasaki
Rhythm Rocker, Music Video Kit,
and 3001 Sound Odyssey, and
I've included a more brief look
at these, too.
The programming geniuses
behind Sight & Sound are Peter
Englobrite and Ryo Kawasaki.
Although Mr. Englebrite's cre
dentials are not given, Ryo
Kawasaki is a well-known jazz The Incredible Musical Keyboard

82 COMPUTE'S Gazette February 1985


What you get ifyou cross
a Commodore 64 with a Fterrari.
\ you get the incredible And, you get the only disk drive LED display that keeps you in
<Lh Indus GT1" disk drive. that comes with free software. control of your Commodore to
You get brains. You get beauty. Word processing. Spreadsheet. the air-piston operated dust
But, that's not all you get. Database manager. Plus, a carry cover that protects your disks
You get a disk drive that can ing case that doubles as an 80 and drive.
handle 100% of Commodore's disk storage file. So, you know what you really
software. 400% faster. Most of all, you get luxury. gel if you cross a
You get the disk drive with the From the sleek lines of its sound Commodore 64
best service record around. With proofed chassis to the respon with a Ferrari?
a one year warranty on parts and sive AccuToudV" controls at the You get the
labor to prove it. Indus CommandPostf From the best.

INDUS
©Indus Systems, 9304 Decring Avenue, Chalswoflh, CA 91311 1818) 882-%00. The Indus f.T is a producl of Inilti-. Systems. Commodore is .i
reutiiered trademark of Commodore Business Machines, Inc. Ferrari Is .i reglsterod trademark ol Ferrari North America, Inc.
REVIEWS

IF YOU CAN'T
TYPE,
and volume levels can be var then magically merged into a
ied, for example), and animation single score. You can even cre
may be added with the Music ate special accompaniment files,

YOU CAN'T Video Kit. The normal video dis


play is a treble and bass staff
which you can save, reload, and
play along with.

COMPUTE
with the current notes/rests of Many different commands
the three voices displayed side and statement types are avail
by side (instead of vertically, as able in both modes. Instru

Your computer productivity


in musical score). For music ments, tempos, text display and
is directly proportional with lyrics, the "sing-along" text accentuation, colors, repeats,
to your speed at the keyboard. is printed on the bottom two and other options can all be
That's why Typing Tutor 111™ screen lines. specified, and changed at any
with Letter Invaders'":
Englebrite's Music Processor point in the arrangement. Step
□ Automatically adjusts to is an excellent, powerful piece mode permits instant playback
your abilities and progress; of composition/arranging soft and editing, then moving either
□ Tests words, numbers, and ware. Fourteen arrangements forward or backward to the next,
full keyboard, as well as are included in the package, note.
through a standard speed test; which is compatible with the As with Song Albums, a
□ Features Letter Invaders, Music Video Kit. A hint of this "jukebox" play mode is avail
an arcade-style game that exciting potential is offered in able. The program contains
lets you take an entertaining the video accompaniment to some powerful features not ap
break while sharpening your Kites and Squirm, where the parent (nor readily accessible) to
typing skills at the same time.
semi-abstract, hi-res color ani the novice, but intriguing for the
Called "the most miraculous mation is simple, yet effective. advanced programmer. Com
of programs" by The Whole Music Processor (like the Kawa puter keys can be redefined for
Earth Software Catalog. saki Synthesizer) optionally performance purposes. More im
Available for the IBM PC. makes use of the "Incredible portantly, the preset instruments
Apple II/II + /Ile/IIc, Apple
Musical Keyboard" (see below), can be redefined; the arranger
Macintosh, and Commodore
which is highly recommended. can actually change any SID
64 wherever software is sold.
On the other hand, we should chip parameter through pro
point out that Music Processor gramming. It's not simple, but it
implements all four rows of the is possible.
64's keyboard as pitches,

rutorm
~* -!L w whereas the "Incredible Musical "The Incredible
Keyboard" uses just the top
Musical Keyboard11
two.
It's open to debate just how "in
credible" the "Incredible Musi
A Choice Of 99
cal Keyboard" (IMK) really is.
Instruments This simple keyboard is clearly
A total of 99 instruments are cost effective, mechanically reli
available, ten of which can be able, and most useful for per
used during actual performance, forming and coding data. It also
as with Computer Song Albums. comes with a very attractive
Both an Edit and a Step mode post-90-day-guarantee replace
BY KRIYA SYSTEMS]" INC. are employed for note entry. ment offer: $10, or free with
Notes can either be typed in software order—which could be
SIMON & SCHUSTER
using the alphanumeric keys, or as low as $25. IMK is a plastic,
S'ping Tliloi 111, Lollei Invaders, and
riya Systems, Inc. are trademarks "played" as on a piano key color-coordinated, nearly two-
owned by and licensed from Kiiya
Syslcms, Inc. board (the "Incredible Musical octave, miniature keyboard
Simon & Schuster Keyboard" is indispensable overlay that uses the top two
123D Avenue of the Americas
New York, NY 10020
here). In either case, music is rows of the 64's keys. The prin
entered a voice at a time; files of ciple drawback is its tiny keys,
individual voices are saved, which are shallow as well as
84 COMPUTED Gazelle February 1985
Now you can turn
your Commodore 64 into a
talking trivia buff.

Introducing TriviaTalker.. .for only $39.95.


With the TriviaTalker disk your Commodore If you're not a trivia buff, for only $19.95 the
64Tf/ can play games of trivia along with you and Votalker voice synthesis disk allows your Commo
your family. It asks you questions out loud using dore 64 to speak with a truly unlimited vocabu
the sound interface device already in your Com lary. It can say anything you can type. You can
modore. It corrects you when you're wrong and program the Votalker for other games, for educa
congratulates you when you're right. TriviaTalker tion, for personal programs—applications as limit
comes with a built-in timed response scoring sys less as your mind (and mouth). {Votalker is already
tem. The faster you answerthe multiple choice included in the TriviaTalker program.)
questions, the higher your score.
You can also confound the trivia pros by add To order call 1-800-453-4001
ing your own questions to the game. And that can (in Utah 1-800-662-8666). VISA and MasterCard
make for some exciting, creative trivia parties or accepted. Or send a money order to Votalker,
educational tutoring for your family. 1394 Rankin, Troy, Ml 48083. U.S. dollars only.
TriviaTalker includes five different categories Please add $2.00 for shipping and handling.
of trivia and knowledge: American History, Sports, Michigan residents add 4% sales tax. Allow 2-6
Science, Entertainment, and Geography. weeks for delivery.

•The answer is San Marino. Commodore 64 is a trademark of Commodore Business Machines, Inc.
REVIEWS
MICROTRIVIA
IS

Macro Fun!

narrow. To achieve any speed, a age, however, is the comprehen


new playing technique is re sive demo of Sight & Sound
quired. On the other hand, as software. (For display purposes,
Kawasaki has amply demon the demos can run in perpetual
strated, facility is not impossible rotation.) Indeed, IMK is proba
to acquire; and many bly worth getting just to look at
performers/arrangers will not all these goodies. Demos in
be inhibited by this format in clude: Kawasaki Synthesizer,
For Family Entertainment any case. The keyboard spans Kawasaki Rhythm Rocker, Music
two octaves only, minus one Processor, 3001 Sound Odyssey,
Music ■ Graphics note—from C to B. A top C is and a Computer Song Album
Over 1000 Questions sorely missed; it's a real shame (the latter a complete rendition
it wasn't included. of "Sweet Dreams Are Made Of
■ sports
The keyboard program is This," with highlighted,
1 history
polyphonic, playing up to three "bouncing ball" text.) Music
• science (includes computers) notes at once. It does exhibit, Processor even includes a brief
■ geography however, one crucial problem Music Video Kit animation not
1 music, movies, television with chords: Some key com included in the Processor pack
■ literature & art binations are not correctly en age itself.
■ grab bag coded, This is not to be blamed The programs not otherwise
■ special kids questions for ages 5-12 on the keyboard or software; it's reviewed here—Kawasaki
a problem caused by the way Rhythm Rocker and 3001 Sound
C64 version requires disk drive
IBM PC version requires DOS and double-sided disk the computer reads keypresses. Odyssey, a SID chip tutorial and
drive, color graphics adapter i$ optional Although all triads work cor panel synthesizer/composer—
rectly, other combinations of both appear to be outstanding.
notes can be disastrous: For ex Rhythm Rocker permits bass and
1-800-638-2000 ample, a-c-d gives b-c-d, as percussion programming against
Inside Md. call 1-800-831.4300 does a-b-c; c-d-e gives d-e-f. real-time melody performance
Wicrotrivia <<> $29.95 Another apparent bug is that (optionally on the IMK); it inte
DC64 [ "held" voices sometimes grates hi-res, coordinated color
retrigger when other voices graphics into a single pro
Postage & handling S2.5O move. All voices have the same gram—a veritable media tour de
(outside U.S. $5.00]
tone color with IMK software force.
Md. residentsadd 5% sales tax. (this is not required in Kawasaki Equally impressive, in a dif
Total Synthesizer—see below). ferent way, is 3002 Sound Odys
On the positive side, a con sey. This electronic music tutor
■ J Payment Enclosed
□ MasleiCaid i J Visa D Am. Exp. siderable variety of menu op is a catchy, animated introduc
tions is available to the user tion to digital hardware synthe
during performance. You can sis. The synthesizer portion of
choose slide or vibrato, one of the program is a virtually com
Acct, #
three instruments (piano, syn plete implementation of SID; it
Exp. Date thesizer, or bass), specify vol includes not only filter envelop
ume and octave, or insert Pitch ing (through ADSR3), but per
Name
Bend, which slides upward only; mits use of oscillator three as a
it hops back down to the origi control in the sub-audio range.
nal pitch when released. The This may well be the way to in
aw
Slide is single speed-moderate troduce electronic music concepts
Stale Zip
(it gives unpredictable—if fasci and experiences to young peo
l\ J) Owl Software Corp. nating—results in chordal ple. The method appears concep
\A M P.O. Box 809 settings). tually sound and powerful, as
Gieenbelt, Md. 20770 The real bonus in this pack well as clever and inexpensive.
^^
The Kawasaki formance using the upper rows
of the 64 keyboard, or the IMK.
Synthesizer You have options of accompani
Kawasaki Synthesizer is a two- ment sequence, choice of wave
disk package consisting of The form, keyboard octave,
Performer and The Composer. The wah-wah, and vibrato. You can
Performer works with either the also select monophonic or poly
Commodore keyboard (top two phonic mode. Monophonic
rows) or the "Incredible Musical mode offers a split keyboard (in
Keyboard." You can use vibrato, halves), with considerable dis
pitch bend (again, up only, hop tance between the two octaves. The main menu for the Kawasaki
down), or sweep (a giant sweep !n contrast to other programs, Synthesizer,
up, switching down on release). Synthesizer implements different
There are also a synchronized tone colors for polyphonic
graphics/music demo, Kawasaki voices (when they have been sound file; these include octave
Space Dance Theatre, 21 preset previously defined on the selection, wah-wah, and vibrato,
instrumental/effects options, Sound Editing Page). There are which must be manually en
and 13 songs—including two some limits to polyphonic tered. A big help is the presence
"LPs" (which illustrate TVii1 mode, not the least of which of a "play note" key, which al
Composer's multifile chaining seems to be a major bug: The lows you to instantly hear a
mode). Each of the presets can notes apparently cannot be voice at any given point.
incorporate any of the four stuck together. In the split key Note sequences (that is,
waveforms, including noise, board mode, there are also compositions) are entered by
which are selectable indepen tradeoffs: no vibrato, and no playing keys one sequence step
dently of the instrument. You polyphony. (beat) at a time. There is even a
also choose monophonic or On the Sound Editing Page, special rest key. Pitches are also
three-voice polyphonic mode, instruments are created and pa entered one voice at a time. The
and have the option of playing rameters set. Here is a wide sequence display is color-coded,
the lead line to a "bass and range of options for recreating with appropriate pitch names so
drums" sequenced accompani individual voicings (sets of three that note files can be easily and
ment. As with Music Processor, are saved as "sound files" inde accurately deciphered. Docu
the program has some trouble pendent of compositions). You mentation is superb; and par
decoding certain combinations can easily specify envelopes, fil ticularly when working from the
of keys (chords). ter and pulse-width settings, Sound Editing Page, it is re
A more important disk is and effects (ring modulation and quired for steering through the
The Composer. In contrast to the sync). You also make basic intricacies of note entry, editing,
Music Processor, The Composer is waveform selection, but only saving, bank switching, etc.
sequencer-based. Time is after opting for a separate Mixer (Numerous onscreen reminders
marked in beats; each beat is a page.
help greatly, but additional aid
single sequencer stage where an Most, though not all, of is needed.)
event (or rest) can "happen." SID's capability is implemented
There are 255 stages per mem here, including those features
ory bank, and nine banks. Each
Performer Or
most useful and relevent to the
voice requires a different bank, traditional performer/arranger. Arranger?
so that the (up to) three voices Certain choices have been sim To compare Kawasaki Synthesizer
must divide up the nine banks. plified: only eight preset pulse- with Music Processor in terms of
There are many possibilities. widths, resonances, and filter composing/arranging is difficult.
Two main displays are cutoffs are provided. The user They represent two quite differ
used: the Keyboard Page and should also be aware that a cer ent approaches and styles.
the Sound Editing Page. The tain number of sound param Syutheziser appeals more to the
Keyboard Page permits per eters are not saved as part of a keyboard performer; it is faster
COMPUTERS Gazolto February 1985 87
REVIEWS

and intuitive, more spontane nitions can be changed during a sonably priced, brilliantly pro
ous. Processor is primarily de Processor arrangement; they re grammed, attractively packaged.
signed for the arranger, and main fixed in Synthesizer. My They are useful to hobbyists, for
reflects a more abstract orienta advice is to pick the program an introduction to electronic
tion. Here one might work from that best suits your methods. music, as a vehicle for creative
a score, do more pre-planning, All of these products (Com experimentation, even for com
be interested in greater pro puter Song Albums excluded) mercial applications. Sight &
gramming power and flexibility. are important software/ Sound's approaches to "making
One important difference: In hardware contributions to 64 music" are varied, and appeal to
struments and instrument defi music synthesis. They are rea- different needs. In summary,
Sight & Sound means top quality
music software. ! highly recom
mend their products to all music
New Technological Breakthrough enthusiasts.
Sight & Sound Music Software, inc.
i ULTRABYTE 3200 South 166th St.

1 DISK NIBBLER
New Berlin, Wl 53151

w Music Video Hits (Computer Song


Album)—disk, $24.95
On Stage (Computer Song Album)—
The Ultimate Bit by Bit Disk Duplicator
disk, $24.95
For The Commodore 64 and 1541 Disk Drive Music Processor (disk), $34.95
Incredible Musical Keyboard—plas
ULTRABYTE DISK NIBBLER COPIES tic keyboard overlay and disk, $49.95
Kawasaki Synthesizer (two-disk set),
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COMPUTE!'$ Gazette February 1985 89


REVIEWS

or she has done so. And if the reproduce the product exactly.
program is done exactly right, One of the better aspects of
the student will return to it The Factory is the distinction be
again and again. tween being creative and being
The Factory and The Pond tested. Make a Product is a test,
are two educational games for to see how well you understand
the 64 from Sunburst Commu how machines work together.
nications which explicitly Build a Factory, by contrast, is
attempt to teach pattern recog purely creative: You may build
nition. According to the packag factories and create products to
ing, they're designed for ages The Factory teaches the child how to your heart's content, without
seven and up, but Sunburst's use machines to build a product. worrying about failure or frus
flyer lists The Factory as nine to tration. Sunburst obviously un
adult. No matter, for both are The idea is to use a com derstands that there is room in
useable—with help from par bination of machines to create a education for both types of ac
ents—by younger players as well. unique product. When building tivity. In this sense alone. The
a factory, you can use up to Factory is a superb educational
eight machines—in any com
Learning By program.

bination of the above three


Creating types—to create an attractive
The Factory asks you to build a product with stripes and holes.
A Frog Faces A
factory in order to make a prod For instance, you can set up Dilemma
uct. The opening page asks you your factory so that the first ma The Pond is about a frog. What
to choose one of three activities: chine will paint a thin stripe you do is help him find his way
Test a Machine, Build a Factory, across the middle, the second across a pond. He can get there
or Make a Product. Testing a machine wilt punch three round only by hopping on lily pads,
machine is essentially a dem holes along that stripe, the third which are placed on the pond in
onstration of each of the three machine will rotate the material some kind of pattern. You must
types of machines available. To 90 degrees, the fourth will paint tell the frog to hop a certain
build <i factory, you combine a thick stripe across the mate number of lily pads to the left,
machines to create a unique rial, and so on. By combining then a certain number to the
product. The game appears in the machines in the right order, right, then a certain number up,
the third option, Make a Prod it's possible to produce a very and so on. After you've given
uct, where you are shown a attractive product. the frog the pattern, he'll follow
product and asked to match it. In Make a Product, the pro it to see where he ends up. If
The product you begin with gram gives you a ready-made you've been successful, he gets
is simply a square of "raw mate product to copy. You must build across the pattern; if not, he
rial." With the help of three a factory to produce that prod ends up in the water.
types of machines, you can turn uct. Three levels of difficulty There are six different
this raw material into a finished allow you to tailor this activity ponds, each representing a level
product. The Punch machine towards just about any age of difficulty. Farmer Jane's
lets you punch either round or group within the 6-16 range. A ponds (the easiest) and Billy
square holes in the material. typical product in the Easy cate Bob's ponds require a two-step
You can command the machine gory would be one with a Thin pattern. That is, the frog will
to punch one, two, or three stripe and a Thick stripe cross have to jump a continuing pat
evenly spaced holes. With the ing at right angles. A Hard tern of, say, three to the right
Stripe machine, you can paint a product would possibly have and one down. By repeating this
stripe across the middle of the three stripes of varying thick pattern, the frog gets across the
material. Thin stripes, Medium ness, three circular holes, and pond. The Puzzle ponds and
stripes, or Thick stripes are all two square holes. The Hard se The Lost Ponds are three-step
possible. Finally, the Rotate ma ries is instructive for any age patterns. The Maze ponds and
chine turns the material 45, 90, group, including adults. It re the Twister ponds (the most dif
135, or 180 degrees. quires considerable thought to ficult) are four-step patterns. A
90 COMPUTE- s Gaieffe February 1985
GET THE MOST OUT OF YOU
COMMODORE-64
WITH ABACUS SOFTWARE

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This tool allows you to locale ihose hard to tmd variables in your programs. This advanced design package has outstanding leatures ■ two Hires
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order. You can even add you own tokens Irom other software such as patterns; COPY areas, SAVE/RECALL pictures, detino and use intricate
UlTRABASIC oi VICTBEE. Listings lo screen of all ASCII printers, OBJECTS, insert lex! on screen; UNDO lasl lunclion. Requires high quality
DISK $17.95 hghlpen. We recommend McPen. Includes manual with tutorial.
SYNTHY-64 DISK S49.95 McPen lighlpen S49.95

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This linesl charting package draws pie. bar and line charts and graphs fiom effects, two sues of hardcopy lo most tlol matrix printers, game fealures
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REVIEWS

wide variety of patterns is avail for a seven-year-old, but fine for


able, so you will not likely see a slightly older child. This is far
the same one too often. And the from a criticism, though, since it
difficult patterns are indeed dif is best for a parent to supervise
ficult; even adults will have educational software use, any
trouble picking out the patterns way. Children above the age of
without a fair bit of practice. nine, however, should be able
The number of steps in the to use and enjoy both programs
pattern is the number of unique easily.
portions of a continuing pattern. The Factory and The Pond
The frog will follow that pattern Pattern recognition is taught in The Sunburst Communications, Inc.
until the last step, then return to Pond. 39 Washington Avenue
the first step and start over Pkasantvilk, NY 10570
again. In a two-step pattern, for involves losing as few points as $34.95 each (disk) ©
example, you may enter one- possible. You start with 35, los
right, three-down; the frog will ing points each time you either
hop one to the right, then three move the frog manually or ask
downward, one to the right for help. For example, if you use
again, three downward again,
and so on. Naturally, four-step
the cursor keys to move the frog
for seven lily pads—to find the
Also
patterns are far more difficult to
pick out; frequently the pattern
pattern—you lose seven points.
More seriously, if you ask to see
Worth
is not complete on the screen
when you start.
the whole pond in the help
menu, you lose 15 points. Thus,
Noting
To help pick out the pat you lose the fewest points by
tern, you may use the cursor asking for the least amount of
keys to move the frog along the help. At each new level, you get
lily pads. After a few jumps, 35 new points to work with. By Eliza
you should know it. In the the time you reach the last two Eliza is not a new product, but
hardest ponds, though, you may levels, you'll likely need all of many readers may be unaware
try several times before you fi them. The object of the game is of this fascinating and instruc
nally understand the pattern. simply to get through the tive "computer psychotherapist"
Often, as is the case in most Twister ponds first; if you suc program which traces its history
pattern recognition exercises, the ceed, the program provides a lit back to a mainframe computer
correct pattern is obvious only tle graphic surprise. at MIT.
after you know it. If you're Both The Factory and The In 1965, computer pioneer
stuck, you can ask for help. The Pond are appealing programs. Dr. Joseph Weizenbaum created
program will flash the correct Each has a Program Guide, a Eliza as a spoof of nondirective
pattern on the screen, or it will well-writ-ten, graphically de psychotherapy. Eliza asks ques
e^en show you the entire pond tailed explanation of the pro tions, responds to your answers
(at a different scale). Thus, frus gram. The Program Guide leads in nonjudgmental ways, and
tration can be avoided. you through the workings of the gently probes your thoughts and'
The program is divided into program in a tutorial fashion, so feelings. It remains an interest
practice and game. Practice is that getting into the game takes ing experiment in artificial intel
just that: You choose a pond little time. ligence simulation, even if the
and practice getting the frog The programs may be too program routines soon become
across. The game portion is difficult for younger children to obvious to you.
more involved, requiring that understand by themselves, at The Commodore 64 version
you complete three puzzles at least without considerable prac of Eliza produced by the Artifi
each of the six ponds. You can tice, in both games, it may be cial Intelligence Research Group
play either solitaire or with an necessary for a parent, or an has two attributes which make
other player. older sibling, to start them off. it well worth the $45 purchase
6ri.sii.ally, the game portion After that, it will still be difficult price. First, it's a full equivalent
92 LGMFUlE's Santm FuWujiy 1b65
FOR '64 USERS ONLY!
THE ANATOMY OF THE C-64 MACHINE LANGUAGE FOR C-64 ADVANCED MACHINE
insider's guide 1o the lessor known features of the '64. write faster, more efficient programs in machine LANGUAGE FOR C-64
Includes graphics, sound synthesis. I/O control, sam language. Specifically geared to '64 features. Learn all author L. Englisch clearly explains some very detailed
ple programs using kernal routines, more. Far those who 6510 instructions Includes 3 full length programs: subjects: interrupts, video controller, timer, real time
need to know, includes complete disassembled and ASSEMBLER, DISASSEMBLER and amazing 6S10 clock, parallel and serial I/O, extending BASIC, tricks and
documented ROM listings. SIMULATOR to "see" each operator on the screen tips from machine language, more.
ISBN-0-916439-00-3 300pp S19.9S ISBN-0-016439-02-X 200pp $14.95 ISBN-0-916439-06-2 210pp $14.95

ANATOMY OF 1541 DISK DRIVE TRICKS & TIPS FOR THE C-64 IDEAS TO USE ON YOUR C-64
unravels mysteries o! using misunderstood disK drive. collection of easy to use programming techniques. wondering what to do with your '647. we suggest dozens
Details use of sequential, relative and random files. In Perfect companion for those hard to solve problems. of possibilities including complete program listings lor
cludes sample programs: FILE PROTECT, DIRECTORY. Covers advanced graphics, ease data input, CPM. many, many uses. Themes such as auto expenses elec
DISK MONITOR, BACKUP, MERGE. COPY, others. POKEs, BASIC enhancements, character sets, tronic calculator, construction estimator, health diet
Describes DOS kernal with disassembled and Joystick/mouse simulation, transferring data between plans, store window advertiser, computer poetry, party
documented 1541 ROMS listings. computers, more. A treasure chest. invitations and more.
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HANDBOOK AVAILABLE AT COMPUTER STORES, OR WHITE:
Writing adventure games' Here's a handbook with sug SCIENCE / ENGINEERING C-64
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GRAPHICS BOOK FOR C-64
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from fundamentals thru advanced topics this is most in U.S. dollars by check, money order of
complete reference anywhere. Covers character sets, charge card. (Michigan Residents add 4%
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of the original MIT mainframe Zenji with). Your only defense against
program, employing the same these foes is to spin the module
Zenji is a truly challenging maze
conversational power that you're in. Thus, while the object
game that combines the flavor
makes Eliza seem so human. is connection, the defense is dis
of several Oriental board games
Some other versions available connection. Perhaps Zenji is
with a two-dimensional version
are reduced in power and there really an exercise in Eastern phi
of the familiar rotating puzzle
fore in function. Second, the losophy. Precision and patience
cube.
BASIC source code is unpro play as great a part as strategy
When the Zenji mazes first
tected. You can break into the and swiftness.
appear, they are disorganized
program anywhere and make all Although final understand
and randomly oriented. Moving
the changes you want. Add ing of the source remains elu
a disembodied Mandarin-style
color and sound—even speech sive, Zenji is an undeniably
head (naturally), you must con
synthesis. Build the vocabulary. enjoyable game. Making
nect all the maze elements to
Personalize the program. It's progress is easy on the lesser
the mysterious radiant source.
also a good piece of work for levels. As you move into those
When you reach a module that
beginning programmers to realms where the source reveals
you wish to connect, position
study. more of itself, you'll find great
yourself in its exact center.
Artificial Intelligence Research Group challenges and perhaps ultimate
Pressing the fire button and
921 North La }ol!a Avenue peace-of-mind.
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$45 multiplayer game, offering its
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rc-64 /vic-20 RS-232 You'll soon know if you've been
successful, since the powerful
more than one player. There's

INTERFACE
no documentation concerning
green emanations from the
this, however.
source quickly flood any contig
Activlsion, Inc.
*3995
uous segments.
As you zoom around tying Drawer 7286
MFJ-1Z38 Mountain View, CA 94039
the maze together, you some
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Providei RS-23Z times have the chance to pick
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C-64/VIC-20 serial port. Use
up extra points. Don't slow
RS-232 printers, modems, speech synthesizers, down too much in quest of
other peripherals. Switch reverses transmit/re these ephemeral bonuses; you
ceive lines. Use as null modem. 25 pin RS-232 con
nector. Plugs into user's port. 2Wx2« Inches. only have a short time to con VIP Terminal
C-64/VIC-20 nect the maze. You're reminded VIP Terminal is a full-featured

MODEM
of this not only by a screen terminal program with such
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$4Q95 increase in the tempo of the and support for up- and
MFJ-1237 suitably atmospheric music. downloading. It uses a simple
High performance Texai Inttrumani tingle chip
In the midst of all this ac menu format to allow access to
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single or multiline phones. Plugs into pfione base.
300 baud. Direct connect. Originate/Answer Full to connect the maze. When you munication configuration.
duplex.Carrier detect LED.Crystal controlled In- complete one, another maze— It would be difficult to find
cluties Basir listing of Terminal Program.
larger and more complex—ap a communication situation that
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system for a particular commu perb job of recreating the ten The Avalon Hill Game Company
nications situation. Documenta sion, excitement, and complexity 4517 Harford Road
tion is thorough and presented which confronted these bomb Baltimore, MD 21214

very well. disposal units. You race through $20 (cassette)


$25 (disk)
The recently updated ver the streets and expressways of
sion of VIP Terminal now allows London, locating and disarming
conversion from CBM ASCII to unexploded bombs. There are
regular ASCII, and vice versa, as five basic types of bombs, with
Breakdance
a part of the program. Also in several revisions of each type. A For the 99 percent of us who
cluded has been a List Disk File citywtde map shows where never will—and never should—-
feature to allow the user to print bombs have dropped. Switch to try to breakdance, Epyx has pro
disk files which were virtually the street screen, and find your duced a colorful, musical simu
downloaded, but won't fit into way to the bomb site. Once lation package with five
the workspace for printing. The you've arrived, you go about different breakdancing games.
Using the computer's joy
program will now work with the delicate work of correctly
the new Mitey Mo modem and decoding the bomb's numeric stick, you'll soon be moon-
the HES II modem as well as all combination with the aid of an walking, floor rocking,
headspinning, popping, and
other modems on the market. onscreen voltage tester. Virtu
In short, VIP Terminal is de ally all of the action is con floor flipping. The first game is
signed to give you maximum trolled by joystick. a dance contest in which your

communications flexibility in an The tension quickly builds. onscreen character must mimic
easy-to-use format. Written en As you begin working on a the moves of the neighbor
tirely in machine language, VIP bomb, a timer beeps the remain hood's hottest breaker. Game
Terminal is certainly worth con ing minutes and seconds avail two pits you against an entire

sideration, especially if you use able before explosion. You'll "rocket crew" of break dancers.
your computer for communica hear the shrill whistle of other Mimic their moves or you'll end
tion with many different incoming bombs which you must up being danced off a dock and
systems. reach and disarm before they go into the river. The third game is

off. The codes you must break an even more strenuous exercise
Soft taw Corporation
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Goieta, CA 93117
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$59.95 (disk)
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This is one of the more exciting sively more complex and sensi your own dance. Choose from a
and exacting computer games tive. menu of dance moves, change
for the 64 to come along in a You work your way from the speed of your dancer, and
while. Spend an hour playing Lance Corporal through four select from five different musical
London Blitz, and you'll be other ranks to Second Lieuten numbers. Finally, in the fifth
hooked. ant. A status screen shows your game, you can put it all together
During World War II, the rank, a summary of the bombs in the Grand Loop as you go
German Luftwaffe continually dropped and disarmed, and through all four games.
peppered England with bombs, your commanding officer's re Epyx has put together a
many of which sat for hours, marks about your competence. nice package of breakdancing
days, and even weeks before Take the time to thoroughly scenarios with colorful,
detonating. Members of the mil read the pages of documenta smoothly moving graphics, and
itary bomb squads who were tion as the manufacturer sug lively music.
sent to disarm those unexploded gests. You'll find London Blitz to Epyx, Inc.
bombs faced some of the most be one of the most absorbing W43 Kiel Court
dangerous, sensitive, and com computer games in your Sunnyvale, CA 94089
plicated situations possible. collection. approximately 529-535 (disk) •J
96 COMPUTE*'* Gazette February 1985
Enter the Age of Robotics
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COMPUT£!'s Gazette February 198S 97
MACHINE LANGUAGE FOR BEGINNERS
Richard Mansfield, Senior Editor

Self-Modifying Programs

This topic isn't strictly for beginners. Self- Then we raise the Y register by 1 with INY and
modification is a rather sophisticated way to BNO (branch back if Y does not yet equal zero)
supercharge your programs, but beginners should to the LOOP again. Y will continue to count up
be able to follow the ideas. In addition, we'll until it goes past 255 and then resets itself to
cover some associated topics such as how ad zero. At this point, we'll fall through the BNE
dresses are stored in ML, and present a useful fill and RTS back into BASIC or back to the JSR
routine which can be used in a variety of within machine language that called upon this
applications. The accompanying program, for ex subroutine.
ample, will clear the high-resolution screen on
the Commodore 64. Risky Practices
A subroutine which stores something into a
Notice that the ,Y addressing mode adds the
large number of adjoining memory locations is
value of Y to the number. For example, when Y
called a fill routine. There are several ways to do
holds a 2, we'll be storing (STA) a zero into
it. To clear the high-res screen on the 64, for ex
addresses 8194 (8192 + 2) and 8450. By this
ample, we'll want to stuff zeroes into the 8,000
process, two blocks of 256 bytes are filled with
bytes from address 8192 to 16191 (we'll assume
zero.
that this is where your high-res screen is cur
However, to clear the high-res screen, we've
rently located).
got to fill 8,000 bytes and that would mean using
One way to fill it would be to simply set up
the STA ?,Y (the ? means whatever address is
a series of STA instructions, each one using the
appropriate) 32 times. There's an easier, faster
,Y addressing mode so that 256 bytes are filled at
way to fill large areas, but it's somewhat subver
one time. We can fill, for example, a 512-byte
sive. It's frowned upon in some programming
large block of memory by this method:
circles. It's called self-modifying code, and many
LDA #0 teachers and books warn you against using it.
LDY #0
Let's risk it, though, since it's a good way to
LOOP STA 8192,Y
STA 8448, Y achieve ultra-high-speed results in some
INV programming situations. Essentially, we're going
BNE LOOP to dynamically change part of our ML program
RTS while it's running. We're only going to use STA
Here we are putting a zero {the thing we're ?,Y once instead of 32 times, and we're going to
going to store in the bytes of memory during our keep punching in new numbers which raise the
fill) into the Accumulator and also setting the Y address by 256.
register to zero so it can act as a 256-event Here's what it looks like in a complete pro
counter. The first time we go through the loop, a gram that will clear out the entire high-res screen
zero is stored into addresses 8192 and 8448. of the 64:
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Appli:-Appt<Jimpulri/Ccinmc^i^CommoJor»BuWn«sMachJKsTlTcMUlnHturn(nll
Ugind and RTSCnl Abco. LcUml ftnphnal Piixlucl.
Clear The High-Res Screen

160 addr/opcode/addr/label/ mnem /addr/


170
180 864 169 32 LDA #32 SET UP THE PROPER STARTING ADDRESS
190 866 141 110 STA LOOP+2
200 869 169 0 LDA #0
210 871 141 109 ; STA LOOP+1
220 874 160 0 LDY #0
230 MAIN LOOP
240 876 0 0 LOOP STA 0000,Y
250 879 INY
260 880 BNE LOOP
270 862 INC LOOP+2 HERE'S THE TRICK (SELF-MODIFICATION)
280 885 LDX LOOP+2
290 888 CPX #63 ARE Vffi AT THE HIGH BYTE LIMIT
300 890 BNE LOOP IF NOT, RETURN TO CONTINUE FILLING
310
320
892
894
LDY #64
STA 16127,Y
FILL UP THE LAST FRAGMENT

i
i
330 897 DEY
340 898 250 BNE FINI
350 900 147 LDA #147
360 902 210 255 JSR 65490 PRINT THE CLEAR-TEXT-SCREEN CHARACTER
370 905 RTS

There's a lot of information packed into this label. (The only labels in this program are LOOP
kind of ML program listing. Before explaining the and HNI which are used as place markers to
program, let's first explain the various zones of identify the start of the two loops in the
such listings. program.)

What Each Column Means ML Commands


On the far left, you'll see line numbers from The next zone is called MNEM for mnemonic.
150-370. These are used just like BASIC line Mnemonics are the three-letter commands which
numbers. (Notice line 160. It's inserted to help are used when programming in ML. STA, for ex
show the definitions of the various columns in ample, stands for STore the Accumulator; INY
this listing.) stands for INcrement the Y register. Mnemonics
The first column is called ADDR and is the are the ML equivalent of BASIC commands.
address in the computer's memory where these Following the mnemonics are the addresses
various ML instructions are stored. Follow along upon which these commands act: to store, to
line 180 to see what each of these columns load from, to branch to, etc. In line 180, we are
means. Here we see 864. That's the starting ad loading the accumulator with the number 32. Fi
dress of this subroutine. A two-byte long ML nally, there are sometimes comments to remind
instruction (LDA #32) will be placed into ad us what is going on in a particular line.
dresses 864 and 865. The first part of this fill routine puts the
The next column is the opcode (operation- number 32 into address 878 (lines 180-190} and
code). In this case it's 169, which is the number then puts a zero into address 877 (lines
that the computer recognizes as the LDA # com 200-210). How do we figure out these numbers?
mand. The third field is another kind of address. In ML, addresses are computed a special
It's the address upon which the LDA # will act. way. Most addresses are held in two bytes. You
In this case, it loads the number 32 into the calculate an address by dividing the address by
Accumulator (this kind of addressing is called 256, putting the result into the higher byte in
immediate addressing because we're not loading memory and putting the remainder into the lower
from the computer's 32nd memory location; byte. So, to calculate the ML form of the address
rather, the actual number 32 is being placed into 8192 (the first byte of the high-res screen), we
the Accumulator). divide 8192/256 and get 32. That's called the
What we've looked at is a representation of high byte of our address and we store it into the
two of the bytes that will be in the computer's high byte of the two bytes following LOOP.
memory after this program is assembled: 169 32 There is no remainder, so we put a zero into
will sit in addresses 864 and 865. The next field LOOP + 1. Now the STA 0000,Y in line 240 has
is called the LABEL field, but line 180 has no been transformed into STA 8192,Y.
100 COMPUTE'S Gazello Fobruarv 1905
Why not just write STA 8192,Y at line 240 subroutine, the next time you JSR'd to this sub
and be done with it? We'll get to that in a routine you would be storing above the high-res
minute. screen because the dummy would be left point
ing to address 16128. This is one of the reasons
why self-modifying code is considered risky. It's
Stuffing The Dummy worth remembering to initialize your dummy if
Now we're at the main loop of the program. The you use self-modifying addresses in your
address bytes in line 240 are dummy bytes. programs. <E
We're going to be constantly changing them dur
ing the program run. However, the first time we
come here when the program is started, we've
just stored the ML address 8192 into the two
bytes following the STA and so a zero (left in the
accumulator after line 200) will be sent to ad
dress 8192. We've blanked out the first byte in
the high-res screen. Only 7999 bytes to go.
Now we raise the Y register from zero to 1
and branch back to LOOP. Y is always added to
the address in the STA ?,Y addressing mode, so
this time we'll store the zero in the Accumulator
into address 81924-1. And so forth until Y has
gone past 255 and reset itself to zero. Then we
fall through to line 270. (We've just filled up the
first 256 bytes of the high-res screen.)
Line 270 is where the high byte of our STA
address (line 240) will be raised by 1. When you
raise the high byte of an ML address by 1, you
are raising the actual address by 256.
We're now going to test this high byte to see
if we're through filling the screen. Line 280
fetches the high byte into the X register and we
compare it against the number 63. We want to
raise the address 31 times. We're looking for a 63
Program Your Own EPROMS
because we started out with a 32 in the high
t
vie 20 CQQ

byte: (63 - 32 = 31). c 64


If we haven't yet incremented the high byte PLUGS INTO USER PORT
up to 63, we branch back to the LOOP and fill NOTHING ELSE NEEDED.
another 256 bytes. If we have reached 63, we fall EASY TO USE. VERSATILE.
through to line 310 where we load the Y register • Read or Program. One byte or
with 64 and count down (DEY) through this little 32K bytesl

loop to take care of the last 64 bytes which were OH Use like a disk drive. LOAD.
SAVE, GET. INPUT. PRINT. CMD.
not filled by our main loop. These 64 bytes were OPEN, CLOSE—EPROM FILES!
left over after we filled 256 byte blocks 31 times. Our software lets you use familiar BASIC commands to
(There are 8000 bytes in a high-res screen and create, modify, scratch (ilos on readily available EPROM

256 * 31 = 7936 so we have a few more bytes to


c chips. Adds a newdimension to your computing capability.

fill.) 0 Works with most ML Monitors too.

E
• Make Auto-Start Cartridges of your programs.
• The promenade" C1 gives you 4 programming voltages,

Safety First 0 2 EPROM supply voltages, 3 intelligent programming


algorithms, 15 bit chip addressing, 3 LED's and NO
switches. Your computer controls everything from software!
Finally, line 350 will load in the Commodore
a Textool socket. Anti-static aluminum housing.
"clear-text-screen" character and we JSR to ad
EPROMS, cartridge PC boards, e!c. at extra charge.
dress 65490, which clears the text screen and
Some EPROM types you can use with tho promenade"
gets rid of any residual garbage left after the 275B 2532 462732P 27128 5133 X2BI0A1
251G 2732 2564 27356 51« 52813'
high-res screen was cleared. 2716
27CI6
27C32
273!A
2764
2?C&>
8S76-I
G8766
2915'
2BI8"
46018P"

Now, why did we have to start this whole


routine off by inserting the 8192 into the dummy Call Toll Free; 800-421-7731
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•ERB/

Color Swap
Lee Noel, Jr.. Assistant Editor

Frustrated by the time and trouble in 700 and 701. Think of 700 as the Old Color Reg
volved in making color changes to high- ister, and 701 as the New Color Register. If you
res program displays? "Color Swap" makes POKE these locations with two differing color
them instantly; and it works for the other codes and SYS to Color Swap, any displayed
graphics modes of your computer, too. For color that matches the value in 700 is changed to
the VIC (with or without expansion) and the color indicated at 701.
64. To make this clearer, here's an example.
After loading and running Color Swap, load the
program you want to experiment with, and bring
up the desired screen display. Working in direct
"Color Swap" is a machine language graphics mode, you might enter
aid for your BASIC programs. Operating at high POKE700,6:POKE701,7:SYS XXXXX (where XXXXX is
speed, it enables you to change colors at will- the Color Swap address)
without LISTing and editing your program, and
If you enter this line and press RETURN, the
without waiting for the screen to rebuild. It
program will find your display, look for blue
works with any type of display—text, high-res,
(color code 6), and alter any it finds to yellow
multicolor, sprites, and so on—and automatically
(code 7). This could, for example, change an en
adjusts itself to the screen configuration you've
tire blue sky to yellow, or cause the same trans
chosen.
formation in a tiny redefined character. And the
To start, type in the appropriate version for
exchange of color takes place immediately—
your computer, Program 1 for the 64, or Program
there's no waiting. If you don't like the effect,
2 for the V1C-20. Be sure to save a copy of the
reverse the codes and SYS to Color Swap again.
program before, running it.
As you go, make notes of the color codes
Next, run the program. If you have a correct
that give the best results. Later on, you'll want to
version, you'll see a message with program
plug these tested values into the program you're
instructions. If this is the first time you've used a
working with. Color Swap acts directly on your
machine language program, the SYS command in
computer, not on your programs; so you'li need
the final screen message may be unfamiliar to
either notes or a perfect memory.
you. SYS XXXXX, a BASIC command that can be
Until you become thoroughly familiar with
used in either direct or program mode, transfers
Color Swap, there are a number of points to
control from the BASIC environment to the ma
keep in mind. The program is designed to
chine language program at address XXXXX.
change every occurrence of a particular color.
Note where it tells you to SYS, then type
This can be disconcerting at times. If you alter a
NEW and press RETURN. Although you just
blue sky and the current text color is also blue,
erased the program from BASIC memory, it re
both will be changed accordingly. (For a way
sides in a safe location (see below for details).
around this problem, read on.) Moreover, it can
You can load, save, and NEW lots of programs,
be difficult to use Color Swap with multicolor
but Color Swap remains ready to be activated at
mode on the VIC and with extended background
any time by the SYS call. The program can only
color on the 64. The program works fine, but
be erased by turning off your computer, or by
these display modes require that you know ex
putting something else into its memory area.
actly what you're doing. Finally, for safety, stick
to the standard Commodore color code numbers,
A Pair Of POKEs 0-15. Note that Color Swap will not generally
Once in place, the program is simple to use. It work in conjunction with other machine lan
creates two new (pseudo) registers at addresses guage programs, including utility cartridges like
108 COMPUTED Gazetto February 19B5
^m^

#+

Wm A*

For CBM-64
and VIC .■>■■>

owners only:
This is just 1 of
20 pages of the
newest and biggest
Skyles catalog, hot
off the press.
We know you'll
want this page, in From Skyles
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of peripherals, within the last few specialists in the
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the Super Expanders and BASIC extensions.
Color Swap is most effective with displays COLOR SWAP LOCATIONS
and programs that are fairly satisfactory apart
from their colors. If you're in the early stages of
developing a program and are using Color Swap
concurrently, extra care is needed to keep track
of which program is supplying color codes.
A little practice will make things clear. You
can even start without a program by experiment
ing with the colors of your computer's standard
display. If you ever do run into trouble, just re
(RA t 16)
load your program and start over.

A One-Way Trip
Blocks of machine language work like sub
H 875
(RA + 471
change
background
color
49190
(RA f 38)
change
background
color

routines in BASIC. Color Swap is just simple


chunks of machine language subroutines linked
together in a particular sequence.
p 906
change
border
7AW
491%
change
sprite
(RA + 78) color (RA + 44) colors
In this case, the arrangement is like towns
(the subroutines) connected by a one-way street.
change
II change
If you want to avoid the town that changes text 942 the 49254 extended
color, just get on the road at the next town. (RA 114) rest (RA + 102) background
color
(With Color Swap, once you get on the one-way
street, you're carried along to the very end- To swap colors:
POKE 700, old color: change
where control is returned to BASIC.) POKE 701, new color: SYS 49286 the
The accompanying diagrams show how the 828. SYS to one of Ihe (RA-H34) rest
program is laid out. The first few sections are later addresses shown
above to avoid unwanted
changes which can be made from BASIC, usually changes.
To swap colors:
POKE 700, old color:
by a POKIi to one memory location. You can POKE 701, new color:
To check background:
skip over some of these early portions, thus SYS 828: PRINT PEEK (785) SYS 49152. SYS to one of
avoiding unwanted color changes. the later addresses shown
To check border: above to avoid unwanted
To make such a detour, just SYS to the ad SYS 828: PRINT PEEK (786> changes.
dress of the first needed town along the Color
Swap route—having first POKEd 700 and 701 Note: If Color Swap is relocated, use the expressions
with the desired values, of course. This "multiple given above to work out the new addresses—including
entry points" feature of Color Swap is obviously RA, Ihe new starting address. VIC tape users who re
locate automatically with Ihe loader must do this.
useful, and you may enjoy experimenting with it. ///////////////////////////M^

Relocating The Program to make use of this option. (Those VIC users
Color Swap is relocatable, if the current location who wish to set RA themselves can delete lines
is inconvenient, the hulk of the program can be 10-60, and should put their value for RA into
shifted to anywhere with free memory. Line 120 the expression RA = RA at the start of line 120.)
of the program contains the variable RA VIC users with disk drives may wish to select the
(Relocatable Address), which can be set to any cassette option when loading Color Swap. It will
desired value. However, if Color Swap is moved be POKEd into high memory, freeing the cassette
into the normal program area, you'll need to take buffer for other short machine language routines.
steps to prevent it from being overwritten by (Note: Color Swap works fine with the Super
BASIC. Expander (/ none of the Expander's special com
Since the VIC has limited memory, a VIC mands are used.)
user is given the option of placing Color Swap in Remember that in any relocation the target
the cassette buffer (locations 828-1019). Machine addresses of all the SYS calls have to be changed
language programs placed in this buffer are pro as well. The parenthetical expressions in the di
tected from BASIC, but will be disrupted by cas agram show you how to do this. (RA is the value
sette operations. So, to help VIC cassette users, of the number that appears after SYS in the final
the VIC version can perform a relocation, auto message from your loader.) VIC tape users must
matically placing and protecting Color Swap at make these calculations to employ the various
the top of whatever memory configuration you entry points for Color Swap. If you move RA
have. VIC users have only to follow the prompts outside the values described above, make
110 COMPUTE- s Gazetto February 1985
SUPER PRINTER ANIMATION

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Est. 1982
ORDERING INFOFIMATION. Please specify system. For lasl Oolivery senO cashier's cheek, money otner or onecl Bank iranslorj Pursonal COMPUTA8IUTY
ana company checks allow 2 neeks to cleat Charges lor COD are S300 Scnool Purchase OiCeis welcome In CONTINENTAL USfl. in- PO 6c. 1783!
cluCe S3 CO shipping per soil ware order. IncluOeS^o shipping on all Hardware ciders, minimum S3 00 MasTercaro A Visa please include MMMukn: Wl 53JU
card 1 ana ei pi ration dale Wl resiOenia oieaseaOdS'i saiostai HI. ak. FPo.aPO. Canadian oraers — afld 5% snipping, minimum J5 00
ORDER LINES OPEN
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all sales aro linal All deleclive returns musl haia a relurn auinonianon numbsr. Pleast hII 114-351.2007 to oblain an BAi or your roluin Mon-En 11 «M ! PH CSI
12 ph -iPM csr
will NOT [>e acccplfKi 'or replacement or repair Prices and availabitily are subject la change without noticu
provisions to protect the program. Extending Its Usefulness
Color Swap also offers VIC users a special After a little experimentation with Color Swap,
convenience: separate background and border you'll find many uses for it. Although it was de
color registers. Ordinarily, VIC background and vised mainly as a direct mode method of editing
border colors are combined into one number in displayed colors, it can be extended to many
the register at 36879, and with certain displays, it other applications.
can be difficult to tell what colors you're looking Tor example, 64 users know that they can't
at. Now, a SYS to the start of Color Swap puts POKE character codes directly to screen memory
the color code for the background into address and see any effect unless they make correspond
785 and the code for the border into 786. These ing POKEs to color memory. As long as you
locations may then be PEilKed, returning the val know what code is in color memory, you can
ues at the time of the SYS call. easily change it to contrast with the background
by a SYS to Color Swap. With Color Swap in
your 64 and the default display on screen, enter
A Special Case For VIC this in direct mode:
Programmers POKE700,6:POKE701,1:SYS49286:POKE1S24,83

l olor Swap operates in such a simple way that it You should see a white heart appear near the
couldn't be extended to cover the reverse video center of your screen. POKE a few more charac
mode on the VIC. However, for those pro- ter codes directly to screen memory. Convenient,
grammers who use this single bit of memory. isn't it?
Program 3, VIC Inverter, is included. This pro Color Swap can also be added to programs
gram toggles the reverse bit from one value to as a subroutine. Although this may take a little
the other each time you SYS 743. thought, it can be worthwhile. As part of a larger
Like Color Swap, this program can also be program, Color Swap's speed enables it to flash
relocated by changing RA in the loader, although windows of text and background on and off,
this will probably not be necessary: The Inverter make displays appear and disappear, and alter
is entirely independent of Color Swap, is safe characters and sprites instantly.
from BASIC, and is not in the cassette buffer. Set' program listings on page 140. ©

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Debugging BASIC
Part 2
Todd Heimarck, Assistant Editor

The first version of a program almost al be the same as precision, but it's not. Limits on
ways contains a few errors. You have to accuracy are built into almost any numbering
find and eliminate the bothersome bugs system.
before you can really finish the program. Computers calculate in binary (base two).
Last month, we looked at some mistakes Fractions which can be expressed as a combina
programmers can make. This month we'll tion of halves, fourths, eighths, sixteenths, etc.
consider some built-in flaws (how a com are accurate. Others have to be rounded to the
puter can do things wrong) and look at nearest binary value.
some useful debugging methods. People do the same thing with decimal frac
tions. The number 1/3 is translated to a never-
ending series of threes, .3333333 (and so on).
In Part 1, we covered some of the limits which The limits on accuracy can sometimes lead
affect memory and the stack on the VIC and 64. to errors of rounding. Try the following program:
Variables, too, have limits. They can lead to a
10 X=.l
variety of problems.
20 FORJ=0TO50:Y=Y+X:PRINTY:NEXT
You can employ three types of variables in a
program: string, floating point, and integer. Cer A couple dozen times through the loop and
tain restrictions apply to each of the three. the answers start to vary from what they should
be. The number in computer memory is just
Precision, Accuracy, Magnitude about one tenth, but is a little off. It's only an
Floating point (FP) numbers, so called because approximation. As the numbers add up, so does
the decimal point can "float" to either end of the the slight inaccuracy.
number, use up five bytes of memory. The vari Magnitude is the final limit. It's the culprit in
able name needs two additional bytes, so an FP OVERFLOW errors. The Commodore operating
variable fits into seven bytes of memory. system stores floating point numbers in five
Three limits apply to floating point numbers: bytes. What happens when all of the bytes fill
precision, accuracy, and magnitude. up? The number is a little beyond ten to the 38th
Floating point numbers are allowed up to power, a one followed by 38 zeros. A VIC or 64
nine digits of precision. Go beyond nine and cannot count any higher.
your computer automatically rounds to the You can force an OVERFLOW error with
nearest nine-digit number. The following pro this program:
gram illustrates the limits of precision:
10 X=10: FORJ=1TO50: PRINTJ,X: X=X*10: NE
XT
10 A$="1":BS=A$
20 FOR J=1TO20 The program stops when the computer
30A$=AS+B$: PRINTA$,VAL(A$)
reaches a number beyond which it cannot count.
40 NEXT
Change X^IO to X=-10 to find the limit on the
Note that we're working with strings, which negative side.
can be longer than nine characters. But in line How do these limits affect BASIC programs?
30, the strings are converted to a VALue, which Precision is not really a problem, unless you
succumbs to the nine-digit limit. After the loop want to count past a billion. If you sacrifice pre
runs nine times, we see the letter E, which repre cision, you can count a little beyond a billion bil
sents exponentiation (for example, ten to the lion billion billion before reaching the highest
power of X). We've hit one of the limits. You can number allowed. Accuracy can adversely affect a
make calculations on large numbers, but they lot of programs, however. In a financial program,
will be rounded to the nearest nine digits of for example, you might add and subtract some
significance. numbers, ending up with a number like
Another limit, accuracy, sounds like it might $ 517.120001 or $ 517.119999 instead of
COMPUTE'S Gazelle Februaiy 1985 113
$ 517.12. Such programs should include a round NOT PRESENT. If you press play on a
ing function, DEFFNR(X) « INT(X*100 + .5)/100 Datassette (to load a program), and leave it on
to strip off those extra numbers. play, then try to write a file, it will seem to work
but the file isn't actually there. There's a sensor
Integer Limits that can tell if a button is pressed, but it doesn't
distinguish between play, play/record, or even
Integer variables have their own limits. Integer
fast forward or rewind. Writing a file while play
variables are always whole numbers and are sig
(but not record) is pressed won't write anything.
nified in programs by a percent-sign (%) suffix.
You can close a file which is already closed,
A%, B%, and Y8% are some examples. You can
but you can't open a file which is already open.
also use them in arrays—A5%(6), YZ%(15),
To be safe, you can precede an OPEN with a
P%(0), etc.
CLOSE. For example, CLOSE2: OPEN2,8,2,
Magnitude, rarely a problem with IT num
"filename,S,W" will make sure the file is closed
bers, can be a serious limit on integers. Integers
before it is opened.
are stored in only two bytes. The highest integer
If you don't close a file before ending the
allowed is 32767, the lowest -32768.
program, you can run into big problems. A disk
Accuracy is never a problem with integers
drive has its own microprocessor, which keeps
and the limits of precision never become a prob
track of open files. Open a file, write to it, and
lem, either.
turn off your computer without closing the file;
the result is a "poison" file, which can corrupt
String Limits other files on the disk. Poison files are marked in
Strings, collections of characters, are subject to the directory with an asterisk. You should never
only two limits, both related to length. scratch a poison file, you have to use the validate
First, when INPUT, a string cannot exceed command to get rid of it. Before you end a pro
80 characters on a 64 (two screen lines worth), gram, be certain to close all files.
88 characters (four screen lines) on a VIC. Sec
ond, strings cannot be more than 255 characters
String Too Long
long. Concatenation (or adding together two
A very common file error is STRING TOO
strings) allows strings to exceed the input limit.
LONG, mentioned above.
This program demonstrates:
For strings in a file which are longer than
10 A$="Z" 80/88 characters, you'll have to use GET# rather
20 FORJ=1TO400: B$=B$+AS: PRINTJ,B$: NEXT than 1NPUT#. GET* reads in characters one by
one. INPUT# bites off a chunk at a time. In
The string variable B$ is not initialized and
many cases, GET# is more reliable than
so begins as a null string (a string containing
INPUT#.
nothing) with a length of zero. Each trip through
Another mistake you can make is writing a
the loop adds the variable A$, which holds the
file of strings and then trying to read back nu
single letter Z. As B$ grows larger and larger, it
meric variables. For example, PRINT* 1,A$ to
reaches the limit of 255 characters, and the com
write the file followed by INPUT#1,A when
puter prints an error message.
reading it.

File Errors Checking Variables


Sequential disk files operate much the same as
Now let's see how you can track down and
tape files. You begin with the first item and con
eliminate program bugs.
tinue until you reach the last. Reading and writ
When you type RUN, all variables are
ing these files can lead to a variety of errors,
cleared. Variable values then build up as the pro
some subtle, others not so subtle.
gram runs. If the program stops, the variables are
There's one command for writing (PRINT#)
still intact, but you lose them the moment you
and two for reading (INPUT# and GET#). (Note
change a line, or add a new one, Even if you
there is no space before the "number" sign.)
simply press RETURN over a line, making no
These three BASIC keywords differ from the
changes, you'll lose all variable values, until the
usual PRINT, INPUT, and GET. If you abbre
program is run again.
viate, don't use ?# for PR1NT#, it won't work. P
Let's imagine a program which stops in the
SH11T-R is the correct short form for PK1NT#.
middle and says ILLEGAL QUANTITY IN 300.
If you open a file for reading and try to
The first thing to do is type LIST300. You might
write to it or vice versa, you'll get a NOT INPUT
then see something like this:
FILE or NOT OUTPUT FILE error. If your disk
drive is not plugged into the serial port, or not 300 FOR A = S TO El BEAD B: POKE A,B: CK%
turned on, the computer will tell you DEVlCi- - CK% + Bi NEXT

114 COMPUTB.s Gazotto February 1985


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GH Norrti Milwiuku Stinl ■ Milwnrtio Wiiccniln 53J03 "When cloning and dlsocting fall, lurn io Mfl. NIBBLE'
One of those variables holds an illegal quan any subroutines). The first line is 10, the last
tity of some kind. Type PRINT B to discover the 1000, in increments of 10. Put a STOP halfway
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DATA statement. Maybe you left out a comma, time the program stops, but not because of an
or two lines got stuck together when you forgot error. You type CONT (for CONTinue) and again
to press RETURN after a line. Whatever the the computer freezes before getting to 500. With
cause, you'll have to find the incorrect DATA just a couple of lines, you've zeroed in on the
statement. general area of the bug. It's after 250, but before
Testing variables can help you find a good 500. A couple more STOPs and you can narrow
number of bugs, especially when you have dupli the possibilities to just a few lines. STOP is like
cated variable names, like using the name ] in radar used to pinpoint the bug.
two different sections of a program. But remem Now you suspect the bug is in a certain line.
ber, as soon as you press RETURN over a line, But you don't know for sure, The line does some
all variables will be lost. calculations followed by a POKE or two. You can
If you want to rerun a program and still pre make the line invisible with a REMark. REM is
serve the current variable values, you can choose usually used to add comments, because it makes
a line number (call it xxx) and type GOTOxxx, as the computer ignore everything up to the next
long as you haven't pressed RETURN over a line. But it's also good for temporarily removing
line. GOTO does not destroy variable values as a line, so the line, as usual, is ignored.
RUN does. Finally, GET can sometimes substitute for
the STOP-CONT debugging duo. If you'd rather
hall the program temporarily, instead of stopping
Simplify And Isolate it, add a line XXX GET G$:IF G$ =""THEN
The most elusive bugs are the ones which don't XXX. Whenever the line is executed, everything
happen right away. Rather, they appear after the pauses until you press a key.
program has run 20 or 30 times, seemingly with
out flaw, just when you thought it was all fin
Time Out To Clean The
ished, the program crashes—or locks up.
You must simplify and isolate, find the one Blackboard
situation that causes the problems. If possible, try Have you ever written a program which usually
to duplicate the error. If you know what happens runs well but sometimes pauses before starting
just before a crash, you're halfway to finding the up again?
bug. You don't have a bug. You can put the
Besides PRINT (to check variables), there are blame on a process called garbage collection, es
four BASIC commands which are great aids pecially if the program contains a lot of string
when you're hunting down an elusive bug: variables.
STOP, CONT, REM, and GET. As variables are defined, they are put into
Perhaps you've narrowed it down to a cer memory just after the end of the program. But
tain FOR-NEXT loop. An important variable, K8, strings can contain one letter or five or 160.
is somehow being changed. So you add a line Say your program has a variable A$ and you
PRINT K8:STOP and every time the program define it, A$ = "HELLO, " + N$ (where N$ is a
reaches that line it prints the value of K8 and person's name). You've created a dynamic siring.
stops. Later on, the program changes A$ to "HELLO
If you want to continue, type CONT. These AGAIN, " + N$. One way to store this new-
two commands work in tandem, one stopping string on the memory blackboard would be erase
the program, the other starting it up again. While the old one and put this one in its place. But the
the program is temporarily slopped, you can new A$ is longer, so the computer would have to
examine any other variables you want, using move a lot of memory around to make room, in
PRINT. stead, the computer marks the old variable as
"garbage," drawing a line through it, and puts
the new variable into an empty space.
STOP Radar But if memory fills up completely (from all
STOP can also be used as a pointer. Start with a the garbage strings), it's time to get rid of all the
100-line program with a bug (in this example, strings no longer being used. And that takes
let's assume it's straightforward and doesn't use time. To illustrate, look at this program:
116 COMPUTE'S Gazelle February 1965
10 D1MAS(255) memory runs and the keyboard locks up. If you
20 FORX=1TO255: B=INT(RND(1)*26+65)
own a Datassette, you can get out of the lockup
30 BS=CHR?(B): &S(X) = A$(X-l)+B$: PRINTB$
40 NEXT: GOTO20
by pressing the left SHIFT key and the number 3
at the same time. Then press the tape PLAY but
Enter it and type RUN. It takes some time ton, followed by RUN/STOP. The bug seems to
before available string memory fills with garbage. occur only with certain character colors.
But eventually, you'll see the program pause Two rare bugs you may encounter involve
while it frees up some space. There's nothing disk access. The first is a documented problem
wrong with the computer, it's doing just what it's with relative files. If you read a short record from
supposed to. a file that begins on a sector boundary and then
The process of garbage collection is another later read a subsequent file that is longer than
quirk of the operating system. Asking the com the first and spans two sectors, the second read
puter how much free memory is left forces gar may be corrupted because a pointer is not up
bage collection. Add a line 25 F=FRE(0) to the dated. The solution is to set the record pointer
program above, and all pauses are eliminated. before and after reading a file.
(Actually there's a minuscule pause each time The second is undocumented; it's one of
you ask for FRE(O), but it's not noticeable.) those full moon bugs. The disk SAVE WITH RE
PLACE option works almost as it should. It
scratches the old program and saves a good ver
Lockup Bugs
sion of the replacement program. But it may cor
If your VIC or 64 locks up, consider the possibil
rupt another file on the disk, especially if the
ity that your computer is not locked up. A FOR-
disk is almost full. So far, it has not been proved
NEXT loop that counts to a million takes a lot of
without a doubt that on a 1541 SAVE WITH RE
time. So does POKEing a few thousand numbers
PLACE (SAVE"@:filename") is flawed. In fact,
into memory. And it's possible to write an in
there are two people who have offered a reward
efficient sorting routine that takes hours, even
to the person who proves the bug exists.
days, to complete. In cases like these, you might
Nevertheless hardware rarely causes prob
want to demonstrate that there's no lockup by
lems, although sometimes a memory chip burns
printing to the screen or changing border color
out or a soldered connection breaks. Generally, if
once in a while.
your computer works for a day or two after you
buy it, it will work for years.

Hardware Errors
Hardware should he the last thing you blame. If MLX And Proofreader
something is not going right in a program, it's al The two GAZETTE typing aids, MLX and Auto
most always the program's fault. matic Proofreader, help immensely. But they can
Hardware, especially moving parts as in a miss transposition errors.
disk drive or printer, occasionally has problems. Both programs work by adding up numbers.
After many hours of use, disk drives can become MLX, used for entering machine language pro
misaligned; they'll read disks they've written to, grams, adds six numbers (plus the memory loca
but not disks formatted on other drives (commer tion). So you could type 000, 000, 000, 000, 013,
cial software for example). And the head on a 015 to get a total of 28. But 000, 000, 000, 000,
cassette drive can become dirty or magnetized. 015, 013 also adds up to 28. MLX wouldn't know
There's one operating system/hardware the difference. The checksum matches, but the
glitch you may run into if you use a V1C-20, numbers are wrong. Unfortunately, machine lan
Datassette, and 1526 printer (which is why the guage is extremely sensitive to incorrect numbers
1526's shipping box is labeled "For The 64 and there could be big problems with the
Only"). After a tape save, load, read, or write, program.

the 1526 printer may be inaccessible. The com BASIC is more forgiving than machine lan
puter, having just talked to the tape drive, guage—it usually tells you the type of error and
doesn't want to open a line to the printer. SYS the line number. The Proofreader is also forgiv
64490 solves this problem, making the printer ing. It adds up the ASCII values of the line and
available again. calculates the checksum. So if you type
The Commodore 64 also has a bug in its PR1NT + AB, rather than PRINTA + B, the Proof
operating system. Put the cursor at the bottom reader checksum number will come out fine.
line of the screen, type more than 80 characters PR1TN is a small problem, because it causes a
(hold the space bar down until it traverses more SYNTAX ERROR. Bufa POKE with transposed
than two screen lines), and then try to delete numbers can lead to trouble, 525 instead of 255,
back to the eightieth character. The program in for example. djf
COMPUTERS Gazoffo February 19BS 117
Line Number
Cross Reference
Heinz Wrosch

This handy programmer's utility searches It's a short list, because this program doesn't
through a BASIC program for all GOTOs have to make a lot of decisions, all it does is
and GOSUBs, determining which lines call POKE an ML program into memory. But such a
other lines. It can be useful when a pro list can be invaluable when you're tracing
gram must be renumbered, or in debug through a program, creating a flow chart, figur
ging sessions. For the VIC (with or without ing out which part does what. Cross references
expansion) and the 64. Also includes are also useful when you need to renumber a
printer option. program, or if you plan to delete a range of lines.

Entering The Program


Part of what makes computers so powerful is There are two versions of Cross Reference, one
their decision-making ability. The BASIC com for the 64, one for the VIC (with or without
mands COSUB, GOTO, and IF-THEN—what expansion). After typing in the appropriate ver
could be called forks in the road—make the de sion, make sure you save it to tape or disk.
cisions. When the program reaches a fork, it When you type RUN, the ML program is
changes directions. POKEd into free memory. The 64 version goes
There are times when you need to find the into the safe area beginning at 49152. The VIC
points where a decision is made. You can delete version goes at the top of BASIC memory, which
a REMark, for example, but there will be prob varies according to how much expansion mem
lems if another line tries to GOTO that line. Or if ory is in place. The VIC version lowers the top-
you're renumbering a subroutine, you'll need to of-memory pointer to protect the program from
find which parts of the program GOSUB to that interference by BASIC, so you should not run it
subroutine. more than once. You'll lose about 500 bytes every
time you run the VIC version.
Finding The Decision Points An internal checksum is calculated, and if
If you own a printer, you can LIST the program you've typed the DATA statements correctly, a
and trace through it by hand, marking all message with two SYS numbers will appear on
branches and drawing arrows. But there's a sim the screen:
pler way.
SYS 49518 (64)
"Line Number Cross Reference" does the te
SYS 49515 (64—output to printer)
dious work for you. It's a machine language (ML) SYS 7570 (unexpanded VIC)
program that starts at the beginning of your pro SYS 7567 (VIC—output to printer)
gram and prints out a complete list of where all
the branches are. You choose whether the list VIC owners with expansion in place will see
goes to the screen or to a printer. another (higher) set of numbers.
For example, if you type in the 64 version of You'll need to remember the ML entry point,
Cross Reference, and use it on itself, your screen so write down the numbers. Next, type NEW to
should look like this: erase the BASIC loader (do not type NEW unless
you've already saved the program, or it will be
LINE NUMBER CROSS REFERENCE:
lost). You can load the program you want to
LINE REFERENCED AT examine, and type the SYS to start Cross
170 200 Reference.
180 140 160 It's helpful, if you have a printer, to first
210 170 LIST the program to the printer, and then do the
LISTING COMPLETE appropriate SYS. That way, the cross references
118 COMPUTED Gazalla Fsbruary 19B5
appear on the same sheet of paper as the pro
gram listing.

How It Works
To understand how such a utility works, it helps
to know a little about how BASIC programs are

WHATEVER HAPPENED TO
stored in memory. When you type a program
line, the BASIC keywords are tokenized (con
verted to a single number between 128 and 255).
In addition to tokenizing, the computer cre
ates a line link and converts the line number to
low-byte/high-byte format. In memory, a BASIC
line looks like this:

( L ) line link low


( L ) link link high
( N ) line number low
( N ) line number high
( ) ItASIC line, with tokens

{ 0 ) zero, marking end of line Kong


should hove
There are several ways to create a branch in
BASIC (xxx represents the line number): backed her up
with the NEW
GOTO xxx
GOSUB xxx
Copy Q
IF... THEN xxx In the software jungle,
IF... GOTO xxx no copy program for the Commodore 64™
IF... THEN GOTO xxx works better or copies more at any price!
ON... GOTO xxx, xxx, xxx Copy Q is the fastest, most reliable, ondeasiest-to-use.
ON... GOSUB xxx, xxx, xxx And Copy Q even comes with a backup!
The NEW Copy Q contain! a TRUE INTELLIGENT NIBBIER wDicn copies
all ino in Icrmalion on a disk and oven thonowosi copy p'Ol eel ion including

In each case, the Sine number comes after a halfbacks. I rack 36---.varying data density, misordered and e*lra sectors,
gap ana sync tracks and much moio ,
GOTO, GOSUB, or THEN. There may also be a Copy Q is lully automatic. There are no parameters lo set You don't even
space separating them. The program has to reed to swap disks when using Iwo drives

search for the tokens representing these three Ana Copy Q makes the FASTEST backups by jsing intelligent scanning.
data compression and super-last dala communication Most disks are
keywords, and look at the numbers following copied in |ust three minutes. And many disHs lhal require extensive nibbling
are copiutl in loss than live miniilos
them. Copy Q con lams at her foal u'cslound now tio re alse. Copy QrevirgmsdisHs
ret™ lhan erasing them Copy Q also contains a ulifity that automatically
Line Number Cross Reference begins with LiACks up any dala disk and removes all data errors in |ust two rninutes.

the first line number, and searches through pro Us a software protection jungle and your data and program integrity are at
slake. So don't monkey around with the others You can climb straight lo
gram memory looking for a branch. If it finds the the top with the NEW Copy Q By Q-R & D
token for GOTO (137), GOSUB (141), or THEN Now only 9O9-90
(167), it analyzes the rest of the line for a match Seven day money back guaranteed

(to the first line). (Note that you must use Copy Q and other fine O-R a □ products are available at B Dslions, La
Belles and more than 300 cloaiors nationally For the name ol Ihe dealer
GOTO, not GO TO. The VIC and 64 tokenize ncarosl TO you or to order direct call

GO differently than GOTO.) After checking every 612 831-1088


line for references to the first program line, it
searches (again through every line) for a match
to the second line, the third, the fourth, and so
ONE WEST LAKE STREET. MINNEAPOLIS MNS54Q8- 612922- 7628
on to the last line.
Note that it tries to match only existing line
numbers. If your program contains a GOTO 200
and you delete line 200, it will not show up on
the list of cross referenced lines, because line 200
no longer exists. Thus, you should run Cross Ref
erence before renumbering or deleting lines.
See program listings on page 146. <BI

COMPUTE!'s Gazette February 1985 119


Baker's Dozen
Part 2
Lawrence Cotton

This month, we'll look at five interesting 200, and 300.


sound and graphics programs for the 64. Lines 20-28 generate random screen starting
Each is short and serves as a good example locations, number of characters generated (up to
of what can be accomplished with just a 11), frequencies H(l) through H(4) and L(l)
few program lines. through L(4), and character colors (omitting black
and white); B represents a reversed space.
Lines 30, 100, 200, and 300 POKE the re
versed spaces to the screen and turn the note
Last month, we looked at four short programs (voice 65) on. K is incremented by adding +41,
that demonstrate the color and graphics capabili -41, +39, or -39.

ties of the 64, We'll continue in the same vein Lines 40, 50, 110, 120, 210, 220, 310, and
this month, but we'll look at two new programs 320 check for screen borders and loop to the
which integrate sound with graphics, and three proper lines if a hit is detected.
which demonstrate some unusual sound effects. Lines 60, 130, 230, and 330 turn the voice
By studying the programs, you may see some off and loop back to finish a series of blocks.
techniques which you can use in your own pro Finally, line 340 sends the program back to
grams. If you're more of a user than a pro pick another number of characters generated,
grammer, you'll still enjoy these unusual sight new frequencies, and colors.
and sound demonstrations.
Bleep
Music Patterns "Bleep" is similar to Music Patterns, except we
generate a new character each time the program
This program performs differently every time you
run it. Random-colored blocks fly around the runs, and the patterns build from the center of
screen, bouncing off borders, to the accompani the screen (location 1524). Let's look at the key
ment of random tones. The result is interesting, lines.
sometimes even beautiful, visual and sound pat Lines 111-127 pick characters from a
terns. Occasionally, you may see and hear the predetermined set. Feel free to insert your own
patterns looping. If so, just press RUN/STOP CHRS values. Lines 200-210 pick random fre
and type RUN to start over. Give this one a few quencies and colors, and lines 220-234 deter
tries to see how interesting it can be. Let's look mine which direction the character will move.
at the key lines in the program: Lines 300-310 check only the top and bot
Line 1 clears the sound chip (0), turns up the tom of the screen, provide a short delay loop,
volume (15), sets attack and decay to 4 {no and loop back {via line 360) to line 100. Lines
sustain/release), and defines AA and BB as up 320-340 do all the POKEing—first frequencies,
per and lower frequency memory locations for then characters and colors, then notes on and off
voice 1. after a short delay loop.
Line 10 clears the screen (CHR$147), Line 350 loops back to pick a new fre
PRINTs in white (CHR$5), changes the screen quency, color, and direction, but retains the same
character.
and border color to black (53280,0 and 53281,0),
sets the high pulse at eight, and defines CC
(voice 1 turn on/off). Chimes
In line 20, C (unrelated to location 54272) Unlike the previous programs, "Chimes" is
represents the amount that must be added to strictly a sound demonstration of ring modula
screen memory to control a POKEd character's tion. After running the program, you'll hear a re
color. Note how C is added to K in lines 30, 100, peated set of chime effects and see voice 1 and 2
120 COMPUTE'S Gaiean Fabruary 1985
frequency values. Press the space bar to hear an Our Customers Call Us
other set of chime effects and see the
corresponding values. The REMs in the listing The Commodore Consultants!
It's A Great Computer.
should help explain what the program is doing,
Use It for All It's Worth!
but a few comments are in order. Send loi Our COBiplBlf CtlllOf
We assign random frequencies to voices 1
and 3 (lines 70 and 100, respectively), then com GEMINI 10X
120 cps with
bine them in line 120. Location 54276, which Cardco-fG
normally tums on waveforms (by POKEing 17
for triangle, 33 for sawtooth, 65 for pulse or
PRINTERS
square, and 129 for noise), can be POKEd with Powcriype Daisywhcd IB CPS Epson RX 80
other quantities to produce various effects. withCardcoB S369 with Tymac Connection. . . S299
Okiduta 92 160 CPS Commodore MI'S 802 . 279
with Tymac Connection .... 449 tall for prim an mlwr nwdcli.
Tuba TJT) TJTJ" STARTER KIT: Be ready lo print with 151) sheets laser-perf paper,
Another sound-only program, "Tuba" plays a f JAl j J_j 50 mailing labels & replacement libbon with every prinler combo.
scale sounding, of course, like a tuba. It dem DISK DRIVES
onstrates the use of the 64's resonant filter, found MSD Super Drive Call Commodore 1541 .... Call
Indus GT Coll Phnnemnrk Datnseltc S29
at locations 54292-54296. After running the pro
One liny Datu Drive . . . Cull
gram, you are prompted to press a number from
MONITORS
0 (fast) to 500 (slow). This controls the speed at TeknikaMJIO S239 Sakata 12" GrfAmh S99/109
which the scale is played. Commodore 1702 .... Call
As in Chimes, the program listing contains
COMPUSERVE STARTER KIT
several REMs which may be of assistance in willi purchase of c
understanding the program. Let's take a look at Wcilridjc or Mighty Mo *
the key lines.
Line 40 controls the attack, decay, sustain, MODEMS
and release of the notes, and line 50 processes West ridge 6420 179 VIP Terminal S44
voice 1 through the filter. Mighty Mo 79 Vidlex 27

Line 60 chooses which filter (see the REM), DATABASE MANGERS


The Consultant $65 • NEW • NEW • NEW •
and line 75 lets you plug in variable D, the speed
Super Base 64 59 PFS:Filc S59
at which the tuba plays the scale. The Manager 35 PFS:Reporl Call
Line 100 POKEs frequencies (from the data WORD PROCESSORS
in line 160, read by line 90) into locations 54272 Paper Clip S59 Easy Script S35
and 54273. vWspcllcr 79 Easy Spell 17

Line 120 turns the note on, and line 130 var SPREADSHEETS ACCOUNTING
Calc Result Easy S35 Commodore
ies the cut-off frequency from 255 to 1 in steps of Calc Result Advanced 65 G<L,AJHrA/R,INV,PR module S34
-10, adds a delay (D) to control the speed, then MuiltlPlun 65 • NEW: Peachtree
turns the note off. GIIMPMR syslem 139

Line 140 contains a suggestion (try others, CHALKBOARD


too) in a REM statement, and line 160 contains 'Wilh Software
Purchase
musical note values from the 64 User's Manual.
Feel free to experiment with these.
"One or more al 115: Leo's [.inky BeBiJsm.
O, Lca'l Paintbrush, [ trgiCiMaiicr, I": .. i. - n ■. ■. :i.

Good Vibes ACCESSORIES


The final program this month, "Good Vibes," is Com Cool Drive Fnn $49 Com Cool Plus w/ surge S69

a test program you can use as an aid in creating BLACK NAUGAHYDE COVERS
various sounds for your own programs. C*4 or 1541 Drive ... ea. S5 1702Monitor S1O
After running the program, a set of instruc MSD Drives 1/2 5/6 1525/MPS801 7
tions appear. First, choose a voice (1-5). Press Gemini 10X 9 1526/MPS802 8

the space bar to play a random vibe over and HOST OflMHS SHIPPED WITHIN If HOURS' AJvtHixd pier! *r Iw twill ihttl or mow, order
VISAJMC ndtrndd I i% NOCODORI1ERS PmorJi or rampln, ihnlidiliy orden 21 dijl Ml ukt
over. Press any key (not the space bar) to hear a ate lirul - iMkeivf jnmhindiif ticrjngnl h>r umr pibJud ontj Add 3% lot shipping |t2 50 mm ]
PlfisriilJ lui shipping cm inunilnrs. Ohio fruJnui hid SSft utEiMi Pr«ti& Iviitabililf Jubjrfl lo chjEige
sound and list its values (low and high fre HOURS!MON-FIU IOAMidIDPM • BATIOAMtoSPM • BUNNonnloBPM
quencies, and the step). You can also hold any
key down to cycle through random sounds or 800-638-2617
INFORMATION & IN OHIO 2 16/758-0009
press V to change to another voice.
Let's look at the key lines;
Lines 10-36 set up the sound chip, clear the
screen, and remind you to turn up the volume.
1301 BOARDMAN-I'OLAND ROAD POLAND, OHIO 445 14
Lines 40-120 POKE a waveform to location
54276 and clear the screen again.
THE AMAZING VOICE MASTER
Three random values are generated in line
130: C is the low frequency (lower limit of the
vibe); D is the high frequency (upper limit); and
E is the size of the step to be used in the FOR-
NEXT loops.
Lines 200-220 check the keyboard to see
which key is pressed. If the space bar is pressed,
sound is generated from lines 280 and 290. If V
is pressed, the program loops back to line 40 to
get another voice.
Lines 230-240 POKE voice 1 memory loca
tions with limits, stepped either slowly (values • Record & playback speech in your own voice
around upper limit E) or quickly {values around • Recognize your spoken commands
lower limit E), first up (line 230), then down (line • Hum or sing to compose or play music In real time —
240). nates and chords!

Line 250 PRINTs frequencies and steps to


S89.95
All tins and Add S4 00 (or
the screen, then turns the sound off by POKEing more for only: snipping & handling

voice 1 locations with a zero. You won't bellevo II until you hear II!
You can write down or print out the fre ASK YOUR DEALER NOW FOR A
quencies and steps and use them in one of your VOICE MASTER DEMONSTRATION

own programs. A lot of wild sounds are possible. Or call (503) 342-1271 tor a telephone demonstration and receive a
FREE audio cassette demo tape.
Next month, we'll conclude our series with
Note. Early Voice Masters nave trade in value! Call lor details.
some interesting and colorful graphics programs.
Until then, experiment with these sound pro
grams. You may find that they can be a real aid COVOX INC.
675-D Conger St., Eugene. OR 97402
in your own programming efforts. Telex 706017 [AV ALARM UD)

See program listings on page 148. ffi

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V'J] SUI t-^-* Alt *■■■ JHO0
> (399
rihiii-ih. mp i n?i H'Hrnr a.Pfi h tit*
r/SO SI1J tfihiMf dii dutf < GiuTII UOa'i F1*,
lllVl Cfl 1 16 95 I M9!
IHBU IijIIhiei litrludiil HI! [ah
ififi sri'B Sutllbltt Midi 1 SI 99
Hj'.H 4 I.I built B 111113 61 Unrtt ii n
Uul L»d ll bf BdlKnti incMd
Una M*,,Jyr' 11 Id I Dr 1»,M«4D 1 JI01I
iim ii« Oni M91
F'unIiIi id MSid) I 3! 1)0
J9 99
C*JMgr our Lj* pjntl'
DEALER INQUIRIES WELCOME 19 91

Mi. Software I tdJ-LPil ll»[l«


I & Ti'ni - A flnVI indtt(Bbari« iflJ Hj UOp^'O'Ori Iim LOCI A4rl IIFJOUra
Box imiii iuiiilni JiidnviiraPl FaiF'yinardFii APO 1IHJ AH tntHtitVUl I

Stain College. PA 16S04

122 COMPU7E!'s Gazette February 1985


NEWSSc
PRODUCTS

for simplicity. Keyboard errors


and disk read/write errors are
all reported, and the program
does not lock-up the computer
as do some sector editors.
The program resides in
high memory, and is compatible
with many BASIC programs and
with the DOS Wedge 5.1. A tu
torial manual is included.
Quantum Software
P.O. Box 72716
lake Park, FL 33403-0716
C.O.D. orders (305) 840-0249
The $399 Indus GT disk drive for the Commodore 64. $29.95 (disk)

Disk Drive For Indue Systems, Inc. 64 Drawing


Commodore
9304 Peering Avenue
Chatsworth, CA 91311
System
(818) 882-9600
Computers
The Vcrsawriier Drawing Tablet,
a hardware and software pack
A 5-1/4 inch disk drive de 64 Disk And age that plugs into the user port
signed to be 100 percent com of the Commodore 64, and
patible with Commodore 64 and Memory Utility which allows entry of graphics
V1C-20 software has been intro to the 64's medium resolution
duced by Indus Systems, Inc. screen, has been released by
The Indus GT reportedly oper For intermediate and advanced Versa Computing, Inc.
ates up to 400 percent faster programmers, Quantum Soft More than 30 graphics com
than comparable drives. Fea ware has developed Peek A Byte mands are available with the
tures include readouts that dis 64. The program is a full- system, including full editing,
play track location, drive featured disk editor with built-in microscope, textwriter, and color
number, and error codes; but monitor and disassembler as fill, in more than 200 color op
tons to control digital readouts; part of the software. It not only tions. Graphics produced with
and electronic write-protect. In displays HEX values, but also the system can be saved to disk
dus also is supplying a free soft ASCII and Pet ASCII. for printing later.
ware package that includes a Peek A Byte 64 has a Suggested retail price is
data base, spreadsheet, and track/sector and computer $149.
word processor with each disk memory display and editor with Versa Computing, Inc.
drive. cursor control. HELP screens are 3541 Old Conejo Road, Suite 104
Suggested retail price is available with a single key Newbury Park, CA 91320
$399. stroke. Commands are designed (805) 498-1956

COMPUTED Gazette February 1985 123


FANTASTIC! NEWS&PRODUCTS
VIC-20 & C64 PRODUCTS

CASSETTE INTERFACE
"c $OA95
r\y pnpliithlc en*
recorder to bid
grams Co

lo atari and

A Mows you 10 cnnru^l two


eiia >--cord"Fi Togpfhpr1 in mthe

PARALLEL PRINTER playing game; Broadsides, a


INTERFACE simulation of Napoleonic naval

39 95
battles; President Elect, a game
based on the presidential elec
Connects to t"e User
nort Allows you t< tions from 1960 to the present;
nip any Cen Ironies
«Mndiird parallel
Computer Quarterback, a football
printer mW -i C&d
or VIC-2Q Irana-
simulation; and Breakthrough in
lUdt PF T in Min> the Ardennes, a simulation of the
Li.iri) ASCII Several prnum^ mrjctoi alrow you compiolff
COnlrDlOvif yrmter Print PET ^'flphrcaicuntrui (rWli '>■'•- Caidco's MT/2 monitor tuner con last major German World War II
as ir ic nomoindCHfttcDfJaJ o [CLRJor |uj] Virluit-
It- wv prn'iip* unth hfimap graphic a&My «n prM itcliitf verts a computer monitor into a TV. offensive.
graphic! ch«»clpri. £m[^lrt(ion oi most all CUM pnripr
lunctioris. Software aaaz a PLtSi conn'ianj i<jr QASiC Al! of the games retail for
pfogrtm ii^r.r'" Prmipi Drnet WiAaie cons^mci no mjr-
rn*i user moinyry space, and n caTrj^Eiiiip wntr. nm»i a"
$39.95 each, except Breakthrough
poeuiai sun^are Dii* iftdjidps suHwa'p'orCM and UlC
in the Ardennes, which has a
Monitor Tuner suggested retail price of $59.95.
RS232 INTERFACE
Strategic Simulations Inc.
S3g95
883 Stierlin Road, Bldg, A-200
>ccti to (no U'nir purt Cardco has introduced a moni Mountain View, CA 94043-1983
.gnnli lor rnofl*mi and
tor tuner that converts a com (415) 964-1353
print*n
wiih
? facit
male UB25 con-
i^aule
puter monitor into a television
set. The tuner is compatible
with both color and mono
CONVERSE WITH
d4ittl
mnii

si ructions
Comes wilM a typfrin UASIC t«-
program and prminr r>ooh <n> in- chrome monitors, and includes YOUR COMPUTER
an audio output to a monitor or AT LAST1 A FULL IMPLEMENTATION oi the . : ■ ■ ' .'■' pro-

COMPLETE SERIAL stereo system, a computer/TV


rjrim 11 now amltblo Id run on your Commodore £41
C'ealed al MIT In 1966. EJJZA na* become the wmid't moil

PRINTER DRIVER
celeb rai frd 9 rii n c 1 el m ttlitgen c e da ma rtsirari on pr oa. r a m E Ll ZA1 a t
switch, and a cabte/antenna norvrjircciive jnycfomerapisl who analyzes eacn alalsmonl at
r usir wifh any aerial prInter you i^pa <i m ana mEn responds wuh her own comment O'

vi-s you all mr <G,Hu'es oi the


rnllfl PriHiier Onver proqr.nn
SOQ95 input. q u flsl iq n — ■ nd h er re mark s are □ Ken a ma i\ ng ly a pn ropn ale1
Designed 10 run on a large mamframg. ELUA Ma? never baiuri*
sc'il>pc] above Prints flufa nrj- The MT/2 monitor tuner [itrnn nvoiiablrj 10 earsonal comcui«r u»rs oicepi ir> flruml/
Stripped rJo*nvorjlon? lacking ihegopnljhcalion which mnurlh"
a^diiirjiitn d«v<ce? and 4 nHowinyyuLMrj
Jirr]ijr,ims which dQ"T norm.llly flir^w yau
h tr> 109
retails for $99.95. original pragrgm solaicmaimg

Now. our now Commoflaro 64 vorl.on pOsaoiainQ lhu FULL po*r'r


4»( ■.[! inr griphtci printing on any i#t\*\ printfr A irh Inl Cardco, Inc. arid ranrja si 01 piemen al the ongmBl Is bamg uM«f«4] ni (ho
mlraducTary pnea ol only 125. And if you *ar'iTo rind oulrirjw IMP
300 South Topeka aufli i[ (ar laicn frnr 10 do mure) «e «iii mtPudo Iht camplotc

VOLKSMODEM Wichita, KS 67202


SOURCE PROGRAM PO' onlj S?0 addilional
O'dBf your cop> 0< Et_:ZA today an a yQu'll never again wiondor ho«

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lo rKpono1 «n»n ro j hear someone say. "Okay, lei 3 see whjr'?"»
compuler of yumi can acluallydio1"

BEAOWMATTHCEXPFflTSSATABOUTOUnvEPSIONOFEUZ*
"Mjcrt more man a nere game. Vqi/n te impr&iied wiih
f 1 '/"''■ A ■-■■,'.■■■;.■'-■■ i".i" j- l' t'liriciaiiflieiiifle^cf"
-PC MAGWNE

Adventure,
nudom To a C54 or \ " Delightful tnnnuinment An ideal medium 1di aho*mg on you'
lyiiam" -UtCHOCOMPUTiNG MAGAZIHE
contilnl miniature circuitry tu Miidd • mi " E LIZA 11 an »tau n ding p lece oi 1011 war (f . A Uicnaii ng prog 1 ant
sujnrtlji No ottiur mtottsce nocOfJ I

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itnHBOndliuflv" -BARONSMICROCOMPUTER REPORTS
Typ»-in DASlC ttfjmkrial progmm. Valkurinrtirm not "ELIZA 19 a arefll way 10 inlroduce your frmnfls lo campulera . A
S VlC-Ztr- Cort"FiOOt>ri: uaryiunnypnrl/gamB" -PETER A McWILLIAMS
k^rnDden1" Aichcii Auromation

For 64
"ELfZA ii on fl«eptlonal program, on* mat's fun ro uae, $nows off
ycur maenmu. and nas groat historical irrpeiest"
TO ORDER: See your local ODfll^r -POPULAR COMPUTING M'GAZME
mi* rn.nl loirin address Dciow Oiie/'jj LiTr>iiKariionofELiZAitirieDt4l4eriave$€en ft5aDflriyunme.1t
iintw IF noi ociiqnir^a return ■] rtilh 30 Jays 'ar Hi lul i?U"milcri*1I1L — HQUE APPUCATtOHS FOR THE C-64
rc'unfl jtHs &ni[]^mg Phont ord«fi
ELfZAIS AVAILABLE IH THE FOLLOWING FORMATS.
ii'nip1 specify l'--$- -' C.'ii^!>i
r C O O VISA A M*Herc«d
Strategic Simulations, Inc. has 1 ProTeclM Vert-on , ttt
(Prelected VimDn can Da run Out pot tniM or mod Nod)
II you like Ihese products, and
wanl lo to see more, mark |he
released several adventure and ? Un-prtfKied Commodore 64 &ASiCSou'ceV*WQp M
(Source Vvriion up H iliih arid masir.pqr at «reit at mn)
reader's service card or send to strategy games for the Commo aoln *em on j j n c 1 ude a t.. pag t use r man u b>
get our FREE CATALOG con-
V/S4 I laming dozens qI other exciting dore 64. New titles include: (ColiForniar«i3eii5Clea5eaC.
products.
Rails West!, a simulation of ARTIFICIAL INTELLIGENCE RESEARCH GROUP
921 North La JoJia Avenue. Oepr G

rOrnnitronilD railroad development in the late LO! Ane el EJ.CA 90046


(Zi3)ese-;308 magesi-zzM

P.O. BOX « — MEHCER IS.. VIA 9BQ1O


1800s; Quesiron, a fantasy role- MC. vis* and c"e«s aces oled
1950s.
64 Flight Suggested retail price for
Simulation Mig Alley Ace, on either disk or
cassette/is $34.95.
Game MicroProse Software
10616 Beaver Dam Road
Hunt Valley, MD 21030
Mix Alley Ace, a two-player (301)667-7157
flight simulation game which
features separate cockpits on the New product releases are selected
same screen and three- Double cockpits on the same screen from submissions for reasons of
dimensional graphics, has been are one of the features of Mig Alley timeliness, uniqueness, available
released for the Commodore 64 Ace, newly released for the Commo space, and general interest. Readers
dore 64 by MicroProse Software. should be aware that News & Prod
by MicroProse Software.
Simulation pilots can fly ucts often contains an edited version
of material submitted by vendors. We
their F-86 Sabrejets in battle against a flight of MIG-15s, de
are unable to vouch for its accuracy
against each other, or can fending United Nations troops
at time of publication. 0)
choose to dogfight cooperatively during the Korean conflict of the

TELEMESSfiBE
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THE PROFESSIONAL fiPPROOCH TD ELECTRONIC MOIL!

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* Software clock and calendar On-line membership application
* Automatic start-up and shutdown Operates in standard P.SCII
* Supports both visitors and members Capacity for 100 members
* Stores up to 100 private messages Private and public messages
* Private file for megs to the 9YS0P Logs a record of each call
» Automatic Mail-search at logon Includes the popular Uini mode
* Solid crash-proof design Menu driven and easy to use
* Automatic »rror recovery Includes five support programs
* Easily customized by operator Detailed operations Manual

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HARDWARE REQUIREMENTS:
1 - Compatible with nost auto answer modems including the Cotimodore 1650,
Uestridge and Hayes.
2 - Works with either the MSD SD-2 or two Commodore 1541 disk drives.
(specify your disk drive model when ordering)

Vou get all of these features plus six programs, for only ^~^*3-
Make payment by check or money order, (add S3. 00 for CO. D. orders)

TAILORED SOLUTIONS
P.O. BOX 183, WASHINGTON, D.C. 200*4
PHONE (7B3) 845-8576 DEflLER INQUIRIES WELCOME!
How To Type

Each month, compute's gazette publishes programs character is underlined. For example, /\ means hold
for the VIC-20, Commodore 64, Plus 4, and 16. Each down the the SHIFT key and press A. You may see
program is clearly marked by title and version. Be sure strange characters on your screen, but that's to be ex
to type in the correct version for your machine. Also, pected. If you find a number followed by an under
carefully read the instructions in the corresponding lined key enclosed in braces (for example, {8 A}),
article. This can save time and eliminate any questions type the key as many times as indicated (in our ex
which might arise after you begin typing. ample, enter eight SHIFTed A's).
We publish two programs, appearing in alternat If a key is enclosed in special brackets, E 3 , hold
ing months, designed to make your typing effort eas down the Commodore key (at the lower left corner of
ier: The Automatic Proofreader, and MLX, designed the keyboard) and press the indicated character.
for entering machine language programs. Rarely, you'll see a single letter of the alphabet
When entering a BASIC program, be especially enclosed in braces. This can be entered on the Com
careful with DATA statements as they are extremely modore 64 by pressing the CTRL key while typing the
sensitive to errors. A mistyped number in a DATA letter in braces. For exam eans
statement can cause your machine to "lock up" (you'll
have no control over the computer). If this happens,
the only recourse is to turn your computer off then
The Quote Mode
back on, erasing whatever was in memory. So be sure
to save a copy of your program before you run it. If your
Although you can move the cursor around the screen
with the CRSR keys, often a programmer wiii want to
computer crashes, you can always reload the program
and look for the error. move the cursor under program control. This is seen
in examples such as {LEFT}, and {HOME} in the pro
gram listings. The only way the computer can tei! the
Special Characters difference between direct and programmed cursor
Most of the programs listed in each issue contain spe control is the quote mode.
cial control characters, To facilitate typing in any pro Once you press the quote key, you're in quote
grams from the gazette, use the following listing mode. This mode can be confusing if you mistype a
conventions. character and cursor left to change it. You'!! see a
The most common type of control characters in reverse video character (a graphics symbol for cursor
our listings appear as words within braces: (DOWN} left). In this case, you can use the DELete key to back
means to press the cursor down key; [5 spaces) up and edit the line. Type another quote and you're

■I means to press the space bar five times.


To indicate that a key should he shifted (hold
out of quote mode. If things really get confusing, you
can exit quote mode simply by pressing RETURN.
down the SHIFT key while pressing another key), the Then just cursor up to the mistyped line and fix it.

Iclr!
[HOME}

For Commodore 64 Only

[RED)

(cyn)

12 UPUTEVs Gazette Februaiy 1985


49206 sl41,044, 017, 169 ,087, 141,141
49212 :010,010, 141,168 ,015, 141,033
49218 :045,017, 169,156 ,141, 105,187

Bug-Swatter:
49224 :008,169, 086,141 ,111. 008,083
49230 !160,000, 140,152 ,192, 162,116
49236 :158,134, 251,162 ,192, 134,091

Modifications And Corrections 49242 :252,162, 062,134 ,253, 162,091


49248 :087,134, 254,172 ,152, 192,063
49254 1177,251, 145,253 ,238, 152,038
49260 :192,174, 152,192 ,224, 181,199
49266 :144,239, 169,001 ,162, 008,069
49272 : 160,000, 032,186 ,255, 169,154
49278 :005,162, 153,160 ,192, 032,062
• There are no bugs in "C/G Term" (November
49284 :189,255, 169,001 ,133, 251,106
1984). However, there are some additions and
49290 :169,008, 133,252 ,162, 244,082
corrections for "C/G Bulletin Board" (December 49296 !l60,087, 169,251 ,032, 216,035
and January). 49302 :255,000, 000,048 ,058, 066,065
First, the article did not clearly state that as 49308 :066,083, 169,000 ,170, 168,044
system operator (sysop), your user ID is 1000. 49314 :032,219, 255,173 ,003, 221,041
49320 :041,239, 141,003 ,221, 173,218
You should use this ID number when you do
49326 :001,221, 041,016 ,201, 000,142
maintenance and updates on the board, but you
49332 :208,010, 169,000 ,170, 168,137
can't create a user file with this number. Other 49338 :032,219, 255,076 ,106, 087,193
users will have ID numbers ranging from 1001 to 49344 :032,222, 255,224 ,028, 144,073
1999. 49350 =222,076, 232,009 ,032, 204,205

If you tried typing the two MLX programs, 49356 :255,162, 002,032 ,198, 255,084
49362 :032,228, 255,201 ,000, 240,142
you may have encountered an UNDEFINED
49368 :040,201, 019,208 ,006, 141,063
STATEMENT error in line 550. The explanation
49374 :102,072, 076,138 ,087, 201,130
of how to type in the program neglected to men 49380 :022,208, 003,141 ,102, 072,008
tion that you must first move the start of BASIC 49386 :032,204, 255,162 ,002, 032,153
to avoid overwriting the beginning of MLX. 49392 =201,255, 169,002 ,032, 210,085
Before loading MLX, enter this line: 49398 :255,032, 210,255 ,174, 102,250
49404 :072,224, 000,208 ,010, 032,030
POKE 642,70;SYS 58260 49410 :222,255, 224,014 ,144, 194,031
Once you've saved the program to disk, turn 49416 :076,232, 009,162 ,000, 142,117
49422 :003,070( 142,001 ,070, 142,186
the computer off and back on and follow the
49428 :002,070, 076,081 ,010, 234,237
instructions in the December issue for setting up
49434 :234,234, 234,174 ,240, 071,189
the message disk. 49440 s169,000, 157,021 ,001, 238,106
Finally, there are two situations where call 49446 =240,071, 174,240 ,071, 224,034
ers may be able to crash the bulletin board. The 49452 =010,208, 238,174 ,239, 071,216
first happens when someone calls and hangs up 49458 =096,162, 000,142 ,014, 071,023
49464 =169,000, 174,014 ,071, 157,129
before connecting with the board. The second
49470 =164,069, 238,014 ,071, 174,024
occurs when the user chooses to leave a message 49476 =014,071, 224,085 ,144, 238,076
and then presses f8 (to get out of message 49482 1032,112, 030,032 ,048, 046,118
mode). Version 1.0, which appeared on the 49488 :076,046, 017,000 ,000, 000,219
December GAZETTE DISK and in the December
and January issues, contains these glitches. Ver 2. Load "PATCHPROGRAM",8,1 (the pro
sion 1.1, on the January DISK, has been corrected gram above).
and should be free of bugs. 3. Type NEW.
To fix version 1.0, follow these instructions: 4. Load the original bulletin board with a ,8.
1. Load and run MLX, enter a starting ad 5. POKE a 234 into the eight bytes from
dress of 49152, ending address 49493, then enter 3473 to 3480. For example, POKE3473,234 and
this patch program. When you're finished, save it so on, up to POKE3480,234.
to disk. 6. Put a blank, formatted disk into your
drive, and SYS49152 to run the patch program.
49152 :169, 157,141 ,165, 009, 169,042 7. A new version of the C/G Bulletin Board
49158 :239, 141,069 ,015, 169, 234,105 will be automatically saved to your disk, under
49164 120,023 ,141, 121, 023,069 the name "BBS".
49170 122,023 ,169, 004, 141,106
49176 :037, 034,169 ,033, 141, 038,220
The procedure above applies to the version
49182 :034, 169,076 ,141, 009, 010,212 published in the GAZETTE and the program on the
49188 tl4I, 166,015 ,141, 043, 017,047 December disk. It does not apply to the January
49194 :169, 062,141 ,009, 010, 169,090 DISK, which was corrected. We regret any in
49200 :189, 141,167 ,015, 169, 211,172 convenience this may have caused our readers,

COMPUTED Gazelle Febrjary 1985 127


• There are two errors in the 64 version of
"Jump!" (November 1984). POKES1,30 should
be changed to POKES+ 1,30 in line 740, and
POKES4,0 should be POKES + 4,0 in line 760.
These typos do not affect the play of the game,
but may cause problems with later SAVEs and
LOADs. Thanks to reader Bill J. Pitre for
discovering these two bugs.

• "Trek" {October 1984) works as listed, but sev


eral readers have reported an incorrect Automatic A DISK AND MEMORY EDITOR
Peek A !!■,!>■ is more than a eI■ -.I- editor' >i liMiurr, .1i; l.-i memo'v display
Proofreader checksum for line 3220: in HEX, ASCII, or screen code and a full page editor with cursor control.
YOU CAN PEEK A BYTE...
3220 PRINT"(HOME){11 DOWN}[10 RIGHT} . Change file or disk names, rncover "lust" programs, romiiareiiisli daia.dis
play free sector map. convert HEX/drcimal. read dish drive memory, disas
(5 SPACES}.tGRN).{3 SPACES]. semble disk or memory data, prim must Screen displays. • .and much more!
{3 SPACES}";:T1=TI:GOSUB920:GOTO95
IT'S EASY TO USE!
:rem 104 All commands are simple, easy to remember keystrokes and HELP screens
are always available. Complete error handling fur key entries and disk
read/write errors. Tutorial manual Id; Beginners and pros!
The period at the end of the first line was appar
PEEK A BYTE IS FAST ML CODE
ently taken for a scratch on the printer's negative Afioue BASIC and compatible with many BASIC programs, M L jouiines,
and removed. This does not affect the program and the DOS Wedge 5.1. Doesn't "lock up" the computer.

because after the PRINT statement is executed, QUANTUM SOFTWARE


P.O. Box l2716.Oept_4 ai l for &9Q Q5
there is a GOSUB to a routine that immediately Lake Park. Florida 33403 «Jfc*».**»*
US POST PfllO
clears the screen. © PEEK A BYTE w alradenij:* of Quantum Soltvuara.
To order send edtek ur mousy uriltr, US fund! Foreijn atlil $4 lor ihipuing ini\
iijndluij Floruit iPitdcnn add 5't uln m For US COO orclcfi add S!. Bid™
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DEMO PROGRAM
See COMPUTED GAZETTE February, 1985 Disk

Dreams CAN come true!


Back in June of 1983, Kelvin Lacy The database is equally impressive.
had a dream. He dreamed of creating Create file layouts by simply painting
one integrated program that would a picture of the layout on up to 9
include a spreadsheet, business screens, showing where a field starts
graphics and a database. A program and ends; VIZASTAR does the rest.
with the power of Lotus 1-2-3. On the
Imagine the power of a spreadsheet
Commodore 64. People laughed! He Actual sstttn dump lekm by VEASTAfl
integrated with a database. Now add VIZASTAR conies with a cartridge, a 1541
had just finished
graphics — bar, line, and multi-color diskette with a backup, Reference and
OmniWriter/OmniSpell, to be
pie and 3-D "skyscraper" graphs. You Tu ton ill manuals. VIZASTAR is normally
marketed by HESWARE. Ignoring the
could access a customer's profile in $119.97 but at a Special Introductory
skeptical, he began VIZASTAR.
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Now, after 15 months, his dream has
discounts, sales tax etc. and then VIZASTAR thai we ofter .1 15 day
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Compare VIZASTAR to any other
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ALWAYS in memory. It is menu- and only program ol this kind on the Add P&H; UPS-$3; COD, Canada $5
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12B COMPUTE! s Gazette FetMuary 19B5


540 FORK=0TOF-1 :rem 127
Cypher 550
560
S{K)=91
NEXTK
:rem
:rem
48
37

(Article on page 56.) 570 IFF=QTHEN610 :rem 197


580 FORK=FTOQ-1 :rem 164
590 S{K)-87 :rem 57
BEFORE TYPING . . . 600 NEXTK :rem 32
Before typing in programs, please refer to 610 FORK=0TO5 :rem 14

"How To Type In COMPUTED GAZETTE 620 POKESLOC,S(K) :rem 19


630 POKESLOC+54272,0 :rem 132
Programs," which appears before the Program
640 SL0C=SL0C+2 :rem 150
Listings.
650 NEXTK :rem 37
660 SLOC=SLOC+68 :rem 212
670 CGLOC=CGLOC+68 :rem 67
Program 1: Cypher—64 Version 680 1=0 :rem 84
690 X=X+1 :rem 232
70 PRINT"{CLRj":POKE53280,6:POKE53281,12 700 IFF=6THEN800 :rem 166
:rem 147 710 IFX=12GOTO800 :rem 240
80 GOSUB1210 :rem 172 720 FORK=0TO5 rem 16
90 PRINT:PRINT"(CLR}{WHT}(RVS}INSTRUCTION 730 S(K)=0 rem 246
S ?(2 SPACESjY/NEOFF}" :rem 7 740 NEXTK rem 37
100 GETA$:IFA$=""THEN100 :rem 69 750 Q=0:F=0 rem 71
110 IFA$="Y"THENGOTO1060 :rem 143 760 FORK=0TO7 rem 22
120 IFA$<>"N"THEN100 :rem 83 770 GC{K)=0 rem 49
130 PRINT"{CLR}":DIMA(5),Z(5),S(5),RC(8), 780 NEXTK rem 41
GC{8) :rem 109 790 GOTO330 rem 111
140 GLOC=1039:CGLOC=55311:ANS=1024:A$="": 800 FORT=0TO5 rem 24
POKE54296,15 :rem 231 810 POKEANS,81 rem 63
150 HF=54273:LF=5427 2iHP=5427 5:LP=54274:A 820 POKECANS,A(T) : rem 0
D=54277:SR=54278:WF=54276 :rem 233 830 GOSUB1420 rem 226
160 CANS=55296:SLOC=1053jX=0 :rem 116 840 ANS=ANS+2:CANS=CANS+2 :rem 24
170 POKE649,1 :rem 199 850 NEXT rem 220
180 FORK=1TO12 :rem 63 860 IFZ(I)=8OR(X=12ANDF<6)GOTO910 rem 222
190 FORI=1TO6 :rem 17 870 PRINT"":PRINT"":PRINT"" rem 134
200 POKEGLOC,81:POKECGLOC,11 :rem 218 880 PRINT"(BLK] YOU WON1!":PRINT" (DOWN}
210 GLOC=GLOC+2:CGLOC=CGLOC+2 : rem 27 fBLK} MOVES:"X rem 252
220 NEXTI stem 28 890 GOTO920 rem 117
230 GLOC=GLOC+68:CGL0C=CGL0C+68 :rem 149 910 PRIKT"(BLK](3 DOWN} YOU LOSE!
240 NEXTK :rem 32 rem 160
250 GLOC=1039:CGLOC=55311 :rem 164 920 PRINT:PRINT rem 239
260 FORL=0TO5 :rem 16 930 PRINT"(14 DOWN) PRESS ANY KEY
270 B=INT(RND{1)*8) :rem 28 rem 185
280 RC(B)=RC(B)+1 :rem 131 940 GETC?:IFC$=""THEN940 :rem 97
290 A(L)=B :rem 248 960 PRINT"JCLRjtWUT}{2 DOWNH2 SPACES}WOU
300 POKEANS,90:POKECANS,2:GOSUB1510:ANS=A LD YOU LIKE TO TRY AGAIN ?(2 SPACESJ
NS+2:CANS=CANS+2 :rem 92 {rvS}Y/n(OFf}" :rem 146
310 NEXTL srem 31 970 GETAS :rem 229
320 ANS=1024:CANS=55296 :rem 34 980 IFA$=""THEN970 :rem 229
330 FORI=0TO5 :rem 11 990 IFA$="Y"THENRUN90 :rem 253
340 GETZ$:IFZ$=""THEN340 :rem 131 1000 IFA$<>"N"THEN970 :rem 144
350 IFASC(Z$)=20THENGOTO1020 :rem 151 1009 PRINT"(CLR3":POKE54296,0 srem 253
360 IFASC(Z$}<49ORASC(ZS)>57THEN340 1010 POKE53280,14:POKE53281,6:PRINT"^73":
:rem 46 POKE649,10:END :rem 161
370 Z(l)=VAL(Z?) : rem 125 1020 FORDE=I*2TO1STEP-1sPOKECGLOC-DE,12:G
380 Z(I)=Z(I)-1 :rem 30 OSUB1510:NEXTDE i rem 28
390 IFZ(I)=8THEN800 :rem 91 1030 FORRE=0TO8:GC(RE)=0:NEXTRE :rem 179
400 GC(Z(I))=GC(Z(I))+1 rem 203 1040 CGLOC=CGLOC-(I*2) :rem 245
410 POKECGLOC,Z(I) : rem 76 1050 GOTO330 :rem 149
420 GOSUB1330 rem 221 1060 PRINT"{CLRjTHIS IS A CODE BREAKING G
430 CGL0C=CGL0C+2 :rem 1 AME. SIX 0F{2 SPACES}" srem 111
440 NEXTI rem 32 1065 PRINT"EIGHT RANDOM COLORS WILL BE CH
450 FORI=0TO7 rem 16 OSEN." irem 78
460 IFGC{I)<=RC(I)TMENQ=Q+GC(I) rem 82 1070 PRINT"A COLOR MAY BE CHOSEN MORE THA
470 IFGC(I)>RC(I)THENQ=Q+RC(I) rem 35 N "; :rem 32
480 NEXTI rem 36 1075 PRINT"ONCE.{3 SPACES]AFTER THE SIX D
490 FORK=0TO5 rem 20 IAM0NDS{SHIFT-SPACE}COVERING THE"
500 IFZ(K)=A(K)THENF=F+1 rem 136 :rem 101
510 NEXTK rem 32 1080 PRINT"CODE APPEAR, ENTER YOUR GUESS
520 IFQ=0THEN610 :rem 170 [SPACEjWITH THE(2 SPACESjCOLOR KEYS.
530 IFF=0THEN580 :rem 166 " :rem 244

COMPUTE!'! Gazette Fetwuary 1985 129


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640 SLOC=SLOC+1 :rem 149 1150 PRINT"YOU HAVE 12 TURNS, IP YOU WISH
650 NEXTK :rem 37 TO SEE " :rem 43
660 SLOC=SLOC+38 :rem 209 1160 PRINT"THE CODE AND QUIT THATGAME ENT
670 CGLOC=CGLOC+38 :rem 64 ER '9'. " :rem 41
680 1=0 :rem 84 1170 PRINT"{DOWNjIF 5 OR LESS COLORS
690 X=X+1 :rem 232 {3 SPACEBjHAVE BEEN GUESSED":rem 103
700 IFF=6THEN800 :rem 166 1175 PRINT"ENTER 'DEL' TO REMOVE THE CUES
710 IFX=12GOTO800 :rem 240 S." :rem 71
720 FORK=0TO5 :rem 16 1180 PRINT"{5 SPACES}{RVS}PRESS ANY KEY
730 S%(K)=0 :rem 27 [OFF}" ;rem 157
740 NEXTK srem 37 1390 GETRS:IFRS=""THEN1J90 :rem 219
750 Q=0:F=0 :rem 71 1200 GOTO130 :rem 144
760 FORK=0TO7 :rem 22 1210 PRINT" [PUR) {CLR} [10 DOWNHRVS}
770 GC%(K)=0 :rem 86 (2 SPACES}{OFF) {RVS) [OFF) [RVS]
780 NEXTK jrem 41 [OFF) [RVS){3 SPACES}(OFF} {RVS}
790 GOTO330 :rem 111 {OFF} [RVS) [OFF} (RVS}{3 SPACES}
800 FORT=0TO5 srem 24 {OFF) {RVS][3 SPACES]{OFF}";:rem 201
810 P0KEANS.81 srem 63 1220 PRINT"{RVS] [OFF][2 SPACES)(RVS}
820 POKECANS,A%(T) :rem 37 {3 SPACES}(OFF} {RVS} {OFF} [RVS)
830 GOSUB1420 :rem 226 {OFF) fRVS) (OFFj^O^ERVS) {OFF]
840 ANS=ANS+1:CANS=CANS+1 :rem 22 ERVS) {OFF]|2 O^ fRVS} {OFF} (RVS}
850 NEXTT ;rem 48 {OFF}"; :rem 192
860 POKE198,0:IFZ%{I)=8OR(X=12ANDF<6)GOTO 1230 PRINT"{RVS] (OFF}[3 SPACES]{RVS}
910 :rem 106 {0FF}{2 SPACES}{RVS}{3 SPACES)(OFF}
880 PRINT"{CLR}(3 DOWN}{2 SPACES}YOU WON {SPACE][RVS} £0% [OFF} (RVS) %2 0|
{SPACE}IN"X"MOVES":PRINT"(8 SPACES]"; [OFF] {RVS}[2 SPACES}l*%[OFF}";
:rem 43 :rem 130
890 GOTO930 :rem 118 1250 PRINT"[RVS}[2 SPACES)(OFF][2 SPACES}
910 PRINT"{3 DOWN)(8LK}YOU LOSE" : rem 94 (RVS) (OFF)[2 SPACES}[RVS] [OFF]
930 PRINT"{2 DOWN} [RVS}PRESS{2 DOWN} {3 SPACES)tRVS) {OFF) {RVS} [OFF}
(4 LEFT}ANY{2 DOWN}(3 LEFT}KEY" [RVS}[3 SPACES}{OFF} (RVS) {OFF)
:rem 142 {RVS} {OFF]"; :rem 244
940 GETC?:IFCS=""THEN940 :rem 97 1310 FORD=1TO2000:NEXTD :rem 128

960 PRINT"{CLR}{2 DOWN]{BLK}WOULD YOU LIK 1320 RETURN :rem 166


E TO TRY AGAIN ?{2 SPACES}[RVS)Y/N
1330 IFZ%(I)=0THENHI=130:LO=130 :GOTO1520
:rem 78
{OFF}" :rem 29
1340 IFZ%(I)=1THENHI=175:LO=175 :GOTO1520
980 GETA?:IFA$=""THEN980 :rem 101
:rem 98
990 IFA$="Y"THENRUN130 :rem 40
1000 IFA$<>"N"THEN980 :rem 145
1350 IFZ%(I)=2THENHI=183:LO=1O3 :GOTO1520
:rem 98
1010 PRINT"{CLR}":END :rem 55
1360 IFZ%(l)=3THENHI=191:LO=191 :GOTO15 20
1020 FORDE=ITO1STEP-1:POKECGLOC-DE,12:GOS
:rem 98
UB1510:NEXTDE :rem 192
1370 IFZ%{I)=4THENHI=195:LO=195 :GOTO1520
1030 FORRE=0TO8:GC%{RE)=0:NEXTRE :rem 216
:rem 108
1040 CGLOC=CGLOC-(I*1) srem 244 1380 IFZ%(I) = 5T11ENHI=201:LO=201 :GOTO1520
1050 GOTO330 :rem 149
:rem 86
1060 PRINT"[CLRjTHIS IS A CODE BREAK- ING 1390 IFZ%(I)=6THENHI=207:LO=207 :GOTO1520
GAME. SIX OF EIGHTRANDOM COLORS WIL
:rem 100
L BE" sretn 95 1400 IFZ%(I)=7THENHI^209:LO=209 :GOTO1520
1070 PRINT"CHOSEN. A COLOR MAY BECHOSEN M
:rem 97
ORE THAN ONCE.AFTER THE SIX DIAMONDS 1410 RETURN :rem 166
"; :rem 247 1420 IFA%(T)=0THENHI=130:LO=130 :GOTO1520
1080 PRINT"COVERING THE CODE{5 SPACESjAPP :rem 64
EAR, ENTER YOUR[4 SPACES}GUESS WITH 1430 IFA%(T)=1THENHI=175:LO=175 :GOTO1520
(SPACEjTHE COLOR{2 SPACES}KEYS." :rem 84
:rem 50 1440 IFA%(T)=2THENHI=183:LO=183 :GOTO1520
1090 PRINT"AFTER YOUR SIX COLORS ARE ENTE :rem 84
RED YOUR SCOREWILL APPEAR." :rem 235 1450 IFA%(T)=3THENHI=191:L0=191 :GOTO1520
1092 PRINT"{5 SPACES}{DOWN}{RVS]PRESS ANY :rem 84
KEY" trem 30 1460 IFA%(T)=4THENHI=195:LO=195 :GOTO15 20
1095 GETAS:IFA$=""THEN1095 :rem 193
:rem 94
1100 PRINT"(CLR){DOWN)SCORING IS:":rem 34 1470 IFA%(T)=5THENHI=201:LO=201 :GOTO1520
1110 PRINT"+=CORRECT COLOR(9 SPACES]CORRE
:rem 72
CT LOCATION" :rem 248 1480 IFA%(T)=6THENHI=207:LO=207 :GOTO1520
1120 PRINT"0=CORRECT COLOR WRONG : retn 86
{3 SPACES}LOCATION" :rem 121 1490 IFA%(T)=7THENHI=209:LO=209 :GOTO1520
1130 PRINT"@=WRONG COLOR" :rem 31 :rem 92
1140 PRINT"{DOWN)THE SCORING MARKER 1500 RETURN :rem 166
[4 SPACES)LOCATIONS DON'T RELATETO T 1510 HI=45:LO=198 .rem 178
HE GUESS LOCATIONS" :rem 220 1520 POKEHF.HI:POKELF,LO :rem 4

COMPUTE!* Gaietla February 19B5 131


1560 FORSO=1TO150:NEXTSO :rem 23 270 DATA124,66,66,124,72,68,66,0,16,16,16
1570 POKEHF,0:POKELF,0 :rem 61 ,8, 15,0,0,0 :rem 35
1580 RETURN :rem 174 280 DATA8,8,B,16,240,0,0,0,72,72,84,35,20
,8,7,0 :rem 36
290 DATA 18,18,42,196,40,16,224,0,129,129,
The Forbidden Crypt 300
66,36,153,189,126,60 :rem 251
DATA60,126,189,153,36,66,129,129,34,3
(Article on page 53.) 4,34,220,124,220,34,34 :rem 74
310 DATA60,90,90,126,36,36,24,0,60,32,32,
32,32,32,60,0 :rem 112
BEFORE TYPING . . . 320 DATA12,16,16,60,16,112,110,0,60,4,4,4
,4,4,60,0 irem 151
Before typing in programs, please refer lo
330 DATA0,8,28,42,8,8,8,8,0,0,16,32,127,3
"How To Type In COMPUTED GAZETTE
2,16,0 :rem 30
Programs," which appears before the Program
340 DATA0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,8,8,8,8,0,0,8,0
Listings. !rem 109
350 DATA36,36,36,0,0,0,0,0,36,36,126,36,1
26,36,36,0 :rem 224
Program 1: The Forbidden Crypt— 360 DATA8,30,40,28,10,60,B,0,0,98,100,8,1
VIC Loader 6,3B,70,0 irem 178
Note: Requires 8K or more expansion memory. See 3 70 DATA48,72,72,48,74,68,58,0,60,24,24,2

instructions in article in-fore entering VIC version. 4,24,24,24,60 :rem 152


380 DATA0,0,63,63,63.63,60,60,0,0,252,252
110 POKE44,32tPOKE64 2,32:POKE8192,0:POKE6 ,252,252,60,60 :rem 169
48,30:POKE36866, I 50 : l3OKt:36869, 240 : PRI 390 DATA60,60,2 52,252,2 52,252,0,0,60,60,6
NT"{CLR]" :rem 148 3,63,63,63,0,0 :rem 170
120 PRINT"FOR TAPE, PRESS PLAY."::rem 205 400 DATA0.0,255,255,255,2 55,0,0,60,60,60,
130 SS="LO"+CHR$(34)+"A"+CHRS(34)+",8:"+C 60,60,60,60,60 :rem 162
HR$(131) srem 62 410 DATA0,0,0,0,0,24,24,0,0,2,4,B,16,32,6
140 REM CHANGE 8 TO 1 IN LINE 13W IF USIN 4,0 :rem 99
G A DATASETTE :rem 115 420 DATA60.66,70,90,98,66,60,0,8,24,40,8,
150 FORI = 1TOLEN{S$) : POKF630+I, ASC (MI[}$ ( SS 8,8,62,0 :rem 155
,1)}:NKXT:POKE198,I:END :rem 141 430 DATA60,66,2,12,48,64,126,0,60,66,2,28
,2,66,60,0 :rem 237
Program 2: The Forbidden Crypt— 440 DATA4,12,20,36,126,4,4,0,126,64,120,4

VIC Custom Characters ,2,68,56,0 srem 222


450 DATA28,32,64,124,66,66,60,0,126,66,4,
100 CS=4096:PRINT"(CLR}":FORA=0TO25 5:POKE 8,16,16,16,0 irem 91
7680+A,A:POKE38400+A,0:NKXTAsPOKE3686 460 DATA60,66,66,60,66,66,60,0,60,66,66,6
9,252 :rem 34 2,2,4,56,0 srem 1
110 FORA=0TO2047!POKEA+CS,PEEK{3 276B+A) sN 470 DATA0,0,8,0,0,8,0,0,0,0,8,0,0,8,8,16
EXTA :rem 212 :rem 168
120 FORA=0TO1023:READBsPOKECS+A,B:NEXTA:P 480 DATA14,24,48,96,48,24,14,0,0,0,126,0,
OKE36669,24B :rem 247 126,0,0,0 :rem 169
130 FORA=0TO85:READB:POKE7168+A,H:NEXTA 490 DATA112,24,12,6,12,24,112,0,60,66,2,1
:rem 164 2,16,0,16,0 srem 0
140 PRINT"ECLR}FOR TAPE, PRESS PLAY."; 500 DATA0,64,32,240,240,32,64,0,0,2,4,15,
:rem 98 15,4,2,0 =rem 101
150 S$="LO"+CIIRS(34)+"D"+CHRS(34)-t-",S: "+C 510 DATA0,0,0,0,24,60,90,24,0,0,0,0,240 , 4
HR$(131) :rem 65 8,80,144 :rem 98
160 REM CHANGE 8 TO 1 IN LINE 150 IF YOU 520 DATA0,0,0,0,15,12,10,9,24,90,60,24,0,
[SPACEjARE USING A DATASETTE :rem 76 0,0,0 :rem 195
170 FORI=1TOLEN(SS):POKE630+1,ASC(MID$(SS 530 DATA144,80,48,240,0,0,0,0,9,10,12,15,
, I)) :NEXT:POKE198,I:END :rem 143 0,0,0,0 srem 44
L80 DATA60,126,219,255,255,219,102,60,0,0 540 DATA4,4,4,4,4,4,4,4,0,0,0,0,224,16,8,
,0,0,24,60,90,24 irem 10 8 :rem 22
190 DATA0.64.32,240,240,32,64,0,24,90,60, 550 DATA8,8,8,4,3,0,0,0,8,8,B,16,224,0,0,
24,0,0,0,0 :rem 205 0 :rem 30
200 DATA0,2,4,15,15,4,3,0,0,56,56,194,144 560 DATA128,128,128,128,128,128,128,255,1

,254,18,18 :rem 225 28,64,32,16,8,4,2,1 srem 194


210 DATA16,40,68,68,68,68,198,0,2, 63,150, 570 DATA1,2,4,8,16,32,64,128,255,128,128,
254,18,40,198,0 :rem 1 128,128,128,128,128 :rem 195
220 DATA0,3,118,124,112,0,0,0,0,192,96,51 580 DATA255,1,1,1,1,1,1,1,0,60,126,126,12

,30,0,0,0 :rem 142 6,126,60,0 :rem 206


230 DATA40,56,214,24 3,219,14,0,0,60,122,2 590 DATA0,0,0,0,0,0,255,0,54,127,127,127,
47,129,126,122,122,122 : rem 47 62,28,8,0 :rem 169
240 DATA30.62,24,24,60,126,126,60,24,52,8 600 DATA64,64,64,64,64,64,64,64,0,0,0,0,3
2,255,74,44,24,0 :rem 21 ,4,8,8 :rem 43
250 DATA144,96,112,184,28,14,7,3,28,116,3 610 DATA129,66,36,24,24,36,66,129,0,60,66
1,127,15,4,4,12 :rem 232 ,66,66,66,60,0 :rem 207
260 DATA12,24,240,224,224,96,32,96,20,29, 620 DATAB,28,42,119,42,8,8,0,2,2,2,2,2,2,
106,252,252,36,36,108 :rem 25 2,2 :rem 127
132 COMPUTE!s GazottB February 1985
630 DATA8,28,62,127,62,28,8,0,8,8,8,8,255 80 TP$="(,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,)":BT$="+,,,
,8,8,8 :rem 73 ,,,,,,,,,,,,,,, ,,*" :rem 172
640 DATA160,80,160,80,160,80,160,80,8,8,8 90 SI$="-{20 SPACES]-" tML$=" {RED}@@@@@@@@
,8,8,8,8,8 :rem 4 @":LV=1:SC=0:MQ=1 :rem 165
650 DATA0,0,1,62,84,20,20,0,255,127,63,31 100 POKE36878,10:POKE36879,8:POKE36869,25
,15,7,3,1 :rem 166 2sC=30720:P=7910 trem 199
660 DATA0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,240,240,240,240,2 110 IFTC=4THENTC=0:GOSUB790 :rem 182
40,240,240,240 :rera 122 120 GOSUB180 trem 172
670 DATA0,0,0,0,255,255,255,255,255,0,0,0 130 GOSUB430 t P= (MN ( RM, 1) +8 ) +9* ( PI =•-1)
,0,0,0,0 :rem 103 :rem 9
680 DATA0,0,0,0,0,0,0,255,128,126,128,128 140 IFMQ<>11THENGOTO110 :rem 152
,128,128,128,128 :rem 16 150 PRINT"{CLR]{10 DOWN}(YEL3(6 RIGHT]
690 DATA170,85,170,85,170,85,170,85,1,1,1 {RVS]GAME OVERfOFF}" irem 234
,1,1,1,1,1 :rem 233 160 PRINT"EDOWN]{4 RIGHT]{RVSjPRESS ANY K
700 DATA0,0,0,0,170,85,170,85,255,254,252 EY":PRINT"{4 RIGHT]{RVSjTO PLAY AGAIN
,248,240,224,192,128 :rem 226 {OFF]" :rem 185
710 DATA3,3,3,3,3,3,3,3,8,8,8,8,15,8,8,8 170 POKE198,0:WAIT 198,1:PRINT"(BLU]":RUN
:rem 204 :rem 140
7 20 DATA0,0,0,0,15,15,15,15,8,8,8,8,15,0, 180 GOSUB690:GOSUB710:PRINT"{BLU)"jFORI=l
0,0 srem 117 TO4:IFRM(I)=0THENPOKEMN(I,1)+3,160
730 DATA0,0,0,0,248,8,8,8,0,0,0,0,0,0,255 trem 99
,255 :rem 166 190 NEXT:POKEP,46:POKEP+C,2:GOSUB760
740 DATA0,0,0,0,15,8,8,8,8,8,8,8,255,0,0, i rem 4
0 :rem 35 200 SYS7168:P1=DR(PEEK(820)):TP=PEEK(P+Pl
750 DATA0,0,0,0,255,8,8,8,8,8,8,8,248,8,8 :rem 227
,8 :rem 116 210 IF(TP<>32)AND(TP<>39)THEN200 rem 101
760 DATA192,192,192,192,192,192,192,192,2 220 P=P+P1:IFTP=32THENPOKEP-P1,32 POKEP+C
24,224,224,224,224,224,224,224 ,2:POKEP,46:GOTO200 rem 242
:rem 23 5 230 TP=P:PORI=1TO4:IF{MN(I,1)=P)OR{MN(I,1
770 DATA7,7,7,7,7,7,7,7,255,255,0,0,0,0,0 I+7=P)THENRM=I:I=5 rem 106
i0 :rem 92 240 NEXTI:P=7897+(17*{P=MN(RM,1)) jMT=MN(
780 DATA255,255,2 55,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,2 RM,2):MB=MN(RM,3):MP=MN(RM,4) rem 136
55,255,255 :rem 213 250 MD=MN(RM,5)sMC=MN(RM,6) :rem 69
790 DATA1,1,1,1,1,1,1,255,0,0,0,0,240,240 260 IFRM(RM)=1THENPOKEP-P1,32:POKEP+C,2:P
,240,240 -rem 89 OKEP,46:RETURN :rem 255
800 DATA15,15,15,15,0,0,0,0,8,8,8,8,248,0 270 P=TP-P1:GOTO200 :rem 125
,0,0 trem 172 280 FORI=1TO4:MM=MM+1:IFMM=4THENMH=0
810 DATA240,240,240,240,0,0,0,0