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The Move Toward Integrated Software

January 1985 •
Issue 19, Vol. 3, No. 1
02220 $3.50 Canada

For Owners And Users Of Commodore VIC-20 And 64" Personal Computers

Also in This issue: Math

Computing For Families

Debugging BASIC, Part 1

When the Math Monsters give
VIC Magic Draw
you a quiz, you'd better know
Plus Games, Reviews, the answers. That's the only
And More way out of the dungeon. An
exciting, educational text
adventure with five difficulty

Magazine levels. For the VIC and 64.

Instantly reference all those
important articles with this
easy-to-use computerized
filing system for the VIC
and 64.

A Window
To The World:
Modems In The Home Trap 'Em
More than a thousand Build fences around your opponent without getting
useful services are just a hemmed in yourself. An exciting one- or two-player
phone call away. Here's game for the VIC and 64.
how they can make you
more productive while
educating your family and
helping with routine house
hold tasks.
0 1

7K86 02220
When you shopped for a computer, you wanted one with a lot of intelli
gence. This game may lend you to regret that choice, as your friendly little
computer becomes the brains behind the most fantastic enemy you will ever
face: I he War Machine.
A monstrous artificial intelligence directs an endless army of self-
replicating robot weapons and a complex of factories hidden on six heavily
defended islands. Even as you strike at one island, robots beyond your field of
vision continue to repair the damage you've done.. .to attack
and destroy.
Before all of Humankind is crushed beneath the Bungcling Empire's iron
heel, one faint hope remains: you in your helicraft.


liver dream that you were locked in a hr.unled castle, wandering blindly
through darkened corridors, never knowing .vhat ghastly demons await you?
Then you'll feel right at home in The Castles of Doctor Creep.
It's a maddening maze of 13 separate castles, more than 200 rooms in all,
Sinister surprises await you behind every door; mummies and monsters,
forcefields and death rays, trap doors and dead — very dead—ends. Remember
where you've been and watch where you're going.. .there'sgot to be a way
out somewhere1.
Better hurry, or you'll wind up playing a rather unpleasant role in one of
Doctor Creep's experiments.

Who knows what fabulous treasures—and unspeakable dangers—await
you in the world's deepest cave? This is one game you can really get into...
and into. ..andinto.
Wander through miles of uncharted passageways, swinging on ropes and
ladders, tumbling over subterranean falls and plunging to the very depths of
the earth on an abandoned mine railroad. Deadly steam vents and boiling lava
pits threaten you at every turn. Chattering bats and the Spirits of dead
Spelunkers beg you to join them, permanently.
Let's face it: you're in deep, deep trouble.

You're the star of a full-fledged arcade adventure—and the big question
is whether it'll turn out to be a comedy or a tragedy. That's because your co-star
and beloved brother, Archaeologist Fenton Q. I:ogbank, is rather absent-
minded and extremely accident-prone.
As you search for priceless treasures in steaming tropical jungles, ancient
cliff villages, musty old tombs and glittering crystal caverns, you control both
your character and your brother. The only way to keep him on track and out
of trouble is to whistle and pray that he follows you to safety.
Poison arrows, runaway boulders, fearsome frogs and mysterious
mummies are only a few of the hazards that'll make you wish you weren't your
rother's keeper.

You're all alone on a strange and forbidding planet. On the distant horizon,
looming thousands of meters above the blasted landscape, lies your destina
tion: The Dark Tower, home of the mysterious Council of Nine, cruel overlords
a conquered world.
You must maneuver your Stealth Startighter through an unending assaull
by the Council's automated arsenal —jets and heat-seeking missiles, photon
tanks and anti-aircraft batteries, vaporizing volcanoes and deadly energy fields.
Outgunned and outmanned, you must press ever onward, with only your
stealth to rely on.
You must reach the Tower. You must destroy it. There's no turning back.

AtttJltaaoaMabUan CarnmadarwGi. ChnmplanfhJpLcda RuAAtTdto outflaErlf on Appfi II *. lit, M< WhMJflrr1* Hroihrr, SpflunktrnflrfSiwtthfliwaiHdaWf/orAlBri
Hdrnr C£iiFi/nji*'r». CommotferrM da tradwmnrkafCommodorilsftctrQnia, Ltd.AppU '*n truttmarU ofAjrplwCompui§% Ii\^Atarii*a trvdtmark of Atari Cerpomttoi*,

(• AmiiwnJfy


It has come to our attention that some of you
out there think you're pretty t;ood at Lode
Rutmer, 1983's best computer game. For those
foolhardy few, we offer a challenge of a higher
order: Championship Lode Runner.
With fifty fiendish Treasury Chambers;
more intricate, more elaborate, more insidious
than anything you've seen before. You'll need
lots of skill, lots of smarts, and every ounce
of your lode-running experience to have any
hope at all of survival.
And if you haven't yet paid your dues
on the original Lade Runner, don't even think
of attempting this championship round.

Tor mote in/brniniion about SrtMrrbunrfniiii \'i , inriir in mat: 17 ftini Drive, Rafael, California 94903 or call (413} 479-1170. ci«i!.| Brfdcrbund So/h»rr, fnfc
Computer pro
daVinci, Shakesp
Al Capp would ha
;rams for kids that
eare, Dickens and
ve loved.
if they were starting out today this BANK STREET STORYBOOK
is what they could start with. Pixelwerks. Dickens wouldn't be able to keep
THE OTHER WAY his hands off Bank Street StoryBook by
TO DRAW AND WRITE George Bracket!
Instead of a brush and canvas, a Not only coutd he write his own
pen and paper; they'd create on a com story, but he could also illustrate the
puter Because Pixelwerks is the first scenes and characters he sees in his
medium that can keep up with their mind.
imaginations. MR. PIXELS CARTOON KIT
MR. PIXELS Maybe Al Capp wouldn't be satis
PROGRAMMING PAINT SET fied with cartoons that just sit on the
With Mr Pixel's Programming Paint page after he tried Mr Pixel's Cartoon
Set, da Vinci (or any 8-year old) could do Kit. Because he could make his car
more than paint a picture. He could also toons come to life by animating them.
enlarge it, repeat it, move it around, and His characters could move around, and
change colors. Instantly, even react to each other
And at the same time, he Every kid has a touch of creative
developing his programming genius buried inside, "me job of
skills. Painlessly. Pixelwerks is to
SHOW DIRECTOR bring it out, with
On the other hand, Shakespeare more features,
would love to play around with Show more options and
Director more flexibility than
He'd use it to create plots other programs.
and think up one scene after an In short, we supply the tools. Kids
other, and he'd get a big cast of supply the imagination.
characters, lots of backgrounds,
props, and musical sound effects to
act them out.
in am 1 SCO 9J2 »15
How do you
How many plates can moonwalk, snake What's the capital
the Juggler juggle? and tut? of Alaska?

Chinese Juggler Break Street Roll Call USA

7 hat depends on you.You are ou'll soon become a break o you know? Get ready to
the Juggler and your act is the dancing expert with our latest outwit your family and
delicate art of plate spinning. bestseller. Break Street. Now friends with Roll Call USA's
Yours will be a tough act to follow that combination of gymnastics, fun facts on statesxapitals and
if you succeed in matching colors mime, funk, and just plain show-off, major industries.
and spinning plates on all 8 poles leaves the sidewalks and comes Roll Call USA combines history
at the same time. home to your Commodore 64. and geography facts into a colorful
As your skill increases, so does Individual play guides you question and answer game that
the pace and the challenge of the through the footwork of moonwalk, challenges your knowledge of the
game. You must act with speed and backspin, windmill, tut, and the 50 states, their capitals, major
precision or the curtain will come rest of those sidewalk moves. Slow industries and statehood dates.
down and your act will be all motion and lively musical accom Feel confident? Drill yourself
washed up! paniment help you perform each with a Flash Test. The game is
Chinese Juggler is a refreshing move step by step. String together speeded up, so think fast. Your
departure from the usual shoot- a whole series of moves and answers are tallied up at the end
em-ups and strategy games. It's record them for future replay. fora final score.
fun, fast-paced and will delight Catch the beat of the street with Roll Cal! USA, a game of USA
players of any age. For Commodore Break Street. For individual or team trivia for team or individual play.
64. New from Creative Software. play. New from Creative Software. For Commodore 64. New from
Creative Software.

$24.95 $24.95 $14.95

Call and order today! Use your Visa,
The answers are at MasterCard or personal check. Toll
your finger tips. Free 1-800-331-7990 (outside
California), 1-800-448-1001
(in California), or 1-408-745-1655.
"Commodoro G4" is a completely satisfied,return within
Emdirnwk of Commodore Electronics. Ltd. 10 days for full refund.

230 East Caribbean Drive, Sunnyvale. CA 94089 c 1984 Creative Software
January 1985 Vol. 3, No. 1

The Move Toward Integrated Software Selby Bateman 26 *

Inside View: Bruce Artwick, The Designer Behind Flight Simulator II Kathy Yakal ... 32 *
A Window To The World: Modems In The Home Sharon Darling 38 *

reviews HHHRBHHH
Seven Cities of Gold Gregg Keizer 98 64
Childpace C. Regena 104 64
Also Worth Noting 110 *

Trap 'Em Jon Rhees

I54 V/64
Chomper George Hu 56 V/64
Kablam! Stephen Ressler 60 V/64

Computing For Families: A Visit With Sweetums The Ogre Fred D'lgnazio 44 *
VIC Magic Draw Kevin Gough '52 V
Math Dungeon Richard Lowe 62 V/64
Magazine Indexer Daniel Miller 66 V/64

BASIC Magic: Using Variables In 1985 Michael S. Tomczyk 72 V/64/ + 4/16
Hints & Tips: Double Duty Variables William A. Yarberry, Jr. 90 V/64
Machine Language For Beginners: ML Mailbag Richard Mansfield 115 V/64
Debugging BASIC, Part 1 Todd Heimarck 125 V/64
Power BASIC: Stop And Go Jim Pejsa 132 V/64
Baker's Dozen, Part 1 Lawrence Cotton 133 64
Disk Merge Robert D. Riemersma, Jr 135 v/64

The Editor's Notes

Robert C. Lock 6 *
Gazette Feedback Editors And Readers 10 *
Simple Answers To Common Questions Tom R. Halfhill 66 *
Horizons Charles Brannon 80 V/64/ + 4/16
User Group Update 94 *
News & Products 137 *

How To Type In COMPUTERS Gazette Programs 142 *
The Automatic Proofreader 143 V/64
Bug-Swatter: Modifications And Corrections 144 V/64
Tiny MLX 145 V
C/G BBS Robert Sims 146 64

Product Mart 190 *

Advertisers Index 192 *

• =General, V=VIC-20, 64=Commodore 64, +4=Plus/4, 16=Commodore 16.

COMPUTE!'* GAZETTEb published monthly by COMWITO PuHkaHonJ, Inc.. Post Office Bov 5106. Grecnsbnro. NC 27105 USA. Phone (519) 275-9S09. Ediloria! offices arc
locjlcd i\ 324 VVcsl WBndOVH Avenue, Greensboro. N'C 27J0S DoOtQStiC sub&cripliom1 12 i»utv %2A. Send subscnpTIon orders or change of addrcw (P.O. Form 3579) fo
Circulation Depl,, COMPUTETS GAZETtii. F.O Uo< 961, r-'jrnrinKilale, SI 11737. Second class applicalinn pfnilJng it Grceruboro. NC 27403 and mailing office
Entire conlcnh copyright (|1I')B5 l>>- COMPUTE! Publics Mom. Inc. All riftlm received. ISSN 1)737-3716,
COMPUTEI Publication!, Inc. One o( lh( ABC 1'ulillihing CompuiiH: ABC I'ubUjhinn, I'inlilcnl, Kobfrt G. llurlon; 1330 Avcnur Hi thl Amenca^.; New Vuik. N<w Vorl. IH01S.

Whither Hope?!? microprocessor, multicolored

sprites, maximum hi-resolution
Commodore? Rumor now has it that perhaps
the 16 and Plus/4 are already of 640 X 200 pixels ... the list
By now, or perhaps nof by now,
being "de-emphasized," giving goes on, including built-in
the Plus/4 and the 16 are mak
way in turn to the even newer speech synthesis and built-in
ing their long awaited debut
128 series. Ah. More memory? modem. These are only high
across the retail frontiers of
Yes. Software compatible? Yes. lights of the features of the
America. From what we can tell
Peripheral compatible? Yes. Lorraine prototype demon
so far, this debut may well be
Plus, some new peripherals, no strated by Amiga before they
an "emperor's new clothes"
tably a dual disk drive . . . now sold their company to Commo
phenomena, with lots of debut,
those are pluses we can ap dore. This unit was preproduc-
and not much else. Our old
plaud. Lest we sound totally like tion priced at $1200-$1400.
friend Jim Dijon, a Commodore
sour grapes this issue, we'll re Of course, Commodore may
marketeer and survivor, was re
mind our loyal readers that this change some of these features
cently quoted as suggesting that
is the company that has been before product introduction.
if the marketplace so wished,
responsible for much of the Pricing will probably change as
Commodore would be happy to
home computer industry, and well. But we've seen enough to
make the 16 and Plus series
we feel, correctly we think, that call the Lorraine a significant
compatible with the 64. One
they have a continuing obliga price/performance break
would hope the marketplace
tion to help drive and nurture it. through, and we think it will
wouldn't have to wish too hard
Commodore's potential success spark a new plateau in the in
for such compatibility, what
with the Lorraine is something dustry. We expect to learn more
with at least a million or so 64s
we're anxiously awaiting. about the configuration of the
out there. On top of all this
We've seen successive itera "real" system at this month's
wishing, Commodore has some
tions through hardware and Consumer Electronics Show in
how managed to devise an en
software "breakthroughs" in Las Vegas. We'll keep you
tirely unique plug for the
this industry, and we think the posted.
Plus/4, thus insuring that exist
Lorraine has the potential for
ing peripherals won't be
achieving several breakthroughs
at once. The significant power
Why do we feel that we've
this computer can cost-
written this editorial seventeen
effectively bring to the market
times or so in the last five
place will, in our opinion, define
a new benchmark for price and
performance in the entire indus
try. No one in the market was
selling a color computer with
reasonable memory for less than
$1000 until Commodore broke
the price and hardware con
straint barriers. With the power
of Lorraine: 128K RAM, built-in
drive, 4096 colors, 68000

6 COMPUTED GazellB January

te Nice Family Helped
Their Good Neighbors

It was after Christmas. The Nice family was

still enjoying all the wonderful presents they
received from one another. Hut next door, at the
home of their Good neighbors, things weren't all that wonderful.
• You see, Mr. and Mrs. Good
(Hairy and Betty) had given a new home
computer to their twins (Kim and Kerry), It
was a very good gill, but they didn't know
what to do with it. Harry Good thought
video games were bad because the twins couldn't
play them together. Hetty Good thought
all video games were too violent. And the Good twins
thought anything but games were boring!
Then, one day, Betty Good was talking to Janet
Nice over morning coffee. "We have this wonder

ful computer, and nothing to do with it!"

moaned Betty. Janet just smiled, and told Betty
all about Adventures In Namia, a new series of LifeWare™
computer games from Word Publishing. These games are the first ones the whole
family can share. And they're based on the famous stories ofNamia by C.S.
Lewis, which teach lasting values good lor everyone to learn. Well,
the Goods rushed out and bought Namia and DawnTreader. And
now the Good twins play with their new computer all the
time. Harry and Betty Good play with them, too. And
they all agree Adventures In Namia are the best
games they could have. • Maybe they'd be good
for your family, too!

Minim -LH'i DaumTrtadsr ore

available al computer specialty LIFEWARE
sltirrs ;mil al
All AtfoenivmJH \nt~nia
are compailhle with Apple II
series * awt Commodore 64"
bomo computers.

l=■ ■ i j i Word Publishing

One (if (]]!■.\)!C I'irii -i: i nriL|i.uLi. ■

AvsfltMsHl all su>n>snatii in wide.

Word. Inc.. Waco, TX 707!)fi ijMV'Wjiri1 Ihu (rjultnnarkof WnnL Irir,

Formo!* information, call toU-fr«l-8OO-4B8-3840, Apple li aerie* hu registered iiadonurkofApploComputer, Inc.
In Tdxiih, uill loll'ftiie 1-800-702-3270. CommodOTQ«-11" a trademark of Commodora Electronic*. Ltd.
COMPUTE! PublicationsJnc. S
Jules E. Thompson, Inc.
National and Canadian Sales Representatives
of me ABC ftiblsiuno COmpane 1290 Howard Avenue, Suite 303
Burlingame, CA 94010
Address all advertising materials to:
Publisher Gary K. Ingersoll Patti Williams, COMPUTED GAZETTE
Editor in Chief Robert C. Lock 324 West Wendover Ave., Suite 200, Greensboro, NC 27408
Director of Administration Alice 5, Wolfe Sales Offices, The Thompson Company
Senior Editor RIchaid Mansfield New England 617-720-1888
Managing Editor Kathleen Martlnek Mid-Atlantic 212-772-0933
Editor Lance Elko Southeast 919-275-9809
Assistant Editor Todd Heimarck Midwest 312-726-6047
Texas 713-731-2605
Production Director Tonv Roberts
Northwest, Nevada 408-354-5553
Editors Northern CA 415-348-8222 or 408-354-5553
Tom R. Halfhill, Editor, COMPUTE! Magazine; Stephen Levy, Editor, Southern CA 213-37S-8361
COMPUTE! Books Division; Gail Cowper, Production Editor; Ottis R. Arizona 213-378-8361
Cowper, Technical Editor; Charles Brannon, Program Editor; Selby New Mexico 213-378-8361
Bateman, r/OBtuna Editor Colorado 303-595-9299
Assistant Editors
Gregg Kei/.er, |. Blflke Lambert (Books); John Krause, George Miller, COMPUTEI Publications, Inc.. publishes
Philip Nelson (Technical); Kathy Yakal, Feature Writer; Sharon COMPUTEI COMPUTEI Books COMPUTEI's GAZETTE
Darling, Research Assistant (Features); Randall Eosner, Assistant Corporate Office:
Managing Editor (Books); Mark Tuttle, Submissions Reviewer 324 West Wendover Ave., Suite 200, Greensboro, NC 27408
Editorial Programmers Mailing Address:
Patrick Parrish (Supervisor), Gregg Peek (Assistant), Tim Victor, Post Office lien 5406, Greensboro, NC 27403
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Distribution Center
Programming Assistants 500-A Radar Road, Greensboro, NC 27-119
David Florence, Susan Doss, David Hensley
Telephone: 919-275-9809
Copy Editors
Office Hours: 8:30 AM to 4:30 PM Mondav-Friday
Juanita Lewis, Joan Kouleau, Ann Da vies
Chief Executive Officer Robert C, Lock
Ethel Silver, Dwiglit Smith, Marty Selby
President Gary R. Ingersoll
Administrative Staff
Vice President, Finance & Planning Paul ], Megliola
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Brooks, Jan Kretlow Executive Assistant Debi Nash
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Associate Editors 800-334-0868
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tion Manager; Fran Lyons, Single Copy Sales Supervisor; Jill Pope, (12 Issue Year): US (one year) 124. Canada, Mexico and Foreign
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Accounting copyright SI 1985, COMPUTEI Publications, Inc. Sights to programs
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developed and submitted by authors are explained in our author
Finance & Planning; Robert Bean, General Accountant; Karen K.
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returned if author provides a self-addressed, stamped envelope.
Where programs are included in an article submission, a tape or disk
Credit must accompany the submission. Printed listings are optional, but
Barry L. Beck, Credit Manager; Staff: Sybil A gee, Susan Booth, Anne
helpful. Articles should be furnished as typed copy (upper and
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lowercase, please) with double spacing. Each article page should bear
Purchasing the title of the article, date, and name of Ihe author. COMPUTEI
Gregory L. Smith, Purchasing Manager; Anna Harris, Assistant
Publications, Inc., assumes no liability for errors in articles or
Promotion advertisements, Opinions expressed by authors are not necessarily
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sumes no responsibility for damages, delays, or failure of shipment in
Advertising Sales
Ken U'oodard, Director of Advertising Sales: Bonnie Valentino, Assis connection with authors' offer to make tape or disk copies of pro
tant Advertising Manager; Patti Williams, Production Coordinator; grams published herein.
Joyce Margo, Production Assistant; Kathleen Hanlon, Sales Assistant PET, CBM, V1C-20, and Commodore 64 are trademarks of Commo
Sales Representatives dore Business Machines, Inc., and/or Commodore Electronics Limited.
lerry Thompson 415-348-8222 Other than as an independent supplier of quality information and
Phoebe Thompson 408-354-5553 services to owners and users of Commodore products, COMPUTEI
Ed Winchdl 213-378-8361 Publications, Inc., is in no way associated with Commodore Business
Harry Blair 919-275-98119 Machines, Inc., or any of its subsidiaries.

"The Hottest
New Game In Town
Trivia Fever is absolutely unique — it's the only software entertain
ment package that can be enjoyed with or without a home com
puter! When played on your home computer, Trivia Fever is a
refreshing alternative to ail those shoot'em up games. An elected
"Master of the Game" uses the computer to randomly select sub
ject categories, handicap players, generate questions and answers,
keep score automatically, and more! Instructive by its very nature,
Trivia Fever can be enjoyed by up to 8 individuals or teams. And
when played without a computer, Trivia Fever has all the best fea
tures of the "popular" trivia games plus more — all without the
cumbersome board, cards, and little game pieces. You can play in a
car, on vacation, anytime, anywhere! And Trivia Fever is by far the
best Trivia game available anywhere. Here's why:

Trivia Fever offers thousands of challenging questions in 7 inter

esting categories, so there's something for everyone. Each category
has questions with 3 lev
els of difficulty, which
score comparable points.
What's more, Trivia Fever
allows players to HANDI
CAP all those so-called
"trivia experts" three dif
ferent ways, giving every
one a chance to win. And
players can easily control
the length of play from
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games to multi-hour party marathons!

Trivia Fever is unique, entertaining, educational, and most of all

FUN. And at $39.95, Trivia Fever is destined to quickly become the
best selling software entertainment package of all time. There's
even a $5 rebate available to any non-computer users who return
the computer diskette.

Trivia Fever can be enjoyed on the Commodore 64, IBM PC S PCjr

and compatibles, Apple II series, and others. So don't delay. Catch
Trivia Fever at your favorite software retailer today!

For additional information call 617-444-5224, or write to:

At $39.95, Trivia Fever comes complete with Question

P.O. Box 533
and Answer Book, Category Selector, and Tally Sheets to
Needham, MA 02194
be used when played without a computer. nj tuidtmirk of Prore*vnndl ioftwe. me

Do you have a question or a problem? Have But use an incorrect disk command and the red
you discovered something that could help other light will begin flashing rapidly, signaling a disk
VIC-20 and Commodore 64 users? Do you have error.

a comment about something you've read in If you type in a BASIC command incorrectly or
COMPUTED GAZETTE? We want to hear from you. make some other programming error, your computer
Write to Gazette Feedback, computers GAZETTE, will respond with 'SYNTAX ERROR or another
P.O. Box 5406, Greensboro, NC 27403. such message. If you encounter a disk error, how
ever, there is often no warning on the screen to
alert you that something has gone awry, but the red
Note: In the November "Buyer's Guide To Modems," light on the drive will flash.
the Mitey Mo Modem was listed as being RS-232 The 1541 disk drive is an intelligent device,
compatible. It is actually Commodore 64 compatible containing its own microprocessor, ROM, and RAM.
and plugs directly into the user port. It does not It also has error-handling routines in ROM similar
require an extra interface. to the routines in the VIC and 64. A tape drive
doesn't have its own microprocessor, so messages
about tape errors are built into the computer. But
Where's The Printer? disk error messages are found in the disk drive.
Several readers have written asking where they can When the light flashes, you can read the error mes
get Oktdata's new color printer, the Okimale 10 (see sage. But first you must instruct the computer to ask
the Consumer Electronics Show report in the the disk drive what the problem is.
September gazette for details). According to an You must always communicate with the disk
Okidata representative, there had been problems drive over one of the 16 available channels. Chan
with the supporting software. As this issue went to nel 15 is reserved as the command channel. It's
press, we received an Okimate 10. It will be covered used for formatting disks, scratching files, and vari
next month in Charles Brannon's "Horizons" ous other tasks. It is also the channel for reading
column. disk errors.
To find out why the red light is flashing, enter
Warning Light this short program:
Could you write a short set of directions that ex 10 OPEW15,8,15
plain what to do when the red light on a disk 20 INPUT#15,E,ES,T,S

drive begins blinking? Also, why does the man 30 CLOSE15

ual say (on page 8) "Never remove the diskette
when the green drive light is on."? The green Line 10 OPENs channel 15, the command chan
light comes on when the drive is turned on and nel. Line 20 INPUTs the information concerning the
stays on. error from the disk drive into the 64. E is the number
Evelyn M. Arnold of the error, E$ is a short description in text of the
The green light indicates the disk drive is turned error, T is the track number on zchich the error oc
on. You can safely insert and remove disks while curred, and S is the sector number of that track.
the green light is on. In fact, you should wait until Since INPUT& is not allowed in immediate mode,
the drive is on before inserting a disk. Don't turn it you must read the error from within a program.
on with a disk inside; it's possible the initial surge Normally, this program will display:
of power toil! scramble some data on the disk. 0OK00
The latest editions of the 1541 manual have To generate an error condition, remove your
been corrected to say "never remove the diskette disk from the drive, turn the drive off, then back on
while the red light is on." This is the proper advice. again and enter:
When you load or save a program to disk, the
red light comes on to indicate disk activity. If you
open a data file, the red light will stay on until the The disk drive will whir and clatter, then stop,
file is closed. In these cases, there's nothing to with the red light flashing. Now run the error chan
worry about. The red light means the drive is doing nel program, and the computer screen will display:
its job. 21 READ ERROR 18 0

10 COMPUTED Gazette Janua<v

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The number 21 indicates the type of error en
Turn It Off, We're Trying To
countered, READ ERROR is a brief description of
the error, 18 is the track which the disk drive was Watch TV
attempting to read, and 0 is the sector which the When [ turn on my Commodore 64 and the tele
disk drive was attempting to read. Since no disk was vision nearby is tuned to channel four, diagonal
in the drive, there zvas nothing to read, causing a lines appear on the screen. If anybody is watch
READ ERROR. ing TV, they complain they can't see the picture.
In most cases you don't need to knoiv the track I switched the computer'to channel three and the
and sector where the error happened, so you can same problem occurs. How can I solve this
leave off the T and S. And you can get the error- problem?
reading routine down to a single line: 10 Michael Miller
CL0SE15. In order to get a picture onto a television screen, a
A handy utility is included on the disk which is computer sends out a television signal. The RF
packaged with your disk drive, the DOS Wedge. Load modulator in your 64 acts like a miniature tele
vision station, with limited range.
and run the DOS Wedge loader program, then you
can read the error channel by just pressing the @ or The problem you're having is that the signal is
> key on the computer. a little too strong. The best solution is to shorten
the cord which goes from the 64 to the TV. If you
For information about the errors likely to be
don't want to cut it yourself, you can probably find
encountered while using your disk drive, consult
one with the appropriate connectors at a local
your 1541 User's Manual.
electronics store. A shorter cord allows less of the
TV signal to leak out. You might also wrap the
VIC Expansion Memory switchbox (the one labeled TV/Computer) with alu
minum foil.
When programs in your magazine point out that
Here are some other things io try: Move the
at least 3K or 8K expansion is needed, does that
computer as far as possible from the family tele
mean that these programs wi!l run on a 16K VIC
vision, or to another room. Try using different elec
without making any changes in the POKEs?
trical outlets, preferably on different lines—one for
N. C. Barrows
the television, another for the computer. Or put
BASIC programs with no POKEs which work with something metal, like a metal bookshelf, between
3K or 8K will run fine with 16K. If a program con your 64 and TV to act as a shield.
tains POKEs to screen or color memory, however, it Before a computer can be sold in the U.S., it
may work only with a specified amount of expan has to be tested by the FCC for its effective
sion memory. This is because the location of screen radio/TV interference. If you look on the inside
and color memory changes as memory is added. front cover of the manual which came in the box
There are three possible memory configurations with your VIC or 64, you'll see the statement of
depending on the amount of memory added: un- FCC certification. It also lists a pamphlet about
expanded, 3K expansion, and 8K or more expansion solving interference problems, which is available
(this third category includes 16K and 24K). Using 3K from the Government Printing Office.
expansion moves the start of BASIC lower by 3K.
Adding at least 8K expansion memory moves the
BASIC program area, screen memory, and color Special Effects On The 64?
memory. When 8K or more is added, BASIC can't Is there any way I can turn my 64 into a special
use the 3K expansion area. Also, BASIC can't use effects generator? I want to connect one or more
any expansion memory above 24K. Expansion mem VCRs as inputs to make split screens, borders,
ory not used by BASIC can be used for machine lan and windows, combining the video picture with
guage programs. a text overlay.
The key phrase in this case is "at least." Any Mike Winderman
program which runs on a VIC with 8K will also run The signal sent out by a VIC or 64 is TV-compatible,
with 16K or 24K. That's why we usually say "at
which means it is also VCR-compatible. There are
least 8K" for VIC programs.
two ways to hook up your computer to a VCR. If the
The following table gives the starting addresses VCR has an input jack for cable TV, you should have
for BASIC, screen memory, and color memory for received a small 75/300 ohm converter with the
any amount of expansion.
VCR (so you can attach an antenna in place of the
Expansion BASIC Screen Color cable). Disconnect the computer cable from the two
none 4097 7680 38400 antenna screws in back of the television and attach
3K 1025 7680 38400 the two prongs from the switchbox to the 75/300
8K+ 4609 4096 37888 ohm converter. Then plug it into the VCR.
12 COMPUTt'.s Gazette January
WordPro 3 Plus/64
The #1 Selling Word Processor for the Commodore 64"

WordPro 3 Plus'"/64 and SpellRight Plus" provide a total word SpelfRight Plus locates and highlights misspelled words and
processing solution for the Commodore 641" which gives you: then allows you to quickly correct the misspellings —
Sophisticated Word Processing improving the quality of your letters and reports.
Built-in Mail Merging (or Form Letters And, best of all, WordPro and SpellRight's powerful arsenal
Math Functions for Column Totals of features can be put to use almost immediately — by even
Fast and Complete Spell Checking via SpellRight Plus the novice user. So whether you're a student, professional
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WordPro and SpellRight are both specifically designed tor the become a WordPro Pro!
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whatsoever. And with over 40,000 WordPro versions sold, you at popular computer outlets nationwide.
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processor loaded with powerful features including: Transfer,
Invest in the besl.. .WordPro Plus. In a class by itself.
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WordPro 3 PfusT"/64 and SpellRighl Plus" are trademarks of Professional Software Inc.
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SpellRight Plus was designed and written by Dwighl Hulf and Joe Spatalora o( SpellMastor Sysloms, Inc.
Some printers may not support certain WordPro 3 Plus functions and/or require an Interface. Please chock with your dealer.
Commodore 64'" is a trademark of Commodore Electronics Ltd.
Most VCRs also have two other inputs: one for ASCI! 160. And if you PEEK the screen, they have
audio in, one for video in. If you have a monitor two different values, 32 or 96.
cable (which plugs into the front of a 1701 or 1702 As explained in "How To Type In COMPUTE!'*
monitor), you can plug the two wires into the back of GAZETTE Programs" in the back of the GAZETTE,
your VCR, audio to audio, video to video. This re any time you see a number X preceding a special
sults in a better picture than the first method. character in brackets, it means to type that charac
Why connect your computer to a VCR? There ter X number of times. So {2 SHIFT-SPACE}
are several reasons. If you don't have a printer, you means you should type two SHIFTed spaces—hold
can list a program while the VCR is recording. You down the SHIFT key and press the spate bar twice.
then use reverse, fast forward, and freeze to look at There are two reasons why a SHIFTed space
the program listing. Or use graphics and color might appear in a listing. If the program runs in
screens (generated by the computer) as titles and upper-/lowercase mode (as opposed to
credits in homemade videos. And if your tele uppercase /graphics) and a message contains all cap
communications software cannot download, you can ital letters, it's easiest to type it with the SHIFT
record conversations or electronic mail to look at LOCK key down. You could type the message
later (although you still can't download programs). -PRESS ANY KEY" with the SHIFT LOCK key en
Recording the computer's video output, while gaged, and the spaces between the words would ac
using a separate microphone for audio could be use tually be capital spaces.
ful in a class on programming. Second, if a program uses redefined characters,
And finally, you might record a videogame, so there might be one new shape for a space and a dif
you can later study your moves and the computer's ferent shape for a SHIFTed space.
responses. Recording the score would also be a way In the first case (uppercase messages) it
to prove to friends that you really got five million wouldn't matter much which space character you
points in your favorite action game. used. They look the same on the screen. In the sec
So it is possible to put the audio and video sig ond (custom characters), it makes a big difference
nals from a VIC or 64 onto videotape. Unfortunately, which character is which.
the special effects you mention, windows and text One other character in our listings which gives
overlays, require a specialized video-editing machine. some readers trouble is the left-arrow, just above
You can't create them with just your 64. the CTRL key, in the upper left-hand corner of the
If you have both a VCR and a color monitor, keyboard. The printer used for GAZETTE listings
there's another possibility you might not have does not have this character, so when it appears in
considered. One of our editors has his Commodore a program, it's listed as a less-than sign with a hy
1702 monitor hooked up to a VCR. The 1701 and phen through the middle. It looks a little like the
1702 have a much higher resolution picture than a tracks of a chicken walking through snow.
color television in the same price range, but they
don't have tuners. The VCR does have a channel Relocatable Machine Language
selector, and many have video and audio output I'm a fanatic about writing machine language
jacks (as well as inputs). By routing these signals to programs which are totally relocatable within
the monitor, he gets much sharper, clearer pictures RAM. As such, I tend to rely on relative address
than are possible on a conventional television. Thus, ing as much as possible, using multiple branches
when he's not using the monitor to display com to make longer jumps. As of yet, 1 have not
puter programs, he can use it to watch his favorite found a method of branching to subroutines
television programs. which has worked satisfactorily. I'd like to know
if it's possible to access the program counter so
that its contents may be pushed onto the stack
Elusive Characters
prior to a relative jump to a routine which ends
I've run into a problem typing programs from
with the RTS instruction.
your magazine. The answer is not listed in 'How
Donald E. Cook
To Type In COMPUTED GAZETTE Programs." How
do you type {SHIFT-SPACE} or {2 SHIFT- Certainly there are advantages to relocatable ma
SPACE}? chine language, but what you're proposing is fairly
James Litrell advanced. The longer your ML program, the more
difficult it becomes to make it relocatable.
Commodore computers have two different space The 6502/6510 gives a programmer no direct
characters. You get the first by simply pressing the access to the program counter. Only instructions
space bar. The second, a SHIFT-SPACE, is entered like JMP, jSR, RTS, and branches can indirectly
by holding down the SHIFT key while you type a change theyrogram counter. Since you are branch
space. Think of it as a "capital space." A regular ing to a subroutine, you must have a way to create
space has an ASCI! value of 32, a SHIFTed space is a return address on the stack so that when the sub-
14 COMPUTE'S Gazette January
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routine hits the RTS, execution is returned just after
Locating A Program On Tape
the instruction that called the subroutine.
I have a tape problem. Some of your programs
There is a trick you can use to deduce the cur
come in two parts. I type in Program 1 and save
rent value of the program counter. When you jump
it, then type in Program 2 and save it. Then I
to a subroutine with jSR, the address of the next
discover an error in Program 2. How should I fix
instruction is pushed onto the stack high byte first,
it? If I load it, debug it, and save it back to tape,
then low byte. The actual value is one less than the
it will be one program away from where it
address of the next instruction. RTS pulls the two
should be. The tape will have Program 1, Pro
bytes off the stack, adds 1 to the value, then stores
gram 2 (with errors), and Program 2 (corrected).
this in the program counter, effectively returning
Should I look at the tape counter? Or is there a
from the subroutine.
better way?
Since JSR stores this address on the stack, the
John C. Onken
address can be examined in a subroutine with PLA.
This small subroutine performs the "where am I?" When you're trying to position a tape to a specific
task. After the bytes are examined, they have to be location, you can use the tape counter. But it is not
put back onto the stack so that the "where am I?" entirely accurate, and you may encounter problems
subroutine can return to the main program, if you accidentally record over the end of a previous
WAI PLA ;get low byte of return address— 1
TAX ;save it Another solution is to load Program 1, save it
PLA ;get high byte of return address—1 at the beginning of a brand new tape, followed by
TAY ;save it the correct version of Program 2. The disadvantage,
PHA ;put high byte back on stack
of course, is that it's time-consuming to had and
TXA ;gct low byte back into the accumulator
save two programs, especially if you have to do it
PHA ;put it back so address is restored
SEC more than once.
SBC #2 ;get address of the JSR opcode The best answer is to use the VERIFY com
TAX ;low byte is in X mand. The purpose of VERIFY is to make sure that
TYA ;get high byte a program has been saved correctly. But it also po
SBC#O ;adjust for carry
sitions the tape just past the verified program.
TAY ;high byte back in Y
RTS :return with address in X and Y
So, after you've corrected Program 2, rewind
the tape and enter VERIFY. The computer will try
When you want to know the value of the pro to verify the first program on the tape (Program 1).
gram counter, ]SR WAI. The WAI subroutine itself Program 2 (in memory) won't match up and you'll
cannot be relocatable, of course, since your program sec 7VER1FY ERROR on the screen. Ignore the error
must know the address of WAI in order to jSR to it. message. The tape will have advanced past Program
Once you have this current address, you can then 1 to the place you want to put Program 2. You can
create a return address for the instruction following now save it.
a branch to a subroutine. Remember that the return VERIFY can also be used to find out which
address is the actual address minus one. Push it programs are on a specific tape, without disturbing
onto the stack high byte first, then low byte. You the program in memory. Make up a name, one that
can then branch to a subroutine, and RTS will re you're certain has not been used, like QWERT1111
turn execution as you desire. This can be extremely and try to verify it. Type VERJFf'QWERTUU"
cumbersome, though. and the computer will respond SEARCHING FOR
The "Where am 1?" technique can also be used QWERTUll, followed by FOUND PROGRAMNAME
to calculate the address of a data table. You must (or whatever the first program is called). It will keep
know the offset between the address of the JSR WAI searching for the nonexistent program name, while
and the location of the data table. You add in the listing each of the programs it has found on the
value returned by WAI, and you have the absolute tape.
address of the data table. Again, though, the work
needed to set up relocatable code is hardly worth
A Solution For The
the effort. A relocating loader that moves and ad
justs an absolute program can often be far more use Unscratchable Comma File
ful. Some assemblers can generate object code that In your October 1984 issue, you published a let
can be loaded anywhere by a relocating loader. Even ter from a reader who had an unwanted disk file
though most advanced programmers know about named ",". I've experienced the problem several
this theoretical way to achieve true repeatability, times and suspect it is very common. It's usually
few programmers consider it worthwhile. You'll just the result of accidentally typing RETURN when
have to wait until home computers use a micro prompted by a program to input a name for a file
processor tike the 68000, which supports full to be saved.
relocatable code (and then some). The comma file can be deleted using the

16 COMPUTEI's Gazette January

©PlayneUnc, 19B4
PlayNet111 Brings People Togetherl
PlayNet brings you the excitement you've been waiting for your
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cate with people all over the country.
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Bally Midway's Spy Hunter puts Bully Midway's Tapper would like Bally Midway's Up 'N Down by
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after enemy spies. The situation is You're serving up drinks in some In fact, it's the whole object of the
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guts, too. Are vou fast enough to play Tap
Do you have what it takes ? per? if you have to ask, you probably
already know the answer.

The #1 Arcade Game of 1984. Nominated as Mosi Innovative Coin-Op Bl Arcade Hit, Play iWetet Conversions Poll,
Game of 1984 by Electronic Games magazine. 8/1/84.


Atari 2600
cartridge NEW NEW NEW /
Atari 5200
cartridge NEW

Alnri J
Segafc Cungu Bongo rocked the Sega's Zaxxon, If you haven't Computsrs*
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home game world when it shot up to cartridge
Number 3 on the Billboard chart living on another planet for the past Atari Computers*
this spring. few years. diskette NEW NEW NEW
And now it's available for even And now the ultimate space com
more home systems. So check the bat game is available for even more
ColecoVision &i
ADAM cartridge NEW NEW NEW NEW /
chart and get ready for jungle action. home systems. You'll pilot a space f
fighter through force fields and ene Com moduli.' 64
You'll pursue the mighty ape Congo
cartridge NEW NEW NEW NEW
up Monkey Mountain and across the my fire on your way to do bat tie with
Mighty River. Do battle with dan the mighty Zaxxon robot. Countless
others have gone before you in this
Commodore 64
diskette NEW NEW NEW NEW /
gerous jungle creatures. Ride hip
pos, dodge charging rhinos and try Hal! of Fame game. But this time Apple H, lie, He
to avoid becoming a snack for a your life is in your own hands. diskette NEW NEW NEW NEW /
man-eating fish. Zaxxon killed them in the arcades. f
Congo Bongo. It's fast and it's fun. But compared to what it will do to
** t-k


Bui be careful. It's a jungle in there. you at home, that was child's play.

Published by Sojia BflletprI*O*j Inc.

/ Published by Daiuoft< blCj under licence fmm Scgfi
Emcrprlw*, Inc,
/ PubllihcdbyCulcco Industries, Inc under license
from Sega Eulcrp rises, Inc,
/ Published by Synnpsi-Sori^areCoTpuriHion under
1 n ense from Scga Enicrpiises, lac-
'Alari -100, &00, 600XL, BOOXLand 1200XL.
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600XL BOOXL, and I200XL arc irademarks o£Aiari
Corporation Commodore 64 ts a iradcmarkolCom-
mudore Elcctrunici, Int. CulccuVision and ADAM arc
irndeniarkiof Coleco Industries, Inc Apple. II, lit, and
lie are trademarks of Apple Cumpuicr, lot IBM, PC and
PCjr arc trademark* onntcrnntEonat Business Machine?
Corp.UP'N DOWN is a trademark ulScga Enterprises,
Ltd., munutactured under licence from Sega Enterprises,
Ltd.. Jnpiiti. Vkdct^mccLipyrL^ht ©I9S3ScBnEnior-
pi Iwb, Ltd. RALLY MIDWAY I* a trntlcmni h of BalJv
Midway Mfp. Co, Pnekage and pnigram copyright S19&4
Setj:i EnlorprlWt Inc. TAPPER and SPY HUNTER sire
trademarkf «L Bally Midway Mfg. Cu. Videogame
copyright OIW3 Bally Midway Mlg. Cu. All rights
reserved. ZAXXON ii a trademark uf Sega Eni-erprisei.
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BONGO is a trademark of Scga Enterprises, Inc.
Copyright Ol9&3,Scp Enterprises, Inc.
\rcado and Homo Smash. Hit Ml on Billboard One of only ten games ever to make Electronic
nacazinc'sTop Video Games survev. Games'HnWoi Fame.
SCRATCH command and entering ? as the name. Is there a way to add the BASIC line SYS XXXXX
This also scratches all files with a single character to machine language programs that start at 49152
name, and care should be taken to rename or or elsewhere (so I could type RUN without having
duplicate them before scratching the "," file. to remember the SYS number)?
Fred Q. Hickam S. J. Carpenter
To load a BASIC program from within another
You're right. Many readers wrote to tell us of this
BASIC program, simply put the LOAD command in
solution. The question mark is described in the 1541
a line inside the first program. When you load from
User's Manual as a "wild card," which can stand
direct mode, the program goes into memory but does
for any other character. So, if you type LOAD
not automatically run. But if you load from inside a
"P?N",8 the computer will load the first program
program, it loads and runs.
with a name which fits that pattern: PEN, PIN,
PAN, P9N, etc.
Since BASIC programs always load into the
beginning of memory, the second program will over
For readers who are new to disk commands,
write the first. Variables may be erased, depending
here's a quick explanation of how you scratch and
on how long the programs are. If the first is larger,
all numeric variables will be available for use in the
second program. String variables are passed to the
scratches a file from disk. And with the question-
second program only if they arc dynamic. To be sure
mark wild card, OPEN15,8,15,"S0:?":CLOSE15 will
they make it, add a null string to the end of each
scratch all files with one-letter names. If you have a
string variable. Instead of A$ = "HELLO", use
file called "Q" you don't want scratched, you can
A$="HELLO" + "" to force the computer to store
rename it with 'OPEN15,8,15,"R0:newname — Q"
the string in high memory.
:CLOSE15 before scratching the one-letter files.
If the second program is larger, all variables
will be lost when it is called by the first.
Chained Programs You can load a machine language program from
What statement is used in a program to call an a BASIC program, but a small problem must be
other program? What this command should do is overcome. Remember that loading from within a
load another program and run it automatically. program automatically runs the second program.
Sandra Rodriguez But something unexpected happens if you try

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on wluit you're doing instead of liota
On-screen prompts and selections are in
plain English, so there's no memorizing
complex computer codes, keys or sym
bols. You'll be writing, correcting and
rearranging your words with just a few
something like this: An Equivalent POKE?
10 LOAD "MLGAME",8,1 On the VIC-20 there is a POKE 650,128. I'd like
20 SYS 49152
to know the equivalent of this POKE on the
Tape users should change the 8 in line 10 to a Commodore 64.
1. The program MLGAME loads into its proper Ted Kalamvrezas
place in memory, but then the computer tries to run If you use that POKE with a VIC-20, all keys will
the program in BASIC memory. So it loads the pro repeat when held down. The 64 equivalent is POKE
gram again (and again and again and again). It 650,128. The same POKE does the same thing.
never reaches line 20.
With a few exceptions, memory locations
Variables are kept intact, so you can make a 0-1023 have the same functions on both the VIC
small change: and 64. Far example, locations 43-44 point to the
10 IF L = 0 THEN L = l: LOAD "MLGAME",8,1 beginning of BASIC program storage. The values
20 SYS 49152
found there will be different between the two
The first time through, the variable L equals 0, computers, because BASIC programs start at dif
so the game is loaded. After the LOAD, the program ferent locations on the VIC and 64. But the two
is run again, but this time L is 1, so it skips to line bytes serve the same function (a pointer to the
20, which activates the ML program. beginning of the BASIC program storage area).
You can't really add the SYS line to an ML In any case, you can't do any harm to your
program at 49152 (to save as one complete program) computer by experimenting. If you know about a
because BASIC ROM gets in the way. But you can POKE for the VIC, try the same thing on a 64. The
create a short ML loader program which loads and worst that could happen is the computer would lock
activates the program. And you don't have to up and you'd have to turn it off and back on.
remember the SYS number, it's built into the loader. User memory, screen and color memory, BASIC
To load a program from within an ML program, ROM, interface chips, and other locations occupy
simply call the three Kernal routines SETLFS, memory from 1024 to 65417. There are not a lot of
SETNAM, and LOAD. Details about these and other similarities here. You can usually find an equivalent
Kertial routines are in the Programmer's Reference POKE or SYS, but the locations might be quite
Guide. different.

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Available on Disc for tlic COMMODORE 64 ". Send for details of our full raiiRn ol Commodore programs,
From 65418 to the end of memory is the Kernal BASIC and Kernal ROM) are performed to execute
Jump Table, which may contain different values on the LOAD. One of these is the PARSL routine at
a VIC or 64. But the functions are exactly the same. 57809 (SE1D1) in the VIC, and 57812 (SE1D4) in the
The location with the hexadecimal address $FFD2, 64. hi a nutshell, this subroutine sets the X and Y
decimal 65490, is one example. It's- the location for registers with the values found in memory locations
printing a character in machine language. Other 43 and 44 which point to the start of BASIC. This is
Kernal routines are explained in the VIC and 64 where it will load the program. This is similar to a
Programmer's Reference Guides. NEW command, and it's the reason your program
modules are being ovenvritlen.
Entering Long Programs When you type in long programs in modules,
I'm just beginning to type in a program. Because do not save each one as a separate program.
it is rather long, I decided to type in a little each After entering the first session's work, save it
day then save that day's work. to tape or disk. When you wish to continue, load the
But when I try and go back and load the dif latest version back into the computer, and continue
ferent sections together, I encounter a problem. to enter the program starting at the point where you
Each successive section I load erases (loads over) left off. After the session is over, save the program
the previously loaded section. Is there any way (now the combined first and second sessions) to tape
to load all the sections together without erasing or disk. If you're not done i/et, continue repeating
the section you just loaded? the same cycle until you've finished.
Brad McCollum
Reading DATA Strings
The problem you're having stems from the fact that
I'm having a slight problem with DATA state
you're treating each day's work as a separate mod
ments. When I run the following program, it
ule, or program, and saving them that way. When
prints "A$" instead of "HELLO"
you reload the sections, the computer thinks they
are separate programs, and loads one on top of the
other. 30 PRINT BS
This is supposed to happen. When you use the 40 DATA AS
BASIC LOAD command, many subroutines (in
My question: Is there a way for the computer to
see A$ as "HELLO" in a DATA statement after


having previously defined it as such
<A$ = "HELLO")?


Buddy Fieri

wiiti IAX COMMAND income Tox Prepofarory Software Series!

No, there's no method to do what you ask. It might
01 Ob* In Commodore 64 TM COMMAND PBOFE55I0NAI: High !MM lax comEUTarlon. Wi o
help to imagine a variable as a box. On the outside
wtfe twlttf ol Hf#du»s al your Anger Tips
you paste a label, the variable name. Inside the box
■ FosT iifw-rjy-nne t-eaeroi To* mformatjon enify • All mathernoricol calcu logons rjonu
oulorraNcally • Bu'l'in'otfctjlos • pnnTgun ma official US Tairormg • Forger sorrrjrrung? To* is a string or numeric value. In line 20, you're read
Ccffltnarfl FrofffiswxN fi itaiCe rnx,5" lOQy»c»h*reajicijla1e ■ Cos! <■' program £Hai flWuciD*

lnrsm«nu (Jil«n nrooiam comrs mo ICMO Form ScrmMeA, 9 C 0. !. G R. HP. Sf.W. ono Forms
ing information from a DATA statement. The name
nogim S44i. am moi of the variable is BS (the outside label), the contents
TAX COMMAND rv Atami lax an^OJWWi On tom Tor Vic 20 I CwnmoOMt 64 of B$ is "AS" (a siring containing two characters).
To* Command srrieabric>Gea verier dITo" Command PrnrBsskjnolwirrirritf KMOfomiScriedLilo A
income Dvuraping ond ro> rooies As far as your computer is concerned, the string
#0n gi» Tn CsmmMore 64 NEW! TAX COMMAND PLANNER lor out'. ™» cBnnms 011d>
"AS" has no real connection with A$ the variable
Watigdl name. You can't pull a label off a variable and use
• SpflcrtiCflllT asiflriod rof vour rm plcnnpng • DKffle WdV '0 flffl'K^C CMel
SCI itK* ■ HOW tfj ffiaHft CQCilMBu^Ors 01 l"e KJk*«' CM' • Si" diffDTefl OpTlOriSTOr fry it as a value, and vice versa.
a own«r^ r next iirar s updoi* a'
Procllcol Prcgrami Inc iTandl l"h n :
m ehHikI- or« w"l it&att owj
Probably the best solution to your problem is to
fB.- -I *-
use arrays. A numeric variable can be an index to
V Double Olicounil Pluv Ten Command Pro
ressionoi and Inn Command Planner 'or an array. In this way, one variable points to an
other, try the following program:
10 AS(D = "HELLO"
Sana in* Ton rew Enclosed is rny ctwcn of m&r>ey
iJOOTcr snapping ona nonOliffj PIQOseEenO mo
Toi Convnorfl Proltsslarnl (!« 95) 30 PRINT A$(B)
40 DATA 1
To. i;r,-.mcrnj PUnner.':- ■
Doud* Diicounrr SenQ Tn> Command Pujra^vanui ond Pla
In line 20, the value I is read into B from a
^^ ' ~:^ | Cffflfl eoia eunoflwt Mflt*1*) 2W-(WM
DATA statement. That value can then be an index
Narre ^_ AOdreS!. ,
to the array and in line 30, "HELLO" is printed be
Cut ^ S;ce ., . cause A$(l) holds that string. If you changed the
t CG-01-85
I HqIHd PratHtoi Prog'onw. irx • P 0 801 93IW value of B, line 30 would print something else from
I flKNorn Hiiwoui:«eSi MI ■ MlhnjufcH. Wltccii-n %VOS
I the array. <Bf
24 January
The Second Book of; COMPUTE!'*
Machine1 Language Commodore: Collection:
Richard Mansfield
Volume Two
The follow-up to the best-selling;
Machine Language for Beginners. COMPUTE! and 64
this book leads the programmer
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PUTERS Kids and the Com
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Word processing, record Imagine yourself at a desk. Of course, no one actually
keeping, budgeting—you can There are four drawers, follows such a strange and un
accomplish each of these each containing one of the wieldy process. Why not use all
everyday tasks with your following items: a typo- four of those items together,
Commodore 64. Software writer, a calculator, a file box integrating the information and
producers are now offering with folders, and a drawing kit the procedures in a productive
new personal productivity of pens and markers. You take manner? When it comes to com
programs which bring those out the typewriter and begin to puters, that's exactly what the
separate functions together compose a letter. Suddenly you more powerful business ma
for even faster and more realize that you need a couple chines do—accomplish multiple
efficient use. of records from your file box to tasks with integrated software
include in the correspondence. programs,

So, you put your typewriter But for the most part, that
Selby Bateman, Features Editor in its drawer, pull out the box, hasn't been the case with home
find the files, take them out, re computers. Say you use a data
turn the box to its drawer, and base for keeping track of your
retrieve your typewriter. A few stamp collection. If you then
moments later, you want several want to write a letter offering
budget totals which are still some of the stamps for sale,
stored in the calculator's mem you'll probably have to type
ory. The cumbersome procedure them in again, because your
begins all over again as you data base files aren't compatible
place the calculator on your with your word processor files.
desk, sliding the typewriter out While many word processors,
of the way in order to use the data bases, and spreadsheets
other item. The same situation perform their respective reper
applies if you want to draw a toires quite well, their acts have
graph of those figures. most often been workhorse so
los rather than lilting duets or
rich concertos.

The Move

26 COMPUTE'S Gazetto January
While a symphony of inte one of the other input devices,
grated movements on the you can carry out the process
Commodore 64 has yet to be without touching the keyboard.
composed in the personal pro a "One of the big problems
ductivity area, that is clearly the that computers have today is
goal toward which an increasing that they're not easy to use,"
number of companies are . * • we'll get says Marks. "People who are
afraid of computers—who have
One such company is
Arktronics Corporation, with a
more personal. computerphobia—are not going
to buy them because they are
new package called Jane.
"The idea behind jane is to
The idea is difficult."
That sentiment is echoed by
give professional features in the
home market by making it very
to go toward David Johnson of California-
based International Tri Micro.
easy to use," says Howard E.
Marks, the 22-year-oid co-
intelligent He designed and programmed
the ROM-based integrated
founder of Arktronics. jane is an
integrated productivity software
systems that applications software which
comes built into the new Com
package scheduled to be re modore Plus/4 computer.
are easy
leased for the Commodore 64 "The original concept was
by the time you read this. The to provide as powerful and as
to use. friendly a work space as possi
price is expected to be about
$80. First available on the ble for the average user, a
Apple Ik, the program has a general-purpose work space
Macintosh-like icon-based envi which a large segment of the
ronment, using pictures and population would be able to
symbols to guide the user, as use," he says.
well as onscreen windows for Originally called 3-Plus-l
displaying information. "Jane when planned for the Plus/4—
has three applications—the and Jane kindergarten reading to reflect the word processor,
word processor, the spreadsheet, characters.) "With the word pro file manager, and spreadsheet,
and the data base—on a disk. cessor, what you see is what plus bar charting capability—the
The system is on a (32K plug-in) you get. So you see boldface, same programs are available on
cartridge...which boots up auto underlining, superscripts, sub disk for the Commodore 64 in
matically when you turn on the scripts, and all the accents for separate packages. Your Home
computer," says Marks. any language on the screen. We Office is a word processor and
The program includes the use the full-color bitmap, the spreadsheet, The Write File is a
applications disk, a data disk same technology as the Macin word processor and data base,
containing tutorial files and util tosh. You can see 80 columns and Plus Graph adds the ability
ities, and the cartridge. The sys on the screen, 64, or 40 to produce pie charts and vari
tem is designed to work with a columns." able bar and line charts from ei
mouse—a desktop pointing de And, importantly, the sys ther spreadsheet or data base
vice most associated with Ap tem allows you to move from information.
ple's Macintosh computer—as one application to another. You "To make a truly software-
well as the keyboard, joystick, can shift information from one driven machine, the idea was
or touch pad. Arktronics is window to another, thus inte that these three categories repre
working with several companies grating the three programs. For sent the majority of what the
now as they develop mice for example, suppose you have a first-time computer user wants
the Commodore 64. Jane also letter you want to write in one to do with the machine, or will
contains utilities which will con window and a budget in the have some need to do," says
figure the system for your par other. By moving an electronic Johnson. "What will happen, as
ticular printer. symbol of a hand over the type we get more room [computer
The package is designed to writer and calculator icons, you memory] available, is we'll get
be particularly easy to use by can take the numbers out of the more personal. The idea is to go
people new to computers, says budget window and insert them toward intelligent systems that
Marks. (Hence, the name, which anywhere you want them in the are easy to use. That's still quite
comes from the familiar Dick letter. By using the mouse, or a distance on."

COMPUTERS Gazette Januaiy 27

The more integrated a series Commodore 64 try to work each file. To get around that
of programs becomes, the within the available memory by limitation, the user can link in
greater the memory require drawing limits where necessary dividual text files together for a
ments. Packages which gobble and by offering some integration printout.
up thousands of bytes of mem in the most frequently used There are too many per
ory for their systems are fine for applications. sonal productivity programs
high-end business computers. For example, while Jane has available for the 64 to list them
But home- computers with 64K enough space in memory to all in one article. Most of the
must make tradeoffs. Arktronics' allow you to type the equivalent better known systems have at
Jane attempts to solve the prob of ten to twelve pages of text least some integration of fea
lem by adding a 32K cartridge per file, Johnson's system in tures. The Insta series from
to allow more capabilities. Most both the Plus/4 and for the 64 Microsci Corporation's Cimarron
commercial packages for the permits only 99 lines of text for Division, consists of nine

The following companies are among those Handle Software, Inc.

with personal productivity software for the 520 Fellowship Road
Commodore 64, with some degree of internal Mr. Laurel, NJ 08054
integration of features: (60$) 866-1001
Word Result ($195.00), Calc Result Easy ($49.95), Calc
Arktronics Corporation Result Advanced (£99.95)
520 E. Liberty Street
International Tri Micro
Ann Arbor, Ml 48104
1010 N. Batavia, Suite G
(313) 769-7253
Orange, CA 92667
Jane, approximately $80.00
(714) 771-4038
Arrays, Inc./Continental Software The Write File ($49.95), Your Home Office ($49.95),
11223 South Hindry Avenue Plus Graph ($39.95)
Los Angeles, CA 90045 Microsci Corporation
(213) 410-3977 Cimarron Division
Get Rich Series, suggested $49.95 each 2158 South Hathaway Street
Batteries Included Santa Ana, CA 92705
186 Queen Street West (714) 662-2801
Toronto, Ontario Insta-Writer (549.95), Insta-Mail ($19.95), Insta-Calc
Canada M5V 1Z1 ($39.95), Insta-File ($49.95)
(416)596-1405 Prentice-Hall Home Software
Home Organizer Series, $29.95 each P.O. Box 819
Cardco, Inc. Englewood Cliffs, Nj 07632
313 Matliewson (201)592-2611
Wichita, KS 67214 IMS! Home Library, $39.95 each
(316)267-6525 Sierra, Inc.
Write Now ($49.95), Mail Now, Spell Now, File Now, P.O. Box 485
Graph Now, Calc Now (all $39.95 each) Coarsegold, CA 93614
Commodore Computer Systems Division (209) 683-6858
1200 Wilson Drive Homeword ($69.95), Homeword Finance (price not
West Chester, PA 19380 available), Homeword Tax (price not available)
(215) 431-9100 Timeworks, Inc.
Magic Desk I, approximately $3O.00-$35.0O 405 Lake Cook Road
Creative Software Deerfield, 1L 60015
230 East Caribbean Drive (312) 291-9200
Sunnyvale, CA 94089 Word Writer ($49.95), Data Manager ($24.95), Data
(408)'745-1655 Manager 2 ($49.95), Electronic Checkbook, Money
Creative Writer, Creative Filer, Creative Calc, $49.95 Manager ($24.95 each)
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2B COMPUTE!'? Gazette January

A few minutes and a few keystrokes. That's all it takes to turn your personal
computer into a personal print shop.
Everything you need is in the program: typefaces, border designs, background
patterns, pictures, symbols and a starter kit of colored paper and matching envelopes.
The Print Shop will also guide you along, step by step, even if you've never touched
a computer before.
So think what you'd like to say, then put it in your own words with The Print Shop.

Make quite an Everybody s

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can imagine if, in y
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Print Shop.

Tike Print Shop fl's iiixtilnhl? for tlu At'I'Ii". Comi'tuttore 64 and Atari ftsnu compitlert. Cumiriy *£IO»i for the MucinfosJi inj .'^
I'C PCjr. Apple mid Macn'Iosh a*p ttatttrnttirks of Apple Cwiptrter, Inc. Commodore 64 jsu Irattemark of Commadare Eta Ironies,
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C 1984 B'tdcrbund Software, Inc. Broderbund

packages for the Commodore over once they've paid for all
64 based around its hista-Writer their necessities," says Hank
word processor on cartridge. Scheinberg, executive vice
With the word processor, you president.
UNLEASH THE POWER OF YOUR can also use the Insta-Mail mail "Integrated is too strong a
ing list program and the Instil- word, right now. This is more
File data base management like a series of books," he adds.
iccurity iyutm
Intelligent] yconuol almost any Jcvice program. The spreadsheet and "Once you go through Strate
Cimntcllo Analog-lo-HigitalConvme
Conlrol Robou investment programs in this se gies, and you have some ideas
Perform aubmuicdtanng
Ai^mre dila for laboratory & <xh« in ries can be used with the of amortization schedules, com

• Many nlhtruia, graphing package as well. pounding interest, inflation

|>i>n'l make Die; inistuke of buying a llmlud capability
interface InvcuipjBic our wistfully appticiblc Dual Creative Software offers rates, real buying power, and
6522 Vferuiile InicrTacc A.I ipicr (VIA) BujroJ. uhuh
\-'< <, - jniothc expansion connect rand provide*. three interactive packages, Cre the like, then the second mod
Pimr S-bit fully hiJiretiioniil I/O ports & eight hand
shake linen • Four ]6-bit limcr/cwnioft • Full IRQ ative Writer, Creative Filer, and ule is Get Rich: Real Estate Plan
interrupt capability • Four ronvcnicni 16-pin DIP
Mjtket inleri-ce conretljnn* • Expandability Up m Creative Calc, which also let you ning." Subsequent modules
Tour boanli & Mitten pott.
ORDER NOW! Price Stf9. postpaid USA. BxttuhC use files in an integrated manner. include insurance planning and
iliiciimcntaiicirt incluJcd. tntb additional board S149.
VISA/MajlcriTanl welcomed. Sierra's Homeword series, retirement and estate planning,
IS01 N» Ivinhoc. DqM RlU, Afim^lon, VA 22205
built around the Homeward he notes. Each of the subject-
In forma [mil/Telephone O rden (703 J 217-4796 word processor, includes an in specific volumes is designed to
tegrated filing system as well as work in tandem with the origi
a spelling checker. Other inte nal Strategies program, which
COMMODORE 54 grated packages which are gives the user an overall finan
Complete reccinilrucled AswmWy Language source
code (it [he C-M'i BASIC urd KERNAL KOMs, ill
scheduled for release—as this is cial picture.
H((ei»LV(ty cummcnicil uiJ cnni'referenced. I.t
written—include Homeword Fi "These modules are set up
jncire Ihan a mere "incmtiry map" or useful localkiiu.
IhJa bmi ri- illy il'-'* Eel I ill. An tncicdibte llmc-iiverin
nance, a home finance package; in a question-and-answer situa
e(T«tlve C-tA pr^^mminiE juld undemvidma.
C-W Source . SN.«. pntpud USA, V1SA/MC
Homeward Tax, a tax preparation tion. You're constantly asked
SCHNF.m.KR SYSTEMS program; Homeword Typer; and questions, and the user just fills
1J0I N. Ivmhoa, Dtpl.HIO, Ailingwn. VAI2MS
Tc Orders (703) 237-4796 even a Homeword Gardener. in the blanks and then picks the
Commodore's Magic Desk 1: choice which is most benefi
Type and File is a good example cial," he says. "It asks questions
of how ease-of-use can be com which the uninitiated perhaps
OR MONEY BACK bined with limited multiple would not know enough to
functions to provide basic appli ask."
1984 TAX
cations. Using icons, or symbols, Whether the format is
RETURN HELPER to direct the user, the program question-and-answer prompts,

Fast and easy lets you type and file letters, icon-based menus, information
income tax preparation. memos, notes', and the like—a windows, or easy-to-remember
simple word processor and file commands, software designers
• Form 1040 and Schedules A.B.C,
D.E,G,SE,W and Form 2441
manager in one. are emphasizing a mix between
ease of use and flexibility, that
• Plus TAX DBASE ■ a dala base
program (or tax related records personal finances are well is, how easy it is to use a sys
thai can be directly used in any of .L suited for integration since a tem versus how powerfully and
Ihe forms (disk only)
common chart of accounts can flexibly it operates. That's good
• Enter and modify dala on a screen
copy o( the form.
be used with a variety of differ news for Commodore 64 own
■ Works like a spreadsheet - ell the
ent programs, whether it's bal ers who want productivity pack
lines affected by a change are in ancing a budget, planning future ages that will let them really get
stantly updated. investments, buying property, or down to business.
• Automatic tax computation, *• figuring interest rates. In addition, software com
• Forms can be printed or saved.
That idea is the premise be panies realize there is still a
• Price Is tax deductible. hind the new Get Rich financial large untapped consumer mar
Tape $23 Disk S33 (+ S1.50
S&H). Specify C64 or VIC 20 (16K series from Arrays, Inc./ ket for computers, What will
RAM). Continental Software, available make people buy a computer?
• Previous users discount $11 (disk), for the Commodore 64. Perhaps the answer lies in the
S7 (tape),
"The first module coming initial responses Hank
KSOFTCO. =_ out, called Get Rich: Strategies, Scheinberg has received: "The
n B« WELLNER RD fl addresses what people do once comments we're getting back
(312)961-1250 they have discretionary dollars, are that this is a real reason to
Dealer inqulrios welcome those dollars people have left have a home computer."®

30 COMPUTE'S Gazette January

( AI M I for your Commodore 64 is a powerful, real-world problem solver. Faster, easier and
more accurate than pencil, paper and calculator - and a lot less frustrating.

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• calculate loan or iiimij:;i»r puymenls. and then iliit.i. Other < ;ilhii features, like on-screen menu and
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An easy and comprehensive manuul with tuioriuls on
That's the real advantage - vtilli CulKit, you can L-ach application are included. You'll la- using CalKit
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Bruce Artwick,
The Designer Behind
Flight Simulator It
Kathy Yakal, Feature Writer

There must be a lot of would-be pilots out there. _7

Flight Simulator II, a microcomputer-based /
flight simulator, has sold a quarter of a million V
copies and stayed on the best-seller charts since / '
it was introduced. Here's a look at the
program and the designer,

i I I

You've seen those air dis and programmer of Flight Simu

aster movies where the lator 11, says it appeals to people
pilot and co-pilot are for different reasons. "Some buy laboratory.
suddenly stricken with it just for the fun of flying He took a job at Hughes
a mysterious ailment, or injured around. A lot buy it because Aircraft in California in the late
in a struggle with a hijacker. A they like the graphics," he says. seventies, about the time the
stewardess or even a passenger "There's an arcade game built microcomputer industry started
must take over and fly the plane into it, so some people buy it to pick up speed. Interested in
to safety. for that. And some people actu the possibilities of graphics on
There might have been a ally want to use it to practice the new machines, Artwick
little less sweating in ail of flying. All of these elements— started programming small 3-D
those movies if the substitute the game, flying, and nice scen graphics packages for them, He
pilots had used Flight Simulator ery combine to attract a few formed subLOGIC in 1977, and
II from subLOGIC. It turns your from here and there." moved back to Illinois at the
Commodore 64 into a flight urging of his partner, Stu
simulation lab, and puts you at Flying is an avocation for Moment.

the controls of a small aircraft. Bruce Artwick (he's had a His first demo program for
The tremendous success of pilot's license for several years), the new Apples was a small
Flight Simulator II may be a bit but his real interest is computer flight simulator. "I was sur
surprising to those of us who graphics, Raised in the Chicago prised at how successful it was.
are a bit phobic about flying. area, Artwick went to school at It made me realize there was a
Even with our feet on the the University of Illinois at lot of consumer interest in flight
ground and hands on the key Champaign-Urbana. While fin simulation," says Artwick. Flight
board, the illusion of flying can ishing his master's thesis there, Simulator I for the Apple hit the
bring back memories of white- he worked on 3-D graphics soft bestseller charts and stayed
knuckled flights. ware for real flight simulators at there.
Bruce Artwick, the designer the school's aviation research In late 1981, Artwick was
32 COMPUTEl's Gaierre January
Get more out of your Commodore with

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PUTE's! Gazette, you'll learn Programs to help you balance
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views of New York City from the cockpit: the Empire State Building and Manhattan Bridge.

approached by IBM and Micro and run it because it takes up all creases your throttle. F makes it
soft. Both wanted him to trans of memory, almost every last bank, and G controls the bank
late his program for a new byte." They spent a half year ing. Press B for a view out the
machine that would be coming setting up that development back of the plane, and T for a
out the next year, a microcom system on an IBM PC with hard front view. You'll need to spend
puter with a powerful new pro disk drives. Once they got the a couple of hours learning all
cessor that would allow him to basic simulation going, they the various commands, maybe
do more than he was able to on started packing in as many fea more if you know nothing about
the Apple. tures as possible. "We used to flying. (The program comes
have meetings and say, 'We with a user's manual and a
He finally went with
have 30 systems we have to add booklet explaining the concepts
Microsoft, which published
and only 1300 bytes left,' " says of flight physics and aircraft
Flight Simulator II, an upgrade
Artwick. "We packed it tighter control.)
of the original Apple version,
and tighter until we had just The first time you take off,
for the new IBM PC. It was so
about everything we wanted." you leave Meigs Field in Chicago.
popular that people at Commo
And those features that had From there, you can fly to a
dore and Apple went after him
to be left out are basically cos number of airports in downstate
to translate it for their new
metic, "like the windshield Illinois, or set the controls to
cracking on the IBM version," take you to one of the other
"Back then, I didn't think it says Artwick. "It took up a lot three designated "scenery" ar
was possible to bring that kind of memory, but we had it." eas: Seattle, New York, or Los
of graphics performance down The sequel was just as pop Angeles. Flight is in realtime, so
to the smaller machines," he ular as the original. Flight Simu if you take off from Chicago
says. "But we gave it a try and lator I was finally knocked off before you go to work or school
did the best we could." the bestseller charts by Flight and leave the program running,
Crunching the program Simulator II. you can come home for lunch in
down for Commodore, Apple, time to land on the West Coast.
and Atari "...was a major The flying environment is
project," says Artwick. "We The control panel of Flight more than ten thousand by ten
knew that we were very tight Simulator II resembles the thousand miles square. It en
on memory. One of the most instruments of a Piper PA-28- compasses the entire continental
important things to have would 181 Archer II, a single-engine, United States and includes more
be good software tools to do it, nonretractable gear aircraft, it than 80 airports, winds, clouds,
a good assembler and debugger. was chosen because it offers- time of day (for day, dusk, and
We couldn't do development on good performance, yet is un night flight), and navigation
the machine we were designing complicated and easy to fly. aids. You can select the flight
it for. Like on the Apple, we You control the aircraft by conditions—even choose be
couldn't have the Apple do as pressing designated keyboard tween easy mode, which makes
semblies and load it into itself letters. The right bracket (]) in the aircraft more forgiving of
34 COMPUTE'S Gazerre January

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pilot blunders, and reality mode, released sometime in 1985. It's a look and how they work. "In
which adds more sophisticated multi-player game. By linking that respect, it's pretty useful, a
factors. two or more Apple lie's (either lot more useful than a
If you tire of the challenge in the same room or via textbook."
of keeping a plane in the air, modem), you can fly around in Artwick has received re
you can play WWI Ace, the the same air space and see each quests from such far-off custom
game option which equips the other, "...go on flights together ers as the Singapore Air Force,
plane with bombs, machine and hide behind mountains," and from people working on re
guns, and a radar screen, and says Artwick. search projects for their organ
pits you against other WWI In the meantime, Flight izations who want him to make
fighting planes. Simulator 11 still appeals to a modifications to the program.
wide age group, "from kids And there's one more inter
More memory, for the engi writing in to tell us how well esting application for Flight Sim
neers at subLOGIC, means they did on the game to middle- ulator U: Along with Lotus 1-2-3
faster simulations and more aged pilots who tell us we and dBase 11, it's known as a
complex scenery (they're al ought to have more ILS ap compatibility test for IBM PC
ready preparing new scenery proaches," says Artwick. compatibles. When Compaq
disks for San Francisco, Wash And it's being used in train Corporation was testing its ma
ington, D.C., and the Denver/ ing, he says, but not like you chine, the designers found that
Rocky Mountain area). "We're might think. "When it comes to Flight Simulator II wouldn't run.
trying to stay updated on new training a guy to fly a jet fighter "They had a whole roomful of
machines, because we think this or something, it's not really very testers testing it, and it turned
is an area of interest that will good because there are no real out to be a bug in one of Intel's
stay around for a long time," flight controls." But flight in chips," says Artwick. "In their
says Artwick. structors and national institu hardware design, it was more
The Apple lie has already tions are using it to show sensitive than IBM. Compaq ac
spawned an enhanced edition students how the gauges and tually had to change their
called Flight Simulator UM, to be other navigational instruments ROMs." Gil

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'Call for details on our super S50.00 trade-In otter.
Most printers don't work with performance against cost—it's The Blue Chip Personal Printer costs
Commodore or Atari. And to get difficult to find a printer that com a lot less than anything similar...
one that does, costs too much. pares to the Blue Chip Ml 20/10. without compromise in quality.
That's why the engineers at Blue Top speed with a Blue Chip M120/10 Highly powerlul and relentlessly
Chip designed a new personal is 120 characters per second. To beat practical.
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Special print modes on an M120/10
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well as superscripts and subscripts,
Chip M120/10. Or more powerful. call (800} 441-2345, Ext. 540, for
and near letter quality characters.
Fully equipped, It's about $50 less And to beat that in any other make more information and name of your
expensive than a comparable, yet Of printer you have to spend nearly closest Blue Chip dealer.
much slower Commodore printer. S300 more.
And in the vicinity of $300 less than
And since it also has the IBM-PC",
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Despite its low price, the Blue Chip use the Blue Chip Ml20/10 with jus!
Ml20/10 is not a stripped down, about any computer you may
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2 Wesi Atomeda Orive/Tfcmpfl, Arizona 85232^ (G02) 9&1-9B33

iuffcof EfK>nAfiHic«rliic

Sharon Darling,
Research Assistant

With the advent of telecom

munications services and
on-line data bases, comput
ers can give you a "window
to the world" from your
home, offering hundreds of
productivity and entertain
ment services.

If you own a Commodore

64 and a modem, perhaps
you've considered subscrib
ing to an on-line telecom
munications service. Is it worth
the investment? Let's imagine
the following scenario:
It's seven o'clock on a
Thursday night. The library
closed at five, and Sammy
Jordan has a school report due
tomorrow on a subject he hasn't
yet researched. Dad has been
dabbling in the stock market,
studying which stocks he'd like
to buy. Now he's ready to
plunge ahead, but can't place an
order with a stockbroker until 9
a.m. Friday. And he's leaving on
a business trip at 8 a.m. Mom
meant to stop at the bank on
her way home from the office,
but left work too late to get
there before the bank closed.
To top it all off, Sally's
birthday is coming up, and her
birthday present wish list con
tains an item not available in
their hometown. The closest
store that carries it is 50 miles

Such a situation could

cause a lot of stress and worry.
38 COMPUTEI's GfiJWIM January
If practice makes perfect,
buy the SATand typing programs
that make practicing easier.
Harcouri Brace Jovanavich Compulor preparation lor I he SAT



Keyboard on-screen.
Two Number Six Correct finger
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High resolution Yea/

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Sample Multiple
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Studying with a computer program makes more Unlike Keyboard Cadet. MasterType doesn'l show
sense than using a manual. But Harcourt's Computer SAT you the correct finger positions on the screen. So you
($7995) gives you a fat manual and just 2 double-sided might become a fast hunt-and-peck typist instead of a fas
disks typist.
For $89.95. Barren's Computer Study Program gives As long as you're learning how to type, why not learn
you an even fatter manual, plus 3 double-sided disks. how to type the right way? Keyboard Cadet. $39.95.
Why not buy a computer program that's a computer
Ours has 6 double-sided disks and a skinny manual.
And costs |ust $69.95.

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But not for our fictional family. communications systems, with With CompuServe, you must
They recently subscribed to an 145,000 subscribers. Started as a also have access to its Executive
on-line telecommunications ser time-sharing service for busi Information Service. Security,
vice for use with their Commo nesses, home computerists were accessibility, and guaranteed
dore 64. Now, they're going to first allowed access to the sys service are very important in
put their investment to good tem in 1979. any of these computerized sys
use. At the time, it was a data tems. For example, subscribers
Sammy logs on first and base for hobbyists says Paul must clear a number of security
gets the information he needs Battaglia, a CompuServe leveis before placing their buy
for his report from an on-line spokesperson. A CB radio own and sell orders. This makes the
encyclopedia, then looks ers' interest group was one of chances of illegal entry
through a special interest group the most popular services. There "minute," according to Richard
(S1G) data base to get a few were under one thousand sub A. Baker, CompuServe's director
more facts. He downloads the scribers, and only about 25 dif of corporate communications.
data, prints it out, and starts ferent data bases which could Besides buying stocks, other
writing his report. Next, Dad ac be accessed. By 1980, the num financial information is available
cesses the financial services sec ber of subscribers had increased on The Source and Compu
tion and places his stock order. to about 5,000. Today, there are Serve, as well as Dow Jones
He can now leave for his busi more than 800 different data News/Retrieval, one of the
ness trip without worrying. He bases, special interest groups, most respected business-
knows the stockbroker will re and services, covering almost oriented telecommunications
ceive instructions as soon as the every topic, from aviation to networks.
office opens and will immedi world news.
ately place his order. Dad will The Source, another popu I omputerized banking, while
later receive confirmation of the lar system, has roughly 60,000 .-■' still in its infancy, is a fast-
purchase. subscribers right now, and offers growing service. CompuServe,
While he's on-line, Dad hundreds of data bases in six Chemical Bank's Pronto Home
also checks the weather forecast major categories—business and Information and Banking Sys
for the city he's going to on his finance, travel, games, consumer tem, and a few others let you do
business trip. Since the report is services, news and sports, and your banking from the comfort
calling for rain, he packs a rain communications. Dow Jones has of your living room. Right now,
coat and umbrella. well over 120,000 subscribers. CompuServe has agreements
It's Mom's turn next. She While most of its offerings are with three banks (Shawmut in
visits the bank, which is a mem geared toward business users, Boston, United American Bank,
ber of the telecommunications there are several services which Memphis, and Huntington Na
service, and transfers money appeal to the home computerist, tional Bank, Columbus, Ohio).
from savings to checking. She such as movie reviews, sportr Baker says more banks will
also looks through merchandise and weather reports. probably be added to the net
available in the service's on-line If you've been looking for work later.
shopping mall and orders a additional uses for your com Chemical Bank's Pronto
birthday present for Sally. puter, joining an on-line service system, which can be used by
While this is only a fictional could be one of the most re Commodore 64 owners, topped
scenario, the services described warding. Let's take a look at 10,000 subscribers last summer.
are used every day by thou some of the options available. It offers users the ability to pay
sands of computer owners who Buying stocks, bonds, and bills, transfer funds, get bal
log on right from their homes. other securities on-line is a rela ances, see electronic statements,
Today, there are a growing tively new concept for the ser track budgets, and balance
number of companies offering vices. It is currently available to checkbooks.
well over a thousand different subscribers of The Source and In addition, the bank has li
on-line services and data bases CompuServe, for example, censing agreements with eight
which can make many routine through different brokerage other banks coast-to-coast. An
household tasks more conven firms. other on-line system, Keyfax
ient—even fun. You open an account with Interactive Information Service,
either Max Ule & Company, if based in Chicago, offers home
n-line services have come a you are a CompuServe sub banking, educational packages,
long way in a relatively scriber, or Spear Securities, Inc., data bases, and financial op
short period of time. Take, for if you have joined The Source. tions. A home shopping service
example, CompuServe, the larg The brokerage houses are mem is planned as well.
est of all such home-based tele- bers of these two major services. While The Source does not
40 COMPUTE!'* Gazelle January
The Evelyn Wood Dynamic Reader™
Now, the world's most renowned
master brings the techniques of
Dynamic Reading to your computer.
Learning to read faster isn't good enough. With
the Evelyn Wood Dynamic Reader, you'll learn
to read three to ten times faster-but with
better comprehension and retention.
OniyTimeworks brings this highly
successful reading program into your
computer. It will guide you like a gifted teacher through the
drills and exercises at your own comfortable pace, automatically
record your progress, and let you graphically review your results
on colorful bar charts.

If it takes you more than Reading Dynamics

is not a skimming or

30 seconds to read this ad,

"key word" association
technique. It is a totally
different reading concept
you need Evelyn Wood. that registers every word,
every idea, every shade
of meaning in the written material. You will use more of your mental
capacity and learn to concentrate. Your mind won't wander while
you read.
Reading dynamically is more enjoyable than reading the old
way. Complete thought patterns and ideas emerge from the written
material in a smoothly moving
picture. Instead of perceiving
individual bits and pieces of
information and putting them
together as best you can,
you will see total concepts.
Reading dynamically is like
living in the material.
The Evelyn Wood Dynamic
Reader provides you with the
exercises and tools you need to
help you increase your reading
comprehension and speed. Your own personal computer helps you
develop your skills at your own pace.
You learn the essential techniques of Dynamic Reading in your
own home—at any time convenient for you. You can repeat exercises
as often as you wish to assure that you maintain optimal reading
efficiency. Each program contains 50 Skill-Builder exercises, 20 read
ing exercises and 40 quizzes.
OniyTimeworks offers the Evelyn Wood Dynamic Reader. Now
at your favorite dealer. Or contact Timeworks, Inc., 405 Lake Cook
Road, Deerfield, IL 60015. Phone: 312-948-9200.
Available for Commodore 64* IBM* Apple* Atari*
Timeworks Programs:
■ Data Manager 2 « Word Writer « Swiflax
P Money Manager:: Electronic Checkbook
n Business System Series w Dungeons ot
Algebra Dragons a Spellbound ■ Cave of the
Word Wizard ■ Computer Education Kits
Heading Dynamics. Inc. and Tlmoworks. Inc All rights ro j
CommoOoii! Cc mauler Systems. InUiMlJWiBI Busnoss Macfiinea Corp. Apple Catnpulet. Inc. Alan, Inc
have home banking yet, it prob ample, would be difficult to sell On The Source, categories
ably will be added in the future, to the public right now because include collectibles, classified
says JoAnne Montgomery, a they're not acclimated to mak advertisements, teens, and
Source spokesperson. ing purchases with just that schedules of the U.S. House of
There are many types of at- information at hand." Representatives. Those services
home shopping services avail Shopping by computer are but a sample of what's
able. Perhaps the best known is should really take off, Battaglia available. To list every subject
Comp-U-Card's Comp-U-Store, says, when home computers are category offered by the various
which is available on Compu able to receive sophisticated services might take an entire
Serve, The Source, and Dow enough graphics that can show magazine.
Jones. what a product will look like, Of course, it costs money to
Subscribers to these services versus a word description of the join any of the on-line services.
pay an additional fee to belong merchandise. A basic subscription will cost
to Comp-U-Store, which offers you roughly the same price as a
more than 60,000 items from I hether it's financial infor piece of commercial software.
national manufacturers and mation you need, or ma The Source reduced its subscrip
stores. Comp-U-Store also offers terial for a school paper, or even tion fee this fall to $49.95. Get
discounts of up to 40 percent on the answer to a trivia question, ting on-line with CompuServe
its merchandise. you can probably get the facts costs about $40, although many
Right now, Comp-U-Store you need from one of the on modem manufacturers offer a
has 16,000 on-line subscribers line services. Sports news, ency free subscription to CompuServe
and 800,000 telephone subscrib clopedias, weather reports, news as part of the package.
ers who do not have access to a items from national and interna Dow Jones has three differ
computer, says Lynn Booth, di tional wire services, movie re ent levels of membership, with
rector of corporate communica views, and newspapers are all prices ranging from $50 to $75.
tions for Comp-U-Card examples of information you In addition, there are charges
International. She says the can access with your computer. from each service for the
popularity of the service is And there are special inter amount of time spent on-line.
growing because "more and est groups of every type avail Some of the services, such as
more people have home com able as well, ranging from sending an electronic mail letter,
puters, and they find they don't people who own specific kinds also require an extra fee.
have the time to spend brows of computers, to pilots, to home In addition to the sign-up
ing or comparison shopping, so canners. fee, most services charge an
they use a service like ours." If you're planning a trip, hourly rate for time spent on
CompuServe introduced the you can check the Official Air the service. It generally costs
Electronic Shopping Mall last line Guide (OAG) to find the more during business hours, but
April, which offers goods from best ticket prices. Even making in the evening, the rates may be
about 90 national merchandisers airline reservations from your as little as six dollars an hour.
like Sears, Bloomingdale's, and home has become a simple pro And if you have to call long
Waldenbooks. Battaglia says cedure with your computer. distance, the time is charged
that while the electronic mall is Another popular feature against your phone bill (many
popular, "I don't think it's ever which ties directly into your services have local numbers you
going to replace going out to the home is electronic mail. Accord can call, so you can avoid pay
store and buying goods—there's ing to Montgomery, The ing long-distance bills). The
a certain social function in Source's electronic mail service telecommunication options
volved (in shopping), and [ "gets the most use from con available by home computer are
think this (the mall) is a conven sumers and business." expanding every day, and there
ience factor." CompuServe's Battaglia also at are no signs of slowing down.
Use of such services should tests to the popularity of the Modems remain one of the most
grow though, he adds, as people service. Electronic mail is "hot" popular peripherals for Commo
get accustomed to shopping by right now, for both consumers dore 64 owners, a fact not lost
computer. "Right now, it's a and business users, he says. on the major on-line systems.
unique thing," Battaglia says, Unusual subject areas can Will this expansion continue?
"and I think there are more be accessed. CompuServe, for CompuServe is already planning
products that are sold more instance, offers an advice col to increase its mainframe com
readily over this kind of me umnist, Aunt Nettie, as well as puter capacity by 90 percent
dium than other kinds of information on PGA golfers, in over the next two years. And
products. surance, humor, and human everyone else seems to be fol
"A designer dress, for ex- sexuality. lowing suit. VB
42 COMPUTEl's Gaiolla January
which computer you own.
Wfe'H help you
get the most out of it.

CompuServe puts a world of information, communications, and entertainment at your fingertips.

CompuServe is Ihe easy to use videotex sophisticaled financial data. Plus, a The videotex service for you, no matter
service designed for the personal communications network for electronic which computer you own. To buy a Starter
computer user and managed by the com mail, a bulletin board for selling, swap Kit, see your nearest computer dealer.
munications professionals who provide ping, and personal notices and a multi 1b receive our informative brochure or to
business information services to over one channel CB simulator. order direct, call or write:
fourth of the Fortune 500 companies. You get games on CompuServe, too.
Subscribers get a wealth of useful, Classic puzzlers, educational, sports and CompuServe
profitable, or just plain interesting infor adventure games and fantastic space Consumer Information Service, P. O. Box 20212
mation like national news wires, electronic games featuring MegaWars, the "ultimate 5000 Arlington Centre Blvd . Columbus. OH 43220

banking and shop at home services, and computer conflict." 800-848-8199 In OlnoCall 614-457-0802
An HSR Block Company

for families

A Visit With Sweetums

The Ogre
Fred D'lgnazio, Associate Editor

1 had the thrill of my life last week.

I'm the "children and computers" com
mentator and product reviewer for The New Tech
Times TV show (each week this fall and next
spring on PBS), and I got to visit Jim Henson's
Muppet Mansion in New York City to review the
Muppet Learning Keys, a new computer keyboard
for children from Henson Associates, Sunburst
Communications, and Koala Technologies.
When I stood outside on the street, the
Muppet Mansion looked to me like any other
posh dwelling on Manhattan's upper East Side.
But when I walked through the front door, I left
the city behind and entered the world of Jim
Henson's imagination.
The mansion's foyer is dominated by a
three-story-high muppet balloon—rather, bal
loons on top of balloons on top of balloons
stretching up to the distant ceiling. Tiny muppets
cling to the balloons and float around them on
all sides.
The muppet puppeteer's room is around the
corner, behind the stairs, and there I saw a
drawer full of Kermit heads and Gonzo perched
lazily atop a bookshelf.
1 left the balloons, the puppeteers, and the
Kermit heads behind and climbed the stairs.
Sweetums the Ogre was waiting for me on the
second floor. Sweetums is a tall (very tall) ogre
whose film career dates back to a monster "ex
tra" part he played in Kermit the Frog's movie
debut, The Frog Prince, in 1971.
Sweetums is not the sort of creature I'd like
to bump into on a dark night. He's big, hairy,
and all mouth. And he doesn't walk, he gallops.
When he saw me, he galloped across the floor
and gave me a friendly, bone-stretching ogre
hug. I felt like I'd been swallowed by a furry rug.
Sweetums volunteered to be my child tester
AA COMPUTE'S Gamto January
more things
you can organize
with your
Commodore G\

■■ "■ ,„,

■- "■■ —

; WB^l

, Q

IJnt trt»i

The Power of Simplicity
pf&fiu; and PE&HEPOKT currently work on Commcxiore 64.
Apple* IHM*Mai-lni(ish,'Hindy,nEC.G)nip:ic|, I k-wk-u Ilickjirtl, \ \
MX,ftmofiorilc,Polo,'Iiu(as Instruments, Columbia, Corona,
E:ihIl- and I lyperlon personal ramputen.
O Software Publishing Corporatloa
Hmfcrw^iif-c *- m..
and help me review the Muppet Learning Keys. fingered typists of the world, kids or adults.
I've worked with lots of children, but I've never There were two things about the keyboard I
worked with an ogre before, so there were a few liked in particular. First, it was like a non-
things we had to get straight. First, I had to tell computer person's version of the Macintosh
Sweetums not to eat the floppy disk that comes "desktop" environment. The Macintosh, as you
with the keyboard (he got the disk stuck on his probably know, has a display screen that shows
snaggle tooth). Second, we had a very un little icons, or pictures, that are supposed to re
dignified tug-o'-war when we first got the key semble items found on a person's desk at his or
board. Sweetums wanted to play with the her office, including a wastebasket, file folders,
keyboard first, and when 1 told him I needed the an alarm clock, and so on. This "desktop" meta
keyboard, he turned his back to me and pouted. phor is nil right for someone in an office, but it's
Third, Sweetums does not speak English. He not very exciting for little kids and for people
only speaks "ogre." So I had to learn what who don't get that turned on by desks. And, be
things like "Grrrr . . . Mmmmm . . . Hrrumph . . . sides, it's not really a desk, it's a picture screen.
Um-Be-Dum-Be-Dum-Be-Dum-Be-Dum" meant. And the pictures are black and white and so tiny
I paid attention (it's hard not to pay attention to you have to squint to see them.
Sweetums), so I eventually caught on.

The "Anywhere" Desk

The Muppet Learning Keys also pretend to be a
desktop. They plug into the Commodore 64 key
board in joystick port 1. The keyboard is 14 by
15 inches, and about an inch high. You can prop
the keyboard in your lap, or better yet, you can
dive to the floor, and set up your "desk" there.
On top of your desk is a ruler, marked in
inches, with big numbers, from 0 to 9. The
numbers are really the number keys on the key
board—rounded bumps on a flat, membrane
Beneath the ruler is a paintbox with lots of
watercolors, including yellow, orange, blue,
red, and violet. Each color has a label beneath
it. To select a color, you just stick your finger
in the appropriate paint dish.
A little green chalkboard sits beneath the
paintbox. Written in white chalk are the let
ters of the alphabet, in capita! letters, and
in alphabetical order. Underneath the chalk
board is one of those marbly assignment
books with a Space key (it looks like outer
space, with a comet and stars), and round arith
metic keys: plus, minus, multiplication, and
My favorite part of the review was when division.
Sweetums picked up the Commodore 64 key On the right side of your desk is a button
board and tried to press the keys. His big, furry that looks like you could pick it up and pin it on
monster fingers squashed six or seven keys at a your shirt. It says "Zap" and you use it to escape
time. So now 1 know. If you have an ogre in from an activity and go back to a menu.
your family, a Commodore 64 keyboard is not Beneath the Zap key is an eraser, so you can
adequate. back up and erase mistakes. Next to the eraser is
But you might look into the new Muppet a compass. It's like a real compass that tells you
Learning Keys. Sweetums' fingers worked fine on North, South, East, and West, with arrow keys
the big, widely spaced keys. And so did my adult pointing up, down, to the right and left. It's an
fingers, too. When I played with the keyboard I official Frog Scout Compass. You know that for
learned how nice it was to have big keys in sure because there's a famous green frog's face in
bright colors. My fingers were tired of cramped the center of the compass.
computer keyboards. The keys are arranged in In the lower righthand corner of the desk is
alphabetical order, so they are not suited for a comic book. It's opened to the middle (you can
touch typists. But they are great for the one- see the staples). There are four cartoons showing,
46 COMPUTE! s Gazette January
We Proudly Present
Our Award-Winning
Strategy Games • ..,,-.. .............. .....,...^...... v.








w - ;

All iIicm i;.!iiu->. arc ,i\ .iil.itili- for rhi* ri' .itnl Ciinimiuliirc 64"
1 C-64~ only).


You can find these and all our tonics at your local computer/software or gamcistore today. If you need help locating
dealer, write us: SSI, 883 Sticrlin Road, Bldfr A-200, Mountain View, CA 94043. Or give us ji call at (415) 964-1353.
There is a picture of Super Gonzo being Scholastic Books has a new series of four
launched by a cannon toward a brick wall shout computer activity books which are popular with
ing, "Oops!" When you press this picture, you me and my eight-year-old daughter. Each book
can undo a mistake you've made. costs only $4.95 and contains dozens of pro
There's a picture of Miss Piggy tied up on grams that kids will like to enter into their Com
the railroad track crying, "Help!" If you use modore 64.
computers regularly, it's not hard to figure out The books are all written by Paul Somerson
what this key is for. and Stephen Manes and are titled Computer
A cartoon of Fozzie Bear with a police cap Space Adventures, Computer Craziness, Computer
and STOP sign and a picture of Kermit on a Olympics, and, my favorite, Computer Monsters.
motorcycle underneath a green traffic light that The books don't start with a boring table of
says GO disguise keys that enable you to start contents. Instead they begin with messages like
and stop activities and animate pictures on the "Greetings, Earthling!" or "Welcome, Human!"
screen. Then they tell kids the basics they'll need to
To make your desk work, you need soft know to enter a program on the computer. And
ware. And now we've come to the Muppet Learn they start showing kids programs, sample output,
ing Keys' chief drawback. For $80, the keys come and weave it all into scenarios starring silly crea
with a "Muppet Discovery Disk" created by Sun tures, secret space missions, nutty numbers, and
burst Communications. But that's it for now. magic codes—a delightful smorgasbord for your
According to Koala, many more disks are on the 8- to 12-year-old.
way, as well as overlays that fit on top of the When you get tired of monsters and rocket
keyboard so you can use it for different activities ships, you can come back to earth and try 2, 2, 3,
with different aged children. But no more soft My Computer & Me! by Jim Muller (Reston, 1984,
ware now is a real limitation, since the Muppet 96 pages, paper, $12.95). Muller is the Honorary
Learning Keys are a real keyboard, and it would Turtle and co-founder of the Young Peoples'
be great if children and adults could use it as an Logo Association (P.O. Box 855067, Richardson,
alternative to the standard keyboard. But to do TX 75085—or call the Midnight Turtle bulletin
that, they need software. board on your computer by dialing 214-783-7548).
The software that comes with the keys is 1, 2, 3, My Computer & Me! is a workbook
limited, but it's also good. And this brings me to that children (ages 5 and up) can do with their
the second reason why I like the keyboard: It has parents. The book is an introduction to Logo
succeeded in turning the computer into an elec thinking, programming, and playing. There are
tronic playground. I've claimed in many of my lots of exercises and experiments to do, and lots
columns in the GAZETTE that my children (ages 8 of blank space in the book for children to draw
and 5) spend most of their time on our Com their own pictures, take notes, color, and just
modore 64 just banging on the keyboard and not doodle. If you and your children are just begin
using any software whatsoever. They know the ning to use computers, I recommend this book as
computer far better than I do, just by a very gentle introduction.
experimenting with the different keys and look If your children are even younger and your
ing at the display screen to see what pops up. wallet is flatter, you might want to look at
This is "discovery learning" at its best, and it's COMPUTERS! (Golden Book, 1984, 32 pages, pa
also what you get with the Muppet Learning Keys. per). This book, at only $1.95, has to be the least
To find out more about the Muppet Learning expensive computer book on the market, and one
Keys, contact: of the best buys.
As with Muller's book, the emphasis in this
Koala Technologies
3200 Patrick Henry Drive
book is on parents and children working at home
Santa Clara, CA 95052-8100
together. The book is suitable for children ages
(408) 986-8866 five and up, and has two pages of stickers, games,
experiments, and lots of other activities that par
When you call Koala, tell them Sweetums and ents and children can do with or without a com
Fred sent you. And tell them to get busy making puter. So get your pencils, glue, scissors, and
new software! crayons, Mom and Dad, and begin computing!
After you've been down in the trenches with
The Computer Book Shell your kids for heavy-duty glue-and-sticker
When I'm not in faraway places playing with computing, you may want a change of pace—
ogres, I'm back in my house in Roanoke, Vir food for thought instead of something gooey to
ginia, writing—and reading. Here are some of stick to your fingers. In this case, you might look
the books I've looked at recently that I recom at Bin/ A School For Your Home by Judy Lower
mend to families, with Ed Neil and Tim Finger (Reston, 1984, 265
48 COMPUTE'S Gazelle January

Get more out of your Commodore

computer. I
Start your subscription to COMPUTEI's
Gazette Disk. Each month you can rej-
ceive a fully tested 5W floppy disk to
run on either your Commodore 64 or|
VIC-20 personal computer. Each issue_
■of COMPUTEI's Gazette Disk will contain
all the programs appearing in the
corresponding issue of COMPUTEI's Ga
zette magazine. So, now you can have_
■all the quality programs found in each"
month's COMPUTEI's Gazette ready-to-
load on a disk. Send in the attached]
coupon and subscribe today!

.Call toll-free 1-800-334-0868—

or send your prepaid coupon to:
/ COMPUTED Gazette Disk
P.O. Box 5406
Greensboro, NC 27403
pages, paper, appendices, bibliography, $14.95) suitable for the family. I recommend that you
or Bank Street's Family Computer Book by Barbara take a look at several of these catalogs because
Brenner with Mari Endreweit (Ballantine, 1984, they give you the chance to comparison shop for
251 pages, appendices, bibliography, indexes, different kinds of software right in your own
paper, $8.95). home.
Both books are intended for families who are Here are the best catalogs I've received:
just beginning. They answer your basic ques
tions—for example, "Why should we buy a Special Learning Ed Software (SLED)
(specializing in spelling programs)
home computer?" And they give you plenty of
P.O. Box 16322
information about how to buy a computer, how
Minneapolis, MN 55416
to shop for software, and most important, how to
(612) 926-5320
use the computer and software once you've got
Selected Microcomputer Software/Elementary
them home.
Opportunities for Learning, Inc.
Buy A School has separate chapters on using
8950 Lurline Avenue
computers with different aged children, and car
Depl. 2P
ries with it a strong emphasis on families using
Chatsworth, CA mil
computers together and using computers as a (818)341-2535
learning tool. It also contains a 110-page section
Quality Educational Microcomputer Software
reviewing some of the better family programs.
Charles Clark Co., Inc.
Family Computer Book is rich with case his
168 Express Drive
tories about real families who have begun South Brentwood, NY 11717
computing, based on the extensive experiences of (516)231-1220
the researchers at Bank Street College's Center
The Children's Software Catalog
for Children and Technology. It guides parents
Evanston Educators, Inc.
through the ins and outs of computer jargon and 1718 Sherman Avenue
offers specific tips on how to select the right Evanston, II 60201
computer equipment and software for the family. (312)475-2556
Both books are especially helpful, however,
Sunburst Educational Computer Courseware
because they don't just keep to the specifics—the (preschool to adult)
logistics—of family computing. They also have Sunburst Communications
the insight and sensitivity to explore the bigger Room BC39
issues parents face when they invest in a com Washington Avenue
puter for their family. Plcasantville, NY 10570
For those families who are past g!ue-and- (800) 431-1934
crayons computing, and have already mastered Microcomputer Educational Programs MCE, Inc.
the fundamentals, I recommend Eugene 157 South Kalamazoo Mail
Galanter's Kids & Computers: Advanced Program Kaiamazoo, Ml 49007
ming Handbook (Putnam/Perigee Books, 1984, (800)421-4157
224 pages, appendices, index, paper, $8.95). This (in Michigan, 616-345-8681, collect)
is the third in the series of Kids & Computers Scholastic Microcomputer Instructional Materials
books by Galanter and is intended for the older (grades K-12)
child, age 12 and up, who is already program Scholastic, Inc.
ming. I liked the book because it reminded me of P.O. Box 7503
a junior version of my computer science courses 2931 E. McCarty Street
back at the University of North Carolina. This Jefferson City, MO 65102
book is a home-study course in computer science (800) 325-6149
(in Missouri, 800-392-2179)
for a student to take to supplement a course he
or she is taking in school, or to read alone to 1984 Instructional Materials Catalog
pick up some new programming tricks and tech DLM Teaching Resources
P.O. Box 4000
niques like structured programming, using files
One DLM Park
and data structures, and creating basic sorting
Allen, TX 75002
and searching algorithms. The book is thorough,
(800) 527-4747
but I offer one warning: It reads like a textbook. (in Texas, 800-442-4711)
It's for the child who is already motivated, and
not for the hesitant beginner. Time Saver 11
(preschool to adult educational software)
The Micro Center
Catalog Time! P.O. Box 6
Each month I get a bushel basket full of new Pieasantville, NY 10570
computer catalogs brimming with new software (800) 431-2434 or (914) 769-6002 ffl
50 COMPUTE! s Gazette January
Educational Software
That Works:

Spell It!

Spell expertly 1000 of the most misspelled
words, Learn the spelling rules. Improve
with 1 exciting activities. Including a
captivating arcade game! Add your own
spelling words.

ages 10 - adult / 2 disks: 539.95

Math Blaster!
Master addition, subtraction, multiplication,
division, fractions, decimals and percentages

- by solving over 600 problems. Learn your
math facts with a motivating activities,
including a fast-action arcade game! Add
your own problems,

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Apple. IBM and Cornniodoro 64 are trademarks respecdvely ol Apple Computers, Jnc , International Business Machines Corp., and Commodore! Business Machines, fnc
VIC Magic Draw
Kevin Gough

Turn your computer into a high-resolution Three simple machine language programs
sketchpad with this program. The pictures are automatically POKEd into certain areas after
you create can be saved to tape or disk. running Magic Draw. They have the functions of
Requires at least 8K of expansion memory. saving and loading hi-res pictures that you cre
ate, from disk or tape, and clearing the screen of
any extraneous matter. These routines are DATA
Here's a program that lets you create high- statements in the BASIC program, so take care
resolution pictures on a 176 X 160 dot grid. typing them in. A checksum is performed to
"VIC Magic Draw" requires 8K or more expan make sure the data was typed in correctly, so if
sion memory. After the program is typed in and there is any wrong data you will be notified.
saved to disk or tape, you must change the start Here's a list and explanation of Magic Draw
of BASIC and the screen, before loading the control keys.
program. SHIFT/CLR: This clears the high-resolution
There are two ways to do this: manually or screen of any plotted dots. After the first run of
with a boot program. Manually, type POKE Magic Draw, you'll want to clear the screen of
648,30:SYS 58648 and press RETURN. Now type any random garbage. After clearing it, you'll see
POKE 642,32:5YS58232 and press RETURN. the flashing pixel at the center of the screen.
Your VIC will display the usual "CBM BASIC
SHIFT/CRSR (up): This moves the pixel cursor
V2" at the top of the screen, except the number
up one dot.
of bytes free is 3584 less than when you turned
your VIC on. That's because the start of BASIC CRSR (down): Moves the pixel cursor down one
and variables have been moved (to 8192). dot.

The other method for moving memory is a SHIFT/CRSR (left): Moves the pixel cursor left
boot program that automatically loads Magic one dot.
Draw. Program 1, "Magic Draw Boot," does this CRSR (right): Moves the pixel cursor right one
for you. It consists of five lines of BASIC. If dot.
you're using a disk drive, enter and save it as is.
HOME: Moves the pixel cursor to the center of
If you're storing Magic Draw on tape, change the
the screen.
device number at the end of line 30 from 8 to 1.
Make sure you store this boot on your tape X: Plots one dot in the current position of the
before the Magic Draw program. If you're storing pixel cursor.
Magic Draw on disk, then change the device Z: Erases one dot (if present) under the pixel
number at the end of line 30 from 1 to 8. cursor.

52 COMPUTE'S Gazerro January

using disk and the picture is not found, an error
message is generated. After the picture is loaded,
draw mode is entered and your creation is dis
played on the screen, The pixel cursor flashes in
the middle of the screen.

Adding More Functions

You'll find you have a good amount of memory
free after Magic Draw is up and running. Press Q
and type ? FRE(O). The amount of bytes free is
determined by the size of your memory expan
sion. The extra memory allows you to add new
functions. A screen dump to the printer (1515 or
1525) has been added. I've used the program on
page 112 of COMPUTEVs First Book of VIC. Now,
This hi-res castle was created with "VIC Magic Draw." suppose your screen and the bottom half was
blank. You wouldn't want to wait double the
time it takes to print out the entire screen. So we
must add a line between line numbers 6 and 7.
D: Draws continuously wherever you move the
This BASIC line will also serve to end the print
pixel cursor. Press D again to turn this function
routine when the printer is done with the screen:
E: Erases continuously wherever you move the {15):CLOSE4:RETURN
pixel cursor. Press E again to turn this function
If you press f4 while the printer is dumping the
screen, the PRINT routine will end and you'll be
@: The "at" key creates a box-shaped figure to returned to the draw mode. Printing the entire
the right and below the pixel cursor. The size of screen takes about 35 minutes.
the box is controlled by the plus (+) and minus See program listings on page 156. @
( —) keys.
+ : Increases the size of the box figure by one dot
each time the key is pressed. The limit is 90 dots.
—: Decreases the size of the box figure by one
Program Your Own EPROMS
dot each time the key is pressed. The limit here VIC 20
is a box two dots square.
G: Graphs a pattern of dots on the screen 8X8 PLUGS INTO USER PORT.
dots square. This is useful for drawing precise, NOTHING ELSE NEEDED.
dimensioned pictures. Press SHIFT and G to EASY TO USE. VERSATILE.

erase the graph. • Read or Program, One byte or

32K bytes'
Q: Quit the high-resolution draw mode. The
OR Use like a disk drive. LOAD,
screen will clear and return the normal VIC SAVE. GET, INPUT, PRINT, CMD,
cursor. You can run the program again and still OPEN. CLOSE—EPROM FILES!

retain your previously drawn picture. Our software [els you use familiar BASIC commands lo
create, modify, scratch files on readily available EPROM
S: Save a picture to disk or tape. Each picture c chips. Adds a new dimension to your computing capability.
takes up to 3524 bytes. Pressing S clears the Works with most ML Monitors too.

• Make Auto-Siart Cartridges of your programs.
high-resolution screen and asks for the name of
• The promenade" Cl gives you 4 programming voltages,
your picture. You next enter 1 for disk or 2 for
2 EPROM supply voliages, 3 intelligent programming
tape save. After it is saved, you return to the algorithms, 15 bit chip addressing, 3 LED's and NO
high-resolution screen and your picture. Tape switches. Your computer controls everything from software!

users should make sure that buttons on the

a Textool socket. Anti-static aluminum housing.
EPROMS. cartridge PC boards, etc. at extra charge.
Datassette are pressed down. You will be
Somo EPROM types you can use with the promenade"
prompted with TAPE OFF? before being 2758 2532 46J732P 27118 5133 X2B16A1
2518 2732 2554 27256 5143 M8131
prompted to PRESS RECORD AND PLAY ON 2716

TAPE. Just press RETURN at the tape off prompt

and then the record and play buttons on the Call Toll Free: 800-421-7731
Datassette. In California: 800-421-7748

L: Load a picture. You'll be prompted to type in JASON-RANHEIM

5B0 Parroft St., San Jose, CA 95112
a name and then a 1 for disk or 2 for tape. If
Build fences around your opponent with sion works. The VIC version is similar, so the
out letting yourself get hemmed in. This program description also applies with a few
simple game includes a variety of options exceptions.
to keep it ever-challenging. Originally
written for the 64, we've added a VIC
version. Commodore 64 Program
Lines Description
This game puts you in the construction business. 100-120 Call the option routines and initialize
Specifically, you're building fences, and the variables.
construction code is straightforward: Fences may 130 Chocks for winner and jumps to win
be built horizontally or vertically; your con
140-150 Draw screen border.
struction may not touch the outer walls, your 160 Checks for barrier option, jumps to
previous work, or your opponent's work; nor can subroutine.
it touch any obstacles that may be strewn in your 190 Positions players and directions. (Locations
path. 251-254 hold low and high bytes of each
player's position. Locations 837-838 hold
You score points by outlasting your rival. If player's directions.
his fence crashes first, you win the round and a 200 Initializes time and calls machine language
number of points based on the amount of time routine, which returns to BASIC when col
lision occurs. Score is then determined
consumed by the round. The first player to reach
based on amounl of elapsed time.
100 points wins the game. 210-230 Check value in location 834 for number of
The choices available in setting up the game player in collision, then jump to appropriate
are: one or two players; joystick or keyboard in routine to update winner's score.
245-250 Flash colliding fence.
put; adding obstacles to the playfield; and
270-480 Allow player to choose options.
increasing or decreasing the speed of the game. 490-510 Randomly place barriers on screen.
Approximately 30 percent of the program— 520-550 Initialize sound and variables.
560-660 Print scores and totals, then jump to
the game action itself—is written in machine lan 1 -i i i r ■ t^i ^-* 1 ^ x i r
guage. The sound, timing, and scoring routines
670-1350 Load machine language portion of
are written in BASIC. Accompanying the article Commodore 64 version.
is a line-by-line description of how the 64 ver-
54 COMPUTE'S Gazelta January

a ■■ ■■■—•nil

/» the two-player game, Red has trapped the Blue player

(VIC version).

The game is best when played by two people.

The one-player option was added so players
could practice if no opponent could be found.
You race the clock, trying to survive as long as
possible. If you use the practice option, the most
challenging level is nine, with obstacles. You
have ten rounds to rack up as many points as
you can.

Note To VIC Users

Programs 2 and 3 comprise the VIC version of
"Trap 'Em." First, type in Program 2, the game
loader, and save it to tape or disk. If you're using
tape, change the 8 to a 1 in line 130.
Next, type in Program 3, the main game,
and save it with the filename "VT". If you're
using tape, be sure to save Program 3 immedi
ately after Program 2. This will automatically
load Program 3. In the VIC version, the ML rou
tine is POKEd in lines 100-880 of the loader

See program listings on page 157.

Practicing in the one-player game, with barriers (64

George Hu

In dire need of energy crystals, your space

ship has landed on an alien planet. But the
crystals are guarded by soldiers and a
vicious droid. Act fast because time is
running out. For the VIC and 64; joystick

You are a space explorer from the planet Earth.

During your voyage, your ship encountered a
meteorite belt and most of your ship's energy
was drained in protecting the ship. You en
counter a strange planet which contains crystals
that can restore your ship's power. Unfortu
nately, the planet is guarded by dormant soldiers
and vicious droids. You send a probe, nicknamed
Press the fire button to instantly create more crystals—
Chomper, to collect the crystals.
and soldiers (VIC version).
Using your joystick maneuver Chomper
across the planet's surface and gobble up as
many energy crystals as fast as you can. For time remaining, and bonuses are displayed at the
every crystal you collect, you receive 150 points. top.
If you hit a soldier, you lose 450 points. If you After the game is over, you may be asked to
allow a droid to catch Chomper, he is de enter your name for a high score. Type in your
stroyed—and that spells doom for you and your name and press RETURN. Another diagram will
mission. appear with the session's high score on top, Push
the joystick up for the same level, right for a dif
Racing The Clock ferent level, and down to end the game.
You have 45 seconds in which to collect as many
Variable Contents
crystals as you can. If you earn 3000 points, you
L Score needed for bonus
will be given bonus time. The first bonus is 45
S I "reseii 1 score
seconds. Each bonus you earn decreases the next G Total bonus lime received
bonus time by 5 seconds. If you earn 6 bonuses, V Bonuses readied
you get a new Chomper in a different section of R Amount of next bonus
the planet, with 45 more seconds of play. If you W Droid being controlled (1 or 2)
XI Cliomper's X coordinate
would like more crystals, press the fire button.
Yl Chomper's Y coordinate
But beware: More crystals mean more soldiers. C Cliomper's screen location
The game begins with a diagram of joystick X(N) Droid's X coordinate
positions. Push the joystick right for easy play; Y(N» Droid's Y coordinate
push it left for harder play. Pushing the stick up DIN) Droid's screen location
Cl 1 or 2 droids
increases the number of droids: up to seven for
F Ratio of Chomper moves to droid moves
the 64 version or two for the VIC version. After BS High Scote
your selection, the playing field and the droid(s) N$ Name of high scorer
are randomly placed on the screen. The score, M Multi-use counter

56 COMPUTED Gazeffe January

Who Invented the Submarine?
Who was the only president to serve more than 3 terms.'
The purchase of what state was known as Seward's Folly?

These arc [ust a few of the fun and fascinating history ques
HISTORY tions you'll find with HISTORY FLASH, one of the 54 titles in
FLASH the ChallcngeWare educational scries.
With HISTORY FLASH, you can explore over 400 years of
facts about the United States, from its discovery by
Christopher Columbus In \AL)1 to constitutional amendments
that effect our lives today. HISTORY FLASH is designed to
test the knowledge of two players as they compete CO win
500 points by correctly answering random historical ques
tions...and provide valuable .information where answers are
not known. Explorers, Inventors, Black Americans, American
Women, Presidents, The Constitution, and Wars are all
covered In this exciting program, which will keep you
challenged for hours of fun and learning.

\ v
1 ■!

5 a

ChallcngeWare brings Students and knowledge used In over 1.1)00 schools throughout the
together through exciting programs for the country. Recommended by teachers as software
Commodore &4, Apple Me, and Apple 11+. parents can trust to enhance their child's educa
Designed for ages pre-school through adult, tion, it is the only educational series that ran
ChallengeWarc includes programs in Pre-school accompany every step in a child's development,
Concepts, Mathematics. Grammar. Social Studies. So help your child explore this world of vast
Science. Foreign Language, Heading. Economics, information...
and Logic & Strategy. Discover ChallengeWare at your local dealer!
ChallcngcWarc i.s the most extensive educa
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or a dealer nearest you call TOLL FREE

1-800-253-2600 SOFTWARE
in CT (203)621-<J.i61 I'O liox 'j-iH. Waterbury, CT 06720
number of bonuses required to get a bonus
screen. By changing the value of F in lines
460-480, you can adjust the ratio of Chomper's
moves to the droid's moves.

64 Version Notes
Other than allowing up to seven droids, the 64
version plays the same as the VIC version. If you
have a black-and-white screen, press the fire but
ton at the beginning of the game until a B ap
pears. This adjusts colors so you can play on a
non-color TV or monitor.
The 64 version is entirely in machine lan
guage, and MLX (elsewhere in this issue) is re
quired to enter the program. After loading and
running MLX, answer the starting address
Your chomper has limited time to mine energy crystals prompt with 49152, and the ending address with
and avoid the droids (64 version). 50891.
To run the game, type SYS49152. Also, be
sure to load the game with LOAD''filename",8,1.
Customizing The Skill Level If you'd rather not type in the program (VIC
version only), send a blank tape. $3, and a self-
If you find the game is too hard, or too easy, the
addressed stamped envelope to:
skill level can be adjusted in several ways. The
easiest way is to change the bonus time By George Hu
changing the value of R in line 390, the bonus 16212 122Avc.SE
Renton, WA 98055
time can be changed. By changing the 6 in the
last statement in line 210, you can change the See program listings OH page 165. GJj


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58 COMPUTE! $ Gazette January

Riteman announces LQ—the letter-quality printer that's small enough to hold in one hand.
Tiny, super-portable and efficient, LQ weighs less than 7 pounds and costs under S300.
The Riteman LQ. It's the right choice.



A it em an 15

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Your once-quiet neighborhood
is suddenly being showered with
firecrackers. And the culprit won't
let up. You arive on the scene
in a mad dash to extinguish the
firecrackers in a bucket of water.

Take It To The Limit

When the title screen appears, you'll be asked to
choose one of 15 skill levels, 1 being the slowest
and 15 the fastest'. You'll probably want to start
with an easier level at first to see how the game
Stephen Ressler
plays. Then go up a couple of skill levels until
you have a competitive game.
A prankster perched on the top of your
Using a joystick (port 2 in the 64 version),
apartment building is tossing firecrackers move your bucket left and right to catch the fall
on to the street. Your job is to maneuver a ing firecrackers. Note that your bucket can "wrap
water-filled bucket to catch and extinguish around" the screen, that is, moving to a far edge
the firecrackers. An arcade-style action will bring you around to the opposite side of the
game with versions for the VIC and 64. A screen. This is extremely helpful at the more ad
joystick is required.
vanced levels.
If a firecracker reaches the ground, an

A quick move to the left might catch the firecracker The player faces a decision in the VIC version of
dropped by the prankster (64 version). "Kablam!"
60 COMPUTEVs Gazette
explosion is heard, and one of your four plays is If you'd rather not type in the game (64
lost. The game ends only when you're out of version only), send a self-addressed stamped en
plays. You can then choose another level and velope, a blank tape or disk, and $3 to:
play again.
If things get too frantic or you need a break Stephen Ressler
18 Erindah* Drive
in the middle of the game, pause the action by
Marltoti, N] 08053
pressing the space bar. Press the CTRL key to re
sume the game. See program listings on page 168.

Special VIC Notes simply load and run in an unexpanded VIC.

The VIC version of "Kablam!" is similar in If you have 8K or more expansion for
play to the 64 version, but there are a few your VIC and a copy of the full-featured VIC
differences. You have a total of three plays MLX (published last month and in earlier is
rather than four, and instead of 15 difficulty sues), you don't have to type in Tiny MLX.
levels, there are five. However, the speed of Insert the expansion memory, turn on your
each firecracker increases with each one you VIC, and enter this line: POKE 642,32:SYS
catch and decreases with each one you 58232. This POKE and SYS moves the start
miss—a kind of self-adjusting handicap. of BASIC into the memory expander, where
The VIC version also displays the high it won't interfere with the machine language
score, current score, firecracker speed, and program. You can then load the regular VIC
firecrackers (plays) left. The SHIFT LOCK key MLX, and type in Kablam!.
serves as a pause button. The starting and ending addresses are
Written entirely in machine language, the built into the special version of Tiny MLX. If
VIC version must be entered using a special you're using an 8K or greater expander with
Kablam! version of "Tiny MLX," found else regular MLX, use 6291 as the starting ad
where in this issue. Once entered and saved, dress, 7682 as the ending address. <j



Now anyone Now everyone

can use

a computer. Run will use their

computer more.

Revolutionary Chlrpee'" lels you command Chirpee adds a whole new dimension lo □ AERONAUT—fixciting game allows
your computer by voice. yourcomputer. It's the one peripheral that can participants lo drive hot-air balloon over
make your system truly friendly. mountainous terrain with live command
Why touch your computer when you can talk
lo it. Chirpee, the most exciting peripheral Instruction book, plus 6 comprehensive
□ CARD FILE—personal filing system for
development of ihe decade, makes it easy disk software programs included. More
home or business programs. Allows
and completely affordable for you to turn being developed by major software
storage, recall or printing of typed memos
your computer into the lull-function tool it was manufacturers.
□ WORD MIX—a word matching game
intended to be. Thanks lo a revolutionary G SOS—Speech Operating System con
that shows beginning programmers how
phonetic-based design, you can train Chirpee tains all training, use and file handling
Chirpee is used in a BASIC program
in any language to understand your voice or routines needed to generate basic
several voices. Use Chirpee's demonstration Chirpee system
software to create your own programs with □ CHIRPEE—ihe heart of all functional ENG MFC. INC.
uoice commands. Free your hands and your software applications. Allows everybody 4304 W. Saturn Way
mind. You'll have more lime to think, more time to use Chirpee for software applications. Chandler, A2 85224
to program. □ SPEECH GRAPHICS—displays each Phone 602'961 -0165
phonetic utterance on colorful X-Y plot

Suggested Retail *17995 Call toll-free I-BOO-431-3331 or 602-431-0400 for dealer location nearest you.
Can you escape the dungeon by finding R to represent rooms, H for hallways, M for
the key which opens the door? First, you monsters, and * for your location.
must get by the math monsters who block
your way, asking questions about addition, The Command Vocabulary
subtraction, multiplication, and division. This game recognizes a limited number of words.
An entertaining, educational adventure The verbs are:
game for the VIC (8K or more expansion)
GET Pick up iin object
or 64. INV Inventory
LOOK Look around
OPEN Open a door
CLOSE Close a door
At the beginning of "Math Dungeon," you are ON Turn on a light
asked for a difficulty level. Levels one and two OFF Turn off a light
deal only with addition and subtraction of pos MAP Look at Ihe map
N Go North
itive numbers. Level three adds multiplication
S Co South
and division (still only positive numbers). Four
E Go East
brings in negative numbers, covering multiplica W Go West
tion and division. And five asks all four types of
The possible nouns include:
questions about positive or negative numbers.
You begin at a gate outside an old mansion. DOOR MILKBOX
First, find a way through the gate and get to the NOTE GOLD
front door, which is closed. If you can get the KEY MAP
door open, you can enter the mansion and you'll And if you find yourself in a jam, typing
be whisked to the underground dungeon. Your ALGEBRA may get you out. Certain commands
adventure begins. need only a single word or letter, like LOOK or
As you wander through the dungeon, you N. Others combine a noun with a verb, like GET
may find different colored keys and doors. The GOLD. The verb usually goes first.
keys are color coded according to the door they Information about the dungeon is kept in an
open. One of the doors leads out of the dungeon array FL{10,10), which is filled with rooms, hall
(to end the game). ways, and monsters in lines 1620-1850. Lines
In your search for the exit, you may also 1620-1640 randomly place monsters, according
find a map. It can be very helpful. Once you get to the level chosen at the beginning. Lines
it, type MAP to see where you are. The map uses 1650-1680 randomly place hallways and rooms
62 COMPUTED Gazette January
Inside every kid
there are great adventures to be told.

With Playwriter" and your computer,

now you can write your own great adventure books.
Write the adventures you've always Built-in word processor
dreamed of. And turn those dreams into illus
Playwriter's simple-to-use word processor
trated books, with Playwriter Software from
lets you go back to fix or change any part of the
story you like.
Playwriter is the first software package that
Next, just print out the story and put the
lets you write, edit, illustrate, print and bind
book together using the hardcover jacket,
your own books using your IBM, Commodore
colorful stickers, and full page illustrations
64, or Apple home computer.
included in each package.
Live the adventure When you're finished, you'll have a real book,
as you write it including a title page, dedication page and a
You can travel through space and time. And page all about the author, you!
go where no one has gone before—to the cen Use it again
ter of your imagination. Because Playwriter With Playwriter you
helps you create the heroes, villains and other can create a whole
characters in your story and lets you decide library of books writ
every twist and turn of the plot. ten by you. Best of
Playwriter guides you through the creative all, you'll have hours
process by asking you questions about the of fun long after the
story you want to write. computer is
Playwriter responds to everything you tell it. shut off.
And you'll see your answers turn into action as Applti, Cornmodo'c w^ ^mwr ^^^^r ■^^^■^^ ^^^^^^ ^^^^m^r -^^^^r ^rmm v^p ^^b

the story develops.

and IBM ore alt
rogiirorcd irademarb.
Software For Success!
15 Prospect SIreet. Paramus. New Jersey O76S2 (201) 368-1040
■1 1 ■■ 1
- M R

R '' 11
/OU ARE CflRKVIHG : 1 1 ! 1 R R
GREEN KEV 1 1 : i ; I ; I
M R it
ing R R : i i 1
1 1 ! f ! 1 R R R R
33 GOLD PIECES. ■ R R M m R I-: R [■■

1 ' :;
] 1 R : i R R 1? i i


j Cic Mu/'i Mohs/it by answering a question cor A map of Math Dungeon is behind one of the doors (VIC
rectly (64 version). version).

throughout the dungeon. Lines 1690-1710 make This information is used to format anything
sure a path is available to each monster. Lines which is printed to the screen.
1720-1770 randomly place colored keys and If you would like a copy of Math Dungeon
doors around the array. (tape only); send a self-addressed stamped
The game runs on both the VIC and 64. envelope, a blank tape, and $3 to:
Playing it on the VIC requires at least 8K of Richard Lowe
expansion (16K or 24K will work). The SYS at 19Q5Kossuth St.
line 120 determines which computer is being Lafayette, IN 47905
used (according to whether there are 22 or 40
columns on the screen) and sets the variable CC. See program listing on page 162. ©

Enter the Age of Robotics

The NOMAD robot! Fun and Educational!
Complete with Stepper motor
software controlled

Moves forward, Ultrasonic

reverse, left, vision and
right ranging
FUN! Nomad has a mobile range of 25 feet. Accurate robot stepper motors control forward and reverse move
ment and left and right turning. Nomad's ultrasonic vision gives him the ability to detect objects, measure
distance and sense motion. All of Nomad's circuitry and mechanics are contained within an aluminum chassis
and tough plastic shell. The molded tray can be used to carry small items!
EDUCATIONAL! Teaching Nomad to find his way through a maze or trace geometrical shapes is a great way
to teach programming logic to children and adults alike. And, Nomad's ultrasonic sight takes him beyond a
standard "turtle". Nomad comes complete with his own robot language, and for the 64, BASIC enhancement
software which adds new robot commands. A great way to make the transition from LOGO to BASIC!
Nomad comes complete with software on cassette or disk and a comprehensive user's manual for a retail price
of just $179.95.
Call 215-861-0850 to order direct or contact your local dealer.

Genesis Computer Corp.

Over the years, game designers have brought
several versions of "tennis" to the home screen.
Unfortunately, they all resemble Atari's ten year old
classic, Pong™. Good games all, but not real tennis. COMPUTER PLAYERS

When you play solitaire against the computer,

you'll be in for the match of your life, rookie or pro.
That's because the computer players (there are
four to choose from) play like their real life counter
parts. And their play intelligence "floats" according
to your skill. So while they like to keep you in a
match, it'll take more than luck to beat them and
join Gamestar's exclusive "Top Seeds" club.

Actual Commodore64" screen-Other vsrsionsmay vary


ON-COURT™ Tennis by Gamestar was not
created equal—it was created better. Over eight
months in development, ON-COURT™ Tennis
captures the play and feel of real tennis, not Pong" ON-COURT™ TENNIS
With Player Perspective Graphics™ so realistic, Actual Commodo re 64™ Screeo-Otfier versions may vary
you feel like you're on the court. With full racquet
control over groundstrokes (angle & spin), serves, So whether you play tennis for a living or just
lobs and smashes. And with the kind of strategic wish you did, ON-COURT™ Tennis is ready now on
choices you just can't get in a Pong^-like tennis Ihe Commodore 64™ at your nearest software
game. dealer. Or write GAMESTAR, 1302 State Street,
Sanla Barbara, CA 93101 or call 805-963-3487
for more information. Watch our for GAMESTAR-We
play to win!



C19B4 GAMESTAR, INC Pong and ABri a ro trndoma rka of Atari, Inc.
ALL RIGHTS RESERVED Commodore W is a trademark o! Commodore Electron tea. Ltd.
"Where's that article on making backups?' 8. LIST ARTICLES BY CATEGORY
If you're tired of spending time looking
When you first use the program, select op
through back issues of magazines for an
elusive article, let your computer do the tion 3, To enter data, type in the information
searching with "Magazine Indexer." For when prompted. The field length is highlighted,
so you know how many characters are allowed
the VIC or 64, tape or disk.
(10 for magazine title; 15 for article title; up to 5
for issue date—for example, 12/84 or 1/85; and
1 character for category). When entering the
If you're like a lot of people, you subscribe to issue date, be sure to enter the "/" character to
several magazines, Every month there are articles separate month and year—don't use commas.
you intend to read, or games and utilities you For the category, use letters which are easy to
plan to type in. But there's just not enough time. associate with the articles, such as U for utilities,
When you eventually get around to them, a new- G for graphics, E for entertainment and games,
issue has arrived. You fall behind and those in and so on.
teresting articles become lost in the shuffle. After you've entered all the information, use
option 9 to save your data to Cassette (C) or Disk
Instant Reference (D). The program automatically handles the cre
ation and maintenance of the data file (a sequen
This program, "Magazine Indexer," runs on the
tial file with the name "ARTICLES"). If you wish
VIC or 64 and provides an instant reference to
to change this filename, make the appropriate
articles you wish to keep a record of. On the 64,
changes in lines 720 and 730. Tape users should
you can store up to 500 records (adjust the DIM
insert a blank tape, rewound to the beginning, to
in line 100 for more); that is, you can store and
store the data. Screen instructions are clear and
review references for up to 500 articles. On the
should eliminate any confusion.
unexpanded VIC, the program can store only 15
The next time you use the program, select
articles, although the addition of memory expan
option 1 to load your previous work. Then you
sion {any size allowed) makes the program far
can use option 2 to list all articles. There are ten
more useful. With an 8K expander, approxi
per screen on the 64, and five per screen on the
mately 250 articles can be stored, and with 16K,
VIC. If you have a larger number of articles, the
approximately 500 articles can be stored.
first batch (five or ten, depending on your com
Searching for an article can be done in a
puter) is displayed and you are prompted to
variety of ways: magazine title, issue date, article
press RETURN to see the next batch. This tech
title, or category (article type). The program also
nique is used to prevent scrolling of data up the
provides for deleting references so you can keep
the file up to date.
To delete previous entries (option 4), enter
the record number (corresponding to the list dis
Menu Operation played with option 1), All entries are automati
All of your selections are done via the menu, cally numbered sequentially when entered with
which first appears when you run the program. option 3. Also, the program closes up the numeri
Each choice is numbered 1-9. Simply press the cal sequence of articles after a deletion. For exam
number of your selection—you don't need to ple, if you delete article 7, article 8 assumes the
press RETURN. seventh position, and the articles which follow (9
1. LOAD ALL ARTICLES and up) move down correspondingly.
2. LIST ALL ARTICLES Menu items 5-8 let you search for infor
mation by entering the magazine title, date,
article title, or category. It works like a small
7. LIST ARTICLES BY TITLE See program listing on page 159. (ffi
Strategy Arcade Game
By Bruce Carver
Play It LikeThere;s.NQTomorrow!
The Soviets launch a nuclear strike against major elites
In the United States and Canada. Our only hope Is our
space station equipped with stealth bombers, which
can fly undetected In Sovlel airspace. Aa squadron
leader, you must first knock out the Soviet Launch
sites and then proceed Into the city of Moscow. Armed
with only the weapons you can carry, you command an
assault on the Soviet Defense center and destroy It to
slop the attack. Top Multiscreen action!

ss.5 * a s:s

Top MuliJactccn Action ladadad In R«Id OvrMoko*

•Joystick Controlled • Suggested Retail Price S39.95

Disk: Comodore 64 (Available soon on Atari)

^ W ■*■■■ 1 BBBBB b I A L — L — * ■■ ■ ■
■ —#-._ y aavH ■ aai ■ aa ■aratfl *■ * —
- . . - fe. . m i M 1 * 1 r W Y I .■■■

Arcade Game
By Bruce Carver

General Quarters! Battle Stations!

As chief commander of land and sea forces In the
Pacific, your mission is to obtain a quick naval victory
and invade enemy territory with your land forces.
Beach-Head Is a 100% machine language game and
offers multiscreen action with high resolution, three
dimensional graphics.

'Joystick Controlled 'Suggested Retail Price S34.95

•Disk: Commodore 64, Atari 48K

Available for: Commodore 64 * Atari •

. Uloli M10S «K)1] S12.IIM i <■■'■ Scroll* of Abadon

Nauru) Zoio

Tom R. Halfhill. Staff Editor

Each month, COMPUTED GAZETTE tackles some electricity to maintain their active state. Even a
questions commonly asked by new Commodore users split-second power interruption—as often hap
and by people shopping for their first home com pens during thunderstorms—can wipe out all the
puter. If you have a question you'd like to see data the chips store. RAM is intended for tem
answered here, send it to this column, c/o porary storage only. It's the computer's
COMPUTED GAZETTE, P.O. Box 5406, Greensboro, workspace for running programs. Disks and tapes
NC 27403. are meant for more permanent data storage.
Remember that a RAM disk isn't really a disk
at all, but simply a block of memory which is set
Is it possible to build a RAM disk for up to imitate a disk drive. The block of RAM can
the Commodore 64 and, if so, where can I find be extra memory that you add externally, or part
information on how to do it? Also, wouldn't a of the computer's existing internal memory. A
RAM disk be a better investment than a disk special program reserves the block of RAM,
drive? RAM chips are so inexpensive now protecting it from other uses, and treats it like a
adays (downright cheap, in fact) that you can floppy disk drive.
purchase a 16K dynamic RAM on sale at Radio For example, the RAM disk could be set up
Shack for a measly $1.99 each. At that rate, you as device #9 (a single floppy drive is normally
could purchase 2000K of super-fast, repair-free device #8). When you type SAVE '■filename",9
memory for the same $250 that you would the file is saved from workspace RAM to the
have to pay for a Commodore 1541 disk drive. RAM disk. Since the RAM disk isn't really a
All a person would need to do is borrow a mechanical disk drive, of course, the save is prac
disk drive occasionally to store disk-based pro tically instantaneous. Loading a file is just as fast.
grams. A RAM disk with 2000K of memory— All you're really doing is transferring the file
which almost equals 12 floppy disks on the from one part of memory to another.
1541—should be plenty for the average user's Therefore, if the power is turned off (delib
needs. But if not, I assume that such a RAM erately or accidentally), the file is wiped out. The
disk would have unlimited expansion capabili usual practice when using a RAM disk is to copy
ties. Am I right about all this? Am I on-line or the file from the RAM disk to a real floppy disk
have I made a syntax error? before ending the session and switching off the
computer. Why use a RAM disk at all? Because
Jl. There's nothing wrong with your reason some disk-intensive programs—such as data base
ing, but we're afraid you've made an out of data managers which frequently access the disk
error. drive—can run much faster with a RAM disk.
The chief drawback to using a RAM disk to But the final copy must always be saved onto an
store programs is that RAM (Random Access actual disk or all the work will be lost.
Memory) is volatile. That is, all the information it It would be possible to use a RAM disk for
holds is erased as soon as the power is shut off. more permanent storage if it were left switched
RAM chips must be constantly refreshed with on 24 hours a day, preferably with battery back-
68 COMPUT&'s Gazette January
"Now Your Commodore 64
Can Print Like a Pro!"

Grappler C5 Printer Interface

Drill tor lnt&rfa*i>

The Revolutionary Printer Interface for the Commodore 64™

A New Era in A Uniquely Intelligent Interface:
Commodore Printing Power
• Prints Screen Graphics Without Software
Grappler CD offers the first complete answer to • Graphics Screen Dump Routines Include
your printer interfacing requirements, with many Rotated, Inversed, Enhanced and Double Sized
powerful capabilities unique in the Commodore Graphics.
marketplace. Complete signal translation allows • Full Code Translation From Commodore's PET
many popular name brand printers to operate ASCII to Standard ASCII, the Language of Most
perfectly with the Commodore 64, or to imitate Printers.
Commodore's own printer. Even Commodore's ■ Complete Emulation of the Commodore 1525
graphic character set can be reproduced on Printer for printing of Commodore's Special
Epson, Okidata, Star, ProWriter and other popular Characters.
printers. • Dip Switch Printer Selection for Epson, Star,
Exclusive Grappler CD features provide a variety Okidata, ProWriter and other popular printers.
of graphic screen dumps, text screen dumps and • Conversion Mode for Easy Reading of Special
Commodore Codes.
formatting. No other Commodore interface can
offer this. • Text Screen Dump and Formatting Commands
• 22 Unique Text and Graphics Commands
If you own a Commodore 64...
If you're serious about quality, trouble free
printing... You need the Grappler CD. HjOrange micro
Contact your nearest Commodore dealer or call 1400 N LAKEVIEW AVE.. ANAHEIM, CA 92807 U S.A,
Orange Micro for a dealer near you. (714)779-2772 TELEX. 1B3511CSMA
i o' CQmmodo'o Eincirnmen
up in case the unexpected happens. But building capacity, and cost effectiveness.
such a device yourself would be a formidable The use of battery-powered (or bubble mem
task. ory) RAM disks for mass storage purposes will
For one thing, the 16K RAM chips you've probably be limited to portable computers.
seen on sale at electronics stores such as Radio Predictions in this industry are risky, of course,
Shack don't store 16 kilobytes. A 16K RAM chip but it seems likely that magnetic and optical me
actually stores 16 kilobits. Since there are eight dia will remain cheaper in terms of kilobytes per
bits in a byte, it takes eight 16K RAM chips to dollar than electronic circuitry.
store 16 kilobytes, commonly referred to as
"16K." This alone would inflate your cost es
timate by a factor of eight. Instead of $250 for I have a question about the SpeedScript
2000K, you'd be paying $2000. word processor published in computers
There are other considerations as well. You GAZETTE. When you are programming in
can't just wire up a few rows of RAM chips on a BASIC on a Commodore 64, the screen says
circuit board and plug them into a computer. there are 38911 bytes of memory available.
You'd need additional chips to control the RAM When you're using SpeedScript, however, you
chips, plus miscellaneous support circuitry have 45824 bytes available for text. How can
(including a system for power-refreshing, re you have more room for text than usable
quired by dynamic RAM chips many times per memory?
second), Everything would have to be designed
to interface flawlessly with the computer's hard ■na You can't have more room for text than
ware. Finally, you'd have to write a sophisticated usable memory, of course. The answer is that the
machine language program to link with the Commodore 64 has more than 38911 bytes of
computer's operating system so the RAM disk usable memory. The catch is that not all of it is
would be recognized as a storage device. Obvi available in BASIC.
ously, it's a job best left to engineers and ad Remember that the Commodore 64, as the
vanced programmers. name implies, has 64K of RAM. It also has 20K
There have been some products advertised of ROM (Read Only Memory). The ROM is
for the 64 and VIC which add additional mem permanent memory which holds the operating
ory through bank switching. These memory system (8K), the BASIC interpreter (8K), and the
expanders add 64K to a 64, but only one bank of character generator (4K). All together, that's a
8K is available at any time. They're not exactly total of 84K of RAM and ROM.
RAM disks, but they give you additional space The problem is that the microprocessor chip
for storing data. And you still need to save pro which is the central brain of the Commodore 64
grams on tape or disk. cannot address, or "see," more than 64K of
If what you're looking for is a faster, memory at a time. To get around this limitation,
cheaper, and more reliable alternative to floppy the Commodore 64 designers layered the ROM
disk drives, you probably won't have to wait for atop some of the RAM. This masks out 20K of
long. In the next few years, we can expect to see RAM. After additional RAM is subtracted for
better systems for mass storage. Hard disks, for things like screen memory and other overhead,
merly affordable only by businesses and well- only 38911 bytes remain available for BASIC
heeled hobbyists, are becoming cheaper every programming.
day. We've seen some ten-megabyte (10,000K) If you're writing a BASIC program, the
hard disks for the IBM PC advertised for as low operating system has to use BASIC ROM to
as $795. understand and interpret the program. It's pos
Ten megabytes is the equivalent of 64 floppy sible to switch out the ROM to get to the RAM
disks on a Commodore 1541 drive, and hard underneath, effectively disconnecting the
disks are so fast that you might mistake them for computer's BASIC brain, but without a brain it
RAM disks. Although $795 might seem like a lot wouldn't recognize anything you typed. That's
of money compared to the price of a 1541, it's why the bank switching technique is used
not really much more than what ordinary floppy primarily by machine language programmers.
disk drives cost a few years ago. Soon we may Because SpeedScript is written entirely in ma
see them for $500 or less, and marketed for chine language, not in BASIC, it can take advan
home computers as well as high-end personal tage of some of this "invisible" RAM hidden
and business computers. And laser disks, now beneath the ROM. It switches off BASIC com
used mainly for audio and video recordings, are pletely, freeing 8K of extra RAM for text (plus
a promising possibility. the 4K starting at location 49152), leaving a total
You can also expect floppy disk drives to of about 45K. Many other programs use this
continue improving in terms of reliability, storage technique, too. ™
70 COMPUTE!'* Gazelle January
"THE CONSULTANT is capable of very targe and complicated searches. It >♦
is a very good system at a reasonable price. Documentation: excellent
Overall rating; 9/10"

"... you should definitely try out THE CONSULTANT... powerful and very
well designed."

"For a truly professional data management program, you will have to look a
long time before von find a better one than THE CONSULTANT "

Uke a smart, computerized filing cabinet, THE CONSULTANT controls your information for you. You
choose the file size and format — THE CONSULTANTS flexihle file structure adapts to almosi any application
you can Ihink of. And you can change the structure of your files without having lo re-enter any data — a
great time saver. Easy to learn and simple to use. Big sysiem speed and sophisticated sorting functions, all for an
exceptionally low price. No wonder THE CONSULTANT comes highly recommended!

186 Queen St. West (7875 Sfcy Park North,

Tbronto, Ontario, Suite P, Irvine, California
M5V JZI Canada "The Energized Software Company!" USA 92714
('i1!'Ii1 li.iiii ii. . Included. All tight! tneived. Commodore il b n.:,-'.■ n ,i ;: .1 .n. ! I.nimnmlorii Business Michinu, Inc.

Using Variables In 1985

To begin with, variables work the same in 1985 symbols, color commands, POKE numbers,
as they did in 1984. But since it's January, let's editing commands, and more.
start off with a New Year's resolution. My Here's a short program showing another
resolution is that I'm going to show you how to way to use variables (enter these lines as shown
use variables in BASIC programs—and your and be sure to press RETURN at the end of each
resolution is to learn how variables work. Is that line):
a deal? Let's get started. We've got the whole 10 B? = "BASIC MAGIC IS FUN 1"
year ahead of us. 20 PRINTS?

Type RUN and

Uses Of Variables Short Examples To Try
press RETURN.
Calculation 10A = 100;B 20:PRINTA"TIMES"B" "A'B The computer
Formulas 10 RATE .I2:LOAN -80000:PR1NTRATL-*LOAN
prints the sen
Random Numbers 10 X=INT«0*RND(l)-H);pRlNTX:GOTO10
tence: BASIC
INPUT Statements 10 PRINT"YOUR NAME";:INPUTN$:PRINT"HI,"N$ 10 tells the com
puter that the
Editing Commands 10C$-"{CLRi":PlUNTCS
Siring Functions 10 XS--"YESNO":PRINTLEFT$<X$,3): for everything
PRINTRIGHT$(XS,2) inside the
Check The Keyboard 10 GETK$:IFKS -""THEN10 quotation marks—
in this case, a
whole sentence.
So when we tell the computer to PRINT B$ in
The XYZ's Of Variables
line 20, the computer prints the sentence.
Variables put more "magic" in BASIC programs
As we've seen in our opening examples,
than any other technique. Some discussions of
there are two types of variables: numeric variables
variables talk about memory locations or algebra,
and string variables.
but I like to use a simpler approach. Type the
Niutieric variables are used to stand for num
following line and then press RETURN:
ber values used in calculations and formulas. A
A=5;PRINTA numeric variable name can be any letter of the
alphabet, two letters, or a letter and a number.
There are two commands in this line. The first Here are some examples of numeric variables:
command (A = 5) tells the computer that from
A, AB, Al, B2, XY
now on, the letter A is the same as the number
5. The second command (PRINTA) tells the com String variables can be used to stand for anything
puter to print the variable A on the screen, and which is normally put inside quotation marks in
since A equals 5, the computer responds by a BASIC program—letters, words, sentences,
graphics symbols, color commands, screen editing
printing the number 5.
Notice that when we PRINT a variable, it's al commands, and more. The only difference in
appearance between string variables and numeric
ways OUTSIDE quotation marks. It might help to
think of a variable as a "stand-in" or "sub variables is that string variables have a dollar sign
stitute." We can use variables to stand for num {$) at the end. Here are some examples:
bers, formulas, letters, words, sentences, graphic A$, AB$, A1S, B2$, XY$

72 COMPUTE!'* Gazetlo Januaty


The 8'! Olympics are over, but fur you, must plan and execute your game
the cum pel i lion has just begun. 1 low strategy in order to maximize your score.
well can you score in track, swimming, It is not just a matter of how fast you
diving, shooting, gymnastics and more? can move Ihe joystick.
So realistic, there's even an opening So change into your running shoes,
ceremony and awards presentation after grab your joystick and GO for
each event. Tin; coi.D!
Unlike other "Olympics-!,ike" games, One or marc players; joystick controlled.
Summer (lames has incredible realism,
superb state-of-the-art graphics and
sound effects [including national anthems
from 18 countries), and it is a true
action-strategy game. In each event yon Strategy Games for the Action-Came Player
put X = X*12 in line 30, the new value of X
REM' Some BASIC statements, like ST, cannot would be 1*12 which is 12. And if we wanted,
be used as variables. Some of the letter combina we could change the value by subtracting, divid
ing, or even multiplying X by a percentage or
tions which are "reserved" by the computer for use
bank interest rate—that's how "business" pro
as BASIC statements are: IF, 'OR, ST, GO, TO, Tl,
and TI$. If you try to use these as variables, the grams work. They use variables to help calculate
computer will give you a SYNTAX ERROR message. various formulas, like interest rates.
Do not use variables which contain keywords...for Type NEW and press RETURN, then enter
example, you can use MO as a variable but MOR and run this program:
won't work because it contains the keyword OR. 10 PRINT"ENTER DOLLAR AMOUNT":INPUTC
It's possible to use complete words like RATE 20 PRINT"ENTER AN ANNUAL INTEREST RATE (U
and RATES as variables, although I recommend that SE .12 FOR 12 PERCENT)":INPUTR
you use one- or two-character variables rather than 30 PRINT"?"C"TIMES"R"EQUALS"C*R

complete words like RATES. The problem is, the

Type NEW and press RETURN, then enter
computer will accept a long variable name like
this program:
RATE, but it only "sees" the FIRST TWO LETTERS.
So if you name a variable RATE or RATES the com 10 X=l
puter only reads RA or RAS, which means you can 20 PRINTX
get into trouble if you try to define two variables 30 X=X+1

like RATE and RANGER. The computer will think 40 FORT=1TO200:NEXT:GOTO20

they're both the same (RA).

To stop the program, hold down the
RUN/STOP key and press RESTORE at the
Using Numeric Variables same time, then type LIST and press RETURN to
see the program. Do you see how this program
You can use numeric variables just like numbers.
uses the variable X to "count"? Here's how it
This is important because this feature lets you
change the variable by adding to it or subtracting,
Line 10 defines X as the number 1. Now
multiplying or dividing it. To show you how this
when the computer sees X it interprets it as the
works, type NEW and press RETURN, then enter
number 1. But we can also change the value of
this short program and run it:
X—and we're going to do that in a moment.
10 X=l Line 20 prints the value of X, which is 1, so
20 PRINTX the computer displays the number 1 on the
30 X=X+4
Line 30 adds 1 to the value of X, which
The computer prints two numbers: first the num makes it 2. In other words X = X + I is the same
ber 1, and then the number 5. And it uses the as X=l + 1 or X = 2. So the new value of X is 2.
same variable (X) to do it. The trick is that we Line 40 starts off with a FOR-NEXT time
changed the value of X. Here's how it works: delay loop which tells the computer to pause and
Line 10 defines X as the number 1. "count" to 200 before going on (computers count
Line 20 prints the value of X, which is 1. fast). GOTO20 tells the computer to jump back
Line 30 adds 4 to the old value of X, so that up to line 20 and print X. The computer prints
the new value of X becomes 5. in other words, the most current value of X, which is now 2.
X=X + 4 is the same as saying X = l+4 and 1 + 4 The program keeps going to line 30, where it
equals 5 so X = 5 and 5 becomes the new value adds 1 to the value of X. Except this time X
of X. It's important to remember that the new equals 2, so X = X-fl is the same as X = 2 + l or
value is always to the left of the equals sign. X=3, and the new value of X is 3. The program
Anything to the right is the old value. So, for ex loops through line 40 to line 20 again and prints
ample, X = X + X means the new value is the old the new value of X which is now 3.
value plus the old value. In other words, it's We'll show you some moTe sophisticated
doubled. uses for numeric variables further on, but first
Line 40 prints the last value of X, which was let's take a look at how string variables work.
5, and from now on unless you change the value Here's a short program which uses numeric
of X again, X stands for the number 5. variables to "count" through the screen colors—
Got that? Let's consider a few more exam notice the numeric variables SC and T:
ples. The key is line 30. If we said in line 30 that
X=X + 20, then the new value of X would be 21. Commodore 64 Version:
We could also change the old value of X by mul 10 FORSC=0TO15:POKE53281,SC:FORT=1TO1000:
tiplying it by some number. For example, if we NEXTT:NEXTSC

74 COMPUTErs Gazette January

■--.-■'.-■ I ■'■■■=-■.


As a member of the exclu find and stop Elvin.

sive Anti-Computer Terrorist Use your camera to photograph as many clues
Squad (ACT), your mission is as possible to find the password which will allow
to find and reach the infamous you to penetrate Elvin's control room.
Elvin, who is holding the Your Mission—To Save The World, But Hurry!
world's population hostage
One player; joystick controlled.
'i under threat of nuclear annihi
lation. You must negotiate a
path through the rooms and tunnels of his headquarters
trying to avoid Elvin's robot protectors.
Should you try to outrun or jump over the next
robot or play it safe and take the time to assemble the
codes needed to deactivate the robots and then to Strategy Games far theAction-Game Player
VIC-20 Version: In line 10, C$ is defined as the clear screen
10 FORSC=1TO255:POKE36879,SC:FORT=1TO1000 command and L$ is defined as a string of graphic
:NEXTT:NEXTSC "line" symbols. Now, whenever you PRINTCS,
you'll clear the screen, and whenever you
Pius/4 and Commodore 16 Version: PR1NTL$, you'll draw a line across the screen. In
10 FORSC=1TO255:COLOR0,SC,7:FORT=1TO1000: our example, we put both variables together.
NEXTT:NEXTSC One of the most common and important
This line defines SC as a range of numbers uses of string variables is the INPUT statement.
from 0 to 15 {or 1 to 255). Then we use a POKE If you type INPUT followed by any variable, the
(or COLOR) command to change the color of the computer displays a question mark on the screen
screen—the colors will be displayed in order and waits until you type something; when you
from 0 to 15 (or 1 to 255). Then comes a time press the RETURN key, whatever you typed gets
delay to slow things down, and finally the NEXT assigned to the INPUT variable. We've already
command which wraps up the FOR-NEXT loop. used some short examples in this column so
here's a longer version:
Using String Variables 10 PRINTCHRSf147)"ENTER A LOAN AMOUNT AND
Did you ever look at a long program in a com
puter magazine and get confused by all those
letters and dollar signs? In BASIC, anything fol 30 PRINT:PRINT"ENTER AN INTEREST RATE AND
lowed by a dollar sign is a string variable and it's PRESS RETURN (USE .12 FOR";
really not so confusing if you know how to read 40 PRINT" 12 PERCENT)"rINPUTR
it. The only exception is if the dollar sign is in
L" AT"(R*100)" PERCENT IS $"(R*L)
side quotation marks, in which case you're either 60 PRINT"tHOME}"TAB(242)"PRESS ANY KEY TO
printing the character ($) or using it as part of a CONTINUE."
string. The three-line interest rate program above 70 GETK$:IFKS=""THEN70

is an example of this. 80 GOTO10

The key to interpreting string variables in a Line 10 uses the PRINT statement to clear
new program you haven't seen before is to look the screen, then displays a prompt message (inside
for any "definitions" in the program, such as quotation marks) with instructions to the user.
D$="{10 DOWN}" or C$ = "{CLR}". In this ex It's not absolutely necessary to include a prompt,
ample, D$ is used to stand for 10 cursor com but it helps a lot. If you used only INPUT state
mands ({10 DOWN} means press the CRSR ments, the user might not know to type in a
DOWN key 10 times) and C$ is used to clear the number, seeing only a question mark and a
screen ({CLR} means hold down the SHIFT key blinking cursor. The semicolon ties this PRINT
and press the CLR/HOME key). Type NEW to message to the next PRINT message in line 20 so
erase your previous program, then enter and run the two PRINT statements are displayed as one
this example: continuous line. Semicolons in BASIC are sort of
10 CS="(CLRJ":DS="(10 DOWN}" like super glue.
20 PRINTC$D$"NOW WE CAN USE...":FORT=1TO5 Line 20 continues the message begun in line
00:NEXT 10. We could use the superglue semicolon (;)
30 PRINTCSD$"OUR VARIABLES EASILY...":FOR again, to put the INPUT question mark at the
end of the PRINT message. But we left it out, be
RT=1TO500:NEXT cause VIC-20s have a quirk which doesn't allow
input prompts longer than 22 characters (one
Using variables to stand for editing com line). We didn't use the semicolon, so the INPUT
mands is a common use of string variables. This question mark appears on the next line down.
is not only convenient but it also saves some The INPUT command tells the computer to wait
memory if you're trying to "crunch" your pro for an entry and assigns the variable L to the
gram to keep it small and manageable. You can number you typed in—we're using L to stand for
use string variables to stand for colors, cursor "Loan."
movements, insert and delete functions, clearing
Line 30 starts with a PRINT command all by
the screen, HOMEing the cursor, and more. itself—this puts a blank horizontal line on the
You can also use string variables to stand for screen to put some "space" between our mes
a graphics symbol, or even a "string" of symbols. sages. Next, we have another prompt message
Type NEW and press RETURN, then enter this inside quotation marks. Prompt messages tell the
example: person using your program exactly what they
10 CS="(CLR)"iL$="CCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCC" should do next. Again, our message "spills over"
20 PRINTC$LS to the next line, so we use a semicolon at the end
76 COMPUTE'S Gazotta January

Why do typing programs increasing your speed while taking pot

have to involve shooting shots at Hart in a shooting gallery. All
down spaceships? They the fun of the movie combined with an
don't! innovative new approach to learning
9 TO 5 TYPING lets touch typing.
students and adults learn 9 TO 5 TYPING. The typing game
to type using an effective method developed by for everyone...Spaceships not included.
college educators. We've taken the ten basic
steps to learning typing and combined them with
the fun of sequences from the movie, 9 TO 5?
What could be better than learning the key Strategy Games for the Action-Game Player
locations while helping Doralee lasso Hart. Or ■II TO fi is a Irademark of Twrnlii.-lh C.nlury-i'ox Kilm L'lir]).
of the first part to tie things together. we can actually PRINTK$ and the computer will
Line 40 finishes the message, waits for the display the character on the key you pressed.
interest rate to be INPUT, and assigns the vari Any key including SHIFTed characters will be
able R to it. detected.
Line 50 clears the screen and prints a mes
sage which contains the words of the message LEFT$, MID$, And RIGHT$
inside quotation marks, the INPUT variables These three commands are seldom discussed in
which display the numbers you typed in as L BASIC tutorials but can be very useful. Here's
(loan amount) and R (interest rate). The calcula how they work. If you put a long group of
tion (R"100) converts the decimal interest rate characters, words, color commands, or other
into a whole number—for example, if R is .12 information inside quotation marks, these "string
this calculation makes it 12 so we can say "12 functions" let you pull out virtually any character
percent" in our message. The formula (R*L) at or group of characters from the group. We'll use
the end of the message multiplies the two vari the following program as an example:
ables to automatically give the result. If L is
80000 and R is .12 the result is 9600.
Line 60 goes to the "home" position and 30 PRINTRIGHTS(W$,5)
TABs across 242 spaces, then prints a prompt 40 PRINTMIDS(W$,4,2)
Line 10 defines the string variable W$ as a
Line 70 checks the keyboard to see if any
group of letters in quotation marks which form
key was pressed. This line keeps going back to
the words YES, NO, and MAYBE.
itself if no key is pressed. As soon as a key is
Line 20 uses the LEFTS command to print
pressed, the computer drops down to the next
the first three characters which form the word
line which tells it to GOTO the beginning of the
"YES." Notice the format inside the parentheses.
program and do it over again.
First comes the variable, then a comma, then how
Let's take a quick look at another use of a
many characters counting from the left side you
string variable: the GET$ function.
want to use—in this case we took the first three
letters. You tell the computer to start at the left
Using GETK$ To Check For Any of string v§riable W$, and pick out three letters.
Key Line 30 works just like line 20, except this
The GET command uses a string variable to time we print the five characters counting from
identify a key from your computer's keyboard, so the right side, forming the word "MAYBE."
you can tell in a BASIC program which key a Line 40 works similarly to lines 20 and 30.
user is pressing. I like to use the variable K$ to The MID$ command requires an extra number in
stand for "key." Try this short program: parentheses. The number 4 in parentheses tells
the computer to count four characters from the
[SPACElSTART" left side of the string. The number 2 selects two
20 GETKS:IFK$=""THENGOTO20 characters—in this case, the fourth and fifth
30 PRINT"I'M A SMART COMPUTER.(2 SPACES)I characters, which are the letters N and O. If you
KNOW WHAT KEY YOU TYPE.[2 SPACESjTYPE want to experiment, try using MID$ instead of
RIGHTS to get the word MAYBE in line 30.
50 PRINT"THE KEY YOU TYPED IS "KS (Hint: Change the two numbers in parentheses to
60 FORT=1TO1000:NEXT:GOTO10 6 and 5.)
Since we're going to devote a future column There are many, many other ways to use
to GETting and PEEKing the keyboard, we'll variables—for example, we haven't even covered
make this a short explanation. The "key" lines in random numbers yet, or how the computer cal
this program are line 20 and line 40. In both of culates numbers. We'll explore these "magical"
these lines, we tell the computer to GET a key topics and much more in the coming months—
from the keyboard. We're using the variable K$, and keep our New Year's resolution to learn
although you could use any string variable here. more about variables and how they work. fiB
The IF-THEN statement in these lines tells the
computer that if K$ equals nothing (two quotation COMPUTE!'s Gazette
marks "" side by side mean "nothing" in this
use), then keep going back to the same line to
check the keyboard. As soon as a key—any Subscription Order Line
key—is pressed, this line stops going back to it 800-334-0868
self and the program continues. K$ now stands In NC 919-275-9808
for the key you pressed in line 40, so in line 50
78 COMPUTEVs Gaiette Januaiy
The hottest craze in the U. S. this fall computer plays them back for you to see.
is Breakdancing, and you don't have to There's even a game that challenges you
miss it. Now anyone can Breakdance. Just to figure out the right sequence of steps to
grab your joystick and control your perform a backspin, suicide or other
Breakdancer in poppin, moon walking, moves without getting "wacked'.'
stretching and breaking...all on your
Leam to Breakdance today! Epyx
computer screen.
makes it easy!
Breakdance, the game, includes an
One or hvo players; joystick controlled.
action game in which your dancer tries
to break through a gang of Breakers
descending on nim, a "simon-like" game
where the dancer has to duplicate the
steps of the computer-con trolled dancer
and the free-dance segment where you
develop your own dance routines and the Strategy Games far the Action-Game Player
Charles Brannon
Program Editor

This is the first installment of the new Com motherboards. The 64 can use most VIC-20
modore column for both the VIC and the 64. Be peripherals, such as the 1541 (but not the earlier
cause of the cancellation of "VICreations," we've 1540) disk drive, any color monitor,
decided to cover both machines in what was for Commodore-compatible printers and printer
merly "Horizons: 64". As the new Commodore interfaces, a Datassette, and game peripherals.
16 and Plus/4 computers arrive on the market, Even some VIC software will work on the 64.
we'll cover them here, too. The nature and style There's no good reason (except financially) that
of this column will not change unless you, the you can't own and use two computers. That way
reader, want to make recommendations. The col you don't lose the investment you've made in
umn will try not to slight any machine for the VIC-20 software, plus you gain access to a new
benefit of another, but the 64 must get the atten (and more powerful) software library. The new
tion it deserves. Commodore 16 and Plus/4 can also use many
A hardware item reviewed here (such as a VIC and 64 peripherals. If at least all peripherals
printer or interface) can be applicable to both could be guaranteed compatible with future mod
machines. Software reviewed here for the 64 is els, it would not be considered financially reck
sometimes available in a VIC-20 version. less to upgrade just your computer console. Your
peripherals will always end up costing more than
End Of An Era the computer.

The VIC-20 is in its sunset days. It has been and

still is a good value for the money, but even VIC And 64 Reunion
better price/performance buys are becoming If you do own both a VIC and a 64, you've prob
available (such as the Commodore 16). Com ably realized that both machines cannot share a
modore is no longer manufacturing the VIC-20, disk drive or printer. Each machine must have
but there are thousands of under-$100 VICs still complete control of the serial bus. With two
available in stores and warehouses. New hard controllers (computers) vying for priority, all the
ware and software for the VIC is becoming hard peripherals get quite confused. Usually the whole
to find. In fact, almost every major software pub system crashes.
lisher has discontinued its VIC product line. You can use both a VIC and 64 simulta
Nevertheless, many people have made quite neously as long as you unplug the serial cable
an investment in the VIC—it originally sold for from the computer not currently needing access
$299. A theoretical VIC-20 system could have an to peripherals. If you have a Commodore color
80-column display cartridge, 32K of memory, monitor, the VIC can be attached to the front
several disk drives, a high-quality printer, not to connections, and the 64 to the rear ones. A flip
mention joysticks, light pens, a color monitor, of a switch is all that is necessary to change your
and perhaps $1000 in software. Even though the display from the VIC to the 64, or vice versa. But
VIC-20 is no longer a current product, there's not only is it inconvenient to change cables, it
still an active and enthusiastic VIC audience out can also sometimes reset the computer (wiping
there. out anything in memory), and even damage your
VIC owners should remember that for less computer or peripherals. You should never plug
than $200 they can add a Commodore 64 to their in or remove any cables or cartridges with the
system, cheaper than some fully expanded VIC power on (some people won't even plug in a joy-
SO COMPUTED Gazalte January


;^^,': ■■■■:.-- -....-■

■ -■.-'
MB ■."'''■■■■
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" - .J ■-''- - - : "■"" -7
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Activision's bringing its unique kind of excitement to your like The Designer's Pencil™ Adventure classics like Pitfall II:
home computer. We offer you the best entertainment soft Lost Caverns"* Action bits like H.E.R.O™ Sports challenges like
ware for the Commodore 64. Apple II, IBM PC, IBM PCjr, The Activision Decathlon. And the strategy and action of
Atari, and Adam home computers, Realistic simulations like Ghostbusters™
Space Shuttle: A Journey into Spacel'/nteractiVe fiction like We don't make computers, but we sure make it exciting
Mindshadow™ and The Tracer Sanction!" Creativity tools to own one.
stick with the power on, though I've never found your computer, and 2541 Flash! speeds up the
this to be a problem). disk drive. Both of these products are excellent.
The Reunion is a small black box that solves The Blitz! BASIC compiler is a dream come
this problem. Simply plug the cables from the true for BASIC programmers. BASIC is easy to
box into both a VIC and a 64. Your standard se learn and use, but is much slower than machine
rial cable plugs into the rear of the box, which is language. You can write almost any program in
then connected to the first peripheral in the BASIC, but games tend to be sluggish, business
chain. Both computers cannot access the serial programs take lengthy siestas during sorts and
bus simultaneously, but with a push-button tog searches, and utilities take forever to read a disk
gle switch you can easily alternate between the file. Machine language, of course, can be a thou
VIC and 64. We've used the box here when sand times faster than BASIC, but since each ML
translating programs, The original program can command does so little, great attention to detail
run on one machine for comparison while you is necessary. It can be a painstaking task to set
are working on the translation. up something in machine language which could
When i developed the VIC version of be accomplished in a few lines of BASIC. On the
SpeedScript, I simply switched cables. I translated other hand, machine language is great for repet
the source code and assembled it on the 64, then itive tasks like filling the 1000 locations of color
saved the object code to disk. When I wanted to memory.

test the VIC version, I would switch cables, load Compiling a program with Blitz! is easy. Just
the program into the VIC, and test it. My source save your BASIC program to a disk with at least
code was safe on the 64, so if the VIC crashed, I 300 blocks free. Load and run Blitz!, give it the
didn't need to go through the laborious process filename, and after a few minutes you can load
of reloading the assembler, my utilities, and the and run the compiled program. Blitz! works best
source code. It also reduced the number of times with two drives or a dual drive, permitting you
I had to save my source code. The Reunion to compile more than one program at a time, but
would have been quite handy, and I wouldn't will run quite nicely with a single drive.
have had to fear losing any programming when I There are few limitations on your BASIC
switched cables. program. Any program that runs in Commodore
64 BASIC will compile, unlike some compilers
Incidentally, it would at first appear that you
that require you to limit yourself to a subset of
could simply plug a cable between the VIC and
BASIC, You rarely have to make any changes to
64 to permit them to directly communicate with
your program to make it compile. Blitz! is not
each other over the serial bus. But what device
available in a VIC version, and cannot compile a
number would you use? As it turns out, that's a
VIC-20 program to run on the VIC.
dumb question, since a controller does not have
Blitz! can also compile programs written in
a device number. Both machines are trying to
extended BASIC languages like Simon's BASIC,
control each other, and neither will give in.
Super Expander, and VicTree. Everything but the
That's the problem with an intelligent bus. The
extended commands is compiled. The added
RS-232 (modem) port, however, is not consid
commands are passed on to the resident lan
ered an intelligent bus. We've used a null
guage during run time.
modem cable (a cable which directly connects
We compiled several BASIC games including
two RS-232 ports, obviating the need for
"Hardhat Climber" (published in the January
modems and telephones) to let the VIC and 64
1984 issue of the GAZETTE). Hardhat Climber is a
talk directly to each other at high speed. Another
good example of a playable all-BASIC arcade
possibility is using the parallel user port (which
game. The speed is a tad slow for real arcade
is the same physical port as the RS-232 port, but
nuts, but fast enough to be exciting, Your man
can be reprogrammed to act as a simple parallel
moves at about the same rate that the cursor
blinks, Well, after the game was compiled, the
little man fairly zoomed across the screen, run
Speed Up Your System ning as if he were a repeating cursor (he ran so
Two new products from Skyles Electrical Works fast he kept falling off the edge of the girders).
can significantly amplify the power of your 64. The barrels did not leisurely roll, but raced like a
Blitz! is a BASIC compiler that translates almost truck going down a grade with no brakes. In fact,
any Commodore 64 BASIC program into P-code, the game was unplayable at this speed. The dif
a compiler language much faster than BASIC. ference was as remarkable as an LP album
1542 Flash! is a hardware modification that played at 78 rpm. Just a nudge of the joystick
transparently drives your 1541 at three times sent the climber halfway across the screen. Ironi
normal speed (or 300%, which sounds even cally, this BASIC game would have to be slowed
faster). Blitz!, therefore, effectively speeds up down to be playable when compiled.
82 COMPUTED Gazette January

t f





Ill . I ! Jl

,11. ■MIIIIMrn1. Bl llfuMHAUK . I ( . ■( i II lli.1V liri'l inc. II il ■UMIUI'., IN <• I'Wl' .■IMMHIrtlh FURHINDUSTRlh IN< \H Rll.ll1SKtSLRVII>
. i iritH 'Ik .111 ,A V. A IV V'IMAHl c ■! t I <tw ' IB' "in ■'.III' V"H Ai III IMi >N, INl
Blitz! does not convert your program directly than floating point calculations. It's also legal to
into machine language. Instead, it translates use integer variables as the index of a
BASIC statements into a high-speed language FOR-NEXT loop. Unlike some compilers,
called P-code. P-code is executed by a P-code though, Blitz! fully supports floating-point
engine written in machine language. This inter operations.
preter, 6K in length, is tagged onto the compiled You should note that before compiling, the
program. Therefore, you can run a compiled pro BASIC program should be tested and debugged.
gram on any 64 without the compiler. The extra Blitz! makes programs which run faster, and if
memory used by the interpreter is not a real there are bugs in the original, there will be even
encumbrance, since the compiled program is faster bugs in the compiled program.
typically reduced to 60% of the size of the orig Blitz! is a fine program, but the manual
inal BASIC program. leaves something to be desired. Only 23 pages,
How fast is Blitz!? The program listed at the the documentation barely covers all the features
end of the column is a simple bubble sort that of Blitz!, and may be confusing to novice pro
alphabetizes 100 three-character strings. (If grammers. A compiler, being a language system,
you've wondered about how to alphabetize a list, deserves more than 23 pages. On the other hand,
look at lines 140-160. There are much faster compiling a program is so easy you almost don't
ways to sort, but this is one of the simplest.) need a manual, but a longer manual could afford
to be tutorial in style for the sake of beginners,
I think a sort makes a good benchmark (a
with details for the more advanced programmer.
program used to evaluate a system) since it is a
practical application. The sort shown below uses A testament to Blilzl's power can be found in
a variety of BASIC statements and features, several commercial programs. LIST them, and all
including comparisons (IF/THEN), calculations, you see is the word BLITZ!. Obviously, these
variable assignments, and strings. It's also very programs were written in BASIC, compiled with
easy to tell if the program runs correctly. The Blitz.', and became fast enough to be commer
program automatically reports how iong it took cially successful. In fact, Skyles Electrical Works
does not charge a royalty or license fee for use of
to sort the list. We ran the program through Blitz!
with no problems. It took 1 minute and 32 sec your compiled programs (even though 6K of the
compiled program is the Blitz! runtime package).
onds to compile.
If you do distribute a program compiled by Blitz!,
Running in BASIC, the sort takes 119 sec
onds. When Biitzl'ed, the string sort runs in 27 Skyles merely requests that you give Blitz! credit
in your program or documentation, along with
seconds. A simple calculation shows that the pro
gram runs 4.4 times faster. I then changed the the address of Skyles Electrical Works.
string array to an integer array, thinking that
working with two-byte integers must be faster Warp Drive Revisited
than three-character strings. To my surprise, the In the November column, I mentioned a software
BASIC integer sort was actually slower than the product called Kwik-Load that speeds up 1541
BASIC string sort, running in 133 seconds. How program LOADs by 300%. As software, Kivik-
ever, the compiled integer sort ran 4.75 times Load is vulnerable, often wiped out or crashed by
faster than its BASIC counterpart, with a speed other programs. The idea is a good one, but only
of 28 seconds. Just like BASIC, the compiler is a hardware modification could be truly fast, yet
slower sorting integers than strings, but can transparent to most software. {Transparent means
speed up the use of integers more radically than that a program or system does not interfere with
the use of strings. any other program. Moreover, a truly transparent
In addition to faster program execution, Blitz! system is invisible to all other programs, as the
gives you several features not supported by name implies. Some printer interfaces transpar
Commodore BASIC. First, you can chain to an ently emulate a Commodore printer, simulating
other program without losing any variables, and all the commands and modes of a Commodore
the second program doesn't have to be smaller printer on a non-Commodore printer.) Of course,
than the first (a limitation of BASIC'S normal Kwik-Load only costs $19.95, cheaper than almost
chaining process). Blitz! also treats integer vari any hardware product.
ables (those with a % sign following the variable 1541 Flash! is a set of parts and instructions
name) specially. Normally, BASIC converts an to modify both your computer and disk drive to
integer to floating point, does the calculation, boost the effective speed of disk transfer by three
then converts the result back into an integer, times. Unfortunately, a hardware modification is
which slows down integer calculations. But Blitz! more difficult than merely loading and running a
performs all integer calculations with special program, or inserting a cartridge. 1541 Flash! con
integer math routines, which run much faster sists of a piggyback module that wedges into the
84 COMPUTE! s Gazette January
Put The Designer's Pencil
in your hands. And suddenly,
using only a joystick, you
can command all ofyour YOUR EARS,
computer's graphic
abilities. You don't even WRTTEATUNE.
have to be able to
draw, because the The Designer's Pencil
computer does also lets you program
it for you. And The musical compositions to
Designer's Pencil doesn't | accompany your visual
just doodle around. It masterpieces.
uses a revolutionary, simple program Again, everything you need appears
ming technique called Prog'"to create right on the screen—just choose your
actual computerized graphics.,, an infinite notes, then sit back and let your
number of spectacular designs. computer serenade you. It's a delight
You'll be able to feel the same chal for your ears as well as your eyes. The
lenge and satisfaction experienced Designer's Pencil will amaze you with its
by Activision designers when they powers—and yours.
create new software for your NOW PICTURE YOURSELF A WINNER.
Commodore 64, Every command appears How creative can you be? We can't wait to
right on the screen as shown here. see. Use The Designer's Pencil to create
Just choose what you want to do, then yourwildest fantasies, then enterthe results
watch as the computer carries out your in The Designer's Pencil $10,000 Contest.
every wish. Details in every specially-marked package,

Designed by Garry Kitchen.


Commodore M.'u a irademirk of Commodore Electronic*. Lid. : 1984. Acii¥ii<on,lni.
Kernal ROM, a replacement DOS ROM for the operating system ROM and replace it with a new
1541, and an interface cartridge (called the one. As long as you don't bend any of the tiny
CableCard) and cable that attaches the modem pins on the ROMs, it's not too hard to pry them
port to a chip within the disk drive. out with a thin-blade screwdriver. On my 1541, I
Performing the upgrade is not trivial, but at had to use a $1 chip extractor rather than a
least no electronics expertise or soldering is screwdriver, since you can't lever the screwdriver
needed. Anyone with a steady hand and atten against the board without mashing some
tion for detail can install 3541 Flash!. The manual capacitors.
says it should take about 30 minutes. It took me The trickiest part is that you must locate one
about 15 minutes, since I've done similar things 6522 chip (there are two of them), then remove
before. Utmost care is needed, though, since you it. It's much harder to remove a long chip like
really can damage both your computer and drive the 6522 without damaging any pins. I bent sev
if you are reckless. eral pins, but was able to ease them all back into
You need to open the case of both your place without breaking any. After the chip is out,
computer and drive to get at their innards—not a you purposely bend one pin at a 90-degree an
task for the squeamish or those who wish to pre gle, then re-insert the chip. Once you've bent the
serve their 90-day warranty, since the upgrade is pin, you can't reverse the procedure without
more or less permanent. (Though we've been snapping off the delicate pin. A white microclip
told that Commodore does not check for hard attaches to the bent pin, and a black one to an
ware modifications on warranty returns. They adjacent pin. You also screw down a grounding
merely check to see if the computer works, and if lug. This cable is then threaded out the back of
not, they send you a new one.) the drive and attached to the modem port
You first have to find the Kernal ROM in cartridge.
your 64, marked with one of three part numbers. Once you've sweated over these crucial
The manual includes pictures and diagrams to maneuvers, you're rewarded for your effort with
help you identify the correct chips to replace. a significant upgrade in speed. It really works.
The Kernal ROM is removed, then inserted into a All disk read access is three times faster. The
socket on a tiny board. You then plug the board speedup works with almost every program I
into the empty ROM socket. The board contains tried. After some tests, I found that writing to a
a modified version of the Kernal. With both disk is only about twice as fast. After checking
ROMs on board, you can choose either the nor with Skyles, they confirmed that writing to a
mal or enhanced Kernal by flicking a switch on disk is only 1.8 times as fast. Almost all commer
the interface card, cial software will load from twice to three times
The biggest problem here is that many 64s normal speed. I said almost all, but of three Epyx
do not have socketed ROM chips; they're sol games I tried, none of them would load with the
dered directly to the board {it saves Commodore 1541 Flash! installed—probably related to the
a little on manufacturing costs, but makes it diffi copy-protection employed by Epyx. With a POKE
cult to replace faulty chips). We asked Skyles and a command to the drive, you can turn off
about this, and they estimate from 10 to 20 per the speedup, but even with this, I couldn't get
cent of all 64s do not have socketed ROM chips. the Epyx games to load, So beware, this
Whether or not your machine has socketed chips modification is almost impossible to reverse.
does not seem to correlate to when it was manu The enhanced ROM also adds a few features
factured, or what serial number it has. I had to to your 64. The routines that support the extra
open three 64s before I found one with socketed features take the place of the cassette output
ROM chips. You can mail your computer to routines, since you probably won't use your cas
Skyles along with $28.50 and they'll install the sette as much when you have a disk drive. With
necessary socket. It could take a couple of weeks the 1541 Flash! ROM enabled, you can load a
for turnaround, though. Skyles encourages their cassette program, but not save one to cassette.
dealers to install a socket for you, or to send You can load a tape program and save it to disk,
your 64 to Commodore for the modification. though, and you can always switch back in the
Many dealers will install 1541 Flash! for you for normal 64 ROM if you need full access to the
about $10 extra. tape drive.
Wires leading from the Kernal module lead The DOS wedge is built into ROM, and you
out through the modem port, which then plug can activate it at any time with SYS 65526.
into the CableCard, a small cartridge plugged LOAD, SAVE, and VERIFY default to the disk
into the modem port. The cartridge includes an drive, rather than the cassette. (You don't need
other modem port so that you don't lose the use to add the ,8.) Several new editing keys have
of a modem or RS-232 interface. been added. CTRL-back arrow flicks the cursor
Inside the disk drive, vou remove the disk to the bottom of the screen. Holding down the
86 COMPUTErs Gazelle January
■m ■■ - - .
1 : ■ ■?i


Get ihe number one software entenainment

(itleofihe year for your Commodore 64,'AtarK
Apple II' and IBM' PCjr' computer systems.
Also available for major game systems.
Designed by David Crane


I It IM MIHH Jftl h 1 - PS A T F)ALt! MAK H OF COM Ml)l«JKU11C1BONICS. LI [1 fl I rtRI ■ IS A «l C1S11 H» [11 F(ft!»[ MAH K (H AlflHf. INC I E!M' AN D rOr ■ ft ftl RKilSH R f [) T KADI MAM US (] M NT f RNAII0NJM Bl (SIN f SS MflCI 11NIS OTR F1
flWt Ml' IS A RE niSir RFUIBAIM MAHH Uf mil COMI'UliS = ]■»« ACIIWSJtlN. INC
Commodore key and the back arrow tabs the tion description above, you can decide if you're
cursor to position 15 (a 16-character tab). Com up to opening your equipment, yanking out
modore key-up arrow iets you toggle in and out chips, and enjoying a 300% speedup.
of quote mode without typing any quotes. CTRL The Reunion
still is used to slow down scrolling, but you can P.O. Box 466
now freeze a scrolling screen with the SHIFT Bay Pines, FL 33504
key, or keep it frozen with SHIFT LOCK. Letting $29.95
up on these keys resumes the listing. You can Blitz! and 1541 Flash!
wipe out the line the cursor is on with Styles Electrical Works
Commodore-INST/DEL, and erase the screen 231 E. South Wfliman Road
from the line the cursor is on to the end of the Mountain View, CA 94041
screen with Commodore-CLR/HOME. $99.95 for Blitz!
The manual includes documentation on sev $89.95 for 1541 Flash!

eral new high-speed disk commands for use by String Sort Program
machine language programmers. You can set the
drive up to continually spool sectors. You don't
have to request a track and sector—your pro 110 DIM A$(100):PRINTCHRS(147)"GENERATING
gram merely needs to read continuously. By tak STRING DATA"
ing advantage of these new direct-access disk 120 PORI=0TO99:A$(I)=CHR$(65+26*RND(1)}+C
commands, you could get even more speed out
of the 1541. 130 NEXT:PRINT"NOW SORTING":T=TI
Having used 1541 Flash! for several days, al 140 EX=0
ready I can't bear to go back to a slow 1541. It's 150 FORI=0TO98:IFAS(I)>A$(1+1)THENT$=AS[I
amazing how quickly you can get spoiled by a ):A$(I)=A$(1+1):AS(1+1)=T$:EX=1
luxury like this. More than a few editors here
have cast covetous eyes on the upgraded 170 PRINT"SORT FINISHED IN";(TI-T)/60;"SE
64/1541. And the price is reasonable for such a CONDS."sPRINT
dramatic enhancement. After reading the installa 180 FOBI=0TO99:PRINTA$(I);" ";:NEXT

Version 2.0


• Fully automatic back-up of almost, any protected disk.
• Copy files [PRG. SEQ, RND] with full screen editing.
• Three minute back-up of standard disks [even many protected disks].
• Format a disk in ten seconds. + View and alter sector headers
• Remove errors from any track/sector.
• Edit sectors in HEX, ASCII — even assembler.
• Create errors on any track/sector [20. 21, 22, 2[
• Drive/64 MON, even lets you write programs inside your 1 541.
• All features are fully documented and easy to use.
• None of our copy routines ever makes the drive head "kick."
Yes, you get all of this on one disk for this low price! S39.95

Continuing Customer Support and Update Policy

/ ... WRITE OR PHONE . , . All ofUefs add %? 1)0 shipping^Mndling.

Cahlmma FBSOenls MO 8'/. sales Ox.
CCDwodsaOOsnaflai 13 DO snipping
' Commodore 64 is a
■enistc'ed trademark ol disc*. Money OnW. ViSA. and Maaer-
Commortofn Business M Star Route 10 Gazelle, CA96031 [916] 435-2371 canl KOpWO
\ \

Mimic introduces instant evolution!

Meet the Spartan™—the missing link
that turns your Commodore 64™
into a whole new apple.
The Spartan™ now allows you to use
any of the Apple™ 11/11+ hardware PLEASE WRITE TO:

and software you want. MIMIC SYSTEMS INC.

1112 FORT ST.. PL. 6J
Now, that's natural selection! VICTORIA. B.C.

uble Duty Variables

William A. Yarberry, Jr.

If you've discovered a clever timesaving same amount of memory is used. No matter how
technique or a brief but effective program big or small the value, the same memory is used
ming shortcut, send it to "Hints & Tips," (five bytes). And no matter how long the name
c/o COMPUTED GAZETTE. If we use it, we'll of the variable (try XABCDE = 999999), two bytes
pay you $35. Due to the volume of items are used for the name.
submitted, we regret that we cannot al Variable arrays act almost the same. A num
ways reply individually to submissions. ber in a floating point array, like the variable X
above, uses five bytes for each value. But there's
only one name and it uses seven bytes (only
No matter how much memory your computer once). So, for example, dimensioning an array Q
has, there are times when it's inadequate for with DIM Q(20) takes five bytes for each of the
your purposes. There's a sort of universal law: 21 elements (0 through 20), a total of 105, plus
Programs grow to fill all free memory (plus a seven for the name. Thus, it requires 112 bytes.
little more).
Here's an old programming trick which can Doubling Up
be adapted very easily to the VIC or 64. The idea Now let's imagine a simple data base program.
is to crunch two or more variables into one, mak You swim every morning and want to keep track
ing the variable do double duty. of how many laps you've covered. The program
you write has two arrays, D(I) for the date and
Variables And Memory L(I) for number of laps that day. It doesn't matter
When a value is assigned to a variable (X = 5, for in this example whether the data is stored on
example), it takes memory. And no matter what tape or disk, or read from DATA statements.
the value is, it takes the same amount of mem After 50 swimming sessions, the two arrays
ory. Try this experiment: will use up 262 bytes each, for a total of 524. It
might be years until memory is a problem. Even
on an unexpanded VIC, it would take a year of
Since the Commodore 64 gives negative swimming before free memory dwindled to
numbers when there's more than 32K available, nothing.
you can change FRE(O) to FRE{0) + 65536 to get a But you decide to expand your program.
positive answer. Perhaps you want to print out a bar graph, or
Type the above line and press RETURN. you add the time (to get a daily swimming speed
Type CLR (don't press the CLR/HOME key), to and overall average). Or you have five friends
clear out variables from memory. The amount of who want their laps and times added. As the
free memory is printed. A value is given to vari program grows, you find yourself running out of
able X, and the free memory is printed again. memory,

Note that the variable has occupied seven bytes. One solution is to double up on variables.
Two are used for the variable name, five for the The date you input is always between 101 (Janu
value. ary 1) and 1231 (December 31). And the number
On a new iine, type the same line again, of laps always ranges from 0 to 999. So, when
changing X = l to something like X = 999999. you input the date and time, combine the two
Press RETURN again and what happens? The numbers into a single variable. Multiply the date
90 COMPUTE'S Gozerte January
Simulator I


ourself in the pilot's seat of a Piper 181 Cherokee Archer tor an awe-inspiring flight over realistic scene
''from New York to Los Angeles. High speed color-filled 3D graphics will give you a beautiful panoramic vie
as you practice takeoffs, landings, and aerobatics. Compfete documentation wilt get you airborne quickly
even If you've never flown before. When you think you're ready, you can play the World War I Ace aerial battle
game. Flight Simulator II features include ■ animated color 3D graphics ■ day, dusk, and night flying modes
■ over 80 airports In four scenery areas: New York,- Chicago, Los Angeles, Seattle, with additional scenery ;
areas available ■ user-variable weather, from clear blue skies to grey cloudy conditions ■ complete flight
instrumentation ■ VOR, ILS, ADF, and DME radio equipped ■ navigation facilities and course plotting ■ World
War I Ace aerial battle game ■ complete Information manual and flight handbook.

See your dealer...

or «n to or cat I tor more information For direct orders enclose SJ9.95 plus $2.00
tor shipping and specify UPS or first class mall delivery. American Express.
Dlner'a Club, MasterCard, and Visa accepted.
713 Edgebrook Drive
Order Line: 800 / 637-4983 Champaign IL 61820
by 1000 and add the laps. seven decimal digits were used in the final dou
Since variables use up the same amount of bled up variable.
space, no matter what the value, squeezing the Instead of multiplying by ten, one hundred,
two numbers into one cuts in half the memory one thousand, and so on, you can multiply by
used for the two variables. twos (1, 2, 4, 8, 16, etc.). What you are doing, in
Using this system, the number 330021 effect, is turning individual bits on and off. (Note
would mean 21 laps on 3/30. 1201101 would that this technique would not work on the swim
mean 101 laps on the first of December. ming program, because date and laps are not
The two formulas needed in the program are yes/no situations.)
simple. To combine the two numbers into a sin For example, you want a program to keep
gle variable DL, DL=D*1000 + L, or date times track of a few hundred members who belong to
1000 plus laps. To uncrunch the numbers, the local user group. In addition to the usual
D = INT(DL/1000) and L = DL-1000*D. Date is information about name/address/phone, you
the integer value of DL divided by 1000. Laps is have the following categories:
DL minus 1000 times the date. 1 Adult Member/Student
Depending on the range of values, you could 2 VIC Owner
combine three, four, or more variables into one. 4 64 Owner
8 Interest in BASIC
But you should be aware of one limitation—-once
16 Interest in ML
a number goes beyond nine digits, it is rounded 32 interest in Games
off. Try to avoid using numbers larger than 64 Interest in Education
99,999,999. Also, fractions are not always as reli 128 Interest in Business
able as integers, because they get rounded to the 256 Willing to Help Organize
512 Willing to Teach Seminar
nearest base-two fraction.
When a new person signs up for the user
Multiple Binary Values group, he or she provides the above information
A variation on this technique can be used when
(all yes or no questions). The appropriate num
bers are added up; for example an adult with a
the values are all yes/no decisions. In the exam
ple above, the dates ranged from 101 to 1231,
64, interested in BASIC, games, and educational
the number of laps from 0-999. Altogether,
software would be given the number 109.
The different categories can be sorted out
with a logical AND. In the program, each mem

BridgePro® J
ber has been assigned a number, let's say vari
able J. IF (J AND 16) - 16 then the person is
interested in machine language. If it equals zero,
then the member is not interested. Loop through
• One and two player games the membership list, reading J and ANDing it
■ Random hands — millions with 16, and you'll find out who has that
possible particular interest.
■ HELPfeatureslor beginners
You can also combine categories. Maybe you
want to set up a seminar on programming ML
• "Duplicate" Bridge option games on the 64, but don't know who would be
• DEMONSTRATION and interested. The categories are 4, 16, and 32, so
BEST HAND modes you could have the computer search through the
list of members. A single line would find all peo
REPLAY options ple who checked the three boxes when they
Ever wonder why millions around the world enjoy Ihc joined, IF (J AND 52) = 52 THEN C-C+I. The
card game of Bridge? Why so many play year after variable C, in this case, is used as a counter, to
year? Bridge is that kind of game: uniquely challeng keep track of how many members are interested
ing and exciling. BridgePro"' makes it easy and fun to in ML games for the 64. If you checked the 512
learn or improve Bridge skills. If you already know
bit, you might then find someone who is willing
how to play. BridgePro1" lets you enjoy Bridge by
yourself. And the cards are randomly dealt - you'll to teach the seminar.
never have to repeat a hand. For many. BridgePro" In the example above, instead of ten dif
will be a game that never grows old. ferent variables using up {at least) five bytes
Diskette S35 [COD'siidd $2). each, you reduce everything to a single variable
Visa/MC accepted California rusiriunls add 6 5% lax.
per member, with bits acting as flags which are
Commodore 64 • APPLE II+, lie. or lie
ATARI 800 XL, 1200 XL, or min. 40K
up or down. Thus, you use a tenth as much
Computer Management Corporation
memory, and this gives you more room for add
2424 EnbourneCourl. Walnul Creek. CA 94596 • (415)930-8075 ing new members or categories. <§}
Dealor/Distribulor inquiries wolcome
Unlimited Free Programs - Unlimited Fun!

with VIP Terminal

A Powerful 80 Column Communication Program!
VIP Terminal is what you need to talk to the world! Communicate with
friends, work, school, bulletin boards, even information services like
CompuServe. Share programs, news, pictures, stock quotes - anything in
writing. With your C64, any modem and VIP Terminal, you can master the
information revolution — professionally!
VIP Terminal is power packed to get the job donel It features a
professional 80 column display (40,64 & 106 columns too!) to bring your C64
up to the industry standard - without any hardware modification! It works
with all popular modems, and, with those that allow it, VIP Terminal will auto
dial, and redial if the line is busy. It also will auto answer - even take messages! Of course you can send and
receive programs and the like. And you can print what is coming on the screen. It has a 16-entry phone book
for those often used numbers, and a 20-entry message file for frequently sent messages. It also has a powerful
editor so that you can write messages to send later, or edit ones you have received. You can even save and use
files as large as your disk!

VIP Terminal Is Easy and Fun to Use!

VIP Terminal makes full use of the potential of your C64 - you get color,
graphics and sound. VIP Terminal uses menus and "icons," pictures of the
tasks to be done. In fact, VIP Terminal can almost be totally controlled with a
joystick. You can switch menus, change screen colors, change parameters,
even dial your phone without ever touching your keyboard! Just move the
hand to point to the colored icon, or the entry, press the fire button, and the
change is made, Of course, it all can be done from the keyboard too!
Help is built right into the program so you can't get lost or confused. The manual is even capsulized on the
disk for reference from the program when you need it. VIP Terminal also has a chiming clock for the quarter
hour and the hour, and an alarm you can set. There's even a musical alarm to let you know when you have a
call. VIP Terminal has put it all together to make the perfect communication program!

Integration With VIP Desktop

VIP Terminal is connected to the whole VIP Library™ of programs through
VIP Desktop'". From VIP Desktop, you may access any of the other VIP
Library programs that you own. The rest of VIP Library will meet your word
processing, financial planning, data management and other essential home
and business information management needs. All VIP Library programs
feature high resolution graphics to give 80 columns on the screen without
any hardware modification. They also give you icons and plenty of help.
Quality and affordability are our number one concern!

VIP Terminal ONLY $59.95

Available at Dealers everywhere. If your
Dealer is out of stock ORDER DIRECT!

1 -800-328-2737
Order Status and Software Questions
call (805) 968-4364
MAIL ORDERS: Shipping: $3.00 U.S.; S5.00 CANADA; 132 Aero Camino
S15.00 OVERSEAS; Personal checks allow 3 weeks. Goleta, California 93117
User Group Update

When writing to a user group for information, who can be reached care of C-BUG, P.O. Box
please remember to enclose a self-addressed, 1261, Brooksville, FL 33512. The phone number
stamped envelope. is (904) 799-5292.
Send additions, corrections, and deletions for The Memphis Commodore Users Club also
this list to: has a new address: P.O. Box 38095, Bartlett, TN
COMPUTE! Publications
The North Country (NY) Computer Club has
P.O. Box 5406
changed its name to North Country Commodore
Greensboro, NC 27403
Club. The new contact person is Eleanor
Atln: Commodore User Groups
Cunningham, who can be reached at 1607 Ford
Street, Ogdensburg, NY 13669. The phone
Changes number is (315) 393-2708.
The new contact address for the Sacramento Another group with a new name is the Nova
Commodore Computer Club is P.O. Box 227, Scotia Commodore Computer Users Association,
Sacramento, CA 95810. formerly the Nova Scotia Commodore Computer
The Commodore Brooksville User Group User Group. The new address is P.O. Box 3426,
(C-BUG) has a new contact person, Eleanor Hott, Halifax South, Halifax, Nova Scotia B3J 3J1.


Mew Listings
Delton Area User Group (D.A.U.G.) Spartanburg Commodore Users Group
At Pilukas (SPARCUG)
ARKANSAS 11386 Letches Lane P.O. Box 319
Arkansas 64 Trading Post Delton, Ml 49046 Spartanburg, SC 29304
Larry Johnson
Lansing Area Commodore Club TEXAS
P.O. Box 135
]ae Walker
Biggers, AR 72413 NASACOM 64 Commodore Club
P.O. Box 1065
(501) 769-2888 East Lansing, Ml 48823-1065
Bruce Hilty
16222 Seahorse
CALIFORNIA Houston, TX 77062
Video Innovation Club (V.l.C.) (713) 480-1756
Fairfield Commodore User's Group Michael Levay
BiStone Users Club
Mike Riley 424 Woodlawn
200 Cambridge Drive R.G. Gore
Roscommon, Ml 48653
Vacaville, CA 95688 P.O. Box 386
Mexia, TX 76667
MISSOURI (817)562-6808
Northeast Missouri Commodore Users WASHINGTON
Tri-Coimty Commodore Users Group Group (NEMOCUG)
P.O. Box 1151 Anacortes User Group
Terry Kinney or contact;
Ocaia, FL 32678 Jim Cook
555 Western Drive Stephen Foltz
10U 8th Street
Commodore Users Group of Pensacola Macon, MO 63552 P.O. Box 563
Anacortes, WA 98221
Debbie Johnston (816) 385-2955 Macon, MO 63552
(206) 293-0222
P.O. Box 3533 (816) 385-5530
Pensacola, FL 32516 OUTSIDE THE U.S.
(904) 455-5804 NORTH CAROLINA V1C-20 & Commodore 64 User's Group
Commodore Users Group oi Fayetteville Jose Luis Beltramone
GEORGIA (CUGOF) Calle 3 North, 435 1/2 depto. 2
Steve Peterson (1900) La Plata, Argentina
Clayton County C-64 Users Group
Joyce Jay P.O. Box 41601 GAMES (C-64 User Group)
527 Wavelyn Way Fayetteville, NC 28309 Travis Taylor or Kevin Taylor
Riverdale, CA 30274 (919) 864-6972 3148 Kingston Road
-(404)478-7906 Scarborough, Ontario
OHIO Canada M1M 1P4
ILLINOIS (416) 265-0520
Westcom 64 Commodore Users Group of
Northwest Suburban Commodore User Western Cincinnati Worldwide Commodore 64 Genealogists
Group Rick Olano Johann H. Aadde
Orrin J. Adler 156 Citation Circle Dalkarrsleden 49
214 South Greenwood Harrison, OH 45030 S-162 24 Vaellingby
Palatine, 1L 60067 (513) 367-2668 Sweden

94 COMPUTE'S Gazette January



You deserve the best. You've earned It. Now reward yourself with a session of Night Mission PINBALL,
the most realistic and challenging arcade simulation ever conceived! ■ Stunning graphics and dazzling
(~~~ ~ ~*\ sound effects put Nighl Mission PINBALL In a class by itself. Game features: multi-
c±3 ILUJ*l'l ^ ba" and mul""Player capabilities, ten different professionally designed levels of play,
r-t-i j&* ■ '1U-*H and an editor that lets you create your own custom modes. ■ So take a break with
Night Mission PINBALL from SubLOGIC. Winner of Electronic Games magazfne's
fl S|t ■ ■- M \ 1983 Arcade Award for Best Computer Audio/Visual Effects.

See y
your dealer.
Or wrile
i or calll (or
( more intamalion. [Ul^)LOGIC
Order Line: 800 /637-4983
Champaign IL 61820
A user group is being formed in
W SUPER FORTH 64 - ^ Randallstown, Maryland. Those interested should
contact Steven Ziglar, C-64 & VIC-20 Users
MAKING PROGRAMMING FAST, FUN AND EASY! Group of Randallstown, 8827 Sigrid Road,
A iQmplft*. fblly-inr«gror*d pfpqtam dtvtlapmtnr i Randallstown, MD 21133. The phone number is
Paal 1pm* Pnxflii Cc''ol torn™"." it o (301) 655-8402.
A Powerful Sup«r»f of MVPFORTK/FOPTM 7* ■ E.I r for I ha
The Pomona Valley Commodore Users'
• 70 ■□ 000 n luiipf than Bovc
A«*ii oil C 64 piNpr-trok ir,(lvd,nB 4040 Group has changed its name to Cal Poly
dnve pnd £ PROnA P-agrammB'
o^nfjhitV, i;olor. iprileJ pEcffing linF & Singlq diik dM'Hfl backup uFilrty Commodore Users' Group. The contact person is
Oi^k i Ca^etle. boicd f^<luded
■ ten .Tollable SPUl5CRt£N Full d>ik uiarje —fiflO Seflo-t David Dietzel, and the address is 14617 1/2
Supporii all Cornmodo'e 111* f(Dfti and
• Forth virtual inffmory forth V.rtual rJnk Ramona Boulevard, Baldwin Park, CA 91706.
• Fl-11 cunor SfFMn Idilnr hatM lo 704 4AM vi-idirneolfc "O^
■ Pra-iKon lor uppl-toliO" pr&g.fjm The phone number is (818) 960-9906.
TRACE foeihiy COM-VICS, a Commodore and VIC-20 user
[■K :■"!■ .ER ' .1,
Full Slnr-rg Honohnfl group in Maine, has a new mailing address.
A^Cll t'lO' me«opei
dCA' ■, . ■ 's1 ■.■■■.■■■ ■. • : .-■ Inquiries should be sent to COM-VICS,
Cort>t-iationol v\1> tiffined Comma rdi
Tuloca ■■arnptn p*o^icfed. " MHniH Commodore/VIC Users Group, P.O. Box 1541,
?£1 pegp Ciow -e'e'eted "iotiuoI
Auburn, ME 04210. CiJ

SUPER FORTH *4" ■■ —• SUPER FORTH 64' ••-^••f

COMPUTE!'s Gazette
Toll Free Subscription Order Line
yv*~ nr LjingungEi ConsrrirCts fiogr«-

PBODUCT Coll' 800-334-0868

,roV.n( " '"" C"5) 651-3160
$96 PAHSKt HKSKAKCH In NC 919-275-9809

A Star is Born.
_ For the 64 or VIC *-0 Oc
Alternative to the 1541 Disk Drive! JOY.7O
Load or save 8K in 30 seconds! Il's less expensive than disk and can
even be used as a backup to Ihe lloky 15411
Yes the RABBIT is that and much more Uses Ihe Commodore cassette
deck but loads and saves much, much lasler than regular Commodore
load/save. Think aboul It — loads or saves an 8K program in almost 30
seconds, WKln 1 minute, elc. Thai's nearly asfaslasthe 1541 disk. RABBIT
Is on cartridge so it's always there Also has olher useful commands
Specify tor use on the 6d, or on the VIC 20 —
"It wos the best purchase (or my "Con gra tula liens on your M
computer that I have ever madei" Rabbit It's O5v,per piece olwo-k."

b m jl ^m mow Please tor your own protection

|\ #1 #\ L TMrnccT consider the MAE first before »- J
l\#l &A r lf1t Dt;>l buv '^n olher assembler. We've
I V l# %M FOR LESS! had numerous customers who
wasted Ihelr money on some cheaper off brand assembler tell us
how much better the MAE Is.
The most powerful Macro AssembleriEditor available lot ihe
Commodore 64 and oiher CBM.'PfT computers, and also lor the A Communications Cartridge
ATARI eOOi'XL and Apple II/IIE.
MAE Includes an Assembler, Editor. Word Processor, Relocating for the Commodore 64.
Loader, and more all for just S59.95. Upload/Download, Status Line, elc. Works with
We could go on and describe the MAE but we thought you would
your Commodore 1600 or 1650 Modem.
like to mad our customers' comments. The lollowlngare actual
Auio-dialing, etc, when used with Ihe new
unedited comments from correspondence obout the MAE:
CBM 1650 Modem.
"Excellent Development "I like MAE and wish that you had
Package" ii on the Macintosh." Cartridge and Manual - $49.95
"Compares to DEC and INTEL." "II is a superb program."

3239 Linda Dr.

Winston-Salem.N.C. 27106
Send for free catalog!



■Actually copies a FULL disk in only 4 MINUTES! • 4 mm. copier AUTOMATICALLY puts "errors" on copy
• Easiest to use - TOTALLY automatic copy utility • Fastest A most advanced copier you can buy
• State of the "ARTS" copy capability! ■Writes errors 20,21,22,23,27, & 29 WHILE COPYING!
• UNLOCKS protected disks for backup copying • Transforms your 1541 into a SUPER-FAST copy drive!
• Breaks through LATEST protection schemes •NOanalysis required, just swap disks & NO damaging
• Includes FAST copier, "ARTS" copier and TRUE drive knock during errors or format

Nibbler: you get 3 copiers for the price of 1 • Formats AS IT COPIES, detects A reproduces NON-
•HALF-TRACKING up to 4 including track 40! STANDARD formats A I.D. mismatch, DOS flags
• 100% machine code for fast, RELIABLE operation • PRODUCT SUPPORT tel.#, revisions, A upgrades


$49.95 to order call 805-687-1541 ext. 64

Technical line 805-682-4000 ext. 99
for entire system

For rush service call 24 hr. order line or send cashiers check/money order Visa, MasterCard, & American Express include cardw and exp.
dale. CA residents add 6% tax. Allow 2 weeks for clearance of personal 4 co. checks. Add $3.50 shipping & handling tor continental
U.S./S5.50 lor UPS air. AK, HI, APO. FPO, CANADA add $7.50. Other Foreign orders add $8.50. All APO. FPO, S orders outside
48 stales must be paid by certified U.S. funds. C.O.D.'s shipped to U.S. addresses only, add S4.00. School orders welcome.


3463 State Street • Suite 1S41A • Santa Barbara • CA 93105


p nifl Nth EJ tip* i<i Uotd

Seven of Gold Mj|,

'"* *arJJJ'*J
i I ,(,, .fthft,

- .'- ^

Gregg Keizer, Assistant Editor, Books -J O *>

■fiUK '
L ' 1 «: o pL o
Games are fantasies. Even the 1533), he accompanied an expe
simplest children's game, like dition across the Andes in 1541. ■«£
roc. !iniu rmii'
hide-and-seek or tag, has ele The 200 Spaniards and their
ments of fantasy. Hide and I'm 4000 slaves were searching for
invisible; your touch is poison. cinnamon trees and gold. After
Most computer games are fanta crossing the mountains, the
sies in one way or another, too. Conquistadors dropped into the Your expedition has landed on un
You become a fighter pilot in edges of a vast jungle. They charted territory as the search for
gold and glory continues in Seven
Zaxxon, or a frantic tunneler in found their cinnamon trees,
Cities of Gold.
DigDug. Some games make fan which were too far from civi
tasies seem more realistic lization to be worth anything.
(sounds almost like a contradic The expedition then turned to
tion) than others. Often these the east, to the 2-1/2 million
realistic games, whether they're square miles of the Amazon Ba a part of this strange and won
electronic or played on a board, sin. Eventually they reached the derful odyssey. Until now, how
are called simulations. Napo River, one of the tributar ever, there was no way to play
But what does all this have ies of the Amazon. out that fantasy—I really didn't
to do with Seven Cities of Cold? Natives told the Spanish of want to go down the Amazon, I
Two things really. First, a great city of gold downstream. just wanted to imagine doing it.
Seven Cities is a simulation. Sec It was a good way to get the in
ond, it's a fantasy. vaders out of the area. So
I'm not saying that the Orellana and 50 men began
Seven Cities of Gold let me do
game is unreal, or even untrue their fantastic voyage. For 17
just that. Designed and created
to history. Quite the opposite. months, on crude rafts or simple
for Electronic Arts by Ozark
It's one of the most interesting ships they built themselves, the
Softscape, the team which
games I've played, one that kept Spaniards saw mile after milt of
brought us M.U.L.E., this com
me staring at the screen and river. What they were doing
puter game/simulation makes
holding the joystick long after I was crossing the continent by
you one of the first Spanish ex
would have walked away from navigating the entire Amazon
plorers of the New World.
most games. But it is a fantasy, River! Of course, there were
Starting in 1492 with a
at least for me. It probably will close calls with natives (includ
be for you, too.
small fleet of ships, complete
ing, according to Orellana, a
with armed men, food, and
tribe led by women—the fam
trading goods, you sail west
Orellana And The ous "Amazons"), times when
across the Atlantic. You hope
they almost starved, and weeks
Amazon there's something on the other
of depression and disease.
A long time ago, I read an side, something you can set foot
account of Francisco de But they reached the Atlan on and claim before your food
Orellana. He's rarely mentioned tic on August 26, 1542, They runs out and your men begin
in the histories of the Spanish even made it back to Spanish starving. You find it. Now the
conquest of South America. A settlements by sailing along the decisions begin to pile up.
relative of the Pizarro family coast. Orellana was greeted as a How many men to take on
(Francisco Pizarro was already hero by the King when he re an expedition into the interior?
governor of Peru, having de turned to Spain. Can they carry enough food to
feated the Incan Empire in I've always imagined being see them back again? What to
98 COMPUTE! s Gnzatle January

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Alphabet program
Little Bo Peep
Number program by
Developed by Parents and Educators tayDavePaulsen Joe Sams and
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... Doing
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In a way that makes LEARNING Name ... and more. Computer Keyboard
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L. P. Money I L.P. Money II L. P. Shapes
by Aaron Grant by Tom Wanne by Doug Knapp
Teaches money Teaches money Le'am to recognize
values — one cenl
lo one dollar -
values -one dollar
to one hundred
geomeinc shapes
and how la spell OR h WASHINGTON
using a gum ball dollars — using an Iheir names,
machine. En Ice cream ma
chine Encourages
courages money
saving money savins

L. P.'s Farm L. P. Colors L. P. Expressions

L. P. Traffic Signs
byTomWann© by Aaron Giant
Teaches names
by Aaron Grant
Teaches names
by Aaron Grant
Teaches expres
Teaches tdenttliea-
lion and meanings and ldeniilicallon and idenlilicatlor. sions such as
or Irailic signs and ol larm animals. ol colors and happy, sad laugh,
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do when a native village is fi buy supplies, A menu is dis rivers are there for the
nally found? Enter and trade, or played which lets you purchase exploring.
enter and kill? additional ships, men, food, and And there are hundreds of
goods, if you have the gold. villages, towns, and cities scat
Simple To Play There are other menus available tered across the two continents
while your expedition is explor (Seven Cities includes both
Seven Cities is quite simple in its
ing. They're all accessed by North and South America). If
play mechanics. Once you've
pressing the joystick fire button. you earlier chose the novice
followed the directions and cre
ated a map disk (you need a
Expedition movement, whether level of play, the settlements
blank disk to play the game, as
on land or sea, and combat are can be seen. When you move
well as a joystick), loaded the
controlled with the joystick. up to the higher levels, how
game and watched the title dis Once you make landfall, ever, the natives can only be
play, the only thing you have to you need to create another ex found if you stop and search.
do is move the joystick and pedition. You can select its com Settlements will blink if they're
press the fire button. Menus ap position, choosing the number nearby, giving you an idea of
pear when needed. Before you of men and the amount of trad where to head.
leave Spain, for instance, you ing goods and food. Jungles,
can walk into the outfitter to swamps, mountains, plains, and Peace Or War?
As soon as you move into a vil

Supercharge Your
lage, town, or city, you have an
ethical decision to make. Trade
for the gold and food you need,
or simply take it. It's a fascinat

Programmii ing decision. To be historically

accurate, Seven Cities has to al
low the player to repeat history.
Add far greater speed and versatility to The Conquistadors, for all their
your C641 or VIC-20' with Micol bravery and exploits, were little
Systems' extraordinary new macro more than thugs in their rela
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Since machine language programs usually run 40-60 limes traded, instead opting for the
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A professional system that even the novice will linfl easy to usa,
timidate the natives until they
II assembles kilobyte files in seconds and is one of the most
powerful macro assemblers available handed over whatever wealth
Gut it's more Ihan jus! an assembler Your programming will Be
they had.
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Editor which has all the handy loaturos allowing you to creale your If you want to follow this
programs easily and a machine language Monitor, a sophiS'
licated debugging tool and complete man to machine path, you can. You can rush
language interface into any settlement and within
The package is 100% machine code and fully
copyable for your convenience. Available on disk or
minutes defeat even the fiercest

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Do you already have an Assembler? of some of your men, but that's
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the natives and accidentally kill price. Word spreads from village goods. If you've been fighting
them. Do that often enough and to town to city of your cruelty, natives, it may be because there
you enrage them. You'll have a and you'll be ambushed often. are few soldiers left. Navigating
fight on your hands in a mo You also won't get any help home is done the same way as
ment, and the result is the same from the natives, something cru sailing to the New World. Use
as it would have been had you cial to success. Without willing the view map feature to find
charged into the place with natives to help carry things, your latitude. Home is at 30°
murder in your heart. your expedition can't travel far, North. Once home, you can re
The designers of Seven Cit or walk away with large amounts port to the king, perhaps receive
ies have made warfare some of food or gold. In the higher a promotion and additional
what abstract. It's just not fun to levels of play, your bearers can moneys; go to the pub to save
wipe out entire villages and even help you find settlements the game map to disk; or go to
towns, certainly not as thrilling you overlooked. your own home to view your
as destroying fleets of alien progress. The outfitter waits for
spaceships that dodge and twist. Heading Home you, too, Using the gold you
All you do is move your figure There'll come a time when you obtained on the voyage, you can
beside a native and the native have to sail for home. Usually buy more ships, equip more
vanishes. it's because your expedition is men, and load more food and
Making war does have a low on food or out of trading goods. You're ready to sail on
another voyage.

The New, New

New dimensions in Bible study. World
How exciting can it be to ex
plore a world you already
know? Obviously, you can't
erase your own knowledge of
geography. You know things the
explorers could not. You know
approximately where the Missis
sippi River empties into the
E WORD Gulf; you know that the Incan
processor Empire is somewhere in Peru.
,.ete KJV Bible on But this doesn't really detract
from Seven Cities' play. Geogra
disks $199.95*
phy is important, but dealing
TOPICS with the natives is vital. That's
200 Scripture the heart of the game.
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using the random continent cre
For information contact: ation feature, you can explore
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Requires APPLE II +, I 9415 Burnet, Suite 208 not North and South America
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102 COMPUTErs Gazette January


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ULTRABASIC or VICTREE Listings to screen or all ASCII printers OBJECTS, msen text on screen. UNDO last (unction. Requires high Quality
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plate tectonics model to place Then, when you sail, you're you can sail around the Horn,
mountains where the plates more accurately duplicating the as I did in one voyage, on your
grind against each other. An conditions a late-fifteenth cen way to the west coast of North
other model insures that settle tury explorer faced. Try it once America. Or you can cross the
ments are correctly located, so you've mastered the old New Andes and navigate the Ama
that primitive cultures aren't World. zon River. It doesn't matter
neighbors to huge city-states. With Seven Cities of Gold, what you do or where you ex
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1 DISK NIBBLER Seven Cities of Gold

Electronic Arts
2755 Campus Drive
The Ultimate Bit by Bit Disk Duplicator San Mateo, CA 94403
For The Commodore 64 and 1541 Disk Drive $39.95 m




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C. Regena
if not completely satisfied

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skills, Language Skills, and Per the package, you can get the
sonal and Social Skills. The re information from this program.
sults can then be compared to Although a 27-page manual
other children in the same age comes with the software, all the
group. same information is included in
For each child tested, you the programs.
get a report with explanations Selection 3 is a "Practice
for each of the four skill areas. Run-Through," which is essen
Available at dealers everywherel You may also see a bar graph of tially instructions on how to ad
Issue Number 3 contains:
the skill levels for Up-to-Age minister the tests. Example
An evil tSvf OwV'fvj BALANCER items, Challenge items, and questions for you to score are
qr centre guards *tri Thii i^ &W erf ine
immense treasure Imp ftason\ you DoufiMt l* Above-Age items. A printout is shown. "Rose," an attractive
onjCCt Df the AL3VFN
TUWE qamc ps to kill

also available from within the character who can jump, hop,
program. Childpace comes with and walk, is introduced to help
Smu'l" kills you trwngr rHi(r ji^j n kvtlt one diskette which contains a you understand by way of illus
HEAD-ON prinT ii triiUt fO' you tl
So you tMink ynu iv fl iflk(h ci yiMjr tfjp series of programs, plus room tration some of the motor skills.
ijooO i)"vff' Kow k>rw]
(jr> you flvoifl fl nr.*tf- 4-MiNUrr copy
for results for up to 16 children. If you don't understand how to
1V1 ' [1.hU.*,r 1 Wi[' .• Si'-^M>h( 'rcnn Gernwr, do a particular skill that is de
WMtii (■,■» guiflou Dy ThrsuciiiTy program ai

your C'&*' format -incf co^jy ^ fl'S^ Step Through The scribed in words, press E (for
GUESS WHAT? in four miriuicsGn on<
Example), and Rose will appear
yrwlrJ every tim<*i[ n BASE CONVERTER
on the screen and demonstrate.
run CnikVfftJav*T'n\ tr.ii pf cgrtWi md>ics
numfrr C.iccOOur'-
The program is designed for
POKEft PARLOR ease of use. Included in the
dr.* a J package is a reference card Testing A Child
which has step-by-step instruc After you've seen the first three
Orv- criin iiiun of mir I A GARDENING
ngcrKC is [r:e arjibiy tu TOOL
tions on how to load the pro selections, you're ready to start
rtCOqmzp pattern i TMt* Ti"irt win iidd pollen to
oojctr of ihi^ game Is your [irogrjTns Hel^iL gram. If you're using the testing a child. Selection 4 is
toUistuvc cornrHJtrr iwritp out tornq
program for the first time, you Parent Questions and must be
should select I, "How to Use completed for each child you
Childpace" from the main menu. test. Enter the child's name and
This program illustrates the sex, plus the date of testing and
computer and shows how to use the child's birth date. The com
LOADSTAR comei on ^
the function keys. On every puter calculates the number of
LOADSTAR is a bonan;a
screen, the operation of the months for the age. Depending
of unproicccfl progMmj.
LEARN - programming tethniques
function keys (f7 to move for on the child's age, you will be
USE- j.'aiin ward, f5 to move backward, and asked some questions about the
ENJOY - gameri and novelties
SHARE - experiences wiih other
f3 to return to the main menu) child, most of which are in the
Commodore-64 owners are shown, and any other sig Personal and Social Skills area.
send to LOADSTAJ? nificant keys are highlighted. Again, the program is easy to
P.O. Box 30007 The use of color for emphasis is use. Press Y for yes and N for
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effective, and text is clear on no, or the space bar to erase.
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|3I8|868-7217 either a color or green-screen You may use f5 to back up, or
monitor. f3 to go back to the main menu.
number 3 tis shown .^ Selection 2 on the main The computer accepts only cer
menu is "Background," which tain key presses and ignores all
presents the philosophy of others. The colors indicate
Childpace. If you're one of those where you need to answer.
people who doesn't read the After answering the Parent
printed material that comes in Questions, you can select 5 to


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tionally link to ASSEM/MON machine BASIC ft4 COUMUII DISK $39.95
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budget. Is compatible with'Commodore 64
BASIC. CjompijeS to; ,18$-machine code
ASSEMBLER MONITOR and/or spaedcode. Protect you valuable
This complete language development
source ctxlB by compiling with BASIC 64.
package features a macro assembler and
extended monitor The macro assembler
offers freeform input, complete assembler
listings with symbol table (label), condi This super spreadsheet features built in DEALER INQUIRIES INVITED
tional assembly. The extended monitor has graphics. It's as simple, to use as 1-2-.
all the standard commands plus single Power Plan 64 displays Bur choices on
step, quick trace breakpoint, bank swit screen .wit li help screens always available.

Abacus EHH Software

ching and more. DISK $39.95 Makes excellent graphs. Includes 300pp in
dBpth user's manual.
P.O. BOX 7211 GRAND RAPIDS, Ml 40510

This package introduces you to ADA, the TEXTOMAT-64 ™$* S39.95 For poslign S handling, idd tA 00 |U S ind ™f™
official language oLttae Department of This complete word processor displays 80 C«fi«dii *Od 16.00 lor hxatgn Miki payment ^jjg^
in U.S. dollars by check, monay order of
Defense and the programming language of columns using horizontal scrolling. In chirge card. (Michigan Reiidenta add 4%
the luturayCtnclycfes ;editor, syntax memory editing up to 24,000 characters UMl IB. )
checker/compeer and 110 page step by plus chaining of longer documents.
step manual describing the language. Complete toxt formatting, block operations, FOR QUICK SERVICE PHONE («1«) 141-SS1O
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form letters, on-screen prompting. I . ir 1 '«■.; TM ■' ^

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fill own carlrldj* lofivar*. Inciudsi Begin or Resume Exercises. made of? What is a door made
Clicull board and rrtonijol AiTh
■oftwor* lltitngi $ S4.93 After three screens of instruc of? In defining the words, you
CBUS F - at iilm*fj .-.tth nil n*i*i«arr P'°0 tions, you start testing with the have to consider that this pro
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CBUS Indudn cms I and oui n wMi di
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'! 111! ':■ ■>(!■*[ ry Nlltrtfl. Psn r:-!i trdr for the most valid results you make a comprehensive test. For
should do and say exactly what example, my son didn't know


the computer directs. On some what the word "pavement"

of the skills, you may demon meant. At first he thought I said
strate, but on others the score "payment." When 1 showed
depends on how much instruc him the pavement, he said it
tion you must give. was concrete or asphalt or was
Some of the motor skills in more specific with sidewalk,
clude standing in place and driveway, and street.
^ f jumping, a distance jump The Personal and Social
(jumping over a sheet of paper), Skills are mostly answered in
R.J. Irodiman Aiioclatai, Inc.
hopping, catching a ball, and the Parent Question section.
P.O. Box 1077, Havertown, PA 190113
[SIS] 632.3493 walking backward heel to toe. These skills include dressing,
Remember, if you aren't sure feeding, washing hands, and so
what the activity is, you can cial interaction with others.
press E to see Rose perform the
A Childpace Record Booklet
HOLIDAY PRINTER SALE! is included to aid in testing the Results
SEMINI 10X- NOWS266 detailed movement. One of the The next section is viewing the
!20cpsBDC0i. REG-S399 activities, for example, is to copy results. First, an explanation of
DEtTHlDr" NOW $375
a circle (although you are not the results is discussed, then
160cps,80col. REG.S549 allowed to say the word "circle" you get a report for each of the
SK Buffer to the child). Another is to draw four areas. Each screen tells
RADIX 10" NOWS575 a cross. (My son said, "OK, I'll how the child performed in up-
300cps data mods REG. 1849 draw a plus.") One skill is to to-age items, challenge items,
50cps Nil] mode draw a person, and the score is and above-age items. Pressing
16K SuflK determined by how much detail CTRL-P gives you a printout
PflWEHHPE'" PRINTER NOW $360 the child provides. The manual (actually a screen dump) of the
Daisy Wheel, Letter REG.M99 shows examples of passing and report. If you press \7 to con
Duality, 1Bcps
failing results or how to score tinue, you see an attractive
the drawing of a person. graph of the results with arrows
Send Above Amount For younger children, Lan showing the child's skill level
(plus S10 shipping) to: guage Skills test items may have compared with "norms." After
questions about pronouncing the last graph, an evaluation of
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Z5SE Royal Lane the body. Older children need summary.

Dallas, Texas 75229 to recognize colors (colored If the report indicates the
Or Call Tall Free 1-B00-527-7573 blocks are included in this pack child is behind schedule, the
In Texas Call (214) 484-7836 age), repeat sequences of words, manual says "don't push the
Free Catalog Upon Request recognize opposites, define panic button," and lists several
WE ACCEPT: Visa. Masiercart & Amer. Exp.
words, and tell object compo reasons for possible negative re
sition: For example, what is a sults, along with some sugges
"Trademark ol Slar Mictonlcs Inc.
spoon made of? What is a shoe tions. The manual also gives a
108 COMPUTErs Gazette January
What you get ifjy>u cross
a Commodore 64 with a Fferrari.
\ you get the incredible And, you get the only disk drive LED display that keeps you in
(Uj Indus GT™ disk drive. that comes with fret? software. control of your Commodore to
You get brains. You get beauty. Word processing. Spreadsheet. the air-piston operated dust
But, that's not all you gel. Database manager. Plus, a carry cover thai protects your disks
You get a disk drive that can ing case that doubles as an 81) and drive.
handle 100% of Commodore's disk storage file. So, you know what you really
software. 400% faster. Most of all, you get luxury. get if you cross a
You get the disk drive with the From the sleek lines of its sound Commodore 64
best service record around. With proofed chassis to the respon with a Ferrari?
a one year warranty on parts and sive AccuTouch'" controls at the You get the
labor to prove it. Indus Cnmmandi'ost™ From the best.

Dlnchii Systems, 93CM De >g Avenje, QuUiwDrth, CA yon iti!H) im-%oi), The Indus Cl Is a iwocluci of intii*. Syitami, Commodore is a
regltleied trademark o( Conimodo'e BuiineS) Machines, Inc. Ferrari i< ,i ren'mvn'ii irscltmarfc of Fefrirl North America, Inc.
Stale-of-lhB-art single or dual drive back
up program for those "IMPOSSIBLE TO
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A cartridge used in conjunction wilh any
standard Serial to Centronics parallel
printer interface lo give you a Iwo-slroke
screen dump and full Commodore
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A low cost networking system: up to eight
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Network two C-64's or Vic 20's or combi When I had my first child, I $39.95
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certain ages. As interested and
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Saves-Stores-Checks Shopping Coupons.
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sumed he would walk eventu
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standards and norms. However, Utilities
it was a lot of fun to try out this
Rockney Disk Utilities (RDU) is
program to see how our four- an all machine language, menu-
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With a colorful text display,
My assessment? It would be RDU makes it easy to access al
fun to start with a young baby, most every disk feature, elimi
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single head disk drives this program is its ease of use, tor, display BAM (Block Alloca
• xitlLLXmtit ■■ it easy
• Adds the notch needed.
designed so that any parent tion Map), trace file (shows all
• SATISFACTION OR MONEY BACK. (even one who has never used a sectors used by a file), initialize,
xiititu: ximu i
computer) can use it. The in display error channel, copy disk,
Cuts square notch for Apple. II, II > . structions are clear and under edit sector, rename, copy file,
Me. lie, III, Franklin and Commodore.
standable. Blocks, a tube, and a concatenate (merge) files, vali
pom-pom come with the pack date, and scratch. Programmers
only $14.95"
*add $2.00 each order (S5.00 lo reign)
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For Postage and Handling
The manual is easy to un ability to display and edit sec
Florida Residents Add 5% Sales Tax
derstand and has helpful exam tors. Pressing a function key can
ORDER TODAY! ples. The program itself is give you a help screen, hex to
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The screens show exactly what Two extra programs permit you
keys may be pressed for an to perform single drive file
swers, scoring, or to go to differ copying and full disk backup.
ent screens. Chiidpace lends Unlike some disk utility pack
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nursery schools to help with as no provision for backing up
sessing child development. copy-protected disks.

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800-558-0003 414-351-2007

jL. om.

Est. 1982
ORDERING INFORMATION. Plaess specify 3ystem. For'asl delivoiv send cashier's check, money order or direct banK transfers Personal CQMPJTABIUTY
and company criecks allow 2 weeks to cloar. daroeo for COD are S3.OO. Scriool Purchase Orders ivelcome. In CONTINENTAL USA, in PD BO. 17882
clude S3.00 shipping par soli ware order. Include 3% shipping on all Hardware ordersh minimum S3.00. Ma^lorcard ^ Visa please Include Milwaukee. Wl 53217
card » and eiplrallon dale Wl residents please add 5% sains lax. HI, AK, FPO.APO. Canadian orOors —add 5% snipping, minimum 15 00.
Another loieirjn orders, please add 15% aMpping, minimum S10.00 All goods are new and Include lacfory warranty. Duo to our low prices, ORDEfl LINES OPEN
all sales are Imm All dolectlve returns musl nave arelurn authornation number Pleasa call 414-351-2007 to obtain an RAior yourrolurn Mon-Fn 11 AM ■ 7 ?M CSI
Sat I2PM- "jiWCST
will NOT bo accepted for roplacemont or repair Pnces ano avaMability are auDiect 10 chanfle without notice
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The manual tersely covers which says each key when it is higher one. Two intonations are
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cludes technical information on enter the BASIC line 10 and emphasized.
how each command works. This PRINTA, you hear one-oh-space- Currah also markets speech
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machine language program off" this feature. Currah Technology
without loading it into memory, The fifth command, SAY, 50 Milk Street/15th Floor
and packing disk files, explain speaks letters, words, or sen Boston, MA 02109
ing not only how it's done, but tences. It must be followed by a $49.95
why it works. string or string variable. Unlike
Rockney Software some voice modules, the vocab Tapper
Box 5795 ulary is not limited to a certain One of the most addictive
Derwood, MD 20855 number of words. The different games we've seen lately, this
$24.95 sounds of English are built-in. Bally Midway arcade translation
The Voice Messenger uses a sys for the 64 from Sega has a lot
The Voice tem of rules for deciding how a going for it. Tapper is not only
Messenger word should be pronounced (for fun to play, but also immensely
example, plough is pronounced challenging, graphically enter
This new product from Currah
Technology adds speech synthe
differently than cough, even taining, and full of action.
though they're spelled It might first appear to be
sis to a Commodore 64. It
similarly). just another super-fast arcade
doesn't require an external
speaker—the voice goes Using allophones gives you game, but the longer you play,
through the television or moni even more control over the the more you realize it's a very
tor speaker, installation is easy: sounds. The hard g sounds in well-designed strategy game. As
Simply plug it into the cartridge big and got are actually (slightly) the "tapper" (bartender), you
port, then take the cable leading different. So you could type are serving a rude and motley

out of the cartridge and plug it SAY "HELLO" or, using allo crew of publicans whose thirst
into the audio/video socket. phones to make it sound more is nearly impossible to quench;
Since the same socket is used by like English, SAY There are four bars, and you
the monitor cable, a Y-connector "[HE(LL)(OO)J". The full list of must move quickly from one to
is available from Currah for use allophones is included in the the other to service the nearest
with a monitor. manual. customer. As the mob ap
The Voice Messenger adds The sounds to be spoken proaches, waving their fists, you
five new commands to BASIC, are stored in a buffer which must decide in what order they
should be served. If one reaches
which am be used within a pro holds up to 255 allophones
gram or in direct mode. The (about 25 to 30 seconds of the bar without being served, be
manual also includes the neces speech). Because it is interrupt- prepared to be picked up by the
sary technical information for driven, BASIC programs do not collar and thrown down the bar.
machine language programmers. slow down or stop while words Inglorious treatment for all your
INIT (initialize) turns on the are being spoken. There are two efforts.
voice. BYE turns it off. KON voices, a low one that sounds a If that isn't enough, you
turns on the key-speech feature, bit like Darth Vader and a must also retrieve the empty

COMPUTE'S Gazaf/o January 113


mugs as they return sliding back entertainment value. provide his back as a launching
down the bar toward you. Un Sega Enterprises, Inc.
pad. You begin the race with
fortunately, many of the patrons Sega Consumer Products four fish. But it seems every
want immediate refills. A key to 360 N. Sepulveda Blvd. thing is trying to take them
staying alive for any length of Ei Segundo, CA 90245 from you. Pelicans, squid, dodo
time in the game is to pick up disk or cartridge birds, and even mermaids want
the occasional tip (if you have (price unavailable) them. There are ways to get
time). This triggers a chorus line more—-some of the pelicans and
of dancing girls which distracts Mancopter mermaids have a fish in their
some of the patrons and lets Pedaling a copter across the beaks or hands, and if you're
you catch your breath. skies? Be serious. Too childlike. agile, you can take them.
Dexterity with a joystick is Though that may be your reac Scoring is based on captur
a must for this game. Control tion to reading the directions to ing fish, bopping and passing
ling the tapper isn't so difficult, this game, or even seeing it on other mancopters, and finishing
but moving fast enough and to the screen, it's only a first im the race. Bonus points for pass
the right place at the right time pression. Mancopter is a game ing mancopters are awarded
is taxing to the point of for the 64 that's challenging when you land at a raft
exhaustion. enough for adults and pictur checkpoint.
The title screen offers sev esque enough for children. The game gets more fre
eral options: one or two players, As a pilot in the great netic as you must fly under
and Beginner, Arcade, or Expert mancopter race, you need to more and more of the mangrove
levels. The Beginner level is a evade dozens of computer- trees. Avoiding the fislvstealers
real handful. The first scenario controlled mancopters, dodge becomes increasingly difficult.
is a Western bar (1890s). Make fish-stealing pelicans, and avoid Storm clouds appear and light
it past this one to go to a county falling dodo birds and leaping ning bolts search you out. But
fair, where the action picks up. squids on your way to the finish the pace is worth it. The game
If you make it through this sce line. It's never easy, for as soon is challenging and graphically
nario, you're treated to an as you stop hitting the joystick entertaining.
abominable punk-rock bar. And, button, you begin to lose alti Datasaft
finally, an outer space bar with tude. There are other obstacles, 1980S Nordiwff Place
creatures a la Star Wars. Be- too, like tangled mangrove trees Chatsworth, CA 9I3I1
tween scenarios, you can rest or that force you to skim the wa $34.95 (disk or cassette)
play a guessing game with the ter, or waving mermaids who
Soda Bandit (sponsored by want your last fish.
Mountain Dew). The scrolling screen moves
You stay in the game sim smoothly as you fly from right
ply by not losing one of your to left. You can reverse direc
lives (five at the Beginner level, tion, but its impossible to fly far
three at the others). A life is that way. Not that you want to;
erased if you're thrown down there's a time limit. You need to GAZETTE
the bar, fail to catch a returning reach that next buoy to get an
mug, or slide a refill down the other 40 seconds on the clock.
bar to a customer who's just If you bop other copters
left. You can gain extra lives by from above, they drop into the Order Line
achieving a high number of water. Unfortunately, they can 800-334-0868
points (depending on the level do the same to you. Then you InHC
you choose). have to give one of your valu 919-2759809
Tapper is not for the timid, able fish to the whale. Other
but we rate it near the top in wise, he won't come and
114 COMPUTE'S Gazollo January
Richard Mansfield, Senior Editor

ML Mailbag
If you have a question about machine language (ML), please send
it to the address at the end of the column. This month let's answer
some commonly asked questions:

Using The Kemal 1 start of heading

How do you clear the screen in ML? I've tried filling it with 2 start ol text

32's, the space character, but I know there's a better way. Also, 3 end of text
how do you check what's being typed into the computer from 4 end of Irons miss ion
the keyboard? I've tried looking at location 197, but it doesn't 5 enquiry

work out. 6 acknowledge

To effectively program in ML, you need several tools: an 7 bell

assembler, a disassembler, a map of your computer's memory (es 8 backspace

pecially the BASIC and Kernal ROM routines), and a table of the 9 horizontal tabulation

Commodore version of the ASCII code (often called a Character 10 ■ine feed
Set Table). You'll find the first three in my book, Machine Lan 11 vertical tabulation
guage for Beginners (available from COMPUTE! Books or in most 12 lorm feed
bookstores), and we've reprinted the Commodore ASCII table this 13 carnage relurn
month. 14 shift out
Your questions suggest that you are unfamiliar with the 15 shift in
Kernal section of the BASIC ROM. Many ot the fundamental
16 data link escape
things you ordinarily do in BASIC are easily accessed from ML
17 device control 1 [X-on)
programs as well. In BASIC you would just PRINT a clear screen
18 dewc& control 2
character. You can clear the screen in ML by:
19 device control 3 [X-off]
LDA #147
20 device control 4
JSR 65490
21 negative acknowledge
The 147 is Commodore ASCII for clear-the-screen (see the
22 synchronous idle
table below) and you just load 147 into the Accumulator and then
23 end of tfansmission block
JSR to the computer's built-in PRINT routine. At the very top of
24 cancel
ROM memory are several important addresses (referred to collec
25 end of medium
tively as the Kernal) which can be used in your ML programming.
26 substitute
The Kernal addresses are the same on a ViC and 64.
To simulate a BASIC INPUT command, JSR 65487. To simu escape

late GET, JSR 65508. Probably the most useful of all the Kernal 28 file separator

routines is 65490. The Commodore ASCII character value cur 29 group separator

rently in the Accumulator will be printed to the screen. What's es 30 record separator

pecially useful about this routine is that it remembers where the 31 unit separator

cursor would be. In other words, the next time you print what's in
the Accumulator, the new character will be placed immediately
following the previous character. You can also use all the special
codes for clear screen, delete, backspace, etc. Other useful Kernal routines open and close files, save
and load programs, read the time, check the STOP key, and read or set the position of the cursor on
the screen.
COMPUTE'S Gazette January 115




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ORA SNNNN.X era i ignt







Now you can turn
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With the TriviaTalker disk your Commodore If you're not a trivia buff, for only $19.95 the
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your family. It asks you questions out loud using dore 64 to speak with a truly unlimited vocabu
the sound interface device already in your Com lary. It can say anything you can type. You can
modore. It corrects you when you're wrong and program the Votalker for other games, for educa
congratulates you when you're right. TriviaTalker tion, for personal programs—applications as limit
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•The answer is San Marino. Commodore 64 is a trademark of Commodore Business Machines, Inc.
192 CO TAN CP¥#S«
STA(S7JX] orange 103 C1 ATN CMP(7ZX)

194 C2 PEEK

195 C3 LEN

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F5 199 C7 CHIJS

F2 201 C9 mGHIS cmp#$ii

txa Fd 202 CA MIDS DEX

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STXSNNNW uppercase 206 CE DEC5NNNN

207 CF

BCC SNN I block 208 DO BNE SNN

STA|SS|.V ctsruD 209 01 CMP(SZZ).V

reverse off 210 D2

clr'riDme 211 D3
STY SOT 212 04

STAS/7.X blown 213 D5 CMP SZZ.X

STXS//Y "rod 214 D6 DFCSZZX

215 D7

IYA gray 2 216 DB aD


IXS It blue 218 DA

grtiyi 219 DB

220 DC

yellow 222 DE DEC SNNNN>

cyan 223 DF

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TAX ! 234 EA NOP
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SIN s 255 FF IS

ASCII COOIS: COreS W?-223 ioma as 96-12

122 COMPUTE.15 Gazette January
Which One Is The Real Where Can I Find An
Machine Language? Advanced Assembler?
I have seen many useful programs in your Where can I get an assembler that allows vari
magazine which show how to program in ma ables; automatic insert (so I can move the
chine language using three-letter commands. I whole program forward in memory as many
have also seen a number of programs which bytes as I want); and line numbering (like in
are nothing but a stream of numbers (that have BASIC)?
to be entered using the MLX program in the
The LADS assembler in my new book, The
back of the magazine).
Second Book of Machine Language (COMPUTE!
Which of these is true machine language?
Books), includes all those features.
Is there any way I could go from one form to
the other?
Those three-letter ML commands are the Machine Language
equivalent of BASIC commands. In both ML and I have noticed that there are two different
BASIC there are around 50 commands, but peo ways of using the CoMPare commands (CMP)
ple commonly only use about 20 of them. Ma in ML. I'm not sure which method works or
chine language commands are abbreviations: how. They are: 1. Using BEQ or BNE after
LDA stands for LoaD the Accumulator, JSR for CMP to check for equal or not equal and 2. Us
Jump to SubRoutine. ing BCC or BCS after a CMP to check for the
You write ML programs using an assembler same thing. Would you please explain this?
into which you type LDA and the assembler
The BEQ/BNE (branch if equal/branch if
translates that LDA into a number. The computer
not equal) and BCC/BCS (branch if less
cannot understand LDA; it needs the number.
than/branch if more than or equal) pairs are not
That's because the computer's language (machine checking for the same thing as we'll see in a
language) is pure numbers, no letters of the minute.
alphabet. But numbers are harder for us to CMP is one of the most important ML
remember than words like JSR. So, the assembler
instructions. It's always used in tandem with one
translates these commands into the numeric form
of the instructions beginning with the letter B
that the computer can run. which branch to a different part of your program
To answer your first question, both the com depending on the results of the comparison. In
mands and the numbers are true machine lan other words, CMP followed by, for example,
guage: They're just different forms of the same BEQ, is the equivalent of this line in a BASIC
program. When an ML program is in the form of program:

commands, it's called source code. After an 10 IF A = 20 THEN GOTO 1000

assembler translates these commands into num 20 RETURN
bers, the result is called abject code. So, you go
however you write the ML like this:
from the version people can use most easily to
CMP #20
the computer-runnable version by assembling
BEQ 1000
source code into object code. RTS
To go the other way, you use a program
Whenever you use CMP, you are always
called a disassembler which looks at the pure CoMParing against whatever is currently in the
numbers of the object code and reconstructs
Accumulator. So, in the example above, you will
them into a listing of the original, three-letter
branch to address 1000 if the number in the
Accumulator is a 20; otherwise, as in BASIC, you
As you can see, the same ML program can will go on to the next command (RTS, in this
be printed in COMPUTED GAZETTE in three forms: example).
as source code, as object code (for MLX), or as By the way, be sure to remember that all the
object code which is listed in DATA statements B instructions are limited to branches 127 bytes
within a little BASIC program (called a BASIC in either direction from their own address. If, in
loader) which POKEs the object code into mem our example above, your BEQ command were
ory for you. To see examples of all three forms, assembled into memory at address 1020, that
take a look at last month's column. The program would be within range. If it were assembled to
therein is printed as source code (Program 1), as address 1500, you couldn't make a branch 500
a disassembly (Program 2), and as object code in bytes long, all the way down to 1000. You have
a BASIC loader (Program 3). These are three dif to give a branch target which is within plus or
ferent versions of the same program. minus 127 bytes. Many assemblers will
COMPUTEIs Gazette January
automatically take care of this problem for you, After you've assembled this, you can SYS
but if you're using a simple assembler, you'll need 830 and you should see an equals sign (=)
to watch that you don't branch out of range. printed on screen, proving that you made the
In any case, each of the important B instruc BEQ branch. The 20 in the Accumulator was
tions you mention is equivalent to one of the equal to the 20 being compared. Now POKE
BASIC comparison operators: =, <>, <, or > — . 831,15, replacing the 20 in the Accumulator with
BEQ is the same as =; BNE (<>); BCC (<); and a number which is less Shan the CMP #20. When
BCS (>=). Since they are so important, you you next SYS 830, you will see that a branch
might want to spend a few minutes practicing based on less-than took place. The less-than
with them until you understand exactly what symbol is printed. Finally, try POKEing in a
triggers each of these various branches. Set up a number higher than 20.
little program like this (the numbers on the left // you have questions which you would like to see
are the addresses where these instructions are answered in this column, please write to:
assembled): ML Mtiilbitg
832 CMP #20 P.O. Box 5406
834 BEQ 840 Greensboro, NC 27403
836 BCC 846
Due to the volume of mail, we regret that we are
838 BCS 852
unable to reply personally to individual letters. <W
840 LDA #61
842 JSR 65490
845 RTS COMPUTE!'s Gazette
846 LDA
848 JSR 65490
851 RTS
Subscription Order Line
852 LDA #62 800-334-0868
854 JSR 65490
In NC 919-275-9308
857 RTS

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COMPUTE's Gazaae January

Debugging BASIC
Part 1 J
Todd Heimarck, Assistant Editor

Program bugs have a thousand faces. No The first thing to do, of course, is to LIST
matter how experienced a programmer the offending line. Take a good look at it. If there
might be, there's almost always a time be are parentheses, make sure they match up. There
tween finishing and really completing a should be an equal number of opening and clos
program—debugging time. This month ing parentheses.
we'll see what the computer does when Also, check all the BASIC keywords to make
you make a mistake. Next month, in Part sure they're spelled correctly. You may have
2, we'll look at some useful debugging mistakenly abbreviated LEN as L SHIFT-E
methods as well as some of the mistakes a (which turns out to be the abbreviation for LET,
computer can make. not LEN). If you are writing to disk or tape files,
you should note that the command PRINT# is
distinct from the ordinary PRINT. The abbrevi
Some program bugs are easy to recognize: The ation for PRINT* is P SHIFT-R (not ?#); using a
program crashes and you are told what kind of question mark won't work when working with
error you made. Or, worse, the computer locks tape or disk files.
up. These are the deadly, or fatal bugs. Look at the punctuation, a common source
Other bugs are sneakier and not as easy to of errors. It's easy to accidentally type a period
recognize. Perhaps you've made a slight mistake instead of a comma, a semicolon where you
and the program seems to run, but is actually meant to put a colon. Or there may be mis
making incorrect calculations (like figuring in matched opening and closing quotation marks in
terest rates on a 13-month year). Subtle bugs are a PRINT statement. If you're copying a program
sometimes worse than fatal ones; at least you can from a book or magazine, look closely at the
recognize something's wrong when the program look-alike characters {I and 1, O and 0).
A bug happens when the programmer says Tokens, Keywords, And
one thing and the computer either doesn't know Reserved Variables
how to do it, or does something very different.
When you type a program line and press
Some people say that computers never make
RETURN, you must have at least one BASIC
mistakes, that all bugs are caused by people.
keyword (command or function) in the line for it
That's not always true. After all, computers are
to be legal. Even the do-nothing REM is a BASIC
designed and manufactured by people who can
keyword. The computer reads the line from the
make mistakes. It may be a hardware bug or one
screen and turns ail keywords into tokens before
built into the operating system. Or maybe the
the line is stored in memory. A token is a single
programmer just didn't understand how the com
number between 128 and 255 which represents
puter would interpret a line—a misunderstanding
the command or function.
rather than a mistake. But a computer is pig
You must avoid including keywords in vari
headed. It knows how programs should look and
able names. Say you're writing a simple account
won't compromise. Next month we'll look at
ing program which figures out the profit margin
some of the mistakes computers can make.
you make on different items. You need a variable
For now, we'll concentrate on some of the
for the price you pay {call it COST), another varir
mistakes we, as programmers, can make and
able for the amount for which you sell it (call it
how the computer deals with them.
LIST, for list price), and one more for the profit
(MONEY). Then you calculate the margin with
SYNTAX ERROR the formula MONEY = LIST - COST. Right?
There are over two dozen error messages, but Wrong.
SYNTAX ERROR seems to appear most often. All three variables are illegal and will crash
The line number is always included. the program. LIST is a keyword used to list a
COMPUTE'S Gazelle January 125
program; you can't use it as a variable. COST question mark takes up only one space on a line;
doesn't look like a keyword, but the first three but LIST detokenizes and changes that single let
letters spell COS; your computer will try to find ter into five: PRINT. List such a line on a 64 and
a cosine of an angle, although it will stop when you may see two full screen lines plus a few
it can't find parentheses and an argument. And characters on the third line. And the program
MONEY is a problem because the keyword ON runs without errors. But go back to edit the extra-
{as in ON-GOTO or ON-GOSUB) is embedded long line, press RETURN, and the input buffer
in the variable name. When you find an embed will read only the first two screen lines into
ded keyword in one part of a program, there's a memory. The result is truncated—or chopped
good chance the same variable is used elsewhere, off—program lines. You lose the last few charac
in other sections. You'll have to find all of them ters. To get around the two-line limit (four on a
and change them to something legal. VIC), you have two choices. Either retype the
In addition to the many keywords, there are keywords using abbreviations or break the long
three reserved variables which you can't use in line into two shorter lines.
your programs. They are Tl, TI$, and ST. The This limit on line length means it's a good
first two are used for timekeeping, and ST is idea to press RETURN only when you're editing
short for STatus, which is used in input/ouput a line. To move around the screen, use the cursor
operations. Stay away from these variable names, keys (or SHIFT-RETURN, which does not enter
unless you know you want to check the time or the line in program memory and is also a way to
status. You can't define Tl or ST, although you get out of quote-mode).
can print them to the screen and use them in IF- The second bug, which is more difficult to
THEN statements and logical operations. You can find, happens when your computer seems to glue
define TI$, which is useful for timing programs, two program lines together. Say you're writing a
but it has to be a six-digit string (for example, program on a VIC-20. Line 500 uses exactly 44
TI$= "103000" sets the clock to 10:30 a.m.). characters (two screen lines). You type the line,
A VIC or 64 is a little more forgiving with but forget to press RETURN. The cursor is po
the reserved variable names than with keywords. sitioned at the beginning of a screen line, so you
You can't use a variable TIPS because Tl is in type line 510 and press RETURN. The computer
cluded m the first two letters of the name. But treats the two lines as one because it received
you can use a variable name like ITIN, which has only one RETURN. The same thing can happen
a Tl in the middle, because only the first two let on a 64 if the first line is exactly 40 characters.
ters of a variable name count. ITON, on the
other hand, is not acceptable as a variable name, Some Other Common Errors
because there are two BASIC words in it (TO and POKEs and SYSes can wreak havoc if improperly
ON), and BASIC words cannot appear anywhere used. Most lockups are caused by one or the
in a variable name. other of these powerful commands. When you're
debugging, watch for transposed or missing dig
Program Glue its in POKEs and SYSes (POKE 53820 instead of
Need a program line inserted between 10 and POKE 53280, for example).
20? No problem. Type a line 15 and press Duplicate variable names can cause all sorts
RETURN; the computer automatically inserts the of problems. You might use a variable called A
line in its proper position. LIST 10-20 will prove to hold a value at the beginning of the program,
that the line is there where you wanted it. and then inadvertently use the same variable
It's almost as if your VIC or 64 broke the name later on. If the program returns to the
program in two and pasted the line in its proper beginning, the value has changed. FOR-NEXT
place. loops sometimes lead to duplication. When
This cut-and-paste feature, usually quite you're using a variable like A, make sure you
handy, can become a curse which results in two don't use it as an index in a FOR-NEXT loop.
kinds of program bugs. And remember only the first two characters of a
The first bug, truncated lines, is relatively variable count; the computer thinks ALT is the
easy to find. It usually occurs when keywords are same variable name as ALIEN.
abbreviated. If, for example, you use ? instead of To avoid doubled variables, it helps to pick
PRINT, or P SH1FT-0 instead of POKE, you can certain letters to be used only in loops and as
create logical lines which are legal when they're "temporary" variables. For example, decide
entered, but exceed the limit when listed. Later ahead of time you will always use J, K, and L in
editing of the line leads to problems. FOR-NEXT loops.
If you use abbreviations and multistatement Be careful with additional statements after
lines, the result is sometimes a line which looks an IF-THEN. If the condition (between IF and
longer than should be possible when listed. A THEN) is not true, the program jumps to the next
126 COMPUTE! s Gazolte Januaiy
BASIC line; it doesn't fall through to the next follow the rules of machine language). Some pro
colon. For example, in this line: grammers wish they could have a new BASIC
55 IF A = l THEN B = 15: PRINT "NEXT
command DWIM (Do What 1 Mean), which
QUESTION?" ;INPUT Q would instantly straighten out procedural errors.
One of the most common problems with
the PRINT and INPUT statements will happen
mathematical calculations comes from the way
only if A equals one. If not, everything after the
the computer evaluates equations. There is a
THEN is ignored. This feature is useful if you
definite order of operations, sometimes called the
want multiple actions under certain conditions.
hierarchy of operators, (the items at the top of
But it can catch you if you don't know about it.
the list have a higher priority):
The error message RETURN WITHOUT
GOSUB is usually the consequence of the com () Parentheses
mon practice of putting subroutines at the end of Exponentiation (up arrow)

a program. The computer finishes the main rou + — Plus and Minus Signs

tine and continues through to the first subroutine ■ / Multiply and Divide
until it reaches the RETURN statement. The + — Add and Subtract

quick fix is to place an END statement between = Equals (Assignment)

the main routine and the first subroutine. For ex = < > Comparisons: Equals, Less Than, Greater Than

ample, if subroutines begin at line 5000, add a NOT Logical NOT

line 4999 END. AND Logical AND

NEXT WITHOUT FOR, an infrequent error OR Logical OR
message, generally comes from improper nesting Note that some operations, like NOT, work
of loops. Loops are like onions; you can build on a single number; they're called unary. Most
layers which completely enclose other layers. In need two numbers and are called binary func
other words, the first loop to begin has to be the tions. Plus and minus signs can be either unary
last to end. (in the number —3, the minus sign works on a
1 FOR J = 1TO5: FORK- 3TO15: NEXT K; NEXT J single number) or binary (the minus sign con
nects two numbers in the expression 10 — 6).
Line 1 is correct because the K-loop is inside the Because the higher operations are calculated
J-loop. But line 2 spells trouble because loops first, you can always figure out the results of an
cannot overlap. equation. For example, J = 4 + 5 * 3 assigns 19
The use of arrays can lead to easily rectified to J because the multiplication is done first, bi
errors. It's best if you DIMension all arrays at the nary addition second, and assignment-equals
beginning of a program, or in a one-shot sub third.
routine. Once you use DIM, you can't use it When you're debugging a program and one
again on the same array name or you'll get a of the variables is being consistently miscalcu
REDIM'D ARRAY error. lated, there's a good chance you're a victim of
the hierarchy. The quickest way to fix such an
Order Of Operation error is to liberally sprinkle parentheses through
out the suspicious equations. Your other choice is
Most of the mistakes described above will cause
to trace through the line step by step, to find
your program to stop with an error message on
how the computer is evaluating the equation.
the screen of your TV or monitor. They're situa
There's a slight chance that using too many
tions where you tell the computer to do some
parentheses in debugging can lead to one of the
thing and it doesn't recognize what you want.
more puzzling errors, stack problems, caused by
Program crashing errors are inconvenient, of
one of the various limits you have to live with.
course. But it's nice to have the computer tell you
what kind of mistake you made and which line
was wrong.
Memory Limits: The Stack
Less convenient are errors of procedure, There are two causes of OUT OF MEMORY er
where you write a program to do one thing, but rors. The first is programs and variables filling up
it ends up doing something completely different. all available BASIC RAM (more likely to happen
It doesn't crash, but it does strange things to the with a VIC). The second is a stack overflow (the
screen, or gives seemingly impossible results. likely cause of OUT OF MEMORY errors on a 64).
You have probably used instructions which Let's look at the stack first. The stack is a
you interpret one way, but the computer inter special section of memory just above zero page.
prets another. And you can't change the way It takes up most of page 1. The stack is used by
your computer does things, unless you want to the operating system for notes to itself.
completely rewrite the operating system (even When a 64 or VIC begins a FOR-NEXT loop,
changing the rules of BASIC means you have to it writes a note about where in memory the loop
12B COMPUTE!'$ Gazette January
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COMPUWs Gazette January 129

begins, pushes it on the stack, and forgets about 50A$<J> = TS

it until it comes across a NEXT statement. NEXT Run it again and there's no loss of memory.
tells the computer that somewhere earlier in the It will run all the way through (press
program a FOR started a loop. It then pulls the RUN/STOP if you don't want to watch hun
information it needs off the stack and jumps dreds of strings go by). The first program wasn't
back. able to create even ten four-letter strings, the sec
Something similar happens when there are ond created hundreds. The only difference is that
parentheses in an equation, and when you use the first program added a null string (which has
GOSUB. To illustrate, type NEW and try running a length of zero); the second did not. The first
the following program: created dynamic strings, the second created static
10 A = A+1:PRINTA strings.
20 GOSUB 10 If you define a string by concatenating {add
A very short program with only one variable ing two strings together), by dissection (dividing
counts up to 24 and then crashes. How could it a string with MID$, LEFTS, or RIGHTS), or by
possibly run out of memory? The key is the inputting it (from a tape or disk file, or the key
GOSUB. Every time you go to a subroutine, the board) the string is called dynamic. It has to use
return address is saved on the stack. Since there up part of BASIC memory. If you define it in
are no RETURNs in the program, more and more BASIC, assigning it (A$ = "ABC") or reading it
addresses are saved, until finally there is no stack from DATA statements (READA$), the computer
space left. It's as if you were trying to stick more saves memory by remembering where the defi
and more notes to a refrigerator, until the magnet nition was in program memory. Your VIC or 64
could hold no more. doesn't have to use free memory to store static
Type NEW and enter this program: strings. They're already in BASIC memory.
If you define a lot of variables (as in the
10 FORA = lTO20
20 FORB = lTO20 above program), available memory can dwindle
30TORC- 1TO20 to nothing. When you find your program run
(and so on, up lo 130 FORM = lTO20) ning out of memory, you can try a number of
Don't worry about adding any NEXTs, the things:
computer will never get that far. Run the pro 1). Check free memory. If there seems to be a
gram and you'll get an OUT OF MEMORY error lot left, you may have a full stack, caused by
after only ten loops have begun. A FOR-NEXT too many unresolved FOR-NEXT loops or
loop uses up a lot of space on the stack—for a
pointer to beginning of the loop, step size, high
est value, and variable names. 2). Eliminate unnecessary program lines,
When stack problems pop up, they're often especially REMarks. Or combine two or
caused by a GOTO in the middle of a sub more statements on a single line separated by
routine. It can leave some garbage on the stack. colons (every line uses five bytes for over
The same goes for jumping out of a FOR-NEXT head, whether it has one statement or eight).
loop. And too many parentheses can give you 3). Cut back on variables. If you're using arrays,
either a FORMULA TOO COMPLEX error or remember that integer arrays use less than
contribute to an OUT OF MEMORY message. As half the space of floating point arrays.
the garbage on the stack builds up, it eventually
reaches the limit. 4). Completely rewrite your program. It sounds
drastic, but once you've figured out the proce
dures you're using, the second version of a
Programs And Variables
program is often faster and uses less memory.
The other way to run out of memory is fairly
straightforward. You simply use too much BASIC 5). Try chaining programs. If you have a lot of
RAM for the program and its variables. Try the instructions in a game program, you can write
following program: a loader program which prints the instructions
and then loads the main program.
10 T$="ABCD":US=""
20 L=FRE(0):IFL<0THENL=L+2Tl6 Next month, we'll look at some quirks of the
30 L=INT((L-30)/3):DIM A$(L)
VIC and 64, how imprecise and inaccurate math
50 A$(J}=T$+US can be, why you can sometimes PRINT
60 PRINT J; LEN(A$(J)), FRE(0) impossible-to-iNPUT variables to a tape or disk
70 NEXTJ file, why programs sometimes pause as if locked
It runs on a VIC (expanded or not) or a 64. up and then continue, and more. We'll also look
You'll run out of memory almost right away. at a variety of methods to hunt down and elimi
Now change line 50: nate bugs. QB
130 COMPUTEVs Gazelle Januaty
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Ward Pracauor: A fuil-fontiired mnnu-dnuori word prtiQMKFi inckjijinij. vury

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Put errors 20,21,22,23,27 & 29 on copy Copycalc: An eiecLnnic spreadsheet. Tutis yar Commodore mlo a ms*le
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Write or Call - ( Note New Address ) moy order DOcumentntion lor any one progriim mpiiruuilv for IP postpoid (dRducuble

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Seeking software authors-please wrfle
Box 3745-G, San Rafael, CA 94912

Statement of Ownership, Management, and Circulation 1541 DISK DRIVE

as Required by 39 U.S.C. 3685 ALIGNMENT PROGRAM
Finally, a complete disk drive alignment program! No special
equipment needed! A two disk (program and calibration) pro
1B. N/A
gram allows anyone with average mechanical skills to properly
2. 9-26-84
3. Monthly align the 1541 disk drive. Complete Instruction manual. Don't
3A. Twelve be fooled by cheap imitations! This is the alignment program
3B. S24.00 that works! See the review In the October issue of the Gazette.
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5. Same
6. Publisher, Gary R. Ingersoil. 324 W. WenrJcver fVe.. Suite 200, PROGRAM PROTECTION MANUAL
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Edrtor, Robert C. Lock. 324 W. Wendover A/e., Suite 200. S29.95 + S2.5O shipping (U.S.)
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Managing Editor. Kathleen Martinek, 324 W. Vfendover Aue., Suite 200, PROGRAM PROTECTION MANUAL
Greensboro, NC 27408
7. American Broadcasting Companies. Inc., 1330 Ave. of Americas,
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8. Leonard H. Goldenson, 1330 flve. of Americas. fJew York. NY 10019
9. N/A
A monthly nuwslutter covering ihc? tatt'st advanCtU in program protcc-
10. Extent and Nature ol Circulation
tlon, This will liy a complete 'HOW and 'WHY' appronch I" inillvitliicil
fwrage no. of ropes each Actual no copes nf program pro lection schemes.
issue during prerMing single fssuu published
12 months neareit in Filing ilaic $35.00 per year post paid in the U.S.

A. Total no Cwes (Net Press Rui| 318.869 395.351 OMNICLONE (C - 64 VERSION)

B. Pid Ciroiaien Al las! — a copy program thai will noi only copy Ihe disk but is also
1. Sales through rfealefs and camera,
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unprotected and documented This will copy Ihe disk and automatically
7 Mail suEncnttorc 108.6* 155,78! place errors 20. 21, 22. 23, 27 and 29 on the deslinallon disk. Three
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mentary and otra-r frn copies 2.469
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E. Tour Dotntutwi ?40,fllJ 297.832 535.00 + 12.50 shipping (U.S.)
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I certify that trie statements made by me above are correct and complete.
(219) 663-4335
Alice S. WdIIc, Dueclor of Administration.
1)1 Al I U IHI1 '. ''-VI II U

COMPUTEfs Gazette January 131


Stop And Go
Jim Pejsa

When a program is running and the tele Briefly, the program works as follows. When
phone rings, what do you do? This short it is initially started with SYS 679 in BASIC, the
machine language routine provides a pause hardware interrupt (IRQ) vector is changed to
button which temporarily halts the pro point to this program, The program is accessed
gram. It also works on program listings. each time the hardware interrupt occurs (every
For VIC and 64. 1/60 second). The program checks for a CTRL-S
keypress. If it's detected, it stops the listing or
run and then checks for CTRL-Q. When CTRL-Q
A very useful function found on many other is pressed, the listing or run is restarted,
computers is missing from Commodore comput
ers. Many computers allow the programmer to Program 1: Stop And Go—64 Version
stop and restart a program listing or run using 10 FORI=679TO743sREAD AiX=X+A:POKEI,A:NEX
CTRL-S and CTRL-Q. T :rem 119
Pressing the CTRL key on the VIC or 64 will 20 IFX<>7291THENPRINT"ERROR IN DATA STATE
slow the listing down, but to carefully study a MENTS.":STOP :rem 135
30 SYS679 *rem 8
program it's often necessary to stop the listing.
40 DATA 120,169,180,141,20,3,169 jrem 29
Having to continue the listing by retyping LIST 50 DATA 2,141,21,3,88,96,173 irem 95
followed by some line numbers (if the program is 60 DATA 141,2,201,4,208,42,165 :rem 179
long) is an inconvenience. Additionally, there are 70 DATA 197,201,13,208,36,120,169 :rem 87
80 DATA 49,141,20,3,169,234,141 :rem 241
times when you want to stop a program (maybe
90 DATA 21,3,88,173,141,2,201 :rem 135
to study some output) and restart it at will.
100 DATA 4,208,249,165,197,201,62 :rem 88
Since I was anxious to try some machine 110 DATA 208,250,120,169,180,141,20
language programming, I decided to write a pro :rem 169
gram to add this feature. CTRL-S (for stop) and 120 DATA 3,169,2,141,21,3,76 :rem 83
CTRL-Q (for restart) seem to be standard for 130 DATA 49,234 :rem 224

these functions on many computers. The pro

gram is designed in such a way that the realtime Program 2: stop And Go—vie
clock will continue to be updated while process
ing is stopped.
The machine language for the program in T srem 119
the DATA statements is loaded by the BASIC 20 IFX<>7589THENPRINT"ERROR IN DATA STATE
program. Simply type in the program and run it MENTS.":STOP : rem 145
: rem 8
to load the ML. The program loads beginning at 30 SYS679
40 DATA 120,169,180,141,20,3,169 : rem 29
location 679 ($02A7) in some unused locations 95
50 DATA 2,141,21,3,88,96,173 : rem
below the BASIC program area, so it will not 60 DATA 141,2,201,4,208,42,165 :rem 179
interfere with any BASIC programs. The SYS 70 DATA 197,201,41,208,36,120,169 : rem 88
statement in line 30 starts the machine language 80 DATA 191,141,20,3,169,234,141 i rem 31
90 DATA 21,3,88,173,141,2,201 135
program. Unfortunately, if RUN/STOP-RESTORE : rem

100 DATA 4,208,249,165,197,201,48 :rem 92

is ever used to stop a program, you will find that
110 DATA 208,250,120,169,180,141,20
the CTRL-S and CTRL-Q functions become in :rem 169
operative. You can get them back by typing SYS 120 DATA 3,169,2,141,21,3,76 trem 83
679. 130 DATA 191,234 irem 14 (ft

132 COMPUTE'S Gazelle January

Part 1

Baker's Dozen
Lawrence Cotton

A short, carefully designed program can Quilt

produce some amazing results. To dem
This ten-line program produces a multicolor
onstrate, here's the first of a three-part
patchwork quilt which changes repeatedly until
series of 13 graphics and sound programs
you press RUN/STOP-RESTORE. Let's look at
which entertain and amuse. A number of
the program to see how it works.
effective programming techniques are
demonstrated also.

Program length cannot be equated with program

quality. You might remember your first efforts at
BASIC programming, and in looking back see
how much more efficient and effective your
programming methods could have been. Some
times, just a few lines can go a long way.
In this series, we'll look at some programs
which are designed to show off the graphics and
sound capabilities of the 64. You'll notice that
each of the programs is short and to the point.
This makes the listings easier to understand so
you can see what's happening and incorporate
the ideas into your own programs. Or experi
ment with these short programs, expanding them
Line 10 clears the screen (CHR$(147)),
to do more.
changes the character color to white (CHR${5)),
This month, the four selections are graphics and makes the background and border colors
programs: "Quilt," "Double Diamond," "Tun black (POKE 53280,0 and 53281,0). In line 20, R
nels," and "Christmas Tree." As the series is the amount to be added to screen memory
continues, you might want to experiment by locations to get the corresponding color memory
combining sound from one program {we'll look locations. A is the increment.
at sound programs next month) with graphics Line 30 and the first half of line 40 choose
from another. Most of the programs involve random sizes of blocks to be "painted." In the
POKEing characters to the screen in visually last half of line 40, a random character (M) is
pleasing patterns and colors. Feel free to sub chosen to paint the blocks.
stitute your own characters, colors, or limits. It's Lines 50 and 60 make sure the selected
best to have a color TV or monitor. block will fit on the screen; if not, another size is
COMPUTERS Gazette January 133
Lines 70-100 perform the painting of the
blocks. A loop within a loop paints a block of
size N characters by P characters in color Q start
ing at location V. Line 100 then jumps back to
restart the process.

Double Diamond
This program's a bit longer (23 lines), but the
effect is quite nice. It draws two superimposed
diamonds of random characters and colors.
Let's look at the key lines. Lines 30 and 40
contain values for the location of the diamonds
(V and W) and for the creation of the diamonds
within diamonds (S and U).
Line 50 picks a random color (T).
Lines 60-120 POKE random characters and
85 are the POKE values for the four corners of
colors to the screen and increment the position of
each rectangle.
characters by A, B, C, and D to produce diagonal
motion to form the left diamond. Lines 150-200
Christmas Tree
Finally, let's do a program in the holiday spirit.
"Christmas Tree" draws a twinkling tree formed
of "lights" which randomly turn on until the tree
is completely filled. It then continues twinkling
until you press RUN/STOP-RESTORE.
If you'd like to change the shape of the tree,
be sure to change the 156 in lines 40-60 to the
total number of spots you want to light up.
Line 90 POKEs the random spot with an as
terisk (#42) and its corresponding color memory
location with a random color code from 1 to 14
(omitting black and light gray). The DATA state
ments in lines 110-360 are the actual screen
locations for the asterisks to be POKEd.
Feel free to experiment with the variables in
these programs and see what interesting
modifications you can come up with. Next
do the same for the right diamond. month, we'll look at some programs which inte
Each of the diamonds (V and W) is limited grate sound and graphics.
in size in lines 130 and 210. Lines 220 and 230 Sec program listings on page 160. @
pause then loop back to create new diamonds.
Again, to stop the program, press

Probably the most interesting visual effect this
month is "Tunnels."
Line 20 sets up variables for drawing the
rectangles and starts at screen location 1984.
Lines 30 and 70 control the number of rectangles
drawn in each loop.
Lines 40, 60, and 80 determine the rectan
gles' positions and increase their size by one as
they are drawn.
The rectangles are created in lines 120-190.
Numbers 66 and 67 are the values to POKE for
vertical and horizontal lines, and 73, 74, 75, and
134 COMPUTERS Gazorie January
Robert D. Riemersma, Jr.

A disk full of useful subroutines can be a clude the drive number by entering a quotation
treat help when you're writing a program, mark, drive number, colon, and the filename. This
ut to be truly useful, two or more might allows you to merge programs from two different
need to be merged. This utility does it for disks. Note that this doesn't apply if you own
you. For the VIC or 64, with a disk drive. two 1541s (device 8 and device 9). It will only
work with a dual drive (drive 0 and drive 1) such
as the Commodore 4040 or an MSD. With 1541s,
"Disk Merge" does just what its name says. It the two programs must be on the same disk.
reads two BASIC programs from a disk and
Secondary File?
merges them into a new file on the disk. To
merge more than two programs, run it more than Answer this question with the name of the sec
ond program, the one which will be merged into
the first.
A simple appending program (see the Feb
ruary 1984 GAZETTE Feedback for an example) Merged File?
will add one program to the end of another. A Enter a name for the new program, the output
merge program is more sophisticated. It must file.
look at the line numbers and insert them in their
proper place, as if shuffling a deck of cards. Base Address? 1025
The VIC-20 and 64 automatically relocate BASIC
programs on a standard LOAD, so it doesn't
Four Questions
really matter what the number is. Simply press
Type in and save the program. Before running it,
RETURN. However, if you want the program to
make sure the two programs to be merged are on
work on a PET/CBM, the base address 1025 will
the same disk. They must be PRG (program)
create a program that runs on the VIC, 64, or
files. Disk Merge won't work on sequential or
PET/CBM models (within the usual limits of
relative files. It's a good idea to turn off any
other peripherals, especially printers.
Run it and you'll be asked four questions. After answering the questions, two things
{The STOP key is disabled during input, so if will happen. You'll see the disk drive's red light
you want to escape the program, type the as turn on, and numbers will appear on the screen.
terisk (*) and press RETURN.) The numbers tell you which line is being pro
cessed and written to disk.
Primary File? On the left, you'll see the primary file's cur
Enter the name of the primary file you'll be rent line number. On the right is the line being
merging. Keep in mind that if the two programs merged from the secondary file.
have a line number in common, the primary file When the program ends, you have two op
takes precedence. For example, if they both in tions. You can run it again (to merge more pro
clude a line numbered 210, only the line from grams), or load the newly merged program,
the primary file will appear in the final merged which should be ready to run. On large pro
program. grams, the merge may take several minutes.
If you have a dual disk drive, you can in Sec program listing on page 172. (Qf

COMPUTE!1! Gazotto January 135

JULY 1983: Commodore 64 Video Update; MAY 1984: Exploring 64 Sound;
Snake Escape; Alfabug; VIC Marquee; Word SpeedScript Revisited; Sound Sculptor For
Hunt; Learning To Program In BASIC; The 64; Props; Mind Boggle; Memo Writer
Quickfind; 64 Paddle Reader; Machine Lan-. The Beginner's Corner: Teaching Musi
guage For Beginners; Enlivening Programs 'ith Computers.
With Sound; Using Joysticks On The 64.

OCTOBER 1983: The Anatomy of Com JUNE 1984: The Future Of Computer
puters; Telegaming Today And Tomorrow; Games: Software That Thinks For Itself; 3-D
Commodore's Public Domain Programs; Oil Tic-Tac-Toe; Castle Dungeon; Therapy; File
Tycoon; Re-Beep; Aardvark Attack; Word Copier; Power BASIC: One-Touch Keywords;
Match; Machine Language For Beginners; The Beginner's Corner: Planning A Game
How To Use Tape And Disk Files; Under 'rograrru
standing 64 Sound; Speeding Up The VIC;
HOTWARE; Improving 64 Video Quality;
Using The VFC's Clock,
;ULY 1984: In Touch With Your Computer:
Graphics Tablets And Light Pens; Space Pi
MARCH 1984: The Electronic Castle: trol; Robot Math; Ultrafont +; Machine
Managing Your Home With Your Computer, Language For Beginners: What Is Machine
Getting Started With A Disk Drive, Part " Language?;
CUT-OFF!; Poker; Tree Tutor For Tots; Squares.

Guess America!; Sea Route To India.

AUGUST 1984: A Survey Of Printers For

The VIC And 64; Selecting A Printer Inter
face; Campaign Manager; Sprite Magic; Bal
loon Blitz; Disk Purge; The Beginner's
Corner: Using A Printer.

Back issues of COMPUTED GAZETTE are $4 each. All prices include freigh
side the U.S. add $1 per magazine order for surface postage, $4 per maga
' : i

In the continental U.S. call

TOLL FREE 800-334-0868
(in North Carolina call 919-275-9809)

Or write to:
P.O. Box 5406
Greensboro, NC 27403

Prepayment required in U.S. Funds. MasterCard, VISA, and American Express accepted.
North Carolina residents please add 4Vz% sales tax.

136 COMPUTE'S Gazetlo Ja

VIC, 64

Omnitronix Incorporated has re '"

leased two interfaces for use
with the VIC-20 or Commodore
The parallel printer inter
face connects to the user I/O
port on either the VIC-20 or the
64 and comes with a driver soft
ware disk which allows CBM
printer emulation, such as
Printers without bitmap
graphics capability can print
Commodore graphics and con
trol codes in the form of mne
The NOMAD personal robot for the Commodore 64 retails for $179.95.
monics or the CHR$ code.
Suggested retail price is
Personal Robot An optional BASIC en
hancement cartridge is available
The second interface, the
Deluxe RS-232 Interface, which For 64s which adds NOMAD control
also plugs into the user I/O commands such as AHEAD,
port, provides many RS-232 sig BACK, LEFT, and RIGHT.
nals, including ring detect. It Genesis Computer Corporation NOMAD has a suggested
has three user-selectable has introduced NOMAD, a per retail price of $179.95. The
switches allowing settings for sonal robot for use with the BASIC cartridge retails for
DTE/DCE, pin 5, or pin 20 Commodore 64. $39.95.
handshaking, and selection of a NOMAD is driven by step Genesis Computer Corporation
BUSY line polarity. per motors, and can move for 1444 Linden Street
The interface comes with ward, reverse, right, and left. It P.O. Box 1143
either a male DB25 on a three- has ultrasonic "eyesight" which Bethlehem, PA 18018
foot cable or a PCB mounting allows it to detect objects in its (215) 861-0850
female DB25, making it compat path.
ible as a replacement for the NOMAD's robot control
Commodore 1011A. language allows the user to cre
64 Productivity
Included in the $39.95 retail ate complex patterns of move
price is a BASIC terminal pro ment. The robot also can be Software
gram which can be typed in. controlled through a joystick.
Omnitronix Incorporated NOMAD plugs into the 64's
P.O. Box 43 user port and comes with its PFS-.FILE and PFS-.REPORT, pre
Mercer Island, WA 98040 own power supply and a 25- viously available only for IBM
(206) 236-2983 foot cord. and Apple computers, have
COMPUTED Gaifltle January 137

been released for the Commo Real Estate 64, available on verts VIC function keys into
dore 64 by Software Publishing disk for $49.95, includes tradi special character codes required
Corporation. tional Monopoly features such by the Wordstar word processor.
PFS:FJIE works like a paper as buying streets, going to jail, Suggested retail price is $35.
filing system, allowing the user chance, and the use of dice. Quality Electronics Inc.
to record, retrieve, update, and The Vic-Switch was devel Micromechanisms Division Inc.
review information. Data can be oped for educational use, but P.O. Box 1150
organized on forms which are can be used in any situation 112 Maple Avenue
user-designed. where more than one person Dublin, PA 18917
PFS:REPORT sorts, calcu needs access to the same disk or (215) 249-0331
lates, formats, and prints sum printer. Up to eight VIC-20s or
mary tables from the information C-64s can be hooked up to one
The address and telephone
in files created with PFS:F1LE. It Vic-Switch. All CPUs have ac
numbers for Mosaic Electron
prints multiple columns per re cess to disk drive and printer.
ics, maker of the Access-M
port, including three calculated Retail price is $149.95.
memory expansion system for
columns. The Super Box 64 allows up
the Commodore 64, is P.O.
Totals, subtotals, averages, to three cartridges to be plugged
Box 708, Oregon City, OR,
subaverages, counts, and sub- in simultaneously. Other fea
97045; (toll free) 1-800-2 ADD-
counts can he printed for every tures include an IEEE interface,
RAM or (503) 653-7885. The
column. The software also has reset function, and multi-user
information was inadvertantly
sorting capabilities, as well as capabilities. It retails for
omitted from the December
automatic page numbering, title $149.95.
News & Products section.
printing, and centering. The 300-baud modem
PFS:F1LE retails for $79.95. ($149.95) is switch controlled,
PFS:REPORT is available for allowing either originate or an
$69.95. swer options. It connects to the New Educational
user port of the VIC or 64.
Software Publishing Corporation
1901 Landings Drive Handle Software Inc.
Software Series
Mountain Vieiv, CA 94043 520 Fellowship Road
Mount Laurel Nf 08054
For The 64
(415) 962-8910
(609) 866-1001

Orbyte Software has introduced

Real Estate a line of 56 home educational

Game, VIC-20 Keyboard software titles—C/irt/Je»geu>a re—

for the Commodore 64.

Hardware For Program Module Geared primarily for chil

dren from pre-school through
VIC And 64 upper elementary grades, the
Micromechanisms, Inc. has in- 110 programs are divided into
troduced a Keyboard Program nine areas: pre-school concepts,
Real Estate 64, a Monopoly-type Module which, when combined mathematics, grammar, science,

game with 3-D graphics for the with a VIC-20, creates a multi social studies, economics, read
Commodore 64, has been intro function ASCII encoded key ing, foreign language, and logic
duced by Handle Software. board for use with more and strategy.
The firm aiso has intro sophisticated computers. The programs retail for
duced Vic-Switch, a multi-user The plug-in module does $39.95 each.
disk system for the VIC and 64; not physically modify the VIC- Orbyte Software
Super Box 64, an expansion unit 20, allowing the computer to P.O. Box 948
for the 64; and a 300 baud continue to run applications and Waterbury, CT 06720
modem. games. The module also con (203) 621-9361

138 COMPUTEI's Gazette January

Com™*™ Mm frjoa™* or Conmoavc t'(draws ,
•RfTSFfEO is 3 tisaemrt ol 0*tatf Carrputf Sysrtras ISolltiire!, Ua

After the results are inter the time elapsed since the user
Biofeedback, preted, they are displayed on logged onto a bulletin board or
Utility Programs three graphs. Another feature is information service.
an audio cassette, which in HomeFind, the information
For 64 cludes methods of relaxation manager program, features an
and stress reduction. English command structure to
Suggested retail price is simplify use. Printed reports
The Stress Manager, a biofeed $79.95. from HomeFind can be used by
back monitoring system, and HomePak combines on one the HomeTexl word processing
HomePak, a utility program, disk a telecommunications ter program.
have been introduced for the minal program, an information HomeText features include
Commodore 64 by Batteries management system, and a the ability to set margins, inden
Included. word processor for a suggested tations, line centering and spac
The Stress Manager allows retail price of $49.95. ing, and placement of headers,
home computer owners to as Each of the HomePak pro footers, and page numbers.
sess their thought patterns and grams is capable of reading files It also has the ability to de
physiological impulses in order created by the others. lete portions of text and reinsert
to gain an understanding of fac HomeTcrm, the telecom them at any point within the
tors which contribute to stress. munications program, features a text body. HomeText is capable
It uses a galvanic skin resis text edit window which is avail of supporting most major print
tance (G.S.R.) method to mea able for simultaneous text cre ing functions, including bold
sure a user's vital statistics. A ation and reception. The user face, underlining, and extended
pair of fingertip pads measure can define screen color, text character width.
fluctuations in the skin's electri margins, word wrapping, and Batteries Included
cal conductivity, and these im key clicking {each keystroke 3303 Harbor Blvd., Suite C9
pulses are transmitted to The made audible with a beep). An Costa Mesa, CA 92626
Stress Manager for analysis. on-screen clock keeps track of (774) 979-0920

COMPUTEVs Gazelle January 139


must maneuver through them in division of The Avalon Hill

order to steal the gallery's entire Game Company.
collection. The game contains three
Terrorists have hidden difficulty levels. The player, at
doomsday plans, concealed on a the controls of a laser cannon,
microdot, on one of the pieces must choose between correct
of art in the gallery. You must and incorrect answers by de
find it in time to avoid stroying the wrong answers
destruction. before they can touch down.
Suggested retail price is $35. In all cases, when the
A scene from Spitfire Ace, a new MicroFun player destroys a correct answer
flight simulation game from 2699 SfcjJWe Valley Road by mistake, the computer will
MicroProse. Highland Park, it 60035 sound out and flash the correct
(312)433-7550 answer on the screen.
Divex is designed for chil
Spitfire Ace For Commodore dren 8-12 years old. Suggested

64 Voice Command
retail price is $16 for the cas
sette version, and $21 for the

Module disk.

MicroProse Software has an Intelligence Quest Software

nounced Spitfire Ace, a World The Avalon Hill Game Company
ENG Manufacturing, Inc. has 4517 Harfoni Road
War II fighter pilot simulation
introduced Chirpee, a module Baltimore, MD 21214
game, for the Commodore 64.
which allows Commodore com (301) 254-5300
Players maneuver their air
craft through a series of fighter puters to receive and interpret
selected commands.
tactics, including aileron rolls,
According to product devel
64 Advertising
loops, split S's, and Immelmann
turns, while engaged in an opers, Chirpee can accept com Display
aerial dogfight. mands spoken in any language
Suggested retail price for because of its phonetic recogni Program
Spitfire Ace is $29.95. tion ability, and can be trained
to respond to one voice, or a
MicroProse Software
number of voices. AdvertiserOne, a program to dis
10616 Beaver Dam Road
Suggested retail price for play user-designed messages on
Hunt Valley, MD 21030
Chirpee is $179.95. the Commodore 64, has been
ENG Manufacturing, Inc.
announced by MicroAds.
4304 W. Saturn Way The display messages are

Art Heist Game Chandler, AZ 85224 generated and maintained with

the Commodore 64's standard
screen editor. Displays can be
The Heist, a disk-based game for based on message files and a
the Commodore 64 which fea 64 Math Game standard command file which
tures 90 different booby trapped comes with the system, or with
rooms, has been introduced by a user-created command file
the MicroFun division of Divex, a math game designed to that can control the sequence,
MicroLab. improve children's understand color, and text of the displays.