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What If...?

The Popularity Of Strategy Games

December 1984 ®
Issue 18,^.2, No. 12
02220 $3-75 Canada

For Owners And Users Of Co ■'And 64" Personal Comptm

Also In This Issue:

Simple Answers
To Common Questions

Magic Voice

Power BASIC:
Time Clock

And More

C/G Bulletin Board System

Turn your 64 into an electronic bulletin board.
The Color/Graphics BBS makes it easy to
upload/download, post messages, and send
3-D Labyrinth electronic mail.

Don't hasten through this

maze—you could get
hopelessly lost. For the
VIC and 64. Auto Line Electronic
Save programming time
with this versatile line
numbering utility for the A look at the variety of
VIC and 64. Also instantly new trivia games available
„ i deletes unwanted lines. for the 64.
"71486 022Z0
A Nice Oirmtmas Story
Christmas Day was approaching in the Nice
household. But Mr. and Mrs. Nice (Bill and
Janet) didn't know what to get for their Nice
children, Tom and Marybeth. They thought
and thought but nothing seemed to hit

themjust right "Hula hoops?" said Bin.

"No," said Janet • Tom and Marybeth,
on the other hand, knew exactly what they

wanted, hi fact they dreamed of it almost every

nighu DavmTreader, the latest hi the Adventures
In Namia computer game series based on the
stories by C.S. Lewis. Tom and Marybeth already

had the first game, Namia, but now they dreamed about how they would captain the

good ship Dawn Treader through the ocean to World's End. They dreamed about finding
dufflepuds and sea serpents. And they knew that, just like Namia, DawnTreader would be
exciting, action-packed, and even educational, teaching them sound principles their Mom
and Dad agreed with, too. But they wondered: would DawnTreader be under the tree

come Christmas Morn? • One day very close to Christmas, Bill and Janet Nice reached

into the cupboard for Narnia (after all, it's a game everyone in the family can enjoy) and

came across a note. It said, "We're dreaming of DavmTreader. Love, Tom and Marybeth."

.j. • Finally, Bill and Janet had their answer. "It's

perfect!" exclaimed Bill. "Let's get them the

next Narnian adventure, DawnTreaderf" "Oh

Bill," sighed Janet "What a nice idea!" • It

was. Wouldn't it be nice for your children, too?

Merry Girishnasfrom
the iVice household to yours!

IMmm'l'rnulw 1h
aviilliililr nl all
Waldenl>i>oks stores
and ixj iiiji ult-r
specialty slonfi. All
-ldrenfurea hi Xarnia
games are compatible
with Apple II scries*
and Com modi m: 84"

from Word Publishing

One or Uip ABC 1'uMifllilng O

Apple M -.rin-. 1m a registered trademark of

Waldenbooks Apple Computer, Inc. Commodore (!4 in «

trademark of Commodore ElcctnmlcH, I.ul.

You bought a computer to cultivate jour kids'minds.

Make sure it's bearing fruit, not growing vegetables.
hours of adventure and learning. So the In fact, our games are so much fun. kids
introducing a whole crop of Learning
time kids spend with our games will help will really enjoy developing some very impor
Adventure gomes from Spinnaker.
them develop valuable skills. Instead ofjust tant skills. Deductive reasoning, note taking,
When it comes to cultivating adventurous tired thumbs. and problem solving, for instance.
young minds, the computer's potential is But what really makes our Learning So, if you're in the market for software
endless. Adventure games unique-educational value that will truly cultivate young minds, pick the
Unfortunately, the search for software aside - is how much fun they are. Which isn't Spinnaker Learning Adventure Series.
that makes the most of that potential has too surprising when you consider you can It's the best way to be sure your search
been endless, too. do things like bargain with aliens, search a will be fruitful.
That is, until Spinnaker created the haunted house, or build your own railroad Spinnaker Learning Adventure games are available
Learning Adventure Series. A unique collec for Apple.* Atari.* IBM" and Commodore 64" home
tion of games that reward curiosity with computers.

It's new! It's new! It's new! TRAINS.1"

You're in charge of an old-time
PRESIDENT'S ROCK 'N' RHYTHM.'" railroad - and whether it turns
It's your own recording studio. into a Do nan za or a bust depends
CHOICE.'" complete with instruments and on how well you run it. But either
Welcome to ttie While House equipment. Play and record way you'll find that working on
you're the President of tne existing music, or experiment this railroad is a challenge- and
United States! Make the right with your own melodies and a lot Of funl Ages 10-AOult.
decisions and you'll win rhythms. Ages 10-Adult.
re-election. Ages 13-Adult.

SP//YWWER We make learning fun.

Atari and Commodore 64

IBM iiU Auii art registered trademarks of International Rolwss Machine Corp. tnO Atari. Inc. Commodore 64 B a traot™rk of Commodore UKUona Ud. «I9S). Sptniuktr Software Corp. All nfa reserve!


transforms your computer into an

exciting musical instrument.

The Incredible Musical Keyboard You already read music? Great! We've compose your own music, create your own
can do more than turn your included a Melody Chord Songbook featuring sound effects or simply experiment with the
Commodore into a music hits from today's top recording artists. Or hundreds of pre-programmed sounds.
play songs Irom your own sheet music.
synthesizer. From the Incredible Musical
The Incredible Musical Keyboard keyboard to software that plays
□eep within every Commodore 64 lurks the
works with other exciting Sight & your favorite hits, we've got them
unexpected. A versatile music synthesizer. A
Sound Music Software programs, all.
music video machine. A three track recorder,
And a way to create music that's so easy too!
Look for the Incredible Musical Keyboard and
you'll be playing songs within minutes.
Get the KAWASAKI SYNTHESIZER and Ihe complete line of Sight & Sound music
Just place Ihe Incredible Musical Keyboard transform your Commodore 64 into a software at your local computer software
over the computer keyboard, load the sophisticated music synthesizer and sound outlets and music stores. And unleash the
included music software diskette, and you processor. With one keystroke, you can music in you.

have all you need to make piano, guitar, control waveforms, vibrato, sweep and other
synthesizer and electronic sounds. special effects. Let your imagination soar
Everything you need to create creating and recording your own songs while
music is included . . . whether you control eye-popping color graphics that
explode across the screen. Create your
you're a beginner or an
own music with Ihe MUSIC
accomplished musician.
PROCESSOR, a word processor
for music. Then record it, edit it
It you can press a few keys, you have all the
and play it back. Use the 99 preset
skills it takes to create and play music with
the Incredible Musical Keyboard.
instrument and special effects
sounds for endless new creations Or
Just beginning? Attach the included ABC key travel through a complete tutorial on
stickers to the keys and match the letter in music synthesis with the newest Sight &
the note with the letter on the key and ... Sound music program. 3001 SOUND
PRESTO!.. you're playing music instantly. ODYSSEY. After you've learned the basics of For more information and a Iree catalog.
It's easy. It's lun. It unleashes the music in music synthesis, you can use the complex phone 1-414-781-5850 or write P.O. Box 27,
you ... even if you don't read music. music synthesizer included in the program to New Berlin. Wl 53151.


Commodore 64 is o mouthed tmaomarit oi Commodore Busiubis Macnines me

How do you
How many plates can moonwalk, snake What's the capital
the Juggler juggle? and tut? of Alaska?


fl It
i 1 1'
X -eg*-
. ™- i1
\ HI

i£ 1
'HI1;!. kI i(iS-M (1*

Chinese Juggler Break Street Roll Call USA

7 hat depends on you. You are ou'll soon become a break oyou know? Get ready to
the Juggler and your act is the dancing expert with our latest outwit your family and
delicate art of plate spinning. bestseller. Break Street. Now friends with Roll Call USA's
Yours will be a tough act to follow that combination of gymnastics, fun facts on states.capitals and
if you succeed in matching colors mime, funk, and just plain show-off, major industries.
and spinning plates on all 8 poles leaves the sidewalks and comes Roll Call USA combines history
at the same time. home to your Commodore 64. and geography facts into a colorful
As your skill increases, so does Individual play guides you question and answer game that
the pace and the chalienge of the through the footwork of moonwalk, challenges your knowledge of the
game. You must act with speed and backspin, windmill, tul, and the 50 states, their capitals, major
precision or the curtain will come rest of those sidewalk moves. Slow industries and statehood dates.
down and your act will be all motion and lively musical accom Feel confident? Drill yourself
washed up! paniment help you perform each with a Flash Test. The game is
Chinese Juggler is a refreshing move step by step. String together speeded up, so think fast. Your
departure from the usual shoot- a whole series of moves and answers are tallied up at the end
em-ups and strategy games. It's record them for future replay. for a final score.
fun, fast-paced and will delight Catch the beat of the street with Roll Call USA, a game of USA
players of any age. For Commodore Break Street. For individual or team trivia for team or individual play.
64. New from Creative Software. play. New from Creative Software. For Commodore 64. New from
Creative Software.

$24.95 $24.95 $14.95

Call and order today! Use your Visa,
The answers are at MasterCard or personal check. Toll
your finger tips. Free 1-800-331-7990 (outside-
California}, 1-800-448-1001
(in California), or 1-408-745-1655.
"Commodore 64" is a completely satisfied,return within
trnciGmnrk ol Commodore E lee Ironies, Lid. 10 days for full refund.

230 East Caribbean Drive. Sunnyvale. CA 94089 c 1984 Creative Software
December 1984 Vol. 2, No. 12

What If...? The Popularity Of Strategy Games Selby Bateman 23 *

Electronic Trivia Kathy Yakal 37 *
Inside View; Byron Preiss and Ronald Martinez, Trillium Software Designers Sharon Darling 52 *
GAZETTE Telecommunications Software, Part 2: C/G Bulletin Board System Robert Sims 118 64

Mlcroftler Charles Brannon ... 74 64
NATO Commander Art Hunkins 7B 64
Road To Moscow Neil Randall BO 64
Also Worth Noting 84 64

Cosmic Combat Tommy Graham
92 V/64
3-D Labyrinth John Stilwell .... 96 V/64

Computing For Families: An Adventure In Telecommunications Fred D'tgnazio
60 *

Word Guess David W. Rose 66 V/64

Letter Attack Craig Howarth 70 V/64
Programming Commodore's Magic Voice Betsy And Danny Byrne 88 64

BASIC Magic: A Christmas Assortment Michael S. Tomczyk 100 V/64
Machine Language For Beginners: Customizing Richard Mansfield 108 V/64
Hints & Tips: The Keyboard Funnel Anthony James Daly 114 V/64
Auto Line Don Gibson 130 V/64
Power BASIC: Time Clock David W. Martin 158 V/64
Cassette Index Paul N. Peasley 161 V/64
Disk/Tape Backup N. A. Marshall 164 V/64

The Editor's Notes Robert Lock 6 *
Gazette Feedback Editors And Readers 10 V/64
Simple Answers To Common Questions Tom R. Hatthil! 48 V/64
Horizons: 64 Charles Brannon 136 64
User Group Update 142 *
VICreations: Key Memory Locations Dan Carmichael 154 v
News & Products 169 *

A Beginner's Guide To Typing In Programs 172 *
How To Type In COMPUTEI's Gazette Programs 173 •
The Automatic Proofreader 174 v/64
MLX 175 64
Bug-Swatter 176 V/64
Program Listings 177 v/64

Product Mart ... 226

Advertisers Index 226

*=General, V=VIC-20, 64=Commodore 64.

27403 iinti iittdiliuiiii! mailing offices, l-ntirr conli-nts copyright * 19M by COMPUTE! PubUatloni, Inc. All tights ccwivrd. ISSN' 07.17-37 ift. KOBC^
CQMPtTTII I'ubliciliom, Inc., Ont o( Iht AHC Publishing Campjnlem AHC Publishing, President, Bobirt C. Burton; 1330 Avrniii- uf Ihe Americas; New York, Mrw York 10019

gazette Editor Lance Eiko sum port shows net sales of $1,267 Commodore has plenty of spare
marizes recent events at Commo billion, almost double 1983's parts for VIC owners who don't
dore and looks forward to a new $681 million. wish to upgrade—"If people
year here at (he GAZETTE in this Apparently, Commodore have a problem, we will fix it."
guest editorial. isn't relying completely on these On another note, Commo
Robert Lock, Editor In Chief two new machines to carry dore said that the previously an
them through the year. Aside nounced Plus/4-compatible SFS
from the Amiga, there may be 481 parallel disk drive will be
In early October, Commodore other entries in the wings. Sig released in January as the Com
held a press conference to offi Hartmann, President of Com modore 1551, with a price tag
cially announce the kickoff of modore's Software Division, that's $60 to $70 higher than
the Plus/4 and 16. Unofficially, noted at the press conference the 1541. The 1551 is not com
however, not everyone at Com that Commodore is planning to patible with the 64.
modore is excited about the show the C-128 (128K) com
prospects of the new machines. puter for the home market at New Horizons
One source reported that there January's CES, He also stated This issue marks the final ap
is a significant number of key that, in addition to the Amiga, pearance of our VICreations col
employees who "just aren't be an "80-column machine is com umn by Dan Carmichael. Next
hind the new computers." ing out very, very shortly," and month, Charles Brannon's Hori-
Another staff member this, too, will be demonstrated zons:64 column will take on a
noted that some Commodore at CES. No other details were new dimension. With a new ti
people are looking past the offered, but Hartmann added tle, simply Horizons, Charles
Plus/4 and 16 to the new that Commodore is now aiming will cover not only the 64, but
Amiga (see last month's Editor's to compete at every level in the also the VIC, the Plus/4, and
Notes), which could be on the microcomputer marketplace. the 16.
market by early Spring. Al It will be interesting to see Thanks to you, the GAZETTE
though the Plus/4 and 16 have if the Plus/4 and 16 outsell the has continued as the leading
some advantages over the 64 64 this Christmas. Hartmann magazine for Commodore users.
and VIC, they're not technologi sees this as a possibility, but Our paid circulation of 200,000
cal breakthroughs. Good pro adds "the 64 is our mainstay in January 1984 has grown to
gramming and utility machines, machine. The Plus/4 is a pro well over 300,000 with this, our
maybe, but not significantly dif ductivity machine. It's the next final issue of the year.
ferent from the immensely suc level of the marketplace...for In the next 12 months, we
cessful VIC and 64. different groups of people." plan to continue offering the
Still, Commodore is pro Commodore plans full software best articles, reviews, and pro
ceeding with a major marketing support for the Plus/4 and 16, grams for Commodore users,
campaign for the Plus/4 with and indicates a growing interest and we promise to stay innova
ads in national magazines and from third-party software devel tive. We appreciate your support
major prime-time TV spots. It's opers. At its introduction, 26 in 1984 and look forward to an
doubtful that Commodore can packages were immediately even better year in '85. Happy
repeat fiscal 1984's whopping available for both machines, and Holidays.
sales figures with just the addi many more should be on the
tion of the Plus/4 and the 16. shelves as you read this. Lance Elko
Commodore's 1984 Annual Re Hartmann also noted that Editor

COMPUTE}1! Gflzoflo December 1934

The enjoyment goes on forever!



# it
._. OREMJHOUGHTB l,jfn/l ItMlssiim

For APPLE® II, ATARI®, COMMODORE® 64 and IBM® PC microcomputers

Strategy, Science Fiction,

Fantasy, Adventure, Sports Illustrated",
Educational and even Arcade
Hill microcomputer gomes

The Avalon Hill Game Company

4517 HARFORD ROAD, BALTIMORE, MD 21214 [301] 254-9200

At leading Computer r
and Game Stores everywhere | The Avalon Hill Game Company • 4517 Harford Road, Baltimore. MD 21214 |
I want to play (orever! Please send me your full color catalog.
1-800-638-9292 I {Enclosed is S1.00 to cover postage and handling.)
for store locations
or ordering information
Use the coupon to send (or
a full-color brochure I City, State, Zip
with pretty pictures and ;
In-depth game descriptions. ] Type of computer
Jules E. Thompson, Inc.
National and Canadian Sales Representatives
Gno o( Itie ABC Publishing Canpanto 1290 Howard Avenue, Suite 303
Burlingame, CA 94010
Address all advertising materials to:
Patti Williams, COMPUTE!'* CAZETTE
Publisher Gary R. Ingersol) 324 West Wendover Ave., Suite 200, Greensboro, NC 27408
Editor in Chief Robert C Lock Sales Offices, The Thompson Company
Director of Administration Alice 5. Wolfe New tin gland 617-720-1888
Senior Editor Richard Mansfield Mid-Atlantic 212-772-0933
Managing Editor Kathleen M.u linek Southeast 919-275-9809
Editor Lance Elko Midwest 312-726-6047
Assistant Editor Todd Heimarek Texas 713-731-2605
Northwest, Nevada 408-354-5553
Production Director Tony Roberts
Northern CA 415-348-8222 or 408-354-5553
Editors Southern CA 213-378-8361
Tom R. HalJhill, Editor, COMPUTE! Magazine; Stephen Levy, Editor, Arizona 213-378-8361
COMPUTR! Books Division; Gail Walker, Production Editor; Ottis R. New Mexico 213-378-8361
Cowper, Technical Editor; Charles Branniin, Program Editor; Selby Colorado 303-595-9299
Bateman, Features Editor
COMPUTE! Publications, Inc., publishes
Assistant Editors
Gregg Keizer, J. Blake Lambert (Books); John Krause, George Miller, COMPUTE! COMPUTE! Books COMPUTE!'* GAZETTE
Phifip Nelson (Technical); Kathy Yakal, Feature Writer; Sharon Corporate Office:
Darling. Research Assistant (Features), Randall Fosner, Assistant 324 West Wendover Ave., Suite 200, Greensboro, NC 27408
Managing Editor (Books); Mark Tuttle, Submissions Reviewer Mailing Address:
Editorial Programmers Post Office Cos 5406, Greensboro, NC 27403
Patrick Parrish (Supervisor), Gregg Peele (Assistant), Tim Victor,
Distribution Center
Kevin Mykytyn, Gary Black, Kevin Martin, Rob Terrell
505 Edwardia Drive, Greensboro, NC 27409
Programming Assistants
Telephone: 919-275-9809
David Florence, Susan Doss, David Hensley
Office Hours: 8:30 AM to 4:30 PM Monday-Friday
Copy Editors
Juanita Lewis, Joan Rouleau, Ann Davies
Chief Executive Officer Robert C. Lock
President Gary R. Ingersoll
Ethel Silver, Dwight Smith, Marty Selby
Vice President, Finance & Planning Paul [, Megliola
Administrative Staff
Vicki Jennings, Laura MacEadden, Julia Fleming, Susan Young, Iris Executive Assistant Debi Nash
Brooks, Jan Kretlow Assistant Cassandra Robinson

Production Subscription Information

Irma Swain, Production Manager; Janice l:ary, Art & Design Director,
COMPUTEl's GAZETTE Circulation Dept.
Lee Noel, Assistant Editor, Art & Design; De Potter, Mechanical Art
P.O. Box 5406, Greensboro, NC 27403
Supervisor; Terry Cash, Carole Dunton, Typesetting
Leslie Jessup, Larry Sullivan, (Publications), Debbie Bray (Books);
Subscription Order Une
Harry Blair, Illustrator
Associate Editors In NC 919-275-98OS
Jim ilutterfield (Toronto), Hnrvoy Herman (Greensboro),
Fred D'lgnazio (Roanoke) COMPUTEl's GAZETTE
Subscription Rates
Charles C. Post, Circulation Manager; Patty Jones, Assistant Circula (12 Issue Year): US (one year) $24, Canada, Mexico and Foreign
tion Manager; Fran Lyons, Single Copy Sales Supervisor Surface Mail $30. Foreign A'ir Mail $45.
Customer Service The COMPUTE!* gazette subscriber list is made available to carefully
Philippa King, Customer Service Manager; Gail Jones, Dealer Sales screened organizations with a product or service which may be of
Supervisor; Dorothy Bogan, Customer Service Supervisor; Dealer interest to our readers. If you prefer nol to receive such mailings,
Sales Staff: Sharon Minor, Rhonda Savage; Customer Service Staff: please send an exact copy of your subscription label lo: computed
Detty Atkins, Gayle Benbow, Kosemarie Davis, Debi Goforth, Chris GAZETTE, P.O. Box 961, Farmingdale, NY 11737. Include a nole in
Gordon, Mary Hunt, Li/ Krusonstjerna, Jenna Nash, Chris Patty,
dicating your preference to receive only your subscription.
Anita Roop, Sharon Sebastian, Judy Taylor
Jim Coward, Warehouse Manager; Staff: John Archibald, Jack Authors of manuscripts warrant that all materials submitted to
McConnell, Larry O'Connor, bam Parker, Dai Rees, Eddie Rice, Eric COMPUTE! s gazette are original materials with full ownership rights
Staley; Mary Sprague, Mail Room Coordinator. resident in said authors. By submitting articles to computed gazette,
authors acknowledge that such materials, upon acceptance for
Data Processing publication, become the exclusive property of COMPUTE! Publica
Leon Stokes, Manager; Chris Cain, Assistant tions, Inc. No portion of this magazine may be reproduced in any
form without written permission from the publisher. Entire contents
copyright © 1984, COMPUTEI Publications, Inc. Rights to programs
Paul J, Megliola. VP, Finance St Planning; R, Steven Vetter, Director,
Finance & Planning; Robert Bean, General Accountant; Karen K.
developed and submitted by authors are explained in our author
contract. Unsolicited materials not accepted for publication will be
Rogalski, Financial Analyst; Staff: Jane King, Jill Pope, Shannon
returned if author provides a self-addressed, stamped envelope.
Where programs are included in an article submission, a tape or disk
must accompany the submission. Printed listings are optional, but
Barry L. Beck, Credit Manager; Staff: Sybil Agee, Susan Booth, Anne
Ferguson, Pat Fuller, Doris flail, Linda Miller, Mary Waddell
helpful. Articles should be furnished as typed copy (upper and
lowercase, please) with double spacing. Each article page should bear
the title of the article, date, and name of the author. COMPUTE!
Gregory L, Smith, Purchasing Manager; Anna Harris, Assistant
Publications, inc., assumes no liability for errors in articles or
Promotion advertisements. Opinions expressed by authors are not necessarily
Mindy K. Kutchei, Promotion Manager; Caroline Dark, Assistant those of COMPUTEI Publications, Inc.'cOMPUTEl Publications as
Advertising Sates sumes no responsibility for damages, delays, or failure of shipment in
Ken Woodard, Director of Advertising Sales; Bonnie Valentino, Assis connection with authors' offer to make tape or disk copies of pro
tant Advertising Manager; Patti Williams, Production Coordinator; grams published herein.
Joyce Margo, Production Assistant; Kathleen Hanlon, Sales Assistant PET, CBM, VIC-20, and Commodore 64 are trademarks of Commo
Sales Representatives dore Business Machines, Inc., and/or Commodore Electronics Limited.
Jerry Thompson 415-348-8222 Other than as an independent supplier of quality information and
Phoebe Thompson 408-354-5553 services to owners ana users of Commodore products, COMPUTEI
Ed Winchell 213-378-8361 Publications, Inc., is in no way associated witli Commodore Business
Harry Blair 919-275-9809 Machines, Inc., or any of its subsidiaries.

"The Hottest
New Game In Town
Trivia Fever is absolutely unique — it's the only software entertain
ment package that can be enjoyed with or without a home com
puter! When played on your home computer. Trivia Fever is a
refreshing alternative to all those shoot'em up games. An elected
"Master of the Game" uses the computer to randomly select sub
ject categories, handicap players, generate questions and answers,
keep score automatically, and more! Instructive by its very nature,
Trivia Fever can be enjoyed by up to 8 individuals or teams. And
when played without a computer, Trivia Fever has all the best fea
tures of the "popular" trivia games plus more — all without the
cumbersome board, cards, and little game pieces. You can play in a
car, on vacation, anytime, anywhere! And Trivia Fever is by far the
best Trivia game available anywhere. Here's why;

Trivia Fever offers thousands of challenging questions in 7 inter

esting categories, so there's something for everyone. Each category
has questions with 3 lev
els of difficulty, which
score comparable points.
What's more, Trivia Fever
allows players to HANDI
CAP all those so-called
"trivia experts" three dif
ferent ways, giving every
one a chance to win. And
players can easily control
the length of play from
quick thirty minute
games to multi-hour party marathons!

Trivia Fever is unique, entertaining, educational, and most of all

FUN. And at S39.95, Trivia Fever is destined to quickly become the
best selling software entertainment package of all time. There's
even a $5 rebate available to any non-computer users who return
the computer diskette.

Trivia Fever can be enjoyed on the Commodore 64, IBM PCS PCjr
and compatibles, Apple II series, and others. So don't delay. Catch
Trivia Fever at your favorite software retailer today!

For additional information call 617-444-5224, or write to:

At $39.95, Trivia Fever comes complete with Question

APSI Needham, MA 02194
P.O. Box 533
and Answer Book, Category Selector, and Tally Sheets to
be used when played without a computer, k flf Prof(ttmnal Softw*tt. inc

Do you have a question or a problem? Have OPEN 15,8,15:PRINT#15,"M-W";

you discovered something that could help other CHR$(106)CHR$(0)CHR$a)CHR$(133):CLOSE15
VIC-20 and Commodore 64 users? Do you have Gilbert D. Helland
a comment about something you've read in
Thanks for the very useful tip. Many readers have
computers gazette? We want to hear (from you.
written and inquired about the possibility of damage
Write to Gazette Feedback, computers GAZETTE,
to their disk drives when this "chattering" is en
P.O. Box 5406, Greensboro, NC 27403.
countered. We tested this program on software from
five different software manufacturers, and it worked
well with all. One other game, however, returned a
message that the disk was a copy (even though it
Note To Readers was the original).
In the October issue, page 132, we incorrectly
listed the phone number of the Modem Times. Special Brackets And gazette
The correct number is (303) 578-5405. Listings
1 recently purchased a VIC-20 and am in the pro
cess of teaching myself how to program. In doing
An End To Disk Drive Chatter so, I have typed in some of the programs from
When loading commercial software, the disk the GAZETTE, but have encountered a problem.
drive often makes a loud chattering noise while In many of your programs you use the spe
reading the program. This is usually caused by a cial brackets:
copy protection technique used by software
distributors, whereby the disk drive is forced to
read a bad track or sector on the disk.
In your section "How To Type In COMPUTED
Over a period of time, this repeated vibra
GAZETTE Programs,"y°u explain that this is done
tion of the drive's read/write head could damage
by holding down the Commodore key while
the drive, or cause the stepper motor assembly
pressing the key inside the brackets. Your listing
which positions the read/write head to slip out
of adjustment.
Here is a short program that, in most cases, £83 d]
will prevent this chatter when loading commer
With any of these I get the uppercase as though I
cial programs. It will prevent the head from
had used the SHIFT key. Also, when using the
bumping when going to track one.
"Automatic Proofreader," I get the wrong REM
Type the following one line program in the
values on lines with the special brackets. Can
immediate mode (without a BASIC line number)
and press RETURN. It will reprogram the disk you tell me what 1 am doing wrong?
Russell Willis
controller, and should be entered just before
loading the commercial software. After it is en You aren't doing anything wrong. A VIC-20 has
tered, load the software according to the direc eight different character colors. You change charac
tions. This program is about 90% effective, but in ter colors by holding down the CTRL key and press
cases where it does not stop the chattering, it ing one of the numbered keys from 1 to 8; the color
shouldn't interfere with the proper execution of you'll get is printed on the front of the key. BLK is
the commercial program. Try it, and your 1541 black, WHT is white, and so on.
will thank you. If you're in quote mode, however, pressing
10 COMPUTEfs GaiBlte Docomber 19B4
Its only business is managing your home finances.
No program does it more quickly, more easily, more directly.
Your Personal Net Worth systematizes in less time than it takes you to balance your
the management of your household income, checkbook.
expenses, credit cards and check books — Nothing else — no other program at twice
using methods tested for accuracy by louche the price —makes handling your personal
Ross, one of the nation's leading accounting money matters simpler, faster and more direct
firms. than Your Personal Net Worth.
Your Personal Net Worth puts your com
puter to work, keeps your records straight, in You'll find it at your favorite software
cluding your personal inventory of valuables retailer in the silver box with the real
and stock portfolio, tells you where and how silver dollar on the front. It could be the
you're spending your money or if you're mak single most valuable purchase you'll
ing a shambles of your budget. And does it'all ever make.

Record all banking and Record stock, bond and

any credit card trans other investment trans
actions, reconcile bank actions. Inventory
statements instantly (up household valuables,
to 10 separate bank ac collectibles and
counts can be handled), important papers for
— print checks, too. insurance and other

Set up a budget {as many

as 350 categories) — and Your Personal Net Worth
then compare youractual works fast because it's in
income and expenses to machine language. Docu
the budget. mentation in plain English
is referenced for easy
use. "Help" functions on
screen at all times.
ever forget a tax-deduc-
Ible item. Today or at tax
return time.
Available for:

IBM-PC/XT/PCjr (128K)
Display or print every Apple II 4 /lle/llc (64K)
financial report you'll Commodore 64
ever need. Atari (48K)
The Program comes
with two disks, one of
which has accounts al
ready set up for entry.
However, only one disk
drive is necessary.

^^PB ^^^f ■ ■ ^^^ ■ You'll grow with ia

Tha V>#frl«/i#yifMm Vi#r#AiM

I f «# «#ltff I/Vf I/VWI »#f .Jf Iff f !•
1984, Scarborough Systems, Inc., 25 N. Broadway. Tarrytown, NY 10591
©1984, ^^ M
CTRL and a color key will result in a graphics corresponding memory location in the reserved area.
character. This is useful when you want to change Then move the value from this memory location
colors in the middle of a string. into the SID chip. Use a loop (in BASIC or ML) to
When Commodore developed the 64, the de PEEK the value in memory and POKE the value to
signers decided to add eight more character colors, the SID chip. You still can't PEEK the SID chip, but
for a total of 16. Among the new colors are a brown, you can PEEK its mirror image.
a light blue, and three shades of gray. The new All of the SID registers except two are write-
colors are accessed by holding down the Commodore only—you can POKE but not PEEK. Your POKEs
logo key and typing one of the numbers between 1 provide the input which triggers the chip to output
and 8. The eight colors which use the Commodore sounds to a television or monitor speaker. The two
key on the 64 are not available on the VIC, which unusual locations are at 54299 and 54300, and like
treats a Commodore-8 the same as a SHIFTS and ROM, are read-only. The first of these, 54299, reads
prints a left parenthesis. the upper eight bits of the waveform output of os
In one case, "3-D Tic-Tac-Toe" (June), a cillator three. This is very handy for machine lan
GAZETTE program originally written for the 64 was guage programmers who need random numbers. At
translated for the VIC and some of the inaccessible the beginning of an ML program, set voice three to
color codes were left in the listing. The solution is a white noise waveform with the highest possible
to omit the character altogether, or use the CTRL frequency and an envelope of zero attack, zero
alternative. Either way, the Proofreader checksum decay, maximum sustain. Any time you need a ran
will not match up. dom number, LoaD the Accumulator (LDA) from
location 54299 ($D41B). The result is an (almost)
random number from 0 to 255.
PEEKless SID Registers
I'd like to examine the SID (Sound Interface De
vice) registers in my 64 while my music program
Cool Disk Drives
is playing. However, the SID registers are write If you leave your 1540 or 1541 disk drive on for
only registers, and a PEEK at one of them always extended periods of time, causing it to heat up,
returns a zero. Is there any way to examine these here's a tip.
registers to see if the voice gate is on or off, or An inexpensive air purifier placed upside
what any of the SID parameters currently are? down over the vent grills on the top-rear of the
My program is interrupt driven, so I can check disk drive will reduce the temperatures of the
these registers while the program is running. chips, and eliminate the hot spots felt when leav
Mark Wardenhurg ing your drive on for extended periods of time.
I use a Norelco model HBO999 because of
Unfortunately, there is no way to PEEK these reg
its compact size and horizontal outlet. I have re
isters and get an accurate value. The chip that runs
moved the scented crystals leaving the wire
your 64 treats the SID registers as if they occupy
mesh to act as a coarse filter, thus increasing air
memory locations, but a POKE to the SID chip ac
tually sends a one-way electrical signal to certain
I chose to blow air into the drive rather than
pins. Trying to PEEK the SID chip registers is like
draw it out for two reasons. First, it forces air di
trying to get water to run uphill through a hydro
rectly onto the chips and out past the read/write
electric dam. On some 64s a value other than zero
head assembly. Second, it provides the option of
might be returned -with a PEEK, but they may be
filtering the air before it is introduced into the
random values, and should not be trusted.
disk drive.
However, there is a useful programming tech
Sealing the fan unit to the drive can be en
nique that will allow you to monitor the values i/ow
hanced by cutting out a foam gasket and placing
have POKEd into the SID registers. The 25 SID 'reg
it between the air purifier and the drive. Appear
isters most frequently used to produce sound arc the
ance can be enhanced by removing the purifier's
memory locations between 54272 and 54296.
First, set aside 25 bytes in an unused area of
Gerry Bamon
memory. Two possibilities are the cassette buffer
(828-1019), or the unused area of memory between Thanks for the tip. Most of the cooling fans ad
679 and 767. These 25 bytes will correspond to the vertised for the 1540 or 1541 work on this principle.
25 SID registers between 54272 and 54296. For That is, they are flat fans laid on top of the ventila
example, zvhen using the area between 679 and 767, tion grills. You might also place a piece of Hntless
byte 679 would correspond to SID register 54272, doth over one end of the air purifier.
and 703 to 54296. There is also 4K of available Be sure to remove the filters made of citrus,
RAM starting at 49152. charcoal, or any other filtering agent of this type.
In your program, first POKE the values you Any particles falling into the disk drive could cause
wish fo place in the SID registers into the damage.
12 COMPUTED Gazette December 1934
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Commadore 64" is a Trademark ol Commodore Electronics Lid
Incomplete, yes. you have liundreds, even
But it's not just because thousands of alternatives
we're always bringing at every step. In fact, an
out new stories in the Infocom interactive story
Infocom interactive fic is roughly the length of
tion collection. Nor is it a short novel in content,
simply due to the fact but because you're
that with all the writing actively engaged in the
and re-writing, honing GUIDE TO THE GALAXY" m>Jster>'thriller, vun'rea plot, your adventure
furdbiiirn ijhiwlifl^i wuid by Douglas Adams b Hit1 rtpoiler who RHsHhtf scoop
and perfecting that we <>fa shijnvrtcJt laden virth mosl mind-bnjfRluiA stnry an lt\t society evenl ofihe can last for weeks and
sunken treasure near The we've em published. In ihc year—ihe murder of a
put into every one of renxrtc i»bm] where you live. person of An hurDeni, you'll NIafj1]and Bhie DSood ai 3 months.
liLexchiiiRi.' (or your diving chortle as your planet it. fancy costume ball. Gieat!
our stories, our work is skills, they offer you a pst-cc demolished. You'll y<?]p with Eiccrpi you're (fie prime In other words, only
□f thy act kin. YnurchallrnKe: Liujjhler a vuur life i*i ju*pect. And il^oucjn'i
seemingly never done. survive Them, [he pcnl*u( find thr ital kiUri. jojr you can complete the
hk [ j p h nution. Vuur r nejlbj-linccuulilKr inthc
The real reason is: an I he lri'iisuif and youthir- positively spin obituaries. works of Infocom, Inc.
fiood lurk! thtr universe fci
Infocom work of fiction juu'llfinduut, Because they're stories
can never be complete until you with surprising twists, unique that grow out of your imagination,
become a part of it. characters (many of whom Find out what it's like to get
You see, as hard as we work at possess extraordinarily developed inside a story. Get one from
perfecting our stories, we always personalities), and original, logical, Infocom. Because with Infocom's
leave out one essential element- often hilarious puzzles. Communi- interactive fiction, there's room
the main character. And that's cation is carried on in the same for you on every disk.
where you enter in. way as it is in a novel-in prose.
Once you've got Infocom's
interactive fiction in your
And interaction is easy-you type
in full English sentences. inpocom
Infocom. Im:,,!55 WhetlerStreet, Cambridge MA 021.18
computer, you experience But there is this key differ For ynur: Apple II. Alan. Cifmnyidorp I>1. CftJvQ*. IlKCmate.
something akin to waking up ence between our tales and 1IEC RamtKn.. L1EC RT-U. HIM PC' jmt PCjr. KAYPKO It.
MS. DOS 7 0* NEC AI'C. NEC PC-8000, Osbunir, Hmdy 2000,
inside a novel. You find yourself conventional novels: Infocom's Tl l'ro(i:5*i<™i, Tl SS/4A.TRS-R0 MnMl I and III.
'Use the IBM PC vc-raiuntecinirCompait, jinfthe MS-DOS 2.0
at the center of an exciting plot interactive fiction is active, not
that continually cliallenges you passive. The course of events is iradcjiurksulMK-nm. Inc.
shaped by the actions you choose uf IfdU^a^ Adnni*

to take. And you enjoy enormous

freedom in your choice of actions -
Oversized Variables 40
0 35 1"

In many of your programs for the VIC and 64, I 60 INPUT#15,A$,AS,A?,AS

have seen statements such as: 70 CLOSE2:CLOSE15


What is ADRES?. I thought variables in a pro Random Number Ranges

gram were limited to two characters. I have a question about generating random num
Tim Cronsberry bers on my 64. How can I make my computer
generate random numbers between 100 and 200
When programming in BASIC, you are limited to
by steps of 5?
two significant characters, You can give your vari
David Tan
able names more than two characters, but anything
after the first two will be ignored by the operating There are a number of different ways to generate a
system. range of random numbers in steps. Here are the two
Using names with more than the allowable most straightforward.
number of characters can be beneficial because it The range of numbers you need (100-200) con
makes the program more readable. The variables tains 21 different unique numbers. If you generate a
used can be understood more easily. random number between 0 and 20 (this covers the
But you must remember that only the first two range of 21), multiply it by 5 (producing the steps
characters have any significance. For example, when by 5) and add it to 100 (which gives you the low
writing a payroll program, a variable name of base of 100), you will get the desired results. Here's
HOURLYWAGE would make the listing easier to a sample program to show hoio it's done.
follow. However, if you have another variable in the 10 A=INT(RND(l)*21)+0
same program with the same first two letters 20 A=A*5+100
(HOURSTOTAL, for example), the computer would 30 PRINTA:GOTO10
treat them as if they were the same variable, HO, Another method is to gerierate a random number be
and you would not gel the desired results. In addi tween 100 and 200 then check to see if it is one of
tion, you must watch for embedded BASIC the desired numbers. This can be done with a FOR-
keywords. For example, the keyword TO (as in NEXT loop that is incremented by steps of five.
FORJ=lTO10), if used in a variable such as Here's how it works. Generate a random number
TOTALHRS, is embedded and will cause a syntax within your range of 100-200, then via the FOR-
NEXT loop check to see if it is equal to 100. If not,
If you do use variable or string names with increment your loop by five and check to see if the
more than two characters, make sure the first two number is equal to 105 and so forth up to 200.
characters are unique. If no equal condition is found, generate another ran
dom number and start the process again. This
Spinning The Disk Drive method is much slower than the first example.
In the June 1984 issue, Jerry A. Coy had a ques Here's a sample program.
tion about spinning the disk while cleaning the 10 A=1NT(RND(1)*101)+100
disk drive. Here's a short program I wrote to 20 FORB=100TO200STEP5:IFA=BTHENPRINTA:GOT
help me clean my disk drive. It will move the 010

read/write head back and forth from track 1 to 30 NEXT

50 GOTO10
track 35. This will maximize the potential of your
cleaning disk, and provide a back and forth
Bad Vibrations
cleaning motion as well as that of the motor
When 1 purchased my 1541 disk drive, it came
with a card inserted into the drive that said Head
If you have a drive with an address other
than 8, change line 5 to fJ (*= your drive num
Vibration Protector. The instructions on the card
ber). To change how long the program runs, vary
stated that it should be inserted into the disk
drive and the door closed each time the disk
the loop in line 20 (each pass through takes
drive is moved.
about 10 seconds).
Well, I have my computer and disk drive on
To use it, load the program, prepare the
a table that rolls so 1 can pull it out when in use,
cleaning disk per the manufacturer's instructions,
insert the cleaning disk into the drive, and enter
and push it back when I'm done. Even though I
frequently move the table back and forth, should
I keep the card inserted into the drive as in
5 U=8
structed? Will it harm the read/write head if I
10 OPEN 15,U,15
15 OPEN2,U,2,"#"
don't? ci _ . ...
Steve Tngili
20 FOR J=1TO4
30 PRINT#15,"U1:2 0 1 1" The cardboard head protector that came inserted
16 COMPUTED Gazoffo December 19B4
Not just all talk
Add Speech to your Commodore 64™ today!
Witfi the POWER of The Voice Messenger's'" infinite gramming of whole sentences « Two voices and
vocabulary, your Commodore 64 can say any letter, word intonation—add character and excitement • Built-in
or sentence. Simply! software—nothing extra to buy ■ Installs instantly—Two
Just for fun...or aa an educational tool. simple connections ■ Clear, cagy to understand
Best of all, it's simple to program your C-64 io leave all speech ■ Doesnt steal RAM from BASIC
sons of talking messages, workspace ■ Won't stop Bcreen action.
Just think of the possibilities!
Add new life to your Commodore 64 with The Voice
A message lo your family! A secret for your best friend!
Messenger! Ask for The Volco Messenger at your local
Or even a reminder for yourself to feed the fish I
Commodore dealer, or call TOLL-FREE 1-800-443-0100
The Voice Messenger feSEureB: ■ Infinite vocabulary ext. 797 to place your order nowl
■ One BASIC command "SAY" provides ens-? pro

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For more information contact:


60 MUk St. lBvii floor. nMtoii, MA I &10U(O|7 307.KB4 t'ELEXi 661131 HQ B9N
Gurreh OOmjwlor Oomp rnnma Lul. R»g Ho, 1686-lflO. U.K. Qnwvhorp intliMrtnl K«W , [tartlopcj:, ciwimiti O.K. IWcxOfillivailinAU Q
,' srijii ■! I- <:■'■ '*■ n'.rniii :iinrn I i1 ".:i. ; I- s -■■:■ ■.:■.-. I ' !
with your disk drive serves a dual purpose. Not certain color combinations are used. This is largely
only does it protect the head during shipment by due to the video signal from the computer bleeding
providing it with a semi-soft surface to rest on, but into the audio channel. To stop this, you could take
it also stops the stepper motor assembly from mov your TV to a technician, and have him add a filter
ing back and forth. It can't hurt to insert the card which might remove the video interference.
into the drive whenever it is moved, no matter how Another way to solve this problem is to pur
far, chase a Commodore 1701 or 1702 monitor. With this
monitor, you can feed the audio and video signals
Sound Interference separately. This helps eliminate that annoying buzz.
I own a VIC-20 and have discovered that with
out using expansion memory, there isn't much Jumping Screens Update
[memory] to work with. Is there a way to find In the July issue, you dealt with a problem that
out how many bytes 1 have used, or how much many of us VIC users face. That is the apparent
memory is left? incompatibility of the VIC-20 and the Zenith
In another area, I've noticed that a few of System III TVs. You mentioned a minor hard
the games I've typed in from the GAZETTE cause ware modification for the TV that would solve
buzzing sounds on my TV. In fact, the buzzing is the jumping screen problem.
so loud at times that I can't hear the beep of the I initially experienced the same problem, but
characters. One such game is "React." It doesn't found a simple software solution. The jumping
buzz until the white border is added to the black screen is apparently caused by a problem with
screen. Is it my TV or my all-thumbs the vertical sync, but it is not necessary, as you
programming? mentioned, to unplug the 2H vertical jumper, as
Thomas Putt suggested by the Zenith dealer.
If you turn on the interlace mode by either:
To determine how many bytes arc free, enter PRINT
POKE 36864,I'EEK(36864)OR 128
FRE(O). This command returns the number of bytes
of unused BASIC memory. One way to determine
POKE 36864,133
how many bytes a program is using is to jot down
the amount of memory free when you first turn on the video signal is sent only 15 times per second,
your VIC (3581 in the unexpanded VIC, for exam rather than the normal 30. This slower video re
ple). After loading or writing your program, enter fresh enables the vertical sync to function
PRINT FRE(Q) and subtract the resulting number properly.
from the original bytes free. This will tell you the Dr. Philip C. Withers
number of bytes used by your BASIC program. Thanks for the helpful tip, Dr. Withers. Readers
In addition to BASIC programs, variables use should note that it is bit 7 (value of 128) which con
memory. If you ask for the amount of free memory trols the interlace switch. Bits 0-6 control the hori
before and after running a program, you will prob zontal location of the screen. By POKEing different
ably find you have less when ttie program has fin values to 36864, you can make the whole screen
ished. This is why it's possible to run out of memory move back and forth. The next memory location,
halfway through a program. There are numerous 36865, controls the vertical location. POKEing
techniques for saving memory. Deleting all REMark 36865 makes the screen move up and down. These
statements is probably the most common. Since each two locations can be helpful in centering the screen.
BASIC line takes up a minimum of five bytes, Also, if you're writing a game, a series of quick
putting more than one statement on each line can POKEs to these two locations can make the screen
open up some memory. And if you're using numeric appear to "tremble," as if shaken by an explosion.
arrays which hold whole numbers, use integer ar
rays (P%(5)) rather than P(5), for example. Integer
1520 Printer/Plotter
arrays use only two bytes per item compared to five
bytes for floating point arrays. Unfortunately, this Replacement Pens
does not hold true for non-array variables; both As a recent purchaser of a Commodore 1520
integer variables and regular floating point vari Printer/Plotter, I have found that replacement
ables take up five bytes (plus two for the variable pens are hard to find.
name). For interested readers, I suggest using the
One solution to your buzzing problem is to ad replacement pens for the Radio Shack PC-2
just the fine tuning on your television (most TVs Printer/Plotter, catalog number 26-1480 (3 black
have a ring around the channel selector). Or try pens), and catalog number 26-1481 (one each of
flipping the switch on the RF modulator which se red, blue, and green). The pens are identical to
lects between channel three and channel four. the Commodore pens.
Some TVs will produce a buzzing sound when Herbert H. Starkey
18 COMPUTEfs Gazerfe December 19S4
= *>

last night, 39 musicians Had A

CompuServe conference, So did 31 M.D.S,
49 Sports Fans And 640 Apple Polishers,
And no One Had To leave Home.
The Electronic Forum, And besides electronic forums, need is a computer, a modem and
Cheaper than Long Distance they leave messages for each other CompuServe. CompuServe connects
and Much More Rewarding. on our national bulletin board, with almost any personal computer,
"talk11 informally on our CB simulator; terminal, or communicating word
Every night on the CompuServe and communicate via CompuServe's processor.
Information Service, professional electronic mail. To buy a. Starter Kit, see your
and social groups discuss a wide Bui best of all, in most cases. nearesl computer dealer. 1o receive
range of subjects. From what's new CompuServe subscribers gel all of our informative brochure or to order
in medical technology to what's these state of the art communications direct, call or write:
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And every day more computer
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Colorful Sprites will let the background color show through. But if
you have one sprite on top of another, the off bits
How do you give a sprite more than one color?
will let the second sprite's color show through (the
Scott Senkeresty
second sprite is the one with the lower priority). As
Sprites are a powerful programming tool, but with long as they have the same X and Y location, it will
power comes complexity. You have to work out the appear that you have a single two-color sprite.
shape, convert if to DATA statements, POKE them There are two drawbacks to this method, how
into a safe area of memory, set a pointer to the ever. The first is that instead of eight one-color
sprite shape, set X and Y coordinates, set the color, sprites, you are limited to four two-color sprites (or
and turn on the sprite. There are a number of books two four-color sprites). Second, if your program
and magazine articles which explain how to use needs to check sprite collisions, you have to be care
sprites. ful that the bits of the overlapping sprites do not
Multicolor sprites give you more flexibility, intersect. You may get spurious collisions if the pro
more interesting shapes to work with. If you've ar gram is written in BASIC.
rived at the point where you can define sprites and A belter way to make colorful sprites is to use
move them around the screen, you can begin to multicolor mode, controlled by a register at 53276.
experiment with color. There are two ways to make The eight individual bits correspond to the eight
multicolor sprites. different sprites. To make all sprites one color,
The first is fairly easy. Define two sprites, POKE 53276,0. POKEing a 1 makes sprite 0 multi
using different colors, and put one on top of the color (and the rest one color); POKEing a 2 makes
other. Sprites are displayed in a certain order of sprite 1 multicolor, up to 128 which affects sprite
priority, from lowest number to highest. This means seven. POKE 53276,255 (255 is 128 + 64 + 32 +
thai sprite zero will always appear on top of (or in 16 + 8 + 4+2 + 1) to make all of them multicolor.
front of) all other sprites. Sprite one has priority Multicolor mode gives you up to 4 different
over sprites two through seven, and so on. colors in each sprite. The four colors are: screen
Normally, if a bit is turned on, it will appear color (actually a transparent part of the sprite
on the screen in the color of the sprite. An off bit allowing the background screen color to show
through), individual sprite color, sprite multicolor O,
md sprite multicolor 1. The individual sprite color
can vary from sprite to sprite, but screen color, and

LOW COST SOFTWARE the two multicolors arc the same for all eight
sprites. The registers to POKE are as follows;
00 Screen color : 53281
Ate you tired of paying high prices for your software?
Let John Henry Software save yoj money! 10 Sprite color : 53287-53294 (sprites 0
through 7)
We distribute public domain software lor your VIC 20'"
01 Multicolor 0 : 53285
or Commodore 64". We've tested and documented each
11 Multicolor 1 : 53286
program to guarantee you hours ol fun and useful
learning experiences. We specialize in prompt delivery To turn on the multicolor mode for a single
of your software, even if you order tapes, and we
guarantee our product. sprite, POKE 53276,PEEK(53276) OR (2t N) where
You'll also receive our free program relerence book
N = sprite number (0 to 7). To turn off the multicolor
when you place your order. mode: POKE 53276,PEEK(53276) AND (255-2tN);
VIC 20 Unlike the first method of adding color, multi
Group VG 6? Games for Everyone S7.95 color mode lets you have eight different sprites
Group VP 54 Programming. Demo, Business
and Home S7.95
moving around. But there is one drawback: Resolu
Group VE 35 Educational Programs $7 95 tion is halved. Instead of coloring individual pixels,
COMMODORE 64 pairs of pixels are turned on or off. Let's say one of
Group CG 26 Games for Everyone S7.95 the DATA statements is 50, zohich translates to a
Group CP 30 Programming. Demo, Business
bit pattern of 00110010. With one-color sprites, the
and Home S7.95
Group CE 16 Educational Programs S7.95 1's would represent pixels which are turned on. But
Group CA 5 Adventure Games [dirt only) S7.95 in multicolor mode, you have to look at bit pairs:
When ordering, specify group and tape or disk. 00, 11, 00, and W. The first two pixels (00) would
Send check or money order payable to: be transparent, the same color as the screen. The
John Henry Software
P.D. Box 39021 next two (11) would be multicolor 1, followed by the
Cincinnati. Ohio 45239 screen color again. The last two (10) would both be
Don't wait' Order your software today' Or write for your the sprite color. Even though the two bits are differ
free program reference book. You'll be glad you did!
ent, 1 and 0, the corresponding pixels would be the
To keep our software prices low. ous ad wllJ only appear in [ho June, Angus], same color. Instead of each byte controlling eight
Ociober and December issues ot thrs rnagazme
different pixels, each byte controls four different
pairs of pixels. W
20 COMPUTE!'! Gazette December 1964
Why settle for
V when you can

Introducing Mitey Mo, COMMODOBE easy to use. With the other modem
the ready-to-go modem
you'll have to remember to check
Auto Dial YES YES three switches, otherwise you may
that turns your Commodore 64
Auto Answer YES YES be answering when you mean to
Into a telecommunications giant.
Aulo Redia! YES NO be originating.
Mitey Mo is the complete-and Smooth Screen Scrolling YES NO
Mitey Mo gives you access to
affordable-telecommunications Both Cassette and Diskette
Software Included YES NO twelve pages o! memory (24,000
system for your Commodore 64. It will bytes), so you can store data and
Menu Driven YES NO
open up a world of practical and 24K Software Buffer YES NO review or print it later. The other
exciting uses foryour computer, and Fu ndion Key Tem plate YES NO modem doesn't let you store or print
it will take you online faster and Prinling Capability YES NO anything.
easier than anything else you can buy Easy-lo-Use Manual YES NO
Mitey Mo is half the size of
Now you'll be able to send and Bell 103 Compatible YES YES
the other modem, The very latest
receive electronic mail, link up with Multiple Baud Rates YES YES
technology allows miniaturization
community bulletin boards, play Dual Cables Included YES NO
Single Switch Operation YES NO and increased reliability, as well,
computer games with people in dis
Warranty 3 years 90 days Mitey Mo is so reliable, we gave it
tant places, do electronic banking,
Suggested Relail Price S99.95 S129.95 a three-year warranty The other
and tap into library resources to find
modem gives 90 days, then you're
the material you need for your
on your own.
reports. All at your convenience. Some mighty interesting features -
Not only will you find Mitey Mo
Until Mitey Mo, Commodore's ours and theirs. Yours to decide.
mightyuseiul, you'll find it mighty
1650 Automodem was the obvious
reasonably priced—S99.95. When you
choice when you went looking for a
consider how much more you get.
modem for the C-64. Like Mitey and you find that it's busy Miley Mo has
there's really no other choice,
Mo, it has "auto-answer"- if "auto reaial"- it hangs up and redials
receives data while immediately until it gets through. With
unattended. And the other modem you have to redial
both modems each time-and somebody with auto
are "auto dialers"! redialing can slip in ahead of you.
—you dial right Mitey Mo is menu-driven.
on the compu It lists the things you can do on
ter's key the screen, Select a number
board. But i and you're on your way Since
that's about Automodem isn't menu-
where thei driven, you'll be hunting
similarity through the manual a lot.
ends. Mitey Mo has only one
you dial a
switch, the customized soft
ware does the rest. Every
family member will find it dor St.. New York, NY 10006
What If...l



The Popularity
Of Strategy Games
Selby Bateman, Features Editor

From the ancient games of Chess and Go to modern simu

lations of business, sports, and warfare, strategy games
enthrall us with their complexity and depth. Computer-
based strategy games, many of which are available for the
Commodore 64, are now coming into their own as sophis
ticated interactive simulations—the next best thing to
being there.


With that simple two of the traditional complaints

question, a about (non-computer) strategy
supercomputer games: They're too slow and
challenged a teen they lend themselves to careless
age computer hacker in the mo human errors in game book
tion picture, WarGames. keeping. Some board war games
Audiences across the nation involve dozens of individual
were fascinated as the game, units, with factors for troop
Global Thermonuclear War, movement, terrain, zones of
turned from simulation to control, morale, reinforcements,
movie-reality. weather, and the list goes on. In
Similar computer strategy some of these games, it may
games are available in quantity take an hour (or more) just to
for Commodore owners, and make one move.
many more are in the works. "You're going to see even
Their complexity may not rival more detail and a lot faster
the one played by the main speed in the games," says Joel
frame supercomputer in Billings, president of Strategic
WarGames, but they are remark Simulations, Inc. (SSI), a com
ably advanced. pany which makes more than
Game manufacturers have twenty computer-based strategy
discovered that computers can games for the Commodore 64.
bring to the traditional board "One of the problems
strategy game three important we've been working on for five
components: flawless manipula years—and it's getting solved—
tion of hundreds of details, real is that the games started out too
time action, and almost limitless slow. People didn't want to get
variations of game play. The into the [strategy] games on the
computer also helps to solve computer because they saw
COMPUTE!'* Gazette December 1984 23
When you shopped for a computer, you wanted one with a lot of intelli
gence. Thib game may lead you to regret that choice, as your friendly little
computer becomes the brains behind the most fantastic enemy you will ever
face: The War Machine.
A monstrous artificial intelligence directs an endless army of self-
replicating robot weapons and a complex of factories hidden on six heavily
defended islands. Even as you strike at one island, robots beyond your field of
vision continue to multiply.,,to repair the damage you've done. attack
and destroy.
Before all of Humankind is crushed beneath the Bungeling Empire's iron
heel, one faint hope remains: you in your helicraft.


Ever dream that you were locked in a haunted castle, wandering blindly
through darkened corridors, never knowing what ghastly demons await you?
Then you'll feel right at home in The Castles of Doctor Creep.
It's a maddening maze of 13 separate castles, more than 200 rooms in all.
Sinister surprises await you behind every door: mummies and monsters,
forcefields and death rays, trap doors and dead—uery dead—ends. Remember
where you've been and watch where you're going., .there'sgot to be a way
out somewhere*
Better hurry, or you'll wind up playing a rather unpleasant role in one of
Doctor Creep's experiments.

Who knows what fabulous treasures—and unspeakable dangers—await
you in the world's deepest cave? This is one game you can really get into...
and inlc.and into.
Wander through miles of uncharted passageways, swinging on ropes and
ladders, tumbling over subterranean falls and plunging to the very depths of
the earth on an abandoned mine railroad. Deadly steam vents and boiling lava
pits threaten you at every turn. Chattering bats and the Spirits of dead
Spelunkers beg you to join them, permanently
Let's face it: you're in deep, deep trouble.

You're the star of a full-fledged arcade adventure —and the big question
is whether it'll turn out to be a comedy or a tragedy. That's because your co-star
and beloved brother, Archaeologist Fenton Q. Fogbank, is rather absent-
minded and extremely accident-prone.
As you search for priceless treasures in steaming tropical jungles, ancient
cliff villages, musty old tombs and glittering crystal caverns, you control both
your character and your brother. The only way to keep him on track and out
of trouble is to whistle and pray that he follows you to safety.
Poison arrows, runaway boulders, fearsome frogs and mysterious
mummies are only a few of the hazards that'll make you wish you weren't your
brother's keeper.

You're all alone on a strange and forbidding planet. On the distant horizon,
looming thousands of meters above the blasted landscape, lies your destina
tion: The Dark Tower, home of the mysterious Council of Nine, cruel overlords
of a conquered world.
You must maneuver your Stealth Starfighter through an unending assault
by the Council's automated arsenal —jets and heat-seeking missiles, photon
tanks and anti-aircraft batteries, vaporizing volcanoes and deadly energy fields,
Outgunned and outmanned, you must press ever onward, with only your
stealth to rely on.
You must reach the Tower You must destroy it. There's no turning back.

Jr Runner ji J • . !!■: /!•WhiM Itri Bit.ih.-r. Sprlunker ir J SliMllWiu antiliblcfot Atari

J jijuir ComfjUr * Cammadon- i,4 is » tmilrimiTkofCo mmodOft B , tM, Appi* * tradtmiuk of AppU Compute Inc. Atari t a ttmtimark of Atari ConxMlto
MERCY for commodore:


It has come to our attention thai some of you
out there think you're pretty good at LotHa
Runner, 1983's best computer game. For those
foolhardy few, we offer a challenge of a higher
order; Championship Lode Runner.
With fifty fiendish Treasury Chambers:
more intricate, more elaborate, more insidious
than anything you've seen before. You'll need
Sots of skill, lots of smarts, and every ounce
of your lode-running experience to have any
hope at all of survival.
And if you haven't yet paid your dues
on the original Lode Runner, don't even think
of attempting this championship round.

n/omiuhon about B'M"li"'i<l""'l our, lour.-1« r.< ad 17 funl fJrrw, Sun KiifM California "4<>03 ,.. coll H15H"°-»"0- C 1»«J fl^ffbund So/hHUI, /■«■-
them as very slow compared to arcade-style game, because brings not only more depth of
hand-eye coordination games. strategy and tactics would be play, but can offer months of
"That division between come more important than re continuing interest, notes Jack
hand-eye coordination and flexes and reactions. You could Dodd, director of marketing for
strategy games is going to meld give orders to the boxers, plan Avalon Hill's Microcomputer
together; it's going to disap to start fast or slow, train your Games. Game players seem
pear," he adds. fighter in different ways, con more willing to pay a bit more
SSI and Avalon Hill's Micro centrate on offense or defense, for this extended play than for
computer Games Division offer and much more. The game the kinds of arcade-style action
more computer-based strategy would not involve twisting a games which may grow stale
games than any other compa joystick back and forth; you'd very quickly, he says.
nies, with scores of sophisti have to plan ahead. Avalon Hill, which began
cated simulations on a variety of SSI offers you the chance to producing board strategy games
topics. do just that with its computer in 1958 with one title, now has
A strategy game can be game of championship boxing, more than 200 board, computer,
produced to simulate almost any Ringside Scat. Choose your and video games. Virtually all of
activity. Naturally, the games fighters and mix your own set the people now producing com
that sell the best are those of variables. If your fighter is a puter strategy games got their
which intrigue the most people. slugger, then he can probably start playing Avalon Hill board
Sports games such as baseball, charge in more effectively than games and the play-by-mail
football, boxing, bowling, and a classic boxer who may be bet games that the company also
golf are all popular subjects of ter at such techniques as stick helped pioneer.
strategy games. Business strat ing and moving. The options
egy games also are popular: under your control are numer
Manage your own multinational ous. The computer, of course, While sports and business
company, wheel and deal on does what it does best: keeps are topics for numerous
Wall Street, or acquire and track of all those variables. That games, the strategy of warfare
merge hotel chains. Avalon Hill amount of detail would be al remains as popular a game sub
even offers a game for the Com most impossible to monitor ject today as it was when chess
modore 64 which recreates a without the computer, and was invented. Far more com
typical week in the lives of the probably too boring for anyone puter strategy games are de
"working class," TG1F {Thank other than the most tenacious voted to studies of historical
Goodness It's Friday!). game players. conflict than any other subject.
This attention to detail Just as in WarGames, questions

Have you ever wanted to

stage a 12-round fight be SIO-LOUIS 1OUMD 63 BlO-ftLI
tween two of the great heavy FOLLOW UP
55 ftHENfir0^ K0
weights, matching their
individual strengths, weak
nesses, and approaches as you
manage the round-by-round
strategy? What would a bobbing
and weaving Larry Holmes have
done against a heavy hitting KD'D RD FT ^-^^^^^— KD'D RE) FT
Rocky Marciano?
697V: 073*
One way of designing a
boxing game would be to con COLOR COMMENTARY
centrate on the fight, pitting one LOUIS SEEMS TO BE A LITTLE BIT
player against the other. It
would be an action game where ]ALI IS NAILED BV A LEFT
the two players control how JAB TO THE HEAD.
much punching goes on. Each
player takes on the role of a
boxer. But suppose the players
stepped back and took on the SSI's Ringside Seat offers more than 45 of the world's greatest fighters. The
persona of a boxer's manager? It player plans round-by-round strategy and can alter each fighter's style,
would no longer be a straight ability, speed, aggressiveness, strength, and many other characteristics.
26 COMPUTED GazaJ/o December 19B4
To teach your child to spell, we had
to design software that talks.
Cave of the Word Wizard."A unique way word correctly, but each time you are wrong he will
to develop spelling skills using human draw energy from your light. When your flashlight
runs out of
speech and arcade action.
energy you
Software that tries to teach spelling by jumbled will be
letters isn't a very good teacher. The software has doomed to
to talk. Now it does. Only on Cave of the Word Wizard roam through
from Timeworks. the cave in
The Wizard talks like a human being, not like darkness
a robot. This fascinating character thrusts you Into an forever.
intriguing adventure as he teaches spelling in the During
most effective way possible on a computer. your search
You have wandered into a mys you will be
terious cave, and the entrance confronted
has been sealed behind you. with spiders, rocks, snakes, and other
Suddenly the Word Wizard dangerous obstacles that will make your
appears and informs you quest for freedom even more
that in order to leave challenging.
his cave you This state-of-the-art educa
must find four tional program includes 500
magic crys: spoken words in 10 spell
tals which ing skill levels and
have the makes full use of the
sound capabilities
needed to of your com
open the puter. The
cave entrance. Wizard will
You have only a talk to you
flashlight to help in clear
you find your way human
through the cave, and speech. No
your batteries are run additional hard
ning low. ware is needed
The Wizard is a funny old for your computer
fellow who causes lots of mischief system.
for anyone who enters his cave. He Only Timeworks offers
will appear often and ask you to spell a Cave of the Word Wizard.
word-you will actually hear the old Wizard's Now at your favorite dealer. Or
voice!—and you cannot continue your search contact Timeworks, Inc., 405 Lake
until you spell the word correctly Cook Road, Deerfield, IL 60015.
The Wizard will use his magic powers to Phone:312-948-9200.
replenish the energy in your flashlight if you spell the
Available for Commodore 64*

Timeworks Programs:
Evelyn Wood Dynamic Reader ■ Dungeons of Algebra
Dragons ■ Spellbound ■ Computer Education Kits
■ Robbers of the Lost Tomb ■ Wall Street ■ Star Battle
■ Presidential Campaign sa Money Manager m Electronic
Checkbook ss Data Manager ss Word Writer
C19B4 Itrnewntk!.. Inc. All iiqMa lesecvod Soltvitiro SihhcH by Elodiontc Speech SyMema
O19S4. ■ Registered trademark oi Commodore Computer Systems
of "what if....?" are providing Those people who play the people who buy their com
fascinating games for thousands strategy war games, adds puter war games have played
of Commodore owners. Billings, generally are college board war games by Avalon Hill
What if you commanded educated, interested in history, or others. Of the customers who
Caesar's legions against Helvetii and have fairly high IQs. "It's purchase SSI's Computer Base
barbarian infantry and Belgae an awareness level. People who ball, Billings says that 62 per
cavalry during the Gallic Wars? play war games are more aware cent have played a board war
of the issues. There's a better game before. "So, you're getting
What if the Huns, who ac understanding of what's going 40 percent of those people who
tually swept through Europe are not wargamers, but happen
on," he says.
400 years after Caesar's time, "I don't think you have any to be interested in baseball.
had been met by Caesar him They don't know what a strat
more of the jingoistic type of
self? Avalon Hill's Legionnaire feeling. You probably have less egy war game is," he says.
for the 64 offers you the chance SSI is trying to reach that
of what you might think would
to find out. percentage with several of its
be associated with war games,"
What if you commanded says Billings. "Studies of the new games, which feature real
the German troops invading war gamer crowd ten years ago time action. With games like
Russia during World War II? Let showed that you're dealing with Combat Lender, which includes
your computer move the Rus college educated people, and arcade-style graphics and action
sian troops in this campaign that's why it fits in real well as well as strategy, and Broad
which was so crucial to the out with computers, of course, [The sides, which puts you in com
come of the war. Ba'rac Limited games] are very complicated; mand of an 18th-century
allows you to do just that in its you don't play them unless warship, realtime action is used
new Road To Moscow: The East you're pretty smart." to make the game more inter
ern Front, 1941-45, available for Whatever the pros and active. Realtime action allows
the Commodore 64. That's also cons, it's clear that war strategy both sides to move virtually
the scenario in Avalon Hill's games have found a natural simultaneously. Changes even
Panzers East!, for the 64. (See habitat in the computer. occur off the screen while the
reviews of Ba'rac's Road to Billings says the audiences game is in progress, adding a
Moscow and Microprose Soft for computer war games and more realistic feel.
ware's NATO Commander else other strategy games, such as "In most war games, you
where in this issue.) sports or business, are different. sit down and make your move.
The Battle of the Bulge, an From customer response cards, Then the other player makes his
other important engagement SSI knows that 95 percent of move, and so on. In Combat
during World War II, is the sub
ject of SSI's Tigers in the Snow.
As in most war games, you
make your strategic plans based
on such factors as troop
strength, weather, supplies,
airpower, reinforcements, and
similar categories.
Critics of these games de
plore the attention given to the
subject of war. SSI's Billings
"War games make you a lit
tle more sensitive to the fact
that war is not great. Seen from
the eyes of the general, it may
seem like a lot of fun. But you
quickly realize it's very easy to
say, 'I'm going to sacrifice this
guy over here. It represents
15,000 men, but it's for the
greater good.' Then you realize
you wouldn't want to be one of
those men out there being sacri Among the most popular computer strategy games are simulations of
ficed," he says. important battles and ivars, such as Avalon Hill's Dnieper River Line.

28 COMPUTEfs Gazette December 19B4

/'"Hi, were from Europe. Wheres the gold?"J


:■ ,'. " ■ : . -:..,■ -■ ' ■ ' ■". .. -■''■-


■ ■<;. .;

§F COLUMBUS tlic way seasons change

I HADLANDEDN and your men behave, and
I NEWJERSEY;if the way your reputation
J^ Cortei liFid been proceeds you gives you a
nicer to Monteiuma; if sort of feeling that's
Pizarro had been a more unexpected in computer
generous soul, would games. Its deeper. Maybe
the world today be any
different ? plays as much in your
T/ui ll EwrOpflj in KTDtfbig 3-D yup/lKJ \bu outfit, viiti tin:
If you've ever won ctd nuifoT rliit, yotinrum Liu-r tr> telldi ynrn of wild KDffe abo head as it docs inside
dered about things like your computer.
that, you'll like Seven Settii Cirics does all
Cities of Gold very much this with the real world or,
indeed. better still (since the"new"
It's a kind of adven world really isn't any
ture. An unusually rich more), it will construct any
and technically impres number of completely
sive one with new conti detailed hemispheres for
nents to explore, natives you to try your hand with.
to encounter, resources to Designed by O:ark
manage and trade routes Softscape (the people
There ore owr 2HIXI saeaa lo wplort in iht new Anmaicd imnii-i .lunnnnJ wu They fan •■ >ic
to establish. But beyond u.irU. As tuti unilt(hnn<i;h tfitnt KOxmi ihunsc imjon to tnal juitTfn tlnon b who made M.U.L.E.,
all the neat stuff Scum ln/»i(ioWiis"SrrategyGamc
Cities throws up on the ofl983"),&renatiesi5
screen, there's something about as near a recreation
else happening here. of history as has ever
It feels quire odd to been accomplished, with
look at the map and see or without a computer.
nothing. Of course you Find it. Stomp around
have to explore the more in it. See if you cant do a
than 2800 screen new better job than all the cel
world in order to map it. ebrated figures who got
But the way the natives us into the mess we have
act. the way you get older. to deal with today.


from Electronic arts™

J.MCHME REQUIREMENTS: Stvtn Oik. o/G<*1 i* avtllable fo. ihc AM' M- II + , lit & llc.Qmrord.ire M >md AM homr ™mi*>ien
inr Loiji For. frcr|imliiit>dul>««.vula lumpni.wK jJ!w.«J •IL'nivcl«. rn FlntmnsAm 1J1! C*m,«:. Il.i.r. Sjii Mmm.CAIMOi
Leader and Broadsides, it's all can name your own characters. fuel tank on a given tank can be
realtime, so it has the feeling of And as they survive the scenar a crucial factor easily accounted
an arcade game. But it has a lot ios, they improve," adds for by the computer.
more strategy built in than an Damon. Computer strategy games
arcade game would have," he Avalon Hill's T.A.C. (Tacti are already beginning to use
says. cal Armor Command) also brings more of the memory becoming
war strategy games down to the available on high end comput
unit level. You have control ers. Avalon Hill's Computer Di
Computer strategy games, over individual tanks, anti-tank plomacy, for example, is a
while already complex, will guns, and infantry squads in strategy game full of high-level
become even more interactive this World War II scenario. You diplomatic intrigues set among
and sophisticated in the future, build your own combat team the superpowers prior to the
says Roger Damon, who de from among 40 different ar First World War. The game re
signed Brtrderbund Software's mored vehicles representing quires a 256K IBM PC to run.
popular Operation Whirlwind, four of the major powers of That's clearly the direction in
available for the Commodore World War II. Because of your which future strategy simula
64. computer's ability to handle the tions will head as computers be
"There are just so many minutiae of detail, many vari come more powerful.
possibilities. It's amazing to me ables can be included: range, But for now, Commodore
that people haven't explored armor thickness, respective owners are strategically placed
them," says Damon, "When you speeds and maneuvering ca to take advantage of some of
get into the next generation of pability, visibility, and much the best such simulation games
computers, some really incred more. Even the placement of the in the field.
ible simulations are going to
start coming along."
A battle action set during
World War II, Operation Whirl
While a number of software developers offer computer strategy games,
wind depends more on strategy
these two companies produce such a variety that you may wish to
than on force as you attempt to send for their catalogs:
move your infantry battalion Strategic Simulations, Inc.
Avalon Hill Game Company
forward against an enemy-held Microcomputer Games Division 883 Stierlin Road
city. The game was Damon's 4517 Harford Road Building A-200
first computer-based strategy Baltimore, MD 21214 Mountain View, CA 94042-1983
simulation. He's now completed (301) 254-9200 (415) 964-1353
a second game, Field of Fire, for
the 64, which is being marketed
by SSI.
"I dropped down in scale,
so that it's no longer companies
you're moving around, it's actu
ally fire teams—just small
groups of men," says the 34-
year-old programmer. "And
then it went on from there. The
graphics improved. I could
make houses look more like
houses, and actual blocky look
ing figures on the pieces instead
of military symbols."
In the game, your goal is to
take your company of men
through a sequence of World
War II scenarios that starts in
North Africa, goes through Sicily,
takes you to the beaches of Nor
mandy, and then into Germany.
"You try to survive with
these guys. There's actually a SSI's Rails West!, in which the player assumes the role of a railroad baron of
role-playing element where you the 1870s in an effort to build the transcontinental railroad system.

30 COMPUTE'S Gazette December 1984


JL.fyou took all
the hours spent
by all the people
who've played
and Water.The
Archon and put role of magic is
them together, there's a
greater. The strat
good chance it'd amount
egies are deeper.
to more human effort
Things move faster. And
than it took to
the hidden algorithms that
put a man an
control the computer's play
the moon.
are considerably smarter.
What does ■n. Paid fcfcho JU awl Ann? Westjall waled Atchcm- the 11MI Gumto; ita^'ar"^, Having already spent
this mean? Is it a good (i> So/fTnic jiid Cieimir t.xnm(>iLliML' KtdTip ti 11I0UY. hfimrl indn'tiri's thq u^Tt nuJ jatn/itd llfl this
the better part of a month
thing? And why, in light of this, did Now for the third question. Why
playing ADEPT (in order to write
the people pictured here decide to a sequel? Well, there are sequels and
this ad, of course), we're quite confi
issue a scorching sequel named there are sequels.The good
dent it will seduce you too.
Archon 11: ADEPT? ones happen because people
And if, by some strange chance,
For starters, we don't really know just haven't had enough of
there is a parallel universe in which
what it means. Except that a lot of ouaat a good thing. Obviously
computer simulations come to life, we
people who had a pretty good time we're here to tell you that Archan lh
are confident that a large part of its
with Archon arc about to get more ADEPT falls into the right category.
population has Jon Freeman, Paul
of what they like. And people Where Archon took inspiration
Reiche III and Anne Westfall to thank
who've yet to experience rhe from chess, fantasy role-playing
for their brief and miserable existence.
best-selling, award-winning. characters and arcade
Bids knuckle-whitening original combat, ADEPTcomes
have two good things coming more from a world of
their way. its own making. Like
Point two: If there's a moral issue Archon, it pits the forces
here, we see it this way: A wise man of good against those
once said, "I ain't never had too much of evil. But in place of
fun!' We agree. And we think that the chessboard motif
once you get your hands on Archon /!. there is a map of ele
ADEPT you'll sec his point. ments—Earth, Air. Fire


MACHINE RtQUREMHNTS A: h .m ihc Arpt- II II ■ »■■ f. Ik. IBM-PC. PCXT S. Pqr,CMnmBdon M and Ami Anhan II .WEPT.. anihblenn iht Cnmm« M «ni Awn
lll AOtPTm ice >™, b. tj Eln.n«k A". In, A lit Ami. top— Cm An4c ,.. .i.fcmjrll i.l
i.l ,\ni,
,\n r..w«,i Ci^n t™mu4jM H . injnurl «( C.TiBi.Jjt &..,n^, \U.h.n.. Ir, Hill
"Combinatorial Explosion"
The ancient game of chess provides a good its variety of possible moves, being generally
example of the way in which computer strat better than a corner position or one along the
egy games work. It also reveals the allure side of the board.
that such strategy games have had for com Using a trial-and-error method, computer
puter scientists and programmers from the chess programs search every possible move
beginnings of the computer era. and countermove, calculating numerical totals
When mathematicians first began to based on pieces captured or lost in sub
think of ways to test the abilities of comput sequent combinations of moves.
ers, chess seemed ideal for several reasons. If a computer, even a supercomputer,
First, the rules are explicitly defined and lim were asked to consider without limit each
ited; second, a computer's chess play can be combination from the first move in a game of
easily compared and measured against that of average length (say forty moves), what would
a person's; and third, there is no one correct occur would be a geometric progression of
answer, only a constantly changing series of possible games—a virtual combinatorial
positions which the computer must contin explosion—which has been calculated at
ually analyze and reanalyze. something like one million to the twentieth
The 19th century inventor Charles power, or a one followed by 120 zeros. Com
Babbage theorized that games like chess and puter chess programmers can build in
tic-tac-toe would be excellent indicators of routines, however, which will limit the num
how successfully an "analytical engine"— ber of moves a computer will analyze per
that is, a computer—could mimic human turn. Other techniques can be applied in
thought. Today, computer chess programs chess programs which will diminish even fur
have been written which rival the strength of ther the total number of combinations needed
very good players; although even the strong to be considered by the computer to those
est computer chess game is not yet superior which apply directly to a given situation.
to the world's best chess grandmasters. All strategy games use some variation of
Microcomputer chess games like Sargon this basic formula, but with additional
II from Hayden Software (600 Suffolk St., complexities built in. There are no random
Lowell, MA 01853) and Chess from Odesta elements in a game of chess. But in many of
(3186 Doolittle Drive, Northbrook, IL the most popular strategy games, there are
60062)—both available for the Commodore such variables as weather conditions, fatigue
64—offer varying levels of play, demonstra factors, supply problems, and even troop mo
tions of moves and strategies, and other op rale fluctuations which may influence the
tions that the first mainframe computers outcome. In this way, strategy games can
could never have included. more accurately simulate the random ele
ments of real life than does the game of
Translating Strategy To Instead of the computer having to keep
Numbers track of 16 pawns and 16 major pieces for
In order to function, chess programs must both sides in chess, many strategy games re
assign numerical values to each chess piece. quire that the computer follow hundreds of
The lowly pawn might be assigned a one, for different pieces, calculate time and strength
example; the queen, a nine; and the in differences, introduce random elements, and
dispensable king, a number high enough to figure dozens of other variables. In the final
discourage the computer from ever risking its analysis, whether the computer game is chess
capture. Advanced computer chess games or the most complex simulation of business,
also consider values assigned to certain po sports, or war, the same numerical value sys
sitions on the board as well—the center, with tem is at the heart of them all.

32 COMPUTED Gazette December 1984

i ■ ■

■ *■-■
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"-■ :■:■:' ■■': ■:"- ■ '/■ -■■■ -_^.i




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The printer In a class by itself. OKIMATE 10 feels right at home.

It's here! The new OKIMATE 10 Per Anywhere.
sonal Color Printer. The first color A special PLUG 'N PRINT1" pack
printer that lets you show off and age lets you plug your new OKIMATE
tell all. The printer that lets you 10 into your Atari or Commodore
print all the information you can computer. And print. It's that easy.
create with your Atari* or Com In minutes you'll be printing every
modore"1 computer. But with the re thing from souffle recipes to
markable ability to create original needlepoint patterns. Party invita
drawings and graphics as well, in tions to kitchen inventory. Love let
over 26 beautiful colors. ters to gardening directions. At 240
A class act! The OKIMATE 10 gives remarkable words per minute. And not
you crisp, clean term papers, school just in black and white, but in over 26
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printed letter quality in minutes, instead of typed Financial statements will keep you tickled
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color gives you the op If you use your personal computer to keep
portunity to print track of mortgage payments, tuition payments,
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pictures from pop Dow |ones", there's good news for you. You'll
ular graphics and find that the new OKIMATE 10 gets down to
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grams. OKIMATE A "Learn-to-Print" diskette and tape shows you
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"Atari Is a registered trademark of Atari Inc •Commodore is a registered trademark of Commodore Business Machines. Inc

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be glad to know that your new printer can keep will run on your Atari and Commodore with a
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OKIMATE 10 is completely com
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an OKI AMERICA rnmp.inv

Available at retailers everywhere.

Electronic Trivia
Kathy Yakal, Feature Writer

It seemed to hit last Christ by news magazines and televi

mas. Thousands of holiday sion shows.) And at least a
travelers, returning from Who was the first NHL dozen Commodore 64 versions
visits with relatives, had a player to earn $100,000 per have sprung up in half as many
new way to pass the time while season? What does a buffalo months. Some are the products
making the long trek home. lack which a bison has? of familiar software publishers,
Trivial Pursuit had been under a How many states border but more than one company has
lot of Christmas trees, and it Tennessee? Trivia questions formed for the sole purpose of
was suddenly the hottest game have fascinated and supplying trivia games to home
since Monopoly. frustrated people for years. computer owners.
Party guests who normally More recently, trivia buffs These games vary greatly in
would have excused themselves have been able to enjoy an format, Some are multiple-
early to avoid icy midnight explosion of new trivia choice, and require the players
winds found themselves staying board games. Many new to enter the correct answer (via
well into the early morning trivia games are now joystick or keyboard) before
hours at January parties. Every available for the other players do, or before a
body wanted to play, and man Commodore 64. time limit is up. Others supply
ufacturers couldn't keep up with the question but no hints; the
the demand. correct answer is displayed after
Waiting lists for the wildly everyone has guessed. And at
popular game stretched for Monopoly, the best-selling least one incorporates an arcade
pages. Store clerks, tired of con board game of all time, may game format, giving players a
stant queries, posted signs say soon lose that title. It took 49 chance to brush up on their
ing, "We are out of Trivial years for Monopoly to sell 85 hand-eye coordination as well
Pursuit." million sets worldwide. Trivial as their memory.
Sales of Trivial Pursuit will Pursuit is expected to sell more Question categories vary,
reportedly reach $750 million in than a quarter of that total in from such standard topics as
the United States alone this one year's time in the U.S. television and movies, sports,
year. The entire board game in This recent surge of popu and geography, to areas such as
dustry took in less than half larity in a trivia game has body language, antiques, and
that amount in 1983: $310 spawned many clones. (There phobias. There's something for
million. are even trivia board games sold everyone.

COMPUTEfs Gazette December 1984 37

Computer proL
daVinci, Shaftesp
Al Capp would ha
;rams for kids that
eare, Dickens and
ve loved.
If they were starting out today, this BANK STREET STORYBOOK
IS what they could start with. Pixelwerks. Dickens wouldn't be able to keep
THE OTHER WAY his hands off Bank Street StoryBook by
TO DRAW AND WRITE George Brackett.
Instead of a brush and canvas, a Not only could he write his own
pen and paper, theyd create on a com story, but he could also illustrate the
puter Because Pixelwerks is the first scenes and characters he sees in his
medium that can keep up with their mind.
imaginations. MR. PIXELS CARTOON KIT
MR. PIXELS Maybe Al Capp wouldn't be satis
PROGRAMMING PAINT SET fied with cartoons that just sit on the
With Mr. Pixel's Programming Paint page after he tried Mr: Pixel's Cartoon
Set, da Vinci (or any 8-year old) could do Kit. Because he could make his car
more than paint a picture. He couid also toons come to life by animating them.
enlarge it, repeat it, move it around, and His characters could move around, and
change colors. Instantly. even react to each other
And at the same time, he Every kid has a touch of creative
developing his programming genius buried inside. The job of
skills. Painlessly. Pixelwerks is to
SHOW DIRECTOR bring it out, with
the other hand, Shakespeare more features,
)ve to play around with Show more options and
Director more flexibility than
He'd use it to create plots other programs.
and think up one scene after an In short, we supply the tools. Kids
other, and he'd get a big cast of supply the imagination.
characters, lots of backgrounds,
and musical sound effects to
them out.
. Hit tXran (tow. tolttra*. I W06? Hr mertomuWn :•" 1-9302JI WS4 "i Bran i-BOOWJ 7315
Why the mania? "Trivia has synthesizer for the Commodore Most of the trivia games cur
been around for a long 64. rently available emphasize
time, but we just haven't no Also entering the trivia getting the right answer within
ticed it as much," says Doug game arena is software pub a pre-determined time limit.
Monahan, co-founder of a Dallas- lisher Screenplay. "Everyone Players take turns answering
based software company, Trivial has been asking trivia questions questions, and the winner is
Compute. of each other for years, like usually the person who obtains
Monahan's point is well 'What was the name of Sky the prescribed amount of points
taken. TV game shows, dating King's airplane?' " says com first.
from the early days of The pany president Sandy Schupper. Suncom's PQ: The Party
"Trivial Pursuit started out the Quiz requires quick reflexes as
$64,000 Question and GE College
public awareness of trivia. We well as the correct answer. The
Bowl, to the recent revival of
looked at the computer as a per game comes with four hand
Jeopardy, have had people
fect medium, because not only controllers connected to cables
shouting answers from arm
chairs at home for years. In the
pre-arcade game days, airports
and other public places had
coin-operated "test your knowl
edge" games. Monahan recalls
heated verbal trivia matches in
moments of boredom during his
days at West Point.
"In the '60s, everyone was
protesting. In the 70s, no one
knew what was going on. Now,
in the '80s everyone is con
scious of living well," he says.
"It's chic to drive a big car and Shoot down the character representing the category you want to choose
know lots of stuff." (sports, music, television, science, or general knowledge), and answer
correctly to win one letter in the word "TRIVIA" in Screenplay's Trivia
The latest in Trivial Com
pute's series of trivia games is
the World Class Edition, focus
ing on the lifestyles of the rich does it give you the basics of a that plug into the Commodore
and famous, international sports trivia game, but it gives you a 64's two joystick ports. Each
and resorts, royalty and celebri little more excitement, using the controller has four touch-
ties. Questions range from computer's sound and sensitive pads on it. After the
"What city is Yale University graphics." question and four possible an
in?" to "What is the name of Screenplay's Trivia Arcade swers are displayed, the first
the breed of the $2000 dog fea takes advantage of the Commo player to hit the correct button
tured in the '83 Neiman-Marcus dore 64's sound and graphics corresponding to the right an
Christmas catalog?" and "What capabilities through its arcade swer on the screen gets points.
ski resort in America offers ski game format. Before each ques The game can also be
ing in July?" tion is displayed, players must played in social, as opposed to
"What we're selling is chase down the figure repre competitive, mode. Everyone
information," says Monahan. senting the category they want. who answers the question cor
He sees his move into the trivia Each correct answer is rewarded rectly within the time limit gets
game business as a natural pro with one of the letters in the points. The faster you answer,
gression from his years working word "trivia." Once a player the more points you get. Other
with data base management spells out the entire word, he or user-controlled functions are re
systems. she must answer a question cor sponse time (3-10 seconds) and
Other editions available rectly in each category to win. game length (5-20 rounds; 10
from Trivial Compute include Trivia Arcade contains 3500 questions per round).
Trivia Americana, West Coast questions in five categories: Every few rounds, each
Trivia, New York Insignifica, and sports, television, science, mu player must take on the com
Texas Trivia. They're in the pro sic, and general knowledge. Ad puter in a lightning round, where
cess of completing a talking ditional disks, containing up to ten questions are displayed in
trivia game, which uses the 4000 questions each, will be 20 seconds. The more questions
Covox Voice Master, a speech available this winter. answered correctly, the more
40 COMPUTE!'* Gazette DecembeM984

Shouting down the menac first. It may be critical to your success.

ing and constantly multiplying Numerous screens combine to create truly
'l'liR';i[ls isn't easy, but it's only unique and challenging Kami' play. There's even a
one i>f the challenges in this practice screen to sharpen your Thread Fighting
official computer same version of skills.
Anne McCaffreys famous book If you liked the books, you'll love the game.
series. After all, how often do you gel the chance !o actually
Your strategy will be put to fly a dragon?
the test as you try to negotiate alliances with Pern's Lord One to four players, joystick and keyboard
Holders in an attempt to form the most powerful Weyr toil I railed.
on the planet. Should you take a firm stance or compro
mise? Will asking a Crafluiaster for assistance increase
your chances for success? Maybe you shouldinvite prospec
tive nllies to a Wedding or even a Dragon Hatching.
Ki-ini-mber to check the Lord Holders personality traits Strategy Games for the Action Game Player
bonus points awarded. their own trivia questions in the ances that crop up in Trivial
It's rather ironic that trivia same format as the game. Pursuit, says Paradiso. One of
is so wildly popular. School Professional Software is those irritations is the guy who
children despise tests. Even col also looking at trivia games as jumps up and down and yells "I
lege students, interested as they educational software of the fu know! I know!" at every ques
may be in their chosen subject ture. But their prime purpose for tion.
matter, tend to groan when producing Trivia Fever is To combat this, Trivia Fever
finals come around. entertainment. allows handicapping. Players
Though labeling trivia Trivia Fever is Professional's who are more knowledgeable in
games as "educational" might first entry in the entertainment a particular area, or in all areas,
mean death to them in the software market, though they're can be required to answer more
entertainment market, the fact is well-known as the publishers of questions, more difficult ques
that they are educational. We WordPro, the popular word pro tions, or be given less time to
don't always retain the answers cessor, for the Commodore line. answer.

"Handicapping is very im
portant," says Paradiso. "You
can make the game dynamically
different for every person that's
Iii-mon lor Iliw Hi- Mf
C«t«i»rn SinttijB
'•<■ r
llufiiiDn Ctttttry Ifi
playing. It also allows families
Fllni Mad Enitrtainntnt to play together more easily. By
SfititM Difficulty Ltu.i in
handicapping the parents, the
kids have a better chance to
ih* third 'Stir- U*rf' win."
SOB *is>.ri question
Trivia Fever can be played
>.ri Jo h»«# IKf question!
iltd, or rHSt
r <r> in,i Irlvit ftvtr
■ill i*l*ct hr
rhr CAtvgorit* for BOS *■ .»• frrttX miMr II
[••'.■ri-n o* ih« ]*4i '
"-.ritulat ion) _ . with or without a computer (a
PJESS (SMCE «**> te tonflnut • him ihti yes hivt mn ilaMiH w
book of questions and answers
and score sheets are included).
Suggested retail price is $39.95,
In Professional Software's Trivia Fever, yow am opt to select your own
category or let the computer choose one randomly. Once the player has
but purchasers who don't own
given an answer, the gamemaster tells the computer whether or not it computers can mail back their
was correct, and points are awarded. disk for a $5 rebate.
To supplement the thou
sands of questions contained in
to all the questions we miss (al "We wanted to enter the Trivia Fever, Professional Soft
though we certainly do if we entertainment area, but needed ware plans to release editions
miss them a second time), but to find out first what was enter specializing in sports, entertain
we're often reminded of all the taining to people," says Ken ment, word trivia, and an edu
things we've forgotten since Paradiso, marketing manager for cational series, targeted to junior
school days. Professional Software. Their re high and high school students.
One trivia game that could search pointed to trivia, Trivia Other trivia games currently
easily be used in a classroom game sales had jumped from available for the Commodore 64
setting is Trivia Trek, by MMG $600,000 in 1981 to $70,000,000 include:
Micro Software. The game con in 1983. Sales for 1984 are pro
tains 500 multiple-choice ques jected to exceed one billion • Master Trivia, from Cym
tions in ten different categories, dollars. bal Software. Up to six players;
ranging from antiques to inven Further research revealed game lengths of 50, 100, or 150
tors to U.S. statistics. There's why Americans planned to points, and time limits varying
even a section on Commodore spend that non-trivial amount of from 10-20 seconds. Cymbal
facts: (PRINT CHR$(147) will money on trivia. "One reason is has released additional disks
cause: 1. Clear screen 2. Clear obviously the maximization of that can be integrated into play
memory 3. Snow 4. Carriage social interaction," says Para with the master disk. Categories
return.) diso, "Another is the ego hit include sports, world facts,
What makes this game a you get from the game. It's an "Entertainment Tonight," and
potential educational tool is its all-win situation because even if children's trivia.
Editor section. Subject matter is you miss a question, it's not im • Factactics, from Daystar
not limited to the questions portant. It's only trivia. People Learning Corporation. Players
written by the software de don't come down on you." move around a game board on
signer: Using a separate disk for Trivia Fever was designed the computer screen, typing in
storage, players can make up to minimize some of the annoy answers to questions on sports,
1 '




■ - < - -

-■ '"-

- -. ., ^ -

Real baseball is more than just hit Two modes let you choose between
ting, pitching and fielding. It's also managing and controlling your team or
IP Hi your favorite major league teams, the managing only. The World's Greatest
great stars of today and the All- Baseball Game—everything you
stars of yesteryear. It's statistics and could ever want except the hot dogs
coaching, and it's managing your and peanuts.
own game strategy. With the World's One or two players; joystick controlled.
Greatest Baseball Game, you have
it all. Pick your major league line-up
using the actual player and team
stats. Then watch the action unfold
against an opponent or the computer. Strategy Games for [heAction-Game Player
music, rock & roll, TV, movies, politics, geography, science and initial game parameters are set,
and Americana. nature, history, entertainment, only the space bar need be used
• Fax, by Epyx. This is the and odds and ends. Once the for input.
home computer version of the
Exidy arcade game.
• Computrivia, by Extek. Fox more Information, PQ: The Party Quiz Game
Over 1300 non-repeating ques ($69.95; $24.95 for additional
tions on the arts, business and disks)
Computrivia ($34.95)
260 Holbrook Dr.
EXTEK Computer Aided
Wheeling, II 60090
P.O. Box 305 Trivia Arcade ($34.95)
Oakville, Ontario, Screenplay
TIUC : Canada 16} 1N0 500 Eastowne Dr., Suite 211
Chapel Hill, NC 27514
S. Who was Ihe NFL took!* of IhB Factactics ($29.95)
yaarfn 19637
Daystar learning Corporation Trivia Fever ($34.95)
525 University Ave. Professional Software
Palo Alto, CA 94301 53 Fremont St.
Needham, MA 02194
Fax ($27.00)
Epyx, Inc. Trivia Trek $29.95)
1043 Kiel Ct. MMG Micro Software
Sunnyvale, CA 94089 P.O. Box 131
Answer a question correctly in Epyx's Marlboro, NJ 07746
Master Trivia #29.95; $19.95
FAX and you get to wear a mortar for additional disks) Trivial Compute ($34.95)
board. Get it wrong and you're stuck Cymbal Software The Trivial Compute Company
with the dunce cap. FAX includes 1200 Rt. 23 3527 Oak lawn Ave., Suite 119
over 3,700 questions in the areas of Butler, NJ 07405 Dallas, TX 75219 <B
entertainment, history, sports, or

"Finally, A Universal Graphics Interface!"
The ALL NEW "MICROGRAFIX" parallel interface by Micro World
Electrons Inc., is a complete switch_selectable interface with lull
graphic capabilities lor the VIC 20™ and Commodore 6a™. It's
truly the most universal of Interfaces with the capacity to print the
Commodore" graphics set, since it is switch selectable for virtually
all Centronics compalible parallel printers including Daisy wheel
1) Fully intelligent Interface that plugs into the Standard Corn-
mod oro' printer socket,
2) Complete graphics capability that will allow popular matrix
printers to fully pass the Commodore' Printer test (including
Inverse lent,tabbing, cursor up/down, etc.).
3) Works with virtually all software, since it provides emula
tion ol the Standard Commodore' Printer.
4) Optional user installed 4K buffer to speed up graphics and
text printing.
5) Complete built-in status and sell-test report.
6| Switch Selectable Commodore' graphics mode lor most
popular printers (Epson, Star Micronics, C. Itoh, Prownter.
Okidata, Seikosha, NEC, Rileman, Banana, SMC,
Panasonic, Mannesman Talley and others) plus a Univer
sal Switch mode lor letter quality printers.
7] Complete with emulale mode, transparent mode, total text
mode, ASCII conversion modes that will insure virtually total
compatibility with popular Software.
Na more ROM changes or extra shelf space taken up. The
Micrografii Interlace is easier to stock since one interlace will
support virtually all printers.

Order From:

1342B Route 23
Butler, New Jersey 07405
Price $129.00- (201) 838-9027

• '" Trademarks of Commodore Business Machines. Inc.

Dealer and Distributor Inquiries Invited 'Call lor details en our super $50.00 trade-In offer.

■■.,. n •- .

When we introduced Pitstop, opponent, a digital clock displays time and a lap
we created action in the pits. counter gives you your race position as you race
Now, with PITSTOP II, EPYX against each other in pursuit of the checkered flag.
introduces true competitive auto You can also play against the computer or take a
racing, both on the track and in few practice laps as you prepare for the real head-
the pits. Auto racing is not a one to-head competition Step up to PITSTOP II because
man sport. With PITSTOP II, auto racing is not a solo sport.
you can now experience the thrill One or hue players: joystick controlled; disk or cassette.
of speed and competition as you battle your opponent in
a race against the clock. Now, more than ever, the strategy
of when you make a pit stop and your pit crew's speed
and performance, combined with your skill on the track,
will determine the winner.
A split screen shows you your position and that of your Strategy Games for theAction-Game Ptayei

Bally Midway's Spy Hunter puts Bully Midway's Tapper would like Bally Midway's Up 'N Down by
you in the driver's seat of the hottest to welcome you 10 the fastest game Sega, In this game, a crash is no
machine on four wheels. You're in the universe, accident.
after enemy spies. The situation is You're serving up drinks in some In fact, it's the whole object of the
life and death. You'll need every of the craziest places you've ever game. You'll race your baja bug over
weaponVOu've gol - machine guns, seen. And the service belter be good, some of the worst roads south of any
and guided missiles, oil slicks and or else. You'll wurk your way border. Leap dead ends, gaping can
Smoke screens. Bui the enemy is through the wild Western Saloon to yons and oncoming traffic in a single
everywhere. On the road, in trie ihe Spurts Bar. From there to the bound. And if anyone gets in your
water, even Ln the &in So you'll have slam dancing Punk Bar and on into way, crush 'em.
to be more than last to slay alive in the Space Bar lull of customers who Crashing, bashing Up 'N Down. It's
Spy Hunter. You'll need brains and are, literally oui of this world.1 one smash hit that really is a smash.
guU, loo. Are you fast enough to play Tap
Do von have what it takes? per? If you have to ask, you probably
already know the answer.


The tfl Arcade Game of 1984. Nominated as Most InnovaiivcCoin-Op #1 Arcade Hil, Play Meter Conversions Poll,
Game of 1984 by Electronic dames magazine.



Atari 2600
cartridge HEW NEW HEW /
Atari 5200
earl ridge NEW

Suga's Conyu Bongo rocked the Sega's Zaxxon. If you haven't Computers* /
home game world when it shot up to played Zaxxon, you must have been NEW NEW NEW NEW
Number 3 on the Billboard chart Jiving on another planet for the past
Atari Cum put its'
this spring. few years. diskette NEW NEW NEW /
And now it's available lor even And now the ultimate space com
CoiecoVlslon &
more home systems. So check the bat game is available for even more
chart and gel ready for jungle action. home systems. You'll pilot a space
You'll pursue the mighty ape Congo fighter through force fields and ene Commodore 64 y

cartridge NEW NEW NEW NEW

up Monkey Mountain and across the my fire on your way to do battle uith
Mighty River. Do battle with dan- the mighty Zaxxon robot. Countless Commodore 64 -

gerous jungle creatures. Ride hip others have gone before you in this diskette NEW NEW NEW NEW

pos, dodge charging rhinos and try Hali of Fame game. But this lime Apple II, lie. tic
to avoid becoming a snack for a your life is in your own hands. diskette NEW NEW NEW NEW
man-eating fish. Zaxxon killed them in the arcades.
Congo Bongo. It's fast and it's fun. But compared to what it will do io diskette

But be careful. It's a jungle in there. you at home, that was child's p!ay. NEW NEW NEW NEW HEW

Publi\bi<! hy Dai.-isofl. Inc under I 1 from Scga

/ PEibli'.ht'il b> Cttkcn IinlufiirifSj Iul undcrUCQIH

rroinSf^J l-.nit'rprLsi^, Inc.
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y: fc,..!

Tom R. Halfhill
Staff Editor

Each month, COMPUTED GAZETTE tackles some and a Commodore. The Atari would reserve a
questions commonly asked by new Commodore 64/ single string variable 20000 bytes long; the Com
VIC-20 users and by people shopping for modore would reserve a one-dimensional string
their first home computer. array with 20000 elements. That's because
Microsoft BASIC limits strings to 255 characters,
while Atari BASIC allows strings of any length,
1 own a Commodore 64, and I have a few up to the limit of available memory. These
friends who oivti Atari 800XLs. I'd tike to know statements:
if it's possible to convert programs written in
X$ = LEFT$(A$,10)
Atari BASIC to Commodore BASIC, If this is
feasible, are there any publications that can
X$ = RIGHT$<A$,10)
guide me in converting programs? Also, is there
any program that would allow me to use disks would fill the Atari's screen with syntax error
formatted for the Atari on my Commodore 64? messages, because Atari BASIC lacks such
I have a Commodore 1541 disk drive. substring manipulators. Instead, the Atari uses a
different method of subdividing strings. Assum
It's quite possible to convert programs ing that A$ is 30 characters long, the equivalent
written for Atari computers to work on Com statements would be:
modore computers, and vice versa. In fact, our X$-A$(l,10)
staff programmers do this all the time for our X$«A$(ll,20)
companion magazine, COMPUTE!. Fortunately, the X$=«A$(21,30)
Commodore 64 and Atari computers have similar while on the Commodore, these same lines would
features, making conversions easier. Both ma refei to certain elements of two-dimensional
chines have sprites (called player-missile graphics string arrays. Looks hopeless, doesn't it?
on the Atari), comparable high-resolution graph There are other differences between Com
ics, program ma bit; character sets, and versatile modore BASIC and Atari BASIC as well. Usually
sound capabilities, you can program around them, though. The dif
However, unless you're a pretty good pro ferences that might give you the most trouble in
grammer, translations will not be a snap. While clude anything involving memory manipulations,
the Atari and Commodore both have built-in such as sprites and redefined characters, and the
BASIC languages, the BASICS are two different built-in graphics commands in Atari BASIC,
dialects. Commodore BASIC is Microsoft BASIC, some of which must be written in machine lan
the most common version found on micro guage on the Commodore 64. Conversely, to
computers. Regular Atari BASIC closely resem simulate the music of the 64's SID chip you'd
bles Microsoft BASIC, but differs in several ways. need machine language on the Atari.
Sometimes these differences matter, and some Translating programs from one computer to
times they don't—it depends on the program. another requires lots of experimentation and pa
For example, programs which use lots of tience. It also helps immensely to have both ma
string manipulations may be hard to translate chines handy. We can't recommend any books
back and forth. Atari BASIC lacks the string specifically written for Atari to-Commodore
arrays and substring statements found in BASIC translations because we don't know of
Microsoft BASIC. The statement:
any. Our staff programmers are guided by
DIM A$UO,10) programming reference manuals and memory

sets up a two-dimensional string array with 100

maps for the various computers they work on.
You won't be able to read Atari disks with
elements on the Commodore 64, but would trig
your Commodore 1541 disk drive, either; the for
ger a syntax error on the Atari. The Atari rec
mats are completely different. To save time typ
ognizes only one-dimensional strings. This
ing in long programs to be translated, our
programmers sometimes transfer the code from
DIM A$(20000) one computer to another via modems Often,
would be interpreted quite differently on an Atari however, they don I even attempt a line-by-line
48 COMFUWr Gazotlc Decer.ibe- 1984
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translation—too many changes are required. In and the other end plugs into the IBM PC serial
stead, they start almost from scratch and write a port. Null modem cables are available from sev
version that is similar but not identical. That eral manufacturers, although you might have
way, the programs can take advantage of each trouble finding one with exactly the plug connec
computer's best features. tors you need.
Finally, each computer will have to be run
I have an IBM PC and a Commodore 64. ning its own terminal software, a program de
My IBM has a serial (RS-232C) port. Is it signed for telecommunications with a modem.
possible to get an RS-232C port for my Com The terminal software must be set up to rec
modore 64 and transfer data? ognize a modem plugged into the serial port. Of
course, there won't really be any modems at
J\m It's possible to transfer data between al tached—only the null modem cable. When
most any two computers, but usually some everything is hooked up, you use the terminal
experimentation is required. You might also have software (which must have upload/download
to make your own cables or have them made for capability) to transfer the file from one computer
you. to the other.
First of all, the serial port on the rear of a The whole process can get much more com
Commodore 64 is almost a standard RS-232C plicated than it sounds. Besides acquiring the
port—the only difference is the voltage level. proper cables and plugs, you have to make sure
You can convert it by plugging in an RS-232C the computers are sending and receiving at the
adapter, available from Commodore and various same rate, that the telecommunications param
other companies for less than $50 (scout the ads eters are properly adjusted, and other things.
in this magazine). We've successfully used null modem cables to
Next, you'll need something called a null transfer files between an Atari, IBM PC, TI-
modem cable. This is just a simple cable that fools 99/4A, and TRS-SO Color Computer, but it took
a pair of computers into thinking they're linked some work. If you already have a modem and
up over the phone lines with modems. A few terminal program for each computer, it might be
wires are crossed so that what's an input line on easier to simply transfer the files over the phone
one side is output at the other. One end plugs lines or even a phone cord connecting the two
into the RS-232C adapter on the Commodore 64, modems. ffl

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Byron Preiss And
Ronald Martinez
Trillium Software Designers
Sharon Darling, Research Assistant

How do you go about translating science fiction

and fantasy novels into computer games? Here's
how two of the designers behind Spinnaker's
new Trillium series did just that.

Computer games were originally little more

than fast-moving action shoot-'em-up's
or text adventures with severely limited
vocabularies, But programmers have
begun to advance the sophistication and the
interaction of all types of computer games.
The next generation of games has arrived—
science fiction and fantasy novels turned
into graphics text adventures.
Among the leaders in this new genre is
Spinnaker Software, which this fall released
the first entries in its Trillium series for the
Commodore 64 and Apple II computers.
Trillium includes adaptations of such novels
as the classic Fahrenheit 451 by Ray Bradbury,
Rendezvous with Rama by science fiction
master Arthur C. Clarke, and Dragomvorld,
a fantasy by Byron Preiss, Michael Reaves,
and Joseph Zucker.
Also available are Amazon, an adventure
tale developed by author Michael Crichton, a
video version of Robert A. Heinlein's Starman Jones, and
Shadowkeep from Alan Dean Foster. The Commodore versions
sell for $32.95 each, while the Apple versions cost $39.95.
52 COMPUTE'S Gazelle Oecember I3B4
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"The adventure game mar
ket has been pretty much the
same since 1976, when the first
adventure game came out," says
Godin. "That is, they've been
puzzle-based games, be they
text or graphics—they've always
been based on a series of logic
"We're trying to make a
game that is based on plot and
characterization, not puzzles—
the way a book is. If you read
Fahrenheit 451, you don't get
stuck on page 50. And if you
play the game, you don't get
stuck on frame 50, because
the whole idea is that you're
interested in the game because
of the characters and the plot
and what's happening. You
care about what's going on."
But what are these new
adventures—games, inter
active fiction, or books? To
Ronald Martinez, who wrote
the script for Rendezvous
with Rama, "That's the
dilemma with this medium—it's
very difficult to put a name to
it because it's like the classic
instance of describing a color
Between them, the authors does have flexibility. In other that no one's ever seen before."
involved with the series have words, a character is able to Preiss and Martinez both
100 million books in print, ac take different actions, whereas like the term electronic book.
cording to Seth Godin, Trillium in a book you can only do one That phrase "is the best at the
project manager. Other authors thing." moment, because you read it,"
whose works are scheduled to In addition to Fahrenheit, Preiss says. "It's a reading
be adapted include Harry Harri Preiss's company did the ad medium."
son and Roger Zelazny. aptations for Rendezvous with Both authors are now doing
Rama, Dragonworld, and Stannan something that ten years ago
Jones. Preiss is also working on was beyond their imagination:
another software line for Spin working with personal comput
How do you go about turn naker, the Windham Classics, ers. Neither one majored in
ing a novel into a com turning such literary favorites as computer science in college—
puter game? "The key point is Wind in the Willows, Treasure Is "there was no such major" at
having a dialogue with the au land, and 20,000 Leagues Under the time, the 31-year-old Preiss
thor," says Byron Preiss, whose the Sea into interactive fiction. recalls.
company, Byron Preiss Video
From Fahrenheit 451: The The New York native went
Productions, developed four of
time is not too long from now. to the University of Pennsylva
the releases in the Trillium se
The place is New York City.... nia, where he earned degrees in
ries. "For example, in Fahrenheit
This is a world where simply communications and urban
451, it meant sitting down with
owning a book is dangerously studies. He then did graduate
Ray Bradbury and saying, 'All
illegal.... You, Guy Montag, are work in film at Stanford.
right, this is a medium that's to
a rebel fireman with a passion "I guess from the time I
tally different from a film, and
for books—the most wanted was a kid in school, I was inter
it's totally different from a
fugitive in the country....Your ested in science fiction and elec
mission: To restore to the tronic media. I think almost
"It doesn't have some of
world the freedom it once had. everyone from our generation
the advantages of a film, but it
54 COMPUTEl's Gazette December 1984
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so that you can get into
was," he says. "We grew
places in the Rama struc
up with television sitting
ture which you wouldn't
in our laps, so that was
be able to get into in the
a natural interest."
book version. So if you
In addition to college,
had read the book, you
Preiss also spent time at
could find new places to
Xerox's PARC (Palo Alto
explore, and new things
Research Center), where
to discover in the ad
his interest in computers
was fueled. After working
The "frustration fac
for Sesame Street and the
tor" was something else
American Broadcasting
the authors had to deal
Company as a designer
with—they wanted to
of children's programming,
The fantasy adventure Dragonworld, was make the games chal
Preiss started Byron Preiss
adopted for Spinnaker's Trillium series from the lenging, and yet not so
Visual Publications in 1979
book of the same name. difficult that the player
to develop television
would feel like giving up.
material and publish "The difference in a
books, "but we quickly
lot of these games is that
saw software as the best
you can talk to people,"
way to teach."
Preiss says.
"In Dragonworld, for
From Rendezvous example, Hawkwind is
with Rama: The year is your companion, and you can
adaptation for Rendezvous with
2130, and a huge new asteroid have a dialogue with him to
has just been discovered and Rama.
Nearly all of their waking get help. In Rendezvous, you
named: Rama.... But this is no can communicate back to your
hours are now spent working
asteroid—Rama is actually a crew, and Ron set it up so
with computers—IBMs, Apples,
mammoth spaceship. you've got three different crew
Commodores, and Ataris for
As fate has it, only one of members, any of which, at any
Preiss, IBMs and Ataris for
Earth's ships is close enough given time, might give you a
to Rama to meet it—and it is different piece of information."
the ship you command....Your Preiss's interest in comput
While the puzzles are there,
orders: Rendezvous with the ers and books led him to ap
proach Spinnaker about creating Martinez says, "they're not the
ship, explore it, find its cre whole point. The point is,
ators, and return home—if you interactive fiction. His firm had
already published works by you're in this world, and it's a
both Bradbury and Clarke, and story that unfolds. We never
"partly out of that relationship sacrifice dramatic progress for
Ronald Martinez is also a the sake of a kind of deep puz
with them, we were able to take
New York native, and he, like zle that you might spend two
the first steps toward doing this
Preiss, is 31. His interest in sci weeks on."
ence fiction dates from the sec In the Trillium series,
Turning novels into com
ond grade, when he read his graphics play an integral part in
puter adventures means keeping
first science fiction book, Great the game, says Martinez. "1
the quality of the story intact. "I
Stories of Space Travel. think a lot of adventures have
think the challenge which we
Science fiction "was really used graphics which tended to
met in all the games was to
like something I had never be kind of superfluous because
come up with things that am
imagined to exist, and I had the the text really covers what's
same feeling when I started to
plify the book, and are faithful
to it," says Preiss. "For exam there, and it's kind of nice to
work with the computer, which see the picture, but not
ple, what Ron conceived for ex
was through Byron," he adds.
Martinez went to college at ploring the inside of the necessary.

Rendezvous' alien ship is faith "In this case, a lot of the

Stony Brook University on Long
ful to all of Clarke's ideas, yet graphics are really your only
Island, where he earned a de
it's more than the book." kind of clue or direct link to a
gree in English. He later wrote
Martinez says, "The means part of the story. So what you
interactive children's fiction for
of moving about in the ship, for see there really affects what you
Visual Publications. Preiss then
example, have been enhanced do."
approached him about doing the
56 COMPUTEVs Gazette December 19B4
more things
you can organize
with your
Commodore 64
this T ar* now available
electronic fil- e
PFB=' anize ;^rfil^9 software
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e 12. Lis.


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The Power of Simplicity
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^xTUin pt'rsiinal iiinipiiicts.

Comparisons between Tril But communicating via sat
lium and such interactive ellite is nothing new for Clarke,
fiction heavyweights as those who was the first to propose the
from Infocom are perhaps inev idea of geosynchronous satel
itable. But to Preiss and Marti lites, in a story published de
nez, Trillium stacks up favorably cades ago. He has also delivered
with all-text adventures. book manuscripts electronically
"I think Infocom has set the from Sri Lanka to New York.
standard for text input, and "In the course of working
most of the time that you buy a on the game, he would often
graphics adventure, or any kind send us messages on the com
In Rendezvous with Rama you and
of unusual adventure, you see puter that someone would call
your crew must explore a giant
those standards going by the up and dictate. Ron came up
wayside," Preiss says. "I think with a very clever way to do
what Trillium has tried to do is some things differently from the
keep the standards of the high book, and any time that would
quality text adventure consistent happen, we would want to get
and at the same time, put in the approval from Arthur. It would
Nevertheless, you're on
things that really make use of often come in the way of 'tell
your way to the Amazon, on a
the computer." them it's OK,' via satellite."
mission whose purpose is se
For those who prefer their Working with Bradbury was
cret and whose dangers are
own imagination to an artist's a pleasure, Preiss says. "He
conceptions, however, Preiss brings the enthusiasm of a
has added the option of playing young boy—unbelievable, un
the games without the graphics. The collaboration with Ar bounded enthusiasm for some
Sophisticated language is thur C. Clarke "was a unique thing new."
another extra for Trillium, Mar case because almost all the For the adaptation of
tinez feels. "It's more sophisti work, except for two meetings, Dragonworld, Preiss, who co-
cated than any other graphics was done via mail and the wrote the book, worked with
adventure that I've seen. And phone," with Clarke responding fellow author Michael Reaves to
the sentences that are under from his home in Sri Lanka, come up with the game of the
stood by the computer, by the Preiss says. same name.

program, are full natural lan Some responses came in a Neither Martinez nor Preiss
guage sentences." rather unorthodox way, how take much stock in the argu
Martinez and Preiss were ever—via space satellite. "He ment that good authors don't
not alone in coming up with has been working with the di necessarily know what makes a
their adaptations—Clarke, Brad rector of 2010 (sequel to the good computer game.
bury, and Heinlein worked di movie based on Clarke's 2003: A "That's why they're not
rectly with them in converting Space Odyssey), and they're working alone. I think the idea
their works into electronic online via space satellite," Preiss here was to take talented writers
books. In addition, up to 12 says. and put them together," says
people were involved in the Preiss.
process of developing each In Martinez's view, "I think
game. And in the case of Ren a great writer would definitely
dezvous with Rama, architects have created the elements for a
were hired to design the interior good game, in that a well-written
of the alien ship. book has within it a plausible
universe, and that's what we're
engaged in here, constructing
From Amazon: You've just
plausible universes."
been hired by NSRT, a top-
secret, high-tech research firm. For the future of electronic
You knew your work wouldn't books, the two authors see no
be easy—but you weren't limits. Says Martinez, "Marrying

expecting your first assign the technology with the artistic

ment to be a solo expedition to impulse is a good way to create
one of the most dangerous, Ray Bradbury's Fahrenheit 451 is something that hasn't been
most unexplored areas on another entry in Spinnaker's Trillium seen before—there are no
Earth. series. limitations." OB

58 COMPUTE'S Gazette December 1984

LUe'ue Got
"This is the best typing tutor
we have seen yet; **■**+"

"Computer aided instruction at

its best." Commander
"This is an excellent program
thai makes typing practice an
enjoyable pastime Instead of
boring drudgery."

Rated the BEST educational

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".. . delighted with my son's
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who touch types at the computer."
"Your Typing Tutor is an excellent program ... our 4
children literally wait in line to use it."

"Thoroughly satisfied, can't believe how fast I've learned to

type. I've never typed before."
In daily use by schools across the USA.


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Commodore 64'T Disk $24.95
VIC 20T"(unexpandedJ Tape $21.95


"Has a quality of realism which
sets It apart from others, even Why be someone who just plays computer games when
those I've tested in flight school.' you can be the one vA\o writes their own Impressive
Compute's Gazetle machine language programs?
"Great program!" INFO-64
"It is tremendous fun." How to Use Assemblers
Compute's Gazetle • Commodore 64 Macro Assembler Development
"Flight tested by an air tralfic System
controller, two skilled pilots and • Merlin 64 Assembler
an elementary school class. • Kids' Assembler (INCLUDED in book)
Highly recommended by all."
• Most Others
Midnite Gazette
How to Write Assembly Language Programs
"This is an unbelievably realistic • Designed for Beginners
simulation of the difficulties • Step-by-Step Instructions
facing a pilot in instrument fly
• Lots of Example Programs
ing. I'm a 747 pilot and I think that this simulation could do
• Specifically for Commodore-64
a lot to improve the reactions and Instrument scan habits
of even very experienced pilots." 717 pilot
Pick up your copy today at computer stores and book
IFR (FLIGHT SIMULATOR) stores everywhere, or order direct: Send check or

Commodore 64'" Tape or Disk $29.95 money order for $14.95 (California residents add 6%
VIC 20'" (unexpanded] Cartridge $39.95 sales tax).
"" Shipping and handling $1.00 per j
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SOFW/IRE microcomscribe
P.O. Box 6277 San Rafael, CA 94903 (415)499-0850 6982 Stimson Court, San Diego, California 92129
<619) 484-3884 or (619) 578-4588
Programmers: Wrile to our Now Program Manager concerning
any exceptional Commodore 64 program you have developed.

COMPUTEI's Gazelle December 1984 69


r families

An Adventure In
Fred D'lgnazio, Associate Editor

A Computer Ostrich the 64 is not just a word processor, it's a commu

nicating word processor.
1 use computers for word processing, games, and
There is a precedent for this idea on the
education, but until recently I never used them
little, notebook-sized computers like the Model
for telecommunications. I was like an ostrich—
100 from Radio Shack and the NEC 8201. These
keeping my head firmly in the sand.
little computers have a telecommunications pro
Every now and then I would read a com
gram and a word processor built into the circuits
puter magazine article about telecommunications.
when you bring them home from the store. The
But when 1 lifted my head out of the ground, I
programs are separate (unlike the Skiwriter II),
felt like an infantryman caught in a cross-fire.
but they are so easy to use, it's like they're really
Telecommunication terms like baud rate, parity,
the same program.
asynchronous communication, word length, stop
When Ken showed me SkiWriter 11 at CES,
bits, and xmodem protocol whizzed over my head
he asked me to sit down and try it out. I hate
like angry bullets. Needless to say, I immediately
trying new programs out in front of other people,
stuck my head back into the hole in the ground.
because I always end up doing foolish things.
I figured it was safer there.
Despite my reservations, I sat down at the com
Then one day last summer I attended the
puter and began typing.
CES (Consumer Electronics Show) in Chicago. I
was walking by the Prentice-Hall Software booth
and ran into Ken Skier. I remembered Ken as the One-Touch Functions
author of SkiWriter, a word processing package
The first thing I noticed was the plastic overlay
for the Epson HX-20, the tiny lap-sized computer
that fit around the 64 keyboard. There were 21
with only a few thousand bytes of total memory.
functions assigned to special keys on the key
Now Ken was all fired up about a new word
board, but the functions were all simple like
processing program he had written for the Com
modore 64 called SkiWriter II. EXECUTE, and they were written in big, bold
This new word processor comes on a 16K letters. This didn't look too hard. Maybe I
memory cartridge that plugs into the back of the wouldn't look like a fool after all.
64, and costs $69.95. You can learn more about Next we plugged in the cartridge and turned
Ski Writer II by contacting: on the computer. On the screen a menu ap
Prentice-Hall Home Software peared with an arrow pointing to the top item:
P.O. Box 819
Englewood Cliffs, Nj 07632 - Edit
To Ken, 16K is a lot of memory, and he had Use Cassette
no trouble at all fitting a powerful word process Use Disk
ing program into the cartridge. Use Modem
Select Colors
But that's not all he put into the cartridge.
Delete the Document
He had so much space left after he wrote the
word processor that he decided to add a tele I pressed the arrow keys on the 64 and
communications program, too. So SkiWriter 11 for made the menu (not the arrow) move up and
60 COMPUTEVs Gazette December 1984
Why do you think
they call it a picture tube?

Because it's a
TV tube. And you
watch pictures on TV. word processor?
your powerful
So, is it any wonder That's why Family
commands to
that you're disappointed Computing Magazine
run Homeword 7 the
with an expensive calls Homewordr "...a
remarkable new home
computer that shows program of unbelievable
you nothing but words? simplicity. And
bo, other
That sort of suggests you its performance
than a few
might want to go home, has not been
keys to move
turn on the set and read sacrificed to its
you around
the Love Boat. ease of use!'
the screen,
You can't argue
all you need
with that!
to remember
is nothing. Just how fast do
pictures work?
If you don't think
/pictures work better
It became the #1 home
than words, consider word processor
some of life's most
in just six
urgent communications.
It's no accident that
YouVe Just learned 50%
pictures have replaced
of Homeword.
words wherever people
That's because need information fast.
these two buttons control So why shouldn't you
fifty different pictures. have the same
Those pictures are advantage in
your home

^J | |^ | 1 | irt
-*--*- The Personal Word Processor -M-^
e <>n [he Apple U" Scries, Atari Hunic Compute!*? Commodore 64.*
Homeword i? a trademark of Sierra On Line, Inc. and PC cnrnpalibti-H SutfKealed retail p:ke: $69^95.
down, slowly at first, then fast like a bouncing are typing your document.)
ball. I could have sat there another couple min Fourth, it was hard getting used to using the
utes just watching the menu bounce up and backspace key as the DELETE LEFT key on the
down, but I could tell that, behind me, Ken was upper lefthand corner of the keyboard instead of
getting a little bored. its normal place on the upper righthand corner.
I stopped the bouncing menu at Edit and However, there were numerous appealing
pressed the EXECUTE button. The screen emp things I found while using the word processor,
tied, and I was ready to begin creating a too. First, the DELETE LEFT key on the left al
document. lowed Ken to use the DEL key on the right to let
I created a document easily by letting my me delete text to the RIGHT (beginning with the
fingers go wild. 1 filled the screen with gobbledy- cursor). This way, when 1 wanted to correct a
gook characters. word, I could move in either direction, no matter
"This is neat," I told Ken, "but I can't read where I ended up on the word.
the white characters on the blue background very This is a great feature for those of us who
well." are somewhat klutzy with their fingers. In my
"No problem," Ken said. He showed me haste to zip around a document in my tiny
how to bail out of Edit (by pressing the CANCEL cursor "airplane," sometimes I come in for a
button) and how to select new text and back landing on a word and almost miss it. It's great
ground colors. 1 chose black letters on a white to begin deleting to the right or the left depend
background, because it gave me the pleasant illu ing on where I have haphazardly landed.
sion that I was using paper and a typewriter Also, the RETURN character has special
rather than a computer and a video screen. status in the word processor and can be edited,
so you can use the FIND command and find the
Next, we backed our way into Edit again. I
RETURN character and replace it or add extra
noticed that the computer had remembered the
spaces, or whatever. This can be a great help
trail we had followed out of Edit, so all I had to
when you need to reformat a document.
do was hit the CANCEL key a couple times. I
felt like Hansel or Gretel following bread crumbs
And there are lots of nice touches. When
you insert text, even at the beginning of a large
through the forest. The computer had remem
document, the whole document instantly moves
bered my pathway so I couldn't wander off into
down to make room. The paragraph and the
the forest of unexplored commands.
whole document automatically and swiftly re
When we returned to Edit, Ken showed me
format. There is no wait whatsoever.
how to press the different function buttons (all
Also, the word-wrap happens instanta
clearly marked with the plastic overlay). We
neously, so you can go typing along and never
moved blocks of text around, we copied blocks of
worry about fitting things on the screen.
text, we underlined words—yes, underlined words
And when you want to print your docu
right on the screen!—and we replaced typos with
ment, you don't have to remember all sorts of
some genuine English, and deleted huge clumps
esoteric commands to double or triple space the
of especially hopeless gobbledygook.
lines, or add headers, or increase the size of your
After only about ten minutes of fiddling margins. Instead, you just press the EDIT key
around with the text, I was zipping around, and the DOT LINE key and step through a
correcting errors, inserting new sentences and menu. As you make your choices, the computer
words, and making corrections. After only 15 automatically inserts dot formatting commands
minutes the whole document was completely into the text of your document.
spruced up and (to my eyes) error free. Later on, when you become a more seasoned
I did have some problems, though. First, as I user, you can bypass this phase by typing the
typed, the overlay tended to move around a little dot commands into your document yourself in
underneath the palms of my hands. This was English. For example, you can type:
distracting at first, but I soon got used to it. It
didn't slow my typing. .SPACES = 1

Second, I missed having any commands that to single-space the document. And when this
would allow me to jump from one end of the gets to be too tedious, you can abbreviate the
line to another, or jump from the beginning of command to .S=l.
one word to the next, so I could move the cursor Once you are done editing your document,
even faster along a particular line. you simply press the CANCEL key to get out of
Third, it took me awhile to remember to use Edit and bounce the menu around until you get
the EXECUTE key (f3) instead of the RETURN to PRINT. And, if you have a printer connected,
key to choose items in the SkiWriter 11 menu. you just press the PRINT key a second time and
(You use the RETURN key, however, when you your document prints out.
6E COMPUTE'S Gazette December 1984
Introducing the
1he Creative Music System
No matter what your musical ability, improvisations into musical notation
Waveform's Creative Music System and create your own keyboard scales.
will lead you into a new world of The newest member of the MusiCalc
musical enjoyment and education. family is the MusiCalc Synthesizer
The ColorTone Keyboard—Fun with Sound Teacher." With it you can
And Easy For Children 8 to 80 leam all about sound synthesis and
With Waveform's ColorTone " Key then use its perform a nee-oriented
board, and your Commodore 64" synthesizer program to apply what
computer with disk drive, you can you learn.
make music—and leam about music— MusiCalc software works with the
as quickly as you can say Do-Re-Mi. ColorTone Keyboard or with the
The ColorTone Keyboard Commodore 64's typewriter
comes with software that keyboard.
makes discovering music a Keyboard Krazy With
simply marvelous and Treble Clef Cat—Making
marvelously simple experi Music Play For Chil
ence. To begin playing dren 4 Years And Up
you simply touch one of the This unique soft
graphic symbols on the ware package
keyboard. Just point to select makes music a
one of the ColorTone's preset game your children will
songs, change the musical scale love learning. Four fun, color
you're playing in or make your ful programs help the youngest child develop
Commodore 64 sound like one of essential music skills, including familiarity with the
eight different instruments. musical staff and notes, recogni
As you play, you'll see the notes tion of notes
you're hearing displayed on a musical staff. That's on the key
something no other musical software can do! And with the board, and
ColorTone system you can record your musical creations car training.
to listen to them again and again. All in a fun
With Waveform's ColorTone Keyboard, your very first way that'll
musical experience can be fun and rewarding. Every time make your young, potential musicians eager to leam more.
you piay you'll develop greater musical competence. And Keyboard Krazy works on the Commodore 64 with or
confidence. without the ColorTone Keyboard.
While you can use the Discover the growing family of computerized
ColorTone Keyboard by itself, | music products from Waveform and make music
it will also add new dimen play for every member of the family. Look for
sions to the other software the ColorTone Keyboard and the entire Creative
products in Waveform's Music System at a store near you.
creative music system.
MusiCalc-The World's
Most Exciting Musical waveform
Waveform's MusiCalc' system'
includes programs that let you com
pose, edit and perform your own musical MMIHB MUSIC PIN
creations using the Commodore 64. You can also rum your l9lZBonita Way, Berkeley, CA 94704 (-115) 64J-9S66

LumnWixe tA Ell lud?uuik uft.'inini'di-ir I ■ I id ■ AN rtghti imrvfiL ws-t. by Wai CotpornUh

from his disk and we reversed the process. He
Saving The Best For Last
selected UPLOAD, and this time I typed
SkiWriter II is a fine word processor, but its best DOWNLOAD on my 64, and a moment later the
feature is how easy it makes using the telephone cursor raced across the screen indicating that the
with your computer. document was being transmitted and stored in
After I finished typing my document and my computer.
saving it on disk (with just a couple extra key After we were done sending each other
strokes—SkiWriter II even enables you to format documents, I pressed CANCEL, pressed USE
the disk within the program), Ken and I plugged AUTOMODEM, and chose HANG UP. My com
a Commodore Automodem into the 64's user port. puter hung up the telephone. Ken issued the
According to Ken, almost any modem that same commands, and his computer hung up at
plugs directly into the user pOTt will work, the other end.
including the Automodem and VICmodem from Then I chose Edit on the menu and there
Commodore and the HesModem from HesWare. was my old document. Underneath, neatly ap
Also, acoustic couplers (such as the Lex-11 and pended to it, was the document I had just re
Lex-llB from Lexicon) can be plugged into the ceived from Ken's computer. Now I could edit
back of the 64 if they have an RS-232C interface the document, change it, delete it, copy it, save it
(such as the MFJ-1228 from MFJ in Alabama). to disk, print it, or send it along the phone wire
to some new computer and to another person,
We set the AutoModem's switches to Data
(instead of Talk), Originate (to "originate" a
phone call), and Full Duplex (the standard setting An Ingenious Marriage
for micros to talk to each other or to big After visiting Ken's booth at CES, I was bitten by
computers). the telecommunications bug. I returned home to
Then 1 pressed the CANCEL key and got the Virginia, and immediately started teaching my 23
main menu. I bounced the menu to USE computers how to talk on the telephone.
MODEM. 1 selected AutoModem and DIAL, and This was no easy task. The truth is, many
the computer asked me which number to dial. I computers would rather remain isolationist and
typed in a number Ken gave me, and the com never talk to another computer—or to another
puter dialed an IBM PCjr right next to me in the person.
booth. The PCjr was running its own version of But I persisted, and today most of them can
SkiWriter. The PCjr answered the telephone, and talk over the phone. We even have two phone
waited for me to begin typing. lines so they can talk to each other.
Ken had me enter the conversation mode in I have tried out many different communica
SkiWriter. This is the mode you use when two tions programs since playing with SkiWriter II,
computers running SkiWriter are talking to each but I haven't found another communicating word
other. processor. It is convenient to be able to create a
Ken sat down at the PCjr and typed me a document, and in the same breath, send it via
message. As he typed it, 1 saw it appear, letter by electronic mail across the country to a friend, a
letter, and word by word, on my 64. I could hardly member of the family, or to a publisher.
believe it. A PCjr was talking to a 64 as easily Simplicity, convenience, and ease of use are
and casually as if this sort of thing happened important features for any program that lets you
every day. And we were talking over the phone create and send information electronically. Most
line. We were only a couple of feet apart, but we electronic mail services (like the Source,
could have been a couple thousand miles apart. CompuServe, or MCI Mail) are somewhat picky.
After we sent messages for a few minutes, They like documents to be in pure text, or
Ken pressed the f7 key and the words CAPTURE ASCII, format. This is the type of format
ON appeared on the screen of his PCjr. He had SkiWriterll documents appear in. You don't have
me press the CANCEL key and bounce the menu to fiddle around with a document after you type
to upload (transmit) a document. As soon as I it up, you just send it.
did this, my document began zipping across the And receiving documents is just as simple.
phone line and appeared on Ken's screen. At the You just point to DOWNLOAD or set CAPTURE
same time it was being stored in the memory of ON and wait while the document is loaded into
Ken's computer. We watched the numbers whiz your computer. Then you can display the docu
by on the screen, showing the memory being ment you're receiving on the screen, and you can
used up by the document as it rushed into the go into EDIT, spruce it up, and make it pretty.
computer. Then you can print it out or save it to disk. You
When the document was completely trans don't have to fool around with complicated com
mitted to Ken's computer, he loaded a document mands or telecommunications jargon. ffl
&) COMPUTE'S Gazette December 19B4
Now. you can get...
1NEW software programs
featuring Stickybear""
the hottest-selling
computer bear in

Sophisticated color
graphics for Commo
dore 64, Apple® and
Atari®, with 48 K.
New arcade-quality
games for families
to play together.
New fun learning
programs for 3- to
6-year-olds created
by a world-famous
children's author.
Disk, plus hard
cover book*or
game*poster and
stickers in a sturdy,
attractive vinyl
binder - with each

There's something
new for everyone in
your family! The
playful animation and
bubble-gum colors in the
educational programs
will captivate your young
est. While Stickvbear
Basketbounce and Sticky- , ___ _.
bear Bop - games of skill Optimum Resource, Inc. for Weekly Reader
and sharp wits - challenge Weekly Reader Family
even dedicated arcade Software - in finer computer Family Software
games-players. stores everywhere. Or. call A division of Xerox Education Publications
Look for Stickybear toll-free 1-800-852-5000. Dept. Middlemwn. CT 0M57

software - developed by AK-6.

■Apple jnd Arati only

Stlikybcir I! l [egllteieil trademark of Optimum Re

smi.,,-. iik Commodore. Apple, jnd AururcHgn

Apple Computer Inc.. and Ami Int.. THpdttveln

Word Guess
David W. Rose

You'll have to make quick, educated

guesses in this word game, which can eas VIC And 64 Program Description
ily be modified for any age group or learn Line
ing level. Written for the 64, we've added a Number

version for the expanded (8K or more) VIC. ' defines number of words in
time limit (GT)
tionary (N);

,0 branches to print introduction and instructions

17 defines music POKEs
20 DIMensions the following arrays:
Based on the Hangman game idea, "Word
Guess" offers more of a challenge, and it's a lot LE$ each letter of word to be guessed'
MI$ letters used so far
more peaceful (nobody gets hung). The object of
DI$ correct letters guessed in the word
the game is to guess the letters that comprise a WV marker if word was already used
word which is randomly selected from the pro WD$ all words from dictionary
gram's dictionary (found in DATA statements at AL$ alphabet
the end of the program). 25 reads words in dictionary to WD$, sets WU
array lo 0
A limited Number Of Guesses 28
reads alphabet into AL$
subroutine to clear out arrays for new word
It sounds easy, but there are a few conditions 30 picks a random number between 1 and N
which make it a bit more difficult. You have only 33 checks to make sure a word is not repeated in
five more letter guesses than the length of the the game
40 marks the word to be used so it is not
word selected. For example, if a ten-letter word
repeated iater
(the maximum length of a word in the program SO finds word length
dictionary) is chosen, you have a total of 15 55 separates letters of the word to be guessed,
guesses. The number of guesses remaining is dis places letters into LE$
played throughout each game. 80 PRINTs message to screen
85-90 define beginning screen locations for word
Also, to speed the game along, a maximum
display and underlines
of 30 seconds is allowed for choosing a letter. A 102-104 PRINT messages
countdown clock shows how many seconds re 106 initial time for guessing word
main to make a choice. 107 gets initial time in seconds for guessing letter
108 obtains guess
A correct choice is instantly displayed in its
109 if no guess entered yet, activates countdown
appropriate position (or positions), and all letters
(if no time left, put'-' for guess)
guessed are displayed for quick reference. A cor 112 checks if length of answer is equal to one
rect answer is rewarded with a congratulatory 113 checks if guess is a letter from A to Z
message and musical fanfare. If you run out of 115 increments number of guesses
120 places guess in array of guessed letters (M..
chances, the answer is displayed. In either case,
130 checks if letter in the displayed word has
the total elapsed time in minutes and seconds is
already been guessed
displayed after each round. You are also 140-145 if guess is in word, place it in the appropriate
prompted to press f3 to quit or f5 to continue on spot, redisplay the word
to another word. 170-173 determine POKE assignment for letter guessed
177 determines screen location for guessed letter
180 POKEs the guessed letter onto screen
Modifying The Program 190 PRINTs number of guesses left
Word Guess has 100 words in the program dic 215 if there are no guesses left, and the word is
tionary. None is used more than once in a single not determined, perform routine for missed
game. If you wish to change this number, first 220 if the answer was guessed, perform routine
change the value of N in line 9. Then change the for correct word
words in the DATA statements (lines 1000- 225-230 PRINT function key options
1100). Be sure the value of N corresponds to the 235 waits for a response
240 if f5 was pressed, get a new word
number of words contained in the DATA state
245 if f3 was pressed, dear screen and end game
ments. New words must be from one to ten
66 COMPUTEIs Gazette Deceiriber 1964

At first glance, they look like funny ing, vocabulary, counting, adding, and elementary and high schools.)
creatures right out of a computer game pattern recognition. We've also got the experience of
shoot 'em up. But underneath the funny Vbu'll also like how Sprout prevents Mercer Mayer, who has written or illus
surface, they represent one of the most boredom. Our games grow up, instead trated 80 children's books. He dazzles
serious approaches to home education of wear out. As kids get older, the game kids with ideas and pictures that keep
you've ever heard of. gets harder—with many variations them coming back for more.
and many decisions to So letTINKITONK!" software teach
" GAMESTHAITEACH. make. your kids. And when they play at the
These amazing teachers are Sprout didn't computer; they won't be playing around.
called Tink and Tonk. They come from learn how to do all this They'll be learning something.
Sprout. Software for kids 4 to 8. overnight. You see,
The beauty of Sprout is how we we've got a hundred
balance entertainment with a healthy years of experience to
dose of education. lean on, (Our parent
While kids are having fun at home, company is SFN, Games that grow up.
they're reinforcing what they've learned the country's #1 text-' Instead of wear out.
at school. Things like the alphabet, spell- book publisher for
Ccnpjtibiewtn HaC Cormoocp* Anw".ara IBM"

Subroutines To make the game more difficult, add
300-390 countdown clock for guessed letters
GOTO160 at the end of line 140. This forces the
500-540 clear arrays for new word player to guess each letter even if the selected
600-655 display current letter being guessed word has more than one occurrence of that letter.
620 determines POKE for letter For example, if the selected word is "gallon," the
625 determines screen location for player must guess "I" twice to get the correct
630 POKEs the letter onto screen
635-645 sound beep for letter guessed See program listings on page 201. <g/
650 time delay for multiple occur
rences of the same letter in the
700-730 PRINT message for missed word
705-710 print message and the word
715-725 sound buzz
Advertise your •

800-850 PRINT congratulations for guessed word

810 PRINT message program or

product for the

815-835 sound fanfare for correct guess
875-975 PRINT introduction and instructions
875-897 print introduction
900-956 print instructions
1000-1999 dictionary of words
VIC-20 or 64
2000-2010 alphabet
here and reach
characters in length, and no special characters or
numbers may be used. By following these simple hundreds of
rules, it's easy to modify the game for children or
even serious word buffs. thousands of
You may also change the 30-second time
limit by assigning a new value to the variable readers.
GT, also in line 9.

Easy user.
Letter Wizard is an ideal word pro
cessing program for even the most ser
ious wordsmith boastsa
spelling checker and compatibility with Easy buyer.
all popular printers. Nice thing is. com OK, a powerful program like this must cost a
mands are a whiz to learn and perform. powerful lot of money, right? Stuff and non
sense. Even though Letter Wizard offers more

Easy writer. than most, it costs less than most. And that's
no voodoo.
Compose and edit right on the screen.
For Commodore 64. Apple 11 and Atari systems.
At the stroke of a key, you can move,
delete, insert, search and replace words
and paragraphs like.. .well, magic. Letter Wizard with
Easy speller Spelling Checker
Letter Wizard includes a spelling checker

which allows easy in-line corrections of over
33,000 words. And you can even create
custom dictionaries ofyour own special words.
Have we got you under our spell yet?
Datasofl.lnc, 19808 Nordhoff Place.
Letter wizard'" is a trademark of Dotaiofl. inc.11984. © 1984 Dataiolt. me Chaisworth. CA 91311 • (818) 701-5161
Get more out of your Commodore
computer. /
Start your subscription to COMPUTEI's
'Gazette Disk. Each month you can rep"
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corresponding issue of COMPUTEI's Ga
zette magazine. So, now you can have
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month's COMPUTEI's Gazette ready-to-
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or send your prepaid coupon to:
/ COMPUTE'S Gazette Disk
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Letter Attack
Craig Howarth

Keep your typing skills from going down addition to these, a green pointer appears on the
the ''chute" with "Letter Attack." Originally right side of the chute every time a letter is prop
written for the VIC, we've added a version erly entered. This shows how quickly you are
for the 64. responding during the course of play. The higher
the pointer the faster your response time.
On the left side of the chute, starting with
This program puts your typing skills to the test. the second round of play, a purple pointer in
It measures response time and accuracy and pro dicates your best response time so far.
vides entertainment as well.
The rules of play are quiet simple. A letter The Score Screen
falls down the chute from the top of the screen Once all of the letters are eliminated (the number
at varying speeds (depending on the skill level of letters is chosen at the beginning of play,
chosen). You must press that letter on the key 10-90 in increments of 10), a new screen is dis
board before it reaches the bottom of the screen. played showing the results of the most recent
If you enter the wrong letter, you can keep trying game. Along with the score, the highest possible
until the letter vanishes from the screen. score (number of letters), and the high score, is
an efficiency rating which is the percentage of
The Play Screen the score against the highest possible score.
The skill level, letters remaining, current score, There is also an average time displayed,
and high score are displayed during play. In determined by dividing the total of all times for

■■-, SCORE



score: :
RATING: 96.6666667 V.
• ±5
<!J - GOOD fcfci -BAD)



A letter is caught and marked by an arrow in the VIC Each performance is rated at game's end (64 version).

70 COMPUTEYs GaieltB Decemb6M9&4

Inside every kid
there are great adventures to be told.

With Playwriter" and your computer,

now you can write your own great adventure books.
Write the adventures you've always
1IT -i i t I . » i _ _

Built-in word processor

dreamed of. And tum those dreams into illus
Playwriter's simple-to-use word processor
trated books, with Playwriter Software from
lets you go back to fix or change any part of the
story you like.
Playwriter is the first software package that
Next, just print out the story and put the
lets you write, edit, illustrate, print and bind
book together using the hardcover jacket,
your own books using your IBM, Commodore
colorful stickers, and full page illustrations
64, or Apple home computer.
included in each package.
Live the adventure When you're finished, you'll have a real book
as you write it including a title page, dedication page and a
You can travel through space and time. And page all about the author, you
go where no one has gone before—to the cen Use it again
ter of your imagination. Because Playwriter With Playwriter you
helps you create the heroes, villains and other can create a whole
characters in your story and lets you decide library of books writ
every twist and tum of the plot. ten by you. Best of
Playwriter guides you through the creative all, you'll have hours
process by asking you questions about the of fun long after the
story you want to write.
Playwriter responds to everything you tell it.
And you'll see your answers tum into action as Apple, Commodore

the story develops. end IBM ore oil

registered irado moils.
Software For Success!
15 Prospect Sireet, Poramus. New Jersey 07652 (201) 368-1040
correct responses by the score. The lower the
number, the better the time.
You are next asked if you'd like to play
again. If so, you may choose a higher skill level
and more letters.

Variables Used
HS - High score
BT - Best time
V - Volume
S - Sound (tones)
N - Noise
DL - Difficulty level
NL - Number of letters
SC - Score
LR - Number of letters counter
TM - Time (total)
A - Screen color code offset (30720 for the VIC)
D - Screen character code location (7682 for the
LE - Letter (POKE code)
LC - Letter (ASCII code)
CN - Sound counter
ER - Efficiency rating
AT - Average time

See program listings on page 192.

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Tnat Works:

Spell It!

Spell expertly 1000 of the most misspelled
words. Learn the spelling rules. Improve
with 4 exciting activities, Including a
captivating arcade game! Add your own
spelling words.

ages 10 - adult / 2 disks: S49.95

Math. Blaster!
Master addition, subtraction, multiplication,
division, fractions, decimals and percentages

— by solving over 600 problems. Learn your
math facts with 4 motivating activities,
including a fast-action arcade game! Add
your own problems.

ages 6 - 12/ 2 disks: S49.95

Word Attack!

Add 675 new words to your vocabulary —
with precise definitions 3nd sentences
demonstrating usage. Build your skills with
4 fun-fllied activities, including an arcade
game! Add your own words,

ages 8 - adult / 7 disks: $49.95

Speed Reader II
Increase your reading speed and Improve

comprehension! Six exercises designed by
reading specialists vastly Improve your
reading skills. Chart your own progress with
35 reading selections and comprehension
quizzes. Add your own reading materials.

high school, college & adult / 2 disks: 169.95

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Apple, fBM ana Commodore 64 are (raoQnwhs icrapuctivoly ot Apple Computers, Ire , IntHrnauonal Uuairiiiss Muchmns Corp . and Commodore Business MacMnoa, Inc.

Entering your data is just as

MicroFiler: A Data Base easy. The cursor up/down keys
move directly from field to field.
For The 64 Charles Brannon, Program Editor You can only type into the
reverse-fields you earlier pre
pared. Full cursor editing is sup
If you've been looking for a fast, The cartridge becomes part of
ported within each field. After
flexible, and easy-to-use data the 64's memory, turning your
you've entered a record, press fl
base program, MicroFiler may machine into a filing system.
to store it. Since there are only
be well worth your attention.
1000 characters in a 40 X 25
The term data base has come to Creative Data Entry screen, this is the limit of how
have two meanings. It can refer When you turn on your com big a record can be. With labels
to a large base of data, or the puter, the MicroFiler title screen and prompts, you have even
program that manages the data. comes up, where you select Cre less room. However, if you use
A data base program can be a ate File. A blank screen with a short records, you can, of
fully programmable data lan menu bar at the top appears. course, have many more in
guage like dBASE 11, or a com Here's the fun part. Using full memory.
puterized index card file. screen editing, you "draw" a
MicroFiler falls into the latter After you've entered some
form you'll use to enter your
category, but does far more than data, you can scan through the
data. Reverse-field spaces mark
a glorified file card box. records. If you're using
the blanks which will be filled
Unlike disk-based data MicroFiler as a recipe filer, you
in when you enter data. The
bases, which dynamically re may want to find the lasagna
number of spaces you type out
trieve all records from disk, recipe. Instead of scanning
determines how much memory
MicroFiler is memory-oriented. through all the records, you can
is reserved for that field in the
The performance of disk-based search for the name of a recipe.
record. You can type names for
data bases depends on the Or perhaps you're keeping a
the blanks, even embellish the
speed of the disk drive, whereas mailing list, and would like a
form with graphics characters
a memory-oriented data base is display of all clients located in
and color.
much faster, but limited by your home state. You just enter
This is one of the most flex
available memory to a certain certain search characters within
ible ways I've ever seen to cre
number of records. However, the field(s) you want to search
ate a data entry form. When
this permits 64 owners who use or combine searching and
entering data, you're not re
Datassettes to take full advan sorting as you view your
quired to place these entries into
tage of MicroFiler. You initially records. You can also generate a
all fields. If you want to enforce
load all your records from tape sum or average of all numeric
entry, place a reverse-field C in
or disk, do your entering, fields.
the first spot in the field. Nu
editing, searching, and printing, meric fields, which can be
then save the data back out to summed and averaged, are
tape or disk.
Designing A
specified with a reverse-field N.
Since MicroFiler is on car MicroFiler won't let you enter Printout
tridge, there's no frustrating de an illegal number in a numeric If it's hard copy you want,
lay while the program loads. field. MicroFiler lets you enter certain

74 COMPUTEI's Gazette December 1984



of each line. Never worry about chang
ing your mind—you can add, move,
insert or delete single words, linesoreven

VfUUF 55
RSOR entire blocks of text and then restore the
deleted copy if you want it back. Using
■ the search and replace option, the Bank
Street Writer will scan your document for
a particular word, replace it with another,
and then verify the replacement. And
when you're ready to print, you can
format your text in any way you'd like.
Answer a few simple questions and you
can set margins and line spacing. The
Writer will number pages either at the top
or bottom or not at all—whichever you
prefer. You can easily save your text on
a disk, then retrieve it later to re-read,
print or do more editing.

And to make your writing letter perfect,

soon there will be a spelling checker
available for use with the Bank Street
Using the Bank Street Writer is almost as simple as sitting dawn with it blank sheet Writer. Bank Street Speller finds errors
of paper — just load the program ami iitirt writing.
instantly and corrects them by looking up
entries in its electronic dictionary.
n the weeks following its intro-
duction, the Bank Street Writer SIMPLY MORE POWERFUL.
became a leading best seller,
and for some very simple reasons. For all its simplicity, the Bank Street
Best of all, Bank Street Writer's suggested
Writer offers some very impressive fea
Here, finally, is a word processor that lives retail price of $49.95jbr the Commodore 64
tures, You can center titles or indent with
up to its promise io be easy to use. Most makes it simply the best word proces
ease, and automatic word wrap lets you
people (children included) can begin sing value around. And it comes with
forget about pressing "return" al the end
using it in a matter of minutes. Yet it puts everything you need, including complete
you in full control of the powerful fea documentation and a free back-up disk,
tures most wanted in a sophisticated to begin simplifying your life today.
word processing program. All at a price THE BANK STREET WRITER is also awOabltjor
that makes it as easy to buy as it is to use. Bank Street theApple, IISM and Atari home compute™. Applets
fl tii iti- > pin ri of Apple Computer, lm\ Commoner? 64

i"%.7 tttuiemtirk off Cv
EIb Ltd.
i in ii tnuivmark of Atari Cart /liMiis ii trndr-
SIMPLY MORE SIMPLE. lunik o/ Itittntttttonal Pimh^^ Mi chines, Inc, Vor
man Information about Brwatbf id ami our
products, write to unit: 17 l\iul D itrf. Sun Rufnel,
California UJUOJ. C 19B4 Uraderi ind Software.
The Bank Street Writer was developed in
association with the Bank Street College
of Education in New York. Designed to be SIMPLICITY. POWER. VALUE.
its own tutor, the Writer will guide you IT MAKES GOOD SENSE.
along with on-screen prompts and easy- THE BANK STREET WRITER
to-follow menus so you can concentrate FROM BRODEKBUND.
on what you're doing instead of Jiow
On-screen prompts and selections are in
plain English, so there's no memorizing
complex computer codes, keys or sym
bols. You'll be writing, correcting and
rearranging your words with just a few
■^Btwtobund Software-

characters into the fields, de fields, how many spaces be You can arrange your print
scribing the printout in terms of tween fields, and the location out in a number of ways. You
fields included, the order of and number of carriage returns. can design a columnar report, or
a mailing label. When you print,
you can enter the search and

Turn your own sort keys to let you print only a

selected part of your data base,

Commodore 64 into a with or without sorting or al

phabetizing. You can also create

graphic workstation: a sequential file on disk, ready

to be loaded or merged with a

word processor capable of read
ing the file.
MicroFiler does have some
limitations. Since the number of
records is limited by memory,
J you may need to keep several
{_ separate data bases with the
— \. same entry form. You cannot
add an extra field or change any
PLEXIDRAW is the exciting part of the entry form without
and affordable Light Pen/Software System for people who losing all your data. (Many data
need drawings, schematics, plans, layouts or graphics in bases have this limitation.)
their wurk.
There is no way to print column
more productive right away. Draw and fine-time design ideas
heading or field names with the
right on your CRT ... with your Light Pen. Then generate
■ Lr data, or to print headers, foot
drawings or hard copies in black and white or color quickly
'- ^ ■
ers, or page numbers. Other
and effortlessly. w .-r
than summing and averaging,
And because you're unconcerned with computer commands \
no math operations are sup
you can focus on what you're working On. Fact is, work becomes
a lut more fun. /■ ported on numeric fields.
Nonetheless, MicroFiler has
TIP. Select from a wealth of drawing modes listed on the .screen. u W
rare power for such an easy-to-
Move fluidly from freehand drawing to lines, hoses, arcs, _
circles, ellipses, zooms, cross hairs, grids. Phis, flips, rotations
?-, use program. The ease with
\ J
and split screens ... virtually all the functions you'll ever need. which you define and enter
PLEXIDRAW gives you the freedom to manipulate and records and the flexibility of
handle images as you work. Create your own templates and n sorts, searches, and printouts all
patterns to go with the standard Rexidrav templates and 612 ■ r an 1 make MicroFiler stand out
pattern fills. There's seven different type styles for text. And " 1 II 1
a i against the glut of inferior data
10 hi-res colors may be added. There's also a Sprite Editor
\ )
and Animator. An exclusive Trans^raph feature even lets you bases. You might not want to
send graphics to distant locations via modem. use MicroFiler for complex busi
ness record keeping, but it will
DORE USERS GROUP. Test draw FLEXIDRAW yourself at
your nearest Commodore Software dealer now. do an outstanding job for casual
P.O. Box WilW* MH 2B0, 7(177 Honsun Rood, San Dlujw. CA Q21H8.(61B) aw-S7H2
. J" J or home applications.

Microbits Peripheral Products
225 W. Third Street
INKWtLL SYSTSM! i Albany, OR 97321
$49.95 m
©INKWEI.l-SYSTRMS, ami "A Petifor Your Thoughts"

76 COMPUTES Gazette December 1984


* :" ■*££■:<


F1EID OF FIRE". One of the finest fishting BREAKTHROUGH IN THE ARDENNES ' rep BROADSIDES". This strategy/arcade game
forces during World War II was Easy Com resents SSI's dedicated efforts to provide brings back all the romance and excite
pany of the First Infant^ Division. Now, a close look at one of the most popular ment of the adventurous age of fighting
FIELD OF FIRE takes you back in time to wargame topics: The Battle of the Bulge. sail by letting you command your very own
assume command of these heroic men, Designed for the avid strategist, this regi 18th-century warship. You'll make all the
retracing eight of their historical battles In mental/brigade-level simulation possesses military decisions a real captain must make,
North Africa, Sicily, France and Germany. comprehensive combat rules and fea resulting in non-stop naval action, as fast
For novices and battle- hardened veterans tures. S59.95. and demanding as the historical battles it
alike. S39.95. re-creates. You can even construct a ship
PRESIDENT ElECT is perfect for all arm of your own design. S39.95
RAILS WEST!" is a sophisticated business/ chair politicians, especially in this election
educational game that takes you back to year. You can campaign for the Presidency COMPUTER QUARTERBACK". Kick off with
1870. As an entrepreneur amons the likes in a grueling 9-week race using historical the pros in thfs popular real-tfme strategy
of Jay Gouki and Collis P. Hunbngtorv you'll or imaginary candidates. And every major simulation of NFL and semi-pro football.
wheel and deal as you try to build the electoral parameter has been duplicated Choosing from a wide variety of offensive
richest Transcontinental railroad by making to make this educational same the most and defensive option^ you can play with
decisions about financial strategies. For realistic model of the campaign process actual historical teams or ones that you've
up to eight players, it is fun, challenging, ever made! S39.95. drafted yourself. S39.95.
and exhaustive in detail and realism. S39.95. B3»iHBBa3i

All games are on 64K disk Look for these games at your local com
COMMODORE 64 is a trademark of Commodore puter/software or game store today!
Electronics, Ltd.


If there are no convenient stores near you, VI5A & M/C holders can order Stierlm Road, Bids. A-500, Mountain View, CA 94043. Please include $5.00 for
direct by calling 800-227-1617, ext 335 toll free. (BOO-77E-3545, ext. 335 in shipping & handlins. (California residents, odd 6.5% sales tax.) All SS! games
California.) Toorder by mail, send your check to: Strategic Simulations Inc, 883 cany a 14-day "satisfaction or your money back" guarantee.

NATO Commander Art Hunkins

NATO Commander, from first strike); tactical nuclear

MicroProse Software, is an ac weapons are strictly a last re
cessible, single-player war-game sort, for use only when conven
simulation that quickly gets you tional remedies have failed or
deeply involved. And it's fun to when the enemy has first gone
play. The basic commands are nuclear—and then only after
easy to learn (one-and-a-half to authorization from the
two hours should do it), and its commander-in-chief. To win,
main challenge is strategy. An you must both keep up your
"accelerated real-time combat guard (defend your cities), and
simulation" (action is updated employ your forces appropri
in 5-minute chunks), it pits ately (each force type specializes
NATO vs. Warsaw Pact forces, in a particular role).
with you as NATO chief. The game offers numerous dark background. Action is slow
Scenarios are based on ac options and many types of and difficult following the dra
tual and anticipated European armed forces (there are multiple matic shift to black. On the
theater strategy, including what kinds and functions of units). In whole, color is particularly ef
is known of Warsaw Pact addition to the five scenarios, fective in helping identify both
strengths and weaknesses, the game comes up in "demo forces and terrain features.
NATO reinforcement readiness, mode," a feature purporting to
and France's intentions (should make it more accessible to first- A Few Drawbacks
war break out). time players. Other noteworthy The documentation is sketchy to
features include daily status re average. The vital information is
A Pause To Reflect ports, interspersed with an all there, but not all the screen
The game's chief attraction is its nouncements of political events action and graphics are ex
which affect game action (based plained. Nor (in sufficient
ability to let you freeze action—
on historical probability). depth) are the roles of morale
a kind of "time out" to survey
the situation, plan strategy, and
Each military unit is "intel and terrain.
ligent"; it does its own recon The map graphic is surpris
make any moves you desire.
naissance, choosing its own ingly difficult to follow and fig
Since freeze can be activated at
most favorable course of move ure out, even when used with
any time, action can best be de
ment (this particularly applies to
scribed as unstructured and the map included in the docu
free-flowing; you as commander Warsaw Pact forces). Radio and mentation. Then there are the
can interrupt, interact, and
teletype messages link you with all-too-frequent misspellings
your various units, and your ac and syntax errors, coupled with
change strategy whenever you
cess to the field is immediate. poorly formatted text that splits
want. This tactical immediacy is
both captivating and realistic. So The graphics are good, words between lines. The docu
is the political dimension: Scor though basic. A joystick moves mentation still shows traces of
ing includes both combat and you around the display map, conversion from the Atari
political elements (use of nu which shows water, rivers, ter original.
clear weapons scores negative rain features and towns, as well Nevertheless, as a one-player
political points). as the various forces. A particu simulation, NATO Commander is
Strategy is of necessity de larly nice, though occasionally both exciting and realistic. It is
fensive (although one of five disturbing, feature is the shift relevant to today's political cli
scenarios involves a pre-emptive from day to night—from light to mate, since it plays according to

78 COMPUTED Ga/oire Docomber 1984

Christinas Carols
for the 64

Sing Along With Your SOXGS I.V< I.I

Angels We Have Heard on High • Away in a Manger •
Favorite Songs O Come All Yc Faithful - Deck the Halls • The First Noel
Here's a great way for you and your family to have fun • God Kcsl Ye Merry Gentlemen • Hark Hie Herald
with your Commodore 64™ iliis Christmas. Our ex Angels Sing • O Holy Night • It Came Upon n Midnight
citing new Christmas Carols disk feulurcs 18 of ymir Clear • Jingle Hells • .Joy to flic World • Jolly Old St.
favorite holiday songs; each professionally arranged Nicholas • 0 Christmas Tree • Silent Night • o Little
for the 64 with entertaining graphics. For sing along Town of Bethlehem • We Three Kings of Orient Are • What
fun, the lyrics appear in easy-to-read verse on your TV Child is This • Upon the Housetop
or monitor. I'luy just your favorite song
or set your Commodore to play them all.
It's u great way to show off your com
puter. As always, you can trust John
Henry Software to bring you quality
software a( the lowest price. We
$15. 95
Send check ar money order for 818.98, U.S. funds,
plus Hi.oof'or [Hisiugcond handling. Or use your
specialize in prompt delivery and
Visa nr MiisterCurd (include your account
guarantee our product. Don't wait, number and expiration date). Foreign orders, add
order your Christmas Carols today! An Actual Screen 88.00 Tor Air Mail delivery.

For more Information write us ut r Please send me. . Christmas Carols disk(s) at $15.95 each
I'd. Box 39021, Cincinnati, Ohio 45239 plus Si .00 postage and handling. Ohio residents add fl8t sales tax.
U.S. (inters received by December 15. iiro ] Check or money order enclosed ID Visa □ MasterCard
gwiruntccd tor ChrlRtmus delivery.
Accounts. Exp. Date,
f GummadiHt!' >■■ k



John Hemy Software' City. Stato. .Zip.

Send to John Henry Soitware, P.O. Box 39021, Cincinnati, Ohio 45239.
DuniiTv 15 mill ', utNGtH
Foreign orders please pay in U.S. funds and add $3.00 (or Air Mail delivery.

the "rules" of the European the of today, and considerable stay change color to indicate who
ater of the '80s. Although it of ing power. Recommended for last occupied them.
fers multiple levels of difficulty, those who want a different kind All in all, the graphics are
it can be approached by first- of contemporary war game, and very attractive. Because every
time war gamers, and gives for the adventurous novice war thing happens on only one
some notion both of contempo gamer. screen, though, the units are a
rary command strategy and the bit small to be comfortably fo
NATO Commander
challenges, intricacy, and imme cused on for more than a couple
MicroProse Software
diacy of modern warfare in the of hours at a time. The game is
10616 Beaver Dam Road
West. NATO Commander has in playable on a black-and-white
Hunt Valley, MD 21030
teractive excitement, the realism TV or monochrome monitor,
$34.95 (Commodore 64 disk) ffl
with little trouble distinguishing

A Choice Of
Road To Moscow Neil Randall Road to Moscow has five scenar
ios. Four of them cover individ
On June 22, 1941, Hitler in Graphic Realism ual years of the war, and one
vaded the Soviet Union. The On the map of the Soviet the entire campaign. The
next four years saw the largest Union, you see five types of ter 1941-42 scenario takes the war
land campaign ever fought, as rain: forest, swamp, mountains, from the German jump-off point
the Germans pushed the Soviets seas, and clear. Each has a dis to the battles near Stalingrad. At
to the brink of surrender and tinct graphics symbol, and each the other extreme, the 1944-45
then began the long, slow re is appropriately colored. The scenario shows the last, desper
treat to Berlin. To the Allies, it map changes color with the sea ate German defense of Poland.
was known as the War in the sons: light gray during clear The campaign game covers the
East; to the Soviets, the Great weather (summer and fall), yel war from start to end, and is the
Patriotic War. To the Germans, low during spring, and a very one you'll want to get to as
it was simply the Russian Front. stark white throughout the long soon as possible.
Road to Moscow for the 64 Russian winter. This last change The small scenarios take
is a re-creation of the entire has an interesting psychological about five hours to play, once
Russo-German war. The screen effect, as you soon come to you have a few hours expe
displays a map of the Soviet dread winter as much as the So rience. The campaign game is
Union from Poland to the Ural viet army. an undertaking of 20 to 30
Mountains {west to east) and The armies themselves con hours. The program disk allows
from Finland to the Black Sea sist of small square "units." You one game to be saved on it,
(north to south). You're given can choose standard designa however there is no provision
command of the German forces, tions (for example, infantry is a for saving a game on a separate
which you must maneuver using square containing an X), or disk.
either the keyboard or a joy icons, which show a picture of Game play is unusual in
stick. To win the game, you the type of unit (infantry is a that both sides move simulta
must capture as many Russian little man, armour is a tank). neously. First, using the joystick
cities as possible, then hold on German units are black, chang or keyboard, you plot move
to them. The Soviets (your 64) ing to light blue when less than ment for each German unit.
will do everything possible to half-strength. Russian units are While you're doing this, the
stop you. Each turn represents red, changing to pink when de computer is plotting movement
two weeks of real time. pleted. The cities on the map for the Soviet units. When you

80 COMPUTE'S Gazarto December J9B4

Simulator]! Q?

Put yourself in the pilot's seat of a Piper 181 Cherokee Archer for an awe-Inspiring flight over realistic scenery
from New York to Los Angeles. High speed color-filled 3D graphics will give you a beautiful panoramic vic\
as you practice takeoff s, landings, and aerobatics. Complete documentation will get you airborne quickly
even if you've never flown before. When you think you're ready, you can play the Wortd War I Ace aerial battle
game. Flight Simulator If features include ■ animated color 3D graphics ■ day, dusk, and night flying modei
■ over 80 airports In four scenery areas: New York, Chicago, Los Angeles, Seattle, with additional scenery
areas available ■ user-variable weather, from clear blue skies to grey cloudy conditions ■ complete flight
instrumentation ■ VOR, ILS, ADF, and DME radio equipped "navigation facilities and course plotting ■ World
War I Ace aerial battle game ■ complete information manual and flight handbook.

See your dealer...

or write or call lor more information. For direct ciders please add $1,50 lor
shipping and specify UPS or first class mall delivery. American Express, Diner's Corporation
Club, MasterCard, and Visa accepted.
713 Edgebrook Drive

Order Line: 800/637-4983 Champaign IL 61820

(217) 359-8482 Telex: 206995

finish plotting, type G and the last moment. Russian artillery and that's it. The game reminds
computer performs the actual appears in mid- to late-1943 me of military maps, with troop
movement of both sides' units. and smashes anything that movements shown by arrows.
Whenever enemy units are plot stands in its way. You must use The arrows show where the
ted to enter the same square, your armored units to sweep commander hopes the units will
they fight. around and trap the Soviets; if end up, which is what this
When you "pick up" a unit, you try to go right through game's plotting system does for
a one-line display at the bottom them, you'll suffer too many the player.
of the map shows the unit's cur losses.
rent strength, potential strength, There is even a series of
Strategic Events, happenings be
Nothing's Perfect
and current supply status. Units
which are depleted can be taken yond the player's control. As an Despite its overall success, how
out of the line and into a city to example, the game may begin ever, there are a couple negative
receive reinforcements. The sup six weeks early (May 1941) to points. Allowing only one game
reflect what might have hap to be saved is inconvenient, and
ply status is a number from 0 to
9, with 9 meaning full supply pened had Hitler not conducted writing it to the game disk
a Balkans campaign before in seems a little dangerous, should
and 0 indicating that the unit
vading Russia. Historical events anything go wrong. If you for
has been out of supply for two
include the invasions of Italy get to turn on the drive before
months. A unit with low supply
takes heavier casualties, cannot and France, both of which si saving the game, you lose it and
move at full speed, and cannot phon off troops from the Rus must start over from your last
sian front. These events are save. Surely a warning message
receive replacements. In other
introduced by the computer, could show up instead. It would
words, it's in trouble.
and they interact with each have been nice to allow units to
A unit is moved with either
other. move diagonally, since doing so
a joystick or the function keys.
What is most impressive would permit a more gradual
You simply pick up a unit, plot
about Road to Moscow is its (and safer) retreat. (Since units
where you want to go, then
sense of focus. Wars are com are joystick-controlled, I think
drop it. You may change its
plex affairs, and a game cannot this would have been both logi
move at any time. Even if you
simulate every aspect of even a cal and effective.)
use a joystick, the function keys
small war. The players must be Finally, I would like to have
are available for such purposes
cast in a historical role, be it seen a more explicit way of
as identifying cities and chang-
tank commander, brigade com showing when units are de
ing-movement plots. Strangely, I
mander, or commander of the stroyed. As it stands now, the
find keyboard control easier
entire war. computer flashes the unit's
than joystick control.
Road to Moscow places the name on the status line, but it is
player in the role of German almost impossible to tell which
Simulating History strategic commander (histori unit has just been eliminated. A
Road to Moscow handles all the cally assumed by Hitler). He is better handling of this would
major aspects of the Russo- free to do with his troops as he help the player learn how to
German war. The Germans are will, but he is under the histori fight battles more efficiently.
immensely superior to the Sovi cal constraints of time, weather, More importantly, the doc
ets in effectiveness for the first and manpower. Unlike many umentation is a little vague on
part of the war, but the Soviets war games, though, Road to how the game actually works. I
keep getting better. The player Moscow makes the player's role suspect this is intentional, the
watches as Soviet reinforce very clear. He is not concerned idea being to learn as you play.
ments and replacements keep with small-unit tactics, not even But war gamers tend to be an
coming and coming, always with small battles. He must deal analytical lot, and want to know
seeming to fill the gaps at the with overall troop movement, how the computer conducts
82 COMPUTErs Gazelle December 1984

QUICKSILVA .ivailablefftim:-

UICKSILVA INC.426 West Nakoma San AntonioTexas78216. (512)340 3684.

c 'Hie
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Awailablc on Disc for th« COMMODORE 64 ". Send (or tlotails o( our full rannoof Commodoio (iroRrains.
combat and where it gets its the best computer war games ferently than other computer
numbers. The game uses a sys available, for two main reasons. war games, I recommend it to
tem different from other com First, it uses a system which both beginner and veteran.
puter war games, and should plays quickly and yet allows the Road to Moscow
therefore be explained in greater player to feel like a theater com Ba'rac Limited
detail. Since Ba'rac plans other mander. Second, it simulates P.O. Box 37206
games using this system, per one of the most interesting wars
Shreveporl, LA 7U33-7206
haps we'll see more explanation. of all time. For these reasons, $29.95 (disk) ^
Road to Moscow is one of and because it does its job dif

The Castles Of two players, one at each joy

Dr. Creep Also stick, it becomes a medley of

competition and cooperation.
Thirteen castles, over 200
rooms, countless passageways,
Worth Transylvania was never so hard
to leave.
and legions of creatures make
Brtfdcrbtmd Software
this arcade game for the Com 17 Paul Drive
modore 64 one that plays for San Rafael, CA 94903
days, not just hours. $29.95 (disk)
After selecting the castle mies leave their coffins and
you want to explore (there's a tombs and follow you almost
Dragon's Keep And
tutorial game that quickly shows everywhere. The combination
you how to play and illustrates and number of these devices Troll's Tale
the different elements of a cas and creatures sets the difficulty These two new children's ad
tle), your character appears in a of the room. venture games for the 64 from
room. Sometimes you have but Each room is a puzzle in it Sierra are teachers as well as
one possible exit, because the self. How can you get to the entertainers. Both are
other doors are locked or simply generator switch when a Frank graphics/text adventures in
cannot be opened from this enstein bars the way? How can which the player travels from
side. Other times you have a you close that trapdoor without scene to scene, following clues,
choice. Running through a door electrocuting yourself? to locate missing objects. In
way and up the passageway And the rooms comprise a Dragon's Keep, the object is to
(graphically entertaining in it greater puzzle—the castle itself. rescue animals, in Troll's Tale to
self), you find yourself in an You somehow must escape. To find hidden treasures. Each
other room. do that, you have to find and game has good graphics, and
But there are electrostatic pocket the numerous keys scat the constant disk access, com
generators (remember the huge tered throughout the building. mon to most adventure games,
silvered balls, with lightning Only then can you find your doesn't cause too long a wait.
sparking off them, from the old way back into the light. Each package includes maps
horror movies?), matter trans The Castles of Dr. Creep is and stickers to help the child
mitters, force fields, trap doors, an entertaining, engrossing visualize and track his or her
moving sidewalks, automated game that manages to combine movements.
death rays, ladders, fireman's arcade action, superior graphics The skill focus of these ad
poles, and walkways filling each and sound, and strategic puzzle ventures is on identifying de
room. To make things even solving. You need quick think tails, understanding inferences,
more complicated, Frankenstein ing, and even quicker reflexes to and drawing conclusions. Drag-
monsters and stumbling mum- find your way out. And with on's Keep is designed for ages

84 COMPUTED Gazslfo December 19B4

Get more out of your Commodore with

For Owners And Users Of Commodore VIC-20"And 64"" Personal Computers

More fun More programs

Programs to help you balance your
checkbook, store your addresses, keep
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gram the Function Keys. Writing Trans
Name _
portable Basic. How to Make Custom
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Commands for the 64. How to use
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Allabug. Computing forKids, a regular on in COMPUTEI's Gazelle. With this COMPUTE* CALL TOLL FREE

monthly feature, will uncover new ways kind of expert help, every computer pur
to involve your children in computing. chase you make can be the right onel

seven and up and teaches com all of the keys on the screen, are the keys to preventing anni
pass directions. Troll's Tale is a freeing the treasure for you to hilation. More than 30 rooms
bit more complex and is de take. By using the space bar, must be searched, and 90 robots
signed for ages eight and up. your character can fire bolts of have to be circumvented while
Both games are well de magic at the Evil Genie and you gather parts of the puzzle.
signed and fun to play, just as lesser threats. This is an awk As you pick up the code, the
importantly, they don't get in ward component of the game, pieces are automatically trans
the way of the interactive pro however, and in practice is diffi ferred to your Agency's com
cess. No matter what choices a cult to use effectively. puter, which will help you
youngster enters, the programs Rug Rider includes a good unscramble the meaning. But
provide guidance to those who mix of activities on the different it's by no means easy. Look at
may get frustrated, and they screens. Sometimes you'll need the pieces, flip them vertically
teach important skills. to drill for the magic keys. On or horizontally, match their col
Sierra, Inc. other occasions, you'll have to ors. Call the computer for help.
P.O Box 485 pick up and drop heavy irons, Hurry, time is running out.
Coarsegold, CA 93614 or brandish magic shields. De There are numerous subtle
$29.95 disks stroying the Evil Genie is the touches which make Impossible
toughest part of a very challeng Mission unique. The sound ef
ing game. You'll have to hit him fects are extremely well done,
Rug Xlder with your magic bolts more including Atombender's taunt
You'll need to develop a deft than once to achieve the desired ing comments, a chilling cry if
touch with the joystick to take results. your character plunges to his
full advantage of this new ac demise, the robots' electrifying
International Tri Micro
tion game from International Tri 1010 N. Batavia Unit G zaps, even the foot/alls as you
Micro. Very much in the tradi Orange, CA 92667 run through the tunnels and the
tion of ]oiist, Rug Rider puts you (714) 771-4038 rooms. Two code rooms permit
in command of a free-floating $29.95 (disk) you to pick up "snooze" pass
magic carpet piloted by a red- words (which temporarily stop
robed, turbaned character, the robots) and "lift inits"
Ahmed. You fly among clouds, Impossible Mission (which reset the elevators in a
caves, forests, mountains, and From the moment you hear the room) if you can correctly re
castles collecting power and sinister voice of Dr. Elvin member a sequence of musical
experience for the final con Atombender welcome you to his tones.
frontation with the Evil Genie. underground stronghold, you If time runs out before
Rug Rider lets you scroll know this new action-puzzle you've solved the code,
and choose any of 32 screens, game from Epyx is something Atombender's mocking laughter
each with different terrain and refreshingly different. Fast ac will haunt you as the screen
challenges. Colorful graphics, tion, superb graphics and sound breaks up in destruction. Each
sprightly music, and a variety of effects (including speech synthe time you play the game, it gen
obstacles help keep the game sis), a somersaulting central erates a different pattern of
lively. As with almost any good character, and a difficult code rooms and a variety of codes for
action game, mastering the joy for you to crack make Impossible you to break. This game
stick movements takes a bit of Mission a game you can come presents an excellent combina
practice. It is particularly impor back to and still enjoy. tion of features which takes full
tant that you not let Ahmed As a special agent attempt advantage of the Commodore
come in contact with objects on ing to stop Atombender from 64's capabilities.
the screen, such as the bottom destroying the world, you run Epyx, Inc.
of a cloud or any of the lethal through the tunnels and ride the 1043 Kiel Court
instruments of destruction. elevators of his headquarters Sunnyvale, CA 94089
In each round, you gather seeking pieces of code, which Approximately $35 (disk) 9
86 COMPUTE'S Gazelle December 1984
Unlimited Free Programs - Unlimited Fun!

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Programming Commodore's
Magic Voice
Betsy And Danny Byrne

Commodore's new Magic Voice Speech statement for use with extended vocabularies
Module gives your 64 the power to talk. {which are not yet available as this issue goes to
Here's a short program that acts as a press). And RDY is a variable which keeps track
"speech processor.' You type the words of when the computer has finished one word and
and your computer speaks them. is ready to say another.
The manual includes a short program to
allow the computer to speak every number from
Making your 64 talk to you is a simple matter 0 to 999,999,999 when typed from the keyboard.
now. Commodore's Magic Voice Speech Module But what if you want a program to speak the
is easy to use, and it can greatly enhance your other words when they're typed in?
programs with educational and entertainment There are several problems that must be
value. solved before a "speech processor" is possible.
For starters, just plug the Magic Voice car Probably the most serious problem is the
tridge into your 64, hook a wire to your TV or 234-word limit of the Magic Voice. It's not that
monitor, and rum on the computer. Type SAY it's a strange or useless vocabulary. It does con
and one of the 234 available words, and your 64 tain most of the most common words. The diffi
is in business. cult part is that, unless you've memorized the list
You can insert any cartridge software into of words, it's easy to type a word which the
the top-loading slot. Certain games, like Com Magic Voice doesn't know. What happens then is
modore's Corf and Wizard of Wor, have some the program stops and prints an ?ILLEGAL
speech routines built in. Corf guffaws (or is it a QUANTITY ERROR message.
chortle?) as the game begins, "Ha Ha Ha, Space In addition, the Magic Voice does not rec
Cadet." It adds a new dimension to game ognize sentences. You have to SAY words one by
playing. one. As you type sentences, the program has to
watch for individual words. That's simple
Writing Your Own Voice enough, just GET letters from the keyboard,
building up the word until you reach a space
(marking the end of a word). Then SAY the word
If you're able to understand and manipulate the
and go back to get the next one.
PRINT statement, you should have little trouble
Finally, there are some homonyms not on
using SAY. the list. We'd want the program to swap between
You can SAY a word directly, as long as you
homonyms if one is on the list but its counterpart
spell it correctly and put it inside quotation isn't. For example, if you tried to SAY the words
marks. Or you can use the word number (the
DOWN BY THE SEA, you'd hear the first three.
number which represents a word from the avail
But SEA would result in an illegal quantity error,
able list), which saves some memory if you plan
even though the Magic Voice can say the letter C
to speak a lot of words in your program. For
and the word SEE. Another problem is with
example, SAY"MILLION" is equivalent to alternate spellings, for example GREY (accept
SAY18, because word number 18 is "million."
able) versus GRAY (not).
Besides SAY, the Magic Voice module adds
two other new BASIC statements and a new re
served variable. RATE sets the speed of the Using Finger Talk
words spoken. It doesn't make the pitch higher "Finger Talk," the program accompanying this
(like a cartoon character) or lower; it makes the article, addresses some of these quirks.
words come out faster. VOC is a specialized Our original solution to the first problem

88 COMPUTE'S Gazelle Decomber 1984

... facts attest; to its


"Sofar as we tire concerned, "Paper Clip is one oj the easiest

Paper Clip is the top word processor of the professional word processors to use,
running on u micro computer." with a sensible manual am! plenty oj aids lor the accident-prone.'
■Home Applications For The C-64 -Computing Now


IBS Queen St. rtesr 17875 Sky Park North,
Toronto, Ontario, Suite P, Irvine, California
MSV1ZI Canada e Energized So USA 92711
1116)595 1105

QnHUIIimniKLUIlu All KIOHtl Nutnvto 1I1N irruI.lNOCOMMOOOIIC «f RESIST into I MIDI M*HK i Bf5FICI IV[LV 01 A [am. iw. Af.LL uwmim IV: ANDCOUMOOO"! •uStNtSVUCHINi 1, PNC
was to include lots of DATA statements to cover you can use the DELete key to correct it. And
230+ words and various homonyms. The nu SHIFT-CLR/HOME clears the screen. It doesn't
merous DATA statements contributed to the matter whether you use upper- or lowercase let
length of the original program. ters; they're converted to lowercase by the
Finger Talk was shortened considerably by a program.
slight modification to the error routine. If you One thing to watch for is typing a space
look at line 80, you'll see three POKEs. They di while the SHIFT LOCK key is down. Spaces are
vert the Magic Voice module's error routine to a used to mark the boundaries between words, and
harmless section of memory. If you try to say an the SHIFTed space character is different from a
illegal word, the Magic Voice just ignores it. The regular space. They look the same on the screen,
program continues, instead of stopping and but have different ASCII values. A SHIFTed
printing 7ILLEGAL QUANTITY ERROR. space is like a capital space, if you can imagine
If you own a Magic Voice and plan to write that. It's best to avoid using SHIFT LOCK when
programs for it, you might want to make note of entering words to be spoken.
the three POKEs, especially if you plan to SAY One other quirk comes from the way words
words which are INPUT by users. are kept in an array until you press RETURN. If
The second problem, speaking words instead you type a few words and clear the screen (with
of sentences, is solved with the GET statement, out pressing RETURN), the previous words will
as described above. be spoken when you finally do press RETURN.
Several homonyms have been added. You The array is active until RETURN is pressed.
can see them in the DATA statements toward the Finger Talk demonstrates what the Magic
end of the program. They are stored in an array. Voice module can do (and gives you something
When you type an illegal word which sounds for your friends to "ooh" and "aah" over at par
like a legal one, the program trades the two and ties). It could be useful to teach touch typing to
the equivalent vocabulary word is spoken. blind people; they'll hear which key they just
pressed. And kids who are learning to read could
Typing In The Program use it to practice.

Type in Finger Talk and save it. Before you run See program listing on page 197. 9
it, make sure you have the Magic Voice module
plugged into your 64. As the program begins, the
homonyms are read into memory and the title 8 GAMES PLUS...
screen appears.

You are asked two questions. If you want

each letter spoken as you type, answer YES to The "PREMIER COLLECTION"
SAY EACH LETTER? For example, if this option A disk packed full of games and
is active, you will hear T, H, R, E, E when you other interesting programs for the
Commodore 64. For all ages and
press those letters. Press the space bar and you'll
interests. ALL for $34.95.
hear the word THREE. If you answer no, you'll
hear only the word, not the individual letters. BULLRIDE. How long can you REVERSI. 7 level machine
You also choose what RATE the Magic Voice ride llio wild bull in this fast language version of this familiar
animated computer simulation? game. We bet you can't beat it
will use, from 1 for the fastest to 10 for the on level 51
slowest. DARTS. Use a joystick to deflect
SLIDE SHOW. Animated se
darts toward the target Scores
quence of outer space scenes
After you answer the questions, the main like English Darts. 1-2 players
using the multi-color graphic
speaking routine begins. If you type a word EUCHRE. This solitaire version of
that's part of the Magic Voice's vocabulary, you'll the fast paced Ifump card game SOPWITH CAMEL. Outfly the
pits you against tlie computer. Bed Baron and you'll win this one
hear it spoken. If the word isn't available, you
SQUABBLE. Vou have 3 minutes
don't hear anything. Press RETURN and the MAXWELLS DEMON. In this
to find more words than the com
unique action game you must try
whole sentence is spoken. puter can find in the random 4x4
to break the Second Law of
ietter grid. The computer knows
Finger Talk limits sentences to 80 characters Thermodynamics1
over 4,700 words Do you7
(two screen lines). If you reach the 80th character PHONE DIALER. A personal WORDTIME. If Squabbles loo
without pressing RETURN, the computer auto phone directory with automatic tame lor you. try shooting
lone dialing Stores 364 entries missiles at letters to form words
matically says the sentence as if RETURN had
and 2 access codes per Me. 2 Players.
been pressed.
Commodore 64 is a registered Irademaik of Commodore Electronics Ltd
The fl key controls the RATE (1-10) from (Works with most 1541 format Serial Drives)
Phone or Send S34.95 (OH. Res. add S1.93 lax) to:
within the program. Each time you press fl, the
rate is increased by 1. A single number in the
upper left corner tells you the current rate (a zero
Bollhraok, OH 4S30S

means rate ten). If you make a typing mistake, SECTOR, (513) 84fi-2flSfi

90 COMPUT&'s Gazette December 1984

* A Program that gives your computer the power of full word
processing, but as easy to use as a typewriter
#A Program that stores and retrieves any type of information and
that understands real English commands.
*-A Program that enables your computer to talk over a telephone
to other computers around the world.

W/W /

by Russ wetmore.
Featuring three of the most needed personal productivity tools;
All for the incredible price of

imagine... Word Processing with

information management with
mePak Telecommunications with
tt HomePak features all three programs on a
single disk. Each program works smoothly
and effortlessly with the others.
Simple enough for the first time user,
but with the features and flexibility
S demanded by the experienced user.

Atari anflcommoaoie 54 versions of MomePax are ayaliaoieNow.Apoielle.'CanclFiCtranitioraolHcimepakwIHbeBvalfawe winter 19
HOtneWfi wilt also OP releaMOln veFsfonsforotfler major computer lysiems During 19B 5..
™w tprsyiwmmavreauireacreswfvocvicesiuin is moaems. prlntersorcaras to utilize so « Hit feature* of HbmePia. see yourdeaie-
OevefopefloyHijsi Wetmore (or Star systems software for batteries included The EneiQiieo Software Company
■MaimfactucBrssusowtira U i list price. DPaiers may sell fonts*. HO 19B4 Batteries included
.AOple.COmmoOoresriOIBMwercglsteroatraacmarWofAtaricorp H»»inc.CommoaoreBUtlr"!SsMacriine.S
IOMIJ Hi I nt',', Mxn I UK I n c f M P«t' *f'.

■'»',V,'.:V,V,-'., ■ ■ .;y,A
Tommy Graham

Wave after wave of enemy Zirconians at press the fire button to shoot your pulsar cannon.
tempt to descend on your home planet in You receive 100 points for each Zirconian ship
hope of the ultimate conquest. Your only destroyed, but 20 points are deducted for each
defense is your particle beam pulsar can ship that reaches the ground.
non, which will destroy them. But don't There are innumerable waves of attack
even let them get close—they'll self- forces. When you clear one, the program displays
destruct and take you along with them. An
action game for the VIC and 64. Joystick
Programmer's Notes:
Alien visitors from a faraway galaxy have left 64 Version
their dying planet in search of a new base for Gary Black, Editorial Programmer
their civilization. Their target: Earth. As they de
scend in waves, your mission is to carefully Program 3, the 64 version of "Cosmic Com
maneuver your nuclear-powered space cruiser, bat," is written entirely in machine lan
which is armed with a particle beam pulsar guage, so the action is very fast. As in the
cannon. VIC version, you move your ship with the
Although you're greatly outnumbered, effec joystick (port 2) and blast away at the
tive use of your powerful cannon can offset this descending Zirconians. Because the game is
disadvantage. A direct hit disintegrates an enemy fast at the start, there is only one skill level.
ship. Unfortunately, the Zirconians know of your As in the VIC version, you receive 100
weapon and are artful dodgers. So much so, in points for each destroyed Zirconian. How
fact, that they'll sometimes collide with each ever, you lose only ten points for each ship
other in an effort to avoid your pulsars. that touches down.
The Zirconian ships have no weapons to re Typing in this version requires the use
turn your fire, but each has a self-destruct of MLX, elsewhere in this issue. Be sure to
mechanism on board. When a ship reaches a cer read and understand the MLX article before
tain depth, this device activates and explodes. If entering Cosmic Combat. When MLX
you're in the vicinity, your ship, too, is a victim. prompts you for a starting and ending ad
Fortunately, you have two extra space cruisers in dress, respond with 49152 and 51479,
reserve. If these are destroyed, it's all over. respectively. Load the program with LOAD
"filename"$,\ (for disk) or LOAD
Straightforward Operation 'filename",1,1 for tape. To begin play, type
You must first choose one of five skill levels. Use SYS49152.
the joystick to move your ship left and right, and

92 COMPUTEIs Gazelle December 1984

ONCE TOO OFTEN? Mr. Do laughed in the
face of disaster at the
arcades. Now he's ready
to clown around at
home. It might be his
last laugh if you're not
careful. Just like the arcade
game, monsters and
their henchmen are out
to do in Mr. Do. And it's
up to you to try and fend
them off with a powerball
and goodies galore.
If you can, squash the
monsters with huge
apples. Or knock them
dead with your trusty
powerball. Slow down the
henchmen with cherries.
And try to escape through
a maze of tunnels on 99
different screens.
Now do you have what it
takes to keep Mr. Do from
being done in?
For Commodore 64,
Apple II series, Atari and
IBM PC &PC/JR systems.

Datasoft, Inc., 19308 Nordhoff Place,
molt" lia registered irjclcr f rcmlgr Arcadci- li a trademark o< Oumolt, Inc." 1994
Mr. Do" li au,!iJ,-iH:irK of Uiu»v'.iil USAVlnc:* 1984, ■■ I"R4 D,itil«]ft, inr Otatsworth, CA 91311 ■ Phone (818) 701-5161
the number of waves you've eliminated. The memory and automatically loads and runs Pro
longer you play, the more difficult the game. My gram 2. If you're using tape, change the 8 to a 1
highest score is 62,840. As a challenge, see if you in line 19 of Program 1. Save Program 2 directly
can top this. after the first program. Both disk and tape users
should be sure to save Program 2 with the
Typing In The VIC Version filename CC.
The VIC version of "Cosmic Combat" is in two
parts. Program 1 POKEs custom characters into See program listings on page 188.

Defend your planet against the kamikaze Zirconian ships An invader dodges the pulsar cannon in the VIC version.
(64 version).

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94 COMPUTEVs Gazette December 19B4

Can you pedal fast
enough to keep your
human-powered copter
up in the air?
Can you dodge blade-
biting birds, strange
swamp creatures and
dastardly villains?
Can you keep your
copterfrom falling into
the mouths of hungry
sharks and giant squids?
Can you fly through
treacherous mangroves
and lightning storms?
Can you take all this
fun and frustration?
Then you're ready for
the great Mancopter race.
For Commodore 64,
Atari and IBM PC & PC/iR

Datasoft, Inc., 1980B Nordhoff Place,
Ch«&worth,CA91311 - Phone (618) 701-51M
3-D Labyrinth

This game is a classic example of how a
challenging game with good graphics can
be written without a lot of code. It runs on mSftmum ■HH
the VIC (with or without expansion) and n « & 8u
r, i Iff

the 64. n

n is


■ -"1 ' ,
Your goal in "3-D Labyrinth" is simply to make
.-' -■/ '- ' H M i
it through the maze. Sound easy? It isn't. You
m m
m "a ■
start in the northwest corner and must make
m m an » H__
your way to the exit in the southeast corner. The ■ 1 ■■
maze is different each time you play, so tracing

L _J
your path in one game won't help when you
play the next one.

A Leisurely Stroll?
If you're feeling tost, press H (for Help) to get a brief top
If you choose to just explore the maze, you can
view of your position in the labyrinth (VIC screen).
take a leisurely stroll, carefully plotting your
course, and all in your own good time. Or you
can play competitively by timing your trip
through the maze and then seeing if you or a
friend can beat that time in another game,
After typing in and saving the program, sim
ply load and run. The screen blanks while the Programming Techniques
program constructs the maze, so you'll have a When I first wrote the program, I used POKEs to
brief wait before the game starts. You begin in the screen. But after changing the POKEs to
the northwest corner, where the wall is marked PRINTs, the game became faster and more mem
START. (The southeast exit is marked FINISH.) ory efficient.
To face any direction, press S, N, E, or W. First, the background is PRiNTed—in this
Throughout the game, the current direction is case, a giant X with smaller pictures laid on top.
displayed lest you forget which way you're look This X represents the main corridor without any
ing. To move in the direction you've chosen, connecting (side) corridors. The computer then
press the space bar. You might want to use graph looks at the maze (created by an array) in the
paper to map your moves. direction you are facing, and adds pictures of the
If you start feeling hopelessly lost, help is at appropriate side corridors. It first looks to the
your fingertips. Press H to get a brief top view of right and left to see if there are any side cor
the maze with your current position marked. If ridors. If so, the appropriate picture is PRINTed
you're still unable to find your way out, press Q on either or both sides of the X.
(Quit) to start again in a new maze. Next, it checks to see if there is a wall in
When you make it to the FINISH marker, front of you. If so, it PRINTs the proper-sized
you must take a step south (S) out of the maze to square centered on the X. The size is determined
win the game. You'll then be given the time used by how far away the wall is from your present
to complete the tour and a map of the maze. position. If there is no wall, the computer then

96 COMPUTEis GazBrte December 19B4


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'1 «»oH and an editor that lets you create your own custom modes. ■ So take a break with
Night Mission PINBALL from SubLOGIC. Winner of Electronic Games magazine's
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dividual pictures have overlapped in such a way
as to simulate a 3-D effect.
As written, the goal is to simply finish the
maze in the shortest time. Ambitious BASIC pro
grammers might want to add some twists, per
haps a series of mazes with monsters, treasures,
or puzzles to solve along the way.

Note To VIC Users

If you're typing the program into an unexpanded
VIC, be very careful not to add any extra spaces
as you enter the lines. The program just barely
fits as is, with only a few bytes to spare. Any
extra spaces could cause an OUT OF MEMORY
See program listing on page 196. 9
The player faces west with corridors ahead to the left and
right (64 screen).

COMPUTE!'s Gazette
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98 COMPUTE! s Gazorto December 1984

Fahrenheit 451 • Ray Bradbury


■ 03 WJ Hi AND JOS iM A •> .m

SHADOWKEEP alan dean foster OW-10110-i.tOI


Booted up any good books lately?

An entire line of the most challenging, most
exciting, most rewarding adventures ever
created. Adventures that put you right in the
center ofaction—and completely in command.
Only Trillium gives you programs like
Fahrenheit 451*", Ray Bradbury's timeless
masterpiece about one man's courage to defy a
book-burning, repressive state. Only Trillium
combines a line of classic fiction with state-of-
Introducing the-art interactive fea
IKIIhtm™ interactive software. tures—features like
Maybe you've wondered what kind of full-color graphics,
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Clarke could dream up. Maybe you've won and the intense, realistic
Hw* f4MT ><mi t mitSofr emt U i*l Mi to

dered what it would be like to be the hero in game play of multiple- »4*<fini im inn »M pirtio-ng* itiJ oirw

one of their mind-boggling adventures. disk programs. And

Or maybe youVe just wondered if you'd only Trillium gives you these benefits in every
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Well, now you can stop wondering. We give you great books to boot.
Because now there's Trillium. An entire line of
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i??lA S BptsumdiriatmiikofA « Lid

Michael S. Tomczyk

A Christmas

This month, we'll build a Christmas pro The first line prints one "club" symbol on
gram with techniques learned in the pre the screen. CHR$(120) is exactly the same as the
vious two columns, and introduce some club symbol.
new programming tricks. The next line uses a FOR-NEXT loop to
PRINT the CHR$(163) symbol 22 times. As you
may recall from our previous lesson on
FOR-NEXT, everything between FOR X-l TO 22
and NEXT will be repeated 22 times. In this case,
Most experienced programmers have a secret
CHR$(163) is the CHR$ code for a horizontal
collection of programming tricks—simple tech
line, so the horizontal line is printed 22 times.
niques picked up over many years of trial and
The semicolon causes all the symbols to appear
error, or learned from more advanced pro
right next to each other. Without it, each symbol
grammers. In the spirit of the holiday season,
would be printed on a separate line.
let's look at a Christmas assortment of simple
You can also use CHR$ commands to
tricks which are easy to code and can add a lot
change colors, as we did in the third line above,
to your programs.
or to switch between upper- and lowercase.
These examples work for the VIC, 64, and
Now, let's see how we can use a CHR$ to
the new Plus/4 and 16.
clear the screen:
Our "tricks" include a brief explanation of
how CHR$ codes are used, followed by some 100 PRINT CHRS(147)
simple sound effects you can add to your BASIC 200 PRINT"PLEASE TYPE YOUR NAME AND PRESS
programs, and, finally, a way to freeze your pro RETURN.":INPUT N$
300 PRINT CHR$(147)
gram until the user presses any key, or a specific
Let's start with one short program and build Type RUN and press RETURN, then follow the
it up using some "Christmas magic." instructions on the screen. Let's see how this pro
gram works:
Using CHR$ Codes Line 100 clears the screen. Printing the
CHR$(147) is the same as printing the "clear
First, look up the CHRS codes in the back of
your owner's manual. They're listed in the ASCII
screen" character (SHIFT-CLR/HOME).
Line 200 prints a message on the screen. The
and CHRS Codes chart in the appendices of your
INPUT command tells the computer to put a
manual or Programmer's Reference Guide. As you
can see, every key and symbol on your computer
question mark on the screen, wait until some
thing has been typed, and then assign the vari
keyboard has its own CHR$ value. For example,
able N$ to stand for whatever was typed. For
the CHR$ number for the club symbol (like on a
example, if you typed your name, the variable
playing card) is 120. To see how it works, type
N$ is the same as your name.
these lines and press RETURN after each line:
Line 300 clears the screen again so the sec
ond message in line 400 appears all by itself.
FOR X=1TO22:PRINT CHR${163)f:NEXT Line 400 prints the MERRY CHRISTMAS
PRINT CHR${2B)"THIS IS THE COLOR RED." message, followed by your name. Notice that N$
100 COMPUTE'S Gazette December 1984
Available November 15 from COMPUTE! Books

i i_uj

by Michael Tomczyk

$16.95 hardback ISBN 0-942386-75-2

$9.95 trade paperback ISBN 0-942386-76-7

COMPUTE! Publications, the leading home computer publisher, brings

you the exciting story of the home computer industry. This book takes the
reader into a vivid, dramatic world where a powerful, brilliant businessman
almost single-handedly fashions the American consumer computer industry,

A survivor of the Nazi Holocaust, Jack Tramiel took a tiny typewriter parts company and
built it into a major American corporation. In the process, he became a modern corporate
legend. Some of his vice presidents thought he was a saint; some thought he had the
world's hardest heart But few deny the brilliance of this complex entrepreneur.

For the past four years, Michael Tomczyk has been Tramiel's right hand man. Through
out Commodore's explosive rise to leadership in the computer field, Tomczyk was a close
insider. And, most importantly, Tomczyk is a keen observer and takes you where the action

To order your copy, send the attached card, with your payment, to COMPUTE!
Books, P.O. Box 5406, Greensboro, NC 27403 or call toll-free 1-800-334-0868.
Add $3.00 shipping and handling to hardback copy; add $2.00 shipping and handling to trade
is outside the quotation marks. Variables are al
Using GOSUBs To Repeat A
ways used outside quotation marks. The comma,
however, is inside quotation marks, so it will be Sound Effect
printed as the comma character. Try putting the You can repeat a sound effect as many times as
comma outside of the quotation marks, just you like, but if you use it more than once, you'll
before N$. probably want to use a GOSUB command with a
The GOSUB command tells the computer to
REM! In our first program example, we num
GO to a SUBroutine, execute that routine, and
bered the lines 100, 200, 300 because numbering the
then when it's done, RETURN to its original po
tines by 100 lets us insert more tines later on. Most
sition and continue on with the program. Using
programs are numbered by tens—10, 20, 30 and so
the GOSUB command means you can jump down
on—but if you think you might add a lot of tines
to a program line and use it over and over again.
later, it's a good idea to number your lines by 20,
The obvious advantage to using this command is
50, or even 100. The highest line number allowed is
that you don't have to retype the line every time
63999, so you have plenty of room to work with.
you want to use it. Here's how it would work
with the 64:
Creating Sound Effects In A 50 GOSUB 990

Line Or Two 100 PRINT CHRSU47)

Did you ever write a program and wish you RETURN.":INPUT N$
could include just a simple "bleep" or other short 250 GOSUB 990
sound effect? Let's see how easily this can be 300 PRINT CHRSU47)
done. Below are simple one and two line state 400 PRINT"MERRY CHRISTMAS,"NS
450 GOSUB 990
ments you can use in your own programs. Find
900 END
the one appropriate for your computer, type it in, 990 POKE 54296,15:P0KE 54276,33:POKE 5427
and press RETURN. 7,9iPOKE 5427S,0
For the VIC: 991 POKE 54273,51:POKE 54272,97sFOR D=1TO
200:NEXT:POKE 54276,0
150 POKE 36878,15sPOKE 36876,160:FOR T=1T 992 RETURN
0200: NEXT .-POKE 36876,0
If you have a Commodore 64, change lines 150
For the 64; and 151 to lines 990 and 991 as shown. To do
this, LIST the previous program, cursor up to the
150 POKE 54296,15:POKE 54276,33:POKE 5427
beginning of line 150 and type 990, then press
7,9:POKE 54278,0
151 POKE 54273,51:POKE 54272,97:FOR D=1TO RETURN. Then position your cursor at the
200:NEXT:POKE 54276,0 beginning of line 151, type 991, and press
RETURN. Now LIST again, and you'll see the
For the Plus/4 and 16: two lines 990-991 at the end of the program. To
150 VOL 7:SOUND 1,460,60
get rid of line 150, type a 150 all by itself. Enter
ing a blank program line erases that line from
After typing the sound effect line for your memory. Do the same for line 151.
computer, type LIST and press RETURN to make If you have another Commodore computer,
sure the sound effect line has been added to your change line 150 to line 990 using the same tech
program. For example, if you have a 64, your nique (of course, you won't have a line 991 be
new program should look like this: cause the 64 has a two-line sound effect and
yours only requires one line).
100 PRINT CHRS(147)
So how does this program work?
150 POKE 54296,15:POKE 54276,33:P0KE 5427
The GOSUB command in lines 50, 250, and
7,9:POKE 54278,0
151 POKE 54273,51sPOKE 54272,97:FOR D=1TO 450 tells the computer to jump down to line 990
200:NEXT:POKE 54276,0 and execute whatever follows (which is your
200 PRINT"PLEASE TYPE YOUR NAME AND PRESS sound effect). When the computer reaches the
RETURN."sINPUT NS RETURN command in line 992, it jumps back up
300 PRINT CHR?(147)
to where it left the program, and continues from
that point. In this program, the computer plays
Now, type RUN and press RETURN to see the sound effect, clears the screen, PRINTs a
how the program works. (Make sure the volume message and accepts an INPUT, plays the sound
control on your TV or monitor is turned up.) effect, then clears the screen again, PRINTs the
Presto—you've just added sound to your MERRY CHRISTMAS message, and plays the
program. sound effect one more time before coming to the
102 COMPUTEIs Gazette December 1984
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end of the program. Notice that the GOSUB and "freezes" the program there until a key—any
RETURN lines come after the END command. key—is pressed.
Try removing line 900 (type a 900 with nothing
after it) and running the program again; you'll "Press A Specific Key To
get an error message. By putting END after the
main program, but before the subroutines, we
have created a "safe place" for subroutines. The Here's another variation which requires the user
program will execute the subroutine only when to press a specific key. Change lines 280 and 285
you want it to. by retyping them as follows (whenever you re
You can do fancier sound effects, of course. type the same program line, it automatically
Any sound effect, long or short—even songs— changes):
can be inserted using the techniques we just dis 280 PRINT"PRESS THE LETTER C TO CONTINUE"
cussed. You can also use GOSUB-RETURN to re 285 GET K$:IF K$o"C" THEN 285
peat other actions as well, such as screen titles,
graphics displays, "rewards," or random Now type RUN and press RETURN. This time,
numbers. instead of freezing the program until any key is
pressed, the program is frozen until the letter C
is pressed. The less than and greater than signs
"Press Any Key To Continue"
together (<>) tell the computer to keep going
Did you ever see a BASIC program that in
back and checking the keyboard as long as any
structed you to PRESS ANY KEY TO CON
key which is higher or lower than the C is
TINUE? This technique freezes your BASIC
pressed, so when the C is pressed the program
program until the user presses a key on the key
drops down to the next line and continues on its
board. Let's look at this technique with the same
merry way. The statement IF K$o"C" THEN
program we've been using. Add these lines:
285 is equivalent to saying, "If K$ is not equal to
280 PRINT"PRESS ANY KEY" C, then repeat line 285."
285 GET Kg: IF KS="" THEN 285 You can require the user to press one of the
function keys, too. Let's use function key 1 (fl)
Type LIST and press RETURN. If you have a 64, to get our response this time. We'll change lines
your new program should look like this (if you 280 and 285:
have another computer your program should
look pretty much the same, only 990 will be dif 280 PRINT"PRESS FUNCTION KEY 1 TO CONTINU
ferent and there's no 991. E"
2S5 GET K$fIF KS<>CHR${133) THEN 265
50 GOSUB 990
100 PRINT CHRS(147) See how we used the CHR$ number in line 285?
200 PRINT"PLEASE TYPE YOUR NAME AND PRESS In this case, we use the CHR$ number to tell the
computer to check to see if the function key is
250 GOSUB 990
being pressed. This is one of the most important
285 GET KS:IF KS="" THEN 285 applications of CHR$—to define a key in
300 PRINT CHR$(147) conjunction with the GET statement.
400 PRINT"MERRY CHRISTMAS, "N$ Reading the function keys is a little more
450 GOSUB 990
complicated on a Plus/4 and 16, so the two lines
900 END
990 POKE 54296,15:POKE 54276,33:POKE 5427
above will not work properly.
7,9:POKE 54273,0
991 POKE 54273,5l!POKE 54272,97:FOR D=1TO A Look Ahead At Random
200:NEXTiPOKE 54276,0
992 RETURN Numbers
In an upcoming column we'll explore how ran
Line 280 prints a prompt message telling the user
dom numbers work, but just to take a glimpse
to press any key on the keyboard. Line 285 con
ahead, here's a program to try in the meantime:
tains a GET statement which works like this.
First it tells the computer to GET K$, which 10 X$="(BLK][WHT](RED)(CYN)(PUR)[CRN}
means "check the keyboard and see if a key is EBLU)(YELi"
being pressed—the next key that is pressed will 20 X=INT(8*RND(1))+1
30 PRINTMID$(XS,X,l)"{RVSl ";
be called K$." The second part of the line tells
40 GOTO 20
the computer, "If no key is being pressed, then
keep going back to line 285 and checking to see {BLK} means hold down the CTRL key and
if a key is pressed." The GET statement, together press the color key marked BLK {the 1 key) at
with the IF-THEN test, makes the computer the same time. The other characters in line 10 are
check the keyboard over and over again and obtained with CTRL and one of the other color
104 COMPUTED Gazelle December 19B4
COMPUTE'S Second COMPUTEi's Guide to
Book of VIC Games Adventure Games
Gary McGath

There's an exctting mix of A complete guide to the world of

chases, challenges, and puzzlers Adventure text adventures. Chapters discuss
in tNs collection of games for the what goes into a good text
VIC. It includes many o( the most G ames adventure and show you how to
J> r create adventure games of your
popular games from recent is
sues of COMPUTE! and COM- own. You'll also find reviews of
PUTEt's Gazette, as well as many of the most popular text
several that have never before adventures. There's even a com
bean published. Whether you plete adventure program—
want to explore misty dungeons, "Towar of Mystery"—that's ready
take on hostile aliens, unravel (o type in and run on virtually all
stimulating brainteasers, or even popular home computers. If you

-- T
learn how to create games of enjoy playing or creating text
your own, COMPUTE'S Second adventure games, this Is the book
Book of WC Games is for you. for you.

SI 2.95 S12.S5
ISBN 0-942386-57-4 ISBN 0-942386-67-1
August September

VIC-2Q and Commodore Commodore

64 Tool K t: BASIC ■
VIC-20 and Commodore 6£
Dan Heeb (f A User's Guide
This comprehensive guide to the Commodore Julie Knott and
Tool Kit: BASIC ROM routines in the VIC
Dave Prochnow

20 and Commodore 64, thor This easy-lo-understand book
oughly documented and clearly A User's GuWe guides the computer owner
whiten, shows programmers how

through the myriad of Com
to call these routines from their modore peripherals available for
own BASIC or machine language the 64 and VIC-20. Clear descrip
programs. Not only a "how-to," tions explain the use and function
the Tool Kit is also an extensive of disk drives, printers, expan
i _ ■ y^ - _ o"> r f - l l i ■ ■■
reference guide to this Important ders, cartridges, Datassette,
part of Commodore BASIC. For modems, and CP/M. For all VIC
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■*• (14-4
516.95 $9.95
ISBN 0-94238&-32-9 ISBN 0-942386-5
September October

' ' ; '

To order your copy, call toll-free 1-800-334-0868 or write:

COMPUTE! Books, P.O. Box 5406, Greensboro, NC 27403
keys. See the article "How To Type In COM and press the RVS ON key at the same time). A
PUTED GAZETTE Programs" for more details. reverse space is always printed on the screen as a
Here's a brief explanation of how this program solid block. The semicolon at the end of line 30
works: makes the reverse spaces (the blocks) print one
after the other.
Line 10 defines X$ as the group of colors in
Incidentally, printing reverse spaces is one
side the quotation marks. Remember, in most
cases a string variable is a letter followed by a
way to draw solid bars across the screen, or to
dollar sign. String variables can be used to define
make solid squares in different colors.
Line 40 tells the computer to go back to line
a color as well as letters, graphics symbols, key
board commands, and numbers not used as
20 and choose another random number, after
which the computer continues with line 30 and
prints another solid square, again in a color
Line 20 defines the numeric variable X as a chosen at random.
random number. The random number formula is The result of all this is a multicolored
given to the right of the equal sign. INT makes pattern,
the random number a whole number. The num Here's a challenge for you to work on until
ber 8 is the upper limit from which the random next month. See if you can write a program, like
numbers are chosen, and the number 1 at the the one above, that prints a color at random,
end of the line is the lower limit. then a reverse block. Next, using a different
Line 30 tells the computer to print a charac string variabie, print a cursor movement (up,
ter from the middle of the X$ grouping of colors down, left, or right) at random and go back to
in line 10. The X in parentheses designates how pick a new color. Instead of printing characters
many characters over from the left of X$ the one after another, the cursor will seem to wander
computer should go to choose the color in the randomly around the screen.
group. But since this number is random, it could This month, we jumped ahead a little. We'll
be the first, second, third, fourth, fifth, sixth, sev flesh out many of these programming concepts
enth, or eighth number. Whichever number it is, and techniques in upcoming columns, but until
that's the color that will be used when the com then, experiment with these programs. You
puter goes on in the same line to print a reverse might be surprised at what can be accomplished
space ({RVS} means hold down the CTRL key with so little programming. Happy Holidays! <B?

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One of the many benefits of writing in machine 30 and 40 of Program 4. This would make saving
language is that you can get inside your com your ML routines automatic from within the
puter and have it do things your way. As it assembler. It might be convenient to insert Pro
comes from the factory, things like the LIST gram 4 between lines 250 and 260 of the Simple
command and disk directories are standardized. Assembler. To make SAVEs optional, you could
If you want a different kind of listing or direc add a SAVE pseudo-op, similar to the END
tory, you've got to make your own. pseudo-op. Another possibility is using save-
Let's create a disk directory that we can with-replace if you do a great deal of testing and
manipulate to suit ourselves. Instead of LOAD want the latest version of your routine to always
"$",8 we can just SYS 830 and see a complete, be saved to disk.
condensed directory—even on the VIC screen. It You can modify Program 4 to save ML pro
won't destroy any program already in RAM. grams to tape by simply changing line 20. Re
We'll also be able to make any formatting place the 8 with a 1 and omit the 0: before the
changes we want. Should the filenames be di filename. As usual, you must avoid putting pro
vided into PRG and SEQ lists? Should there be grams into the tape buffer. A minor quirk of
more space between each name? Should the using this method with tape is that when you
amount of space used on the disk be eliminated load an ML program back into memory, you will
from our directory, or highlighted? Whatever for see FOUND "PROGRAMNAME" twice on the
mat you want, whatever information you need, screen. You can use this method for tape saves,
can be set up the way you want it. but since this month's main program reads a disk
directory, you won't be able to use it without a
Adding Automatic Disk Save To disk drive.

The Simple Assembler If you have an advanced, label-based assem

bler, you can type in Program 1 and assemble it.
If you have the Simple Assembler, published in
If you have no assembler at all, type in Program
the November column, you can type in Program
2 and it will be directly entered into your com
3, the BASIC loader.
puter. Then, to save it to disk for future use, type When learning machine language, it's often
NEW (to get rid of the Assembler) and enter Pro helpful to go through someone else's program
gram 4. Program 4, from an idea by Charles step-by-step to see how loops and branches and
Brannon, can be used to save any machine lan variables are handled. Let's look at Program 1
guage program to disk, provided you know the and see how machine language is written for an
starting and ending addresses. The ML program advanced assembler. Program 1 is source code
can then later be loaded with the usual LOAD (what you write) which the assembler will then
"filename",8,1. translate into object code (a runnable program).
If you are using the Simple Assembler, you This source code is written for the LADS assem
might want to add Program 4 to it as a sub bler in my new book. The Second Book of Machine
routine. You can use the Simple Assembler vari language (COMPUTE! Books), but would work
ables TA (starting address) and SA (ending on most assemblers with few changes. For ex
address) instead of the INPUT statements in lines ample, some assemblers use a pseudo-op EQU
108 COMPUTERS Gazelle December 1984

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Program 1: Full Source Program Fox Commodore 64 Easydlx
10 *= 830
180 ;
200 ,


2 60 ;
280 ;
390 RTS
400 ;
420 ;
450 ;
470 ;
490 LDA tl
510 LDA #8
530 LDA #0
580 RTS
590 ;
600 FNAME .BYTE "$0"

Program la: Changes To Create A VIC Version

20 ;
40 ;

110 COMPUTB's Gazette December 1984




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instead of the equals sign (=). If you have such CLOSEQUOTE.
an assembler, make the appropriate substitutions. The way it's set up, this routine will look for
Line 10 establishes the start address. This is quotation marks and print whatever is between
where the assembler will put the ML program. them, but not what's outside of them. The infor
Then there are a series of variable definitions mation streaming in to us from the directory file
(called label equates) where a name is given to will look something tike this:
various important addresses within the computer. GAMES DISK IC UF 0 18 "BOMBER" PRG 0 24
Between lines 50-170, we label all the memory "CHESS" PRG 0 55 "ADDRESS FILE"
locations which are used to open and close a disk We've already printed the disk name and ID
file; read bytes off the disk; and print characters and now we are ready to read in all the
or numbers to the screen. Once we've defined filenames and file sizes. The size appears first
these variables, we can then use just the label (preceded by a zero and two spaces), then a
name instead of the number throughout the rest quote, the filename, another quote, the type of
of the program. We can say JSR PRINT instead file, and the size of the next file. We only want
of JSR $FFD2. to print the file size and the name. So, we'll use
In line 210 we jump to a subroutine (situ the quotes to tell us when to turn our printing on
ated between lines 480 and 580) which will open or off. And we'll use that zero to tell us when
a disk file for reading. This particular file is a we've found a file size number.
special one which is named "$0" and holds the
directory of the disk. As you can see, we store The Main Loop
1-8-0 into the appropriate locations, store a 2 Let's take it from the top. In line 290 we jump to
into the location which holds the length of our a subroutine which prints the size number. Then
filename, and then set up a pointer to the line 300 is a loop which looks for the first quota
filename. A pointer just holds {in two bytes) the tion mark. If it finds a carriage return (#13), it
address of some other thing in the computer. A jumps down to end the whole machine language
pointer could, for example, point to the start of program. That's because directory files end with
screen RAM. In this case, we want it to point to a series of #13s. So, when we find a 13, we
the $0 in line 600. We don't yet know, however, know we're finished.
at which address this $0 will be when the pro Assuming we're not finished, we keep pull
gram is finally assembled. So, we give line 600 a ing in bytes until we find a quote. That gets us
label of its own, FNAME, and point to it using past the BNE at the end of line 300, and we fall
#< for the low byte and #> for the high byte. down to line 310. This next loop is quite similar
(These #< symbols are special assembler to the one in line 300 except it contains a JSR
directives to fetch low and high bytes of labels.) PRINT. Every byte coming in now will be
After loading and storing (LDA/STA) these bytes printed on the screen and will allow us to see the
into the pointer, we then, in line 570, JSR to the filename. We exit this loop when we find an
routine in BASIC ROM that opens a disk file. other quote symbol (#34).
The RTS in 580 ends the OPEN1 subroutine, Now, in line 330, there's another loop which
sending the program back to the main routine. looks for a zero (signifying that a file size num
ber is coming in). That forces us to BEQ and go
Opening A Channel to the ENDTEST which pulls in the two-byte
Next (line 220), we clear all channels and, load number. The loop in line 330 also looks for a
ing X with a 1, we open a channel to file #1. #42 which is the * symbol. Finding a * would
(This is distinct from opening a file. We've al mean that a bad file was on the disk—and we
ready done that. This is closer to the action of want to be alerted to that. Line 340 will print
INPUT#1.) We are now ready to use CHARIN to two " symbols and then jump back into the loop
pull in bytes from our opened file. However, the on line 330 to continue looking for the zero.
Line 350 pulls off the two spaces after the
first two bytes are pointers the disk drive uses, so
we throw them away (line 230). zero, positioning us to get the file size number.
Now we want to pull in the next 29 charac We put these two bytes into a variable we've set
ters and print them. This will be our disk name aside called SIZE (see line 610). SIZE will hold
and disk ID number. We set up a loop (line 240) these bytes until we need to print them. Then we
which will get a character, print it to the screen, start the whole thing over again by jumping back
lower our Y counter by 1 (DEY) and branch back up to the start (line 360 jumps to line 290).
if Y is not yet equal to zero (BNE). Then we LDA
#13 and print that, causing a carriage return on Shutting Things Down
screen. And finally, we jump into the main part We only get to line 370, the close-down routine,
of the program at a location called if we came upon a #13 up in line 300. That, you
112 COMPUTE'S Gazette December 1984
recall, meant that we'd arrived at the end of the
directory file. Anyway, to close down we print
the letters FRE (the last thing printed on screen
will have been the number of blocks left free on
the disk). Then we CLOSE file #1.
We clear the channels, which means that
normal I/O conditions are restored: Input comes
from the keyboard, output goes to the screen.
That last RTS sends us back into BASIC since we
got to this ML program with a SYS. SYS acts just
like a JSR except that it goes from BASIC to ML
and then an unmatched RTS will send you back
How did I know enough about the format of
directory files to be able to construct this ML
program? Often the easiest thing is to first con
struct a BASIC program to see how things work.
I set up a simple BASIC sketch:
The Visible Computer.
10 OPEN l,8,0,"$0" The machine language
20 GET #1, A$:PRINT AS;:GOTO 20
teacher that gets
and then just watched what came in on the
screen, counted spaces, and figured that the good grades.
quotes, the zeros, and the carriage returns (#13)
Users and experts alike are giving The
would be my triggers. They would be the Visible Computer straight A's for making
IF/THEN signals that something different was machine language understandable.
happening. They could be tested for in loops and InCider magazine: "TVC is excellent".
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The Keyboard Funnel

Anthony James Daly

If you've discovered a clever timesaving That's because the keyboard buffer comprises
technique or a brief but effective program only ten bytes. Once it is full, nothing more is
ming shortcut, send it to "Hints & Tips," added until the buffer is accessed with an INPUT
c/o computei's gazette. If we use it, we'll or GET.
pay you $35. Due to the volume of items Think of the keystrokes as raindrops falling
submitted, we regret that we cannot always through a funnel (the interface chip) into a tiny
reply individually to submissions. bucket (the keyboard buffer) which can hold
only ten drops at a time. When the bucket is full,
no more raindrops will fit until the bucket is
With a few POKEs, we can control the key
You may not have thought about it before, but
board buffer and its contents.
the keyboard on your computer is just another
peripheral. The chip that controls the computer is
not directly connected to the keyboard; it has to Emptying The Buffer
talk to the keyboard through an interface chip, Manipulating the buffer at 631-640 and the byte
much like it talks to a disk drive or printer. at 198 (number of characters currently in the
Keystrokes don't enter the computer directly. buffer) can solve some common programming
They are funneled into the keyboard buffer, an problems.
area of memory which can be directly accessed For example, you're playing a game and it
by the chip which controls the computer. asks PLAY AGAIN (Y/N)? and you type Y.
Sixty times a second your VIC or 64 inter Nothing seems to happen for whatever reason;
rupts whatever it is doing for some housekeeping. maybe the computer is setting up variables. So
The jiffy clock (which registers every sixtieth of a you press Y again. A second later you see
second) ticks once, the screen is refreshed, and INSTRUCTIONS (Y/N)? flash briefly on the
the keyboard wiring is checked for a signal that a screen, followed by the first of 20 pages of
key was pressed, But before the character is instructions. You didn't want the instructions, but
printed on the screen, its ASCII value is put into you got them anyway.
the keyboard buffer at memory locations The problem is that the second time you
631-640. At the same time, the value in location typed Y, it was stored in the keyboard buffer.
198, which keeps track of how many characters When your computer got to the instructions
are in the buffer, is increased by one, unless it prompt, it went to GET a character and found a
has reached its maximum of ten. When you're Y right there.
typing, the letters aren't printed directly from the A variation on this can happen in data entry
keyboard to the screen; they make a short stop in (say, a checkbook balancing program). Perhaps
memory. you mean to enter a check for $36 but you miss
In immediate mode (when a program is not the top row of keys, hitting E and Y by mistake.
running), the characters are pulled out of the You see ERASE EVERYTHING for a moment,
keyboard buffer immediately and put em the followed by ARE YOU SURE (Y/N)? The Y in
screen. the buffer answers the question for you and three
But when a program is running, the charac hours of work are destroyed.
ters are saved up until the program either ends The solution is simple. Since location 198
or tries to INPUT or GET. You can see how this holds the number of characters in the buffer,
works if you enter FORJ = lTO5000:NEXT, a sim POKE 198,0 tells the computer nothing is there
ple delay loop. After pressing RETURN, hit a key at the moment. Use this POKE before INPUT or
twenty times. When the loop ends, you should GET statements to eliminate extra characters in
see ten (not twenty) of the letters on the screen. the buffer.
114 COMPUTE'S Gazelle December 1984
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■ ■"= HV ■__■ ^^u BHBI ^^m ^^M R^M fl^H ^^M H^M J
Press Any Key To Continue open line number, the word DATA, and some
Since location 198 holds the number of keys information you want to build into the program.
pressed, we can use it for a user-defined delay. Underneath the new DATA line, print RUN.
A title screen or page of instructions often Position the cursor, POKE 13's into 631 and 632,
includes a line like PRESS ANY KEY TO CON and a 2 into 198. When the program ends, the
TINUE, since some people read faster than oth DATA statement is added to the program and
ers. The usual way of checking for a key press is the program runs.
You could also list-proof a game which uses
to use a GET statement. To save a little memory,
joysticks but not the keyboard. At the beginning
use WAIT instead. To be safe, clear the keyboard
of the program, POKE the numbers 78, 69, 87,
buffer first. POKE 198,0; WAIT 198,1 is a sub
and 13 into locations 631-634. POKE a 4 into
stitute for 50 GET A$:IF A$ = "" THEN 50, uses
198. If the game player presses the STOP key,
less memory, and doesn't need a whole line of
the letters N, E, W appear and the program is
its own.
gone. Or POKE the values for R, SH1FT-U (the
The same technique can be useful in im
abbreviation for RUN), and carriage return. Any
mediate mode. For example, you might want to
time you press STOP, the program will stop for a
use all 25 lines {23 on a VIC) to print variable
moment and then run.
values or PEEKs. Use a FOR-NEXT loop to print
the values and then WAIT 198,1. Without the
wait command, the screen fills up, scrolls to print More Keyboard Memory Areas
READY, scrolls again, and you lose the first few Near the keyboard buffer are some other mem
lines. ory locations related to the keyboard. Location
646 is the current character color, which can be
POKEd in the same way you change border or
Filling The Buffer
background color.
POKEing numbers into the keyboard buffer (and Location 649 determines the size of the key
location 198) can fool the computer into thinking board buffer. For the minimum buffer (one
certain keys have been pressed. character long), POKE 649,1. This can be useful
Perhaps you're writing a game with nine when you don't want the buffer to fill up with
levels of difficulty. When it starts, the player is extra characters. To get rid of the buffer, POKE
asked to choose a level. Before the INPUT state 649,0 and try typing something. Nothing hap
ment, POKE 631,53: POKE 632,157: POKE 198,2 pens. By setting the buffer length to zero, the
to set up a default value of level 5. When you computer has nowhere to temporarily store the
reach the question about levels, the computer characters. It's as if we pulled the bucket away
finds a 2 in 198 (which makes it think two keys from the funnel. You can regain control by hit
have been pressed), gets a character "5" (ASCII ting RUN/STOP-RESTORE. You should not put
value 53) and prints it. Next, it finds an ASCII a value higher than ten in this byte because
157 (cursor left). The user just presses RETURN some important vectors can be overwritten.
for difficulty level 5 (because the 5 is already on The repeat flag is stored in 650. POKE
the screen). Any other value can be entered by 650,128 to make all keys repeat. POKE a 0 to go
pressing the appropriate key, back to normal (space bar and cursor keys re
The buffer holds up to ten characters, which peat). A 64 in 650 disables all repeating.
provides a lot of flexibility for setting default Thus, if you're writing a rapid-fire action
values in programs which use INPUT (for ob game, you might want to make all the keys re
vious reasons, you can't do this with GET), just peat. You would put a 128 into 650 and leave
remember to use ASCII values, starting at 631, the buffer size at 10. But for a game where
and POKE the total number of characters into movement has to be precise, you could lower the
198. You can even change the character color or buffer size to 1 or 2 and eliminate all repeating
turn reverse on. keys.
The dynamic keyboard technique (more on In an educational program for children, you
this in an upcoming issue) uses a variation on might want to get rid of repeating keys with a
this idea. You fill up the keyboard buffer with POKE 650,64. For a spreadsheet, you'd leave the
carriage returns (ASCII 13), print BASIC com default values, so the cursor keys would repeat
mands or program lines on the screen, position and allow quick movement from cell to cell. For
the cursor, and end the program. The computer word processing, though, you might as well
sees END and goes into immediate mode. allow all keys to repeat. Controlling the behavior
Because there are 13's in the buffer, the com of the keyboard buffer and related memory loca
mands on the screen execute. You might, for tions can help you create programs which are
example, add DATA statements by printing an both efficient and convenient to use. <ffl

116 COMPUTEVs Gazeno December 1984



■ i'-"r



Little People Software Humpty Dumpty

Alphabet program
Little Bo Peep
Number program by
Developed by Parents and Educators
i'--'''-.y by Dave Paulsen Joe Sams and
Scott Barker
... Hearing Put Humph/ together
again and learn: the Bring Bo-Peep's
... Seeing Alphabet, the sheep home and
■B■••--■'■ ;: Computer Keyboard,
... Doing - ;■;■-■;■ learn: to Count, to
how to speil your spell your Name, the
In a way that makes LEARNING Name .. . and more. Computer Keyboard
... and more.
more fun and more effective


L. P. Money I
by Aaron Giant
L.P. Money II
by Tom Wan ne
L. P. Shapes
by Doug Knapp
■ ■ ' ■"■-■'■
Teaches money Teaches money Learn lo recognize ! ' v. L - - ,'.- .-. W j
values — one cent values — one dollar geometric shapes
H m.

io one dollar - lo one hundred and how to spell

using a gum ball dollars — using an Iheir names.
machine En ice cream ma BWK
courages money chine Encourages
saving. money, saving.

L. P. Traffic Signs L. P.'s Farm L P. Colors L. P. Expressions

byTomWann© by Aaron Gran! by Aaron Qrant by Aaron Grant
Teaches idenllllca- Teaches names Teaches names Teaches expres
ilon and meanings and Idenlll leal Ion and idenl HI cat! on sions such as
ottrallic Eignsand of (arm animais. ol colors and happy, sad. laugh.
signals Increases remtorces learning cry. and Iheir
safety awareness. ol colors and spelling II is an
shapes. excellent learning ■:>■
tool | ■ '-1 ;■ '>■■-■■■. •'.

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'Commodore 64 is a trademark of Commodore Business Machines INVITED
Software, Part 2:
The C/G Bulletin Board System
Robert Sims

This month we continue our presentation leaving home. You can leave or receive private
of the color/graphics telecommunications messages. And electronic boards can contain long
package. "C/G Term," published last documents or program listings that won't fit on a
month, allows two people to use a modem conventional bulletin board.
to connect their computers directly over There are several kinds of electronic bulletin
the phone lines, and to communicate using boards, with various capacities. Large infor
the full color and keyboard graphics mation services like CompuServe, The Source,
capabilities of the VIC or 64. and Delphi contain bulletin boards that hold a
The "Color/Graphics Bulletin Board thousand messages and allow many callers to
System" (C/G BBS) makes it possible for use the board simultaneously. And they're on
many people to trade information and pro line 24 hours a day.
grams without being in direct one-to-one At the other extreme are small boards which
contact. have a capacity of 50 messages or less, allow
The BBS is written entirely in ma only one person to access the system at one time,
chine language (ML), but no knowledge of and may be on-line only a few hours a day.
ML is required to use it. Because the list The C/G BBS is a small system, but it has
ing is so long, we're publishing the first some features not usually found on small bulletin
half of the code this month. The remainder boards. It is simple to operate, it automates as
will appear next month. A 64 with one or many of the technical aspects of telecommunica
two dislc drives, a 1650 Automodem, and a tions as possible, and callers are presented with
printer are required. menus or simple prompts rather than a long list
of commands.
Also, the BBS may contain from 120 to 1000
An electronic bulletin board functions in much public messages (depending on length) and as
the same way as its conventional namesake: many private messages. Messages are stored in
Messages can be put up about most anything, "endless" files. When the records are full, the
whether it's free kittens, meeting announce program calculates how much room it needs for
ments, or a lost sweater. a new message and adjusts its tables accordingly.
With "C/G BBS," anyone with a basic The oldest messages are automatically erased as
knowledge of the Commodore 64 can put up an new ones come in, so the board operator doesn't
electronic bulletin board almost as easily as have to worry about running out of storage
hanging an ordinary bulletin board. Instead of a space.

cork board and some wall space, you need a

computer system, a modem, and a phone line. Calling The BBS
Other than that, it's similar to a bulletin board in To call a C/G BBS, you need a VIC or 64, a
any school or office hallway. modem, and a copy of C/G Term (published last
But there are some important differences in month). Because the C/G BBS and C/G Term
the ways these two kinds of message boards are communicate using unique codes, other terminal
used. You can read an electronic board without programs will not work with this bulletin board.
118 COMPUTE'S Gazelle December 1984
Strategy Arcade Game
By Bruce Carver
The Soviets launch a nuclear strike against major cilles
in Ihe United States and Canada. Our only hope Is our
space station equipped wilh ■■<• .ih!i bombers, which
can fly undetected In Soviet airspace. As squadron
leader, you must first knock out the Soviet Launch
sites and then proceed into the city of Moscow. Armed
wilh only the weapons you can carry, you command an
assault on the Soviet Delense center and destroy It tu
slop the attack. Top Multiscreen action!

Top MulllBcr'an Action Included In Raid Ov*r Moscow

•Joystick Controlled • Suggested Retail Price $39.95

Disk: Comodore 64 (Available soon on Atari)

TheWarGarneTb End Ail War Games!'
Arcade Game
By Bruce Carver

General QuartersI Battle Stations!

As chiel commander of land and sea forces In the
Pacific, your mission Is (o obtain a quick naval victory
and invade enemy territory with your land forces.
Beach-Head is a 100% machine language game and
offers multiscreen action with high resolution, three
dimensional graphics.

Trip Multlicr**ii AtlLon Included Ln B«« \,-\U

Joystick Controlled • Suggested Retail Price $34.95

Disk: Commodore 64. Atari 48K

Available for: Cmnmodore 64 * Atari*

I ■■■-■.]■:■,' I ■ ,! 1
Stroll" <•! Abidan Sptll Now
Attach your modem and set it for originate. line of your screen you'll see the prompt:
Turn on your computer and load and run C/G RETURN rm(?=help>
Term (published in last month's GAZETTE).
To read the next message, press RETURN; to go
Then place the phone call to your local C/G
to the read messages menu, press r; to get back
BBS. When you hear the carrier signal (a high-
to the main menu, press m. And if you forget
pitched tone), unplug the cord from the tele
what each response means, type a question
phone handset and plug it into the modem if you
have a VICmodem. (Automodem users should
You can read the entire message file by
move the T/D switch from T to D.)
pressing RETURN after each message is dis
Then press the space bar on your VIC or 64
played. To go back and read an earlier message,
and you'll see the welcome message from the
press r for the read messages menu and enter the
BBS. You'll then be asked for an ID number. If
message number you want.
this is your first time on the board, you won't yet
have an ID number, so press RETURN to tell the
BBS that you are a new user. Sending Messages
You'll see a brief message, then you'll be To leave a message on the board (after you've
asked to supply your name, address, and phone been signed up by the sysop), select option 2.
number so the sysop (system operator) can set Your screen will clear and you'll be prompted to
up your account. Although you might want to name the person you're leaving the message for.
use a pseudonym while on the bulletin board, Type in the person's handle (a name less than 25
you must provide the sysop with your rea! name, characters) and RETURN. The program automati
address, and phone number. Once that infor cally inserts your name and ID number into the
mation is entered, you'll receive the main menu message, so everyone knows you sent it. Next,
containing nine options: the subject prompt will appear. Respond with a
line of less than 32 characters and RETURN.
The screen will clear again, and you're ready
1) Read messages
to type in the message. You cart type freely,
2) Leave a message
3) Pick up EMAIL using the cursor keys or RETURN to move the
4) Send EMAIL cursor around. Use the color and reverse keys
5) Download library just as you do when your computer is in immedi
6} Upload area ate mode with no program running. And your
7) Chat with the sysop
terminal program includes a routine that won't
8) New password or handle
9) Log off let your message scroll up the screen if you acci
> dentally move the cursor onto the bottom line of
the screen.
Messages are public; anyone can leave them for When you're finished composing your mes
anyone else to read. Email ("Electronic Mail"), as sage, press f2. You'll see the prompt "one mo
its name implies, is a private message from one ment please..." on the bottom line of the screen,
user to one other. You can only read EMAIL ad then the cursor will disappear, and the computer
dressed to you. will seem to pause while it collects the message
As a new user, you can only read messages, from the screen, translates it into a form that can
chat with the sysop (system operator), or log off. be transmitted, and sends it to the bulletin board
After the sysop has contacted you and given where the message is stored in the message file.
you an ID number and password, you'll have full
The time required to transmit and store a
access to the bulletin board.
message depends on the length of the message,
A message of 1000 characters with several colors
Read A Message can take as long as 30-40 seconds.
To read the public messages, type a 1 when you When this automatic process is complete,
see the prompt (>) at the end of the main menu. you'll see this prompt on the bottom line of your
You will then be given the choice to read the full screen:
text of messages or to scan the headers—who
Message # XXX has been sent
sent the message, who it's addressed to, and the
subject. When you type in your choice, you'll be
Then the screen will clear and the main menu
told which messages the board contains, and
will be displayed.
asked for the number of the first message you
want to read. As a new user, you probably want
to begin with the first message, which is dis Electronic Mail
played after you enter a 1 and press RETURN. The procedure for reading and sending private
At the end of each message, on the bottom messages is essentially the same.
120 COMPU TE! 's Gazatte December 1984
Most printers don't work with performance against cost—it's The Blue Chip Personal Printer costs
Commodore or Atari. And to get difficult to find a prinler that com a lot less than anything similar...
one that does, costs too much. pares to the Blue Chip M120/10. without compromise in quality,
That's why the engineers at Blue Top speed with a Blue Chip M120/10 Highly powerful and relentlessly
Chip designed a new personal is 120 characters per second. To beat practical.
printer called the Ml 20/ II). If that in any other make of printer, you See one today. Blue Chip printers
you own a computer read on: have to spend about $400 more. arc available at Best Products,
Of the ten high speed doi matrix LaBelles, Jafco, Dolgin's, Miller Sales,
Special print modes on an M120/10
printers most often used with Rogers. Great Western catalog show
include graphics; condensed, bold
Commodore, Apple, and Atari, none rooms, and other fine stores. Or call
faced and expanded characters; as
is less expensive than the Blue (800) 556-1234 Exl. 540. In California,
well as superscripts and subscripts,
Chip M120/10. Or more powerful. call (800) 441-2345, Ext. 540, for
and near letter quality characters.
Fully equipped, It's about $50 less And to beat that in any other make more information and name of your
expensive than a comparable, yet of printer you have to spend nearly closest Blue Chip dealer.
much slower Commodore printer. $300 more.
And in the vicinity of $300 less than
And since it also has the IBM-PC,
an Epson' set-up to work with a
Apple Macintosh" and UC\ Serial,
and Centronics interfaces**, you can
Despite its low price, the Blue Chip use the Blue Chip Ml 20, 10 with just
Ml20/10 is not a stripped down, about any computer you may
bargain basement printer. eventually own.
In fact, when you judge it by the
same stringent standards computer
professionals use—by weighing total

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If you choose option 3, the BBS will search Uploading To The BBS
its electronic mail (email) file tables for messages
The C/G BBS allows callers to upload files as
addressed to your user ID number. If the files
well. So long as there is room on the email disk,
contain messages for you, the BBS will send the
a caller can submit a file for inclusion in the
first email message, with a prompt in the bottom
download library. The upload procedure is simi
line of the screen asking whether you want to
lar to downloading, except that you supply the
erase the message. After you read the email and
filename of an existing file on your disk. The
respond by typing y or n (yes or no), the BBS
terminal program collects the file from your disk
will display your next email message, and so on,
and transmits it to the BBS.
until the last message is sent. The BBS then
As part of regular BBS maintenance, the
clears the screen and returns you to the main
sysop will look at the submitted file and decide
whether to add it to the download menu. To
Each time you pick up your mail, the BBS avoid duplicate filenames, the BBS stores the
sends all your messages, whether you have read transmitted file using a name in the sequence
them before or not. So, to avoid cluttering your UP01, UP02, UP03, and so on. When the file is
mailbox with old letters, it's a good idea to erase uploaded, the BBS sends a record of the transfer
each one after you read it. to the printer, so the sysop will know who sent
To send email to another bulletin board the file and what the caller wants to name the
member, you follow the same steps as in sending file.
regular messages. But when the "To" prompt ap All upload operations should involve two
pears, you must enter a user ID number instead files: the file itself and a documentation file
of a name. The program ignores any non-numeric which explains how to use the main file. A docu
input. mentation file can be as simple as a BASIC list
ing that consists of REM statements, or it can be
a document produced with SpeedScript or another
The Download Library word processor.
If you select the download option, you will be To help the sysop and other callers identify
given a menu of the available files, with a brief your uploaded files, you should use file exten
description of each. To download a file, simply sions which describe the type of file. A BASIC
type the number of your selection at the > program might have the extension .BAS, a docu
prompt. After a pause, you will be asked to enter mentation file of REMark statements might have
a filename so your terminal program can store an extension .REM or .DOC, a SpeedScript file
the file on disk. (Be sure the filename is not a can bear the extension .SPD, and so on. For
duplicate of some file already on the disk.) example, a machine language sort program could
After you supply the filename, the download be uploaded as SORT.ML and its accompanying
procedure is automatic. You will see a series of documentation file might be SORT.SPD or
numbers scrolling up the screen as the file comes SORT.REM.
in. When the transfer is complete, you'll be re The next option allows you to change your
turned to the main menu. (For a more detailed name or password. When the sysop opens your
discussion of the transfer procedure, see last account, your first name will be put in the file. If
month's article.) The BBS transfers files at an you prefer to use a pseudonym or nickname, use
approximate rate of IK bytes in two minutes. So this option. Also use it to change your password
a file containing about 5000 bytes {20 disk regularly. If another caller discovers your pass
blocks) will transfer in 10 minutes. word, he or she can go on-line and leave mes

Any file you download from the C/G BBS is sages in your name. If the BBS has a fee, you'll
ready to use when it's stored on disk. Some BBS be paying for their time.
software sends files which must be converted
before they are usable, but your terminal pro Talking To The Operator
gram performs this conversion before it stores If you find some of the BBS procedures confus
the file. If you're anxious to try out the program ing, or you just want to say hello, you can leave
or text file you just downloaded, select main messages and email for the sysop (for email, use
menu option 9. You'll see the 9 displayed after ID # 1000). For an immediate conversation, you
the > prompt, and the cursor will move to the can use option 7, chat with the sysop. When you
next line. You are now disconnected from the select this chat feature, the BBS tells the sysop
BBS. Disconnect the modem from the phone line, you want to talk. After you page the sysop, con
clear the terminal program from the computer, tinue using the board. If the sysop is available,
and you're ready to load and run the he or she will make contact at a point when you
downloaded program. are receiving the main menu. So don't page the
122 COMPUTB's Gazette December 1984
What you get ifyou cross
a Commodore 64 with a Fterrari.
\ you get the incredible And, you get the only disk drive LED display that keeps you in
Lh Indus GT™ disk drive. thai comes with free software. control of your Commodore to
You get brains. You get beauty. Word processing. Spreadsheet. the air-piston operated dust
But, that's not all you gel. Database manager. Plus, a carry cover that protects your disks
You get a disk drive that can ing case that doubles as an 80 and drive.
handle 1007o ol'Commodore's disk storage file. So, you know what you really
software. 400% faster. Most of all, you get luxury. get if you cross a
Yuu get the disk drive with the From the sleek lines of its sound Commodore 64
best service record around. With proofed chassis to the respon with a Ferrari?
a one year warranty on parts and sive AccuTouch'" <. ontrols at the You get ihe
labor to prove it Indus Command Post!" From the best.

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regiilered tradcmarli <>i Commodofe Business M.ichmoi, Inc. fi'ir.iri ii .t regittcrnl indemarli of Ferrari North America, inc.
sysop and then proceed to download a file that tional. The system operates with the message
takes 20 minutes. Return to the main menu fre disk in drive 0 (or device 8) and the email disk in
quently so the sysop can make the connection. drive 1 (or device 9).
The sysop activates the chat feature by After the system is defined, there is a pause
pressing the fl key on the BBS keyboard at any of a few seconds while the tables containing
time after he or she is paged. The board contains message locations are loaded into memory from
an interrupt routine that goes to the chat mode a file on the message disk.
instead of the main menu.
In chat mode, the caller and the sysop type An Automatic Menu Builder
normally, just as when two copies of C/G Term
Then the download menu is created automati
are communicating. The sysop can change his or
cally from files which the sysop stores on the
her border color by pressing f3, change the back email disk while the board is off-line. The
ground color with f4, and clear the screen with download library can contain up to nine files.
f6. When the two of you are through talking, the Each filename to be included in the download li
sysop returns the caller to the main menu by
brary must begin with the letter D. The BBS
pressing f2. prints each filename in turn and asks the sysop
to type in a description of up to 50 characters.
Maintenance The menu is then compiled and stored in
Just as with a regular cork bulletin board, some memory.
one must update an electronic board, removing If the email disk contains no filenames
outdated messages and generally maintaining beginning with D, the program will display an
order. empty menu, and a caller must type a 0 to return
The sysop can perform maintenance on the to the main menu. The email storage file takes
C/G BBS in one of two ways: Use the mainte up 405 blocks, leaving 259 available for the
nance sequence, which occurs when the board is download library and uploaded files.
first run, or force the board to maintenance mode
by pressing (7 while the board is on-line. This Changing User Information
causes the program to go to the maintenance After the download menu, the sysop is given the
routines when the current caller logs off. The option of updating the user information files and
maintenance call can be canceled by pressing f8. message files.
Normally, when you log off, the BBS up If the user files are chosen, the sysop will
dates its tables to include new messages or see a menu which allows him or her to change
changes in your name or password, and adds the user's name, password, cumulative time on
your time on-line to the cumulative time stored line, or status. The first three options are used
in your user file. (Cumulative time is stored as mainly in setting up a new account. After the ini
total minutes, in binary coded decimal format.) tial entry, the user can maintain his or her own
In addition, your user ID number and time on name and password changes, and cumulative
line are sent to the printer so the sysop will have time is computed automatically.
a running record of traffic on the BBS. This However, option four, status, is accessible
printed record helps the sysop keep up with who only to the sysop. Through this option, the sysop
is using the board and when the upload area is can enter a code that automatically refuses to let
getting full, so he or she can perform timely the user log onto the board. Such a feature is a
regrettable necessity.
Maintenance includes defining the system,
updating the download library and processing
Updating Messages
uploaded files, typing in new user information,
By choosing to update messages, the sysop
and updating the message files.
causes the board to talk to itself. The program
At the beginning of maintenance, the sysop
gets its input from the keyboard instead of from
sees this menu:
the modem, so the sysop can read messages,
Docs your system have: erase messages, and leave messages for other
1) one drive, # 0, device 8 users.
2) two drives, # 0, devices 8 and 9 The sysop reads messages just as other call
3) two drives, # 0 and 1, device 8 ers do, except that he or she has the added abil
If the BBS is being run with one 1541 drive, op ity to erase regular messages by typing a k (kill
tion 1 is selected. With one drive, only the public message) at the RETURN r m (? = help) prompt.
message files are in use. The board does not This feature is accessible only from the BBS key
have email, download, or upload capability. board; the erase routine ignores modem input
With two drives, the board is fully opera- while the BBS is on-line.
124 COMPUTErs Gazollo December 1984
Introducing The Gold Disk* Subscription Series

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To leave a message or email, the sysop must 30 PRINT*15,"Pn+CHRS{98)+CHR$(244)+CHR$(l
use C/G Term to create the message. Load and )+CHRS(l)
run C/G Term and press CTRL-C then f8 to en Now run the modified program. This will create
ter message mode and create a message. The BBS the user information file, which consists of 500
message disk is then inserted into the drive, and relative records of 86 bytes each. (One record
the message is saved to disk by pressing i5. holds two user files.)
Then, when the sysop is performing system Finally, type NEW, then load the short ma
maintenance and selects the send message op chine language program (Program 1, "Tables
tion, the program asks for the filename of the Setup"):
message. After the name is entered, the program
automatically adds the message to the system
files. Insert the message disk and run this program to
To exit from the message maintenance create and store to disk a file containing the ini
mode, the sysop selects 9) Log off, and the pro tial message file pointers and other default
gram returns to the regular maintenance settings which the BBS will need for its first run.
sequence. These files need be created only once, before
When maintenance is complete, the sysop the board is run for the first time. After that, the
responds with an n to the prompt; BBS program handles the file contents
Update system files < v 01 n)
After the files are created on the message
and the BBS is ready to take the next call. and email disks, you should select the files you
want to include in the download library and
Creating The BBS store them onto the email disk.
The complete BBS will consist of three disks
containing seven files. First, the bulletin board Going On-Iane
program and the auxiliary programs (see below) When you are ready for the BBS debut, connect
must be typed in and stored on a disk. Then a the Automodem to the 64 and the phone line,
message disk is created, containing the message and set the switches for full duplex, answer, and
file, the user information file, and a file which data. Then load the bulletin board program (Pro
holds the tables necessary to locate and display gram 2):
each message. The third disk will contain the
email messages, and the download and upload
libraries. Insert the message disks and email disks, and
To create the message file, load the follow run the program. After you go through the initial
ing program (CREATEMSG) and insert the maintenance sequence, the BBS will wait for the
formatted message disk in device 8. Then run the first caller. You can now call yourself a sysop.
program, which creates a relative file of 401 But being a sysop involves more than run
records, each containing 254 bytes: ning the program and walking away.
Operating a bulletin board requires a large
10 REM CREATE RELATIVE MESSAGE FILE commitment of time and resources. Also, there's
20 OPEN15,8,15 IOPEN1,8,2,"MSGPILE1,L,"+CH a certain amount of paperwork, and several de
RS(254) cisions to be made before you go on-line.
30 PRINT#15,"P"+CHR?(98)+CHR$(145)+CHR?(1
First, the phone line and computer system
40 PRIHT#1,"@END"
will be unavailable for other use while the BBS is
50 CLOSE1:CLOSE15 running. If you have only one phone and one
60 END computer, you'll have to operate the board part-
time. You may want to consider establishing
Remove the message disk and insert the format regular operating hours, so people will know
ted email disk. Then make the following change when to call. And be sure to notify your friends
in the program: that you will be unavailable to talk on the phone
In line 20, for "MSGFILE1,L," substitute "EMAIL,L," during those hours.
If you plan to have a separate phone line
Then run the program, which now creates the
and computer just for your board, you can run
email relative file. Next, remove the email disk
the BBS 24 hours a day. But your 64 and disk
and insert the message disk again. Make these
drive can overheat under such heavy use, so
changes to the program:
round-the-clock operation is not recommended.
Since the disk space available for file transfers is
20 OPEN15,8,15 tOPEN1,8,2,"USTAT,L,"+CHR$( limited, you'll need to take the board off-line at
86) least once a day, anyway.
126 COMPUTE'S Gazotle December 1984
Sensational Prices!
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If you run the BBS for several hours before Also, there have been cases recently in
you turn off the computer, then you should pro which the police have confiscated sysops'
vide ventilation, especially for the disk drive. I've computers when illegal material such as stolen
found that filter fans work well for this purpose. credit card numbers and pirated software have
A filter fan is a small fan which draws air in its been found on the boards. Consequently, many
bottom, through a filter, and pushes the air out sysops are being more selective about who they
the top. The filter traps dust, smoke, and other let on their boards.
harmful airborne debris. There are several And finally, many sysops can't afford to ab
desktop models available for $20-$50. sorb the cost of an extra phone line and extra
Although the BBS can run unattended, you computer system to operate a 24-hour board.
should monitor the system regularly. Callers will These sysops charge a small fee to cover those
want to chat, the upload area will fill up, and costs.
you need to check the printout for new users. Each of these factors means more work for
A new user's name, address, and phone the sysop. You should check the messages regu
number are printed out so you can verify the larly and cancel any that contain illegal material.
information and add the caller's new ID number The C/G BBS doesn't allow anonymous mes
and password to the user information file. sages, so you can identify the caller who left the
Each regular caller generates at least two unacceptable message and notify them by email
lines on the printer. The last three digits of the why their message was canceled.
ID number are printed when the caller logs on. If you charge a fee, you'll need a way to
On log-off, the ID number is printed again, with keep track of billing and income (be sure to keep
the number of minutes the caller was on-line. If complete records for tax purposes).
a file is uploaded, the ID number is printed, fol
lowed by the filename the caller gave the file Typing In The Machine
and the name under which it's stored on the
email disk (UP01, UP02, and so on).
First type in, save, and run MLX, found else
To keep your upload and download func
where in this issue. When prompted for the start
tions running smoothly, you should process
ing address, respond with 2049. The ending
uploaded files every day. While the BBS is wait
address is 17828. Be sure to save this program to
ing for a call, move the T/D switch to T for tele
phone. Remove the system disks and press
which you will append Part 2 next month. C/G
BBS is over 14K, so, for the sake of magazine
RUN/STOP-RESTORE. Insert the email disk in
space, we're publishing the first half of the code
device 8 or drive 0. Then look on the day's print
this month and the second half next month.
out for the upload filenames UP01 and so on.
Instructions on resuming with Part 2 will appear
Check the filename the caller gave the file to
next month.
see which are document files. Then load each
document file and read it to see what the main
If you'd rather not type in the program, send
file contains. If you decide to include the file in
$3, a stamped, self-addressed mailer, and a blank
the download library, you must rename it (see
disk, and I'll send you the entire ready-to-run
the manual that came with your drive for details
BBS object code, the auxiliary programs, and the
bulletin board source code (in PAL/LADS
on renaming files). Your new filename should
begin with the letter D,
Remember that you can only have nine files Robert Sims
in the download library, so you will have to 100 Lee Street
scratch files to make room for new ones. lamcstown, NC 27282
Since you can have up to 999 bulletin board
See program listings on page 111. <ffi
members, you may want to set up a record-
keeping system to keep track of who's got what
ID number, which files they upload, and cu
mulative time on-line.
If you decide to run a free board, then this
basic paperwork will be sufficient.
Bulletin boards traditionally are free and
open to all, but several factors are changing that COMPUTE!'s Gazette
situation. Toll Free Subscription Order Line
As more people become active in tele
communications, boards are more crowded. 800-334-0868
Some sysops are setting time limits for each In NC 919-275-9809
128 COMPUTE'S Gazelle December 1984

PACKAGES Hayes Smart
Gemini 10X and Modem 300 Call
Garden + Q 333 Mark VIIIAuto Ansl
FTo.-riiiT and
Auto Dial Call
MarkXII/1200 Baud.Call
Carctco + □ 414 Prometheus Call
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CBM 64 Call Westridgo AAIAD. . Call
chaigsi on Printer
PicVflgaa In Continental
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USA 1541 Disk Drive Call ANIMATION
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Alphacom 80C/lni 189.95 1702 Monitor Call
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1650 ADfAA Modern 69 Bring ihe trivia
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Rlleman 289 Delta 10X ...429 Radix 15X ..699 Call for Special Package Quiz dome lor
Toshiba 1351 Call Powertype . .339 64 System Price theCBWB4-D . Call
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800-558-0003 414-351-2007

c V"rr./«)

ORDERING IN FORMATION. Please specify system. For last delivery send cashier's crieck. money order or dlreet bank transfers. Personal COMPUTABILITV
and company chocks allow 2 weeks to cleat Charges, for COD are J3OO. School Purchase Outers welcome. In CONTINENTAL USA. in- PO Boi T7S82
elude S3 DO shipping per salt ware order Inclu0o3% stiioping on all HaTOwaie orrjeis, minimum S3.00 Mastercard & Visa please include Milwaukee W 53217
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will NOT bo accepted lor replacement or rapair. Prices and availability are su&tect to change without notice. Sat 12 PM ■ 5 PM CSF
Auto Line Don Gibson

This handy utility, which is compatible tion of putting the program at the top of mem
with Automatic Proofreader, automatically ory, which will subtract 104 bytes from available
numbers a BASIC program as it is being BASIC RAM.
written. It can also quickly delete a range If you're using 8K or more memory expan
of lines. For the VIC and 64. sion with your VIC, you'll have to change line 10
accordingly. PRINT PEEK(56),PEEK(55) will tell
you the normal values for top of memory, which
you can then plug into line 10. Or, if you're
using expansion memory, you can delete line 10
Some computers, including Commodore's new
altogether (the disadvantage to removing the line
Plus/4 and 16, have an auto-number command
is that if you run the loader program more than
built into BASIC. You can turn it on whenever
once, the top of memory will move down 104
you're writing a program; after you enter a pro
bytes each time).
gram line, the computer figures out the next line
The program defaults to incrementing lines
number and prints it. You choose what the in
by ten; line 10 is followed by 20, then 30, and so
crement will be: one, three, five, ten, or
on. You can change this, however. Line 110 of
the VIC version (line 60 of the 64 version) sets
It turns out to be fairly simple to add such a
variable IN (increment) to ten. You can change it
feature to the VIC or 64. "Auto Line," a short
to any number from 1 to 255. If you want to
machine language wedge, automatically numbers
change increments in the middle of the program,
lines, and also serves as a quick-delete utility.
you can POKE the number you want into
SA + 46 (SA is the starting address, the SYS
Entering Auto Line number). For example, if you choose to put the
After typing in the program listing, save it to program in the cassette buffer, starting at 828, to
tape or disk before running. The last statement to change to increments of five, POKE 828 + 46,5
be executed is a NEW, so the BASIC loader pro will work (don't use POKE SA+46—the variable
gram erases itself after completing the POKEs. If SA loses its value after the program is NEWed).
you use Automatic Proofreader, make sure you Or if you're using the 64 version, starting at
disable it with RUN/STOP-RESTORE before 49152, POKE49152 + 46,20 would change the in
you save Auto Line. crement to twenty.
The 64 version (Program 1) is put into mem
ory starting at location 49152, a safe area for ma
Line Numbering And Line
chine language (ML) programs, but the BASIC
loader program can move the ML elsewhere if Deleting
you need the block of memory beginning at After saving Auto Line, type RUN. If you
49152 for another purpose. One possibility is the typed it in correctly, you should see a message
cassette buffer (starting at 828). To relocate the telling you the SYS number. Write down the
64 version of Auto Line, change the variable SA number (in case you want to disable Auto Line
(starting address) in line 10 to a safe part of and then turn it on again). Type SYS and the
memory. number on the screen, and the first line number
The VIC version gives you two choices of will appear on the screen. The program thinks
where the program will go, the cassette buffer or you're starting at zero, so the first number will
a protected spot at the top of BASIC memory. be the same as the increment value. It should be
When you first run it, you will be asked where ten (unless you changed the increment variable
you want to put Auto Line. If you store programs IN as described above).
on tape, avoid using the cassette buffer for Auto You can now type a BASIC line, press RE
Line. Instead, tape users should choose the op- TURN, and the next line number appears. Enter
130 COMPUTEl's Gazerm December 1984
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the next line and the program continues, auto Proofreader to work on a partial program which
matically printing the appropriate line numbers. has been saved to tape, but you have to load
What if you don't want the program to start them in the correct order. First, if you have not
with line 10? Press the DELete key three times, done so, create a PROOFREADER.T file (as de
until the 10 is erased (or just type a SHIFT- scribed in the Proofreader article). Load and run
RETURN to move to a blank line), then type the Auto Line, making sure you put it high in mem
line number you want followed by a BASIC line. ory, with a starting address SA of 49152 on a 64,
The program keeps track of the last line number or top of BASIC in a VIC. Don't enter the en
used, and adjusts itself accordingly. You also abling SYS yet. Next, load your partial program
have full control of the usual editing functions. If from tape. Finally, use the OPEN1:CLOSE1 tech
you discover you made a mistake on a line, do nique to get the PROOFREADER.T file into the
what you would usually do—cursor up to it, cor cassette buffer. Enter SYS886 to start up Proof
rect it, and press RETURN. reader, and SYS to the starting address of Auto
Press the RUN/STOP key to disable Auto Line.
Line. The SYS will turn it back on.
An interesting by-product of Auto Line is
that it can be used to delete large sections of a
program. To erase a BASIC line, you simply en How It Works
ter the line number with nothing after it. So, Auto Line is a short program (104 bytes of ma
with Auto Line working, pressing RETURN again chine language) which derives its power from
and again will erase the lines which appear on Kernal routines and specific operating system
the screen. Of course, if the increment is set to pointers. It contains two wedges and a pointer-
ten, you won't erase lines which were later in switch routine.
serted. If you want to delete a section of a pro When a program is running, the computer is
gram, it might be best to set the increment to 1, in program mode. Otherwise, it is in immediate
with a POKE to the starting address plus 46, as mode. In immediate mode there are two things
explained above. If you're planning to delete a you can do: Type a BASIC line without a line
lot of lines, you'll have to press RETURN many number, for immediate execution (PRINT FRE(0),
times. POKEing a 128 into location 650 causes all for example) or enter a line number followed by
keys (including RETURN) to repeat, and saves a BASIC line.
wear and tear on your fingers when you're doing The workhorse routine of BASIC is called
a massive delete. MAIN. When the computer is in immediate
mode, MAIN calls a subroutine which checks for
a keypress. When it finds one, it prints the
Compatible With Proofreader character on the screen. It also handles things
Auto Line is also compatible with Automatic like cursor controls and insertions/deletions.
Proofreader, so you can use both to type in pro Pressing RETURN sends MAIN to an evaluation
grams from the gazette (if they're numbered in routine, which looks for a number at the begin
regular increments). Since Proofreader resides in ning of the line. If there's a number, the line is
the cassette buffer, you must not put Auto Line tokenized and added to the BASIC program in
there (and if you're using tape, you must load memory.

Auto Line before loading Proofreader). Put Auto Since BASIC line numbers are stored in a
Line at 49152 on a 64, at the top of memory on a Low Byte/High Byte format, the ASCII numbers
VIC. on the screen have to be translated to two bytes.
To use the two programs as a combination, So if you begin a line with the number 600, the
change line 70 (64 version) or line 120 (VIC ver operating system has to change the three charac
sion). Delete the NEW statement at the very end ters "6" and "0" and "0" to a low byte 88, high
of the line and replace it with byte 2 (since 88 + 2*256 equals 600). The results
LOAD"AUTOPROOF",8 (disk) or of the translation are temporarily stored in zero
LOAD"AUTOPROOF",1 (tape). When you load page locations 20-21 ($14-15).
a program from within another program, it loads A pointer at 770-771 ($0302-0303) tells
and automatically runs. BASIC where the MAIN routine is located.
Tape users can also follow the directions on The pointer-switch routine at the beginning
the Proofreader page for creating a of Auto Line changes 770-771 to point to the
PROOFREADER.T file, placed right after Auto first wedge. The wedge program checks 20-21
Line, and add OPEN1:CLOSE1 to Auto Line, in for the last line number and then adds ten (or
place of the NEW statement in line 70 (64 ver whatever increment you have chosen) to cal
sion) or line 120 (VIC version). culate the next line number. The new integer
You can use both Auto Line and Automatic value (low byte/high byte) is then sent through
132 COMPUTEi's Gazette December 1984
■ • I-- ■ 1 '-■• ■■ !••■ I ■
(-■ I ■ .n r I !■■* l| II
TRflVI L. Ul .. T ■ .i i . -■ ■ . ' . i ■• I i II--I II lBt_E
V ■■ F>13« I .1OL.E C

-.IV ■--.■■..■ • ■ - .."-, K Ii _j»'»"i.. .

ntii-vnii ,»*■ !•"_ • ^ -■-_ — 1 !"-__. "Vt —- ■ _ .-TtJ ■' • •-

tJKL«NOPClBr'STUVl.lHVI-« I MUt* »l!Kd»i «h-i 1 j It 1 fino


You read that right. A full 80 including the Commodore 64, the Ask your local computer store or
column, 80 character-per-second, VIC 20, and the new Commodore 264, dealer for the HUSH 80 CD today.
Commodore-compatible dot matrix And you'll find the HUSH 80 CD And if he doesn't carry it, call us
thermal printer, complete (with a printer is big on lots of small things at 415/322-ERGO. And find out
90 ft. paper roll, interface cable too. It weighs about one-half the where to get the little printer that
and power pack), ready-to-run— amount of it's nearest competitor does the big jobs.
at 800 words per minute — for only (it's compact size fits conveniently
$139.99. But your wallet isn't the into a briefcase). And it's extremely HUSH 80 CD
only thing the HUSH 80 CD is quiet, with fewer working parts, PRINTER
compatible with. It's compatible which means less noise and less LESS PRICE, LESS NOISE,
with all Commodore models; to go wrong. LESS SIZE.

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the integer-to-floating-point conversion routine. numbering by ten, the number nine will follow
The resulting floating point (FP) number is then the READY prompt.
sent through the BASIC FP-to-ASCII routine, to This is because the two bytes which hold the
get the characters which will be printed to the line number (20 and 21) are sometimes used for
screen. An 88 and 2, for example, would be con other purposes. LIST uses 20-21 to keep track of
verted first to a five byte FP number, then to the the highest line to list and the highest possible
three characters which make up "600". two-byte number is 65535 ($FFFF). If you type a
In a machine language version of the Dy plain LIST, a 255 goes into both bytes. After the
namic Keyboard technique, the ASCII characters program is listed, Auto Line adds the increment
are then stored in the keyboard buffer, and the to 20 and 21, and the number wraps around to
wedge jumps to the regular MAIN routine, The one less than the increment.
operating system handles the characters in the If you use a top limit when you list, like
buffer as if they had been typed from the key LIST -100, the number (100 in this case) is con
board and prints them on the screen. When you verted to a two-byte integer and stored in 20-21.
enter a line and press RETURN, the line is added Auto Line then adds the increment. So if you're
to BASIC memory, and the wedge takes over numbering by tens and LIST -100, the program
again, printing the next line number based on is listed, the screen says READY, and the number
what's in bytes 20 and 21. 110 appears.
The second wedge intercepts the IRQ inter If you find this feature annoying, press the
rupt, it checks to see if the STOP key has been RUN/STOP key to disable Auto Line before
pressed. If so, the IRQ and MAIN vectors are re LISTing your program.
stored to their normal values, which has the ef The highest line number allowed in BASIC
fect of turning Auto Line off. If you SYS to the is 63999; anything higher will cause an ILLEGAL
starting address of Auto Line, the pointer-switch QUANTITY ERROR. Thus, if you use Auto Line
routine sets the vectors to point to the two to write a program numbered in the 63000 range,
wedges, turning Auto Line back on. it's possible you'll reach the limit, in which case
One quirk of Auto Line is that if it's running the bytes at 20-21 are scrambled. It's perhaps
and you LIST a program, the listing will be fol best to avoid line numbers in this range, or enter
lowed by the usual READY prompt and a num them while Auto Line is turned off.
ber one less than the increment. If you're See program listings on page 195. "Jl

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Charles Brannon HORIZONS: 64
Program Editor

Redefined characters, sprites, medium- and high- pressing keys labeled with directions, you just
resolution, page-flipping, fine scrolling, and 16 push the joystick in the desired direction. Avid
colors give the 64 some of the best graphics game players have developed specialized joystick
capabilities found on any low-cost computer. But dexterity, which is instantly applicable to a draw
what are graphics good for? Games, at least, ing program. The major drawback of a joystick is
make good use of graphics. Business programs that it can only move in four cardinal and four
can draw detailed colored graphs that extract diagonal directions. Freehand drawing with a
meaning out of a seemingly patternless mass of joystick tends to produce awkward, sharp-angled
numbers. Yet graphics for their own sake—art, if drawings.
you will—are a valid application for computers. A trackball, made of a billiard ball mounted
Computer drawing programs can bring out on two wheels, gives you smoother control.
latent talent, even from those who protest "I just When you move the ball, the wheels spin, and
can't draw." One reason is that such programs the direction of spin is similar to joystick direc
take away much of the tedium normally asso tions. If you spin the ball forward, an "up" value
ciated with creating graphic art. If you can't draw is returned, the same as if you pressed the joy
a straight line, or if your circles look more like stick forward. Unlike a joystick, a trackball can
mutant eggs, you can get the computer to do it return a series of directions that better approxi
for you, with mathematical precision. Those who mate the spin of the ball, so you effectively get
have been frustrated with pencil and paper will more than just eight directions. Any program
revel in the artistic freedom and power offered that works with a joystick will also work with a
by a good drawing program. track-ball. A trackball can be imprecise, though,
since it tends to keep spinning after you've
started it rolling. It can also be difficult to draw
Graphics Peripherals straight lines with a trackball, but it's much
easier to approximate curves than with a joystick.
There are several ways to enter graphics into a
computer. The most straightforward is a camera
that takes pictures and converts them into com Mousing Around
puter pixels. No skill or technique is necessary; A mouse controller is not a rodent trainer; it's a
just point the camera and shoot. Unfortunately, device similar to an upside-down trackball. As
camera digitization is usually too expensive for you move the mouse on the desktop, it reports
use with a home computer. Even so, it remains a its relative position. The screen cursor mimics the
tantalizing alternative. The technology is avail mouse movements. After some practice, moving
able; we can only wait for prices to come down. the cursor with the mouse becomes second na
The keyboard can be used to give commands ture. The Macintosh and Lisa computers brought
for circles, lines, and boxes, with the cursor keys the mouse to prominence, and mouse controllers
used to move around the graphics screen. This are the latest rage for the Apple II and IBM PC.
can be tediously slow and indirect. Some people feel that mouse controllers are a
The next step up is a joystick. Instead of gimmick, and could be replaced by inexpensive

136 COMPUTEIs Gazette December 1984



This lool allows yoj to locale those harcHo-tind variables in your programs. This advanced design package has ouistandmg leatures - Iwo Hires
Cross-references all tokens (key words), variables and constants in sorted screens, draw LINEs. RAYs. CIRCLES. BOXEs. freehand DRAW, FILL with
order You can even add you own tokens Irum other software such as patterns, COPY areas, SAVE/RECALL pictures, define and use intricate
ULTRABASIC or VICTREE Listings to screen or all ASCII printers OBJECTS, insert lent on screen. UNDO last lunction Requires high quality
DISK S17.95 hgtilpen. We recommend McPen. Includes manual with lulonal
SYNTHY-64 DISK S19.95 McPen fightpen S49.95
This is renowned as the Imest music synlhesizers available al any price.
Others may have a lot of onscreen [rills, bul SYNTHY-64 makes music belter MASTER 64
than them all. Nolhing comos close to the porlormance ol Ihis package
This prolossional applicalion developmenl package adds 100 powerlul
Includes manual wilh tutorial, sample music
commands to BASIC including fast ISAM mdoxod files, simplified ye!
DISK $27.95 TAPE S24.95
sophisticated screen and printer management, programmer's aid, BASIC
<l 0 commands, 22digil anlhmetic. machine language monitor. Runtime
package lor royally-free distribution of your programs Includes 150pp
This package adds 50 powerful commands (many lound in VIDEO BASIC,
DISK S84.95
are easy to use Includes manual with iwo-part tutorial and demo. VIDEO BASIC-64
DISK S27.95 TAPE S24.95 This superD graphics and sound development package lels you write soft
ware lor distribution wilhoul royalties. Has hires, multicolor, sprite and
CHARTPAK-64 turtle graphics, audio commands lor simple or comple* music and sound
This finest charting package draws pie. bar and line charts and graphs Irom eNects. Iwo siires of hardcopy to most dot matrix printers, game leaiures
your data 01 DIF, Multiplan and Busicalc files Charts are drawn in any of such as sprite collision detection, hghtpen. game paddle, memory
2 formats Change lormal and build another charl immediately. Hardcopy management for multiple graphics screens, screen copy, etc.
to fviPSSOl, Epson, Ohidata, Prownler. Includes manual and tutorial
DISK S59.95
DISK S42.95
This sophislicated charting system plots more than 15 lechnicai indicators
Same as CHARTPACK-64 for highest quality output to most popular pen
on splii screen, moving averages, oscillators, trading brands; least squares;
plotters. D1SK SB4.95 Irend lines, superimpose graphs; five volume indicators, relative slrength,
volumes, more Online data collection OJNR/S or Warner 175pp. manual.

FREE CATALOG Ask for a listing of other

Abacus Software for Commodore-64orVlc-20

Abacus BH Software

Qrut Britain: Silgulm: FnnM: Ntw Zsilind:

IB Norwich Ave. AVGtillaume 30 147 AvaniiB Paul-Downer 306-308 Church Strsil
Roctidale. Lanes. Brussol 1160. Belguim Rue 111 Maimaison, France Palmarsion North
706-534304 2-680-1447 1733-9254 P.O. BOX 7211 GRAND RAPIDS. MICH. 49510
Wnt Girminy: Sweden: Auttnlli: For postage & handling, add $4.00 (U.S. and Canada), add $6.00
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WOO DulMkMrf 34300 AJmfiult Bnsbjitu, Qunm or charge card. (Michigan Residents add 4% sales tax).
0211/312085 07-397-OSOS
Commodore 64 is a reg. T.M. of Commodore Business Machines FOR QUICK SERVICE PHONE 616-241-5510
joysticks or trackballs. advantages of mouse or light pen controllers, and
However, what business executive would are best for drawing, although the mouse or light
want to be seen using a joystick with Lotus 3-2-3? pen are easier to use for pointing and making
A mouse is an improvement over joysticks, giv on-screen menu selections.
ing precise, natural control. It's a little strange to There are numerous drawing programs
draw with one, though. We're used to pencil and available for the 64. To give you an idea of the
paper, and drawing with a mouse is like using a state of the art (pun intended), we'll take a brief
pencil point mounted underneath a cigarette look at some of the most popular drawing pro
package. Since mouses must roll about, they con grams for the 64: KoalaPad from Koala Technol
sume some desk space, and some surfaces are ogies, the Tech Sketch Light Pen with Micro
not conducive to easy rolling. Illustrator, Peripheral Vision from Futurehouse,
The promise of being able to draw directly and Doodle! from City Software.
on the TV screen with a light pen is enticing. At Some drawing programs include the graph
the tip of a light pen is a phototransistor, which ics controller. The KoalaPad includes a touch tab
turns on when stimulated by light. A TV screen let, and both Tech Sketch and Peripheral Vision
does not emit continuous light, although it seems come with light pens. The Tech Sketch light pen
so to our slow human perception. The electron has a switch on the tip, but the Peripheral Vision
gun behind the TV tube sweeps from left to lightpen requires you to trigger it from the key
right, top to bottom, redrawing the screen 60 board. Doodle! works with a standard Atari-type
times a second. When the beam reaches the po joystick, though City Software recommends you
sition of the light pen, the light-sensitive pen use a trackball. The hardware has to be consid
turns on, commanding the VIC chip to store the ered when comparing the prices of these prod
current position of the raster beam. A light pen, ucts. Both Futurehouse and Koala Technology
then, merely reports its current horizontal and justify the expense of the hardware by offering a
vertical position. You need software to drive a wide range of programs that make good use of
light pen and make it seem that you are drawing the light pen or touch tablet.
directly on the screen. Both the Tech Sketch light pen and the
In practice, light pens have some drawbacks. KoalaPad come with very similar versions of Mi
Foremost is that we're used to drawing on a hori cro Illustrator, which Koala Technologies has
zontal surface, whereas a TV screen, of course, is dubbed KoalaPainter. Micro Illustrator, which is
vertical. Holding your arm and hand in the re licensed by Island Graphics, is a popular base for
quired position can be quickly tiring, often within graphics programs on many computers.
seconds. Light pens are also imprecise in that the KoalaPainlcr does offer some improvements over
tip of the light pen covers several pixels, making the version of Micro Illustrator used by the Tech
it challenging to exactly position the light pen. Sketch light pen, but you may want to make
Since it's almost impossible to hold the pen rock your decision in terms of the controller {touch
steady, the position jitters about, so it's difficult tablet or light pen) and the price. Micro Illustrator
to draw straight or smooth lines. Many light pen is one of the easiest graphics programs to learn
programs take several samples of the light pen's and use, and versions exist for several computers,
position, then compute an average. This alle Both Peripheral Vision and Doodle! have features
viates the jitter problem, but slows down on unavailable in Micro Illustrator, but are somewhat
screen response.
harder to learn and use. Micro Illustrator and
KoalaPainter both use a full screen menu with
Getting In Touch pictures and descriptions. You just point to the
Of all the input devices, the touch tablet is the command you want, then go back to the graphics
easiest to use. A touch tablet is an inexpensive page. You draw a circle by pressing the button
version of a digital graphics tablet. You draw once, then moving the controller. As you move
with a stylus on a rectangular pad, which tells the controller, the circle gets larger or smaller,
the computer where the pen is on the pad. The depending which direction you move. When the
most expensive digital pads offer high resolution, circle is the size you like, press the button again
using magnetic fields to sense the position of the to stamp it down, KoalaPainter lets you move the
stylus. Touch tablets sense pressure, and are rel circle after you've defined it.
atively inexpensive. Since they detect pressure, Peripheral Vision draws circles in three steps.
you can draw with your finger or a blunt stylus. First you lay down an X-shaped mark that repre
You have to learn to look at the screen while sents the center of the circle, then you place an
you're drawing, trusting that the tablet will relay other mark to represent the outer edge of the
your movements. It's easy to trace drawings with circle. Finally, you select the circle by pointing to
a touch tablet, so even if you're not an artist, you a small menu at the bottom of the screen. You
can look like one. Tablets offer many of the don't actually see the circle until it's permanently
138 COMPUTE'S Gazeno December 1964
The ultimate source
for Commodore-64
Computer Information



is the insiders guide to the lesser known features oi THE C-64 ON THE C-64
the Commodore 64 Includes Chapters on graphics, takes you from the fundamentals ol graphic to is an introduction io the world ol computers in science
sound synihesis. inpuUoutput conirol. sample programs advanced topics such as compuler aided design Shows Describes variable types, computational accuracy,
using the kernal routines, more For Itiose wtio need Io you ho* to program new Character sets, move sprites, various sort alognthms Topics include linear and
know, it includes the complete disassembled and draw m HIRES and MULTICOLOR, use a lightpen, nonlinear regression. CHI-sguare distribution. Fourier
documented ROM listings. handle IBQs. do 30 graphics proiections, curves and .dialysis, main* calculations, more Programs from
IS8N-0-916439-00-3 300dd $19.95 animation. IncluOes dozens of samples chemistry, physics, biology, astronomy and electronics
ISBN-0-91643S-05-4 JBQpp $19.95 Includes many program lislings
THE ANATOMY OF THE 1541 ISBN-0-916439-09-7 250pp S19.95
unravels the mysteries of using the misunderstood disk
drive Details the use ol program sequential, relative
gives you an intensive Ireaimenl ol Ihe powefiul 64 (or Vic 20) contains all the information you need io
.i nd direci access files Include many sample programs ■
FILE PROTECT. DIRECTORY. DISK MONITOR. BACKUP. features Auihor Lottiar Englisch delves into areas such know aboul using and programming the Commodore
as interrupts. Ihe video controller, the timer, the real Oatasette Includes many eiample programs Also con
MERGE. COPY, others. Describes internals of OOS wrlh
compleloly disaddemoied and commented listings ol the time clock parallel and serial I/O. eiiending BASIC and tains a new operating system lor last loading saving

1541 ROMS tips and tricks Irom machine language, more and finding of files
ISBN-0-916439-01-1 320pp S19.95 I5BN-0-916439-06-2 200pp S14.95 ISBN-0-916439-04-6 180pp. 112.95

is aimed al those who want io progress Beyond BASIC is for those who wonder what you can do wilh your '64
Wnle faster, more memory elticient programs in machine li ts written lor the novice and presents dozens ol IN CANADA CONTACT:
language Tesl is specifically geared io Commofloie 64 program listing the many, many uses for your The Book Centre, 1140 Beaulac Street
Learns ail 6510 msiruciions Includes listings for 3 full compulei Themes include aulo expenses, electronic Montreal. Quebec H4R1RS Phone: (51*1 322-4154
length programs ASSEMBLER. DISASSEMBLER and calculator, recipe file, stock lists, construction cost
amazing 6510 SIMULATOR so you can see" the opera estimator, personal health record diei planner store AVAILABLE AT COMPUTER STORES, OR WRITE:
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ISBN-Q-916439-02-X 200pp S14.95 and more
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Abacus HU Software
P.O. BOX 7211 GRAND RAPIDS, Ml 49510
is a collection of easy-to-use programming techniques lor
Imally simplilies your understanding of the 1525. For postage & handling, add $4.00 (U.S. and
the '64 A perfect companion lor ihose who have run Canada), add J6.00 tor !r;r;.'(;:i Malta payment
up against Ihose hard io solve programming problems MPS/8D1. 1520 1526 and Epson compatiHle printers
In U.S. dollars by ctieck, money order ol
Covers advanced graphics, easy data input. BASIC Packed with eiamples and utility programs, you'll learn
charge card. (Michigan Residanls add 4%
enhancements. CP/M cartridge on the '64. POKES, user how Io make hardcooy ol teit and graphics, use secon sales [a■,)
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ferring data between comuters. more A treasure chesi commenled listing ol MPS 801 ROMs FOR QUICK SERVICE PHONE (618) 241-5510
ISBN-0-916439-03-8 250pp S19.95 ISBN-0-916439-08-9 350pp. SI 9.95 Contmodof* 04 ■• ■ r*o TM, ol Commode** Bufntu l-ticrim**
drawn, whereas both Micro Illustrator and the peripheral used (light pen or touch tablet).
KoalaPainter let you preview the circle as you are Peripheral Vision can be purchased with its own
expanding the size. light pen, and has some innovative touches. Doo
Doodle! also does not let you preview the cir dle! needs no extra hardware. It's not as easy to
cle, but it's still very easy to draw one. You select learn, but has more features and variations than
the circle mode with a function key. If you can't any of the other drawing programs covered here.
remember which function key to use, there are If you can, go to your local computer or software
some brief help screens available for each com store and try them all out. See which one is best
mand. In the circle mode, the cursor changes to for your drawing needs.
two intersecting arrows. You move the joystick KoalaPad with KoalaPainter
left and right to move the horizontal arrows to Koala Technologies, Inc.
ward or away from the center. This represents 3100 Patrick Henry Drive
the horizontal axis of the circle or oval, Moving Santa Clara, CA 95052-8100
up or down adjusts the vertical arrows. You then $99.95 disk; $110 cartridge
press the joystick button, and the joystick can be Peripheral Vision
used to position the cursor. The fire button alter Futurehouse, Inc.
nates between moving the cursor and positioning P.O. Box 3470
the arrows. You then press the back-arrow key to Chapel Hill, NC 27514
draw the circle. $39.95; S59.95 with light pen
The various ways of drawing circles offer a Doodle!
good idea of the philosophy of these programs. City Software
While less direct than the others, Doodle! makes 725 West Wisconsin Avenue
it easy to draw not just circles, but ovals of any Milwaukee, Wl 53233
proportion. $39.95

Features common to all these programs are Tech Sketch Light Pen with Micro Illustrator
freehand drawing, lines, connected lines, rectan Tech Sketch, Inc.
gles, circles, mirror image, fill-in, multiple colors, 26 just Road

and zoom. With KoalaPainter or Micro Illustrator, Fairfield, NJ 07006

$39.95; deluxe version $119.95 ffll
you fill in an area by selecting Fill. The cursor
changes to the word Fill. You move the cursor
inside the figure, then press the button to fill the
area. A figure must be completely enclosed, or
else the Fill can escape through tiny holes in the :M Aeib'A.
outline, sometimes washing over and erasing You desetve to protocl your sottware investment.
You can with the Sirs: land only)
your entire picture (like trying to fill a leaky
swimming pool and ending up flooding your
backyard). Peripheral Vision is unique here. It
quickly traces the outline, and will not perform
the Fill unless the outline is complete.
KoalaPainter, Doodle!, and Peripheral Vision
each let you move and copy areas of the screen,
although Micro Illustrator lacks this feature.
Peripheral Vision's copy command only copies
the outlines of shapes, not what's inside them, Tho next generation in archival
but it's fun to watch the cursor continually trace methods is here today!
• No oetler QiSfc copiotal anypnco
the shape. With KoalaPainter, you draw a box
• Easy-to-use — no complicated
around the area you want to move, then press instructions

the button. You then move the box, press the • Totally automatic — no knowledge
ol DOS required
button, and the area is copied. Doodle! also boxes
• You'll LOVE MR NIBBLE" — ilnot.
in the area, but you can actually re-size the return within 10 days lor lull refund

shape before you put it down. You can grab a

section of the screen, and reduce or enlarge it FULL CIRCLE SOFTWARE, INC.
PO. Box 1373
before you set it down. You can also reverse and Full Circle Dayton. Ohio 45401
flip horizontally and vertically. A unique feature Phone (513)223-2102
of Doodle! produces an effect much like op-art.
All the lines within the box are doubled.
S*T7-yD (OMarHUtnu>aa£<,ul«Iii} lOfUyrtlum
In summary, I've found Micro Illustrator and
KoalaPainter to be the easiest to learn and use,
with the choice made on the basis of price and
140 COMPUTED Gazette December 19S4
"When cloning and directing fail, turn to MR. NIBBLE



This lull compiler produces fast 6502 MONITOR-64
machine code. Supports major data Types: This complete language development All software products featured above
REAL, INTEGER. BOOLEAN. CHAR, package features a macro assembler and have inside disk storage pockets,
multiple dimension arrays. RECORD. FILE. extended monitor. The macro assembler and heavy 3-ring-binder (or maxi
SET and pointer. Offers easy string handl offers freeform input, complete assembler
ing, procedures for sequenlial and relative mum durability and easy reference.
listings with symbol table (label), condi -
data management and ability to write IN tional assembly,
TERRUPT routines in Pascal! Extensions
The extended monitor has all the standard
included for high resolution and sprite
commands plus single step, quick trace
graphics. Link to ASSEM/MON machine breakpoint, bank switching and more.
language. DISK S39.95 DISK S39.95

This powerful data base manager handles This is a lull compiler that won't break your
up to 2000 records per disk You select the budget. Is compatible with Commodore 64
screen format using up to 50 fields per BASIC. Compiles to last machine code.
record. DATAMAT 64 can sort on multiple Protect your valuable source code by com
fields in any combination. Complete repon piling with BASIC 64. DEALER INQUIRIES INVITED
writing capabilities to all COMMODORE or Available December
ASCII printers D,SK $39 93
Available November


Abacus KB Software
P.O. BOX7211 GRAND RAPIDS, Ml49510
TEXTONIAT-64 This package is an introduction to ADA, the .S. DATA KCKER PuMkahara
This complete word processor displays BO official language ot the Department of For poalag* & handling, add $4.00 (U.S. and
columns using horizontal scrolling. In Defense and the programming language of Canada), add J6.00 to* foreign. Maka payment
memory editing up to 24.000 characters the future. Includes editor, syntax in U.S dollars by chack, monty orcur of
plus chaining of longer documents. checker/compiler and 110 page step by charg* card. (Michigan Ratidartt *dd 4%
sabs Im )
Complete text formatting, block operations, step manual describml the language.
form letters, on-screen prompting. Available November
Available November DISK S39.95 DISK S79.95
Commode* 04 n ■ rvg '»',,' CommodO't Bui *n Michim
User Group Update
Changes NM 87176. The new president is Susan Palmer.
A software exchange user group, American Pro The updated address for the Irving Com
gram Exchange 64 (A.P.E. 64), has been started in modore User Group is P.O. Box 165034, Irving, TX
California. For more information, write A.P.E., 75016. No phone calls, please.
James Wyatt, Executor, 3820 Brave Ave., Bakers- The Grey Locker User Group has a new name
field, CA 93309. and contact persons. Inquiries should be directed to
The Commodore 64 West users club of West Littieton C-64 Users Group, c/o either Jamie Silva,
Los Angeles and Santa Monica has a new address. 8 Richmond St., Littleton, NH 03561, or Tom
The club can be contacted at P.O. Box 406, Santa Walker, Mt. Eustis Rd., Littleton, NH 03561.
Monica, CA 90406-0406. The Merrick (NY) Commodore Club is no
The Suburban 64 Users Group, listed in the longer accepting mail or telephone calls.
August Gazette with a Massachusetts address, has The Commodore Users Group of Rochester
moved to Florida. It can now be reached care of (CUGOR) has a new mailing address: CUGOR,
Ken Partridge, 1360 SW 82nd Terrace, Apt #625, P.O. Box 26514, Rochester, NY 14626.
Plantation, FL 33324. The phone number is When writing to a user group for information,
(305)474-6923. please remember to include a self-addressed,
The Fox Valley PET Users Group, based in Illi
stamped envelope, Send additions, deletions,
nois, has a new name and address. Correspondence
and corrections for this list to:
to the Fox Valley Commodore Users Group should
be sent to Herb Gross, 833 Prospect, Elgin, IL COMPUTE! Publications
60120; the phone number is (312)695-1316. P.O. Box 5406
The New Mexico Commodore User's Group Greensboro, NC 27403
can be reached at P.O. Box 37127, Albuquerque, attnt Commodore User Groups

iNew Listlngsi
CALIFORNIA FLORIDA Chess Players' Commodore User Group
|ohn R. Menke
Pasadena Commodore Computer Club Lake Sumter Commodore Users Group 723 Barton Street
Ernie McDonald (L.S.C.U.G.) Mt. Vernon, IL 62861
P.O. Box 1163 Roger Coffey
Arcadia, CA 91006 P.O. Bos 416 Spud Users Group
(818)904-0607 Leesburg, FL 32748 P.O. Box 471
(904)343-2688 River Forest, IL 60305
Fresno Commodore Users Group BBS: (312)456-0395 or
Greg Edwards The Central Florida Commodore User's (312)344-SPUD
091 W. 9th, #203 Club, Inc.
Clovis, CA 93612 Thurman Law son INDIANA
P.O. Box 15949
San Bernardino Commodore 64 Club Fulton County Commodore User's Group
Orlando, I:L 32858
Carl Gardenss Brian Eshelman
1804 N. Dundee R.R. 1, Box 22
Highland, CA 92346 Rochester, IN 46975
(714)864-4498 (219)223-2672
CCC64UG or
Simply Users of Computers Combining
P.O. Box 842 Jim Tyler
Experience for Strength and Success
Morroe, GA 30260 1703 Madison Ave.
Rochester, IN 46975
Wayne Weichel Covington C-64 User Group
301 Veronica Drive Keith L. Brown
Paso Rubles, CA 93446 P.O. Box 642 IOWA
(805)238-6294 Oxford, CA 30267
Penn City User Group
COLORADO James A. Lair
Coeur d' Alene Computer Club R.R. 1, Box 390
Colorado Springs Computer Society Fort Madison, IA 52627
(CSCS) C Fifth (Commodore Chapter)
Michael V, Brazonis Gary Edwards
QTRS 5938-A 506 Lunceford Lane KENTUCKY
Coeur d' Alene, ID 83814
Colorado Springs, CO 80913 Glasgow Commodore User's Group
(303)576-4219 (208)765-3803
Steve England
Western Slope Commodore User Group ILLINOIS P.O. Box 154
c/o On Screen Computor Store Glasgow, KY 42141
East Side Computer Club
535 Main Streel
3103 Clay Streel MARYLAND
Grand Junction, CO 81501
Alton, II. 62002
(303)242-0083 Olney Square Commodore User Group
Gateway Computer Club
First State Commodore Club Richard Fisher 18629 Hedgegrove Terrace
P.O. Box 1313 P.O. Box 207 Olney, MD 20832
Dover, DE 19903 Belleville, IL 62222 (301)774-6051



Pioneer Valley VIC/64 Club Saturday Morning Users Group {S.M.U.G.)
Mickey Yale David Stages (512)937-5045, or
6 Laurel Terrace Jim O'Rear (512)854-4156
Westfield, MA 01085 1717 Graham St. Catharines C-64 Group
(413)562-1027 Corpus Christi, TX 78418 Wesley Schnrff
Commodore User's Group of Odessa 196 Scott #222
MICHIGAN St. Catharines
Downriver Commodore Group Charlotte Holley Ontario, Canada L2N 5T2
Ron Marshall 2904 N. Alleehaney (416)934-7250
17029 Keppen Odessa, TX 79764 Niagara Peninsula Commodore User
Allen Park, MI 48101 (915)332-2582 Group
The Users Joe Wiebe
Mid-Michigan Commodore Club Brad Lewis R.R. #3 Hast/West Line
Virgil Graham 209 Altavista Niagara-on-the-Lake
Clare, Ml 48617 Rockwall, TX 75087 Ontario, Canada LOS 1J0
(517)386-3429 (416)937-4828
Detroit Area Users' Croup Canadian Commodore 64 Users Group
Larry Huison Graham Bell
828 T-airwood VIRGINIA R.R. #4
Inkster, MI 48141 Niagara-on-the-Lake
(313)277-5557 Commodore 64 Computer Users Group of
Ontario, Canada LOS 1J0
Richmond, Virginia
MISSISSIPPI R.S. Armstrong, Jr. C-64 Users Group of Montreal
P.O. Box 9078 (C.U.G.O.M.t
Jackson Commodore Users Cioup
Richmond, VA 23225 Robert Adler
Mike Green
Snowdon P.O. Box 792
P.O. Box 55734
Jackson, MS 39216
Quebec, Canada H3X 3X9
(601)372-1866 (after 6 p.m.) WASHINGTON
MISSOURI Commodore Computing Exchange
Helsinki Area VIC User Group
Phillip King
Commodore Users Group of Warrensburg Ma Hi Aarnio
16821 1st Ave. S.E.
(CUGW) Linnustaianki 2B7
Bothell, WA 98012
Buck Sommerkamp SF-02940 t-SPOO
P.O. Box 893 C-64 & VIC-20 Club Finland I
Warrensburg, MO 64093 Rich Lars son
IHS division: Users
(816)747-2406 6462 N.E. 154th
contact: Massimiliano Lisa
Bothell, WA 98011
NEW JERSEY Via Borgonuovo 19
White River Commodore 64 User's Group Milano, Italy
METRO Commodore Dana L. Seaney
Matthew Staller Marlboro ugh Commodore Users Group
2649 Warner Ave. W. #69
567 Sanderling Court Robin Vercoe
Enumclaw, WA 98022
Harmon Cove, NJ 07094 42 Rogers Street
(201)867-5283 Blenheim
Whidbcy Island Commodore Computer Marlborough, New Zealand
Info-M Club
c/o Video Dynamics, Ltd. Commodore Users' of Panama
Michael D. Clark
16 W. Ridgewood Avc. (C.U.P.)
P.O. Box 1471
Raymond Dragseth
Ridgewood, NJ 07450 Oak Harbor, WA 98277
(201)447-4422 Box 1487
Balboa A neon,
NEW YORK Tri-Citics Commodore Computer Club Republic of Panama
CNY Commodore Users Group (TC-3) Phone: 60-4758
4187 Dumingtree Road Jack Garvin BBS: 82-3336
Liverpool, NY 13088 1926 Pine Street
Commodore Hardware Users Group-
Richland, WA 99352
(315)652-7491 Riyadh (CHUG-R)
Don W. Fry, Jr.
Commodore Computer Club of Toledo WISCONSIN Box 259
(CCCT) APO NY 09038
c/o President Beaver Dam Commodore Users Group
P.O. Box 8909 Rich Schneider
Toledo, OH 43623 Rte. 2, Box 231 Note; This user group is in Saudi
Columbus, WI 53925 Arabia. The above address should be
Janesville Area Commodore Users Group used by people with APO privileges, or
Duller Commodore 64 User Group Charles Williams
P.O. Box 2408
by U.S. user groups. Persons using
P.O. Box 1858
Butler, PA 16001 Janesville, Wl 53547
international or Saudi Arabian mail
should use the following address:
SOUTH CAROLINA Eond du Lac Area Commodore Users Club
Rock Hill Commodore User Group Dick Lendl
1504 5helley Court CHUG-R
Robbie Smarzik North Fond du Lac, Wl 54935 Don W. Fry, jr.
565 Sea leybark Circle USREP/JECOR-CENPRO B-259
P.O. Box 5927
Rock Hill, SC 29730
WYOMING Riyadh, Saudi Arabia 11432
ZYMEC Users Group
Tim Stmna Baden Computer Club
Commodore Computer Club Rte. 63, Bos 357 P.O. Box 1219
Marty Garner 11 Birchfield Lane C.F.P.O. 5056
P.O. Box 96 Lander, WY 82520 Belleville, Ontario
Estill Springs, TN 37330 (307)332-7653 Canada K0K 3R0 „.
{615)649-5962 (307)332-2151 (This dub is hi West German)/,) ™

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Tractor Friction Printer $169.00* SERVICE :: i PRICES • New Voice Synthesizer $59.00
14" Hi-Res Color Monitor $219.00* • Commodore 64 Power for
*less coupon discount Vic-20 $69.00
* COMMODORE 64 COMPUTER $188.00 Edsy to ub<- JustpJugnHoyosjr DxTirmxlorc 64 coirii>u(er
You pay only llfiS 00 when you order the power lul B4K We pack o SPECIAL SOFTWARE DISCOUNT anil you're ready to transmit and receive messages
COMMODORE 64 COMPUTED' LESS Hie value of the COUPON with every COMMODORE 64 Easier to use than rJjalniR your telephone lust Dush one
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