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The Summer Consumer Electronics Show

September 1984 e
Issue 15 Vol.2, No.9
02220 E1.95 UK $3.75 Canada

For Owners And Users Of Commodore VIC-20 And 64" Persona! Computers


80 Columns SpeedScript
For The 64 Customizer
Screen 80: Convert your Tailor your SpeedScript
64 into an 80-column, screen and printer output
machine. with this short, easy-to-use
Custom 80: Customize t program for the VIC and 64.
your own 80-column,:v
character set. ■■

Also In This Issue:

Computing Home
For Families Telecommunications:

Learning To Count
The Electronic Cafe
For VIC And 64 Animating The VIC

At Marple
Was it the cook? The
duchess? Was it done
with a knife? Or was it
poison? A whodunit text
adventure for one to six

Disk Tricks

An inside look at disk tracks and sectors,

71486 02220
includina four effective "how to" Droarams.
DELTA DRAWING." Have fun creating pictures and computer
programs. Ages 4-Adult.

Kids love to draw. theirdrawings. they're

And DELTA DRAWING actually writing com
Learning Program lets puter programs!
them enjoy creative With DELTA DRAWING.
drawing and coloring even kids who have never
while they learn used a computer before
computer program can learn to do simple
ming concepts. As programming and build
they use simple commands an understanding of procedural think
to put lines and colors in ing. It's easy, clear, and lots of funl

A trip through ALPHABET ZOOi" Ages 3-8

chase. It's Alphabet j B ing the relation-

screen, laughing and learning at

And at the same time, your every turn.

The story of STORY MACHINE.™ Ages S to 9.

STORY MACHINE is like plete with full color

a storybook come to graphics and sound.
life. Using the key STORY MACHINE
board, your children helps your children learn
write their own fun to write correctly,
Little stories. The become familiar with
computer then the keyboard, and lets
takes what they've them have fun exer
written and animates their cising their creativity at the
story on the screen, com same time.

We make learning fun.

Watching your kids grow up is a lot of fun. But improve your child's writing and reading abilities.
making sure their minds grow as fast as their And all of them help your child understand how to
bodies is even more rewarding. That's where we use the computer.
can help. With a growing line of Early Learning So if you're looking for computer programs that
Programs that are not only lots of fun to play, but do more than just "babysit" for your kids, read on.
also educational. You'll find that our Early Learning Programs are not
Some of the games you see on these two pages only compatible with Apple.' Atari; IBM' PC and
help exercise your child's creativity. Others help PCjr, ColecoVision and Commodore 64 " computers,
improve vocabulary and spelling skills. While others but also with kids who like to have fun.

FRACTION FEVER™ brings fractions into play.

Ages 7 to Adult.


paced arcade game that
challenges a child's under
standing of fractions. As kids
race across the screen in search
of the assigned fraction,
they're actually developing a
basic understanding of what
a fraction is and of relationships between fractions.
They're even discovering that the same fraction may be
written in a number of different ways.
All in all. FRACTION FEVER encourages kids to learn
as much as they can about fractions -just for the
fun of it!

e r^m^EOrrar)^nJrwoH4piilL'CorripiJ'JiL 'tit.Int' Bj Corp »

RHYMES&RIDDLES1" come to life.Ages 5 to 9.

RHYMES & RIDDLES and colorful pictures.

will delight your child And RHYMES&RIDDLES
ren. Because when not only teaches children
they successfully com the correct lyrics to nursery
plete the rhymes, mymesand famous sayings,
riddles, and famous it also helps kids learn to
sayings on the read and spell while ttiey're
screen .they'll see having fun! That's why
them come to life-with music parents like RHYMES & RIDDLES, tool

KINDERCOMP!" Numbers, shapes, letters, words and

drawings make fun. Ages 3 to 8.

KINDERCOMPis ful rewards, as the

a game that allows screen comes to
very young children life when correct
to start learning on answers are
the computer. Its a given.
collection of learning As a parent
exercises that ask you can enjoy
your children to match the fact that
shapes and letters, write their your children are having
names, draw pictures, or fill in fun while improving their
missing numbers. And KINDER- reading readiness and
COMP will delight kids with color counting skills.

FACEMAKER™ makes faces fun. Ages 4 to 12.

FACEMAKER lets chil Plus. FACEMAKER helps

dren create their own children become com
funny faces on the fortable with computer
screen. Once a face is fundamentals such as:
completed, your menus, cursors, the
children will giggle return key. the space bar,
with delight as they simple programs, and
make it do all kinds graphics. FACEMAKER
of neat things: wink, smile, won't make parents frown because
wiggle its ears, or whatever their children will have fun making
their imagination desires. friends with the computer.

t igftl.Stunnjkcf So'dva

We make learning fun.

**^ The Home
Productivity Series
The'llbme Accountant" The Tax Advantage"1
WithThe Home Productivity Series,
I saved money on our taxes,
figured out our net worth,
cataloged my wine collection,
sent out 253 Christmas cards,
and taught our kids to type.
Think of The Home Productivity Series us your FCM1" Learn To Type™
persona! survival kit. !i will make your computer
FCM is more than just the best mailing list program If you don't learn to type, you'll be lefi behind
an indispensable tool and open up a whole new
you can buy. It's the most versatile. by the computer revolution. But if your children
world for you and your family,
Because FCM is so flexible, you can create your ne;er learn, the consequences will be worse.
The Home Accountant'" own mailing labels and customize them to look When we developed !.earn To Type, we made it
the way you want Vou can even add a special as easy and unintimidating as possible In fact, the
Do you ever wonder why your paycheck never message line that says "Merry Christinas" for your beginning section of Learn To Type assumes you've
seems to last as long as ii should? Or why you're
Christmas card mailing. FCM can also print the never touched a keyboard before.
never able to save as much as youd like—even
address and message right on your envelope, The program uses prompts to help you, and
though you earn good money? FCM works with many popular word process has a drill and practice section that rates you on
Its lough to keep track of each dollar, Hut unless
ing programs, so you can automatically combine words pur minute, telling you which fingers are
you do. you'll never be able to gain control of
form letters with your mailing list, Its ideal for use slow and which are fast, You can even test your
your finances and get ahead.
In business as well as at home. progress with the fun to play game, Eraser Man!"
The Home Accountant. #1 bestselling home
FCM is a great organizer and is super for remem Kids love It!
finance package, is the best way there is to Plus you've got a choice of the keyboard layout
bering things. For instance, if you are planning a
organize and maintain your financial records.
wedding nr party, FCM will send out the invitations, you want to learn to type from—DVORAK or
Because il keeps tabs on every penny you spend
record the RSYi's. arrange the seating, let you know QWERTY.
and earn, you'll always know where you stand. whose gift you received and allow you to check Don't be left behind. Get Learn To Type.
The Home Accountant flags transactions for
off thank you notes FCM is great to have around.
tax time, prints net worth and financial state Price: S 39-95
ments, handles multiple credit cards and checking Price: from S49.95'
accounts and has up to 20(1* budget categories, Stop by your nearest dealer and ask about The
In fact, The Home Accountant has helped over Home Productivity Series. It's a must for computer
3(>0.()()() people master their finances and make The Home Cataloged" age survival,
their lives easier. If you have a hard time getting organized, it's time
Available for: Apple, IBM, Atari and Commo
Price: from S74.95* to check out The Home Cataloger. It'll keep track
dore computers. For other versions, check with
of everything you own like books, wine collec
your dealer or Arrays, Inc./Continental Software.
The Tax Advantage1" tions, household inventories and video cassette/
tape collections, to name a few.
Do you dread doing your taxes? Vou don't have to For more information and a free product
Because its such a flexible and easy to use brochure for The Home Productivity Series,
The Tax Advantage, another bestseller from The program, The Home Cataloger is a terrific way to call or write:
Home Productivity Series, makes doing your taxes teach your children how to look after their
belongings—while they learn how to use the
a cinch. Even if you've never done your taxes by
Arrays, Inc./
yourself or used a computer before
As an added plus. The Tax Advantage works
To help you out. The Home Cataloger comes Continental
with 10 midy-touse cataloging formats for some
with The Home Accountant. So if you're been using Software
Tlie Home Accountant year round, you can auto of the most common uses: telephone list, inven
tor)', travel plans, restaurants; insurance policies,
matically transfer your records to The Tax Advan Arrays, Inc./Coniinental Software
tage and polish off your lax return in no time. coins, growth (height and weight), running,
Dept. GAZ
studies, and book list. If you want additional
The Tax Advantage takes you line by line ]\11$ S. Ilindry Avenue
through the !04U and other commonly used tax categories, |usl add them on.
Los Angeles, CA 90045
forms. Not only does the program explain every The Home Cataloger. It's the best way to
line, it automatically computes your taxes with organize your whole house.
each entry you make. So you can see how each Price: from S499V The Hen* Prndinimiy for in Tht Hnm« Accoununi, Thr Ta» Advi
ftH.Trw Horns Cjiilrj(*rrLcifiiflj Type and Eriwi Mui arc frj
line affects your overall picture, The Tax Advan tritltmirki ifMrfJvi Iru1 .fon[jrifnlilSvifi»ire Appk JBM, Atari.
tage also does income averaging with a few simple rrRiurrrd i-jJ. ■. -r. ■ -. '^,:i.. I. ■ ■:' ^pplc Computtr. Inc .
■depending on hufftrare p. Aim Iik iJn ufWu-ntiCoiEirnunifaiinujJm , C^mmndofr
commands Michinr^ In,

Price: S69.95
ancing a Fine Line Between Innovative Game and Educational Tool

Bumblebee environment. That's what we call Concept Education.

Bart the Bee will demystify the programming process and teach your kids
i- i ■|-U'.lvi"i"iTy"t-i-""r-T
basic concepts without complex computer language. The player controls
Bar! by giving him instructions on how to move from flower to flower,
picking up "pollen poinis." Barfs flight pattern must be carefully designed
ri i "" ■ ' rn1 to avoid bumping into walls or becoming an unfortunate meal for Olga
the Spider or Phineas the Frog.

Bumblebee requires logical "if-then" thinking. Your child is rewarded for

accuracy and expediency and challenged by increasing levels of difficulty.

We call it concept education. Your kids will call it fun.

(■or Commudoir bi", IBM PCT" and IHM PC]!1", tnd Apple"1

'Commodore 64' 11 g trademark of Commodore Elttimnict. Lid "IBM PC and IBM PCji" otc <raijTmnrk> al IHM Iik I98J ClMIIV* Solltjic
"Anplf" Is p trodhtnnrk ol Apfilr Cornptrr***, Inc.
September 1984 Vol. 2, No. 9

Summer Consumer Electronics Show Lance Elko 16
Inside View: The Designers Behind Movie Maker Kathy Yakal 40
80 Columns For The 64 Gregg Peetc And Kevin Martin 48 64
SpeedScript Customizer J. Blake Lambert 54 V/64

Three Arcade Games For The VIC-20 Steve Hudson 62 V
CodePro-64 Todd Heimarck 68 64

Mystery At Marple Manor John R. Prager 104 V/64
Treasure Hunt Calvin Overhulser 110 V/64

Computing For Families: Micro Worlds For Young Children Fred D'lgnazio 72
Learning To Count Wiliiam W, Braun 80 V/64

Beginner's Corner: A Simplified Inventory C. Regena 112 V/64
Machine Language For Beginners: First Questions Richard Mansfield 122 V/64
Hints & Tips: IF-THEN, Logic, And Flags John Michael Lane 124 V/64
Disk Tricks Gerald E. Sanders 126 V/64
Animating The VIC Mite Scharland 135 V
Power BASIC: Screen Headliner Todd Heimarck 136 V/64
Cursor GET For VIC And 64 David Mills 143 V/64

Editor's Notes Robert Lock 6
Gazette Feedback Editors & Readers 10
Simple Answers To Common Questions Tom R. Halfhill 82
Home Telecommunications: The Electronic Cafe Robert Sims 117
User Group Update 119
VICreations: Simulating Hi-Res Animation Dan Carmichael 133 V
Horizons 64 Charles Brannon 140 64

A Beginner's Guide To Typing In Programs 108 ■
How To Type In COMPUTERS GAZETTE Programs 109 *
MLX: Machine Language Entry Program 145 64
The Automatic Proofreader 146 V/64
Program Listings 147 V/64

Product Mart 172 *

Advertisers Index 176 *

" = General, V=VIC-20. 64-Commodore 64.

CQMPWWs GAZETTE bfHMtohed monthly by COMPVtB Publications. Inc.. Posl Office Box 5406, ClreeiuboiD, NC"274<nuSA. Phons (919)275-98119. Editorial
offices are Itxutedai 324 West Wendovcr Avenue, GrcenBbom, NC 27406. Dumefltc subacrlpltona; Uissm^, S2U. s^ul stiWrapikirMink'r^ m ch-m^y of address
(P.O. Kjim3579)ttClmihllonDepl. ("OMI'IHI.'- GAZinL. P.O.Bai961, Famitngdaie. NY 11717 SeconddanjppIlcatlonpendinitalCreenaiGoRt, NC
;7J03.Kid nuiling officei Enllrc content* cnpyrighi ' l*n hyCOMPUIEl PubiknUoru, Inc. All rights reserved IS5NH7.17-.17I6. SXSfi\
i'liWititiiin., Inc., OntM Ilir Aid I'uMl.hing Cainpinin: ,\H( Tuhli-Sin,;. PnddtBt, Hut.i-M G Burton; 1.130 Avenue ill Ihv Ani.-mj.; Nmt Votk NuwVOl* 11*11*

It doesn't seem that long ago that he beat down to afford- Jack Tramiel the central nervous
that we were writing a farewell a&ility. It's an interesting world. system of his philosophy of ver
editorial to Commodore founder One suspects that Mr. Tramiel— tical integration. Over the years,
Jack Tramiel as he left Commo always the fiercest of competi his only competitor with the
dore amid speculation of a rift tors—may take some personal same capability for inhouse chip
that farced his departure. Offi satisfaction in taking on his for manufacturing was TI, and they
cial word at the time was that mer namesake, Commodore, never quite mastered the art the
he wanted to withdraw from the and those who implicitly or ex way Jack did. We would suggest
field and travel the world. plicitly helped prod him out. that the ownership of MOS was
Right. As we are all now aware, crucial to his continued success
What Happens Now?
Mr. Tramiel has completed ne by providing the controllable
We expect there will be some
gotiations with Warner Commu foundation for aggressive devel
senior level personnel changes
nications to purchase their opment and price control.
at Atari. This has, in the past,
struggling Atari computer opera To this extent, the Atari ac
been a significant "touch" of
tion. What does this mean for quisition suffers, but we expect
Jack's. We expect to see, in a
the industry in months ahead? it won't be fatal. Within the
matter of weeks or months, a
traces of microcomputerdom,
Ups And Downs gathering cloud of activity at
Jack Tramiel is a skilled street
Jack Tramiel has unequivocally Atari. A bit of price cutting per
fighter, and we suspect that,
demonstrated his ability to un haps? A hint of a new machine
before the dust settles, an
derstand, react, and even drive or two? Time will tell. Caution emerging Atari will return with
this market. He brought us, over will have to be invoked some
vigor and vengeance.
the years, the first fully self- where along the line here, be
contained {single package) home cause, at least for now, there's a
computer. And, across those critical variable missing. A ma
same years, as price points were jor factor in Commodore's suc
successively broken down from cess, and a key to Mr. Tramiel's
the high hundreds of dollars to ability to make the kinds of
Editor In Chief
the high tens of dollars, his ag competition-crushing moves
gressive leadership and product that gave him market leadership
introductions gradually broke in the past, was what used to be
down the industry as well. The a small, independent company
roster of casualties ranged from named MOS Technology.
Texas Instruments to a signifi Commodore, aka Jack
cantly weakened Atari—which Tramiel, acquired MOS Tech
moved from reliably delivering nology back in the seventies in
millions in profit for parent a stroke that eventually made
Warner to millions in losses to them what they are today.
parent Warner. Among other things, MOS
In what must provoke a brought us the 6502 micro
sense of Alice staring through processor (long the heart of
the looking glass, we now have PETs, Apples, Ataris, etc.). And,
Mr. Tramiel buying, for what more importantly, it brought
really amounts to promises of
things to come (e.g., massive
debt restructuring), a company

B COMPUTE!"s Gazelle September 1984


'.'--. m

Real baseball is an opponent or the computer. Two modes

more than just hitting, let you choose between managing and
pitching and fielding. It's controlling your team or managing only.
also your favorite major The World's Greatest Baseball Game-
league teams, the great everything you could ever want except
_ stars of today and the the hot dogs and peanuts.
Allstars of yesteryear. It's statistics and One or two players; joystick controlled.
coaching, and it's managing your own game
strategy. With the World's Greatest Baseball
Game, you have it all. Pick your major league
line-up using the actual player and team ...,■■-;--." '.i :■

stats. Then watch the action unfold against Strategy Games for the Action-Game Player
COMPUTE! PublicationsJnc. a?
Jules n. Thompson, Inc.
National and Canadian Sales Representatives
One of Iho »«; ruolishlng Comixmw 1290 Howard Avenue, Suite 303
Burlingame, CA 94010
Address all advertising materials to:
Patti Williams, COMI'tlTE's GAZETTE
Publisher Gary R. Ingivsoll 324 West Wendover Ave., Suite 200, Greensboro, NC 27408
Editor in Chief Robert C. Lock Sales Offices, The Thompson Company
Director or Administration Alice S. Wolfe New England 617-720-1888
Senior Editor -uhard Mansfield Mid-Atlantic 212-772-0933
Managing Editor Kathleen Martinet Southeast 919-275-9809
Editor Lance BUco Midwest 312-726-6047
Assistant Editor Todd ;.irck Texas 713-731-2605
Northwest 408-354-5553
Production Director Tonv Roberts
Northern CA 415-348-8222 or 40S-354-5553
Editors Southern CA 619-941-2313 or 213-378-8361
Tom R. Halfrnll, PC and PCjr Kditor; Stephen Levy, Editor, Nevada, Arizona 619-941-2313
COMPUTE:! Books Division; Gail Walker, Production Editor; Ottis R. New Mexico 213-378-8361
Cowper, Technical Editor; Charles Brannun, Program Editor; Selby Colorado 303-595-9299
Baleman. IVatures Editor
COMPUTE! Puhlii-.ition\ In.., publishes
Assistant Editors
Dan Carmirhael (Submissions); Gregg Kei/er, Sieve Hudson (Books]; COMPUTE! COMPUTE! Books COMPUTE!1* GAZETTE
John Krause, George Miller (Technical); Robert Sims. J. Blake Lambert, COMPUTEI's PC * PCjr Magazine
Robert Alonso (Publications); Kathy Yakal, Editorial Assistant, Sharon
Darling, Research Assistant [Features), Randall Fosner, Assistant Corporate Office:
324 West Wendover Ave., Suite 200, Greensboro, NC 27408
Managing Editor (Rooks)
Editorial Programmers Mailing Address:
Patrick Parrisli (Supervisor), Gregg i'eelc (Assistant), Jeff H.imd.ini, Post Office BOX 5406, Greensboro, NC 27403
Tim Victor, Kevin Martin, Chris Poer, Kevin Mykytyn Distribution Center
Programming Assistants 505 Edwardia Drive, Greensboro, NC 27409
Mark Tuttle, David Horance
Telephone: 919-275-9809
Copy Editors Office Hours: 8:30 AM to 4:30 PM Monday-Friday
Juanita Lewis, Joan Rouleau, Ann Davies
Proofreaders Chief Executive Officer Robert C. Lock
Ethe! Silver, Dwight Smith, Karen Uhlendorf, Marty Selby
President Gary R. Ingersoll
Administrative Staff
Vice President, Finance & Planning Paul J, Megllola
Vicki Jennings, Laura MacFadderv Julia Fleming, Susan Young,
Executive Assistant Debi Nash
Iris Brooks, Jan Kretloiv
Assistant Cassandra Robinson
Irma Swain, Production Manager; lanice I'ary, Art & Design Director, Subscription Information
Lee Noel, Assistant Editor, Art & Design; De Potter, Mechanical Art
Supervisor; Terry Cash, Carole Dunton, Typesetting
P.O. Box 5406, Greensboro, NC 27403
Leslie Jessup, (Publications), Debbie Bray (Books); Harry Blair,
Illustrator TOLL FREE
Subscription Order Line
Associate Editors
|im Butlerfield (Toronto), Harvey Herman (Greensboro), 800-334-0868
In HC 919-2T5-S8O9
Ercd D'lgnazio (Roanoke)

Operations/Customer Service COMPUTERS GAZETTE

Pattv Jones, Subscriber Services Supervisor; Assistants: Chris Party, Subscription Rates
Chris Gordon, Sharon Sebastian, Rosemarie Davis; Fran Lyons,
Dealer Sales Supervisor; Assistants; Gail |ones, Sharon Minor, (12 Issue Year): US (one year) S24. Canada, Mexico and
Rhonda Savage Foreign Surface Mail $30. Foreign Air Mail S45.
Customer Service Staff
Dorothy Bogan, Supervisor; Judy Taylor, Anita Roop, Debi Goforth, The COMHJTE!1* GAZETTE subscriber list is made available lo carefully
Jenna Nash, Hli/abeth White, Mary Hunt, Gayle flenbovv, Betty screened organizations wilh a product or service which may be of
Atkins, Saudi Jenkins; Jim Coward (Warehouse Manager), Larrv interesl lo our readers. If you prefer not to receive such mailings,
O'Connor, Dai Recs, Jack McConnell, Hric Staley, Eddie Rice, Sam please send an exact copy of your subscription label to: computers
Parker, David Hensley, John Archibald; Mary Spragvie, Mail Room gazette, P.O. Box 961, Varmingdale. NY 11737. Include a note in
Coordinator dicating your preference to receive only your subscription.

Data Processing Authors of manuscripts warrant that nil materials submilted to

Leon Stokes, Manager; Chris Cain, Assistant COMPUTE!1! GAZBTTB are original materials with full ownership rights
resident in said authors. Ity Submitting articles to COMPUTE!1! gazette,
authors acknowledge such materials, upon acceptance for
Paul |. MegUola, VP, Finance & Planning; R. Steven Vetter, Director,
publication, become the exclusive property of COMPUTE! Publications,
Finance & Planning! Robert Moan, General Accountant; Karen K,
Rogalski, Financial Analyst; Staff: Sybil Agee, Susan Booth, Anne
inc. No portion of this magazine may be reproduced in any form
without written permission from the publisher. Entire contents copy
Ferguson, Pat Fuller, Doris Hall, Anna Harris, Tracey Hutchins, Jill
right ffl 1984, COMPUTEI Publications, Inc. Rights to programs devel
Pope, Shannon Roesler
oped and submitted by authors are explained in our author contract.
Unsolicited materials not accepted for publication will be returned if
David F. Carpenter, Credit Manager; l.inda Miller, Credit Analyst
author provides a self-addressed, stamped envelope. Where programs
Purchasing are included in an article submission, a tape or disk must accompany
Gregory L Smith, Purchasing Manager the submission. Printed listings are optional, but helpful. Articles
Promotion should be furnished as typed copy (upper and lowercase, please)
Mindy K. KutCnSl. Promotion Manager with double spacing. Uach article page should bear the title of Ihe
article, date, and name of the author. COMPUTE! Publications, Inc.,
Advertising Sales
assumes no liability for errors in articles or advertisements. Opinions
Ken Woodard, Director of Advertising Sales; Bonnie Valentino, Assis
tant Advertising Manager; Patti Williams, Production Coordinator; expressed by authors are not necessarily those of COMPUTE Publica
Joyce Margo, Production Assistant tions, Inc.
Sales Representatives PET, CBM, V1C-20, and Commodore 64 are trademarks of Commo
lerrv Thompson ■115-348-8222 dore Business Machines, Inc., and/or Commodore Electronics Limited.
Phoebe Thompson 408-354-5553 Other than as an independent supplier of quality information and
[oAnn Sullivan 619-941-2313 services to owners and users of Commodore products, COMPUTE!
Bd Winchell 213-378-8361 Publications, Inc., is in no way associated with Commodore Business
Harrv Blair 919-275-9809 Machines, Inc., or any of its subsidiaries.
Tee off with
Tournament QOLF
Loaded with excitement from the amateur to
levels. Tournament Golf features two connpletjs- hole
courses plus all the challenges-and frustratrons the
sport of golf.
From the wind factors on the fairways break
of the greens to the woods, roughs, and v/ater ards,
Tournament Golf is a game that comt gy.
skill, and a little luck.
Playing alone or with up to three ot^er_orjpSijients
you'll choose from 14 different clubs ii troll ing
your drives, hooks and slices - or wh/ffs an.d ,ubs.
You'll master putting technique and
shots from the fringe of the green.
No matter rain or shine, you'll jLBtLT(JXm&aiTicnt
Golf realistic and competitive. R^quiring^fh/hand-eye
coordination and skill of an advanced fliicnocomputer
game combined with (he strategyafTdTlension of golf.
Tournament Golf will scone a hoie-intone with you and
continue to entertain and diaUerrge^lonk after you
graduate from amateur

Features include:

I Two graphic displays

■ Choice of 14 different clubs
1 Computer-updated Scorecard
I Driving Range
u Pulling Green
■42 18-Hole Golf Courses
1 Additional Courses
[Pebble Beach & the Masters)
available @ $20 each
Tournament Golf is ready to run on your Apple IIs (48KJ or
Commodore 64^ computer with disk drive and joystick.
Available for S30 at leading computer and game stores
everywhere, or call toll-free 1 (800) 638-9292 for more
information. Ask for Operator G.
"'tr...!>■ iri.11i.-. ..r Ini »nd( iimi

rk ..I Turn- In

m microcomputer games
A Division of The Avalon Hill Game Company
4517 Harford Road • Baltimore. Maryland 21214 • (301)254-9200
Editors And Readers

Do you have a question or a problem? Have Elusive MPS-801 Printer

you discovered something that could help other
VIC-20 and Commodore 64 users? Do you have
a comment about something you've read in As a recent purchaser of a Commodore MPS-801
computed GAZETTE? We want to hear from you. printer, I've found that replacement ribbons are
Write to Gazette Feedback, computers GAZETTE, very hard to find.
P.O. Box 5406, Greensboro, NC 27403. For interested readers, I suggest using ribbon
cartridges for the Radio Shack DMP-110 Printer,
part number 26-1283 from Radio Shack. This rib
bon is an identical replacement.
More On Disk Saves
George J. Manning
In our July Feedback column ("'Incomplete Disk
Saves"), we reported that use of the VALIDATE Thanks for the tip. We purchased one of these rib
command will purge relative files. However, after bons and it seems to work well with the MPS-801.
several tests, we found that this command does not We continue to receive many letters about the
seem to adversely affect relative files. It appears availability of MPS-801 replacement ribbons. Our
that disks containing relative files can be validated; readers can surely use this information.
it is only random files that are purged.
Machine Language POKEs
Read Only Memory I am just starting to program in machine lan
I own a Commodore 64, and I have two friends guage. I would like to know the machine lan
who own VICs. We would like to know if we can guage equivalent of the BASIC POKE statement.
get into ROM and read the Read Only Memory. Jeff Schiller
R.K.C The machine language equivalents of the BASIC
Read Only Memory (ROM) is just what the name POKE are the store instructions (STA, STX, and
implies—memory that can be read (PEEKed) but not STY). These will store (copy) the contents of the
written to (POKEd). ROM is used by the computer; accumulator (STA) or the X or Y registers (STX,
the operating system is a good example of this. STY) into the memory location you specify.
BASIC ROM (locations 49152-57343 in the VIC, The general format for these instructions is:
and 40960-49151 in the 64) and Kernal ROM (loca Sir Saddress (where r is the register, and Saddress
tions 57344-65535 in both) contain the programs is the address in hex to be POKEd).
which control BASIC and the other functions of the For example, STA $C000 would store the cur
computer. rent contents of the accumulator into location
Because these two blocks of memory are so im SC000 (decimal 49152), and STX $00 would store
portant to the operation of the computer, they were the contents of the X register into memory location
designed so that you can't POKE new values there. zero.

Altering the contents of these locations would inter You could simulate the BASIC statement POKE
fere with, or temporarily stop, the normal operation 53281,1 (which will set the Commodore 64's screen
of the computer. background to white) with:
As the name implies, there is nothing to stop LDA #$01
you from reading the contents of ROM. Remember, STA SD021

however, that the ROMs contain only machine lan In addition to absolute stores, there are a vari
guage. You can't LIST the contents as you would a ety of ways to use an index. For example, if the X
BASIC program. You could use a disassembler pro register contains a three, STA SCOOO.x puts the
gram to make the machine language easier to inter number in the accumulator into SC003. By changing
pret, but you will understand little of what you see the value of X, you can create the machine language
unless you are familiar with ML. equivalent of a FOR-NEXT loop.
ID COMPUTE'S Gazette September 1984
Home Organizer1


an address or
keep track of your record and book libraries—with first-class software specially tailored
for the home environment.

The Home Organizer™ series includes a wide range of separate and individual programs for
different activities like stamp collecting, personal banking, or home photo and movie
collections, Each one is pre-programmed with a "page" format planned out by experts to
make it easy for you to store and retrieve the information you'll want for your special activity.
You don't have to program anything yourself. Just load the disk and start feeding in your data.

If you're used to run-of-the-mill home computer software, the speed and simplicity of the
Home Organizer™ series will surprise you. Each program is written entirely in "machine
language", the most basic computer code. So they search, sort and analyze your data with
amazing speed.

The Home Organizer'" is fast enough to sort through your household belongings in
seconds, yet so simple the children can use it to look up a phone number. Choose any or all
program modules that fit your needs. They make ideal gifts, too!

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PEEKing Time Unplug the power cord from the wall and open
the disk drive following the instructions in the
I own a Commodore 64, and I am just starting to
user's manual. On the older (white case) model
learn machine language. I have a question about
1541s, the jumpers are found on the left edge of the
the time (TI$) function. What location in memory
circuit board, just behind the long plugs with wires.
do you look at to get the current value for the
On the newer (tan case) model 1541s, they arc found
TI$ function?
near the center of the circuit board, toward the
Corey McKinnon front. On both models, jumper 1 is nearest the front.

BASIC'S time variables (71$ and TI) return the cur

rent value of a built-in interval timer: PRINT TI re
turns a numeric value showing the current timer
count in increments called jiffies, where one jiffy is
1/60 second. Thus, to display the contents of the
timer as seconds, you would ti/pe PRINT 71/60.
PRINT 775 returns the value of TI translated
into a string of characters representing the time in
hours, minutes, and seconds.
The interval timer is found at memory loca
tions 160-162 (hex addresses SA0-SA2) in both the
VIC and 64. Location 160 licks once every 1092 sec
onds (65536 jiffies), location 161 ticks every 4.26
seconds (256 jiffies), and 162 ticks every jiffy (sixty
times a second). BASIC determines the value of Tl
by performing the equivalent of:

It then determines the value of TI$ from the value

of 71, so there are no locations which actually hold On the newer models, they can be found in the middle
the current value of TIS. That is, there are no loca toward the front.
tions in the computer holding the time in hours-
minutes-seconds format.
You can read the clock from machine language
simply by examining the contents of locations
160-162. You can also use the built-in Kernal ROM
routines RDTIM (SFFDE) to read the clock or
SETTIM (SFFDB) to set it. See the VIC or 64 Pro
grammer's Reference Guide for more details. How
ever, in either case, you will have to do some
manipulating if you want the time in seconds in
stead of jiffies.
You should be aware that the clock stops run
ning during tape SAVEs and LOADs. If you set the
clock and then perform one of these tape operations,
the time value will be incorrect.

Disk Drive Device Number

I have two 1541 disk drives and want to change
the address of one of them via the hardware
On the older 1541, the jumpers are on the left edge, to
method. I followed the instructions in the
the rear.
owner's manual, but can't tell which wires are
the jumpers in question. Please help.
Nolan L. Green Changing the device numbers is accomplished by
The instruction manual's reference to jumpers might taking a sharp, pointed object and scratching away
be misleading. The "jumpers" are actually two the thin strand of solder connecting the two halves
round disks of solder, each about 1/4 inch in diam on one or both of the jumpers. Do this very care
eter. Each disk is separated into halves, with a thin fully so as not to damage the circuit board or any
strand of solder connecting each half. other components.
12 COMPUTE'S Gazorro September 19fM

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Here's a chart showing which device numbers Changing the disk drive device numbers via the
are produced when the jumpers are cut: hardware method is permanent unless you're handy
JUMPER CUT NEW DEVICE NUMBER with a soldering iron. So don't do so unless you
None 6 have to. If you're unsure about exactly what you're
1 9 doing, have your local Commodore dealer do the
2 10 modifications for you. Iff
1 and 2 11

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Is your Commodore 64™ Disk Drive, Printer, Memory,
Joystick, Monitor and Sound Chip operating correctly? You
may never know Eor sure. Mr Tester is a complete diagnostic
that tests:

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2.) Continuous or standard comprehensive memory test.
3.) Commodore" SID chip test for sound analysis.
4.) Screen alignment and color test.
5.) Complete read/write Disk Track and Block Test.
fa.) Diskette format analysis to check Floppy*.
7.] Complete printer test.
a.) Complete keyboard test.
9.) Cassette read/write test.

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Stock Analyzer is the advantage you need
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For Commodore 64
The Summer Consumer Electronics Show:

For The
Lance Elko, Editor

The feast is on for owners VIC-20 owners. Commodore

of the Commodore 64. Nearly 100,000 eager people says it stopped manufacturing
The Summer Consumer crowded Chicago's McCor- VICs in the Spring, and that
Electronics Show (CES) mick Place at the Summer leftover inventories probably
held this June in Chicago intro CES to see what's new in would be sold by Fall. VIC users
duced a spread of new software computers and audio and will have to be satisfied with
and hardware that will delight video electronics. For Com software that's already available,
(and perhaps bewilder) 64 modore 64 owners, there's a write their own programs, or
owners. lot of good news. Not so for buy another computer. A few
This new wealth of choice VIC owners. Here's a sum new products were announced
is a testament to the growth of a mary of new products and for the VIC at CES, but you
computer regarded by some in trends, and what to look for could count them on one hand.
dustry experts as a toy. "People in the months ahead. According to one Commodore
have equated low cost with low representative, VIC sales in the
quality," says Neil Harris, U.S. had been dropping dra
Commodore's new product de popularity continued to grow matically, while the 64 grew to
sign manager. But the success of into the new year, more and dominate the low-end market.
the 64 has surprised even better software entered the mar Commodore presented two
Commodore. ket. Innovative design and pro new computers at CES; the
What worked against the 64 gramming, exploiting all the Commodore Plus/4, originally
in its early days was the lack of 64's features, translated into introduced as the Commodore
software—not a problem with hotter competition for the con 264 at the January CES, and the
some other home computers, sumer's software dollar. And Commodore 16, a scaled-down
such as the Apple. But the 64 this culminated at CES in a co version of the Plus/4. Plans for
outlived a year of software fam lossal smorgasbord of new the 364, also announced in Jan
ine. By Christmas of 1983, con products. uary, have been shelved.
sumers had a fair choice of a lot Although 64 owners now The Plus/4 is an interesting
of average programs and a few have a bigger and better menu, machine and somewhat of a de
really good ones. As the 64's the news was not so bright for parture for Commodore. Named
16 COMPUTErs Gazelle September 1984
so you can display graphs from
calculations performed with the

Although some people feared

the Plus/4 would replace
the 64, Commodore contends
the new machine is aimed at a
different audience—those whose
primary needs are for business
applications. The Plus/4, how
ever, contains a few of the fea
tures of the 64: eight function
keys, the keyboard graphics
character set, and a 320 X 200
pixel high-resolution graphics
Commodore's new Plus/4 is aimed at the more applications-oriented user.
screen. What's different is a new
BASIC (known as 3.5) which
adds new commands (75 in all),
including 11 graphics com
mands similar to those available
with Simon's BASIC and the 64
Super Expander. It has 64K of
memory, with 60K of that avail
able for BASIC programming.
Like the Commodore 64, the
Plus/4 has 16 colors, but each
one now has eight luminance
levels for a total of 128 separate
hues. Screen windowing ca
pability and a 12-command ma
chine language monitor are also
The keyboard has a differ
77te Commodore 16 hopes to pick up the low-end market where the VIC
left off. ent look and feel from the 64.
The function keys, one of which
is labeled HELP, are placed hor
for its four built-in programs—a games," explains Harris. The izontally above the keyboard.
data base manager, spreadsheet, built-in software, originally Four separate arrow-shaped
word processor, and business titled 3 + 1 and designed by cursor keys should eliminate the
graphics package—the Plus/4 Tri-Micro, is integrated so that tedium of SHIFTing when
has been dubbed "the pro you can use File Manager (the editing on the screen. A second
ductivity machine." data base manager) or the CONTROL key is in place of
"Some people want practi spreadsheet with the word pro the RESTORE'key found on the
cal applications and less fun and cessor. And Graphics is designed 64, and an ESCAPE key has

COMPUTE!? Gazelle September 1984 17



- i

' ....


You leave the sun behind as you lower yourself You Iiave heard Ihe elder speak of one central You strap on your helicopter prop-pack, check
down into the unexplored caverns beneath source and a maze ofunconnected grey paths. your laser helmet and dynamite .The re's no
the Peruvianjungle. Deeper and deeper you go. As you connect each grey path to the central predicting what you'll have to go through to
Past Amazon frogs, condors,and attacking source, what was grey becomes the green of get to the trapped miners. Blocked shafts,
bats. Across eel-infested underground riveis. life.When all are connected, then you have molten lava, animals, insects.who knows what
From cavern to cavern, level to level. Swim achieved "Zenji!' But beware the Barnes and lies below. But you'll go. you're in charge of
ming, running, dodging.stumbling.yousearch sparks ofdistraction that move along the paths. the Helicopter Emergency Rescue Operation.
for the gold, the Raj dia You must go beyond strat-tv The miners have only onei
mond and the thing you I egy, speed, logic .Trust chance .You. The opening [
really treasure.. .adven your fntuitlon.The ancient | shaft is cleared's
ture. Head for it. Designed I puzzle awaits. Designed time to go. Designed by
by David Crane. by Matthew Hubbard. John Van Ryzin.

What if you were silling in lionl ofyoui Commodore 64 "programming your own Pitfall Harry * adventure? ll
con happen with a little help from ihe creator ofPitfall Harry: David Crane-jusl write your name and add less
on a piece ofpaper, tnpc 2K to it for postage and handling and mail to The Aclivision C-&1 Club, P. O. Sox 7287.
Mountain View, CA 94039. We'll send you David's Booklet, "Programming Filial! Harry'1 It includes n written
program that helps you create your own adventure. Co for it.

;SS®? fa

As you suit up you see the webbed forcefield You can almost hear the quiet, And it's your You made it.TheOlymplcs.Vouhearlanguages
surrounding your planet. Holding it.Trapped job to keep it that way. A toy factory at midnight. you've never heard. And the universal roar
with no escape. No hope. Except you:The Did you hear something? Guess not.Wrong! ofthecrowd.YouwiHrun.Hurl.Vault.Jump.
Beamrider.The freedom of millions depends Suddenly balloon valves open, conveyor belts Ten events, One chance.You will push yourself
on you. Alone you speed along the grid of move and a whole factory full of toys goes this time. Further than ever. Harder than ever.
beams that strangle your planet.You must de wild. Even the robot, their latest development, But will everyone.The competition
stroy !he grid sector by sector.Your skills and is on the loose and after you. Capture the increases.nowtwo can compete at the same
your reflexes alone will runaway toys. Restore time.The crowd quiets.
determine the future of order. Restore peace. The starting gun sounds.
your peopIe.Take their Restore quiet. Do some A blur of adrenalin.
future in your hands. thing! Hutty! Designed Let the games begin.
Designed by Dave Bolfe. by Mark Turmell. Designed by David Crane. I

Commodore &T Is a Irademnik of Commodore Electionlcs, Ltd, © 1984, Aclivislon. Inc. We put you in the game.
Learning, Learning
Educational Software For
Commodore From CES

Selby Bateman, Features Editor

If you own a Commodore 64, prepare to get educated.

June's Consumer Electronics Show in Chicago included
been added above the left
dozens of companies with hundreds of educational
software packages for the Commodore 64 computer.
Perhaps to further differen Here's a brief look at some of the players and programs
tiate the Plus/4 from the 64, from CES.
Commodore has left out sprites
and the SID synthesizer chip.
Instead, the Plus/4 has a tone
There's an educational emphasis throughout the entire micro
generator similar to the VIC's, computer market, says Neil Harris, new program design man
but with improved pitch ager for Commodore.
"Educational programs now exploit the computer," he
The Commodore 16 (for its says. "And educational games have caught up to [entertain
16K RAM) is effectively a ment] games in quality."
stripped-down version of the
Harris ought to know. He has seen firsthand how the
Plus/4. Dubbed "the learning
attractiveness of the Commodore 64's huge installed base has
machine" by Commodore, the
translated into a flood of educational programs targeted to
16 contains the same BASIC 3.5
ward users of the machine. And these packages take a variety
as its bigger brother as well as
of forms; curriculum-based software, educational games,
the built-in machine language
"edutainment" packages, driil-and-practice programs—the list is
monitor and screen windowing
extensive and confusing,
capability. A rear port allows
The range of companies producing these programs is also
memory expansion up to a full
wide. They include small start-up firms composed of current
64K. Commodore sees this ma
or former educators, large productivity or entertainment soft
chine as a replacement for the
ware producers who are entering the educational market, and
VIC-20 and as an entry level
established educational book publishers who want to carry
computer for novices who aren't
their reputations and expertise into the computer field.
sure about spending a lot of
As most software producers wil] admit, the quality of all
money. Commodore will offer a
these products varies tremendously. And even among well-
variety of educational and recre
produced educational programs, the target audiences must be
ational programs for the 16, It
carefully selected. But, in general, the fierce competition
should be available this Fall and
among educational software producers appears to be creating a
sell for about $100. The Plus/4
higher level of quality in recent program offerings. And con
should appear at the same time
cerned educators are having more of an effect on the market
for about $300.
as a whole. (See next month's GAZETTE for a look at some of
Third-party software sup
the new directions in educational software.)
port will depend on the comput
Here, then, are a few of the companies and their educa
er's fate in the marketplace.
tional products for the Commodore 64:
Obviously, there won't be a
great demand for the kind of American Educational Computer—This Palo AJto,
software already packaged with California, based company is one of the largest developers and
the Plus/4, but Commodore has publishers of curriculum-based educational software for the
already announced over 40 pro school and consumer markets.
grams for the new machine. At CES, AEC introduced a series of advanced spelling
Many of the new titles are revi programs for use on the 64 and other home computers. Called
sions of 64 programs: General
£0 COMPUTE! $ Gazette September 19B4
hy settle for less
Hen you can nave Mo?

easy to use. With the other modem

Introducing Mitey Mo, IIM COMMODORE

the ready-to-go modem

MODEM TEATUBES MTTEYMO JUnOMODEM you'll have to remember to check
three switches, otherwise you may
that turns your Commodore 64 Auto Dial YES YES
be answering when you mean to
Into a telecommunications giant. Auto Answer YES YES
be originating.
Auto Rediat YES NO
Mitey Mo is the complete- and NO Mitey Mo gives you access to
Smooth Screen Scrolling YES
affordable—telecommunications twelve pages of memory (24.000
Both Cassette and Diskette
system tor your Commodore 64. It will Soltware Included YES NO bytes), so you can store data and
open up a world ot practical and Menu Driven YES NO review or print it later. The other
exciting uses for your computer, and 21K Soltware Butter YES NO
modem doesn't let you store or print
Function Key Template YES NO
it will take you online faster and anything.
Printing Capability YES NO
easier than anything else you can buy. Mitey Mo is half the size of
Easy-to-Use Manual YES NO
Now you'll be able to send and YES YES the other modem, The very latest
Bell 103 Compatible
receive electronic mail, link up with YES YES technology allows miniaturization
Multiple Baud Rates
community bulletin boards, play Dual Cables Included YES NO and increased reliability as well,
computer games with people in dis Single Switch Operation YES NO Mitey Mo is so reliable, we gave it
tant places, do electronic banking, Warranty 3 years 90 days a three-year warranty The other
and tap into library resources to !ind modem gives 90 days, then you're
the material you need ioryour on your own.
reports. All at your convenience. Some mighty Interesting features - Not only will you find Mitey Mo
Until Mitey Mo, Commodore's ours and theirs. Yours to decide.
mighty useful, you'll find it mighty rea
1650 Automodem was the obvious sonably priced. When you consider
choice when you went looking for a how much more you get for the money
modem for the C-64. Like Mitey and you find that it's busy Mitey Mo has there's really no other choice.
Mo, il has "auto-answer"- it "auto redial"- it hangs up and redials
receives data while immediately until it gets through. With
unattended. And the other modem you have to redial
both modems each time—and somebody with auto
are "auto dialers", redialing can slip in ahead of you.
—you dial right Mitey Mo is menu-driven.
on the compu It lists the things you can do on
ter's key the screen. Select a number
board. But and you're on your way. Since
that's about Automodem isn't menu-
where theirl driven, you'll be hunting
similarity through the manual a lot.
ends. Mitey Mo has only one
'switch, the customized soft 71 Park Lane

you dial a ware does the rest. Every Brisbane, CA 94005
number. family member will lind it (415)468-4900
The Matchmaker Series from American Educational Computer uses a
variety of quiz formats to address most subjects in standard elementary
and junior high curricula.

Ledger, Logo, Zork I, //, and III, AEC Spelling, the new software teaches the spelling of over
Wizard of War, Gorf, Deadline, 4000 words and allows the user to enter additional words. Using
Magic Desk II, Easy Script/Plus, a test-teaefvtest method of instruction, the spelling series ad
Easy Calc/Pius, and others. dresses the needs of students in grades two through eight.
A brand new offering exclu AEC also announced the second generation in its Match
sively for the Plus/4 is a series maker series on subjects in standard elementary and junior
called "vertical market applica high school curricula. Aimed at Commodore 64 and other per
tion templates." These disk- sona! computer users at home, the series includes coverage of
based programs are designed for U.S. Government, World History, Biology, French, and Science
specific applications such as [, II, and III. (American Educational Computer, Inc., 2450
manufacturing, the retail indus Embarcadero Way, Palo Alto, CA 94303.)
try, personal financial planning, DLM Teaching Resources (Developmental Learning
construction, maintenance and Materials)—A publisher of educational materials for more than
service, and professional ser 15 years, DLM has numerous titles in its series of "Arcademic"
vices. A variety of new educa Skill Builders and Drill Builders for grades one through six.
tional programs for the Plus/4 Among its packages for the 64 are Alien Addition, Meteor
will also be available. Multiplication, Demolition Division, and Dragon Mix, all using
Disk-based software for the colorful graphics and action game formats to interest children.
Plus/4 will run on the new (DLM Teaching Resources, P.O. Box 4000, One DLM Park,
parallel-interface SFS 481 disk Allen, TX 75002.)
drive {not 64 compatible). This Koala Technologies—In association with Henson Asso
drive is significantly faster than ciates, Inc. (creators of the Muppets) and Sunburst Communi
serial-interface 1541 disk drives. cations, Koala (producer of the popular Koalapad) introduced a
A new letter-quality daisywheel
printer, the DPS 1101, is also The Muppet
Learning Keys
designed for the Plus/4. It
computer keyboard
prints at 18 cps (characters per
from Koala Tech
second) and features propor
nologies teaches the
tional spacing which can be se alphabet, numbers,
lected manually from the front ■o):T;m_V [/]!« ■ . ■ colors, and shapes
of the machine.
■ DOQIQi to children three
Several other printers were years and older.
announced by Commodore: the
MPS 802, a bi-directional im
pact dot matrix printer which
can print at 60 cps; the MCS
801 color dot matrix printer (see
"Horizons 64" elsewhere in this
issue for a close-up look); and
the MPS 803, a dot matrix
printer designed for use with
the Commodore 16.
Other new hardware in
cludes the 1531 Cassette Unit
22 COMPUTEfs Gazette September 1984
ISOFL All the

it's showtime. head-to-head with another allows you to enjoy de

TimcforATARlSOFT'to player. But each player must veloping your typing
show you six exciting, brand beat qualifying times, heights skills at any level.
new games that are destined and distances before they can And still play
for stardom. compete in each of the gruei- ing to the de
Games that can be played on iing six events. light of audiences everywhere
your Commodore 64, IBM Typo Attack is the much- are Pac-Mani Ms. Pac-Man',
PC and Apple II. (Some titles acclaimed, Jungle Hunt? Battlezone"
.available on IBM PC jr. and fun-filled Donkey Kong; by Nintendo;
*/IC 20.*) program thai Centipede" and Pole
First, there's Gremlins1, Position':
based on the charac So, if you've been searching
ters from the original for ways to entertain your
film presented by Commodore, Apple or IBM,
Steven Spielberg. treat it io one of the best
Then there's Crystal shows in town, one of the hits
Castles" where from ATARI SOFT.
Bentley Bear"journeys And don't forget the
through all sons of popcorn.

ML ^tantalizingly difficult ATARlSOFr product* are manufactured

by Atan. Int. for use with %arious computers
paths and ramps in his and video game consoles. ATAKISOFT
endless quest for gems. products are not made, licensed or approved
by [he manufacturer^) of those computers
In Donkey Kong Jr.: by and video game consoles.
Nintendo; Junior tries to ■Titles available »n IBM PCjr, arc Ms.
PaC'Mun, Centipede, Donkey Kong. Moun
rescue his father Patrol7 and Typo Attack. Available nn the
against immense VfC 20 is Tjpo Attack,
1, <B I'JJM Winner Bmllicry Inc.; 2.
odds. And speak Trademarks and ©Nintendo. 1982. 19S3;3,
Trademark of Konami Industry Co.. Ltd..
ing of Donkey ©l983ofKonami; 4. Trademarks of Dally
Kong, there's also Mfg. Co, Sublicensee to Atari, Inc. by
Namco-Amenca, Inc.; 5. Trademark and ©
Mario Brothers2 by
of Taito A me rka Corporation I982[ 6.
Nintendo; This time, Engineered and designed t>y NmICO
Ltd-, manufactured under
Mario and his brother
license by Atari, Inc. Trade
Luigi battle creatures on mark and O Name o m2;7.
Trademark and O Will in ins
four levels of floors, en 1982. manufactured under
countering all sons of license fmrn William*
Electronics, Inc.
treacherous enemies.
In Track And Field' you
can compete by yourself or
children's computer keyboard, Muppet Learning Keys, at CES.
The keyboard attracted much attention at the show, and
is available for the Commodore 64 and Apple II family of
computers. Preschoolers can learn basic letter, number, shape,
and color skills by using the keyboard which plugs into the
joystick port on the 64,
Popular Muppet figures such as Miss Piggy, Gonzo, and
Kermit the Frog help to attract the child to learning. Each sec
tion of the school desk-like keyboard—ruler, water color set,
penmanship slate, compass, eraser, and arithmetic exercise
book—can be activated by the touch of a child's finger. (Koala
Technologies Corp., 3100 Patrick Henry Drive, Santa Clara,
CA 95052-8100.)
and the 141 Color Monitor.
The Learning Company—One of the most respected
Both are color coordinated
names in quality educational software is the Texas-based firm,
(charcoal gray) to match the 16
The Learning Company, most of whose titles have been for
and the Plus/4, but are also
Apple computers.
compatible with the VIC and 64.
The company has now converted several titles for the 64,
Despite the variety of new There are two programs in The Learning Company's Reading
hardware from Commo Series now available for the 64: juggles Rainbow, in which chil
dore and third-party companies, dren from three to six play with dancing rainbows and whirl
the mountain of new software ing windmills to learn reading and math readiness skills; and
drew the most attention at CES. Word Spinner, in which youngsters from six to ten iearn the
Especially abundant are pro basic building blocks of reading.
ductivity software and new edu Also available for the 64 is Addition Magician, a game that
cational programs (see the teaches children from six to ten the basic concepts of addition
accompanying article, "Learn and doubles as a number strategy game for older children; and
ing, Learning Everywhere"). Moptown Parade, an electronic logic and discrimination game.
Commodore 64 owners can (The Learning Company, 545 Middlefield Road, Menlo Park,
choose from a wide assortment CA 94025.)
of productivity packages—per MECC (Minnesota Educational Computing Consortium)—
sonal financial programs, data One of the leading publishers of educational software for
bases, word processors, spread schools, MECC has more than two dozen educational titles for
sheets, and more. Cardco intro the 64 and several more coming out this fall. Among the
duced two packages, File Now, courseware products to be released this fall for the 64 are
an easy-to-use data base, and Adventures With Fractions; Earth Science; Pre-Reading; The Glass
Graph Now/Paint Now, a graph Computer, which reveals and demonstrates how computers
ics package designed for gener and the BASIC programming language work; Outdoor Biology,
ating line and bar graphs, and and Electronic Money.
color art. Each is on disk and MECC's products include both curriculum-based class
sells for $39.95. They are fully room software and a Home Software Library. (MECC, 3490
integrated with Cardco's Write Lexington Avenue, St. Paul, MN 55112.)
Now! word processor and round Mindscape, Inc.—Mindscape is an electronic publishing
out their productivity series, subsidiary of SFN Companies, one of the nation's leaders in
which also includes Mail Now elementary and high school textbook publishing.
and Spell Now.
Tink's Adventure, part of
Creative Software an
Mindscape's Sprout line of
nounced an integrated pro
software for children,
ductivity series which includes incorporates five multilevel
Creative Writer, Creative Filer, learning games as it teaches
Creative Calc, and Creative Fi the alphabet and the computer
nance. Retail for each is $49.95.- keyboard.
The company also introduced
EasyDisk, a menu-driven utility
program for the 1541, which en
hances and extends the drive's b i Ob boat, ii ran helicopter.

operating system. The price is

24 COMPUTE!'! Gazelle September 1984
Because Infocom's inter- dinarily developed personalities) and :i interactive story is roughly
active fiction is designed original, logical, often hilarious puz ] the length of a short novel in
to run on^oMrimagination. zles. Communication is car content, but because you're
That's precisely why ried on in the same way as it actively engaged in the plot,
there's nothing more interesting, is in a novel—in prose. And your adventure can last for weeks
challenging or interactive than an interaction is easy—you type and months.
Infocom disk—but only after you've in full English sentences. Find out what it's like to
put it in your But there is this key difference get inside a story. Get one
computer. j j : ■; (. ■■ between our tales and conventional from Infocom. Because with ■«$&
Once it's in, novels: Infocom's Infocom's interactive fiction, I
you experience interactive fiction is there's room for you on every disk.
something akin to waking up inside a active, never pas
novel. You find yourself at the center
of an exciting plot that continually
sive. The course of I
events is shaped by what you choose inFocom
challenges you with surprising twists, to do. And you enjoy enormous free For your: Appte 11, Matiniosh. Atari. Cannnodare fi-1. U'/M 8?
DECmale. DEC Han*™, DEC NT-ll. HI'ISIS 110, IBM PC'
9 BBS S unique char dom in your choice of actions & PCK KA1 PRO II. MS-DOS 2.d: NECAPC, NEC FC-SpOO.
Osbiirnc TI I'Tiifrtimrul.TI 99MA,Tandy 3>OlJ.TRS-fl()Ciil(ir
acters (many —you have hundreds, even Coni|HI«i. TKS-m Modrlt I & III.

of whom pos thousands of alternatives at •DwlhrlBMPC vcmKirlnf ^wirCnmfuq andthpSSS'llOS

wiloi lor imu Minditt, Mi Cncnl Svneei 10. (iKil>
sess extraor eveiy step. In fact, an Infocom indimorotbHi,
Aa Bb c

Modern times have create

We've cleverly disguised them as funny entertainment is balanced with a healthy
creatures from a computer game. But dose of education.
underneath the funny exterior is one of the While kids are having fun at home,
most serious approaches to home education they're actually reinforcing what they've
you've ever heard of. learned at school Things like the alphabet,
INTRODUCING SPROUT™ SOFTWARE. spelling, vocabulary counting, adding, and
GAMES THAT TEACH. pattern recognition.
Your kid's new teachers are called Tmk You'll also like how Sprout prevents bore
and Tonk. They come from Sprout. Software dom. Our games grow up, instead of wear
for kids 4 to 8. out. As kids get older; the game adjusts and
The beauty of Sprout software is how gets harder Because there are many
TOk'TOnk' cftaiacios « 1983 timk iof*. -j HNKjTOt#i'o,H'.R*^*k atllNK TONK fc» Spout ft
a -ios

d a new breed of teachers. rience of Mercer Mayer who has written or

variations and many decisions to make.
Knowing how to do all this illustrated 80 children's books. He dazzles
isn't something Sprout learned kids with ideas and pictures that keep them
overnight. coming back for more.
You see, we've got a With TINK1TQNK!™ software, kids see
hundred years of experience to that learning can be more fun than destroy
lean on. (Our parent company ing space creatures.
is SFN, the country's #1 text
book publisher for elemen
tary and high schools.)
We've also got the expe Games that grow up. Instead of wear out.
with Atari*. Con motto e* An*', and IBM ■
In its educational software, Mindscape has three product
lines: the Sprout series for children 4 to 8, the Pixelwerks
series for children 8 to 12, and a teen-to-adult line of products
as well.
The popular TinklTonk! series—with Tink and his friends
Tinka and Tuk and his dog, Tinkypup—are a part of the
Sprout line of software. They were written by award-winning
author and illustrator Mercer Meyer and developed by
Angelsoft, Inc., for Mindscape. (Mindscape, 3444 Dundee
Road, Northbrook, IL 60062.)
Prentice-Hall (Arrakis Advantage)—The Canadian-based
Arrakis Systems, Inc., has developed a line of high-quality
educational curriculum-based home software which will be
HomePak, a three-in-one distributed by Prentice-Hal!.
utility program from Batteries The first 18 modules in their line of Commodore 64 soft
Included, offers HomeText, a ware include algebra, biology, chemistry, geometry, physics,
word processor, HomeFimi, a and statistics. Eventually, a complete curriculum will be devel
data base, and HomeTerm, a ter oped by Arrakis. (Prentice-Hal!,Inc., Rt. 9W, Englewood Cliffs,
minal program also designed for NJ 07632.)
use with the major information Scarborough Systems, inc.—This well-known Tarrytown,
networks. HomePak comes on a NY-based company has concentrated on producing a limited
single disk and sells for $49.95. line of high quality software, from which several programs are
Also new from Batteries In available for the Commodore 64.
cluded is Stress Manager, a bio- Included are Songwriter, a music education program for
feedback monitoring system, ages five to adult; Patternmaker, an art construction set for ages
which includes software, an in six to adult (available in September); MasterTi/pe, a popular
terface between the user and the typing tutorial for ages six to adult; and Laser Shapes, a math
computer, and an audio cassette. game using laser beams, color, and sound, for ages 7 to 15
The software analyzes fluctua (available in September). (Scarborough Systems, Inc.,
tions in the skin's electrical con
Tarrytown, NY 10591.)
ductivity and displays graphs Scholastic Software—A division of Scholastic, Inc., a ma
which can then be- interpreted
jor educational publisher for over 65 years, Scholastic Soft
by the user. It sells for $79.95.
ware has developed a line of "fun-learning" game-oriented
Another new three-in-one educational packages.
integrated package is TRIO from Among its new products at CES, Scholastic introduced
Softsync. This disk-based pro Operation: Frog, an interactive computer simulation of a frog
gram includes a word processor, dissection, which was developed by Interactive Picture Sys
data base, and spreadsheet, and tems. It will be available for the 64 later this fall.
sells for $69.95. Scholastic also announced at CES that its geography ac
Professional Software tion game for children nine years and up, Agent USA, devel
launched their Soft Fleet series oped by educational software designer Tom Snyder, has been
designed just for the 64. It in made available for the 64. And the reading adventures pro
cludes Fleet Writer, Fleet Speller, gram, Tales of Discovery (for children 9 to 13), will be available
and Fleet Filer. Prices will be for the 64 in early 1985. (Scholastic, Inc., 730 Broadway, New
announced. York, NY 10003.)
An interesting product from
A computer simulation of
HesWare is Graphics Bask, a
a frog dissection is part of
utility which extends BASIC
the focus of Operation: Frog
with 48 commands. It can be
by Scholastic Software, an
used to design business graphs entertaining introduction
or games, and includes the ca to biology.
pability for split screens and
windows. The price is $29.95.
Continental Software's new
Get Rich! Series is a set of five
programs—Strategies, Real Estate
Planning, Insurance Planning,
and Retirement Planning— each
28 COMPUTERS Gazelle September I9S4
"Now Your Commodore 64
Can Print Like a Prol"

Grappler Printer Interface

The Revolutionary Printer Interface for the Commodore 64 TM
A New Era in A Uniquely Intelligent Interface:
Commodore Printing Power. • Prints Screen Graphics Without Software
Grappler CD offers the first complete answer to • Graphics Screen Dump Routines Include
your printer interfacing requirements, with many Rotated, Inversed, Enhanced and Double Sized
powerful capabilities unique in the Commodore Graphics.
marketplace. Complete signal translation allows • Full Code Translation From Commodore's PET
many popular name brand printers to operate ASCII to Standard ASCII, the Language of Most
perfectly with the Commodore 64, or to imitate Printers.
Commodore's own printer. Even Commodore's • Complete Emulation of the Commodore 1525
graphic character set can be reproduced on Printer for printing of Commodore's Special
Epson, Okidata, Star, ProWriter and other popular Characters.
printers. • Dip Switch Printer Selection for Epson, Star,
Okidata, ProWriter and other popular printers.
Exclusive Grappler CD features provide a variety
• Conversion Mode for Easy Reading of Special
of graphic screen dumps, text screen dumps and
Commodore Codes.
formatting. No other Commodore interface can
• Text Screen Dump and Formatting Commands
offer this.
• 22 UniqueText and Graphics Commands
If you own a Commodore 64...
If you're serious about quality, trouble free
printing... You need the Grappler CD.
Orange micro
— inc.
Contact your nearest Commodore dealer or call 1400 N. LAKEVIEW AVE.. ANAHEIM, CA 92807 USA.
(714)779-2772 TELEX 183511CSMA
Orange Micro for a dealer near you.
Sunburst Communications, Inc.—"Bright ideas for learn
ing" is the slogan of this New York State-based company
which began 12 years ago as a filmstrip publisher and direct
mail marketer.
Since entering the educational software field, Sunburst
has won awards for its software, and several titles were an
nounced for the 64 at CES, included were The Factory (ages
nine to adult), a problem-solving and planning game set in a
factory; The Pond (ages seven to adult), an experimentation
and pattern recognition game; M-ss-ng L-nks (ages nine to
adult), a reading-writing-spelling game; and Challenge Math
(ages seven to eleven), a program to help average and slow
learners with math facts. (Sunburst Communications, Inc.,
selling for $49.95. Pleasantville, NY 10570.)
Cymbal, a Canadian soft While space does not permit a listing of all the companies
ware company new to the U.S., which featured educational software for the Commodore 64,
introduced two new series for the following companies all had significant products in this
the 64: the Productivity Series area. Many of these companies and their products will be fea
{Tutor Plus, a typing tutor which tured in upcoming issues of the GAZETTE. Further information
offers practice on 50 different is available directly from the companies:
business letters, Data Plus, a Alpha Software (Encino, CA), Batteries Included (Costa
data base, Calc Plus, a spread Mesa, CA), Brjtfderbund (San Rafael, CA), CBS Software
sheet, and The Organizer, a fi (Greenwich, CT), Commodore Software (West Chester, PA),
nance and scheduling program Creative Software (Sunnyvale, CA), Cymbal Software (Butler,
integrated with Calc Plus); and NJ), Design Ware (San Francisco, CA), Diskovery Educational
the Business Series {General Led Software (Buffalo, NY), First Star Software (New York, NY),
ger, Accounts Receivable, Ac Fisher-Price (Cambridge, MA), Futurehouse (Chapel Hill, NC).
counts Payable, Inventory Con Also, Human Engineered Software (Brisbane, CA), Joyce
trol, and Invoice Writer. Pro Hakansson Associates (Berkeley, CA), Krell Software Corpora
grams in the Productivity Series tion (Stony Brook, NY), Microlab (Highland Park, IL), Random
sell for $39.95 each except for House Software (New York, NY), Screenplay (Chapel Hill,
Calc Plus ($49.95). Programs NC), Sierra (Coarsegold, CA), Simon & Schuster Electronic
from the Business Series are Publishing Group (New York, NY), Springboard Software
$49.95 each. (Minneapolis, MN), Timeworks (Deerfield, IL), Weekly Reader
Commodore 1541 owners [Xerox] (Middletown, CT).
will be interested in Kwik-Load!
from Datamost It reprbgrams
the Disk Operating System
(DOS) for 300% faster loads and
copies, and offers a variety of
disk editing features. It retails
style and action/strategy games. modate up to eight players. The
for $19.95.
Activision, another newcomer to game also offers a handicapping
There were enough new the 64 market, launched six new feature so novices can play with
games announced at CES to titles. experts. Price is $39.95. Cymbal
cater to nearly every taste—so Trivia buffs will be inter is offering a whole series—
many, in fact, that space limits ested in several new games, World Facts, Sports, Entertain
even a mention of all of them. each somewhat different from ment, General, and Children's
Several companies introduced the others. Screenplay's The Trivia—each for $19.95; and for
full lines of new arcade software Trivia Arcade combines fast ac $29.95, Master Trivia, which can
for the 64. Parker Brothers and tion, music, and trivia questions. be used alone or with the previ
Sega introduced several transla It's for one to four players and ously mentioned specialty
tions of popular video arcade sells for $34.95. For $29.95, you games. If you'd rather have a
games. Br0derbund, Sierra, can purchase Question Pack 1 to little of each of these categories,
Epyx, Datasoft, Creative Soft add thousands of new ques there's Entertainment Tonight
ware, Quicksilva, Datamost, Tri- tions. Trivia Mania from Profes priced at $32.95. Each of these
Micro, and newcomer K-Tel sional Software is more games can be played by up to
introduced a variety of arcade- straightforward and can accom six players.
30 COMPUTE! s Gurotlo September 19EM
All Titles available from:- -^j •,

test Nakoma San AntonioTexas78216.



Available on the COMMODORE 64'". Disc or Cassette

The most innovative new
"game" concept at CES be
longs, perhaps, to Spinnaker's
new software divisions, Trillium
and Windham Classics. Both of
these new product lines are
billed as a series of interactive
adventures. They're graphics/
text adventures, but more than
that. Trillium has worked
closely with some of the most
renowned science fiction au
thors (Arthur C. Clarke, Ray
Bradbury, and Michael Crichton
to name a few) to create soft
ware versions of their novels.
The player enters the scenario
of the novel as the protagonist
and interacts with the characters
and environment. Available ti
tles are Fahrenheit 451, Rendez
Text and graphics combine with an exciting adventure scenario in Amazon vous With Rama, Dragonworld,
from the new Trillium series. Amazon, and Shadowkeep. Each
package costs $39.95 and in
cludes game background, a


If you own a disk drive then you'll need "The
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32 COMPUTErs Gazatto September 19S4

COMPUTEI's GAZETTE is now available on disk
Each month you can receive a fully tested 5lh
inch floppy disk which will run on either your
Commodore 64 or VIC-20 personal computter
will contain all the programs which appear
in the corresponding issue of COMPUTERS
GAZETTE magazine. You'll save hours of
typing time and gain hours of enjoyment
with all the quality programs found
each month in COMPUTEI's GAZETTE.

Here are just a few of the quality programs

which appeared in the August 1984 issue:
• Campaign Manager—A two-player national Written in machine language.
election simulation written entirely in machine • Balloon Blitz—A colorful action strategy game
language. Decisions on traveling, campaigning, in which your anti-tank balloon is all that's left
fundraising, TV appearances, and more deter to protect your army's flank. For the VIC and 64.
mine if your candidate makes it all the way to
• Error Trapping—With this short routine added
the White House. For the 64. to your BASIC programs, you can pinpoint error
• Disk Purge—Get rid of unwanted files or re type and line number. For the VIC and 64.
cover deleted files with this utility for the VIC
and 64. All the programs included in each issue of
• Sprite Magic—A feature-packed sprite editor for COMPUTEI's GAZETTE are available on disk.
the 64 that takes the tedium out of sprite design. Order yours today.

Ordering Information

To Subscribe: Individual Issues: Subscription Rates:

Return the attached postpaid Individual issues of the GAZETTE One year (12 disks) subscription

card or call COMPUTEI's GAZETTE DISK can be ordered for $7,95 $69.95
TOLL FREE 800-334-0868 (in (in the US and Canada add $1 (add $36 shipping and handling

North Carolina 919-275-9809). per issue for shipping and outside the US and Canada)
All orders must be prepaid— handling. Outside the US and
Two year (24 disks) subscription
send check or money order or Canada add $3 per issue). In
charge to Visa, MasterCard, or dividual issues can be ordered
{add $72 shipping and handling
American Express. by calling TOLL FREE 800-334-
outside the US and Canada)
0868 (in North Carolina call
919-275-9809), or by sending
your prepaid order to GAZETTE
DISK, P.O. Box 5406, Greens
boro, NC 27403.
word list, and hint book. More
titles are planned.
The Windham Classics Se
ries is similar in concept but is
based on literary classics. Avail
able titles are Swiss Family Rob
inson, The Wizard of Oz, Gulli
ver's Travels, and Treasure
Island. Designed for ages 10 to
adult, each program will sell in
the $30 to $40 range.
In the same vein is
Infocom's new Seastalker, an in
teractive adventure in the tradi
tion of Jules Verne's 20,000
Leagues Under The Sea, designed
for children 9 and up. But the
complexity will appeal to adults,
too. It's available for $39.95.
Another interactive adven
ture series called Time Travelers
was introduced by Imagic. The
Time Machine, based on H.G.
Wells' novel, and Another Bow,
where the player assumes the
role of Sherlock Holmes, are
scheduled for release in the Fall.
Price is not yet determined.
Archon fans will be de
lighted by the sequel, Archon II:
ADEPT. Written for Electronic
Arts by the Free Fall Associates,
authors of the original best
seller, ADEPT picks up where
Archon left off. It's priced at $40.
Access Software's follow-up
to Beachhead is Raid Over Mos
cow, a multi-scenario action/
strategy game where the player
must race against the clock to
prevent a nuclear holocaust by
flying into Russia and dis
mantling missile launch sites. The full-color Okimate JO, a price breakthrough in printers.
It's $39.95.
Three new titles from Ava-
lon Hill are Market Forces, a
world economics strategy game
for one to four players ($16 for
tape, $21 for disk), Ripper!, a
34 COMPUTSrs Gazslta September 1984
Move into serious
computing with the
Commodore you already
own by simply expanding
your computer's capa
bility and speed with
MSD products.
No need to move on to
an expensive PC. No need
to move on to a computer you
will have to take precious time
to learn.
Just increase your Commod
speed, memory and productivity
with MSD's highly reliable
peripherals. Move into expanding
your computer into a powerful
business system ...
and use the time and
money you save for a
more important
Call or write
today for this


mhm9 10031 Monroe Dr., Suite 206 • Dallas, Texas 75229

Bright colors and precise resolution are displayed in this printout from the Okimate 10.

mystery adventure based on one-key commands. It's $49.95. small heating element embed
Jack the Ripper ($25, disk only), The Melodian Keyboard ded) moves across the page,
and Panzers East!, a historical (from Melodian) looks like a comes in contact with the rib
simulation of the 1941 German portable organ. The 18-inch, 37- bon, and melts the ink coating
invasion of Russia ($25 for tape, key keyboard has a three-octave off the ribbon onto the paper. It
$30 for disk). range. It plugs directly into the comes with a color and black
64 and with the appropriate ribbon cartridge, paper, a con
Two new keyboards for the 64 software produces sounds rang nector cable, a Plug 'n Print
were introduced at CES, and ing from strings, brass, and module (the interface), a man
both appear to be exceptional woodwinds to synthesizers. ual, and software (designed pri
values for the price. The Incred Notes are displayed on the marily for those using a printer
ible Musical Keyboard from screen as they are played. for the first time). What's even
Sight & Sound overlays the 64's Aimed at the home and school more eye-catching is the price:
keyboard and is controlled by markets, Melodian supports the $239.
menu-driven disk-based soft keyboard with three menu- Another price breakthrough
ware. Musical note stickers for based software packages, is Cardco's new monitor tuner,
each of the keys are included MelodyMaster, RhythmMaster, which converts a composite
for beginners, as well as a song and ConccrtMaster. The latter is monitor (such as Commodore's
book and chord book. The key included when you purchase the 1701/1702) into a TV. Cardco
board is priced at $39.95. A va keyboard. The price is $200. has two versions, the MT/1 and
riety of music software, which The most exciting new the MT/2, for $199.95 and
can be used with or without the hardware entry for the 64 at $99.95, respectively. The MT/1
keyboard, is available also. The CES had to be Okidata's new is a remote control, 60-channel
most impressive of these is the dot-matrix color printer, the cable ready tuner which features
Kawasaki Synthesizer, a double- Okimate 10. It prints text or a digital readout for precise
disk program. This program color graphics at 60 cps, has tuning and separate audio and
combines music with beautiful four character sizes, isn't fussy video output. The MT/2 has a
animated graphics. The screen about the paper it prints on UHF/VHF dial on the front of
interacts with the music, which (thermal or plain), and has true the tuner and a cable/antenna
can be both enhancing and dis lowercase descenders. The input. Both tuners have
tracting. The Kawasaki Synthe Okimate 10 uses a thermal computer/TV switches and can
sizer offers 99 preset sounds transfer process in which the be used with color or mono
and a lot of good music with printhead (a silicon chip with a chrome monitors.
36 COMPUTE'S Gazette September 1984


6 players or teams can play in a comfortable, party atmosphere. NO CROWDING THE KEYBOARD . . .
sit back and enioyl
Over 1300contemporary non-repeating questions about interesting people, places and events.
Time running out? Need a him? No problem . . . Want your favorite category? Choose
it... if you can.
Computrivia knows your name, watches your score, provokes and jokes as you
play. With spontaneity and wit, It tells you who's ahead and who to watch out
tori] Bonus situations tooll
For questions, hints, answers and scores. NO MORE KEYBOARD BLUESI
Facts to discover. Fun you'll enjoy.
EXTEKcomputer aided products Inc
P.O. Box SOB, Oakville, Ontario

For the Apple II B lie, Commodore-64. IBM-PC, PCjr, and Iheir respective compatibles, see your dealer or contact Eitek computer aided products Inc.
Ahp'b is a Registered Trademark o( Apple Computer, Inc. Commodore-64 Is a Registered Trademark ot Commodore Electronics Ltd.
IBM is a Registered Trademark of International Buiinesi Mochinet Corp. COMPUTRIVIA is a Trademark ot Eitek Computer Aided Products Ire.
U/e'ue Gel
pk Tateg
"This is the best typing tutor
we have seen yet;* * * * + "

"Computer aided instruction at

its best." Commander
"This is an excellent program
that makes typing practice an
enjoyable pastime instead of
boring drudgery."
With new products continuing to support the
Rated the BEST educational
program for the VIC 20 64, it's hard to imagine a machine this
Creative Computing popular becoming obsolete. Yet because the in
CUSTOMERS SAY: dustry is so new and has gone through some
". . . delighted with my son's
progress ... he is the only one in his second grade class
drastic changes, it's easy to wonder about the fu
who touch types at the computer." ture of the 64. Eventually, it will follow the VIC
"Your Typing Tutor is an excellent program ... our 4 out the back door. A hint of what's to come was
children literally wait in line to use it." in the wind at CES.
"Thoroughly satisfied, can't believe how fast I've learned to Sinclair's new 16/32-bit computer, the QL,
type. I've never typed before."
uses a 68008 microprocessor (virtually the same
In dally usb by schools across the USA.
chip as found in Apple's Macintosh) and offers
TYPING TUTOR + WORD INVADERS 128K RAM expandable to 640K. It comes with a
Commodore 64 Tape $21.95 built-in word processor, spreadsheet, data base
Commodore 64 Disk S24.95
manager, and graphics package, two built-in
VIC 20 (unexpanded) Tape $31.95
100K "microdrives," (high speed endless-loop
REALISTIC AIRCRAFT RESPONSE tape drives) and two RS-232C interfaces. Its
"Has a quality of realism which
32K ROM operating system allows for multi
sets it apart from others, even tasking—the ability to run several programs
fhose I've tested in flight school." individually and simultaneously. The QL
Compute's Gazette
("Quantum Leap") weighs three pounds and will
"Great program!" INFO-64
be available this Fall for $499, mail order only.
"It is tremendous fun."
Compute's Gazette
The question of software support for this power
"Flight tested by an air traffic ful, new machine from England remains, but it
controller, two skilled pilots and clearly demonstrates what kind of power the
an elementary school class. next generation of computers will offer at a
Highly recommended by all."
reasonable price.
MIdnlle Gazette
"This is an unbelievably realistic On the other side of the globe, in Japan, an
simulation of the difficulties other kind of computer is gaining fast—-those
facing a pilot in instrument fly
conforming to the MSX standard. MSX is an in
ing. I'm a 747 pilot and I think that this simulation could do
a lot to improve the reactions and instrument scan habits ternal hardware architecture standard developed
ol even very experienced pilots." 747 pilot by Microsoft, and Japanese/ Korean computers
adopting it will probably hit the U.S. market
sometime in 1985. The potential marketing
Commodore 64 Tape or Disk S29.95
VIC 20 (unexpanded) Cartridge S39.95 strength of the MSX, built around the eight-bit Z-
^^^ JOYSTICK REQUIRED 80 processor, is that companies can license the
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thus create a computer which is hardware- and

ACADEIilV software-compatible with any other MSX com

puter. Any software written for, say, a Panasonic
MSX computer runs fine on a JVC or Spectra-
SOFTWARE video MSX machine. If Microsoft is successful in
establishing the MSX as an industry standard, we
P.O. Box 6277 San Rafael, CA 94903 (415) 499-0B50
Programmers: Write to our New Program Manager concerning could see.a massive wave of change in the home
any exceptional Commodore 64 program you have developed. computer market. But, for now, enjoy the feast.®
Get more out of your Commodore with

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In COMPUTE! s Gazette you'll learn How
to Use Tape and Disk Files. How to Pro Name.
gram the Function Keys. Writing Trans
portable Basic. How to Make Custom Address .

Graphics Characters. New Ways to More buying City.

Enliven Programs with Sound. One Touch
Commands for the 64. How to use
Machine Language. Speeding up the
guidance Siale. Zip.

□ Payment enclosed □ I I me
V|C 20—-and much morel You'll profit from comprehensive reviews
Children will learn and develop of everything from dota-quolity cassette Charge my
new skills with States & Capitals Tutor, tapes to soflware to graphics plotters and DVisa D MasterCard DAm.Ex.
Wordmatch, Munchmath, Wordspell, modems. Virtually anything that's compat
Connect the Dots, Aardvark Attack and ible with your Commodore is reported AeeouniNo. Ex p. Date

Alfabug. Computing hrKids, a regular on in COMPUTE!'* Gazette. With this COMPUTE'S CALL TOLL FREE

monthly feature, will uncover new ways kind of expert help, every computer pur
P.O. Box 961, farmingdale, N.Y. 11737
to involve your children in computing. chase you make con be the right one!
The Designers Behind
Kathy Yakal, Editorial Assistant

Guy Nouri and Eric Podeitz (second and third from
left, second rmv back) and other staff members of Inter
active Picture Systems,

Electronic construction sets—programs

which allow non-programmers to design
games or programs—are finding their niche
in the software market. Bill Budge pioneered
this new genre with Pinbnll Construction
Set. Now there's MovieMaker, recently re
leased by Reston Publishing for the Com
modore 64, which turns your computer into
an animation studio.

10 COMPUTE'S Gazette September 1984

Coming in for a landing: these three
frames are part of an animated se
quence created with MovieMaker.

About the time that the

early filmmakers were
struggling to combine
sound and moving pic
tures, a young man named Walt
Disney—using techniques that
had been discovered in the mid-
nineteenth century—began pro
ducing animated cartoons. Free
of the restrictions of reality that
bound and frustrated motion pic
ture makers, Disney sought to
create his own imaginary charac
ters and worlds. fessional animators weeks, even
Creating cartoons in those months to do—create a short,
days was slow, painstaking animated sequence—can now
work. It involved drawing many, be done by a novice in a few
many versions of a particular days, by using MovieMaker.
scene, each just a fraction of a This package cannot truly
second later in the action, then be regarded as a traditional
"flipping" them very rapidly to videogame. Guy Nouri, presi
offer the illusion of motion. dent and co-founder of Interac
What used to take pro- tive Picture Systems, says it was
Sight & Sound Music No one else offers our play and even compose your own
Software can do more than exciting animated graphics. musical arrangements.
turn your Commodore 64 Or the music of the famous From learning programs to the
into a music synthesizer. recording artists we offer. songs of your favorite artists...we've
got it all.
Deep within every Commodore 64 Every Sight & Sound Music Software
lurks the unexpected. A versatile program features eye popping graphics A keyboard that makes
music synthesizer. A music video that explode across the screen. easy-to-play even easier.
machine. Even a three-track recorder. And you can generate your own An easy way to get started making
All waiting for you to control. All you colorful graphics. Then, synchronize music is to begin with our Incredible
need is Sight & Sound Music Software them to your own music...or to Musical Keyboard. It fits over your
to make and record sounds that rival melodies made famous by Michael computer keyboard and allows easy
those of a real synthesizer. Including Jackson, Lionel Richie, Billy Joel note-by-note play. Included with this
brass, strings, piano, guitar, electric and others. optional keyboard is an introductory
bass, drums, funky clav, space wah A dozen different ways music software program and two music
and other sounds.
to have fun whJh^^H^^^^^
ft's so easy that anyone computer music.
can create and record music. Sight & Sound Music
If you can press a few computer keys, Software offers music
you have all the skill it takes to create for everyone's musical
and play music. They're that music interest. Like the
friendly. Our easy-to-follow, fully Kawasaki Synthesizer
documented instructions guide you that instantly puts a
through every program. synthesizer's sound

And you can let your imagination and flexibility at your books. One for
soar. Creating and recording your fingertips. the beginner, the
own sounds. Your own songs. Your Or, the Kawasaki other for the
own music. Using the polyphonic Rhythm Rocker that more advanced
keyboard. Playing across a full 8- creates space sounds musician.
octave range. and graphics to the pre-recorded So, see your local computer soft
With one-finger, you can control rhythms of electronic sound. ware dealer for all the exciting Sight &
wave form, vibrato, sweep and other Or, even our Music Processor Sound MusicSoftware. And unleash the
special effects. that allows you to create, edit, record music in you.

I Music Software, Inc.
We unleash the music in you.
Commodore (
written for artists and animators,
people who need to make
graphics move.
At that, it's been successful.
Local 841 of the Screen Cartoon
ists Union in New York City
tested it for six months and gave
it their seal of approval.
But it's also been recog
nized as having a great deal of
appeal for the artistic commu
nity. It's been exhibited at a
You can create your own shapes for animated sequences in MovieMaker, or
number of museums, including
choose from pre-defined shapes, like this page of dogs.
the Beaubourg in Paris, the
Exploratorium in San Francisco,
and the Corcoran Art Gallery in
Washington, D.C. Several East any other special effects you of tomorrow's videogames will
Coast educational institutions want. Record the whole se involve a level of complexity
have incorporated it into parts quence. Now go back and edit close to that of film production,
of curricula or special projects. your movie. And play it. Guy Nouri believes. Hence, his
Other software designers are company, Interactive Picture
using it to design superior How many times have you Systems.
animation in their programs. sat through all of the cred Guy Nouri was born in Al
But perhaps most important its at the end of a movie? Prob pine, New Jersey. He attended a
to Nouri, it's for those "who ably not many. Most of us number of different schools, in
want to create their own stories, brush the popcorn off our laps cluding St. Paul's School and
their own computer movies." and head out, not particularly Princeton University, studying
Interested? You'll need to caring who the gaffer and best fine arts, art history, film, photog
spend about a week with Movie- boy were. raphy, and computer graphics.
Maker to grasp all of its capabili Making a major motion pic After two years at Prince
ties, but you can get started in ture these days can take hun ton, Guy walked into his advi
five minutes, and create a short dreds of crew members, millions sor's office for some class
animated sequence in less than of dollars, and many months, scheduling. He recalls: "My ad
a day. even years. visor looked at my records and
You'll go through all the But in their early days, said, 'You've already completed
steps that a real filmmaker or movies didn't require more than all your fine arts requirements,
animator would go through in a few people. One of the very but you haven't taken any
creating a short film, only you first films made was a few sec French or history or anything
make all the decisions yourself. onds long and consisted of a like that.'
By communicating with the man sneezing. The crew was the "That's right," Nouri re
program through the joystick cameraman and the guy who plied. So he packed up and left.
and keyboard, you'll create your sneezed. Nouri spent the next few
cast (either by selecting pre Movies have evolved, but years on the West Coast, work
defined people and animals, or the microcomputer industry is ing as an electrician to support
drawing your own), draw in still in its infancy. And most himself while he continued
scenery and add color, and ar videogames of the last decade painting and sculpting. His in
range your shapes into the se have been written by one per terest in microcomputers, piqued
quence that will be your story. son, sometimes involving input partly by what he saw going on
Next, add sound, titles, and by a few others. But production at Xerox PARC (Palo Alto

44 COMPUTEVs Gazette September 1984



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Research Center) in the early The roles of a movie crew are nicate in a kind of "meta
70s, led him to start a magazine, pretty well defined, and fa language," one which can best
Computer Pictures, in 1980. miliar to anyone who watches be described as a way of talking
It was about that time that movies. You've got actors, direc about states. What state is the
Nouri met Eric Podietz, who had tors, producers, writers, editors, program in? What state is the
been programming computers and a number of other technical user in? You have to link those
since he was a teenager at the and creative roles. up. "An awful lot of attention
University of Pennsylvania. Software design groups are and time is given to getting the
Podietz had formed his own not yet so compartmentalized. dialogue between the program
graphics software company and At Interactive Picture Systems, and player right," says Nouri.
created a package called Painter though, roles are evolving. So how does this partner
Power. There were basically five ship work, with its varying ar
The two joined forces on a people involved in the design eas of emphasis and its unique
graphics program called Paint and production of MovseMaker: form of communication? "We
(originally programmed on a Guy Nouri, Eric Podietz, Jimmy argue all the way down the
mini-computer by Dick Shoup) Snyder, Mark Scott, and Bob line," Nouri chuckles.
for the Capitol Children's Mu Svihovec. "Software engineers"
seum in Washington, D.C. The In creating MovieMakcr Jimmy Snyder and Mark Scott
program was a hit, and a part Nouri and Podietz were respon were also key to the develop
nership was born: Interactive sible for the overall project, as ment of MovieMaker. "Jimmy is
Picture Systems incorporated in well as many of the intricate de what we call a black box
1982, and Nouri and Podietz tails. Nouri describes Podietz maker," says Nouri. "He can
moved on to their next project. as the partner that sees things write these outrageous little
"We had done Paint. The on the inside, and himself as algorithms, these routines that
next step was to make it move, the one who sees them on the make things just zip across the
to animate it," says Nouri. outside. screen."
IPS approached a publisher This means Podietz con Mark's imagination and
with their idea, and were po cerns himself more with the programming skills were a ma
litely told that was impossible. actual task of programming. jor contributing factor to the
"You could barely get a paint "Eric builds the program from user-friendliness of the program.
program," they were told. the inside out," says Nouri. "He And Bob Svihovec, now art di
"Trust us," they replied. decides what has to be done to rector at IPS, did the animation.
"OK, show us some sam set up the program, how the Over the last two years, IPS
ples," the publisher countered. code has to be set up, where has grown to a staff of 20 soft
So Nouri and Podietz these newfangled data structures ware engineers, graphic artists,
showed them three animated will go." and various support people.
frames. Nouri, on the other hand, Their business office is a couple
"Keep trying," said the must constantly assess what he of rooms on Park Avenue in
publisher. calls the psychological interface, New York City, and their cre
Two months later, IPS had "I look at things like user ex ative work is done in seven
a ten-frame animated sequence periences and the marketplace," rooms on four floors of a
that would continue to loop he says. "That means looking at brownstone in Philadelphia.
without bombing. how someone feels as they ap Nouri believes strongly in
And they had a contract. proach the software, what their treating each of those 20 staff
MovicMakcr took five people expectations are, what they members as unique, creative in
two years to complete. The orig want to do, how they want to dividuals. The result, he says, is
inal cost estimate was $60,000, feel while they're doing it. a commitment from those people
but the final expense went over There's also a lot of care taken unattainable in any other way.
$200,000. "It was a labor of to the subject matter itself." That commitment has con
love," says Nouri. Nouri and Podietz commu tributed to the development of a
46 COMPUTED Gazelle September 1984
prolific crew of software de Nouri likens the major soft the ideas of others. He continues
signers. Besides Paint and ware developers over the next to hone his own artistic skills,
MovieMaker {published by Res- few years to professional sports and broaden his understanding
ton Publishing), IPS has done teams. "I think it's a lot more of how humans can effectively
an aerobics simulation for Spin like that than book authors or communicate with computers,
naker Software, and Operation rock and roll stars," he says. and with other people through
Frog, a simulation of a frog dis "There may be a few stars. computers.
section for Scholastic. They've And there will probably be a And he's quick to share the
recently signed a contract with kind of major league, a dozen or credit for IPS' success with all
Electronic Arts for a game that so famous teams of software de the other members of the team,
is "...more fun than a comic signers," he says. "I also don't and to praise the important con
book," according to Nouri. think there will be more than a tribution of sensitive publishers.
"Publishers are starting to dozen or so software publishing "Publishers would do well not
come to us and ask us what we houses, probably grouped by to treat software development
want to do," which Nouri be personality of the software, like like manufacturing, because it
lieves is the way it should be. "I business or entertainment." ain't," he says. "It. involves tal
think what we're going to see is If Nouri wants to be the ent, and it involves creative,
a lot of banding together of art Babe Ruth of the software temperamental, sensitive people.
ists over the next few years," he league, it's not obvious. He's There's a real balance to
says. humble. He's eager to listen to maintain." A

"The Rabbit" TELSTAR 64 - "A Star is Born"

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If you own a VIC 20 or a CBM 6d ana have been for the 64.
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a VIC 20 or CBM 64, almost as tosi as ihe 1Sdi Communicates in Industry Standard ASCII.
disk drive Line editing capability allows correcting and
The RABBIT is easy to install, allows one to Append resendinglong command lines.
Basic Programs, worts with or without Eipansion Memory. 9 Quick Read functions.
and prc/ides two data file modes. The RABBIT is not only fast but reliable. Similar to our famous STCP Terminal package
(The Rabbit for Ihe VIC 20 contains an eipansion connector so you
Works with Commodore Modems and supports
cansimjltaneously use your memory board, etc)
■L M JL ^" NOW Please for your own protection The best feature islhe price — only 549.95 (Cartridge
l\ #1 #\ L_ Tur rcct consider the MAE first before you and Manual)
llflM I '"""' buy thai other assembler We've
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Machine Language
how much belter the MAE is. Monitor Cartridge
The most powerful Macro Assembler) Ed I tor available for the
Commodore M and other CBMJPET computers, and also tor the
for the CBM 64
ATARI SC.C x: and Apple II. lit More than 20 commands allow you to access the
MAE includes an Assembler. Editor. Word Processor, Relocating CBM6<l's Microprocessors Registers and Memory
Loader, and more all for |us1 S59.95. Contents Commands include assemble, disassemble,
We could go on and describe Ihe MAE buiwB thought you would registers, memory, transfer, compare, plus many more
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COMPUTED Gazette Soplomber 1984 47

80 Columns For The 64
Gregg Peele, Assistant Programming Supervisor,
And Kevin Martin, Editorial Programmer

Did you ever wish for an 80-column contro! keys, just as you would normally, to in
screen? "Screen-80" transforms your 64 into sert or delete, home the cursor, clear the screen,
an 80-column machine without affecting or create BASIC program lines.
the normal screen editing keys. We've also Both uppercase/graphics and lower/upper
included "Custom-80," which allows you to case modes are supported in Screen-80, but you
create your own 80-column character set cannot toggle between these modes with the
with a joystick. SHIFT-Commodore key combination, Instead,
you can put the screen editor in lower-/upper-
case mode by pressing the CTRL and N keys
simultaneously, or by printing CHR$(14). To re
"Screen-80" offers a full 80-column screen and turn to uppercase/graphics mode, simply print
provides you the ability to use your 64 to write, CHR$(142) to the screen. These methods affect
edit, and even run BASIC programs (including only characters printed after these commands.
some commercial software). You can also use all Thus, you may have both sets (for example,
the cursor controls of the normal screen editor. It graphics and lowercase) on the screen at the
runs concurrently with the normal system, allow same time for increased programming flexibility.
ing a quick switch between 40- and 80-column You can change the color of the background,
modes. text, or border by simply POKEing the appro
Best of all, little memory is used by Screen- priate color number into location 53281 (for the
80. The program consists of approximately 3K of background), location 646 (for text), or location
machine language which goes into RAM "under 53280 (for the border). Changing text color
neath" ROM. There are also 43 bytes which are changes the color of all text on the screen. If you
placed in a little used area of RAM (locations want to change the background or text color dur
710-753). Since the bulk of Screen-80 uses the ing program mode, print a CHR$(13) after
same memory locations as the operating system, POKEing the appropriate location. Since color
and the location of the 43 bytes used from RAM memory is fixed on the 64, it's impossible to
are normally unused anyway, Screen-80 works have true 80-column color. Therefore, Screen-80
without any apparent loss of programming space. does not recognize color codes in PRINT state-

Using 80 Columns
Once you enter 80-column mode, the first thing I I I
you're likely to notice is the smaller size charac
ters. Since increasing the size of the screen is U <&Hti Fflt IS (UMMK (1
impossible, adding 40 more columns to the 64 d

makes it necessary to halve the size of each

character. Some televisions may not produce a
clear enough picture to make these smaller
characters readable, so you may find it difficult
to read text in 80 columns. We recommend using BsssmtHSPii

a video monitor with the color turned off. You

may want to change the character set to suit your
personal taste or needs. "Custom-80" (discussed
later) is designed to let you do just that.
Screen-80 provides a different cursor than
does the normal 40-column mode. Rather than a
blinking block, it uses an underline character; but
like the normal cursor, it can move anywhere on Graphics, upper- and lowercase can he displayed
the screen. In fact, you can use all the cursor simultaneously with Screen-80.

48 COMPUTE's Gateno September! 984

Outrageous offer? Not Timeworks exclusive X-Search,7" X-Sort™ and
really For your Commo X-Chart™ features allow you to easily cross-search
dore 64, we're putting our any of the categories. Or arrange your stored items
money where our mouth in increasing or decreasing order, alphabetically,
is, because the Timeworks numerically or by date. Break down statistical infor
Word Writer and Time- mation by up to ten indexed categories of your
works Data Manager 2 choice — and graphically
are so complete — so ex review your results.
tremely easy to use, we Arithmetic calculation
think nothing beats them of your mathematical
at any price, (Our suggest data is possible, allowing
ed retail prices are: S49.95 you to perform Payroll cal
for Word Writer. S49.95 for culation, cost estimates
Data Manager 2.) and more. Data Man
ager 2 also produces the
Word Writer
Sum, Average and Stan
This menu-driven system includes: dard Deviation of statis
A program which can be used by itself (stand tical data entered into the
alone), or interfaced with Timeworks' Data Manager system, along with Fre
or Data Manager 2, enabling you to maintain and quency Charts.
print out name and address lists, create individu
alized form letters automatically, and produce When interfaced together, these programs:
customized reports up to 20 columns wide, which Generate customized data reports, which can be
can be incorporated into any text produced by the incorporated into any written text produced.
Word Writer. Individually address and print form letters
Two plastic keyboard overlays which place automatically.
the word processing commands directly onto Print your name and address file onto standard
the keyboard. mailing labels.
A full screen format (up to 80 characters) which Transfer and print text information onto labels
simplifies your text entry and editing. and tags.
All the essential features —plus some exclusive Calculated numerical data from column to
Timeworks extras — making this system completely column, giving these programs spread-sheet
functional for most home & business requirements. capabilities.
Data Manager 2 So, if you can find anything better, simply send us
your Word Writer or your Data Manager 2, your
This system includes: paid receipt, and the name of the word writer or
Amenu-driven program that easily lets you store data base system you want. If it's available, we'll
information on a wide variety of subjects - from buy it for you."
general name and address lists, to research data, Now at your favorite dealer, Or contact Time-
This program will also calculate and store any works. Inc., PO. Box 321. Deeriield, IL 60015. Phone
corresponding numerical data. 312-948-920Q
Quick access to important information. Items can
be easily retrieved and printed by category, name,
index code, date range, amount range, or any
category of information stored in the system.


■ 'Now (or Ihe small pnnl Oiler applies lo Commodore only, vnlh maximum sugaesieil retail pncos of SI2S 00 each [or any oicfianged progran-
OBer oipire; 45 days after dale ol your purchase
'[)i>0l?lorod Trademark ol Commodore Computer Systems 019K3 Timeworks. [nc All rights reserved.
V - GET CHARACTER FROM SUFFER Using sprites in Screen-80 requires all sprite
SCREEN 80 data to be kept within the same 16K block as the
JOVSUCK CONTROLS CURSOR MDUEHENT hi-res screen. Locations 49152 ($C000) to 53247
ON SEIS AND RESETS PIXELS ($CFFF) are perfect places to put sprite data. The
sprite pointers for Screen-80 are located at
53248 + 2040 to 53248 + 2047. To cause sprite 0
to get its data from 49152 ($C000), put a zero
into location 53248 + 2040. Since POKEs to this
area of memory are normally intercepted by the
I/O chip, we must disable interrupts and I/O to
put a value into these locations. Here's a pro
gram to put a sprite onto the screen:
10 V = 53248
20 POKE V,100:POKE V+1,100
Redefining characters is easy with Custom-80.
30 POKE V+39,2
40 POKE 56334,PEEK(56334)AND254
50 POKE 1,PEEK(1)AND251
ments as being any different from other graphics 60 POKE 53248+2040,0
characters. All printing to the screen uses the 70 POKE 1,PEEK(1)OR4
color specified in location 646. 80 POKE 56334,PEEK(56334)OR1
90 POKE V+21,1

Graphics And Sound Routines Creating sound from within Screen-80 is

Screen-80 can be used with sprites, high-resolution
done exactly the same way as from the normal
screen. In fact, since you want to POKE the
graphics, and sound—just like the normal 64
information to the SID chip (in the I/O area),
screen. Since this program actually uses a hi-res
you don't have to disable interrupts or do any
screen, you can also use it for other graphics dis
bank switching, as was necessary for hi-res
plays. You can even have text and hi-res graph
graphics or sprites. The normal POKEs will do.
ics on the screen at the same time. (Check your
Programmer's Reference Guide for more detailed
information on now to plot points on the hi-res Using Other Programs With
screen.) Screen-80
To plot points (or do anything else) to the This program is designed to intercept any calls to
hi-res screen, it is important to know how to the normal Kernal PRINT routine ($FFD2). Soft
POKE and PEEK to the screen. The hi-res screen ware which bypasses this routine or POKEs di
for Screen-80 is located at 57344 (SEOOO). Since rectly to the screen will not work correctly with
this screen memory shares addresses with ROM, Screen-80. An example of a program which by
you may POKE graphics safely to the screen, but passes the PRINT vector is the DOS wedge pro
attempting to PEEK from the screen will give you gram (on the TEST/DEMO disk which comes
values from the ROMs. To PEEK these screen with 1541 disk drives). Fortunately, this problem
locations, you must first disable interrupts, then can easily be fixed by changing all PRINTs to
use location 1 to reconfigure the 64. Location 1 pass through the standard vector. This program,
allows you to selectively replace ROM locations when used in place of the normal DOS boot pro
with RAM—making it possible to have a full 64K gram ("C-64 Wedge"), changes these references.
of RAM on the 64. Once you reconfigure the 64,
10 IF A=0THENA=1:LOADHDOS 5.1",8,1
you can PEEK locations on the screen. Since the 20 F0RI=lTO7 i READ A:POKEA,210: POKE A+l
operating system must access the ROMs to func ,255:NEXT
tion properly, you must immediately restore the 30 DATA 52644,52650,52712,52726,52752,527
64 to its normal configuration and re-enable 65,53075
interrupts. Here's an example of how to do it in 40 SYS 52224

BASIC: With these changes, the DOS support program

will work with Screen-80.
10 POKE 56334,PEEK(56334)AND254:REM DISAB One of the best applications of Screen-80 is
with terminal software. We tested Screen-80 with
the terminal software that comes with the
{SPACE]BYTE OF SCREEN RAM VICmodem and the 1650 Automodem by Com
40 POKE 1,55iREM RETURN 64 TO NORMAL modore. Since both programs use the standard
50 COMPUTE!'* Gazette September 1984
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PRINT vector, they work fine. Programs which 51240. To load Custom-80, type:
depend on sprites should be avoided, as should LOAD"CUSTOM-80",8,1 (for disk)
programs which move screen memory or other LOAD"CUSTOM-80",1,1 (for tape)
wise change the normal configuration of the 64. After loading it into memory, type NEW to
SpeedScrtpt does not use the PRINT vector reset the BASIC pointers. Next, LOAD Screen-80
at $FFD2 to update the screen, which makes it into memory and SYS 49152. This puts you in
incompatible with Screen-80.
Custom-80 and, at the same time, accesses the
character set included with Screen-80.
How To Enter And Use The Screen-80 character set is displayed in
Screen-80 the lower half of the screen, while the current
character being edited is framed by a yellow
Like most machine language programs in COM-
cursor. In the upper-left corner of the screen the
PUTEl's GAZETTE, Screen-80 is listed in MLX for
mat. That means you must first type in the MLX character is enlarged for editing, and brief
instructions are provided to the right.
program and then use it to enter Screen-80. The
newest version of MLX has a built-in numeric
keypad to ease the burden of typing all those Customizing Characters
numbers (see the MLX article for details). Ini You can choose which character you want to edit
tially, Screen-80 resides in the same area as the by moving the cursor around the screen using
beginning of BASIC. To protect MLX from being the joystick or the cursor keys. The flashing blue
overwritten by Screen-80, we'll use a starting ad square indicates the current pixel in the character
dress of 49152 and an ending address of 52811. you are editing. To set the pixel, press the fire
Once you've entered the program and saved it to button on the joystick. To reset the pixel, press
tape or disk, turn your computer off and then on the fire button again.
again. Press SHIFT and CLR/HOME to clear all the
Now LOAD the program from disk or tape pixels in the character you're editing. {This will
using the normal format for LOADing BASIC not affect the characters previously edited.) To
programs: home the cursor to the first character, press
CLR/HOME without pressing SHIFT, To copy a
load "filename".8 (for disk)
LOAD "filename" (for tape) character from one position to another, press fl
to store the current character into the buffer.
Notice that we LOADed our program without
Then move the cursor to the new position of the
the ,1 that generally accompanies ML programs.
character and press i7 to retrieve it from the
If the program loaded correctly, you can LIST it.
You should see one line with a SY5 command.
Pressing S saves the character set to tape or
Simply RUN the program and you'll have
disk as a short program file. It can then be
Screen-80. Pressing RUN/STOP-RESTORE will
loaded back into memory with the L command.
put you into 40-column mode, and typing
When loading or saving, you will first be asked
SYS710 and pressing RETURN will bring back
for the name of the file, then asked to press T for
80 columns. You can make a backup copy by
tape or D for Disk. If an error occurs during a
simply saving it as you would a BASIC program:
save "filename''^ (for disk)
save "filename" (for tape)

At this point, type NEW to begin programming 7V htjl

At lf("tlW«
in 80 columns. ft] O"T M it<«t!)l

I-; \ ■■ ' i: ■' ih ) flit; . .i'".«miH7H

Custom-80: Creating Your Own

Character Set
i»1w* it 'fe t«f«t Hliticwil
"Custom-80" {Program 2) allows you to create
your own character set for use with Screen-80.
It's easy to use and requires a joystick. Ml ifi'llKftilfSti itfU't CVIjiM Mjilitt !
Custom-80 "borrows" the character set from tf( Millilt-
Screen-80 and then moves it to a safe location in
memory for editing. After editing, you can return ti) it«S.":Htil5*
1 ltli:itvlT!rtl.tfllI M llCU. -WW
tt ffiilittttt wnkf h lih it itti, tf"-H-iil'Mttf ttrt It nfa ulkii
the custom characters to the Screen-80 program, Kttk
or save your new character set to disk or tape. rob.

Like Screen-80, it's in MLX format. The starting

address is 49152 and the ending address is
Programming in BASIC with 80 columns.
52 COMPUTED Gazalta September 1984
disk operation, the program will return with the How It Works
error message.
First, Custom-80 performs a block memory move
If you wish to make the new character set a of the character set data from Screen-80 to 12288
permanent part of Screen-80, press X. This puts ($3000). This is done to make it easier to display
the redefined character set back into Screen-80 the character set at the bottom of the screen.
and exits to BASIC. You can then save the new Next, a raster interrupt splits the screen to
version of Screen-80 to disk with the redefined show both the redefined character set and the
characters already in the program by entering: normal character set. The instructions and the
SAVE"SCREEN-80",l (for tape) enlarged character are printed on the top half of
SAVE"SCREEN-80",8 (for disk) the screen. The enlarged character is a 4 X 8
The next time you run Screen-80, you'll have matrix of reverse SHIFT-Os. Before entering the
your new character set in the program, main loop, all variables are initialized.
If you wish to use various character sets The main loop has two major routines. The
with Screen-80, you should save the character first routine checks the joystick and keyboard. If
sets to tape or disk using the method just dis a key is pressed, the appropriate flag is set.
cussed and load the individual character sets by Pressing X sends the program to the routine that
using Program 3 while in Screen-80. This pro moves the character set back into Screen-80. The
gram LOADs the new character set into Screen- S key saves a character set, while the L key loads
80 after it is activated. When the program a character set.
prompts you for the name of the character set The second routine prints the enlarged
you want to load, enter the filename, comma, character on the screen. If any flags were set, this
and the number of the device you want to LOAD routine handles them. It takes care of the save-
the character set from. Use 8 for disk, 1 for tape. to-buffer routine, the get-from-buffer routine, the
One important note: You cannot SYS to clear-character routine, and the routine that
Custom-80 from Screen-80. You must press handles the flashing of the blue cursor in the en
RUN/STOP-RESTORE to leave Screen-80 before larged character.
typing SYS 49152 to run Custom-80. See program listings on page 158. W

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COMPUTEVs Gazette September 19B4 53

SpeedScript Customize!
J. Blake Lambert, Assistant Editor

When "SpeedScript" was first published,

Original default
we didn't imagine how popular it would settings are lifted
become with gazette readers. One of the below:
left Margin ? lfl ;
j| V8
most frequently asked questions is how to right Margin
page length ? 66 ,
change the default settings and formatting top Margin ? 5
? 58
button Margin
commands to suit individual preferences. spacing, 't l
fanfold(n=8/y=l>? 8 |
This short program is the solution. It modi [CTRL] £ 1 = 7 27
fies SpeedScript with values you choose, [CTRL] £ 2 - ? 14
[CTRL! £ 3 = ? 15
creating a new version which can be saved [CTRL] £ 4 « ' ? 18
[CTRL! £ 5 =' ? 2B
to tape or disk. For the VIC (with at least [CTRL] £ 6 ■i ? 89
[CTRL! I 7 " ? v
8K expansion) and the 64. ' ? 1
ICTRL] £ 8 ■
[CTRL1 £ 3 Ei ? 88
Sontinue or Qerun. !

If you use either version of SpeedScript with a

VIC or 64, tape or disk, this customizer program
will be a real timesaver. It allows you to
predefine background and character coior, left, SpcedScript Customizer allows you to set your own val
ues for margins, spacing, paper style, and printer codes.
right, top, and bottom margins, page length, line
spacing, and to select single sheet or fanfold
(continuous pinfeed) paper. In addition, you can
defined in the same way as before; we're just
change or add values for the predefined format
changing the default values, what SpeedScript
ting codes used for printing.
thinks is "normal." It doesn't destroy the orig
"SpeedScript Customizer" fixes the new
inal, it just creates new, personalized copies. You
page command in SpeedScript 1.0 (January) for
could, for example, have one version of Speed-
the 64, and corrects an error in the predefined
Script for writing business letters, one for per
values of the version printed in COMPUTE'.s
sonal letters, and another for writing reports.
Second Book of 64.
In short, you can make your own personal
How To Use SpeedScript
ized copies of SpeedScript with any values you
choose. The Customizer doesn't improve Speed- Customizer
Script; it lets you teach SpeedScript to do things First type in Programs 1 and 2, and SAVE them.
your way (until it is otherwise notified). Once (Make sure to name Program 2 "CUST.SS" so
you've used SpeedScript enough to know what that it will load properly.) Next, LOAD and RUN
values you prefer, you're ready to use the Program 1, the Customizer Boot. This automati
Customizer. cally loads and runs Program 2. The Customizer
For example, you may prefer to print docu will prompt you to insert the version of Speed-
ments single spaced with margins at 10 and 70, Script written for your computer, then ask for a
using single sheets of paper. You may also need filename. Enter the filename of the SpeedScript
to be able to send special codes to the printer to version on your tape or disk and press RETURN.
access all of its features, such as emphasized Press d for disk or t for tape at the prompt, and
characters, underlining, special symbols, etc. as soon as it finishes loading, the Customizer will
SpeedScript allows you to assign formatting display which version it has found. (For example,
codes at the beginning of a document, but you VIC SpeedScript vl means you're using a VIC
have to define them every time you want to use and the SpeedScript published in the January
them. 1984 issue.) This message is then followed by the
It's possible to set up format files and SAVE color selection screen.
them if you like, but it's simpler to use the Cus Not all monitors have perfect picture resolu
tomizer to SAVE your personalized version(s) of tion, and many of us use a TV for a computer
the program instead. The values can still be re- monitor. So, it's nice to be able to select the color
54 COMPUTE! s Gazette September 19B4
Thanks To CompuServe's
CB Simulator,
"Digital Fox"Accessed "Data Hari"And
Proceeded To An "Altared" State.
The CB Simulator, where That'll fool the "lurkers; those CB You can access CompuServe
CompuServe Subscribers can "see it alls" who get their kicks with almost any computer and
Access Friends and Influence by watching. Or you can always use modem, terminal or communicating
People on 72 Different the private talk mode for guaranteed word processor.
Channels. one-to-one conversation. To receive your illustrated
The CB Simulator is just one guide to the CompuServe Information
Just pick your handle and get of CompuServe's many electronic Service and learn how to subscribe,
on line. From math to matrimony, communications options that call or contact:
there's always someone out there include a National Bulletin Board,
who speaks your language. Friends Professional Forums and Electronic
from all over the U.S. and Canada are Mail. Plus, there's a world of on-line CompuServe
at it 24 hours a day. Talking tech or information and entertainment all Consume/ I 5«vi de PO Bo>20212
5000 fclmqinn Oilpe Blwl ColumCus OH 43220
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An H&F! Block Company

of the background and characters, which Speed- • Top margin: Sets the default for [t]. This is
Script allows with the CTRL-b and CTRL-1 com the number of blank lines at the top of the page.
mands. But if you CLEAR ALL TEXT, the Should be 5 or more.
program returns to the default colors (the colors • Bottom margin: Sets the [b] default. This is
that were there when you first ran the program). the page length minus the number of lines you
The color selection screen in the Customizer al would like at the bottom of the page. You can
lows you to flip through the background colors think of this as the top margin added to the
with the fl key and through the character colors number of lines you want to print. Should be 58
with the f3 key. Some people like to use a dark or less when using standard paper, and always at
gray or black background with light green least 8 less than the page length.
characters, to emulate a green screen monitor.
When you find a combination that suits you, • Spacing: SpeedScript's [s] function. Use a 1
press RETURN. for single spacing between lines of text, a 2 for
double spacing, and so forth.

Changing The Default Values • Paper styie selection: Works like the [w]
After you've set the letter and background colors, command. Answer 0 and SpeedScript will wait
another menu appears. The program will ask you for you to press RETURN after printing each
to enter a series of values for the default values. page of text. Allows you to use single sheets of
If you choose not to change a setting, simply paper more easily. The default value, 1, signals
press RETURN and the original default will re continuous pinfeed paper, but you can still use
main unaltered. Here are a few tips on setting the [w] command when you wish.
the values correctly: The user-definable reverse video numbers
• Left margin: Sets the default value for the can also be preset in this section of the program.
[1] function (obtained by holding down the CTRL The first four of these probably should not be re
key and pressing the £ key, then pressing 1) in defined. If you often share files with friends, you
should consider standardizing your use of pre
SpeedScript. As on a typewriter, the left margin
defined numbers. (See below for tips on setting
is the distance {number of spaces) from the left
edge of the page before characters are printed. It the user-definable codes.)
After setting the values, the program will ask
should be at least 1. For a one inch margin with
if you wish to continue or rerun. Check the values
normal (pica, ten characters per inch) type, set
this value to 10. With other print sizes, multiply and press r if you find any errors (the program
will start over from the beginning). Otherwise,
the margin width you want (in inches) by the
number of characters per inch. press C to continue, then enter the filename you
• Right margin: Sets the default value for the want to use for your new customized version of
[r] function. This is the preferred distance from SpeedScript and press RETURN.
the last character on a line to the right edge of Make sure to give the new SpeedScript a
the paper, subtracted from the number 80. You unique name so that when you have several
can also think of this as the left margin plus the copies saved you'll know which one to load.
number of characters per line you want to print. (SpeedScript Customizer doesn't allow the SAVE
With 8Vj inch wide paper and [I] set at 10, make with replace option, so you can't destroy the
[r] 70 for a one-inch right margin. original SpeedScript while using the Customizer.)
• Page length: This value has no correspond Remember that no matter what version you use,
ing function in SpeedScript. It is the number of the default values can still be changed using the
lines that fit on a page, preset at 66, since stan CTRL-E commands in SpeedScript.
dard paper is 11 inches long and most printers When the program finishes, it resets the
print six lines per inch. If you want to use BASIC pointers and saves your modified
personalized (nonstandard) stationery or legal- SpeedScript. If all goes well, the program will
size paper, you would change the value accord automatically RUN your new version. Disk users
ingly (inches of length times six). Also, some should check the error channel by pressing the
printers or interfaces allow you to change the up-arrow key while holding down CTRL, then
spacing between lines to print eight lines per pressing RETURN. Next, look at the directory
inch on standard paper. Once you've set the using SpeedScript's CTRL-4 command. Tape
printer into this mode (you may have to flip a users can recover from errors (for example, if
switch on the interface or send a special code to RECORD was not down during the SAVE) by
the printer), change the page length value in pressing RUN/STOP-RESTORE, then typing
SpeedScript to 88 (lines per inch times length of SAVE "new filename",l followed by RETURN. If
paper in inches). Remember to change the bot the program does not execute properly, remem
tom margin, too. ber to turn the computer off, then on again

56 COMPUTEI's Gazette September 19B4

A EH»jiwHtk ProfrftH forllit CoM«dor« M

I 'fr'siIir&UFiC.

C*»H (HI rjiglt l^<rT.

1 am >rn> '
!A™«-; '
InitiiUi) - .
■•fii r«t

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before doing other programming. This will reset A simple machine language monitor, BASIC
the memory pointers to prevent problems and PEEKing loop, or even an MLX listing would be
free up the memory space used by the enough to find the definition table; just look for
Customizer. consecutive memory locations that hold 5, 75,
66, 5, 58, 2, 1, 27, 14, 15, 18, 0, 0, 0, 0, 0 (the
How SpeedScript Customizer values that are predefined). The variable DT in
the Customizer would need to be set equal to the
Works memory location that holds the first value (5) in
The Customizer is an example of how to have the list above. The locations referenced by the
two programs in memory at the same time, using variables BL and LL might need to be readjusted,
one program to modify the other. This technique as well.
is described in COMPUTE!'s Mapping the Com
Line 150 of Program 2 determines which table
modore 64. to use for POKEing the BASIC pointers to the
Program 1 (line 8) determines whether the right values before saving the modified version
computer in use is a VIC or 64 by using the of SpeedScript. When a SAVE is performed in
Kernal SCREEN routine. This checks the number BASIC, the start address of the block of memory
of columns, 22 for a VIC, 40 for a 64. (This is to be saved is contained in locations 43 and 44
how the "MENU" program on the gazette DISK (in standard low-byte/high-byte form). The top
knows if you have a VIC or 64.) Based on which of the block to be saved is one position below
computer it finds, it adjusts the start of BASIC to the value contained in locations 45 and 46 (called
a point above where SpeedScript normally re the start of BASIC variables, stored in the same
sides in memory. The boot program prints the format).
necessary commands on the screen, then fills the
Lines 160-168 print the statements to per
keyboard buffer (a small area of memory that
form the POKEs and to save and run the new
temporarily stores character information) with a
SpeedScript; they also fill the keyboard buffer
HOME character, two RETURNS, an exclamation
with a HOME character, three RETURNS, an
point, and the code for LOAD and RUN (because
exclamation point, and the code for LOAD and
of the exclamation point, the computer ignores
RUN. The Customizer vanishes from sight as it is
the LOAD command and performs the RUN).
replaced by SpeedScript. (Actually, it's still high
This is how it boots (automatically loads and in memory, but is now unavailable for use.)
runs) Program 2.
The Customizer again checks which com More On Sending Printer Codes
puter is in use and sets the values of several vari
Most printer codes are easy to send, and are
ables. Line 50 of Program 2 loads SpeedScript
listed in the printer and interface manuals. Gemini
into its usual place in memory. That explains the
Star and Epson (Graftrax) owners, for example,
extra ,1 at the end of the LOAD command. The
can send the ESCape code (CTRL-E 1, repre
computer ignores SpeedScript, though, since it is
sented in this article by [1]) followed by a 4 in
below the current start of BASIC.
the text of the SpeedScript file on the screen to
Next, it tests to see which version of cause the printer to print in italics. To turn the
SpeedScript is currently in memory by PEEKing italics print off, send [1]5. Some interfaces,
a designated memory location. It then tells you including the Tymac Connection, require sending
what it has found (lines 56-64). Lines 66-86 the ESCape code twice when using emulation
handle the default color selection, and INPUT mode. (If you have problems, refer to your
statements allow you to change the normal val printer/interface manual or "SpeedScript Revis
ues for print formatting (lines 88-122). ited" in the May GAZETTE.)
To make the program work with al! versions Some printer features require three codes to
of SpeedScript, Program 2 contains its own defi be sent, though. On the Gemini Star, for example,
nition tables. Three of these tables are located in the code to trigger the continuous underlining
lines 128-132. Depending on what version of mode is ESC —1. Sending this to SpeedScript as
SpeedScript is in memory, one of these tables [1] —1 doesn't work though. To send the codes
will be used to point to the location in properly, you need only define a reverse video
SpeedScript that holds the background color number to the value 1. Since [1] is already used
(BL), letter color (LL), and the start of by SpeedScript, we'll use [8]. From within
SpeedScript's definition table (DT). Line 134 SpeedScript, this would look like: [8] = 1 (the
POKEs these locations with the values you have Customizer allows you to set default values for
assigned in Customizer. the reverse video numbers, so they don't have to
If any future versions of SpeedScript become be defined on the screen). Then, simply insert
available, the pointers in the Customizer can be [1] —[8] immediately before the text you wish to
changed so that it will modify the new versions. underline. That's fine, but now let's turn it off.
58 COMPUTErs Gazette September 1984
I eyond Compare

Organizing your tax return has never been easier.
Introducing The New 64-ACCOUNTING offers up to 10 checking ledgers
for those special home and business accounts.
64-ACCOUNTING SYSTEM. Teams with your printer to write checks, print
statements, profit and loss and trial balance sheets.
If you can't put your finger on your total financial
Even offers mini accounts receivable and accounts
picture, we've got the answer. Software Design, Inc.
payable ledgers.
has a personal software accounting package
designed for your Commodore 64 ■. PRACTICAL BUDGETING
Even if you're all thumbs, we offer a support line Control your expenses with the 64-ACCCXJrHTING
and an easy-to-follow manual written in plain SYSTEM'S budgeting ledgers. Monitoryour past
English. Created for home and small business expenses against projected costs. It's so versatile you
demands, the 64-ACCOUhTIMG SYSTEM puts can select year-to-date totals or any span of months
financial management at your fingertips. for comparison budgeting.
Plan your financial future around the 64-
ACCOUNTING SYSTEM. There may never bea
Design your own financial statementwith no rigid
better time than now. $69.95. To order call
account number system, and with flexible subtotal
1-800-553-0002. In Iowa call 1-800-772-5771.
possibilities. Take the guesswork out of checkbook
balancing. Distribute checks and receipts to 20 Dealer and distributor inquiries welcome
separate accounts. Establish monthly, quarterly, or
yearly accounting periods. 64-ACCOCJrfTIFHG
expands with your financial management needs.
For use with Commodore 64" and disk drive.
Copyright 1983 — Software Design, Inc.
Commodore 64 is a IBgiSeicd trademark of Commodore Business Machine), (nc RO. Box 570, Waterloo, Iowa 50704
The code sequence for turning off the Some printers use only DIP switches to in
continuous underline feature of the Gemini is voke foreign character sets, so they won't take
ESC —0. Unless it is defined otherwise, the de these codes; just flip the right switches and you'll
fault value of [9] in SpeedScript is zero. So, we'll have it. After selecting the character set you wish
place the following group of characters on the to use, some of the special characters may be ob
screen after the word or phrase we want under tained from the keyboard and some will require
lined: [1] —[9]. Any three-character code sequence the use of the user-definable reverse video num
can be sent in this manner to the printer, so the bers in SpeedScript. Compare the printer manual
Gemini's foreign character sets can be accessed and the Commodore ASCI! chart in the Pro
by SpeedScript. See the following table of printer grammer's Reference Guide and experiment. A
codes for the Gemini, and if you have another closed bracket (]) in the text on the screen in
printer, refer to your manual and see how many SpeedScript with the Spanish character set ac
features you can access. We've used SpeedScript tivated, for example, would cause an inverted
to operate letter quality printers as well, and it question mark to be printed (if you're using a
works fine if you redefine the codes to match Gemini printer).
those that the interface and printer will accept. Even when using the normal character set,
symbols on the screen obtained by pressing the
Commodore logo key will cause the printer's (or
SpeedScript Format To Access
the interface's) characters to be printed. You can
Selected Gemini and Epson (Grattrax)
access a good number of graphics and special
characters (most of the printer's characters with
(This table uses these preset values in addition to ASCII codes from 161 to 191) from within
the predefined default settings: [5]=20 [8]=1
SpeedScript this way. Just compare the ASCII
charts in the printer and computer manuals.
[2] enlarged (double-width) print (cleared when a
Other features are available by defining the
carriage return character is sent)
[3] condensed print (use [5] instead with some reverse video numbers. For example, to have the
interfaces)" printer backspace one character (this allows you
[4] pica print to print accent marks), just define a reverse video
[5] cancel enlarged print (use [3] instead with number to the value 8 (some printer/interface
some interfaces)"
combinations will interpret this value as a graph
fl)4 italics on*
ics command, so consult your manual and define
[1]5 italics off*
[1JE emphasized on* the number as you need it). Then, whenever
[1JF emphasized off* SpeedScript finds the reverse video number in
|1]G double-strike on* the text, it will backspace. To activate the print
[I]H double-strike off* er's internal buzzer during a printout, you could
[1]O disable skip-over perforation
define one of the reverse video numbers to the
[1]S[8] subscripts on
[1]S[9] superscripts on value 7 and place the defined number in the text
(I]T sub/superscripts and unidirectional printing off where you wish, even in the footer.
[1)U[8] unidirectional printing on If you get confused about all the codes,
[l]U[9j unidirectional off remember that the first place to go for answers is
[1]W[8] double-wide printing on (alternate method, not
the manual. If things don't work right, keep try
cleared by a carriage return character)
[1]W[9] double-wide printing off (alternate method) ing. Keep track of where you've been and you'll
[1]Y[8] enable buzzer know where to go in the future. Some printer
}l]Y[9] disable buzzer functions will not work while others are in effect.
[1J—[8] underline on For example, some printers will not print super
[l)-[9] underline off
scripts while printing in emphasized mode, but
• indicates this command works for Epson Craftrax. automatically double-strike the superscript data.
•• Some interfaces, notably CARDCO and XETEC, If you can't get signals through the interface at
swap these two codes, CHR$(15) and CHRS(20).
first, try using SpeedScript's CTRL-P command
and resetting the secondary address to the inter
To access foreign character sets, send [1]7[7] face's transparent (no ASCII correction) mode. In
after defining [7] to one of the following values: most cases, once the printer is set it will stay in
0 = American that mode until you send codes to change it (or
1 - British until you turn the power off somewhere in the
2 = German system).
3 = Danish One final note: Whenever you want to in-
4 ■= French
ciude a memo about a file you are SAVEing, use
5 = Swedish
6 = Italian a SHIFT-SPACE to separate the filename from
7 = Spanish the memo. For example, if you want to SAVE a
60 COMPUTED Gaielte September 1984
note about City League Baseball with the name
"clb" and have a note in the directory that says
"spdscr" (to indicate it is a SpeedScript file), en
ter the filename as below: MACHINE LANGUAGE
SAVE:clb[SHIFT-SPACE]spdscr (in SpeedScript; a • Write Fast-action Arcada-styla graphics
small dot will appear where the [SHIFT-SPACE] was en • Fully ubo the Music synthesizer
• Completely understand Ihe Computer
tered), or
• Develop your skills inventory
Learn with the Tutorial that comes complete with
The file will LIST in the directory as follows a Fullset of professional quality development tools.

(assuming it is 4 blocks long):

DEVELOP-64 4.0
You can then LOAD the file with the short name
(CLB) or the long name (CLBfSHIFT- FAST!!!
Assembles 2500 Unas of code In under 20 seconds!
SPACE]SPDSCR). • Full Macro and conditional assembly capacity • 2600
See program listings on page 153. Of lines of code In memory. Expandable to 17,000 on disk
• Assemble direct to disk or memory ■ Co-resident
full-screen editor (with search, replace, copy, move) and
Debugger and Decoder • Decoder disassembles programs
on disk or In memory • Built-in disk wedge • Program trace
single step, execute • Set 10 breakpoints and/or go-points

To receive additional • Full-screen memory display and modify

PLUS the Machine Language Programmer's Bible:
information from advertisers
"Inside the Commodore 64"

in this issue, use the 69 95

handy reader service cards Plus S3 GOposlDuii anil handling.

in the back of the

magazine. P.O. Box 7096 Minneapolis, MN 55407
Call Toll-Free 1-600-3280145
or in Minnesota calf: (612) 871-4505

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COMPUTEVs Gatotto Sopiember 1984 61

trol car jump. To increase the
Three Arcade Games For car's speed, push the stick to the
right; the car slows down when
The VIC-20 you move it to the left. The la
ser cannons (which simulta
neously shoot straight up and
Steve Hudson, Assistant Editor straight ahead) are controlled by
the fire button,
There are a lot of arcade games The beat is divided into two
for the VIC-20. Some are ho- patrol routes. One is designated
hum; others are pretty good. But the "beginner" route, for obvi
a few of them are really worth ous reasons, while the other is
knowing about—and three of known as the "champion"
the best, Moon Patrol, Jungle route. There aren't many cham
Hunt, and Pole Position, have re pions left. A calibrated scale at
cently been released by Atari as the top of the screen shows how
part of the Atarisoft series. You must clear yawning craters in a
far you have gone (and how far
Atarisoft games are conver single bound while watching out for
there is to go), and you can se
sions of popular Atari games for attackers from above in Moon Patrol.
lect the route to patrol by press
use on other computers. They satellites, and even enemy patrol ing f5. Press f3 if you're on
may be just what you've been cars. It was a sector from which patrol by yourself; press it again
waiting for if you're an arcade experienced officers rarely re if someone else is coming along.
fan. But even if you don't own a turned, let alone inexperienced Pressing the fl key starts
joystick, these games offer excit rookies. things rolling. Actually,
ing and entertaining evidence of But that's where you "bumping" might be a better
what the VIC can do. After see ended up. description of the ride. It's
ing them in action, you may "It'll toughen you up," said rough out on the lunar land
find you're more of an arcade the captain. scape, even with those big bal
fan than you thought. "It's a challenge," said the loon tires to cushion the ride.
sergeant. The wheels follow the dips in
Moon Patrol "It's a perfect job," said the terrain as your car moves
You had always wanted a job your partner. "Just be sure through the smoothly scrolling
with the Luna City Police De you've made out your will." landscape, and they automati
partment, so you were thrilled Unfortunately, the will was cally retract whenever you make
when they finally made the one of the things you never got an antigravity jump to clear a
offer. around to. Just too busy packing crater or obstacle. Some barriers,
"You'll like it here," said the up to move to Luna City. With like rocks, can be blasted with
captain. a shrug, you climb into the pa the laser. Others you'll have to
"Great place to work," said trol car. jump. You hear that there are
the sergeant. You'll just have to survive. even a few that sneak up on
"It's a perfect job," said Fortunately, you have help. you from behind, requiring
your partner. "Unless you get That patrol car is the very latest, some fancy anti-gravity
assigned to Sector Nine." with a built-in antigravity jumpwork. Could.they be the
Sector Nine. You'd heard jumper and laser cannons. Each dreaded enemy patrol cars?
rumors about it: a wasteland is controlled by a single lever Whatever they are, they're
plagued with tanks, small rocks, (which looks suspiciously like a worth 800 points apiece. You
large rocks, and mines, not to joystick), and you only have to also get points for blasting rocks
mention small craters, large cra push the joystick—uh, lever— or flying saucers, for knocking
ters, rolling rocks, flying saucers, away from you to make the pa down hostile satellites, for
62 COMPUTE!* Gazette Septembef 1984
jumping obstacles, and for Finally, you reach the far
dodging rolling rocks. bank. There, at the top of a long
Realizing the difficulty of slope, is the cannibal village,
your assignment, the Depart where your beloved awaits your
ment has given you four patrol rescue. Up the slope you go, but
cars (one for starters and three the natives are rolling boulders
in reserve). They've also given down the hill to stop you. Fired
you an unlimited supply of laser by determination, you rush up
bullets, as well as a pause con the slope, jumping the boulders
trol (the space bar) which stops as they come. The cannibal vil
your car in case you want to lage comes closer—but can you
The intrepid jungle explorer swings
step outside for a breath of fresh into the great green unknown in get past the natives in time?
vacuum. Jungle Hunt. With its constantly moving,
Nice folks, those Luna City smoothly scrolling graphics,
administrators. air bubbles, too. If you get Jungle Hunt really does put you
caught in one, you're helpless in a subtropical jungle. Each
Jungle Hunt until you reach the surface. And part of the jungle offers a dif
Urban adventurers, here's your crocodiles just love helpless ferent challenge, from vine hop
chance. Get ready to explore the heroes for lunch. ping and crocodile dodging to
jungle and be a hero. In Jungle
Hunt, you must brave the perils
of an uncharted wilderness to
save your beloved from the can
The Commodore 64 is your first "real"
nibals—and though it may be
computer. So. it stands to reason that
just another rescue mission, it's the software you use be real too. And,
not just another game. useful.
When the adventure begins,
The INSTA series productivity
you're at the edge of the jungle software is just that — real and useful.
and out on a limb—literally—
With our tutorial manuals and HELP
waiting for a swinging vine to SCREENS we actually teach you whai
come within reach. Closer- word processing, spreadsheets and jump, grabbing for graphs are all about.
the vine before it flies out of Games are fun....for foolin around.
reach. If you catch it, you'll be INSTA is for real.
on your way. If not, you start

After ten successive vines,

you reach the edge of the river.
Its surface is broken by gentle
waves; it looks quiet and peace
ful. Confidently you let go of the
vine and dive into the warm,
tropical water.
Then you see the shapes,
and they're much too big to be
mere fish. Crocodiles! It's too
late to turn back. Diving to meet
the foe, you pull a dagger from
your belt. Watch out for those

COMPUTED Gazelle September 1984 63


boulder jumping and finally res course-—just as it would were

cuing the damsel in distress. you actually driving. There are
The graphics are appealing, and long straightaways, and there
you'll find that the sound effects are treacherous turns. Track
accentuate your enjoyment of boundaries are clearly marked
the game. in red and black, and though
The screen display shows you can't run off the road, you
your score, the remaining time, will immediately lose speed if
and the number of heroes you you stray from the pavement
have in reserve. When you're and run onto the shoulder.
crossing the river and have to Select from three skill levels
Pole Position offers long
dive, it also shows how much (beginner, intermediate, or ad
straightaways and challenging curves
longer you can hold your vanced) by pressing f5. Start at
at a top speed of 244 miles per hour.
breath. That's really all you the beginner level to get a feel
need. Other information might But now and then I imagine for the game and the response
just be distracting—and you'll roaring along smoothly at 200 of the controls. Then, when
need all your concentration to miles an hour, taking the turns you're comfortable with your
get through the jungle alive. with steady precision and skills, move up to intermediate
Game play is straight handling the car with the prac and advanced levels.
forward, relying solely on joy ticed grace of a skilled pro. Press fl or the fire button
stick control. Use the fire button Now VIC owners have a to start the qualifying run. As
to jump or to pull your dagger; way to experience that thrill soon as you do, a blimp will fly
the joystick lets you speed up or without ever leaving the drive over the track, trailing a banner
slow down (and, at the river, to way. It's Pole Position, a scaled that reads "PREPARE TO
dive or surface as well). Use the down version of the popular ar START." You'll see your car sit
function keys to select the num cade game. ting at the starting line. The
ber of players (one or two) or to You're the driver of a high starting light (on the left side of
pick a level of difficulty (begin performance racing car, and the screen) will flash red three
ner, regular, or advanced). You your car is a marvel of sophisti times, then turn green, and the
win points for swinging from cated engineering. Like those race is on.
vine to vine, for eliminating Luna City police cars, it's oper Nothing happens at first,
crocodiles, for jumping boul ated by a control lever that even though the timer is
ders, and so on. looks a lot like your joystick. steadily counting down. You'll
Start the game with the fl Push the lever forward to accel have to step on the gas (push
key or the fire button. On erate; pull back to slow down. the joystick forward) to start
higher levels you have fewer Move the stick left or right to moving. Hold the stick forward
men—two instead of five—and steer. The car is also equipped to accelerate (and press the fire
you'll find that some situations with an advanced two-speed button to shift into high gear,
are much more dangerous. transmission that you shift by for even greater speeds) and
pushing the fire button, and it you'll soon begin to overtake
has a top speed (in high gear) of the other competitors.
Pole Position 224 miles per hour. That's when you'll really
Most days, the drive to the cor You race on a remarkably need all of your skill. Steering
ner store is not particularly ex realistic field. The course itself is with the joystick, weave in and
citing. Between bumpy roads, a smooth two-lane track, wind out of the pack, running up a
heavy traffic, and a car that ing through a fertile green val good qualifying time without
does 0-to-60 in roughly four ley. The surrounding mountains running into other cars. If you
days, I'm in no danger of imitat sit on the horizon, and the view collide with another racer, you'll
ing an Indy 500 race car driver. shifts as you navigate the crash with an appropriate burst

64 COMPUTE! s Gazette September 1SB4


of flames and a cacophony of and weave in and out of the vine? Can you accelerate into the
crunching metal. However, pack. And it won't be long until curve and still make it by those
you've got an unlimited number the coveted pole position is two cars? The list of decisions
of cars (within the allotted 90 yours. goes on and on, and after a ses
seconds per race), so you will at sion with any of these games
least be able to start up again Entertaining you may actually find yourself
and run out the clock. It's chal breathing a little harder than
Exertion when you began.
lenging, to say the least. But the
reward is the pole position in
As you play these games, you'll
Moon Patrol
the upcoming race, a prize
find yourself getting more and
Jungle Hunt
more involved in the plots. Cer
worth any racer's best effort. Pole Position
tainly they're entertaining. But
Once you've qualified, the Atari, Inc.
they require quick reflexes and
race begins. Again, the driver's- 2312 Crossman
even a certain measure of strat
eye view is remarkably realistic; Sunnyvale, CA 94088
egy to win. Should you jump the
you can actually see other racers Cartridge for the V1C-20 (or 64),
moon crater now or wait another
around you. How many you see $44.95 each Q
second and try for that tank?
depends on your starting
position. When should you let go of the
During the race, use the
joystick to maneuver just as you
did in the qualifying run. Again,
you have an unlimited number
of cars. At the end of the race,
No Lookin' Around
the display will indicate your We know. You've been looking
everywhere for 64 software, INSTA's
total score, based on distance interactive line of software is just a
covered and other cars passed. phone call away.
You'll rack up more points if Imagine, specially designed software
you shift into high gear to cover that "talks" to one another. Your home
more distance and pass more budget created with CALC instantly
becomes a GRAPH. And your club
cars. But you'll also run the risk membership list with addresses and
of more frequent crashes and monthly dues quickly becomes a form
more lost time. letter, printed over and over again,
automatically, for each member.
Racing is exciting business,
So, no more lookin' around. INSTA is
and Pole Position captures many
here now!
of the sights and sounds of the
track. The graphics are out
standing; so are the sound ef
fects. You can even press the
space bar to temporarily halt the
action, in case you need to
make a pit stop or grab some
milk and cookies.
But the highlight is the ex IN STAVES 6y Cimnrron a division
citement of handling the racer IN5TAGRAPH INS »■ MUSIC
2158 Hattiaway Si reel
itself. Like any vehicle, your Santa Ana. CA 92705
VIC racer is harder to control at
higher speeds. Though it takes
some getting used to, you'll
Commndory 64 Is a
quickly learn to steer into curves trademark of Commodore

COMPUTED Gazette SoptamQar 1984



COMPUTE!'* Reference Mapping The
Guide To THE Commodore 64
Commodore 64 Commodore
An invaluable memory

Graphics map. Complete details on
GRAPHICS A complete tutorial on the functions of pointers,
Commodore 64 graphics. the stack. ROM and Kernal
Noted Commodore author routines, and more. BASIC
John Heilborn explains programmers will find
how to program sprites, easy-to-understand expla
multicolored screens, ani nations of advanced pro
mation, custom characters, gramming techniques.
and more. Beginners will Programmers using ma

like the step-by-step in chine language will find 3

structions and clear ex wealth of useful locations
ample programs. Advanced and ideas for program
programmers can build up" ming. For intermediate so
their tool kit with [he character editors, sprite editors, screen advanced programmers.
design program, and other useful utilities. 268 pages, paperback.
218 pages, paperback. Spiral bound for easy access to programs.
Spiral bound for easy access to programs. SI 4.95
ISBN 0-942336-23-X
ISBN OS'<1228b-29-9


BOOK Book of Book Of
Commodore 64 Commodore 64

Continues in the tradition An excellent resource for

of the best-selling First users of the 64, with some
Book of Commodore 64 in thing for everyone: BASIC
presenting quality pro programming techniques.
grams and articles, many a memory map. a machine
revised or never before language monitor, and
published. There's some information about writing
thing for almost any 64 games and using peripher
user: arcade and text ad als. Many ready-to-type-in
venture games, an impres programs and games.
sive word processor, a
program which adds 41
new BASIC commands, an
electronic spreadsheet, sound and graphics tutorials, and 264 pages, paperback.
information on saving, copying, and retrieving files. Spiral bound for easy access to programs
283 pages, paperback. SI 2.95
Spiral bound for easy access to programs. ISBN 0-942386-20-5

ISSN 0-942386-44-2
COMPUTE Is First Creating Arcade
Book Of Games On The
Commodore 64 Games Commodore 64
Packed full of games: This book develops and
"Snake Escape." "Oil Ty explains the principles of
coon," "Laser Gunner." game design; includes
"Zuider Zee," and many general programs for using
more. Machine language the screen, custom charac
games requiring fast hands ters, animation, sprites,
and a good eye, as well as sound and music, and
strategy games which will other features of the 64.
exercise your mind. Intro Also includes five games.
ductory chapters and an Just the book for program
notated listings provide mers who want to learn
ideas and techniques for how to write fast, exciting
writing games. An excellent arcade games.
introduction for 64 owners who want to begin writing games. 357 pages, paperback.
Spiral bound for easy access to programs.
217 pages, paperback.
Spiral bound for easy access to programs. $14.95
ISSN 0-947386-36-1
ISSN 0-942386-34-5

% M MlT "™ COMPUTE! sT Commodore 64 Games

W I^^^F Book Of VIC For Kids
A potpourri of games, ap Dozens of games for kids

plications, utilities, and of all ages. An instant library
programming techniques, of educational software.
some never before pub "Starga?er" displays the
lished. Tricks for saving constellations of the night
memory, four games, sky. "Movers and Shakers"
budget planner, custom tests knowledge of histori
characters, PEEK and PRINT cal figures. "Hidden Pic
for rhe VIC, Graph Plotter, ture" lers children uncover
Music Composition, and a series of drawings. Also,
Automatic Program Ap games featuring music,
pending are just a few of spelling, and world geo
the fine programs and graphy. Appropriate grade
chapters. Also, appendices levels are clearly identified.
and reference tables Third Book of VIC is a useful source of 267 pages, paperback.
ideas for programmers of all levels. Spiral bound for easy access to programs.
360 pages, paperback. 112.95
Spiral bound for easy access to programs. ISBN 0-<M2J8G 37-X

ISBN 0-942386-43-4

COMPUTE! Publicationsjnc.^
One o\ Ihe ABC Publishing Companies

Post Office Box 5406, Greensboro. North Carolina 27403


and a warranty/registration book. To turn the page, press (7.

CodePro-64 card. But it's more than just a
Before you can begin, you disk full of sentences. In addi
must follow the installation pro tion to the many explanations
Todd Heimarck, Assistant Editor
cedure, a few steps that write a and programming examples,
serial number to the disk as a CodePro-64 offers something
Learning a language is more
form of identification and copy called BasicView, which is best
than just memorizing a list of
protection. You are also re described as an animated mini-
words or phrases. And BASIC is
minded to mail the postage-paid program. Rather than just read
not that much different than,
card, which registers your war ing about FOR-NEXT loops, you
say, French. To become truly
ranty and puts you on a mailing can see one in operation. Press
fluent requires practice and
list to Teceive periodic updates ing the space bar moves you
practice and more practice.
and enhancements. line by line through the pro
If you hopped on a jet to
You then LOAD the main gram. Upon reaching the NEXT
Paris tomorrow, bringing noth
program and you're ready to statement, an arrow grows from
ing more than a phrasebook and
start learning BASIC. The pro the BASIC line back to the FOR
a translator's dictionary, it
gram is menu-driven; you see a that initiated the loop. A ball
would be a chore to get across
anything more than the simplest list of choices, accessed by travels along the arrow's path,
pressing the appropriate key. back to the beginning of the
of ideas. You might mispro
nounce a word like "gare," ask It's quite easy to find your loop. In the explanation of
ing directions to the war of the way around the menus. Func GOTO is a BasicView example
north, when you meant to ask tion one (fl) always returns you with arrows pointing every
the location of the train depot of to the main menu. Pressing f3 which way, a subtle representa
the north. brings you back to the local tion of unstructured program
menu. Pressing (7 advances one ming style.
page, while f8 pages backwards. At times you see questions
A Step-By-Step
You don't have to remember all about the chapter you have fin
Tutorial of this, the options appear at the ished. Answer correctly and you
CodePro-64 is a software pack bottom of the screen. At the top receive a short congratulatory
age designed to teach BASIC to of the screen is a reference message. If you are stumped,
beginners. It is like a combina number which points the way to press the space bar and the cor
tion phrasebook/dictionary—it the appropriate page of the rect response is printed. You
gives you the necessary vocabu manual. always have the option of skip
lary, the first step towards After making a choice from ping the quizzes and going to
fluency. the menu, you may see a local the next page.
If you buy all of your soft menu, from which you choose The manual complements
ware and don't care to delve the topic you want to study. To the main program. Pictures of
into the mysteries of IF-THEN get anywhere in the program re most of the screens are in
and FOR-NEXT, you probably quires pressing no more than cluded, as well as additional
don't need CodePro-64. But for a two keys. The two disks contain elaboration on the finer points
newcomer to computing who 18 programs. Depending on of programming.
wants to start using BASIC, this which topic you choose, you CodePro-64 has four main
package from Systems Manage may have to wait a minute or sections. The first is an intro
ment Associates (SMA) can pro two for the program to load, duction, which explains how to
vide an excellent introduction. which gives you a chance to use the function keys to move
It runs on a Commodore 64 scan the relevant chapter in the between menus. Also included
and 1541 disk drive. The package manual. is a brief introduction to the
includes two disks, a 100+ page Most of the program is text, keyboard—how to switch from
manual in a three-ring binder, something like a large electronic uppercase/graphics to upper/
68 COMPUTERS Gaiette Seplomber 19B4
Introducing the ON FIELD
Sports Series.
For Sports Game Realism
You can Feel!
clay, grass or asphalt. Play solitaire against a world
class computer player or human opponent. "Anti
cipation Control" lets you gain a step on your
opponent-rf you guess right! You even have racquet
controlovergroundstrokes, drop shots, serves and
smashes—in-bounds and out-of-bounds. No wonder
ON COURT"TENNIS plays like real tennis, rather
than some version ofPong"!

Actual Commodore 64 screen—Olher versions may vary

While the "other guys" have been trying to equal

our award winning sports games, we've been busy
creating the next generation. ON FIELD"Sports by
We've set new standards in realistic sports play
and strategy. With Player Perspective Graphics'so
realistic, you feel like you're on the field. With the kind ONCQUFrTTENNIS
of strategic c/jo/cesyou'd expect when playing for Actual Commodore 64 screen-Other versions may vary
real... and then some. And with thinking computer
opponents whose skills vary according to yours... AskfortheONFIELD'Sport Series at your local
whether you're a beginner or an expert. software dealer or write: GAMESTAR, Inc.. 1302
Take center court in ON COURTTENNIS. State Street, Santa Barbara, CA 93101 or call
Choose from (4) players patterned after real tennis 805-963-3487. Available for the Commodore 64",
superstars... their playing strengths, weaknesses and soon for Atari' and Apple' computers. Watch
and temperament. Choose your playing surface... out for them-they play to win!


Pon q n n d Alori ara I rodamafki ol Alsrl. Inc.

ALL BIGHTS RESERVED Appio la fl Irodoma r*: of Applo Computer. !nc

Com modofe 641 s Mrnflefnarfc ol Commodore Electron Ics. LIO

lowercase characters, the color A BASIC Phrasebook you take as much time as you
keys, graphics, quote mode, and After completing CodcPro-64, need to master each chapter,
so on. will you be a programming ge unlike a classroom where you
The programming tutorial nius? Frankly, no. You can't are (inevitably) ahead of or be
takes up section two, which be learn BASIC in a week; you hind the rest of the students.
gins rather slowly with a de need practice. But before you The BASIC reference table
tailed explanation of program can practice, you need to under is useful for refreshing your
flow (from low-numbered lines stand the grammar and vocabu memory of how certain key
to higher lines), variables (float lary. This is where CodePro words work. It could be a good
ing point, integer, and string), comes in. It should give you a tool for tracing or flowcharting a
constants, arrays, expressions, good headstart on gaining flu BASIC program written by
and operators (numeric, string, ency. It's like one of those for someone else (although disk ac
and logical). The pace quickens eign phrasebooks that gives you cess can be slow at times).
when BASIC keywords and stock sentences and a working The sprite utility explains
commands are introduced, one- vocabulary. clearly the steps to create sprites
by-one, complete with Basic- A chapter at the front of the and move them about the
View examples and quizzes. manual develops the analogy of screen. The two music programs
How to program music and a foreign language, emphasizing contain some good examples
sprites is covered in the third that to become a good program and give you a feel for the
section, a fairly short tutorial mer, you must write hundreds many capabilities of the SID
about the various registers and of programs. It's not enough chip.
necessary POFCEs. A sprite-design just to study about writing There are some misconcep
utility is provided, as well as programs. tions and outright mistakes,
two musical composition pro however.
grams. One turns your 64 into a In the introduction, you are
Primarily For
piano-like keyboard, for testing told BASIC program lines can
different sounds—violin, tuba, Beginners have any number between 0
drum, etc. The other allows you This package is designed for and 32767. Actually, the maxi
to write simple melodies which programming neophytes, new mum line number is 63999 on
can be edited and played back. computer owners who don't the Commodore 64. In the same
The final section contains know a thing about the ins and section, floating point numbers
some sample programs and lets outs of BASIC. The less you are introduced. It is explained
you look up the meanings of know, the more you'll learn. If that they can have up to nine
BASIC keywords (like a diction you have more than a year's significant digits—from
ary on disk). experience, you may find some + 999,999,999 to -999,999,999.
New ideas are introduced of the sections a bit simple. Scientific notation (which in
in a logical order, beginning As a general introduction to cludes numbers such as
with elementary concepts like the Commodore 64, BASIC 1.895E13) is not mentioned.
variables and building to more commands, sprites, and music, it Also, when arrays are intro
complex programming structures is very good.
duced, the zero elements are
{sprites and music). It is not The explanations of BASIC ignored (although they are cov
something that could be com commands are thorough. Con ered later, in the explanation of
pleted in an hour or two. There sidering the technical subject DIMension).
is a lot of information to be di matter, it's written in a clear, Some fairly important sub
gested, which could be spread easy-to-understand style. And jects are given short shrift: how
over a period of days, weeks, or it's well conceived and easy to to read the joystick, some of the
even months. use, due in part to its system of POKEs and PEEKs available, the
menus. difference between Commodore
The self-paced format lets ASCII and true ASCII, how to
70 COMPUTE!1? Gazatte September 1984
REVIEWS Software Discounters

■ Of \ S D ol A )
| America
For Orders Only 1-B00-225SOFT
Inquiries and PA. 412-361-5291

ACCESS Homeword[Dt . . 143

Beacn Mead (T or 0) Mi Oil's Well ID) .. SIR
Neutral ZonejT or D1 123 Quest lor Tires(D) 123
ARTWORX Ultima HID) . . . 138
Bridge40[TorO| lie UlyssasID) 123
Monkeymalh(Tor D. SIB Wizard S Princess (D)S21
Strip Poker (D| 121 SPINNAKER 300 baud
plan out a program and then •
Female or
Male Data Disk .. »1B
■'.. .,■■,'.!■!■ Coalor{R)125
Aegean Voyage fR} 125
Direct Connect
debug it, various things you can BATTERIES INCLUDED AlphaDel Zoolfl) 121 Originate/Answer • Full
Paperclip with BuBDIb Burst IR) 125

do with tape and disk files. But Spelling (Cr) 1ST JukaBoi(R).... S21 Duplex • Carrier detect LED
Paosiciip(Di SB 5 Ranch(R) ■..". World'* laweil cost modem. High perlormancB
if every aspect of BASIC were ThiConiulunl(D) IBT Trains(D| 125 Texas Instrument single chip modem design.
RflODERBUND UplOrGraOS(R). . 125
covered, there would probably Bank St Writer |D] S43 SSI
Wmks far bolh VIC-ZO md Commodore 64.
Plugs into user's port. Use with single cr multi
be ten or twenty disks and a CHoBii'ter(R) 52-:. Same NormanflyiD; 125
Loderunner(D) .... J23 Combal Leader ID) S2S line phones. Plugs into telephone base.
thousand pages of text. Mask ol the Sun (0) 125 Computer Baseball 300 baud. Oirec! connect. Originate/answer.
SpareOange(DI . . 121 (□> 12S
The introduction does too CBS
Full duplex. Carrlerdetect LED. Crystal controlled.
EarjIeslD) Ufl
AflfllSuDIT or 0) )1B 50 Mission Crush [Dl 125
PowBrsd by compulBT. Aluminum enclosure.
much a bit too quickly. It makes Decimals IT or D|... J19 Germany 1BB5 (01 , , 139 Includst n.-isic llrllno of Tenmlnil Piogrsm.
sense to introduce variables and Frac(lons(Tor D) 119 ProTour GolIlD). , , 125 Terminal Program available on tape, $4.96 and
MultlDlv(TorD, S18 RDF 1985(0) 123 cartridge, 119.95. Specify VIC-20 or C-M.
constants before BASIC com Murder Dy Dozen (0) (33 Ringside Seat iDI .. (35

mands, but a beginner does not ■

Peanut Bultor Panic
ID] 123

Flight Simulator II(D)S3£

need to know that 177 AND The Ward Game ID],
Nlgni Mission Pmball
Cartridge Programs
157 equals 145 before learning
a* ■
Bruce Lee(D] (23
Dallas Ouesi (0) (23 SYMAPSE on tape
to use PRINT or INPUT or Pooyan(TfD) tie Blue Mai <T or D) 121
DESIONWAHE Ft Apocalypse
FOR-NEXT loops. It might be Creature Creator (D) 121 (T or D) 121
Necromancer (T or DIS21
best to skim through the intro MalhMaJBlD) ...
SooilicooleT(O).. .
S2S Pharoah's Curse
Adapter board
duction (and ignore the part EPYX (TorD] S21
Draoonnders Pern (0)125 Sentinel (T or 0) 121 lets you save VIC-ZO cart
about logical operators), go on FAX (01 118 Shatnus(D) 121 ridge programs on cassette tape and run them
SiamoalilTor □}.. J21
to BASIC, and return to the in Gateway ApshailR)
Jumprnan(Tor D) .
Zaiion{TorOJ .... 125
using 8K RAM board. Provides cartridge backup,
eliminates plugging and unplugging cartridges
troduction at some later point. PitBlop(R| 125 Zeppelin |T or. D) ... 121
and turning VIC-20 on and oil.
PuZ2lepamclD)... 123 TIWEWORKS
The menu facilitates moving Summer GameslDI *25 Business Syslems Includes adapter board that plugs into expan
easily to later chapters.
Templa ol Apshai Accounts Pay(OJ . . I3B sion port and software to save and run cartridge
|T or D) tii Accounts Rec|0) .. 139 programs on cassette tape. Requires 8K RAM
The music and sprite pro Worlds Grealesl Cash Flow Mgmi|Dj 139
board (not included).
Baseball ID]. .. 123 General Ledger (0) 139
grams do not compare favorably HES
HESModeml S49
Inventory(D) ......
RS-232 Interface for
to good commercial software; 139

they are somewhat slow and

HES Modem II
Sales Analysis |D).. S39
Omni Write "Speller Home Management.
awkward to use. As program (□1 .... I4B Data Manager 2fD) (33

ming utilities they are lacking,

Painl Brush |R)
Syn me sou no 10)
TifnefMoney Mar |0]
. . . SIB
CnaierDoo |D)

but as teaching tools they are INFOCDII Pokersam(D) 119
Provides RS-232
effective. Enchanter (Dl 133 S A M |D) . (39
voltage convert I on tor
IniifleUD) (33 WAVEFORM
CodePro-64 is a solid intro Planelfall(D) S3 3 Musicalc 1 (Dl (35 VIC-20/C-W serial port. Use
SeaStalker(D) $25 Musicalc2[Q| 123 RS-232 printers, modems, speech synthesizers
duction to BASIC programming Soicerer(U) »33 Musicalc3(DI (23
and other RS-232 peripherals. Switch reverses
on the Commodore 64. Despite KOALA
transmit/receive lines for DTE or DCE operation.

the minor flaws, it's a thorough vnlPamtar |D] .. 185 Allen Group Voice Use as null modem. Standard 25 pin RS-232 con
Touch Tablet Boi oil nector, Plugs Into user's port. Powered by com
and substantial tutorial. wJPainier(R) call BASFSSDO S17B>. puter. 2Wx2V. Inches.
PARKEH BROS. Card co Accessor pas oil
CodePro-64 Ftorj(jer(Rj . J2B Commodore Dust VIC-20 Capacitance Meter
Popeye(R). 133 Covers ( 6 MeaiutB TOO pf to 100 Mfd. MF.
Systems Management Associates QBerl(R) Compuse've starler
Includes calibration capacitor, #»ii nc
sottware on tape and hardware * /M
'■:■■■ Ji .. (87 Disk Drive Cleaner . ( 9
3700 Computer Drive SCARBOROUGH Disk Case |Holas 501 tie interface. fcw
Raleigh, NC 27609 Maslertype(DorR). 125 Monitor Cable .
Sakata 13' Color..
S 7
Ordsr Irom MFJ and try It. If not delighted.
Songwriter (□). (25 239
(919) 787-7703 SIERRA ONLINE Surge Protector return within 30 days for refund (less shipping).
Championship Boxing «!6 outlets One year unconditional guarantee,
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Micro Worlds
For Young Children
Fred D'lgnazio, Associate Editor

Good Robots Vs. Bad Robots

It's fascinating the way children can create a miniature world out of a
couple of beat-up old boxes, or a sandbox full of sand, or a bathtub
filled with bubbles.
For example, the other day my five-year-old son Eric borrowed a
couple of new toy robots I had bought for my speeches and took
them down into the basement. "Come here, Daddy!" he called, only
five minutes later.
He made me close my eyes, and he led me down the stairs. As I
followed Eric down into the cellar, I walked out of my world into a
new world he had dreamed up. He had fashioned some cardboard
boxes into a mountainous planet. On top of the boxes he had placed
buckets and sections of packing styrofoam. A thin layer of playing
cards covered the buckets and styrofoam, concealing treacherous
traps and pits.
12 COMPUTED Gazette September 1984
lust one more re5son to buy
Scholastic educational
software for
the Commodore 64.
We really don't want you to buy the plot. And actually make them want New York, NY 10003,212-505-3000 for
Wizware™ just for the price. Because to learn how to read and write. the name of your nearest Wizware
too many educational programs come So we'd rather you buy Wizware merchant.
with a great price on trie outside and because of what it does for your
nothingmuch on the inside. children. But, of course, it's always ^Scholastic
You—and your kids—won't be dis nice to know that Wizware is one of the
appointed by Wizware. We've put
everything we've learned from five
most affordable families of educational
software for the Commodoit! G4.t
The most trusted name in learning.
generations of kids into our software. Ask for Wizware wherever you buy *Turtlv Truck* ftf Jtf.
And the result is programs that teach your computer software. Or contact *Alf programs alwatTiilablt hi Apple verritnrx. Tnrtlr Track*
{tlMifimilabU it Atnn nud IBM versions. S</imrr I'nirn attti
and stimulate young minds like no Scholastic Wizware, 730 Broadway, aiailablr in Atari tyriiun.
other educational software.
For example, Wizware uses a child's
natural curiosity to teach the basics
of computer programming and elec
tronic filing systems in programs like
Poster,™ IHirtle Tracks,"1* Secret
Filer™ and Square Riirs.™ "Suing
kids especially find all four irresistible.
Double Feature Mystery™ and
Kwirt FjJw anil Double Fcai wv Mj*l*'ry/Aihvmure ds^-neil :u;<! d
Double Feature Adventure™ stories inHiIiii'Ioik'!by ThofnasR.Smi[hrSqu»rc P
let kids choose from alternate twists of
Eric had divided the robots into good guys Caves, published by Spinnaker for the Com
and bad guys. The bad robots were chasing the modore 64.)
good robots, but the good robots were tricky. This game is a delight, You and your child
They sidestepped the pits. The bad robots rolled go on a journey to Venice, complete with canals,
out onto the cards and immediately crashed gondolas, a beach, a boardwalk, a boathouse,
down into the pits. bridges, a tiled piazza, and lots of brightly col
Eric and I cheered. Then Eric turned to me ored Venetian buildings.
and ordered me back up the stairs. "You go away, The buildings are full of silly, quacking ducks
Daddy," he said. "I want to build a new planet." who wander around, then come out the front
door and hop into the water. The animation and
The Computer Sandbox the sound effects are so good you are tempted to
watch the ducks and forget about the game.
In his book, Mindstorms: Children, Computers, and
Powerful Ideas, Seymour Papert wrote about "mi
Your goal is to take a boat out of the boat-
cro worlds," miniature worlds inside the computer
house and (with the joystick) maneuver the boat
through the canals and under the bridges to the
that children could create themselves. Children
ducks' houses. You try to predict which duck is the
could actually step inside these worlds and be
closest to jumping, then you zoom over and place
come their heroes and heroines.
the boat directly in front of him. If you make it
Computer micro worlds are, of course, made
in time, the duck leaps into the air and lands,
out of software—game programs and simulations
KER-PLOP!, in your boat, nearly capsizing it.
that build models of the real world or worlds of
Now you have a choice. Either you can go
fiction and fantasy. Until recently, most computer
get another duck, or you can pole your gondola
micro worlds have been very limited in scope and
to the beach and unload the duck.
appeal. They have been suitable only for teen
The object of the game is to carry ten ducks
agers or adults. Many of the micro worlds have
to the'beach and to allow as few ducks as pos
been sexist, violent, and destructive. And they
sible to leap into the water. This would be a
have had repetitive, unimaginative themes: dun
fairly simple task if it weren't for a mischievous
geons and dragons, battles in outer space, aerial
hippo who floats around the canals under the
dog fights, and so on. Most of the video games
water. Whenever your boat gets too close to the
and arcade games in which the micro worlds ap
hippo, he comes up beneath it and capsizes it. If
pear have been too difficult (and too tall!) for
any ducks are on board, they escape. Fortu
younger children.
nately, you can keep an eye on the hippo by
In the last twelve months, however, the
watching for bubbles in the water. On the other
situation has changed drastically. A new breed of
hand, you sometimes get to racing around the
software companies—like Children's Television
Workshop, HesWare, The Learning Company, canals so fast you don't see the bubbles until it's
Sunburst, Spinnaker, and Joyce Hakansson Asso too late.
ciates—have begun creating computer programs Eric and I both enjoyed playing Ducks Ahoy!
that feature imaginative micro worlds for pre- It helped him with his counting, eye-hand co
teens and younger children. ordination, and prediction skills. It was also per
We recently received a number of these new fectly suited for his physical and emotional level
programs to review, all published by CBS Soft of development. It was challenging and engag
ware, all for the Commodore 64. Here is a sample ing, but it was not so difficult that he became
of some of the computer micro worlds your kids frustrated.
can visit. And, before they head out, ask them if I found several of the game's features es
you can tag along. A child's adventure in a micro pecially attractive. First, Eric kept rescuing the
world can be greatly enhanced if they have Mom ducks not because he wanted to win the game

or Dad at their side. and get ten ducks to the beach, but because the
game was so much fun. I think that's what
makes this game so successful. What motivated
Ducks Ahoy! Eric to keep playing the game was not the educa
Ducks Ahoy! is a game for one child aged 3 to 6, tional goal but the sheer thrill of playing.
The game costs $29.95 on disk, $34.95 on car Second, the graphics, the sound effects, and
tridge, and requires a joystick. the music in the game are so good, you really
Joyce Hakansson Associates designed Ducks feel like you have entered a micro world—a
Ahoy! It is only the second game I've found where make-believe world inside the computer. The
pictures on the computer screen were just as world has substance, detail, and variety, yet is
appealing as the colorful cartoons on the package. not so complex that it's distracting or over
(The first was Joyce Hakansson's Alf in the Color whelming for a young child.

74 COMPUTEI's Gazette September 19S4

If you've been having a hard time
teaching your newly-adopted computer
there's more to life than fun and games,
you're not alone.

Now, you can introduce your Commodore 64'" to the Work Fore : affordable, easy-to-
use software and hardware that will unleash the power you always expected from your
Commodore 64'", but thought you might never see.

Is simply the best word processing program of its is a magic box that lets you transform your humble
kind—loaded with advanced features, yet so easy to home computer into a powerful business machine. It
use even a novice can get professional results. With gives you the added power of BASIC 4.0, and lets
SpeliFaek1", it even corrects your spelling! Once you've you add IEEE disk drives, hard disk, virtually any
tried it, you'll never use a typewriter again. parallel printer, and other peripherals without extra
interfaces. Completely software invisible.
The Consultant^
(Formerly Delphi's Oracle) BJ.-80™ Column Adaptor
is like a computerized filing cabinet with a gives you crystal clear 80 column
brain. Organize files for recipes, albums, display. Using the highest quality
or the membership of your service club. hardware, we've eliminated the problems
Then search, sort, arrange and of snow, fuzzlness and interference.
analyze your information with speed Basic 4.0 commands greatly simplify
and flexibility that's simply astounding. disk drive access. Switches easily from
40 to 80 column display.
teaches your 64 to spell. It checks an entire Discover the true power of your
document in 2 to 4 minutes against a Commodore 64'". Ask your dealer about
dictionary of over 20.000 words. And you the Commodore 64'" Work Force, from
can add up to 5.000 of your own Batteries Included—the company that
specialized terms. Type letter perfect every doesn't leave anything out when It comes
time! to making things simple for you.


"Excellence in Software'
Ttiose products have been developed specifically (or Commc^oie computers liy Bailefto Inthidetl wd are totally ccm^ <<*

186 Queen Street West, Toronto. Canada M5V1Z1 (416) 596-1405 / 3303 Harbor Blvd., Costa MBsa. CA. 92626 (714) 979-0920
Third, the game is funny. Too few computer
games—especially educational games—are
humorous. This game is, and that adds to its
Fourth, the game has charm. Unlike many
educational games, it doesn't look garish or ugly
when compared with activities on other media,
such as television, books, or magazines. Instead
it is aesthetically pleasing and attractive. Some
thing at the gut level grabs you when you first
turn it on.

A Realistic Game
My children and I really enjoyed the Sea Horse
game. The scrolling animation, the bright, under
sea colors, and the music brought the micro world
to life. In fact, almost too much life. When my
five-year-old, Eric, played it, he burst into tears if
his sea horse came too close to a lagoon fish. TV program.
Eric wasn't crying because he was going to be When the child enters this "micro world," he
eaten. (If a lagoon fish caught his sea horse it or she is standing on a sidewalk in front of a row
would just chase it away, off the screen.) He was of city buildings. Big Bird appears carrying a spe
crying because of the tension the game creates. cial delivery package for Little Bird. Little Bird
He knew that he had to make a move quickly, or flaps his wings, flies up to Big Bird, and gets the
those scary fish would come over-and get him. package. Then it's up to your child to move Little
I played the game, and 1 was surprised at Bird to the building where the package should be
how involved I became. Swimming the sea horse delivered.
past the mean fish was not a trivial task. For
There are two games and two skill levels for
example, I kept ducking into coral caves, but, as
each game. In the first game, The Same Game,
often as not, I popped out of another cave right in
there are objects in the second-floor windows of
front of the lagoon fish. I quickly learned that in
each of the buildings. The child has to use the
order to escape I had to plan my moves. I
"<" and ">" buttons on the keyboard as left and
couldn't just panic and dash off in any direction.
right arrows to move Little Bird under the build
I'm proud to say that after being chased out-
ing that has a picture that matches the picture on
of the lagoon several times, both Eric and I fi Little Bird's package. Then the child presses RE
nally mastered sea horse navigation. We success TURN to see if a correct match was made. If so, a
fully maneuvered five tiny sea horses across the person looking out the window nods his head,
lagoon- and were rewarded by the raising of a there is some happy music, and the package floats
flag on a sunken ship.
up to the window. If not, the person in the win
Then a sixth sea horse appeared, back at the
dow shakes his head no, and Little Bird gets an
beginning of the lagoon. This sea horse was twice
other chance.
the size of the other sea horses. It was too big to In the second game, Find the Right Kind,
squeeze into certain caves, and it was impossible everything is the same except this time the child
to sneak past a patrolling lagoon fish. must find a picture in the window that is the
As I write this review, Eric wants me to tell same kind of thing as the picture on his package.
you that he has gotten the sixth sea horse across
For example, a picture of a bowl appears in the
the lagoon—several times, in fact. As for me,well,
window, and a picture of a spoon is on Little
I haven't quite gotten the knack. But I'm still trying. Bird's package. This is a match because the bowl
and spoon are both used for eating. (The other
Big Bird's Special Delivery three windows, by contrast, have pictures of a
This is a one-player game for children ages 3 to 6. piece of fruit, a hand, and a needle and thread.)
You do not need joysticks; you can use the key Eric and I played this game a couple times,
board to play. The disk version of the game costs but Eric quickly lost interest. The game gets repet
$32.95, the cartridge version $37.95. itive since all the child ever sees are the same
The game was created for CBS Software by buildings, with just the pictures in the upstairs
the Children's Television Workshop. It features windows changing.
Big Bird and Little Bird, two of the popular Another problem is that the pictures and the
characters from CTW's popular "Sesame Street" words are not very clear. When I was playing the
76 COMPUTE'S Gflzaim September 1984
Look at these
• Fully screen-oriented

• Horizontal and vertical scrolling

• Terminal mode - never seen before on a wordprocessor

• Supports Commodore disk and cassette handling BLIZTEXT in

trademark of ELCOMP

• Imbedded commands



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• Dynamic formatting. Imbedded commands 64. Very Important subroutine, tricks and hints in
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Find the Right Kind game, for example, I thought
the special-delivery package had a picture of a
stalk of celery. I tried delivering the letter to the
building that had a picture of another vegetable (a
pumpkin or squash, I couldn't tell which). I was
wrong, so I marched Little Bird and the package
down the row of buildings, trying one at a time. I
finally got the answer right when 1 reached the
picture of what I thought was a hand.
At first I was puzzled. What did a stalk of
celery have in common with a hand? Then I re
alized that the hand must he a glove, and the cel
ery was really a shirt (or was it a coat?). They
matched because they were both clothes.
Since the images are small and not especially
clear, a young child might have difficulty
recognizing the objects on the screen and become
frustrated with this game. In that case, a good
picture-matching book might be a better choice
than the computer.
so the sea horse will pop out a moment later at
Sea Horse Hide 'N Seek the other end. But she has to watch out or she
Sea Horse Hide 'N Seek is a micro world for chil might pop out right in front of the mean lagoon
dren ages 3 to 6. It was designed by Joyce fish. Also, sometimes a grumpy octopus sneaks
Hakansson Associates. The disk version costs inside of some of the caves and bounces the sea
horse right back out of the cave.
$29.95, the cartridge version $34.95.
If this happens, the sea horse has two final
It can be played by one or two children, and
choices. She can try to swim by the lagoon fish,
requires joysticks. Included with the game is a
or she can turn tail and swim back the way she
Game Play Guide, an activity book, and a "Find
the Sea Horse" poster that children can color came. But if she does that, she'll still have to face
the lagoon fish.
(Desperate sea horses have still another op
Sea Horse teaches important skills to young
children, including matching colors, eye-to-hand
tion: They can press the space bar and freeze the
lagoon fish. But the space bar freezes sea horses,
coordination, memory skills, understanding of size
too, so it's just a temporary respite.)
relationships, and logical thinking. All of these
skills are hidden inside an engaging game set in
an undersea micro world that's appropriate for a Peanut Butter Panic
young child. This is a great two-person game. Two children (or
In this game, children become little sea an adult and a child) have to work together,
horses at the bottom of a coral sea. The children share, compromise, and cooperate in order to win.
have to swim their sea horses past a line-up of Peanut Butter Panic was developed for CBS
funny but ferocious lagoon-fish who try to gobble by the Children's Television Workshop. The disk
them up. version costs $31.95; the cartridge version $36.95.
When the sea horses begin swimming It requires two joysticks and is suitable for chil
through the water, the computer plays friendly, dren aged seven and up—which means parents
happy music. But a few moments later, the music and teachers can enjoy it, too.
changes and becomes scary. This warns the little My eight-year-old daughter Catie and I
sea horse to watch out because a mean fish is played this game together. We each became
coming her way. The sea horse is much smaller Nutniks—little round creatures whose main goal
than the fish, so she can't hang around. She has in life is tD make and eat peanut butter
to be clever and escape. sandwiches,
The lagoon fish are not very smart, so one When the game began, Catie and I were
way the sea horse can get away is to change col standing on opposite sides of a seesaw-like sand
ors {with the press of the joystick button) and wich machine. As Nutniks, we both wanted to
camouflage herself as a piece of green or pink make more peanut butter sandwiches. But to
coral. make the machine go, we had to jump up high
Another way to escape is to squeeze inside a and snag some stars to power the machine.
coral cave. The caves always have two openings, When one of us ate a lot of sandwiches we

7B COMPUTE!1* GbzbUb September 1984

The Visible Computer.
The machine language
got fatter and heavier, and we could jump on one teacher that gets
side of the seesaw and launch the other person
even higher to grab the juiciest stars—the ones good grades.
that made the best sandwiches. But if we kept
Users and experts alike are giving The
jumping, we got skinnier, and we had to go back Visible Computer straight As for making
and eat some more sandwiches. Also, if we spent machine language understandable.
all our time jumping, a hungry Snarf creature InCider magazine: "TVC is excellent".
would fly out of the sky and gobble up all our Learning Computing: "Best Educational
sandwiches. This taught us to time our jumps to Software of 1983." Peelings magazine: "AA
keep the Snarf from robbing us. rating ... The explanations are truiy excel
Peanut Butter Panic is primarily an entertain lent, being that rare combination: correct
ing game. However, it is also a practical exercise and intelligible." Basic Programmer, Rock-
t'ord, Illinois: "Wow!".
in physics and human cooperation. (Catie and 1
With The Visible Computer's graphic
did our best when we coordinated our body
6502 simulator, thirty sample programs,
weights with our jumps, when we synchro
and 160 page tutorial-style manual, you'll
nized our jumps, and when we worked closely find that the only mystery about machine
together.) language is why no one ever taught it this
The game encourages communication and way before.
interaction between members of the family. And
it makes an ideal game for parents to play with
their children. The Visible Computer: 6502 I
Send me The Visible Computer: 6502 for Com- '
A Warranty, Too modore 64 (requires disk drive). I've enclosed
$39.95 plus S2.50 postage and handling. I
In recent columns, J have called for software
□ Check or Money Order □ Visa □ Mastercard I
packages and materials that are more helpful to
the consumer. CBS Software has many of these
features, including accurate descriptions and
screen shots of the software on the outside of the
package; short, simple, easy-to-read user manuals;
and activity books. They also have "Startup
Crrdll Card No. Exp.
Cards" to help you begin using the game as soon
as you open the package. And all their software
has a limited 90-day warranty.
To learn more about these games, you can .».., Software
write or call: Masters" i
CBS Software 3330 Hillcroft, Suite BB.
One Fazvcett Place Houston, Texas 77057 I
Greenwich, CT 06836 13) 266-5771
(203) 622-2500 <#
Learning To Count
William W. Braun

Designed for children in kindergarten objects to be counted. Choosing the lowest range
through third grade, this colorful and fun displays a random number of objects from two to
program lets you tailor the learning level to ten, while the highest level covers from two to
your child's needs. For the VIC and 64. fifty objects. The child is then asked to count the
objects and type in the number. A correct answer
is rewarded with a smiling face and short mel
Educational programs are sometimes broad in ody. A wrong answer elicits a "Sorry! Try Again"
scope and appropriate for only one learning response. After three wrong responses, the cor
level. "Learning To Count" teaches a specific rect answer is given.
concept and allows the parent or instructor to The program continues until a zero is typed.
choose the learning level. Although the game is
This way, a parent or instructor can control the
instructive, colorful graphics, sound, and positive
length of the program or move to a higher level.
rewards make it entertaining for the child.
When a zero is typed, the screen displays the
number of tries, the number right, and the num
Selecting A Range ber wrong. Then, after a short graphics display,
When you run the program, you are first asked you are asked if you want to continue and at
to input a number from 1 to 4 to set the range of what level.

HO W r-l Pi r I V ■? 2Q ll.i.nk'H IHIi iO CuUHT CAN HELP VOU



UP TO 16 tl
UP TO 25 W

UP TO 35 B

A child counts colorful objects and is rewarded for a A parent or instructor chooses the range of objects to be
right answer (VIC version). counted (64 version).

90 COMPUTED Gazetlo September 1984

206 A = random number of characters to be
VIC Program Structure
POKEd to the screen.
207 Makes sure A is greater than 1.
Lines 210 N is incremented for each try, and SCR is
28 POKE 808,114 disables the RUN/STOP the starting point for each iine of charac
key so that small fingers will not acci ters displayed.
dentally stop the program. RUN/STOP- 225 L •=■ character code. M = color code. K =
RESTORE will work, however. tone code.
50-60 Graphics and sound at the beginning of 232-236 Make sure each line of characters is sepa
(he program. A = character code. B = rated by a blank line.
color code. C = tone code. SI = voice 245 Allows input of zero to start game again.
location. Z ™ beginning of screen mem 260 Detects a correct answer.
ory. COL+Z = color memory location. 270 Detects three consecutive wrong answers.
70-90 Using INPUT D$ and then D = VAL(D$) 2000-2007 Create the smiling face and tune.
selects the range of objects to be counted 2500-2501 Give the correct answer display.
and causes the program to reject any input 3000-3005 Print the score.
other than 1 to 4. 4000 Resets the data pointer so the same data
100 R = number of right answers. W = num for characters, colors, and tones can be
ber of wrong answers. N = number of used repeatedly.
tries. 9000-9001 Data for characters, colors, and tones.

The objects counted by the child are some of ors, and tones in groups of three.
the special graphics characters on the VIC and "Learning To Count" can easily be modified
64, such as hearts and balls. They are displayed or enhanced with custom characters or several
in various colors and accompanied by a short subroutines of graphics and sound displays as re
tone. The DATA statements at the end of the wards for correct answers.
program contain the codes for the characters, col See program listings on page 147. 0

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Each month, COMPUTED GAZETTE tackles some and continue loading these programs from tape.
questions commonly asked by new VIC-20/ If the machine language program is one that
Commodore 64 users and by people shopping for you typed in from COMPUTE's GAZETTE using
their first home computer. MLX, you're in luck. First, load your copy of
MLX from tape as usual. When you run MLX, it
asks for the starting and ending addresses of the
program. To find these two numbers, refer back
I have a large collection of programs on to the article which described the program. Next,
cassette tape. Soon I'll be getting a disk drive. press SHIFT-L to activate the MLX LOAD com
Is there any way I can transfer the programs mand. After loading the machine language pro
from tape to disk? gram from tape, press SHIFT-S to activate the
MLX SAVE command. Answer the prompt to
save the program on disk. To be safe, save an
With BASIC programs, there's nothing to it.
other copy on a backup disk.
First switch on the computer and disk drive, then
insert a formatted disk (see your manual). Next,
LOAD the program from tape as usual. Now en
_ Is there any company which makes a
ter this command:
steering ivheel controller for the Commodore 64,
SAVE"0:filename",8 [press RETURN] like Coleco's steering wheel for its Turbo racing
Look familiar? It's the same SAVE com game? How would I go about getting one if
mand you've been using to store programs on there isn't one on the market? It doesn't have to
tape except for the numeral 0 and colon before be sold with a game, but maybe just by itself,
the filename, and the comma and numeral 8 like a joystick, so you can write your own pro
tacked onto the end. The numeral 8 is the disk grams for it.
drive's device number, and it tells the computer
to route the data to the disk drive instead of A. Although we don't know of any steering
the tape recorder. If you want, you can omit wheel controllers for the Commodore 64 or VIC-
the 0:, but we recommend using it anyway for 20, it's easy enough to simulate one.
best results. (The 0: is a vestige from the days At the heart of steering wheel controllers is a
of the dual-slot 4040 drives for the Commodore
potentiometer (variable resistor). The poten
PET computers.) The filename can be any title tiometer continuously returns a number to the
you wish for the program, up to 16 characters
computer which corresponds to the wheel's po
long, just like cassette filenames. sition. This happens to be exactly how a paddle
A similar variation of the LOAD command
controller works.
lets you retrieve programs from disk: A Commodore paddle returns a 0 when it's
LOAD"filename",8 turned completely to the left, and 255 when it's
That takes care of BASIC programs. Un rotated completely to the right. Any intermediate
fortunately, transferring machine language pro position returns a number between 0 and 255.
grams from tape to disk isn't nearly so simple. There's no room in this column for a detailed
Most commercial programs seize control of the explanation, but briefly, your program must read
computer and never let you leave the applica these numbers from the joystick port and act
tion to enter BASIC. Hence, you can't type in accordingly. For example, if you're writing a pro
any SAVE commands. You'll have to be patient gram similar to Atari's Pole Position, in which the

82 COMPUTE!'* Gazette September 19B4

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Understanding Built On Experience
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player steers a racing car along a road, your pro
gram could interpret 128 (the midpoint between
0 and 255) as the center position for the car. Any

number less than 128 would steer the car to the
left, and any number greater than 128 would
move it to the right.
If you miss the feel of an actual steering
wheel, it might be possible to somehow attach a
toy wheel onto a paddle controller. But unless
you're handy with tools, it would probably wind
up looking pretty strange.
Another alternative is to find the steering
wheel controller designed for the Atari 2600 VCS STEP BY STEP INSTRUCTIONS
videogame machine. It has a standard Atari-type
plug, so it should be compatible with a VIC or 64
joystick port. Since it returns values different
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■ Calcuiale odds on MORSE RACES wiih ANY COMPUTER UT-2 THE LAST ONE 1 HR30 MIN
using BASIC.
Station WLKY ol Louisville Kentucky usM mis system Electronic worksheets: EW-3-6 Delailed steo by step in-
to prtdti tiie Mas of Hib 19BO Kentucky DerDy See sturction in Ihe use of electronic spread/sheet soflware.
PopvlM Comnuirng (February 198*1 tor 1 review ot I fiis
program Trus system was wntlen and used Oy
Work along and set up a complete example worksheet.
compute' e'peris ana is ma* t>emg made amiable to Home compute' owners This method
is based on sloimgdata komaiarge number ol races on a high speed. Nine scale computer Basic programming: BP-3 S A Teaches BASIC Language
23 lades laken tram Ihe "Daily Racing Form" mtre then analysed by trie computer to
sec how iney influenced race insults from these 33 tacts fen ne'e found id be the most commands and programming techniques. BuilOsyour know
vital m deteimming winners NUMERICAL PflOBABIUTiES oleich ol ifiese to (actors *n ledge Irom beginning in advanced levels.
Ihen computed jno Iriis lorms Ihe Oasis of this REVOLUTIONARY NEW PROGRAM
■ SIMPLE TO USE Oblam Daily Racing Form ihe day Mtore Ihc laces ana answer the
10 Questions aDoul each horse Run W rrogurn jrcrj your computer will prim rjul trie Data File Programming: DIO-1 £ 2 teaches BASIC Language
odds lor all dorses in each race COMPUTER POWER g«s you trie advantage1 data file programming using random, sequential, and relative
11 Prog'am on cassette or flisk access data files.
}) Lislir>5 of BASIC programs lor use -ill any CBTipuIsr
31 Irmrucujnj on Imn^l Ife neww Mil Iron Ihe rjaiiy Rjongfom '
4) Tips Qfi using trw o«s oeneraied by It* program
b) Sample Iwm to sjrnpii'y entering can in' each race
3G COMPANY, INC. DEPT. GA 1503) 357-5607
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Yes. I waul to use my compuler tor FIN and PROFIT. Please send me "Play Ilw
Add $3.00 for C.O.D.
Horses" lor 129.95. Circle the cassette you need1 ViC-M. Color compute.
TRS-flrj. Sinclair Time* 1000. Atari, Commodore 64 (Disk or cassette),
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Enclosed is: □ check or money order □ MasterCard □ Visa To Order

tin due
Phone or Write


. STATE 6831 West 157th Street Tinley Park, Illinois 60477




B4 COMPUTE! s Gazelle September IStW

Ih tlii irnlrkrlf ntnt hn ■ tattr pnci rhm sup'i t>nth«)olnriri iiid p«r*Sirilii(hiriiiidliikii'r.Aaibttiii
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Tussey Mt. Software-To order call; (814) 234-2236

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Tussbt Mt. Software • Box 1006 • State College. PA 16804


Supercharge Ydur

■ c*f
Add far greater speed and versatility
. corfff
0" to your C641 or VIC-20- with Micol
Systems' extraordinary new macro
assembler package - System M2000
Since machine language programs usually run 40-60
limes faster than their BASIC counterparts, this inexpensive

1113 package is lite buying a more powerful computer at a traction

<*»«U :6§j .4199 of the cost. A professional system that even the novice will
find easy to use, it assembles kilobyte files in seconds and is

one of ihe most powerful macro assemblers available.
Bui it's more than just an assembler, four programming will

1 I**** be simplified with such well designed programming tools as an

Editor which has all the handy features allowing you to
create your programs easily and a machine language
,*-. Monitor, a sophisticated debugging tool and complete

man lo machine language interface.
The package is »0O% machine code and fully
copyabie for your convenience. Available on disk
or cassette.

Available at finer computer outlets. For tho dealer

nearest you call Toll Free 1-800-225-2774 (Capri Im'l)
in the U.S. and (416) 73W402 (Access) or
1-800-3S7-97S8 (Soflcom) in Canada.

Mlcol Systems. 100 Graydon Hall Dr.,

Suits 2301, Don Mills, Ont.
Canada M3A 3A9
Economy Model or Cadillac Quality
We have the lowest prices! loran

I'1! Mill . >> ■. .-,,- .


Good quality 5'/i" single sided single density with hub rings.
Bulk Pac 100 Qty. $1 19 ea. Total Price $1 19 .00
10 Qty. 1 39 ea. Total Price 13 .90

CADILLAC QUALITY (double density)

• Each disk certified • Free replacement lifetime warranty • Automatic dust remover
For those who want cadillac quality we have the Loran Floppy Disk. Used by professionals because they can rely
on Loran Disks to store important data and programs without fear of loss! Each Loran disk is 100% certified (an
exclusive process) plus each disk carries an exclusive FREE REPLACEMENT LIFETIME WARRANTY. With Loran
disks you can have the peace of mind without the frustration of program loss after hours spent in program


Some floppy disk manufacturers only sample test on a batch basis the disks they sell, and then claim they are
certified. Each Loran disk is individually checked so you will never experience data or program loss during your
We are so sure of Loran Disks that we give you a free replacement warranty against failure to perform due to faul
ty materials or workmanship long as you own your Loran disk.


Just like a record needle, disk drive heads must travel hundreds of mites over disk surfaces. Unlike other floppy
disks the Loran smooth surface finish saves disk drive head wear during the life of the disk. (A rough surface will
grind your disk drive head like sandpaper). The lint free automatic CLEANING LINER makes sure the disk-killers
{dust & dirt) are being constantly cleaned while the disk is being operated. PLUS the Loran Disk has the highest
probability rate of any other disk in the industry for storing and retaining data without loss for the life of the disk.
Loran is definitely the Cadillac disk in the world
Just to prove it even further, we are offering these super LOW INTRODUCTORY PRICES
List $4.99 ea. INTRODUCTORY SALE PRICE $2.99 ea. (Box ol 10 only) Total price $29.90
S3.33 ea. (3 quantity) Total price $9.99
All LORAN disks come with hub rings and sleeves in an attractive package.


Everyone needs a disk drive doctor

• 60% of all drive downtime is directly related to poorly maintained drives.
• Drives should be cleaned each week regardless of use.
• Drives are sensitive to smoke, dust and all micro particles.
• Systematic operator performed maintenance is the best way of ensuring error free use of your computer |
The Cheetah disk drive cleaner can be used with single or double sided 5V disk drives. The Cheetah is an
easy to use fast method of maintaining efficient floppy diskette drive operation.
The Cheetah cleaner comes with 2 disks and is packed in a protective plastic folder to prevent contamination.
List $29.95 I Sale $19.95 * Coupon $16.95

Add $3.00 for shipping, handling ond insurance. Illinois resrdenTs

pleoio odd 6% io«. Add 16.00 lor CANADA. PUERTO RICO. HAWAII.
ALASKA. APO-fPO orders. Canadian orders must be in U.S dollars.
Enclose Cashiers Check. Money Order or Personal Check. Allow 14 BOX '.SO BABRINGTON. ILLINOIS 6OO10
dayi lot delivery. 2 ro 7 days lor phone order i, I doy expreit moil I Phor>* li ."U2 51«« to oid*r
NoC.O.D. loConada. APOFPO



Dual Disk Drive
1 Meal Byte

(it ordered
before 10/1/84)

List Price S3717.95


8050 DUAL DISK DRIVE (over I million bytes) 1795.00

Printer replacement options (replace the 4023 with the following at these sale prices)

• Olympia Executive Letter Quality Serial Printer $699 00 S 399 .00
* Comstar HiSpeed 160 CPS 15 ■ Serial-Business Printer $779 00 S 499 .00
• Telecommunications Deluxe Modem Package $ 199 00 S 139 .00

Plus You Can Order These Business Programs At Sale Prices


Professional 80 Column 114995 S99.U0 C.lyrall 1149 9!. W9O0
Wind Processor Inventory 149 95 99.00
Pi»le»inn,ii Ddl.i B.ibr 14995 99 00 GeniTBl Ltflne 149 90 99.00
Accounts Receivable M9 95 99.00 financial Snre. in Shwl 149 96 99 00
Accounts Payable 149 9!. 99.00 PruK'anl Crfiin tUK 149 9b 99 00

15 DAY FREE TRIflL We Rive you 15 days to try out this SUPER SYSTEM PACKAGE" If it doesn \ meet your expec
tations, just send it back to us, prepaid ant) we will refund your purchase price"

(ail due to faulty workmanship or material we will replace it IMMEDIATELY at no charee"

JAdd $50.00 for shipping and handling!! \

| $100.00 for Canada, Puerto Rico, Hawaii orders.
j Enclose Cashiers Check, Money Order or Personal Checfc Allow J
I 14 days lor delivery, 2 to7days for phoneorders, 1 dayexpress j ENTERPRIZES ..i is .i -. i-.;(.■■■(•■;

I mail! Canada orders must be in U S. dollars. We accept Visa and I BOX 550, HARRINGTON, ILLINOIS (10010
[MasterCard We ship C.O.D. to U.S addresses only. Phon* 311/M2-B244 lo ordtr


* *

75 Day Free Trial-180 Day Immediate Replacement Warranty

• Lowest Priced, Best Quality, Tractor- Friction Printers in the U.S.A.
• Fast 80-120-160 Characters Per Second ■ 40, 46, 66, 80,96,132 Characters Per Line Spacing
• Word Processing • Print Labels, Letters, Graphs and Tables • List Your Programs
• Printout Data from Modem Services • "The Most Important Accessory tor Your Computer"

•STX-80 COLUMN and special characters, plus 2K of user Superior Quality

definable characters! The COMSTAR T/F
SUPER-10X PRINTER was Rated No. 1 by
Prints full 80 columns. Super silent COMSTAR T/F 15'A"
operation, 60 CPS, prints Hi-resolullon
"Popular Science Magazine." It gives you
print quality and features found on PRINTER—$529.00
graphics and block graphics, expanded
printers costing twice as muchl! (Cen SUPER HIGH SPEED COMSTAR T/F
character set, exceptionally clear
tronics Parallel Interface) (Better than Ep 15V PRINTER has all the features of the
characlers, fantastic print quality, uses
inexpensive thermal paper! Best thermal
PRINTER plus a 15V carriage and more
printer In the U.S.A.! (Centronics Parallel Premium Quality—120 CPS powerful electronics to handle larger
Interface). COMSTAR T/F SUPER-15tt" ledger business forms! Exclusive bottom
••DELUXE COMSTAR T/F PRINTER-S379.00 paper feed11
The COMSTAR T/F (Tractor Friction) has all the features of the COMSTAR T/F
PRINTER Is exceptionally versatile. It SUPER-10X PRINTER plus a 15V car PARALLEL INTERFACES
riage and more powerful electronics For VIC-20 and COM-94-S69.00
prints 8tt" x 11" standard size single
sheet stationary or continuous teed com* components to handle large ledger For Appl* Compuiara— $79.00

puter paper. Bi-directional, impact dot business forms! (Better than Epson FX NOTE: Other printer Interlaces are

matrix, 80 CPS, 224 characters. (Cen 100). available at computer stores!

tronics Parallel Interface).

Superior Quality
Premium Quality—120 CPS SUPER HIGH SPEED-160 CPS
PRINTER—S289.00 Immediate Replacement
COMSTAR T/F (Tractor Friction) SUPER- Warranty
10X PRINTER gives you all the features We have doubled the normal 90 day war
(Tractor Friction) PRINTER has all the
of the COMSTAR T/F PRINTER plus a features of the COMSTAR SUPER-10X
ranty to 180 days. Therelore II your
10" carriage, 120 CPS, 9 x 9 dot matrix PRINTER plus SUPER HIGH SPEED
printer (alls within "180 days" from the
with double strike capability (or 18 x 18 PRINTING-160 CPS, 100% duty cycle, date of purchase you simply send your
dot matrix (near letter quality), high 8K buffer, diverse character fonts, printer to us via United Parcel Service,
resolution bit image (120 x 144 dot prepaid. We will IMMEDIATELY send you
special symbols and true decenders, ver
matrix), underlining, back spacing, left a replacement printer at no charge,
tical and horizontal labs. RED HOT
and right margin settings, true lower prepaid, This warranty, once again,
BUSINESS PRINTER at an unbelievable
decenders with super and subscripts, low price!! (Serial or Centronics Parallel proves that WE LOVE OUR
prints standard, italic, block graphics CUSTOMERS!

Add $17.SO lor shipping, handling and Instance. WE DO NOT EXPORT


Enclose Cashiers Check. Money Order or Personal Check. Allow 14 days

for delivery, 2 to 7 days for phone orders, 1 day express malll Canada

orders must be in U.S. dollars. VISA — MASTER CARD ACCEPTED. We BOX 550, BARRINGTON, ILLINOIS 60010
ship C.O.D. Phorm 312/352-5244 to order




World's Finest Computer Printer

List Price $699 SALE $399

Daisywheel printer, bidirectional with special print

Print speed up to 20 characters per second.
10, 12, and 15 characters per inch.
256 character print buffer.
14.4" forms width.
Print line width: 115. 138, and 172 characters,
Serial RS-232-C and parallel Centronics interface
ports built-in.
Built-in bidirectional forms tractor.
Operating status control panel.

Executive Letter Quality Printer

World's Finest
Combination" Printer/Typewriter
List Price $799 SALE $489

• Superb computer printer combined with world's finest

electronic typewriter!
• Better than IBM selectric — used by world's largest
• Two machines in one — just a flick of the switch!
• Superb letter quality correspondence — home, office,
word processing!

• Extra large carriage — allows 14-1/8" paper usage!

• Drop in cassette ribbon — express lift off correction or
eraser up to 46 characters!
• Precision daisy wheel printing — many type styles!
• Pitch selector— 10.12, 15 CPS. Automatic relocate key!
• Automatic margin control and setting! Key in buffer!
• Electronic reliability, built in diagnostic test!
Executive Letter Quality Printer/Typewriter
• Centronics parallel interface built-in

15 Day Free Trial ■ 90 Day Immediate Replacement Warranty

COM 64 - VIC-20 INTERFACE S59.00
Add SI 7.50 lor shipping, handling and insurance. Illinois residents please
add 6% tan. Add $35,00 lor CANADA, PUERTO RICO, HAWAII. ALASKA,
APA-FPO orders. Canadian orders must be in U.S. dollars,

Enclose Cashiers Check. Money Order or Personal Check. Allow 14 days

delivery. 2 lo 7 days lor phone orders. 1 day express mail!



l'hon« 312/3B25244 lo ord»r
Commodore • 64
i I I J I I-J i—i
I I I I II ■r~i n
JL 1 ■ I L ,L J i L J
ir tt i r i v ~v r r T T
J i iii i
j i i i
Ill !
II I II I ll! I
,,111 II I


(80 Columns in Color)
40 or 80 columns in color or black and white; turns your computer into a Business
Rated best by COMMODORE. This is the finest word processor available. Features in
clude line and paragraph insertion/deletion, indentation, right and left justification,
titles, page numbering, characters per inch, etc. All features are easy to use and under
stand. With tabs, etc. SCRIPT-64 even includes a 250 word dictionary/spelling checker to
make sure your spelling is correct. The dictionary is user customizable to any technical
words you may use. Furthermore, all paragraphs can be printed in writing and everyday
letters are a snap. To top things off, there is a ''00 page manual and help screens to
make learning how to use SCRIPT-64 a snap. Th:s word processor is so complete we
can't think of anything it doesn't have. When com Dined with the complete database you
have a powerful mailmerge and label program that lets you customize any mailing list
with personalized letters. List $99.95. Sale $59.00. *Coupon Price $49.00. {Disk only.)


Allows you to check spelling on 20,000 most often mispelled words! List $29.95. Sale
$19.95. *Coupon Price $12.50 (Disk only.)


(Plus Mail Merge and Labels)
This powerful DATABASE is user friendly and makes any information easy to store and
retrieve. The user defines the fields and then can add, change, delete, and search for
any category wanted! Must be used with the SCRIPT-64 EXECUTIVE WORD PROC
ESSOR. When combined with the Executive Word Processor you can search out any
category (zip codes, even hair color, etc.) and print super personalized letters! 600
names can be sorted and formulated on each disk in any order or category! Will handle
any size mailing list by changing or adding disks! List $69.00. Sale $39.00. 'Coupon
Price $29.00.




One Day — Express Mail add $10.00 BOX 550, BAflRINGTON. ILLINOIS 60010
Phone 312/3825244 to ordor
80 Columns x 24 lines
Green text display
Easyto read - no eye strain
Up front brightness control
High resolution graphics
Quick start - no preheating
Regulated power supply
Attractive metal cabinet
UL and FCC approved
9" Doto Monitor

15 Day Free Trial - 90 Day Immediate Replacement Warranty

9" Screen - Green Text Display $ 69.00

12" Screen - Green Text Display (anti-reflective screen) $ 99.00
12" Screen -Amber Text Display (anti-reflective screen) $ 99.00
12" Screen-Super 1000 Line Amber Text Display $119.00
14" Screen-Color Monitor (High Resolution)

Display Monitors From Sanyo

With the need for computing power growing every day, Sanyo has
stepped in to meet the demand with a whole new line of low cost, high Official Video Products
of the Los Angeles J984 Oymptcs
quality data monitors. Designed for commercial and personal com
puter use. All models come with an array of features, including up-
front brightness and contrast controls. The capacity 5 x 7 dot
characters as the input is 24 lines of characters with up to
80 characters per line.
Equally important, all are built with Sanyo's commitment
to technological excellence. In the world of Audio/Video, Sanyo is
synonymous with reliability and performance. And Sanyo quality is
reflected in our reputation. Unlike some suppliers, Sanyo designs,
manufactures and tests virtually all the parts that go into our products,
from cameras to stereos. That's an assurance not everybody can
give you!


Add J1O.O0 (or shipping, handling md Insurance Illinois residents

please add 6% lax. Add (20.00 lor CANADA, PUERTO RICO, HAWAII
EnelOSO Cashiers Check, Money OrOer or Personal CfiocK. Allow 14 ENTERPRIZES ml LOVE OUH CUSTOMERS)

days lor delivery. 2 10 7 days lor pfiono orders. 1 day express mall?
Canada orders must i ■> dollars. Visa - MasterCard - COO. BOX 550, BARR1NGTON, ILLINOIS 60010
Phono 312/362-5244 to order


You can program any words or sentences • Adjust volume and pitch • Make adven
59 00

ture games that talk • Real sound action games • Make customized talkies • (Demo
disk or tape included) • Requires Speaker

You can add TEXT TO SPEECH SOFTWARE that allows you to simply type what you
want to hear!! Also allows you to add sound and voice to SCOTT ADAMS AARD-
VARK and "ZORK" ADVENTURE GAMES List $29.95 Sale $19.95 (Disk or Tape).






Now you uan program 80 columns on the screen
at one time! Converts your Commodore 64 to 80
columns when you plug in the PROTECTO 80
Expansion Board. List $199.00. Sale $99.00.

FOR ONLY $24.95 you can get an 80 Column Board "WORD PROCESSOR" with mail merge and
terminal emulator PLUS! AN ELECTRONIC SPREAD SHEET (like Visicalc) List $59.00. Sale $39.90.
•II purchased with board only $24.95. (Tape or Disk.)
Add 33.00 lor shipping, handling and insurance. Illinois reildflnii
pleas* add t.% lax. Add J6.00 \a< CANADA. PUERTO RICO. HAWAII.
ALASKA. APOFPO orden. Canadian orders must be in U.S. dollors.
Endoio Caihi«ri Check. Money Order or Personal Chsck. Allow U
days for delivery. 2 to 7 days for phone orders, I day express moiH EIMTERPRIZES [WE lOVE OUB CUSTOMS "Si


NoC.O.D. to Canada. APOFPO.
Phom 31U3S2-S244 to ordar
Program Your Commodore 64
Sale In Plain English New

(No need to know Basic)

List $69.00

Information cann be a wonderful thing. Having enough of it when it's needed can sove time and money and
give you thai very nice "together" feeling. FlleWrlier lets you control information so you can enter it. find it
and change it — jus) the way you'd like. Whether it's information about bills, taxes, recipes, club
membership, stamp collections, or your new home business, File-Writer puts things in order. Simply "draw"
any kind of screen you want — just like making up a paper form to hold information. Only there's no paper lo
slow things down. Once you have your form, add some real computer power: calculate automatically, hold
grand totals, test for bad information — for one form or hundreds. There's no need to "program". Just use
plain English!! Most of the instructions you'll need are right on the screen for you. Like all CodeWriter
programs, your FileWrlter system gives you your own program on your own disk — in minutes the first time
you try. Your new program will search for information any way you'd like, update old information, make new
calculations, al! at computer speed.

Program Generators!!

Report Writer — Lets you create FileWriter - - Lets you create the
output formats and calculations in input screens and calculations in any
any fashion you please. Requires fashion you please. List S59.00. Sale
FileWriter. List $59.00. Sale S3»,95. 539.95 (Disk).

Adventure Writer — Now you can Dialog — Now you con make quizzes
create your own Adventure game and problems for your kids and
without knowing how to program! friends. Make trivia games and other
Create heroes, villains, magicians question and answer games for all.
and monsters, castles and coffin, You pick the rewards and the
even dragons. All in plain English. Elf — The visible worksheet is here! punishments. Fantastic teaching aid
When your creation is done Now you can create applications for kids and party game maker for
Adventure Writer will write the screen by screen that calculates and adults. List £59.00. Sale $39.95.
program for you on your own disk. prints out reports. Buy vs. lease, (Disk).
Fantastic Adventure tool! List S59.00. amortization, comparisons, and
Sale $39.95. (Disk). summations are just a few of the
freeform spreadsheet functions you
can do with Elf. List S59.O0. Sale
139.00. (Disk).

Add 13 00 lor ihipplng. hondhng and iniuranca Illinoli 'tltdtnli

plwn odd i% ia>. Add MOO (or CANADA. PUERTO RICO. HAWAII
ALASKA APO-FPO o'tlo'i Canadian ordtrt mull i.j In U.S. dollon.

Ervelaii Caihitn Ch«k. '-'one, O-d.r a' Panonol : h.ri Allow II (Wf lOVI CUB CUS'Ouf "Si
dayt for ■k-'.i'y 7 la 7 dayi for prior* t.'ill'I I day "h p'■ 11 mail I
No C.O.O. to Co"Ooo, APOFPO.
Priori* 312/382-5244 to ordtr
The Most

Practical Software
For Your


• Track Expenses, inventories, • Keep Mailing Lists • Change • Test RAM Memory • RS-232
investments • Make Charts Records, numbers, methods of Port • Keyboard • Video •
and Graphs • Project Profits filing • Information Retrieval Audio • Joystick • And More!


Pr*» KIWI 1* i*ii ih*

Um. ar »•!! 'F-l!


Practicalc 64: A consistent Practifile: Flexibility and 64 Doctor: A special diagnostic

best seller, Practicalc 64 has large capacity make Practifile program for the Commodore
become a reference standard the ideal data-base manager 64, 64 Doctor takes the
among Commodore 64 for the Commodore 64. Files guesswork out of isolating
spreadsheets. With features written with the program are troublesome hardware
like alphabetic and numeric compatible with Practicalc 64 problems. The program tests
sorting and searching, variable and popular word processing each piece of hardware to
comumn widths, graphing and programs such as EasyScript, pinpoint defects and help
23 math functions, this Word Pro, PageMate and prevent costly and time-
program is an exceptional PaperClip. Finally, a full- consuming service calls. An
value. Practicalc 64 also featured data-base at an essential program for all
interacts with Practifile, affordable price! List $59.95. Commodore 64 users! List
forming the perfect small Sale $46.95. Disk. '($39.95 $34.95. Sale $24.95. ($19.95
business bundle. List $59.95. Tape.) Disk.)
Sale $46.95. Disk. ($39,95

Add 13.00 lor shipping, handling and inluronc* Illlnoll r*»Jd*nll

pl«» odd 6-. ia>. Add MOO lot CANADA. PUERTO mo HAWAII
ALASKA APO-FPO ord«n. Canadian ard«n muiT b* in U.S. dollar*
Entloi* Caihitri Ch»n:k
Mon*r Ordu or Pflnonal Chtck
7 ro I llflyl for phcf* oiil.n
Allow 14
I doy ■Hfrr*II mail I


No C.O.D. to Conodg. APOFPO. Pho<» 312/3925244 to ord«f

Introductory Offer!
Complete Personal Accountant
"Three Programs for the Price of One"
This program has become the most popular Commodore-64 program for money management
in the home and in small businesses. Much more than a record keeper the complete personal
accountant helps you plan, budget, monitor, and record your finances and your time. Chart of
Accounts; Detail and Summary Budget Analysis; and Appointments/Payments Calendar are
yours for one low price. List $79.00. Sale 549.00. Introductory Offer



Orgonize and monitor your finances with With Detail and Summary Budget With the Appointments and Payments
o flexible Chart of Accounls. and an Analysis, and Net Calendar you can schedule and then
option-pocked Checkbook Maintenance Worth Income Expense Statements, you monitor your time ond your money ... or
progrom. Only the CPA offers on-screen can easily determine where your money grophicolly display your finances with the
editing for quick and easy corrections, is, where it's going, ond where it's coming Color Groph program. Extra features let
check search copobilities in each field, from. Finance 2 will automatically you orgoniie nomes and addresses with
and the capacity to print personalized generate professional reports that are our powerful Mailing List that features o
checks. indispensable tools in making financial global search capability.
INJIIINIIIIIIIIUIIIllllllllllllllllllllllilllllllllllllllllllllNllllldllllllllUllLILIlllllJIIIIIII IIIIMINNPIimP 1 1 I I I I I I I . I . I I I I ||| m ■■■■■

Fantastic Educational Programs

Little Red Riding Hood — Peripheral Vision — At last a
TALKS!! — This famous bedtime fantastic artists program for your
story comes alive wilhgraphics. light pen. Draw, erase and save in
sound, text and SPEECH! Now you 14 colors. Zoom in and out, draw or
ond your kids can relive tho story of fill circles, squares, triangles, or
Little Red Riding Haod and improve rectangles with the touch of a pen.
your reading skills at the same Fantastic graphics tool. List $39.95.
time. Excellent for all ages!! List Sale 127.15 (Requires light pen).
534.95. Sol«*M.« (Disk).

Animal Crackers — This Alphabet Construction Sat —

program helps develop letter This is the most Advanced
ond word recognition skills by Alphabet Construction Set on
creating a screen full of record. The computer voice (it
onimated objects, each speaks] guides your child
representing a letter of the through every step as he/she
alphabet. Your child selects a draws the letier on the screen
letter with the joystick or light with a light pen. The computer
pen and suddenly an animal or analyzes the letters your child
object will appear with the correct spelling. List $34.95. draws, points out mistakes and then suggests the necessary
Sale (24.95 (Light pen or joystick required) (Disk). corrections! Fantastic Educational Value. List $34.95. Solo
S24.95. (Light pen required) (Disk).

Add U0O loi i hipping handlino am* iniuron.. Illinon rttidwiu

pl«l*add6r. ra<.A*l»* 00 tor CANADA PUfBIO «tCO HAWAII
ALASKA APOFPO ord»fl Conodion o'd«'i "»"' b* .n U S dollari
EACloi* Caif"«'l Ch«k ■■•::; O'Ot' O' P«HO"ol Ch«k AllQ- U FIMTERPRIZES n(io"iauacusi
.in.i I r i.■.,«., ]ig J ilori(oi phon* O'dtri 1 dot •«p<*ll ma.I»
NoCOD lo Canada APQF»O Phona 312JU2S244 lo order
Commodore 64
No. 1

Educational Software
At Its Best

t ' Hf TM

Company SALEi
Bumble Games — Ages 4-10. An Moptown Hotel — Ages 8-13. To learn
absolutely ouierspace way to teach how )o solve problems, check into this
basic math to children. Flying spaceships hotel. Children learn advanced
and the magic of Bumble help children problem-solving skills. Colorful Moppet
learn to plot numbers and create characters open the door to learning.
computer graphics. List $44.95. Sale $29.95. Coupon $24.95
List $44.95. Sale $29.95. Coupon $24.95

- 1 ■!?»- Addition Mogician — Ages 6-10. An Moptown Porade — Ages 6-10. To

absenl-minded magician makes a game learn strategy, this is the parade to join.
out of learning addition. Magicol walls Playful Moppet charocters help children
and secret prizes encourage flexible develop strategic thinking. Children will
thinking about adding. Children become never want this parade to pass them by.
addition magicians! List $44.95. Sale $29.95. Coupon $24.95
List S39.95. Sale $29.95. Coupon $24.95

Word Spinner — Ages 6-10. Reading Juggles' Rainbow — Ages 3-6. Little
becomes like a ride in an amusement ones play over and over again wilh
park os children spin through the dancing roinbows, whirling windmills
alphobet and leorn to read. With and fluttering butterflies. Children learn
brilliant colors and a whirling word the spolial concepts of obove ond below,
spinner the building blocks of reading left ond right — ond other critical
are mode easy. List $39.95. Sale $29.95. reading and math readiness skills.
Coupon $24.95 List $34.95. Sale $29.95. Coupon $24,95

Add S3.00 for shipping, handling ond insurance. Illinois resident

pleass odd 6% 10.. Add $6.00 for CANADA, PUERTO RICO. HAWAII.
ALASKA, APO-FPO orders. Canadian order? musl be In U.5 dollar?.
Encloso Coshiers Chock. Mancy Order 01 Parsonol Chock. Allov. 14 pG (WSLOVEOWCUSTOMERSl
day* for delivery. 7lo7dayslor phone orders. I day expr all moil1
NoC.O.O. loConndu. APO FPO Phon» 312/M2-5244 to ordw
Turn Your

Musical Instrument
"The Program That Gives You A Reason To Buy A CommodoreSi."
New York Times.


Synthesizer & Sequencer

This 1st step turn your Commodore-64 into a
sophisticated musical instrument — a three
voice synthesizer and fully interactive step
sequencer play along with pre-recorded
songs or develop your own and record the
music you create. Muspdc
List $59.95. Sale $39.95.

With Musicalc anyone can • Make

ScoreWriter Keyboard Maker
and record sophisticated music •
Combine with Musicalc 1 and a Turns your Commodore-64 into a
graphics printer (Super-10) to Print out sheet music from your musical keyboard. Comes with
produce sheet music from your over 30 pre-set keyboard scales
creations • Turn your computer into
original composition. List from Classical lo Rock. Requires
$39.95. Sale S29.95. Coupon a keyboard * No experience Musicalc 1. List $39.95. Sale
$24.95. necessary! S2».«. Coupon $24.95.

You will sound great with Musicalc. To prove it we will send you FREE a record with
sounds created with a Commodore-64 and Musicalc by people without instrument or
musical experience. To get your Free Record write or call 312/382-5244,

Add 13.00 for thipplng. har>dlir>g and ln>urortc«. IUinoi> r*tid*nit

pisoi* odd t% ton Add 16.00 lor CANADA, PUERTO BICO HAWAII.
ALASKA, APOFPO ordVt. Conndion ord»rl mull fcs in U.S. dollart.

EncloH Coihi.n Chiik Monty Ordtr or Ptrtongl Allow U WE LOVf OUB CUSTOMEH31
day* for d«livary. 7 »o 7 doy! lor phon* ord«rir I day *npr*ii n.nil^
No COO Is Canada. A!'O I .":.)
Phon* 312/382-5244 to ordtr

Chalk Board Touch-Tab let is a
revolutionary new 12" x 12" touch sensitive
surface that lets you bypass your
COMMODORE-64 Computer keyboard. Just
touch the pad and watch your ideas appear
on your t.v. screen in living color! Power Pad
is drawing pad, color graphics, color canvas
and piano keyboard, jigsaw puzzle, game
board for any age. A fantastic, entertaining,
learning experience! • Free $29.95 Paint
Brush Program I

List Price $129.90 Sale $49.00 LEARNING PAD SALE!!!

• Bigger — Better — Lower Price Than Koalapadl * Fantastic Learning Tool • First Graders To Senior
Citizens • Learn By Touching Tablet • Color Graphics • Drawing Pod • Game Board • Jigsaw Puzzle
• Piano Key Board • Music* Visual Arts • Math • Science* Apple (Macintosh) Mouse Capability

you use Leo's 'Lectric Paintbrush KIT. Once you're familiar with the different game designs ... and over
software, you are ready for magical, COMMODORE-64 Computer keyboard 200 million secret codes ...
multi-colored electronic finger and you understand beginning BASIC, LogicMaster is the most fun you've
painting. Make your own pictures. the LEARNING PAD programming kit ever had with your powers of
Color them. Change them. Save sets you free to develop games and reasoning. Solve the codes all by
them. List $29.95. Sale (Free with programs! List $29.95. Sale $19.95. yourself or work together with family
purchase of CHALKBOARD (Disk) or friends. List $39.95. Sale $29.95.
LEARNING PAD for $49.00). (Cart) (Cart)

BEARJAM. As children play this PIANO MAESTRO. Chalk Board's LEO'S GOLF LINKS. This golf game
gams and feed the friendly animated MicroMaestro software turns your for one or more players lets you
bear, they sharpen the visual skills so PowerPad into a piano keyboard. design each hole, including fairways,
essential for success in learing. Touch the keys. You hear the music roughs, traps ond greens. Then using
Bear Jam is a great reading-readiness ond see your composition right on the woods, irons and putters, you play
game. List $39.95. Sale S29.95. (Cart) screen. It is the fun way to learn the course. List $39.95. Sale $29.95.
music. List $29.95. Sale $24.95 (Cart) (Cart)

Add £3.00 'o* shipping, hondling and Insurance. Illinois residents

pluain add 6% io< Add it. 00 for CANADA. PUERTO RICO. HAWAII.
ALASKA, APO-FPO orders. Canadlon orders muil b* In U.S. dollait.
Enclo» Cashiers Chock, Monty Order or Personal Check. Allow 14
doysfor delivery, 2 ro7 days for phone orders. 1 day fljcpren moil! ENTERPRIZES
No C.O.D. lo Conodfl, APO-FPO.
Phon* 312/M2S244 to order
Program Offer*

Home Management
Educational Software

Presidential Campaign
Start with 52,500,000 ond a Presidential
* Buy the Fantastic Presidential
Nomination. Spend your money wisely to
conduct a nationwide campaign to win the Campaign and choose any other
confidence of the American Public. At the end of Timeworks Program on this
the campaign the American Public will decide page FREE!!
on the final decision. Fantastically Realistic. List
Tape or Disk
$29.95. Sale S19.95
Expires 10/1/84

Money Manager The Electronic Checkbook

16 categories can be input on a monthly Check recording, sorting and balancing

basis for a 12 month period. Full analysis system. Organize and record checkbook
including budget and actual comparisons transactions for easy recall and sorting by
plus detail by individual items. Colorful bar category. A must for lax time. Also produce
charts show where you're spending to much the sum ond average for transaction
or too little. Record all information to tape amounts by indexed categories. Interface
or disk. List S24.95. Sale S19.95. with the MONEY MANAGER for graphic
detail and actual-budgef comparison. List
S24.95. Sale $19.95.

Programming Kit I

k ^ ^d I II B a
h^ *d mJ f ^j Shows in detail how
Programming from basic programming
Your Choice Ihe ground up. This works and what Your Choice
first step takes you should go into a

$19.95 through the actual

of Lunar
good game. List
S24.95. Sale $19.95. $19.95
moving graphics.

Programming Kit II Kits Programming Kit III

Intermediate game Manuals are written in Intermediate Data Base

design and Sprite plain, easy to follow English. design. Instead of
Builder. Design Slot The 8 step' approach to program games you may want fo
Machine and study design is fully explained and can go the business route.
intermediate easily be applied to your future Use this program to
programming including programming adventures. develop a Data Base
arrays, subroutines, Manager to allow quick
sound, special function storage and retrieval of
keys, ond random any information. Learn
funclion. Plus Sprites are covered in disk/tape storage, sorting, menus,
detail and a Sprite Editor is included. plus mulii dimensioned arrays,
List S24.95. Sale 519.95. plus a whole lot more. List $24.95.
Sale $19.95.

Dungeons Of The Algebra Dragons Spellbound

At last a good educational game. You The screen is sprinkled with the letters
must wander through 3-D mazes until you from one of 20 words of your choice along
encounter dragons, then you must with a few extra random ones. Use your
answer the algebra problems they give Joystick to sting the letters in the right
you. A right answer gets you a free ride, order but don't sting the wrong ones or
a wrong answer gets you eaten. Fantastic cross your path or you explode. Fontastic
educational value. (Tape or Disk.) List educational value. Fun for all ages. List
529.95. Sale $24.95. $24.95. Sale 517.95.

Add 13 DO fo' shipping handling ond insuronc* Mlpnoil '■■"■!"'■'■•

pl*oi* nddftV. In. Add 14 00 (or CANADA PLJED'O RICO HAWAII
ALASKA APO F'O ord»ri Canadian ordt'i n.u1t b» in U S dollnil
Fnclot* • ■>!' i-ri I"' •
day* lor dali'ir?
h Mchb, Ord*' 01 *""
3 'o 1 day* far phono ordari
!■»■■; Check
I day tip'tit moil'
Alia*. I'


NaCOO loConoda APO IPO
Phone 312/382-5244 lo ordar
Commodore 64

Superior Computer Games
Pago Joe Asylum

Better than Qberf. One of the best graphic

Guide Pogo Joe across adventures we've seen.
32 screens of cylinders. Get yourself out of the
As many as 8 nasties at Asylum past guards and
a time are out to kill secret doors. Stunning,
you. Fantastic graphics 3D graphics will make
and sound. List $29.95. you feel like an inmate.
Sale $19.95. Coupon List $34.95. Sale $24.95.
$16.95. (Tape or Disk) Coupon $22.00. (TopoorDisk)


Dunzhin Wylde
A good sword, little Be a Hobbit! Make your
magic, and lots of way through the magic
cunning takes you mountains to the
against Evil Wyverns, treasure of the mountain
Saber Toothed Tigers, king. Fight Trolls, Orks
and the Undead. If you and other nasties along
reach the bottom of the the way. Fantastic
dungeon your halfway realism. List $34.95.
home. Great and 30 Sale $24.95. Coupon
graphics. List $34.95. $22.00. (Di*k)
Sale $24.95. Coupon
$22.00. (Tape or Disk]

Playful Professor Ken Uston's

Professional Blackjack
Moke your way to the
treasure by correctly The ultimate Blackjack
answering math problems. tutor made famous by Ken
If you guess wrong and the Uston, $5,000,000 winner.
professor shows you how AM d if f erent casino
step by step. Addition, Blackjacks are discussed
substraction, as well as a free $29.95
multiplication, and division value Blackjack Book are
basics are all covered. yours. Fantastic tutor. List
Fantastic educational $79.95. Sale $49.95. (Disk]
value. List S34.'95. Sate
$24.95. Coupon $22.00.
(Tape or Disk)

Add 53 00 'or shipping handling and insurance, llhnon resident*

pleose add 6% to*. Add *6.00 tor CANADA. PUERTO RICO. HAWAII.
ALASKA APO-FPO orders. Canadian order) mufl bo in U.S. dollars.
Encloio Coshieri Chack. Money Order or Parionol Ch«ck. Allow U
dayi lor delivery, 2 Io7 day* for phon«ord«n. 1 day eapreis mall! ENTERPRIZES
NaGO.D. 1oCanada. APO-FPO. 29
Phont 312/382-5244 to ordar
xrxegy Games/a mAnton-Orx/wr

Bliy 1 (at Sale Price!) Get One

Commodore 64
(Expires 10/1/84)

A ward Winning Games

World's Greatest Baseball — Finally a great sports game. Realistic right down to the playing
field- Control all the actions-even the outfielders. Play realistic baseball all year round.
(Fantastic graphics, action, and sound!) (Disk) List $34.95 Sale $24.95.

— Stop wasting quarters! Now you can play Exidy's Fax at home. Play
against the computer or an opponent to get the answer first, over 3,700
questions dealing with sports, television, movies, histories, and many more
subjects will keep you playing for hours (o must for trivia buffs).
List $34.95. Sale $24.95. (disk only).

Summer Games — Now you can compete in the Olympics right along with
the real competitors. Compete in track, swimming, diving, cycling, archery,
weight lifting, rowing and more. This Olympic game is so realistic it even
includes a beautiful opening ceremony and an awards presentation after each
event. (Highly recommended, by far the best Olympics game we've seen).
List S39.95. Sale $28.00. (disk only).

Dragon Riders of Pern — Based on the best selling book series by Anne
McCaffey (over 10 million sold). This program forces you to make an alliance
with the Lord holders, then mount your dragon (stunning graphics) and battle
the dreaded thread. (Super fast action with a great theme).
List $39.95. Sale $24.00. (tape/disk).

Jumpman — If you like Donkey Kong, you'll love Jumpman. Over 30

different screens with 8 speeds and 5 skill levels make this the fastest action
game in the country. You must leap girders, climb ropes, and scale ladders to
reach and diffuse bombs while avoiding robots, birds, bullets, explosives,
crumbling walls, vanishing escape routes, and many other obstacles. (Truly a
fantastic game!) List $39.95. Sale $24.95 (Disk/Tape.)

Temple of Apshai — (computer game of the year). This is the standard by

which other adventure games are judged. Full color graphics portray the
temple and all its contents — magic, monsters, doomed cities and damsels in
distress. Do battle in real time with over 20 monsters, expansion modules will
keep your adventure alive in thefuture. List $39.95. Sale $24.95. (tape/disk).
(Also Available For VIC-20)

A03 13 00 \o< postage Acid 16 00 lor CANADA BuERTO HICO HAWAII

Enclose Cashiers Check Mone, O'Oe' o< Pe'ionai C»ec* Allow i*
oa.s lo' deliver* 2 io 7 days for rjnon* O'Oecs I da, r-erm mail'
Canada orders muji MirUS dollar; We acceol Vm ana Master
Phona 312/3825244 to ordtr

Fantastic Sale!
HES Special Programs For VIC-20 Computer
While They Last!! Call Today!! First Come Basis!!

SYNTHESOUND Sale $9.95 Synthesound

• Fantastic Sound & Music • Piano Keyboard
Now your VIC-20 can be used as a state-of-the-art music synthesizer and special effects generator! A
very User friendly manual guides you through sessions of learning and development of your syn
thesizer "style"! You can program Synthespund to sound like many different instruments like
bagpipes, organ, bass and many others. Synthesound brings technical musical abilities to any VIC-20
user. Prepare to step into the exciting world of the futuristic computer musician.
• VIC keyboard used as a 2 octave fast attack keyboard. • 4 voiceiSO note sequencer to' repealing melodies or rhythms.
• 3 voices with AVt ociave range. • High resolution piano keyboard display. List $39.95
• A low frequency ocillators Sale $9.95
• A envelope shaping controls (Attack. Decay,
Sustain, Release).

SHAMUS (No. 1 Joy Stick Action Game!) Sale $9.95

Fight against the Roboroids and Snap Jumpers as you wind your way through the
Shadows lair. Dangerous obstacles may mean your doom if you're not fast with your joy
stick action! Excellent high resolution graphics and fantastic sound! VERY ADDICTIVE!

VIC FORTH LANGUAGE Sale $19.95 List $39.95

Faster than BASIC — easier than Assembly language — Language of Robots. Sale $9.95

VIC FORTH is an exciting new cartridge for your VIC-20 computer. You now have a language that is
more powerful than BASIC and easier to program than assembler! VIC FORTH is a nearly complete
implementation of the "FORTH INTEREST GROUP" (fig.) version of FORTH. The VIC FORTH editor
follows closely the standard FORTH editor described in the book, "Starting FORTH' '.plus it has many,
many additional features.
• Full screen editor which has 16 lines ol 64 characters each (siandard FORTH Screen) Ihrough use ol a horizontal scrolling
• User definable words; this means a (unction nol already supported can be created by you and added to VIC FORTH tor
future use.
• Full VIC sound and color capabilities.
• Runs in standard 5k VIC. • Up to 24k additional memory can be added.
• Output to printers and disks and tape machines. • 31 characters for variable names. List 159.95
Sale $19.95
• Create colorful pictures and graphics • Learn how computers compute.
Turtle Graphics is an exciting and fun way to discover computer programming concepts. Turtle
Graphics is an easy-to-leam computer language. It enables the beginning programmer to master the
computer in just a few minutes. By telling an imaginary turtle how to roam about on the VIC's screen,
the Turtle Graphics programmer can create colorful and artistic pictures. As one becomes more and
more adept at teaching the turtle to paint using the VIC's rich graphics and color palette he or she is
painlessly learning all of the basics of computer programming. This not only develops computer
awareness, but enriches one's math, logic, communication and artistic skills as well.
Turtle Graphics has over 30 different commands.
List $49.95
Programs may be listed on a printer and saved on or loaded from tape or disk.
Turtle Graphics Is menu driven lor ease ol use. Sale S19.95
Trace mode to help the beflinning programmer follow the logic of his program one step at a time.
Well written, easylofollow manual with many examples included ^^_ ^^^ ^^^ ^^_ a

We Have All HES Products At Super Sale Prices!!


Phone 312/382-5244 to order


79 00
LIST PRICE $159.95

Just plug in the 32K RAM MEMORY EXPANDER and you have as much usable programming
memory as the Commodore-64 computer!!! This 32K RAM EXPANDER CARTRIDGE gives



Allows Full 32K Memory Expandsion
Separate Enable Switch lor each 8K Block
Gold Plated Contacts
Premium Grade Components
FuHy Tested and Burned In
5 Year Warranty
Complete Documentation



3K Ram Expander S 39.95 $19.95

8K Ram Expander (2V3 limes more power) . . . $ 69.95 $34.95
16K Ram Expanderfd times more power). .. . $ 99.95 $49.00
32K Ram Expander (9 times more power)
(PLUS$29.95 FREEGAMECARTRIDGE) . . S 149.95 $79.00
3 Slot Expander Board — Switch Selectable . . $ 49.95 $24.95


Add $3.00 lor shipping, handling and insurance. Illinois residtjnis
plso» odd 6"i tax. Add 16.00 lor CANADA, PUERTO RICO HAWAII
ALASKA. APQ-FPO orders Conadion orders musl be in U.S. dollars

Enclose Coihieri Cheth Money Order or Personal Check

doyi for delivery. 2 to 7 doyi for phone orders. 1 day express mail!


NoC.O.D.'oConodo APO FPO Phono 312/382 5244 to order
At Marple Manor
John R. Prager

You've been summoned to Marple Manor used, and the room where the heinous deed was
on a dark and stormy night to investigate done. Before you arrived, the manor held ten
the unexpected demise of one of the dinner people and twelve possible weapons; however,
guests. Clues are everywhere, but can you the murderer has fled to parts unknown with the
discover who did it, to whom, how, and weapon he or she used, leaving behind the body
where? A mystery text-adventure for one to of the victim, eight living suspects, and only
six players. Versions for the VIC and 64. eleven weapons.
As you travel through the mansion, use pa
per and pencil to keep a careful record of all sus
pects and weapons you see. When you've located
Searching through the study, you find a duelling all the objects that remain in the house, use the
pistol hidden under a cushion. Later, you dis process of elimination to identify the murderer
cover the cook cowering in a closet. Upon and weapon used. The victim's body is also in
unlocking the greenhouse door, you are aghast to one of the rooms; once you find it, you can
find the body of the Duchess concealed among record the victim's identity and the scene of the
the potted ferns. crime.
Your job is to find out "whodunit," and It sounds simple, but there are complica
how, before the other detectives crack the case. tions. At the outset, many of the suspects and
They are a shifty lot, who might hide vital clues weapons will be hidden in the various nooks and
or steal pieces of evidence you are carrying, just crannies of the manor. Players may have to
to throw you off the track. There are over 15,000 search each room thoroughly, possibly several
possible solutions, but only one correct answer, times, before all the concealed items are discov
chosen anew each time the program is run. It's a ered. The detectives can even pick up and move
race against your fellow sleuths to find that items from room to room in the course of play.
unique answer. Suspects and the body of the victim cannot be
"Mystery At Marple Manor" may be a moved, but, in the 64 version (Program 1), they
departure from the computer games you're used can be hidden by detectives in the same room.
to playing. Patient strategy, rather than quick re Marple Manor is a house of 14 rooms. To
flexes, is of paramount importance to the better assist you while maneuvering through the
successful detective. In many ways, the game manor, refer to the floorplan with this article. Up
resembles computer text-adventure games as well to six people can play, and all players begin the
as familiar board games of logic and deduction. game in the entry foyer at the southern end of
the house. They alternate turns until either one
For Sleuths Only player correctly solves the mystery, or until all
In order to solve the case, you must correctly players have made incorrect guesses and, con
identify the murderer, the victim, the weapon sequently, have been eliminated from the game.
104 COMPUTE! s Gazette September 19B4
80 Column Smart Terminal
For Your C64 Without Any Hardware Change!
VIP Terminal roaOy 11 15 38
Dear Pepper. They're right! To start wilh the best
you've got to have the VIP Terminal!
You're right This VIP Terminal is the only terminal lor ine C64 worth
owning Thai freeCie sofiware lhal came wiiri my modem jusi diOn I work, ■ Built-in 40, 64, 80 and 106 columns
especially with my new smarlmorjGm The 60 column display alone WB9 well worth ■ Talk lo any computer
me $49.95 — much less Itie 40 64 and 106 character displays — and il doesn'l
■ Flawless 1200 baud operation
need any hardware changes Imagine 106 characters on 25 lines Heclt. there's
more ten! on my screen Ihan on my uncles Apple O' my dad's IBM-PC ■ Use any modem and printer
I pui auto-ttifil lo work right away I auto-draleiJ CompuServe, but ■ Written in fast machine code
couldn't gel through, so I had VIP Terminal redial 'hi it got through — il
dialed live rwnulcs slinight' Then I au I o-logged on wilh one ol my 20 program
■ 16 entry phone book/20 message keys
med keys, and downloaded some graphics screens, and stock quotes lor dad I ■ Word wrap for a formatted display
printed it and saved il To disk as it came on the screen Wow' And now I can ■ Auto dial, redial, up/download, log-on
send you my programs automatically I got yours and tney worked ngni of!
Those icons — you know, like Ihe Apple Lisa — are a lot of fun I also
& answer with your 1650 or Hayes
like Ihe menus, lunclion keys, highlights help tables — greal lo< a newcomer ■ Protocol: CBM-Punter, ASCII,
like me And wiin Ihe many oplions IherH isn't a computer I can'i la!k to
Xon/Xoff, G4 Graphics & VIS2
Whal's really neal is that Solllaw has a whole VIP Library ol
mieraclive programs, including a word processor spreadsheet and dalabase.
■ Full screen editor
which will be out soon Sis promised me the whole sel Tor my birthday ■ Simultaneous on line printing and
I see by the buiil-in old clock" on the screen that long-distance rates
saving of files to disk
are down Got to call tnat I A BBS Yep ihere goes the alarm Lalei
■ Use and save files as big as your disk!
■ E Mail & [-COM Compatible

Get yours NOW! $49.95

Introducing The VIP Library

The Library Concept Icons Make Learning Easy Professional Displays
The VIP Terminal is only ihe first in a Hi-res technology and sprites allow The 40-characters-per-line display of
whole series of elegant software for VIP Library programs to bring you task the Commodore 64 is inadequate for
your Commodore 64 called ihe VIP Icons, made famous by the Apple Lisa'" serious computing. An 80-column
Library. This complete collection of and the Xerox Star'", With ihese display is the industry standard. VIP
easy-to-use, serious, high quality, advanced sprite representations of the Library programs bring this standard lo
totally interactive productivity sofiware task options open lo ihe user, even the your Commodore 64 with state-of-the-
includes VIP Writer, VIP Speller, VIP total novice can, .it a glance, perform art graphics, without need for cosily
Caic, VIP Database, VIP Disk-ZAP, VIP every task with ease. Just look at the hardware modifications. With VIP
Accountant and VIP Tax. All are equal icon and press a key! No programs are Library programs you can freely choose
in quality lo much more expensive easier or more fun to learn and use! from four displays; ihe standard 40
software for the IBM PC, and all are column display, plus a 64, 80 and even
very affordable! Total Compatibility a 106 column by 25 line display. With
these programs you can have more lexl
All VIP Library programs are
on your screen than on an IBM PC or
compatible with each other and other
an Apple Up with an 80-column board!
computers for easy file transfer. Each
Welcome to the professional world!
uses ASCII, the universal language of
compuier communicaiions so thai files
can be sent to and received from olher Who Is Softlaw?
computers without modification! The Softlaw Corporation has years of soft
Library also gives you the benefit of a ware experience in micros. We currently
consistent icon and command offer the full-line VIP Library for other
siruclure. Once you have learned one micros in ihe U.S. and in Europe. Now we
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Although each player takes a separate turn, the from the keyboard—numerals, letters, spaces,
game works just as well if the players form special symbols, or even function keys. Be sure
teams of equal size. This allows two or three to choose a code that you can recall easily, and
teammates to travel through the house indepen bear in mind that the computer will recognize
dently, yet share their discoveries and arrive at a shifted keys and unshifted keys as different en
solution together. tries. On later turns, you must enter your secret
code before going on. This prevents other players
Passwords And Locked Doors from illegally using your turn to gather infor
In the 64 version, the game begins with a title mation for themselves.
screen and a thunderclap. This gives contestants After you type in your code, the computer
time to assign player numbers, organize teams (if reminds you of your current location and asks if
desired), and ready their notepads. Type a num you wish to move. If you answer yes, the com
ber from 1 to 6 to enter the number of players, puter lists all possible exits available to you.
and the game begins. Type in the appropriate compass direction to
At this point, all players except the first move to a new room: N, S, E, or W. If you type
should position themselves so they can't see the in a direction that does not have a matching
screen. After all, each player will be acquiring door—for example, if you try to move south
information in the course of the game that he or from the foyer—your move will be blocked.
she wishes to keep secret from the others for as Your move may also be blocked if you at
long as possible. To help preserve secrecy, you tempt to move through a locked door. Eleven
will be asked to enter a secret code on your first doors in Marple Manor can be fastened shut,
turn. This password can be any two characters and, at the start of the game, most of these doors

Floorplan Of Marple Manor

B Lockable
Garden Greenhouse

Pantry | i Kitchen

Pool Dining
Room Hall

Corridor Bedroom


Garage ■a-
Study Ilathroom

106 COMPUTE!'* Gazette September 1984

are locked. {See the floorplan diagram.) To move room. The pilfering player drops any item carried,
through a locked door, you must possess a key and receives the object the other player had held.
which matches the lock; for example, the bed When you are certain you have the solution
room key will open any door that adjoins the to the case, select the Accuse option. You will be
bedroom. All of these keys are initially placed in asked to identify the murderer, the victim, the
the pantry. One special key, the skeleton key, weapon, and the scene of the crime from lists of
can open any locked door but is powerless to the possibilities. An incorrect guess eliminates
lock doors; its starting location will vary from you from further play. Give the correct solution,
game to game. though, and you win the game.
Whether or not you move to a new room,
the computer describes your surroundings, it tells VIC Version Notes
you the room you are in; notes what item you Gameplay for the VIC-20 version (Program 2)
carry, if any; lists all suspects, weapons, and keys varies somewhat from the preceding description.
in view; and names all the other players in the Sound effects have been deleted from the game,
room. and the introductory title and prompts through
out the game have been streamlined. Secret
Searching For Clues
codes are not used. There are no keys or lockable
Following the description, you are presented
doors; investigators may pass freely from one
with a list of choices. Select from these options
room to another in the manor. Finally, the Hide
by pressing the appropriate key. One option is to
option has been removed, and the effectiveness
take no action; this allows you to end your turn
of searching is increased to 60%. Even with these
and readies the computer for the next player.
extensive modifications, less than 100 bytes of
Searching is the most popular option. At the free memory remain when the program is run
start of play, many suspects and items are hidden ning, so be sure not to add any spaces as you
in various rooms. Additionally, players may use
type in the program.
the Hide option to stow away even more clues.
The net effect of these changes is to increase
Searching is the only way to find these hidden player interaction. It still retains the flavor and
objects. Each time a player searches in a given
excitement of the larger version. Since players
room, there is a 50% chance of finding each item
cannot hide objects in this version, and since
hidden in that area. For this reason, a room may
there is no need to carry keys, players use the
be searched several times before all the objects it
Take option to acquire weapons. Consequently,
contains are revealed. A searching player does
pilfering is more frequent in this version of the
not automatically take any item he finds.
game, and more often useful to the player choos
The Hide option is the logical counterpart to ing that option.
the Search. You may choose to hide any one ob
If you wish to avoid typing in the entire list
ject in the room you occupy. This object may be
ing, I'll make a copy of either version for you.
a weapon, a suspect, a key, or the corpse. You
Send $3 and a blank disk, (sorry, no tapes) in a
may even hide the object you carry, if any. But
stamped, self-addressed disk mailer to:
you can't hide yourself or another player. Hiding
John R. Prager
items makes it more difficult for your opponents
417 S. Johnson
to locate the clues they need in order to win.
Bay City, Ml 48706
Don't forget, of course, to record each clue in
your notes before you hide it. Hidden objects Be sure to specify whether you want the 64 or
may be discovered subsequently by any player VIC version.
searching in the room. See program listings on page 154. <R
The Take option allows you to pick up a
weapon or key in the room you occupy. You
may only carry one item at any time. If you COMPUTE!'s
choose the Take option while holding an object,
you automatically drop the article currently held Gazette
in favor of the new one. Alternatively, the Drop
option allows you to discard an item without tak TOLL FREE
ing another. The usefulness of the Take option
cannot be overstated: Carrying keys allows you
to pass through locked doors, while weapons in Order Line
your possession cannot be discovered by players
who search. However, the Pilfer option allows a 800-334-0868
player to steal from another player in the same In NC 919-275-9809

COMPUTE!* Gazelle September 1984 107

A Program? to turn off your computer, then rum it back on.
This will erase whatever program was in memory,
amputer cannot perform any task by itself
so always SAVE a copy of your program before you RUN
LiKe a car without gas, a computer has potential,
it. If your computer crashes, you can LOAD the
but without a program, it isn't going anywhere.
program and look for your mistake.
Most of the programs published in COMPUTEI's
Sometimes a mistyped DATA statement will
GAZETTE for Commodore are written in a computer
cause an error message when the program is RUN.
language called BASIC. BASIC is easy to learn
The error message may refer to the program line
and is built into all VIC-20s and Commodore 64s.
that READs the data. Tiie error is still in the DATA

BASIC Programs ^^^^^^^m statements, though.

Each month, COMPUTEI's GAZETTE for Commodore Get To Know Your Machine
publishes programs for both the VIC and 64. To
You should familiarize yourself with your com
start out, type in only programs written for your
puter before attempting to type in a program.
. machine, e.g., "VIC Version" if you have a VIC-20.
Learn the statements you use to store and retrieve
Later, when you gain experience with your com
programs from tape or disk. You'll want to save a
puter/s BASIC, you can try typing in and converting
copy of your program, so that you won't have to
certain programs from another computer to yours.
type it in every time you want to use it. Learn to
Computers can be picky. Unlike the English
use your machine's editing functions. How do
language, which is full of ambiguities, BASIC usu
you change a line if you made a mistake? You can .
ally has only one "right way" of stating something.
always retype the line, but you at least need
Every letter, character, or number is significant. A
know how to backspace. Do you know how
common mistake is substituting a letter such as
enter inverse video, lowercase, and control >
O for the numeral 0, a lowercase 1 for the numeral
acters? It's all explained in your computer'.
1, or an uppercase B for the numeral 8. Also, you
must enter all punctuation such as colons and
commas just as they appear in the magazine.
A Quick Review
Spacing can be important. To■ be safe, type in the
1. Type in the program a line at; order.
listings exactly as they appear. '
Press RETURN at the end of each line. Use back
Braces And Special Characters space or the back arrow to correct mistakes.
The exception to this typing rule is when you see 2. Check the line you've typed against the line in
P the braces, such as "{DOWN}". Anything within the magazine. You can check the entire program
a set of braces is a special character or characters again if you get an error when you RUN the
that cannot easily be listed on a printer. When program.

you come across such a special statement, refer 3. Make sure you've entered statements in braces
as the appropriate control key (see "How To Type
COMPUTEI's GAZETTE Programs" elsewhere in
the magazine).
About DATA Statements
Some programs contain a section or sections of
We regret that we are not able to respond to individual
DATA statements. These iines provide information
inquiries about programs, products, or services appear
needed by the program. Some DATA statements ing in COMPUTE!'s GAZETTE for Commodore due to
contain actual programs (called machine language); increasing publication activity. On those infrequent
others contain graphics codes. These lines arc espe occasions when n published program contains a typo,
cially sensitive to errors. the correction will appear in the magazine, usually
If a single number in any one DATA statement within night weeks. If you have specific questions about
is mistyped, your machine could "lock up," or items or programs which you've seen in COMPUTEI's
"crash." The keyboard and STOP key may seem GAZETTE for Commodore, please send them to Gazette
"dead," and the screen may go blank. Don't panic Feedback, P.O. Box5406, Greensboro, NC 27403
- no damage is done. To regain control, you have
.108 COMPUTED Gazette September 19B4 .
lany of the programs which are listed in COM- the CTRL key.while typing the letter in the braces.
PUTEI's GAZETTE contain special control characters For example, {A} would indicate that you should
(cursor control, color keys, inverse video, etc.). press CTRL-A. You should never have to enter
To make it easy to know exactly what to type when such a character on the VIC-20, but if you do, you
entering one of these programs into your com would have to leave the quote mode (press RE
puter, we have established the following listing TURN and cursor back up to the position where
conventions. the control character should go), press CTRL-9
Generally, any VIC-20 or Commodore 64 (RVS ON), the letter in braces, and then CTRL-0
program listings will contain words within braces (RVS OFF).
which spell out any special characters: (DOWN) About the quote mode: You know that you can
would mean to press the cursor down key. {5 move the cursor around the screen with the CRSR
SPACES 1 would mean to press the space bar five keys. Sometimes a programmer will want to move
times. the cursor under program control. That's why
To indicate that a key should be shifted (hold you see all the {LEFT}'s, {HOME}'s, and.,
down the SHIFT key while pressing the other {BLU }'s in our programs. The only way the com
..key), the key would be underlined in our listings. puter can tell the difference between direct and
For example, S would mean to type ihe S key programmed cursor control is the quote mode.
while holding the shift key, This would appear Once you press the quote (the double quote,
on your screen as a "heart" symbol. If you find SHIFT-2), you are in the quote mode. If you type
an underlined key enclosed in braces (e.g., {10 something and then try to change it by moving
N }), you should type the key as many times as the cursor left, you'll only get a bunch of reverse-
indicated (in our example, you would enter ten video lines. These are the symbols for cursor left.
shifted N's). The only editing key that isn't programmable is
If a key is enclosed in special brackets, H- the DEL kev; you can still use DEL to back up and
,'ou should hold down the Commodore key while edit the line. Once you type another quote, you
pressiag the key inside the special brackets. (The are out of quote mode.'.
Commodore key is the key in the lower lei't corner You also go into quote mode when you IN-
of the keyboard.) Again, if the key is preceded by SerT spaces into a line. In any case, the easiest
■'aimmber, you should press the key as many times way to get out of quote mode is to just press RE
as necessary. TURN. You'll then be out of quote mode and you
Rarely, you'll see a solitary letter of the a|- . can cursor up to the mistyped line and ti\ it.
phahet enclosed in brates. These characters can Use the following table when entering cursor, >
be entered on the Commodore 64 by holding down and color control kevs:

Whan You Read: Press: See: When You Read: When You Read: Press: See:




COMPUTE'.'! Giotto Seplombai 1984 109

Hunt Calvin Overhulser

nt" is a joystick-controlled action The machine language joystick routine is

game originally written for the VIC-20 with at contained in the DATA statements in lines 6035-
least 3K of expanded memory. An easy tech 6055. The routine is READ and POKEd into the
nique is also included to RUN the program cassette buffer by line 35. The SYS in line 65 calls
with an 8K or larger expander. We've added a the machine language routine which puts the
version for the 64. joystick condition in address 830 and the fire but
ton condition in address 831.
Line 605 randomly selects which of the skulls
Your goal in "Treasure Hunt" is to collect lost will move. Only one can move for each move of
pirate treasure on a secluded island while avoiding the treasure hunter; if all were moved, the game
a variety of obstacles. The treasure includes gold would slow down considerably.
coins, gold bars, and a treasure chest. The obsta Line 30 moves part of the VIC character set
cles are rum kegs, quicksand bogs, and spirits of (screen codes 0-63) into RAM addresses 7168-
ancient pirates (which appear as skulls), any of 7679. The custom character information is con
which can spell disaster for a treasure hunter. tained in the DATA statements in lines 6060-6090,
When most of the gold coins and gold bars are and is READ and POKEd into the place of some
collected (you are allowed to leave one gold coin of the VIC's relocated characters by lines 40 and
and/or one gold bar), you gc-t a new screen. 41. This table shows which characters are re
You don't have to pick up the treasure chest placed with custom characters.
but you earn more points if you do; just remember Custom Characters In Treasure Hunt
to hold the fire button down while attempting to
Screen Original
cross the bog. The round number and the current Code Character Custom Character
score are displayed as the game progresses.
35 # border and tree trunk
There are five skill levels. The level you choose 36 S palm leaves
determines the number of fixed and moving ob 37 % palm leaves
stacles. The skill level also dete-rmines the points 38 & palm leaves
39 palm leaves
earned for each treasure collected.
40 < palm leaves
41 ) palm leaves

VIC Program Construction 42 *

43 + bog
The main loop is in lines 65-90. The subroutines 44 bog
at lines 91-98 are used to update the location of 45 - rum keg
both the treasure hunter and the moving obstacles 46 . Inp of treasure hunter

(skulls). In line 70 for the treasure hunter and in 47 1 bottom of treasure hunlet
58 treasure chest, left
line 610 for the active skull, ON-GOSUB allows
59 treasure chest, right
the new location for either to be calculated using 60 < gold coin
the same subroutines. 61 gold bar

110 COMPUTE' s Gazaffe September 1984

1I *
~ W

■ e

The treasure hunter has collected most of the gold from the
1 ■ -■ uaaag

Grab the treasure chest and you score 200 points (VIC

bottom of the screen (64 version). version).

VIC Program Variables over this part since the program will LOAD and
RUN without special intervention.
Program Variables
When you add 8K or more to the VIC, screen
A variable in READ statements
B variable for screen code for gold coins and gold and color memory and start of BASIC are moved
bars to new memory locations. The idea is to put them
D random numbers back to their default locations before LOADing
I miscellaneous counters in FOR/NEXT loopsand the program. Start of BASIC must be changed to
random numbers
address 8192, to prevent interference with screen
N counter in FOR/NEXTloops
P constant =1
memory. To set your VIC to run Treasure Hunt
Q constant = 22 with the 8K expander in place, type the following
V volume (36878) line and press RETURN:
X counterin FOR/NEXT loops and random numbers
Z current location to be updated in subroutines 91-98
AA skill level Your VIC will now load and run many programs
AS string for GET statements
written for the unexpanded or 3K-expanded VIC.
CL current location for treasure hunter's head
CM difference between color memory and screen
memory Typing In Treasure Hunt
CH-CI-Q address of screen locations for treasure chest
The VIC version is about 6000 bytes long. Don't
DF dead flag
FG flag for treasure chest already picked up add any spaces; there are only 47 bytes free at
FL flag for repeat stagger some points during program execution.
GB gold bars remaining If you do run out of memory, try deleting
GC gold coins remaining
some of the instructions in lines 800-880. Make
RN number of current round
SC current score
sure you SAVE the program before you run it.
SH sound high (36876) With such a long program, I usually save my work
SL sound low (36875) every half hour. If you don't want to type it in, I
SK location of current active skull will make copies of the VIC version only. Send a
S1-S5 locations of moving skulls
tape, a self-addressed stamped mailer, and $3 to:
TB random tab value for placing palm grove
TL temporary storage forCL during update Calvin Overhulser
TS temporary storage for SK during update P.O. Box 494
Westford, MA 01886

A Change For Expanders See program listings on page

If you have a VIC, you must use a memory ex
pander. The program was designed to run with
any size memory expander, but to LOAD and
RUN it on a VIC with an 8K or greater expander, Toll Free Subscription Order Line
a single-line keyboard entry must be made
before LOADing the program. If you are using a
64 or a VIC with the 3K expander, you can skip In NC 919-275-9809

COMPUTEfs Gazette September 19B4 111

C. Regena

A Simplified Inventory

If you asked ten different programmers to write ment you come to. The value is 10, so A will
an inventory program, you'd probably get ten equal 10. Next a value for B is read and assigned;
different approaches. There are many ways to B = 7. The process continues. You need to make
accomplish such a task, depending on how much sure your numbers are in the right order in the
information you need to keep track of. This DATA statement and that you have enough
month, we'll take a simplified approach using numbers to satisfy the READ statement. Your
DATA statements, and then we'll see how to DATA statement may be as long as the longest
customize the program. line the computer allows (88 characters for the
This inventory program simply prints a list VIC, 80 for the 64). The READ statement reads
of items with a little information about each one, only the numbers it needs and ignores the rest. If
including its cost, After printing the list, the costs the computer encounters another READ state
are added up. You can print the whole list, or ment later, the computer starts with the very
you can print just a certain category. The amount next data item that hasn't been used.
of information you can store will depend on the Quite often you will see a READ statement
capacity of your computer because all the infor in a loop:
mation is stored right in the program in DATA
100 FOB 1=1 TO 4
statements. 110 READ NAMES,AGE

The READ-DATA Connection 130 NEXT I

First let's review DATA statements, which are al 150 DATA MIKE,13
ways associated with a READ statement. The
READ statement picks up a number or string The elements in the DATA statements need
from the DATA statement and assigns it to a to be in the right order so the data is read cor
variable name. 1 like to think of the DATA- rectly and in the right order, but the DATA state
READ system as an alternative to the LET or di ment lines can be placed anywhere in the
rect definition system. One way of assigning program. Lines 140 and 150 above could be lines
values to variables is: 90 and 95, for example. As the computer goes
through the program, it ignores the DATA state
100 A=10
110 B=7 ments until it hits a READ statement. A pointer
120 C=3 helps the computer keep track of where it is in
130 D=5 the DATA statements, so it knows which is the
140 E=13
next item to be read. In the sample above, the
150 F=25
first time through the loop, line 110 will assign
Another way is: MARCIE to NAMES and 18 to AGE. The next
L00 READ A,B,C,D,E,F time through the loop, JEFFREY and 16 will be
110 DATA 10,7,3,5,13,25 read, and so on. By the way, you have to be very
careful typing the DATA statements so the val
This second method may be harder to under
ues will match up with the READ statements. For
stand and harder to debug if there's a problem,
example, if you skipped "16" in line 140 and just
but it usually saves memory and often simplifies
In the second method, line 100 first says to
read a number for A from the first DATA state- the computer will stop with an error message be-
112 COMPUTE'S Gazone September I9S4
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Ordering 81 Payment Policy
Prices reflect a cash discount. For C.O.D., Visa, ond Master-
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euiDDiiir o 6201 SJ1TE c
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VISA. MASTERCARD. AND MONEY ORDERS For shipping and handling We sell a large selection of
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VIC IS A TRADEMARK OF COMMODORE Larger shipments require Send S1 for catalog, refun>
additional charge dable with order.
cause it will try to read a numeric variable (AGE) and replacement value.
in the second loop and get a string (BRIAN) The "Household Inventory" program in
instead. cluded here adds a code item—a room number
You may divide up the DATA statements in or category—so that you can print out one room
any way that is convenient for you to type. Lines at a time or the whole list. First I numbered the
140 and 150 above could be combined into one rooms—I just used an example; you will need to
statement. Or you could end line 140 with adapt the list of rooms for your own house. Lines
BRIAN and start line 150 with 11. The main 20-50 READ from DATA the names of the
thing to remember is to keep the data items in rooms and assign the numbers. R$(l) will be the
order. If you have a full program, you can save living room, R$(2) will be the kitchen, R$(3) will
some memory by typing as much as you can in be bedrooms, and so forth for nine categories.
each DATA statement, although it may be harder In each DATA statement I first put the room
to understand. code, then the item, then the cost. For example,
line 350 has room code 8, the item is a computer,
Inventing An Inventory and the cost is $300. The DATA statement is:

Program 350 DATA 8,COMPUTER,300

In the previous example we printed names and Lines 470 and 480 list televisions: One is in the
ages. An inventory program can be very similar. computer room (8) and the other is in the family
Let's say we want to print a house inventory and room (6).
list furniture and appliances and their costs. The You can arrange the DATA statements the
READ statement reads ITEMS and C for cost way you want. I considered how the list would
(you cannot use COST because that name con look if i printed all the items, and I arranged the
tains the BASIC word COS for cosine). After you items alphabetically. You may prefer to list the
READ the information from data, you PRINT items by room and perhaps by physical position
ITEM$,C and there is a list. The DATA state in the room.
ments would look like this: Lines 60-100 print a title screen and offer a
choice of rooms or zero to print the complete list.
320 DATA BED,200 Line 110 gets the user's choice. !f the user
330 DATA DESK,130
presses 0, the whole list will be printed, but if a
340 DATA STOVE,525
room number is chosen, only the items ref
With the genera] idea of reading items from erenced by that code number will be printed.
data and printing them, you can write a sim The logic for this selection is in lines 180-200.
plified inventory program. In the previous name Line 170 READs the room code, the item, and
and age sample, we used a loop and read four the cost. The user's choice is A and is compared
names and ages. In our inventory program we to the room code for printing. TT keeps track of
may not know how many items we have—or we the total cost. C$ and TAB {20 - LEN(C$)) are
may want to update our program periodically used to line up the numbers in the cost column.
and not always have to figure out a new value An option to print a different list is pre
for the I-'OR-NEXT loop. The solution is to have sented in lines 270-300. When we print a list,
our last data item be a "dummy" item to signal the computer starts at the top of the DATA list
the end. and goes all the way through the list, so if we
choose the option to print another list, we need
110 IF ITEM$="ZZZ" THEN 500 to RESTORE the data. RESTORE says to start the
120 PRINT ITEMS,C data pointer back with the very first DATA state
130 GOTO 100 ment. Remember that in this program we first
320 DATA BED,200
read in the names of nine rooms using DATA
330 DATA DESK,130
340 DATA STOVE,525 statements, so to get down to the data for the in
350 DATA ZZZ.0 ventory items, line 160 simply reads those first
500 END nine items. Line 170 will then read the next data
If you want to calculate a total cost as you from line 320.
are printing the list, initialize a total before line I've included a few items so you can see
100, say T, to be zero, then add line 125 how the DATA system works for an inventory
T = T + C, and then at line 500 print the total cost list and how you can choose categories or room
T. numbers. The very last data item is 10,ZZZ,0.
Add a title and make an attractive format, Line 170 READs the room, item, and cost, so you
and you have an inventory program. You may have to have three things in each of your DATA
want to add a few more columns in the program statements. Line 180 says if ROOM = 10 then
for other information, such as the date purchased branch to line 250. I'm using 10 as the end-of-
114 COMPUTE!1* Gazette September 1984
data code. As you update your program, simply rest of the DATA statement contains because we
add DATA statements wherever you want won't be using it, but we must include the right
among the existing statements. If you want to number of items to read.
keep the list in alphabetical order, find where the The structure of this program is similar to
item belongs and use a line number in-between. Household Inventory. Lines 20-40 define the dif
Just make sure that the last DATA statement is ferent categories and are used to print the titles
10,ZZZ,0. of the lists selected. The selection process is done
in two steps. First, lines 70-110 allow the user to
Modifications select the kind of computer. Next, lines 120-160
allow the user to select the type of item. Line 190
If you understand how to use DATA statements
prints the title of the list.
for this simple inventory, let's explore them fur
Line 200 RESTORES the data so that each
ther. The "Computer Inventory" program lists a
time a list is printed the computer starts at the
sample of computer equipment. In addition to
top of the list of data items. Line 210 READs the
the item and the cost, I wanted to include the se
two code numbers, then the item, serial number,
rial number and the date of purchase. This time
date, and cost. Lines 220-260 determine if that is
you can select two codes. Instead of room num
the last data item or if the item has the right
bers, the first code represents the kind of com
code numbers for the category to be printed. Line
puter: 1 for Commodore, 2 for Radio Shack, and
280 prints the item with its serial number, date,
3 for Texas Instruments.
and cost. Lines 380-530 contain the sample data
Within each brand of computer are some
more categories: 1 for computers, 2 for
Notice that this time the data items are not
peripherals, and 3 for software. Instead of just
listed alphabetically by item. The list is arranged
the 3 for software you may want to have dif
by computer, then within each type of computer
ferent categories for games, programming lan
category the computers are first, then the
guages, educational programs, utilities, etc,
peripherals, then the software in alphabetical or
You may also want to print a list of all your
der. You may want to arrange your list dif
Commodore computers. You could press 1 for
ferently—perhaps by date purchased, or perhaps
Commodore and 1 for computers. Only those
in descending order of cost.
data items starting with 1,1 will be printed. If
you want a list of all the Radio Shack equipment
and software, first press 2 for Radio Shack then 0 Customizing The Program
for everything. For the complete list, the selec Again, you can adapt the DATA statements to
tions would be 0 for everything (all kinds of your own needs. You may want to keep track of
computers) and 0 for everything of the second the date by month and year (such as 7/83) rather
choice. than just the year. You might want to list both
The DATA statements contain the following the purchase price and a replacement cost. Or
information in order: type of computer: 1, 2, or 3; you might want to keep track of model numbers
type of item: 1, 2, or 3; item name; serial num or catalog numbers. Perhaps you would also like
ber; date of purchase; and original cost. An to remember where the item was purchased.
example is: If you have a printer, you might print out
390 DATA 1,2,DATASSETTE,282754,1982,70 the information. (For a discussion on printouts,
This item comes under Commodore equipment, see last month's column.) Near the beginning of
it is a peripheral called a DATASSETTE, the se
the program, use an OPEN statement to tell the
rial number is 282754, it was purchased in 1982,
computer to prepare for a printer. A statement
and it cost $70. such as OPI-N 4,4 will open file 4 for the printer,
Notice that some of the data items do not
which is device 4. Later in the program, use the
have a serial number. You still need to list a data regular PRINT statement to print something on
the screen; but when you want to print on the
item in the DATA statement, but in this case
printer use PRINT#4. Near the end of the pro
simply type a comma following a comma. For
example: gram, when you're finished printing, you need to
close the file. This can be done with
400 DATA 1,3,VICMON,,1982,60
We still have to have the right number of items If you have a long list of items, you may
in each DATA statement. want to add a section of code to prevent the list
The very last DATA statement is 10,0,,,,0; from scrolling off the top so you can't read it.
again, it has to have the right number of items. There are several ways to do this. One is to use a
We'll be checking for 10 and the code to indicate line counter and increment the line counter each
the end of data. It really doesn't matter what the time a line is printed, When you have printed 20
COMPUTEfs Gazotto September 1984 115
or so lines, put in a delay loop or a routine to graphically, or however you wish. This DATA sys
wait until the user presses a key before printing tem is really quite versatile. Once you have your
continues. Another method would be to use GET main program working properly it is fairly easy
after each PRINT statement. If a key is pressed to update by simply adding DATA statements.
you temporarily stop the program until another One thing you have to remember is to SAVE
key is pressed. your work each time you update the DATA
1 didn't include any titles to the columns. For statements. If you don't, all of the changes you
more readability, you should add column head made will be lost when the computer is turned
ings. You may need to adjust the printing—40 off.
columns for the 64 and 22 columns for the VIC. You probably have your own ideas now
This DATA statement idea can be used for about how you can use DATA statements to or
other types of lists as well, For example, you can ganize information.
keep a name and address file with this method, See program listings on page 351,4Qf
You can have several code columns—those who
have a computer and those who don't; those
who have children and those who don't; those COMPUTER ROAD ATLAS
who sent you Christmas greetings the previous
year and those who didn't; business associates, LISTINGS SHOWING THB
neighbors, social friends, and relatives; and so BEST ROUTS

forth. By the way, you don't have to use num Enter (ho departing city and tic Ql1- L city ROADSEAHCH .■uies the
SMorlegi coulc P"nis miles, time, luol Ami more
bers for the codes. You could read C$ for code ftOADSEARCK contains 5 roadman o< JC+j Cilies -caG lunciiona anO 70.000 road
and read in B for business, N for neighbor, F for miles ROAD5EARCH PLUS ,e<lra COSI) 8150 Conlains t BOADWAP DEVELOP
MENT SYSTEM which lets you customize your roadman with up 10 50 towns'
friend, and R for relative, for example. road lunctioTS anywhere m Ncth America

Your DATA statement can contain several EASY TO USE. Back-un copies allowed Soecily CornmodofP-Bd'disk or Apple INMe
codes, then the name, address, phone, birthday, HOADSEARCM PLUS is 171 95 am) ROADSEAHCH is only 134 95 Add £1 SO
or whatever information you want to keep. You ahioping andriandlinq MO residents .nir? 5°.. oraie la* Ask your dealer or

can arrange the list alphabetically by name, geo Columbia Software

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116 COMPUTE!'! Gazette Saplomber 1984



The Electronic Cafe

Somewhere in New York there's a tablecloth with In the electronic cafe', words have a life
the bleached-out vestiges of poetic lines scrawled span. You no longer have to be sitting at the
by Allen Ginsberg as he sat in a Greenwich Vil table to hear an interesting conversation. You can
lage cafe and argued with Jack Kerouac about the log on to a bulletin board and read the thoughts
meaning of life. left there days or even weeks before. And you
As long as there have been cities, there have don't have to rely on your memory to recall
been inns, coffeehouses, and cafes where creative some idea that excited your imagination. You can
people congregated to pass the time and try out go back and read the words again, or even
new ideas on old friends. And from all the chaos download them and make them a permanent
and seemingly rambling conversation in cafes in part of your personal library.
Vienna, Paris, Moscow, San Francisco, and Bagh
dad, have come many of the artistic movements A Writer's Bulletin Board
and revolutions that have defined contemporary Home telecommunications is broadening artistic
horizons in other, more practical, ways. For ex
ample, if you're a professional writer looking for
Espresso And Computers new and different markets, there's a bulletin
Telecommunications is beginning to play a role in board in West Palm Beach, Florida, which serves
just that function.
this creative ferment. Originally conceived as a
practical, if expensive, means by which business Called The Notebook, the bulletin board
data could be transferred and manipulated over contains queries from publishers looking for arti
cles on specific subjects, notices from writers who
long distances, telecommunications is being trans
have articles or ideas to sell, and occasional tips
formed by a few innovative individuals and
on how to write and sell for the hottest markets,
companies into a multifaceted creative and social
tool for the home.
such as romance novels or fantasy.
You won't find any games or programs in
With the advent of home telecommunica
tions, an artist's forum for the exchange of ideas the download section, and the bulletin board
no longer is confined to the neighborhood cafe. items are by and for professionals only. Callers
have to pass the sysop's scrutiny before they are
Given access to all the bulletin boards, news
letters, and conference lines on the information admitted, but, once approved, writers have one
more resource in the struggle to make a living in
networks, a home computer owner becomes a pa
a volatile field.
tron in a vast electronic cafe in which time and
distance no longer matter.
Computer owners can meet and talk in the Electronic Publishing
same electronic cafe', regardless of whether they It's not just in the exchange of ideas and infor
live in small towns or in major metropolitan mation that the electronic cafe is serving artists.
areas. And the words which pass between them Literary, visual, and musical works are being pub
need not evaporate as they are spoken, as hap lished in these electronic media with increasing
pens in an ordinary cafe. frequency.
COMPUTED Gazelto September 19B4 117
On-line newsletters and special interest CompuServe, that were providing telecommunica
groups—such as the ARTSIG on CompuServe tions services for business, saw a way to profit
and Writer's Corner on Delphi—are offering art ably use their computers from 6 p.m. to 6 a.m.
ists a new way to get their work before the public. when business traffic was at a virtual standstill.
Traditionally, this function of publishing and Since their computers were sitting idle, the
displaying the work of new writers and visual art networks began to offer bulletin boards and con
ists has been inadequately handled through small ference lines to computer hobbyists. The response
literary journals and storefront galleries. Financed has been phenomenal, and growth has come so
on a shoestring, these enterprises have had very quickly that research can't keep pace. The num
limited circulation and very short lives. bers of new home telecommunications users can
But the electronic cafe has hundreds of thou safely be measured in the thousands every month.
sands of patrons, and the cost of publishing a As the income from home users grows to a more
work (apart from the initial cost of a computer significant percentage of the networks' profits, we
and modem) is a matter of the time it takes to can expect to see software written specifically for
upload it. With no store rent to pay, no printers' games, entertainment, and the visual arts.
costs, no problem trying to convince a distributor Until that happens, musicians and visual art-^
to handle a work by an unknown artist, the elec ists will not be able to fully use the electronic cafe
tronic cafe' is a godsend to aspiring artists and for direct delivery of their work. They must de
publishers both. pend on programmers to package their work
within programs which must be downloaded and
A Wide-Open Market run off-line before the work can be enjoyed.
Although the networks are adding services every
day, the field is still wide open. An entrepreneur Artistic Bottlenecks
can found a publishing empire on-line with little While current technology is capable of transmit
more than a fresh idea and a user ID number. The ting high-resolution screens and music, the lack of
procedure is simple. Just write up a proposal standards for different brands of computers makes
outlining your idea and goals for a special interest the matter a practical impossibility. For example,
group or newsletter, and mail it (or Email it) to the CompuServe Information Service offers color
the Information Provider Department or Customer graphics to its subscribers, but, in designing a for
Services Department of your favorite network. If mat which is compatible with all computers, the
the network thinks your idea will appeal to a network's software fails to make use of the best
reasonably large group of subscribers (or potential graphics features of any. As a result, transmitted
subscribers), they'll send you guidelines and a graphics are inferior to what owners are used to
contract, and you're in business. seeing on their screens.
It's even possible for the proprietors of these The answer to this quality problem would be
on-line publishing enterprises to count the num to write custom network software which could
ber of times an article is accessed, and so pay a take advantage of each computer's special fea
contributor royalties based on the number of tures. However, given the rampant changes in the
users who read or view a work, instead of the home computer industry, no network is likely to
usual method of paying a set amount for each invest the time and money necessary to fully ex
story or article. In electronic publishing, an ploit the features of a computer which may be out
artist's monetary reward can be exactly propor of production before the software is written.
tional to his or her popularity. Another bottleneck which hampers the
growth of on-line art is transmission speed. Or
An Uneven Advantage dinary phone lines, over which most home tele
Writers are more fortunate than visual artists and communications travel, do not transfer data
musicians, because they work with words, which reliably at transmission speeds greater than 1200
can be transmitted in a form compatible with al bits per second.
most any computer. (Most home telecommunica The most common transmission speed avail
tions services have been adapted from software able to home users is 300 bits (roughly 30 charac
written to transmit business documents.) But busi ters) per second, which is slower than most
nesses have little need to transmit animated printers in home computer systems.
graphics and music, and business applications so At 30 characters per second, a VIC screen can
far have defined the scope of telecommunications be transmitted in 15-30 seconds, and for the 64,
software. in 30 seconds to a full minute. And a detailed
This is because home telecommunications be high-resolution screen takes eight times longer.
gan as a "poor relation," as an afterthought. Some Even at 1200 bps, graphics transmissions using
of the information networks like The Source and ordinary phone lines are far too slow to appeal to

118 COMPUTE-s Gazelle September 19W

a generation brought up on the fast visual pace of telecommunications.
television. But whenever and however the shakeout
comes, consumers are sure to be well-served.
New Developments After all, the home computer industry was born
Fortunately for computer artists, the broadcast when a few legendary hobbyists in a few leg
media are interested in the home computer mar endary garages decided to transform a dull and
mysterious business machine—the computer—
ket. Whereas the information networks are
into an exciting and entertaining personal tool.
primarily business-oriented, broadcasters deal in
If a few hackers in garages can create a
consumer entertainment, and so are possibly more
sensitive to consumers' special needs. FM radio billion-dollar industry in their spare time, then
giving them access to continental communica
stations are experimenting with services which
tions networks should yield even more astonish
broadcast software, news, and games to home
ing results.
computer owners.
Also under development are systems which // you have questions or ideas about subjects
will allow television transmission of digital sig- you'd like to see covered in this column, write to:
nais for computers simultaneously with "The A- Home Telecommunications, COMPUTED GAZETTE,
Team." Other companies are trying cable P.O. Box 5406, Greensboro, NC 27403. Or you can
hookups for computers, so that on channel 19 send me electronic mail. My CompuServe ID is
you get Home Box Office and on channel 18 you 75005,1553. For Delphi, it's BOZART.
get a computer network like CompuServe, Del
phi, or The Source. The Notebook
With a much faster transmission speed and West Palm Beach, Florida
a predisposition toward the consumer, the J.D. Pitt and Karl Meyer, Sysops
broadcast media may well replace phone-based Voice Phone (305)684-8751
services as the primary resources for home Modem (305)686-4862 CJ

Thunder Mountain Commodore User Commodore Brooksvillc User Group
Group (C-HUG)
P.O. BOX 1796 Eleanor Hott
Sierra Visla, AZ 85636 ■114 W. Broad St.
Brooksville, FL 33526
Auburn Commodore Compuler Club
(904) 796-2909

Pat Sirub
(904) 799-5292
11210 Mini Loma Dr.
Auburn, CA 95603 Fred & Kent's 64 User's Group
(916) 823-7095 Fred Brock
Kent Lawson
San Lois Obispo Commodore
P.O. Box 1298
Computer Club (SLOCCC)

Port Pierce, PL 33450
loan Rmehart
(305) 464-5792
1766 9th St.
Los Osos, CA 93402 Suncoast 64s
(805) 528-3371 Curtis J. Miller
2419 US 19 North
Palm Harbor, PL 33563
Nathan Okun
(HI3) 785-1036
When writing to a user group 121) W. Magnolia Ave.
Oxnard, CA 93030 Charlotte County Commodore Club
for information, please remem
(805) 9S5-8150 (C.C.C.C.)
ber to include a self-addressed, Truax
San Diego Commodore (I'ET) User
567 N. Ellicoti Or.
stamped envelope. Send addi Group
Port Charlotte, FL 33952
tions, corrections, and deletions Jane Campbell
(813) 625-1277
Box 86531
for this list to: San Diego, CA 92138-6531 Tilusville Commodore Club
(619) 277-7214 Cob Murray
COMPUTE! Publications 890 Alford St.
Aurora Markel Users Group (AMUG)
Titusville. FL 36780
P.O. Box 5406 Roger Oberdier
Greensboro, NC 27403 c/o Compuler Market Place Commodore Compuler Club of Columbus
15200 F. 6th Ave. Nosh Sethna
attn: Commodore User Group? Aurora, CO 80012 6618 Poxdale Drive
(303) 367-0901 Columbus, GA 31907

Gila Hackers Vicdore Users Group

(404) 563-0828
c/o Paul R, Machula Wayne SundStrom Ragle Rock Commodore Computer
Ri. 1, Box 34 326 Emery Dr. Club
Globe, AZ 85501 Longmonl, CO 80501 P.O. Box 3884
(602) 425-7260 (3031 772-2821 Idaho Falls, ID 83403-3884
(208) 529-4738

COMPUTE! s Gazette September 1984 119

Caribou Commotion' Club Empire State User Group Outside The U.S.
P.O. Box 535 Mark Dixon
Soda Springs, ID 8.1276 52 Underhill Rd. Geelong Commodore Computer Club
(208) 547-3921 Ossining, NY 10562 c/o 15 Jacaranda PI.
(208)547-4143 Belmont, 3216
Commodore User's Group of Gi'dung, Australia
Commodore SIG Cache Rockland
Herb Swanson Glenn Goldberg Juan De Fuca 64 Users Group
Box C-176 13 Orchard Ct. Mike Watson
323 S. Franklin. «8O4 Spring Valley, NY 10977 578 L.ingho1mi< Drive
Chicago, 1L 6060ft (914) .156-5914 Victoria, British Columbia
(312) 685-0994 Canada V9C 1L8
64 Southtowns User Group
(604) 478-5851
McHcnry County Commodore Club Michael Leskow
John I!. Katkus 504 Summerville Kd. Club 20
227 East Terra Cotta Ave. Tonawanda, NY 14150 Steven Be nor t
Crystal Lake, 1L 6(1014 (716)837-5643 7145 Cannes #2
(8(5) 455-3942 after 6 p.m. Montreal
Akron Area Commodore Club
Canada HIS 2P9
Fox Valley 64 Users Group (AACC)
Frank Christensen Dan Shiblev Pro Byle-64 Computer Club
P.O. Box 2H P.O. Box 9543 Jim I lutchinson
No, Aurora, IL 60S42 Akron, OH 44305 R.R. "4 Queenston Rd.
(312) 898-2779 (216) 762-1934 N.O.T.L., Ontario
Canada LOS 1J0
Salt City Commodore Club Akron Area C-64 Users Group
Wendell Hinkson Paul M. Hardy Tuesday User Group (T.U.G.)
P.O. Box 2644 2453 Second St. Andv Baca
Hutchlnson, KS 67501 Cuyahosra Falls, OH 44221 Box 970
(216) 923-4396 Port Perry, Ontario
Canada 1.0B 1N0
Richard l.. Nd B.A.S.I.C. (416)985-7686
81 NurthSt. Dimitri N, Dantos
Saco, ME 04072 1433 13lh Ave. Club Commodore Champlain
(207)282-7418 Alloona, PA 16601 Claude Hebert
(814) 942-9565 P.O. Box 522
Your Computer Users Group
Bovicherville, Quebec
Mike Precise Worldwide Commodore Users Group Canada [4B 6Y2
P.O. Box 611 Dave Walter (514) 655-9232
Westbrook. ME 04092 P.O. Box 337
(207) 854-4579 Blue Bell, PA 19422 Rcglna Personal Computer
Don Miller (215)584-4483 Users Group
So. Windham, ME Bill Swan
Castle Commodores Computer Club 98 Pappas Crescent
(207) 892-9533
c/o Dean C. Thomas Retina, Saskatchewan
Soft-Type Users Group R.D. si, Box 210A Canada S4R 7G8
Al Sou them II Edlnburg, PA 16116 (306)545-9596
20231 Westmoreland (412) 652-3352 (306) 347-3474
Detroit, Ml 48219
Republic User Group The POKEr's Club
(313) 535-4549
Sharulv Casteel Kris Hnneslad
Commodore Users Club of ihe Box 186 Box 75
Ozarks Republic, pa 15475 Si. Louts, Saskatchewan
Morris Williams Canada SOJ 2C0
Upper Buxmont C64 Users
211 N. Aurora
Don [toques C-64 Milano Club
Eldon, MO 65026
655 Bergt'v Rd. Claudio Cerroni
(314) 392-4248
Telford. PA 18969 Via Sorrento 24
Commodore User Group of (215) 723-7039 20153 MILANO
Springfield (C.U.G.O.S) Italy
Main Line Commodore Users Group
Keitli Masavage
(MLCUG) C-64 Anwender Club
Box 607 IIS)
c/o limil Volctwck Martin Sommer
Springfield, MO 65801
1046 General Allen La. Rotbuehstr.22
West Chester, PA 193B2 8037 ZURICH
Ewing Commodore Users Croup (215)388-1581 Switzerland
John C. Jones
Grcenville-Spartanburg User Group
11 Van Saun Dr. Ferrari Rudi
(Commodore 64) Ket ten berg 24
Trenton, NJ 08628
Robert Tolbert D 5R8O Luedenscheid
(609) S82-4826
Rte. 1, Box 231 Wfjsl Germany
Jersey Shore Commodore Users Travelers Rest, SC 29690
Group (803) 895-4481 Trinidad Association of Commodore
Bob McKinley Owners (TACO)
South Plains 64 User Group
George Decker Mark M.ihannah
John N, Bottoms Sr.
Wall Township First Aid Building 91 Cherry Crescent
7709 Avenue W.
1905 Munmouth Blvd. Westmoorings/Carenage
Lubbock, TX 79423
Wall Township, N] 07724 Trinidad, West Indies
(806) 745-4381
542-2113 (809} 637-8091
223-1387 Uintah Basin Commodore Users Club
Bremerhaven Users Group
Terry Hall
The Northern New Mexico VIC-20 (C-64 B'U'G)
Commodore Users Group
P.O.'Box 1102
Ronald Debell
Roosevelt, UT 84066
David Martinez John Ford
2725 Camino Cimnrriiii Commodore Home User's Croup 626TCFBox 119
Santa Pe, NM 87501 (C.H.U.G.) AI'O, NY 09069
(505) -171-3110 evenings Alice Shiplev Commodore Computer Users Group
Highlanii Falls Commodore Users
David Hoskins Heidelberg
81 l.vnwood Ave.
Group Robert H. Jacquot
Wheeling, WV 26003
Kevin R. Mandoske P.O. Box, Gen. Del.
(304) 242-8362
8 Knew Kd. A,P.O. New York, NY 09102
(304) 242-2605
Highland Falls, NY 10928
(914) 446-2SQ2

120 COMPUTErs Gazoue September 1984

t commodore SX-64 PORTABLE
M-BOl Dot Mutm Parallel . 1219 00
MCS 8D1 Color Printer
1520 Color Fnntfir'Plotter
(409 00
$120 00
VIC 20
64 S199
1&3O Datamini ♦B9.»B 0OMBBX
15<1 DlaH Drive *249.O0 ComWrllar ;i Latter Quality $419.00 Call for
1600 VIC Modem (59.99 EPSON CMB 4 plus
1610 Vie Term 40 159.99 BK-eo. Rx-aorr. ri-ioo fx-so. rx-ioo ca»
1BS0 Auto Uodem *89.99 JUKI
1702 Color Monitor. S249 00 B100 1469 00 MONITORS
DPS Ditisywhoel Printer. (459 00 MANNESMAN TALLY AMDEK
Magin Voicr Spooch Module . . S54 09 1601. 1569 00 300 Cil-non 1149 00
1001. 1799 00 300 AmtHtr f IBB 00
l)«sk Organiser I,nek S49 99
Spirit BO 1SB9 00 Color 1 taus oo
tail Joyalien... each $4.99
NEC Color 1 Plu> $80».00
1312 Paddles $11.99 BUG
B02T Dot Ifatrlx $3B9 00
1110 VIC 8K... 142.99 0KIDATA 1201 (12" Oraanl . ..$88.90
1111 VIC 16K 169.99 as.ea.84.9s.03^38o,E4io call 1301 Plus (12" Oman HI-Rm) I9B99
IEEE/RS-332 Intoi-faco $42 99 0LYMPIA GORILLA
1211 Super Expander... .S53 99 Compact 2 1479 00 18" Groan . tee.9S
Compact BO $500 00 \Z' Amhitr lilf. 99
EHW 3000 (144U 00 NEC
3D 1 Dish Di-lvo $363.00
SMITH CORONA jh isol Qrwn .$140 99
HD a Dlak DrivH $Ei8E).(X>
■rr ■ i ooo $419.00 iJ[5 liiOJj A-cuUcr ..$139.99
CARDCO. SILVER REED . JB 131B Color .$288.00
Light Pan (32.99 BOO Letter quality $449 00 SAKATA
3 Slot VIC Expansion Interface.(32.99 OBO Letter quality $549.00 BC-100 Color ..$209 00
a Slot Expansion Interface (79.99 770 Latter quality $aB9 00 80-1000 Oreen ..(129.00
CanERttn Interface 189.99 STAR HA-1OO0 Amfwr $139 00
Parallel Pointer Interface S49.99 Oamlnl 10X (K79U0 TAXAN
Parallel Interface w'Graphlcs. ..SB9 99 Opmlnl 15X (389 00 100 12' Green. $125.00
Hmlll 10 KBBDOO ion IK" Amnor (IBS 00
PRINTERS Kiuilx IB . (690 00 USI
Oorllla Banana (MB 00 1340 $san.oo PI 8. l2"0n*n ..$119 9H
Prowrller BB10P 1570.00 1361 $1499.00 PI 3. 12" Amtor $120 99
Prowntar 1BB0P IBBB.00 TRANSTAR Pi 4. 9" Amt»r ..$119.99
A10 (18 epa) Bon of BlarwrllBr $869.00 120P $468.00 1400 Color $289.90
no 40 Slarwrttsr $999 00 ] 30P S849 (TO ZENITH
F10-E5 Pnnlmsster H34B 00 ,115 Color 1459 00 2VM122 AmBar (99 09
ZVM123 Green $89 9!>

Dig Dug $8* SOFTWARE
ft 20M . $34 99 CONTINENTAL SOFTWARE [64] Kork 1.11.111 $3T DO
PhMU $3* 99 The Bonn Aoeoununl $4e.W Daadilna , $89 90
Donkey Kong $34 08 WILnau $29.00
CSA [64]
Cenllp«d» $34 09 139 99
S'.arfiit" (!M 90 Word Pro 04 plus Spell I ■ . BB


DESIGWWARE [64] Star Trek 120 99
Chopllfter S29 99
Cryto c:ub *23 9!> Congo Eongo 129 09
David's Midnight Magic $22 S9
Bank Str*»t Wrllor 149 Pt> SPINNAKER [64]
CYBATBCU [«4) Snooper Troop! 1 or a $2H.V9
C 04 RefBttince Oulda $18 99 Codewrller $76 99 Delta Drawing $29.BD
EuyCilo $GB 99 Kids on Roys $29 00
E»iy Fln»nna l.II.III.IV $IB99 SCREMtPt-AY (84)
Plnball Construction $28 90
Buy 11*11 $19 90 Wyld* $22 00
Cut * Puig - $39 99
EasyScript . $30 90 Kalv I2H99
Hard Hat Mack (29 09
COMMODORE VIC Pogo Joe $iiO 99
Jupnar Lander [B] , *a 99 L (?"iLj^ ui j\£jb[b£&i ■■■■-■ --i- ♦*^y yy
Plnball Spectacular [R] SiV 93 Upper Reaches of Apshai $16 99
Fligh: Simulator II tW 09
VIC Refsmnce Oulfle IIS 99 Jumpman Junlflf <£9 99
HES [64] Zuion $29.99
Appl* Psnlo $1B99 Tri Main $28.99 Protector II $113 00
Bl«ck Hold $20 90 Tna Pit $27 9S Blue Max $34.99
Kom« Invantory [C-64'VIC] $11.99 Ohcut Manor $18.» TIM EW0 RK8 [041
Pool ChnllPriffe .'.. 11999
CBS [84] Wai! SlMBt Maniitfnr (19 69
Hes Mon $29 99 Word Writer $39 itd
Addition * Sutnrnotinn (hi 99
H«a Writer |3S.QB Dala Miiiagei' (19 99
Linear Equanon . 118 93
Multiplication & Division tit> 99
Qllddrntic KquflMOns 11 tS 99

east Ontario/Quebec 800-268-3374 west
Other Provinces8OQ-2GB-4559
800-233-8950 In Toronto call 1416)328-0866. Dept.
In PA call (717|327 B57B. Dept. 116 In T.'V call |70ai5H8 SeS-i. Dept. 11B
Order Status Number S26-0S6S
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£505 Dirawin Drive. Unit 3B
Customer Service Number: 327- J460 P.O.Box 6689
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our catalog CANADIAN ORDEHS All prices are su6J-ct m shipping, lax and currency iluotuslions Call !ur giui pricing in Canada
Richard Mansfield, Senior Editor

First Questions

Although the difficulty of learning and program The best assemblers allow you to write this
ming machine language (ML) is often exag source code exactly the way you write your
gerated, there are some confusing things about it BASIC programs—-with line numbers, with the
when you first try to understand it. This month normal" Commodore full-screen editing features,
let's answer some of the basic questions, some of with remarks, multiple-statement lines (divided
the questions which everyone seems to have by colons), etc. Writing ML in this way has the
when they first dare to leave BASIC. added benefit that all your BASIC programming
What exactly is assembling? How is an ML aids will work. You can use automatic line
program written? numbering, search and replace, mass line dele
tion, renumbering, and so forth.
Just as a BASIC program is written under the When you want to try out your source code,
control and with the assistance of the BASIC lan you tell the assembler to assemble it. The assem
guage, an ML program is written with an assem bler will then turn all your commands (like LDA
bler. BASIC comes with the VIC and 64. It's #65) into numbers that the 6502 can execute as
sitting in ROM memory and available whenever an ML program. While it's assembling, the
you turn on the machine. An assembler, how assembler should point out any errors you might
ever, must be loaded in from disk or tape, or have made and print the line where the error oc
plugged in as a cartridge. An assembler is a pro curred. It should also provide you the option of
gram and can be written in either BASIC or ma having the results of the assembly {called object
chine language. code) POKEd into RAM for testing, SAVEd to
Perhaps the main reason that ML has a tape or disk, and printed on screen and a printer,
reputation for being difficult to write is the poor You should also be ab!e to turn these options on
quality of many commercially available assem and off at will.
blers. They are often slow or awkward to use. After the source code has been assembled
Many have few error messages, limited features, into object code, it is a finished ML program. If
or cumbersome editing features. you assembled it to disk, you can load it in and
When you are first learning ML, you'll be SYS to its starting address. If you assembled di
writing short, simple programs. For that, a simple rectly into RAM, just SYS and test it right after
assembler written in BASIC can suffice. But assembly.
when you progress to more sophisticated
programming, you'll want as comfortable a How long does assembly take?
programming environment as you can get.
Speed is also an essential quality of a good
An ML program is usually written as source
assembler. This is because you'll want to write
code. You write instructions much the way a
sophisticated programs—perhaps an all-ML ar
BASIC program is written:
cade game—and you'll need to reassemble every
time you make some adjustments. If your assem
bler takes 15 minutes to assemble 5K, that will
30 RTS; RETURN TO BASIC become a significant burden. You'll find yourself
122 COMPUTED Gbzoiio September 1984
trying to debug the program in your head, trying
to figure out a cure by staring at the source code
rather than testing reassembled object code. If Disk Duplication System
you have to wait a long time for every assembly, for Commodore 64
your programming style will become distorted as
you do everything possible to avoid another long plus S3
shipping. Visa or
Mastercard. Add S 2
How fast is fast enough? The best disk based
lor Foreign or COD
assemblers will do roughly IK a minute. This is
about the fastest that assembly can be accom • Simple to use. Menu-driven. Even a
plished on larger ML programs because it's the beginner makes perfect copies
speed at which a disk drive will deliver source • Analyze disk tracks for data & eirors
code to an assembler. Larger programs are gen
• Skip empty tracks to speed copying
erally written in sections, each section then saved
to disk and linked to the next tile by an assem ■ Copy everything incl. DOS flag & false ID
bler command as the last instruction in the file. • Put errors 20,21,22,23,27 & 29 on copy
Composing programs of these [inked modules is as required by latest protection schemes
an efficient way to divide a complex job into ■ Fast, reliable copying with 1 or 2 drives
manageable tasks.
RAM, too, can be too small to contain all the 98% OF SOFTWARE CAN BE ULTRACOPY ED
source code at once. Heavily commented source BEST COPY PROGRAM YOU CAN BUY
code can take up much more memory than its
assembled object code. Here's a commented line ULTRABYTE Call ( 313 } 562-9855
of source code:
23400 Michigan. Suite 502, Dearborn, Ml 48! 24
100 INY; RAISE THE COUNTER UNTIL IT Satisfaction guaranteed. 10 day return privilege
Dealer Inquiries invited
As source code, this line takes up 46 bytes. Seeking soliware authors - please write
When assembled, the INY will be translated into
the number 200. So, the object code for this line,
the number 200, will be stored in one byte.
What do you do with an ML program after you after your Ml. program is finished,
assemble it? RUN? SYS?
How do you pass a number from ML to
BASIC programs are always located at the same BASIC?
place in a computer's memory, so there is a
predictable starting address. The BASIC com Just before you RTS back to BASIC, store the
mand RUN knows right where to go to find the number (if it's less than 256) in address 251.
first instruction in a BASIC program. RUN Larger numbers are stored in ML by using addi
doesn't need an argument (a number or address tional bytes, as multiples of 256. So, you could
following the command). You never need to use address 252 to hold a multiplier. For ex
specify where the RUN should start. You never ample, if you wanted to store 1024, you would
need to say RUN 1024. stick a 4 into 252 and a 0 into 251. To store
But ML programs can be located anywhere 1025, put 4 into 252 and 1 into 251.
you want to put them. You can make them re Then, when you return to BASIC, you can
side wherever you've got some free RAM. That's get the number into a BASIC variable in this
why an assembler will always want to know way:

what starting address you've chosen, for 10 X = PEEK (251) + PEEK (252) * 256
You can use address 251 and 252 for this
10 '= 12000
since the computer leaves those addresses alone.
might be the first line of an ML program, the * = Any address between 251-254 is safe to use. You
symbol signifying that address 12000 will be can also use addresses 163-177 and 828-1019. In
where the ML program begins. After it's assem fact, if you know where your BASIC program
bled and is sitting in RAM from address 12000 ends and where your ML program resides, you
on up in memory, you must SYS to execute the couid use any unused RAM to pass messages be
program. In this case, a SYS 12000 will turn con tween BASIC and ML. You just want to avoid
trol of the computer over to your ML program. storing things on top of the resident programs.
There is an ML instruction, RTS, which will There are other ways to pass numbers, but
return you to the normal BASIC environment this is an easy and effective method. ©
COMPUTEI's GezoltB September 19B4 (23

Logic, And Flags
John Michael Lane

If you've discovered a clever timesaving on the current line.

technique or a brief but effective program The letter A in the example above is a nu
ming shortcut, send it to "Hints & Tips," meric variable, which acts as a number when you
c/o COMPUTSft gazette. If we use it, we'll add, subtract, or do any other mathematical op
pay you $35. Due to the volume of items erations. But when you put an equals sign and
submitted, we regret that we cannot always another variable or number after it, the whole
reply individually to submissions. thing becomes an expression (A=7). When nec
essary, the BASIC interpreter evaluates these ex
pressions and decides if they are true or false.
It may seem to be a simple task, figuring out
If it weren't for the IF-THEN statement, BASIC if A=7, but BASIC has to be ready for almost
would be like a highway with no exit or entrance anything. An IF expression may contain floating
ramps. You could travel only one direction, from point, integer, or string variables. It can contain
the beginning of the program to the end. IF- logical operators (NOT, AND, OR). There might
THEN, like its cousin ON-GOTO, is a decision- be parentheses, to signal the order of evaluation.
maker, a fork in the road. The ability to make And any extra spaces have to be ignored, unless
logical decisions is what gives BASIC much of its they are inside quotation marks.
programming power. It allows you to build en Once the expression has been evaluated, a
trance and exit ramps wherever you wish. number is returned to the IF-THEN part of
BASIC. If the expression is false, the number re
Truth And Falsity turned is zero. If it's true, the result is negative
Have you ever wondered what happens when one ( — 1). It's not coincidental that the RCMark
your computer executes an IF-THEN statement? section of the interpreter follows IF-THEN. When
For example, a false expression is found, your computer drops
100 IF A=7THENB=C + 5
into REM mode, ignoring anything after the
THEN, and looks for the next line of real BASIC.
In ordinary English, we'd say something
To see how this logic works, enter the
like, "If A is seven then we'll make B equal to C
following line:
plus five."
Q = 9:I'RINT "Q = 9":PRINT Q = 9
When your Commodore 64 or VIC-20 runs
into an IF (condition) THEN (action) statement, it Your computer should respond by printing
does something similar. It first checks the con the string (Q = 9), followed by a —1 (which
dition (Is A = 7 true?). If it is true, it takes the ac means the expression is true, because you as
tion (make B = C + 5). Otherwise, it goes to the signed the value of nine to the variable Q). If
next program line, skipping over anything else you try to PRINT Q = 15, you should see a zero
124 COMPUTEI's Gazotto SeptembeM934
(because the expression is false). Otherwise, checks are free. In your checkbook
The three equals signs do three completely balancing program, you might have these two
different things in the line above. The first one is lines:
an assignment-equals. It assigns the value of nine 130BAL = BAL-CHK
to the variable Q. You could also say LET Q = 9, 132 IF BAL<400 THEN BAL = BAL-.15
although LET is optional; it's rarely used any
You input the check's amount, and the pro
more. After the PRINT, it's inside quotation
gram subtracts it from the balance and checks if
marks and is simply a character-equals. The final
the new balance is below $400 and subtracts the
time it is a comparison-equals, used to compare
fee if necessary. Now look at this variation:
the numbers or variables on either side.
130 BAL = BAL-CHK +(BAL<4Q0)M5
The difference between assignment and
comparison is illustrated in this unusual-looking First the check is subtracted from the old
line: balance. Next, the expression BAL<400 is eval
uated, if the balance is $400 or more, the ex
R=5:S = R = 5:PRINTS
pression is false, giving you a zero. Zero times 15
First, we assign five to variable R. Next, the cents is zero and the new balance remains as is.
computer wants to assign a value to S. It decides But if the balance is below $400, the expression
that R = 5 is an expression and does an is true and fifteen cents is subtracted (or more ac
evaluation {using a comparison-equals). The ex curately, minus fifteen is added).
pression is true, which gives a value of minus
But do you notice the bug in this line? The
one. That value is assigned to S, and a —1 is balance which is compared to $400 is the old
printed on the screen.
balance. The bank will be looking at the new
The greater-than (>) and less-than (<) sym
balance. To fix this, change the line to read:
bols are also valid within an evaluation, although
130 BAL = BAL-CHK + <(BAL-CHKJ<400)M5
they cannot be used to assign values. LET A<9
doesn't make much sense, anyway; how would We still haven't seen why a true statement is
you assign a range of numbers to a single worth minus one.
variable? For one thing, it makes certain situations
work out nicely. Like subtracting fifteen cents
Why Minus One? when your balance goes below $400.
Specifically, however, in twos complement
It's not hard to understand that zero means false.
arithmetic, minus one is the logical opposite of
But why minus one for true? Why not ten, or
zero. At the bit level, you flip the bits and add
one-half, or sixteen million?
one. In BASIC, this is the equivalent of adding
Actually, you can use any number (except
one and changing the sign. Ask your computer to
zero) to signal a true expression. It is fairly com
PRINT NOT 8. You should see a -9 on the
mon to use a statement like this in a program:
An interesting corollary to this is that if you
Knowing that zero always turns out to be are using a logical AND as a mask, zero masks
false, and nonzero numbers are evaluated as everything and negative one masks nothing. In
nonfalse, you can make a modification to the other words, for any number X, X AND 0 always
above line. You want to find out if A is not equal result in zero, while X AND —1 always return X.
to zero. Another way of interpreting it is, if A is It's similar to multiplication, where zero times
not false (in other words, if A is true) then print any number yields zero, and one times any num
the message. You can substitute this: ber gives back the number,

Leaving off the <>0 saves some memory, Waving A Logical Flag
and can be a valuable programming technique. Knowing how to use variables as expressions (IF
You just have to remember that zero means false, A THEN xxx) and how to use expressions as
and anything else counts as true. variables (A — (B<15}*2) offers a lot of flexibility
What is a variable and what is an ex in BASIC programming.
pression? In the example above, the variable A is Flags, for example, can be useful in almost
evaluated for truth or falsity as if it were an ex any type of program. When you first type RUN,
pression. To turn it around the other way, you all variables are set to zero. So, if you have a
can use an expression as if it were a variable, if variable called FLAG, you know it starts out be
false, the expression is equivalent to a zero. If ing false. The flag is down. By assigning a value
true, it's equivalent to minus one. to FLAG, it is set, and you test it with a simple
Let's say your bank charges a fee of 15 cents IF FLAG THEN (action), rather than the bulkier
per check when your balance falls below $400. IF FLAG <> 0 THEN (action), ffi
COMPUTE!* Gazolto September 1984 !25
Disk Tricks
Gerald E. Sanders

Many operations with your 1540 or 1541 the disk operating system, or DOS for short. The
disk drive can be tedious and difficult. This DOS controls all the operations of the drive.
article discusses how your drive works and To understand the operation of the drives,
then demonstrates some nifty tricks to help we first need to understand how the DOS knows
you get the most out of it. Included are pro where to look for a particular program. Data is
grams which allow you to change a disk stored on the disk in a series of concentric cir
name, change a disk ID, unscratch, and cular paths called trucks. These tracks are referred
scratch disk files. to by number, starting with track 1 at the outside
edge of the disk, to track 35 near the inside edge.
The tracks are further subdivided into sectors, or
areas for storage. Sectors are synonymous with
Have you ever needed to unscratch a program or blocks, which you see on the left when you list a
file on a Commodore 1540/1541 disk? Did you directory. Each sector can store 256 characters, or
ever want to rename an old disk or give it a new bytes, of data. A track can have 17-21 sectors,
disk ID without erasing the other files? Have you with tracks near the outside of the disk having
ever saved a program to disk and then seen a the most sectors and tracks near the inside of the
funny-looking title when you listed the directory? disk the fewest.
Or found you couldn't determine the right DOS reserves all of track 18 (the center
combination of characters to scratch the un track) to scribble notes to itself. Track 18 consists
wanted file? And then, did you search the disk of 19 sectors (numbered 0-18), but let's look at
manual in vain to find the commands to rescue the really significant sections of this track.
you from your predicament?
Sector 0 of this track contains the Block
While there are no neat, one-word com Availability Map, or BAM, which the DOS uses
mands to solve these types of problems, all the to keep track of the status of all the other sectors.
necessary information is there in the manual, al Among other things stored in that sector are the
though it's somewhat scattered and cryptic. All 16-character disk name and the 2-character disk
that's really necessary to do some effective tricks ID. These are stored in bytes 144-159 and bytes
with disks is a rudimentary knowledge of the 162-163, respectively, as a series of binary num
hexadecimal number system, the disk drive man bers. Each number corresponds to the ASCII
ual, a chart of ASCII (CHR$) codes, and the (CHR$) value of a character of the name or ID. If
"Display T&S" program from the TEST/DEMO the name you gave the disk when it was format
DISK which comes with the drive. ted was shorter than 16 characters, the DOS
added shifted spaces, CHR$(160), to get the total
DOS Knows Where To Look to 16. If your name was longer than 16 charac
The 1540 and 1541 are called intelligent devices ters, it was truncated after the 16th one.
because each has its own microprocessor, RAM, To see this, LOAD and RUN the Display
and ROM. Like the VIC and 64, the drives con T&S program from the TEST/DEMO disk. (For
tain an operating system program in ROM. For the VIC, this program requires at least 8K of
the drives the program is called, simply enough, memory expansion.) The program will ask if you
126 COMPUTBrs Gazette September 1984
How to do your own maintenance, troubleshooting,
schematics, theory of operation, cleaning hints, GRIDIRON STRATEGY SA
conversion from one power source to another and calibra
tion. These topics and many more will make this manual AND YOU THOUGHT FOOTBALL SEASON WAS OVER
a valued addition to your reference GRIDIRON STRATEGY '64 and the Commodore 64 now
shell. Whether you are an amateur give you a year-round seat on the 50-yard line. GRIDIRON
electronics technician or a season STRATEGY '64 Is a highly realistic simulation ol football
ed professional, you will be able to instincts NOT "Joystick Hellenes". Most football games
realize the full potential of your let you control a few players on a scrolling field. NOT
VIC-1541 by using this manual. Step- GRIDIRON In GRIDIRON, you coach Ihe entire team and
by-slep instructions will lead you the colorful lield and Ihe sladlum styled Scoreboard are
Ihrough Ihe proper methods to gat completely visible at all times. Also, with the use ol TEAM
your VIC-1541 up and going In a DATA DISK '84, Ihe teams you control are the actual pro
hurry. The manual is 170 pages long, teams, based on their performances In the '84-'B5 season.
has two loldouts and over 100 Disk can be updated every year, so you can constantly keep
illustrations, including: up with the rise and fall of each team. Finally, compare
these features with any other football game on the market,
Block Diagrams for any other computer:
Schematics • Real lime game and 30 second play clocks?
Waveforms • Colorful Graphics and Sprite animation?
Isometric [Pictorial) views • Realistic sounds of a packed stadium?
Test point locators • Optional printout copy of plays and statistics?
• Individuated teams, based on actual performances?
With all these illustrations and the detailed theory for each • 96 possible play combinations, infinite results?
circuit involved, along with step-by-slep procedures to • Does not require and charts or dice for results?
follow, the manual is a great time and money saver. • In-depth playbook and strategy sections?
GRIDIRON STRATEGY '64 offers all Of these qualities.
Front Matter Suggested retail price;
Section 1 Introduction GHIDIRON STRATEGY 64 - $27.95
Section 2 Theory ol Operation TEAM DATA DISK '84 ■ $14.95
Section 3 Initial Configuration
Section 4 Performance Test
Section E Calibration
Section 6 Disassembly/Reassembly
Section 7 Preventive Maintenance
Section 8 Troubleshooting FOR COMMODORE 64 OWNERS -
Section 9 Schematics and Parts Layout
Appendices The Aventure Situation You've Waited For !
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difference ... no more dice, charts, or pleading for mercy
with a ruthless dungeon master!
The first scenario is "Quest of the Dark Orb "; use it to
learn, experiment, and increase the stregnth of your
characters. 100% machine language programming. Hi-Res
graphics, character print out sheets 5 a book on tre nature
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want results printed to the screen or printer. Al name is for your convenience and is not used by
though printing to the screen works fine for most the DOS, unlike the ID, which is extremely im
needs, sending the results to the printer makes portant to the DOS.
studying the process much easier. After any read or write operation, including
The program then asks you to enter a track a SAVE or LOAD, the DOS places the current
and sector number, Enter 18 for the track and 0 disk ID in the working storage area of its built-in
for the sector, and the program will begin to memory. Whenever a new write command is
dump the contents of that sector to the chosen sent to the drive, the DOS checks the ID on the
device. If dumped to the screen, the display will current disk to see if it is the same as the one in
scroll. To slow down the scrolling, hold down memory from the previous operation.
the CTRL key. Pressing RUN/STOP will stop the If the ID from the current disk doesn't match
dump, but it will also take you out of the pro the one stored in memory from the last opera
gram and you'll have to start all over to get the tion, the DOS assumes it is working with a new
complete dump. disk and automatically executes an INITIALIZE
The contents of the sector (see the disk command before it stores the data. During
accompanying figure) are displayed as hexadeci the INITIALIZE process, the BAM (bytes 4-143
mal (hex) numbers, a common way of represent of track 18, sector 0) of the new disk is loaded
ing binary values. If you're not yet familiar with into the drive's internal memory so DOS can
the hexadecimal numbering system, see "Hexed determine just where on the new disk it can put
By Numbers," which accompanies this article. data. However, if the ID is the same, the DOS
Hex numbers are usually prefixed with a dollar assumes it is still operating on the same disk and
sign ($) to distinguish them from decimal num uses the copy of the BAM currently stored in its
bers, but dollar signs aren't used in the dumps. memory to determine which blocks are available
to store the incoming data. This
TRACK ia SECTOR 0 is part of the intelligence of the
drive, but it works correctly
00 112 01 41 00 19 FF FF IF 15 FF FF IF 15 FF FF IF I A ■Wrf nn nn
only if you understand the pro
10 115 FF FF IF 15 FF FF IF 15 FF FF IF 15 FF FF IF 1 ifir WTf ■nn ■n-n

20 i 15 FF FF IF IS FF FF IF 15 FF FF IF 14 FF FE IF 1 irir Ifrf •n-n n- cess, and take advantage of it by

30 iOO 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 1
giving every disk a unique ID.
40 :00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 OE FE' 07 00 00 00 00 1

50 100 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 OA 3E FB 00 I ■ ™
Suppose you've saved a
60 :13
FF FF 07 on CF 3D 03 02 ao 01 00 00 00 00 00 I mr n= a word processing program on a
70 tO4 BO 03 02 12 FF FF 03 12 FF FF 03 11 FF FF 01 1 s ■nn -Hfl
disk titled UTILITIES 001, and
80 ill FF FF 01 ii FF FF 01 11 FF FF 01 11 FF FF 01 1 nif ■nn ■nn it'll

90 I 55 54 49 4C 49 54 49 45 S3 20 30 30 31 AO AO AO J UTILITIES 001 you store the text files you create

AO ;A0 AO 41 43 AO 32 41 AO AO AO AO 00 00 00 00 00 1 AC 2A with this word processor on
BO ■ 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 1
another disk called TEXT FILES
CO :00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 I

00 iOO 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 1
001. To use the word processor,
EO :00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 I you load it from the utilities disk.
FO jOO 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 oo 1
You then remove that disk from
the drive and insert the disk
Printed to the right of each line of the dump with the text files. If these two disks had dif
is the ASCII equivalent of the characters in that ferent IDs, you'd have no problems. However,
line. Here you'll see both graphics symbols and since they have the same iD, trouble is ahead if
alphanumeric characters. The first two bytes of you forgot to INITIALIZE the drive.
any block (sector) tell DOS where to look for the When you try to write to the text disk, the
next block to read. On track 18, sector 0, these DOS will check the ID and find it's the same as
bytes should always be $12 (18) and $01 (1) to the one currently in its memory. Since the IDs
direct DOS to find the disk directory beginning are the same, the DOS thinks it is dealing with
at track 18, sector 1. the same disk. It will use the BAM currently in
memory to determine which blocks are available
Name And ID for text storage. As a result, DOS is likely to
Continuing into the last 128 bytes (beginning at overwrite some or all of your text files, irretriev
hex $80) of track 18, sector 0, we find other im ably destroying that data. Unique disk IDs pre
portant information. Bytes 144-159 (S90-9F) vent this kind of mistake.
hold the name we gave the disk when it was Using all possible combinations of the letters
formatted. If the title contained less than 16 A-Z and numbers 0-9 in a systematic way will
characters, you'll see shifted spaces, $A0, filling give you 1,296 possible combinations. I started
in the remaining characters. At bytes 162 and mine at AA and will go to AZ, then AO to A9,
163 ($A2 and $A3), you'll see the two alpha then start over with BA. This works well, since
numeric characters used as the disk ID. The disk Commodore's TEST/DEMO DISK has an ID of
128 COMPUTERS Gazette September 1984
ZZ. You can also use the graphics characters the DOS where to look for this file. These two
available when you press SHIFT or the Com numbers give the track and sector of the first
modore key, which gives you an even greater data block of the file. For the first entry in the
number of possibilities. previous figure, these bytes are $14 and $01, so
the first file in the example directory, TESTCARD,
Handling Files is stored on the disk beginning at track 20, sector
The remaining sectors of track 18 list the pro 1. The first two bytes of that block will, in turn,
grams by name and indicate where they are lo point to the second data block, and so on. As
cated. Use the Display T&S program to dump the with the directory sectors, the file will be stored
contents of track 18, sector 1, the first block of in staggered rather than sequentially numbered
the directory. Here's an example arrangement of sectors, and the last block in the file will have
a directory sector. $00 as the first byte of the sector.
Occasionally, these pointers
may be disturbed, by turning off
the drive while a disk is still
00 i!2 04 82 14 01 54 45 S3 54 43 41 52 44 AO AO AO II T£5T[ AftD inside, for example, resulting in
10 :A0 no AO AO AO 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 07 00
20 iOO 00 82 11 01
spurious data being written to the
44 49 53 50 4C 41 39 20 54 26 S3 II DISPLAY
30 iAO no AO AO AO 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 OE 00 disk. Knowing how the DOS
40 ■ 00 00 B2 19 04 56 49 43 20 37 15 44 47 45 AO AO II VIC WEE finds its way around the disk,
30 tAO no AO AO AO 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 04 00
60 ■ 00 00 B2 11 06
you may be able to locate and
48 4F 4D 45 20 49 4E 56 20 31 20 II HOME INV 1
70 154 41 50 45 AO 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 09 00 TAPE relink the program, thereby
eo 100 00 82 13 00 4a 4F 4D 45 20 49 4E 56 20 31 20 II HOME INV 1 saving a precious original which
90 ;44 49 53 48 AO 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 09 00 DISK
AO tOO 00 B2 13 05 48 4F 4D 45 20 19 4E 56 20 32 20 HOME INV 2
otherwise might be lost forever,
80 154 41 45 AO 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 09 00 TAPE The next 16 bytes of each
CO 100 00 82 13 OE 48 4F 40 45 20 49 4E 56 20 32 20 II HOME INV 2
DO 144 49 S3 4B AO 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 OA 00 DISK
directory entry contain the
EO iOO 00 82 10 00 53 50 45 45 44 34 39 50 45 AO AO II SPEEDTV characters for the name of the
FO tAO AO AO AO AO 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 OD 00 file, padded with shifted spaces
($A0) if the name is less than 16
As with track 18, sector 0, the first two bytes characters. The rest of the information contained
of the block point to the next block to be read. in the directory entry is important for other
Notice that the directory does not use the sectors applications, but space limits a full discussion.
of track 18 sequentially. The first two bytes are
$12 and $04, indicating that track 18, sector 4 is Altering Disk Tracks
the next directory block. This staggered arrange Now that we know how and where all the im
ment allows the drive to read the directory more portant information is stored, we can begin to
swiftly. The last block of the directory will have perform the tricks mentioned earlier. Program 1,
$00 as the first byte in the block. Since there is "Change Disk Name," allows you to change the
no track 0 on the disk, this signals DOS that the name of a disk without erasing the disk as a
end of the directory has been reached, and no NEW command will. Program 2 changes the disk
more directory blocks will be read. ID without affecting disk contents. Program 3
DOS scans the next byte to determine if the helps you recover any previously scratched files,
directory entry is valid, and if so, what kind of provided the DOS has not already overwritten
file the entry is. An $81 indicates a sequential them with another file. This program is 100%
(SEQ) data file, while $82, $83, $84 indicate pro effective if used immediately after an erroneous
gram (PRG), user (USR), and relative (REL) files, SCRATCH command, but the likelihood of suc
respectively. A value of $80 or less signals a de cess diminishes rapidly as the number of files
leted or improperly closed file, and the DOS will written to the disk after the SCRATCH increases.
treat this entry as if it doesn't exist. When a file is scratched, the DOS updates
Each directory sector can hold information the BAM to show that the blocks which were pre
on eight files. The other entries start at bytes 34, viously allocated to that file are now free to be
66, 98, 130, 162, 194, and 226 ($22, $42, $62, overwritten. With luck, those blocks will not be
$82, $A2, $C2, and $E2) in the block. In the pre used for some time; without luck, the next write
vious figure, all these bytes are $82, so all the may destroy part or all of the old file. And, finally,
files in the example sector are programs. Storing Program 4 allows you to scratch a file which can
eight entries per block in each of the 18 directory not be deleted from BASIC. You have the option
sectors allows a maximum of 144 entries in the of permanently scratching the file and dropping
directory. it from the disk directory, or deleting the file, but
The next two bytes (the fourth and fifth) tell leaving the name listed on the directory.
COMPUTED Gazelle September 1984 129
Hexed J, Blake Lambert, Assistant Editor

Reading and writing bytes, and directly It requires 16 ones and zeros to describe
modifying disk tracks and sectors is some a memory location on a VIC or 64. (Decimal
thing like PEEKing and POKHing memory 49152 translates to the unwieldy binary
locations. You are advancing beyond simple number 1100000000000000.) This is why
BASIC programs into the realm of machine hexadecimal, called hex by most
language. Sooner or later, you face the chal computerists, is useful.
lenge of learning new, more convenient, Hex is a simple shorthand for binary,
numbering systems. Since computers only but it requires learning a few new numbers.
understand binary (base two) numbers and Just as the decimal number system has ten
most people understand decimal (base ten) digits available (0 through 9), hex requires
numbers, it's advantageous to learn how to 16. These 16 digits are 0 through 9, then A,
translate from one to the other. To under B, C, D, E, F. After counting to $F (the dol
stand these number systems, let's think a. lar sign represents "hex," the F stands for
minute about our normal counting method. decimal 15), we next count $10, by placing a
Our decimal (base ten) system evolved one in the "sixteens" column. The hex num
simply because humans have ten fingers. ber $FF in decimal, then, equals 15 times 16,
When we count in decimal, we start with plus 15. Conveniently, this turns out to be
zero and add ones until we get to nine, at decimal 255, so the eight-column binary
which point we're out of numbers. To get to representation (1111 1111) can be written
ten, we place a zero in the "ones" column using just two hex numerals ($FF). It's much
and add a new column to the left, called the easier to remember shorter numbers, so hex
"tens" column. The next column to the left is usually preferred.
is named "hundreds," which is ten times Here's a counting table that should help
ten (or 10T2). you understand how the systems work.
Binary counting is the same, but we run
Binary Decimal Hexadecimal
out of digits faster, because the computer
has only two "fingers." That is, the elec 0 0 $0
1 I $1
tronic "switches" with which it counts are
10 2 $2
either off (0) or on (1). We count zero then 11 3 $3
one, and that's it. We start a new column 100 4; $4
called "twos," place a one in it, and clear 101 5 55

the "ones" column. The next number is 11 / 110 6 $6

111 7 $7
and we're out of digits again. The "fours"
1000 8 $8
column is created (two times two, or 2t2), 1001 9 $9
and we have the number 100, then 101,-- 1010 10 SA
110, 111 and 1000 (which equals eight in ion 11 SB
decimal, 213). The problem with binary is 1100 12 $c
1101 13 $D
that it takes too much room to write even
1110 14 $E
small numbers. For example, the decimal mi IS $F
number 255 written in binary is 11111111. 10000 16 $10

These programs operate directly on data You don't have to understand how these
stored on the disk. They can do no permanent programs work to use them, but let's look at a
harm to the drive, DOS, or the disk itself; but, if brief explanation. The computer sends infor