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Shivaji Bhonsale was born in 1627 (or 1630) at Shivneri, a hill fort near Junnar, Pune, into a family of Maratha bureaucrats, to Shahji Bhonsale, a Maratha general in the army of the Bijapur
Sultanate, and Jijabai.


In 1640, he got married to Saibai, from the renowned Nimbalkar family, with whom he had four children daughter Sakhubai (1651), daughter Ranubai (1653), daughter Ambikabai (1655)
and son Sambhaji (1657).


He made his first military conquest at the age of 16 in 1645 by attacking and capturing Torna Fort in the Bijapur Sultanate, followed by conquest of other forts Chakan, Kondana, and

1653 To

Fearing his rising power, the Bijapur Sutlan, Mohammed Adil Shah imprisoned his father, following which he halted his conquests and built a stronger army until his fathers release in 1653 or

1657 To

His peaceful relations with the Mughals saw conflicts in 1657 when he raided the Mughal territories in Ahmednagar and Junnar, following which Aurangzeb sent a 150,000-force under
Shaista Khan, in 1660, to chastise him.

Nov 1659

The Bijapur Sultan sent his general, Afzal Khan, to supress Shivaji in November 1659, who, fearing Afzals deceitful plans, came armed with bagh nakh (tiger claw) in one hand and a dagger
in the other, and slayed him at the Pratapgar Fort.

Dec 1659

To curb down the emerging power of Shivaji, the Bijapur Sultan sent an army of 10,000 forces under Rustam Zaman in December 1659 but was defeated at the hands of the Maratha army at
the Battle of Kolhapur.

Jul 1660

He was attacked by the army of Adilshahs general, Siddi Jauhar, while camping at Panhala Fort, near present-day Kolhapur, in 1660, but Shivaji escape to Vishalgad fort to regroup his large
army for a battle. Backed by his Maratha sardar Baji Prabhu Deshpande, who wounded himself while holding back the army at the Battle of Pavan Khind, he reached Vishalgad safely,
resulting in a truce between him and Adilshah in July 1660.


He resumed his raids after his fathers death in 1664-65 and seized the northern parts of Konkon and forts of Purandar and Javali.


The Mughal army captured Pune. When they encamped there, Shivaji made a surprise attack killing Mughal soldiers and guards, with Shaista Khan narrowly escaping. Soon after in 1664, he
raided Surat and looted its treasure.


Aurangzeb sent Rajput Raja Jai Singh to suppress Shivaji and succeeded in capturing various Maratha forts, thereby forcing him to surrender and sign the Treaty of Purandar in 1665, ceding
23 forts and 400,000 rupees to the Mughals.


He made a visit to Agra, along with his nine-year old son Sambhaji, upon Aurangzebs invitation in 1666, who planned to send him to Kandahar (now in Afghanistan) to handle the Mughal
empires northwestern frontier.


With the end of the Treaty of Purandar in 1670, he attacked the Mughal forces in Maharashtra and re-captured the forts he had surrendered to them.


In 1670, he launched an expedition under Tanaji Malusare to capture Kondana For, which was under Mughal possession, in the Battle of Sinhagad. While the fort was seized, Malusare died
and hence, the fort was renamed Sinhagad.


He raided Surat for a second time in 1670 and defeated the Mughal army under Daud Khan in the Battle of Vani-Dindori (close to present-day Nasik) while returning back.

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After spending the early 1670s in capturing land and expanding his domain, he crowned himself as the king of the Marathas at Raigad in 1674, earning the title Kshatriya Kulavantas
Sinhasanadheeshwar Chhatrapati Shivaji Maharaj.

1674 To

He went on an extensive campaign of raiding more territories in the later half of 1674, capturing Khandesh, followed by Bijapuri Ponda, Karwar, Kolhapur and Janjira in 1675, and Ramnagar,
Athani, Belgaum and Vayem Rayim in 1676.


He moved southwards at the end of 1676, seizing the forts at Vellore and Gingee (in present-day Tamil Nadu), once ruled by the Adilshahi Dynasty.

Apr 1680

He died in April 1680 at Raigad Fort, after suffering from fever and dysentery for three weeks.

Jul 1680

Though Soyarabai initially succeeded in crowning her son, Rajaram, as the next king, but Sambhaji captured Raigad Fort and ascended the throne in July 1680. Thereafter, he imprisoned
Rajaram and Soyarabai and executed the latter.

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