0 Voti positivi0 Voti negativi

8 visualizzazioni574 pagineManual of WIRIS

Jan 30, 2017

© © All Rights Reserved

PDF, TXT o leggi online da Scribd

Manual of WIRIS

© All Rights Reserved

8 visualizzazioni

Manual of WIRIS

© All Rights Reserved

- The Law of Explosive Growth: Lesson 20 from The 21 Irrefutable Laws of Leadership
- Hidden Figures: The American Dream and the Untold Story of the Black Women Mathematicians Who Helped Win the Space Race
- Hidden Figures Young Readers' Edition
- The E-Myth Revisited: Why Most Small Businesses Don't Work and
- Micro: A Novel
- The Wright Brothers
- The Other Einstein: A Novel
- State of Fear
- State of Fear
- The Power of Discipline: 7 Ways it Can Change Your Life
- The Kiss Quotient: A Novel
- Being Wrong: Adventures in the Margin of Error
- Algorithms to Live By: The Computer Science of Human Decisions
- The 6th Extinction
- The Black Swan
- The Art of Thinking Clearly
- The Last Battle
- Prince Caspian
- A Mind for Numbers: How to Excel at Math and Science Even If You Flunked Algebra
- The Theory of Death: A Decker/Lazarus Novel

Sei sulla pagina 1di 574

WIRIS 2.2

www.wiris.com

2007 maths for more sl. All rights reserved.

Table of Contents

1 minute ...............................................................................................................................................4

Mathematical Objects .........................................................................................................................7

Numbers............................................................................................................................................................................................. 7

Variables.............................................................................................................................................................................................8

Assigning and defining of values to variables ................................................................................................................................ 8

Other objects..................................................................................................................................................................................... 9

WIRIS ++ ............................................................................................................................................ 14

Programming language.................................................................................................................................................................. 14

Data structures................................................................................................................................................................................15

Arithmetic .......................................................................................................................................... 20

Symbols............................................................................................................................................................................................20

Parentheses..................................................................................................................................................................................... 21

Divisibility.........................................................................................................................................................................................22

Operations........................................................................................................................................................................................25

Functions......................................................................................................................................................................................... 27

Solving equations and systems of equations............................................................................................................................. 30

Equation .........................................................................................................................................................................................30

System of Equations ..................................................................................................................................................................... 31

Linear systems in matrix form...................................................................................................................................................... 31

Numerical methods.........................................................................................................................................................................32

Using solutions............................................................................................................................................................................... 32

Ordinary differential equations..................................................................................................................................................... 33

Solving equations and systems of inequalities.......................................................................................................................... 33

Analysis ............................................................................................................................................. 35

Differentiation.................................................................................................................................................................................. 35

Integration........................................................................................................................................................................................ 36

Integral calculus .............................................................................................................................................................................36

Definite integral ..............................................................................................................................................................................37

Calculus of limits............................................................................................................................................................................ 38

Limit ............................................................................................................................................................................................... 38

Horizontal limit ............................................................................................................................................................................... 39

Taylor Series....................................................................................................................................................................................39

Series................................................................................................................................................................................................40

Differential equations..................................................................................................................................................................... 41

Functions ...........................................................................................................................................43

Defining functions...........................................................................................................................................................................43

Real functions................................................................................................................................................................................. 45

Progressions ..................................................................................................................................... 49

Functions......................................................................................................................................................................................... 49

Geometry ........................................................................................................................................... 51

Geometric objects...........................................................................................................................................................................51

Functions......................................................................................................................................................................................... 56

Geometric study ............................................................................................................................................................................ 56

Transformations ............................................................................................................................................................................. 63

2D Graphics ...................................................................................................................................... 66

Draw command............................................................................................................................................................................... 66

Region drawing............................................................................................................................................................................... 71

Display command........................................................................................................................................................................... 72

Commands for writing text............................................................................................................................................................ 73

Plotter............................................................................................................................................................................................... 74

Interactive geometry....................................................................................................................................................................... 77

3D Graphics ...................................................................................................................................... 79

Draw command............................................................................................................................................................................... 79

Commands for writing text............................................................................................................................................................ 84

Plotter............................................................................................................................................................................................... 85

Interactive geometry....................................................................................................................................................................... 87

Statistics ............................................................................................................................................ 88

Functions......................................................................................................................................................................................... 89

Two variable functions...................................................................................................................................................................91

Combinatorics ...................................................................................................................................94

Functions......................................................................................................................................................................................... 94

Notation ..........................................................................................................................................................................................99

Arithmetic ....................................................................................................................................................................................... 99

Functions ....................................................................................................................................................................................... 99

Tables............................................................................................................................................................................................. 100

Basic units of the SI ....................................................................................................................................................................100

Units derived from SI .................................................................................................................................................................. 101

Units from other systems ............................................................................................................................................................ 102

Prefixes for the SI System of Units ............................................................................................................................................ 102

Toolbar tabs...................................................................................................................................................................................104

Plotter............................................................................................................................................................................................. 114

Toolbar

..........................................................................................................................................117

Why configure the toolbar?.........................................................................................................................................................117

How do you configure the toolbar?........................................................................................................................................... 117

Example..........................................................................................................................................................................................117

Primary

..........................................................................................................................................119

What is it?......................................................................................................................................................................................119

Where is it?................................................................................................................................................................................... 119

1 minute......................................................................................................................................................................................... 119

Desktop........................................................................................................................................................... 122

Menus............................................................................................................................................................................................. 122

User interface................................................................................................................................................................................ 122

Appendix...........................................................................................................................................................................126

Index..................................................................................................................................................................................567

1 minute

In a work session with the WIRIS calculator various calculations grouped in blocks can be carried out. The calculation

process steps are as follow:

1. An expression for calculation is built using the keyboard or using the icons associated with the various commands.

2. In each block as many expressions as desired can be entered. To add a new expression, following the expression

where the cursor is located, use the key Enter (Carriage return).

3. Evaluate an expression or block of expressions by clicking on the icon

or the key Ctrl + Enter(Ctrl + (Carriage

return).).

4. The result is shown to the right of the original expression and separated by the arrow

To create more elaborate calculations, bear in mind the following points regarding page layout in WIRIS

A block can be added to the session with the icon

Whenever we evaluate (click on the icon

or Ctrl + Enter), all expressions in the active block are calculated. The

results are shown and a new empty block, which becomes the active block, is created below. The cursor appears

in the active block.

The variables and calculations in one block are independent of the variables and calculations in all the other blocks.

To start a new work session, use the icon

.

To save the current sesson, click on the icon

-4-

powered by WIRIS

(c) maths for more sl. All rights reserved. Legal notice

1 minute

NOTE 1

Lower case and upper case letters are understood as different characters. Tan is not the same as tan.

-5-

powered by WIRIS

(c) maths for more sl. All rights reserved. Legal notice

NOTE 2

-6-

powered by WIRIS

(c) maths for more sl. All rights reserved. Legal notice

Mathematical Objects

Mathematical Objects

Mathematical expressions are primarily based on numbers, variables, mathematical operations and functions. The first two

are explained in this chapter: numbers and variables. It also addresses other objects that are more sophisticated,

which can be created with WIRIS, such as polynomials and equations. Some other mathematical objects are explained in

the following chapters: Geometry and Wiris ++.

>>fast

Numbers

Variables

Other objects

integers

rational numbers

decimals

complex numbers

Assigning and defining of values to variables

polynomials

equations and

inequalities

vectors and matrices

mathematical

expressions

irrationals

lists

Numbers

The types of numbers we can construct are:

integers: an integer is created entering its digits in base 10. If we want a negative number we place the symbol - in

64

front. Integers can have as many digits as the user wishes. To get an idea, calculate 2

or 100!. More information

on Integer.

rational numbers: Rational numbers are created as a fraction from two integers, with the icon

or with the symbol /.

There are two functions associated with rational numbers numerator and denominator. If q is a rational number,

then numerator(q) and denominator(q) give us, respectively, the numerator and the denominator of the

irreducible fraction equivalent to q. More information on Rational.

irrationals: Irrational numbers that can be manipulated by WIRIS are: #, e, radicals such as the square root of 2, and

combinations of radicals. By combination we mean their addition, subtraction, multiplication or division. More information

on Irrational.

-7-

powered by WIRIS

(c) maths for more sl. All rights reserved. Legal notice

decimals: a decimal number is created separating the whole number part and the decimal with a point. More information

on Float.

complex numbers: a complex number can be created by performing mathematical operations with the imaginary number

or with the identifier i_) and with the real numbers. It is also possible to use the

polar function to create them. Some functions related to complex numbers are real_part, imaginary_part,

argument, norm or conjugate. More information on Complex.

Variables

In mathematics, and in the WIRIS interface, variables are names, with or without a value. A name is a string of alphanumeric

characters which begins with a letter, such as x, y, x1, x2, HAL or alpha. On the other hand 2x or 3ab are not names,

because they begin with a digit.

WIRIS differentiates between lower and upper case letters. Thus x and X are different variables, as are f1 and F1.

To give a variable a value use the operators = and :=.

If = is used, the variable takes the value of the expression to the right of the equals at that moment.

On the other hand, if :=is used, the variable takes the instantaneous value of the expression to the right of the

Therefore, if the value to the right of the expression changes, the value of the variable will also change.

If the := sign is used, it can be said that the value of the variable has been defined, and if the

said that a value is assigned to the variable.

If a value has been assigned or defined for a variable and the user wishes to clear the variable, the

can be used.

-8-

:=.

clear command

powered by WIRIS

(c) maths for more sl. All rights reserved. Legal notice

Mathematical Objects

Other objects

polynomials: A polynomial is created using certain mathematical operations (addition, subtraction and multiplication)

between numbers and variables. To evaluate a polynomial for a given value use the function evaluate. Two

more important commands are: roots and factor which, as their names suggest, allow the user to find roots of a

polynomial and to factor one, respectively. More information on Polynomial.

equations and inequalities: The symbols required to define and work with equations and inequalities are set out in the

following table. WIRIS has icons that are used to write these expressions (this produces the best typographical quality),

but they can also be entered using the keyboard or with a keystroke combination.

type

equation

NOTE 1

Symbol

Icon

Keyboard

equation

==

Ctrl

+=

Not equal to

!=

Ctrl

+!

inequality

>

>=

Ctrl

+ Shift + >

<

<=

Ctrl

+<

An equation (inequality) is created by separating two expressions with the equals (not equal to) symbol. The expressions

to the left and right of an equals sign (or an inequality symbol) are called the left and right terms, respectively.

-9-

powered by WIRIS

(c) maths for more sl. All rights reserved. Legal notice

NOTE 2

to the right of an equation or inequality WIRIS will respond letting the user know

whether the equality or inequality is true or false.

NOTE 1

To enter an equation it is normally sufficient to use the symbol =. Where there is any possible confusion over the

assignation you must use the symbol ==.

NOTE 2

The sign ? must be preceded by a blank space since ? is a valid character for creating identifiers.

lists: A list is a sequence within curly brackets. The curly brackets can be entered using the keys

. If the curly brackets are created using the icon, they will be of variable size, the size adapting to the content. The

keystroke combinations Ctrl + { and Ctrl + } also create variable size curly brackets.

There are two commands that support working with lists:

sort, sorts a list made up of objects that can be ordered.

Vertical lists

- 10 -

powered by WIRIS

(c) maths for more sl. All rights reserved. Legal notice

Mathematical Objects

Lists can also be displayed vertically, and in that case will be referred to as vertical lists. These lists have the same

properties as horizontal lists but their elements are shown one above the other. Thus, no commas are needed to separate

them. Use the icon

to create vertical lists and the keystroke combination Shift + Enter to create a new row.

Hereafter, the manual will discuss how to manipulate lists in a simple way and how they are used to solve

systems. More information on List.

vectors and matrices: a vector is a sequence enclosed in square brackets, which we can create with the keys

[, ],

, separating its elements with commas, or using the icon

. If the square brackets are created with

the icons, the size of the square brackets will adjust to the size of the contents. The same result can be obtained with

keystroke combinations Ctrl + [ and Ctrl + ]

A matrix is a vector formed from vectors of the same size. Each of these vectors corresponds to a row of the matrix.

The icons

matrices.

and

explained in detail in the chapter Menus, icons,..., enable easy creation of vectors and

To learn more about how the program works with vectors and matrices, see chapter Linear algebra.

and they are the principal tool for manipulating vectors and matrices; in

particular, to extract and change their elements.

Given a list or a vector v and a whole number i, vi is the ith component of v, as long as 1<=i<=length(v).

As every matrix is a vector of vectors, if

A is a matrix, then Ai is its ith row and Ai,j( or Aij) thejth element in the

An alternative but equivalent notation is to use the period, such that the expression An is the same as

is the same as A.i.j. Along the same lines, if v is a vector, v.i is the ith component of v.

- 11 -

powered by WIRIS

(c) maths for more sl. All rights reserved. Legal notice

To change the value of a component in a list, vector or matrix, the syntax explained in the previous subsection can be

used, and it can be assigned a new value with the operator = .

mathematical expressions: Mathematical objects which are not of any of the types above will be considered mathematical

expressions of type Expression.

Some examples of this type of object are

The command simplify calculates an expression equivalent to the one given but simplified as far as possible.

- 12 -

powered by WIRIS

(c) maths for more sl. All rights reserved. Legal notice

Mathematical Objects

- 13 -

powered by WIRIS

(c) maths for more sl. All rights reserved. Legal notice

WIRIS ++

This chapter considers a set of features which significantly increase the potential of WIRIS. We recommend most users

study them in order to help them or their students get started in the world of programming. Readers of this chapter are

expected to have prior knowledge of programming. Note that the language that we use here may be a little more technical

than users are familiar with.

The following sections are included in this chapter:

>>fast

Programming

if...

language

Data structures

ranges

divisors

while...

for...

repeat...

boolean numbers

domains

rules and

substitutios

relations

Programming language

Information about boolean numbers and logical operators The following boolean numbers, which have a

fundamental role in programming, are discussed below.

if...: Icon

or

, sentence

if B then A end

if B then A else A2 end

if B then A else_if B2 then A2 else A3 end

Carry out the instructions in A if the following condition is met B. If the condition is not met and there is an elsestatement,

then the instructions below are carried out A2. It is also possible to have multiple conditions and various groups of

instructions by inserting conditional else_if statements from the programming tab menu.

- 14 -

powered by WIRIS

(c) maths for more sl. All rights reserved. Legal notice

WIRIS ++

while...: Icon

, sentence

while B do A end

Carry out the instructions in A if the following condition is met B.

for...: Icon

, sentence

for R do A end

Carry out the instructions in A over the range R.

repeat...: Icon

, sentence

repeat A until B

Carry out the instructions in A until the following condition is met B.

Data structures

Let's complete the description of data structures in the chapter Mathematical Objects.

ranges: These are objects of form a..b or a..b..d where a, b and d are real numbers (a..b equivalent to

a..b..1). If d is a number other than 0, the range a..b..d represents the list formed from the elements of the

arithmetic progression a, a+d, a+2d, ..., not exceeding b. If d is zero the range represents an empty list.

- 15 -

powered by WIRIS

(c) maths for more sl. All rights reserved. Legal notice

For example,

{6,3}.

The function list list applied to a range returns the list which it represents.

boolean numbers: These are the logical constants true or false, which correspond to the values true and false,

respectively. Principally, these can be obtained by applying the operator ? to equations and inequalities.

The logical operators, fundamental to the definition of conditions in control statements, are

Logical operator

Symbol

conjunction - and

disjunction - or

negation - no

not

- 16 -

powered by WIRIS

(c) maths for more sl. All rights reserved. Legal notice

WIRIS ++

domains: Mathematical objects in WIRIS can be classified in mathematical sets. We call these sets, domains. Some

examples of domains are Integer, Rational, Irrational, Real and Polynomial.

Using the command is?, it is possible to find out whether an object is in a domain.

To work with domains, WIRIS offers the following operators (equivalent to logical operators): & , | , not, which work

like the intersection, union and complement operators with sets. Accordingly, the following relationship exists between

operators, which allows us to work in a similar way in different mathematical structures.

Logical operator

Set orperator

Symbol

conjunction - and:

intersection:

&

disjunction - or:

union:

negation - no

complement

not

Finally, is should be mentioned that the function imply? allows us to find out whether one domain is contained within

another or not, and get_domain returns the domain that an object belongs to.

It is especially interesting to use domains in function definitions. This permits the user to define discontinuous functions,

according to the domain, and to restrict the values over which a function is defined.

rules and substitutios: From the syntactic point of view, a rule is a list of objects of type x=>y or x:=>y. The variable

or template is called x depending on whether it is a variable or not, respectively. The image is called y and a pair is

of the form x=>y or x:=>y. A substitution is a rule defined for variables exclusively. If the user chooses =>, it uses

- 17 -

powered by WIRIS

(c) maths for more sl. All rights reserved. Legal notice

the value of y to define the rule. On the other hand, if the user chooses

of defining the rule.

The symbols => and :=> can be created with the icons

and

, respectively.

When applying a rule to an expression, all occurrences of each template (or variable) in the expression are replaced by

the image of its template (or variable). The terms that do not match the template (or variable) do not change.

More information on command Rule or Substitution.

divisors: From the syntactic point of view, a divisor is a vector of objects of type x->y. It can be said that x is an index,

y is its associated value and x->y is a pair within the divisor. To retrieve the value associated with an index, apply the

object to the divisor. If there is no index associated, the result is 0.

The symbol -> can be created using the icon

Divisors are particularly relevant in several contexts. For example, the structure returned by the function factor is a

Divisor, which has as indices the prime divisors of the factored object (such as a whole number or a polynomial for

example) and its values are the exponents of the these prime divisors.

Another important quality of divisors is that they can be added, and that the sum is defined such that the values of each

index remain summed. For example, when a product is factored this returns the sum of the divisors obtained by factoring

the factors.

More information on Divisor.

- 18 -

powered by WIRIS

(c) maths for more sl. All rights reserved. Legal notice

WIRIS ++

relations: From the syntactic point of view, a relation is a list of objects of type x->y. It can be said that x is an index, y

is its associated value and x->y is a pair within the relation. The most important aspect of relations is that they permit

the user to retrieve the value (or sequence of values) associated with an index. This is achieved by applying the object to

the relation. If an object does not have an index associated with a relation, the result of applying it to the relation is null.

The symbol -> can be created using the icon

- 19 -

powered by WIRIS

(c) maths for more sl. All rights reserved. Legal notice

Arithmetic

All arithmetic operations are expressed in WIRIS using the common symbols. The symbols can be applied to the different

types of mathematical objects with which WIRIS operates: from whole numbers to matrices.

>>fast

Symbols

Parentheses

Divisibility

addition

fraction

subtraction

exponentiation

multiplication

factorial

factor

prime?

quotient

remainder

greatest common divisor least common multiple

Symbols

Mathematical operations in WIRIS are represented by a symbol associated with a key on the keyboard. The one exception

is integer division, which is carried out with a command or icon.

Some entries, such as fractions, can be represented in mathematical notation using the appropriate icons. For example,

the

Finally, to facilitate entry of complex formulae, some icons are associated with keystroke combinations so they can be

entered without using the mouse. In line with the previous example, it is also possible to enter an exponent by using the

following keystroke combination: Ctrl + Up arrow .

The table below shows the arithmetic operations, their corresponding symbols and, where applicable, corresponding icons

and keystroke combinations. It also gives and example of each operation.

Operation

Symbol

Icon

Keyboard

+

addition:

subtraction:

* or

multiplication:

Ctrl

+/

fraction:

Ctrl + Up

arrow or Ctrl

+ Shift + ^

^

exponentiation:

!

factorial:

The symbol * always appears as in accordance with typographical convention.

- 20 -

powered by WIRIS

(c) maths for more sl. All rights reserved. Legal notice

Arithmetic

Parentheses

The parentheses, which can be created with the (and) keys or the

icon, are used in line with common mathematical

conventions. They allow grouping of terms and the carrying out of operations on them. Where there are no parentheses,

calculation progresses in accordance with the standard hierarchy of operations: multiplication, division, addition and

subtraction, respectively. To assure operations are carried out correctly, we recommend the use of parentheses where there

is any doubt about the order of operations.

If parenthesis are created with the

icon, then the size of the parentheses will vary depending on the contents. The

keystroke combinations Ctrl + ( and Ctrl + ) also create variable size parentheses. If the parentheses are entered by

simply keying in (and), parentheses will not be of variable size. Note, however, that the functionality of both types of

parentheses is exactly the same. The examples below were created using variable size parentheses.

3

Example: ((2-3/5)5) ; first, the following is calculated: 2-3/5; then, the result is multiplied by

the power of 3.

The two expressions 2/4+3*2 and (2/4)+(3*2) are equivalent. This demonstrates how the WIRIS icons can be

used to build mathematical expressions, while avoiding ambiguities and without the need to use parentheses.

We also use parentheses to denote function arguments, although sometimes we can leave the parentheses out. Where

functions have several arguments, these are separated by commas.

- 21 -

powered by WIRIS

(c) maths for more sl. All rights reserved. Legal notice

Divisibility

Below, some of the most important mathematical operations and functions are discussed. Unless otherwise indicated, they

can be applied equally to whole numbers and polynomials.

Calculates the quotient and remainder of the integer division of the first argument by the second.

Calculates the quotient of the integer division of the first argument by the second.

- 22 -

powered by WIRIS

(c) maths for more sl. All rights reserved. Legal notice

Arithmetic

remainder: command rem or remainder

Calculates the remainder of the integer division of the first argument by the second.

Factors the whole number and returns it as the product of prime numbers. It also factors polynomials with real coefficients.

Calculates the greatest common divisor of two or more whole numbers or polynomials.

Calculates the least common multiple of two or more whole numbers or polynomials.

- 23 -

powered by WIRIS

(c) maths for more sl. All rights reserved. Legal notice

prime?: command prime?

Given a whole number returns

polynomials.

true if it is prime number and false if it is not. This function does not work with

- 24 -

powered by WIRIS

(c) maths for more sl. All rights reserved. Legal notice

Linear algebra

Linear algebra

The fundamental tools of linear algebra are vectors and matrices, which are addressed in the chapter, Mathematical

Objects. This chapter deals with the operations that can be carried out on vectors and matrices and other functions that

take them as arguments.

>>fast

Operations

Functions

plus

multiplication by scalars

inverse

length

linear independence

minor

subtraction

scalar product

exponentiation

dimensions

rank

times

vectorial product

transpose

determinant

Operations

Arithmetic operations with vectors and matrices (addition, subtraction and multiplication) are denoted by the usual symbols

of WIRIS.

plus: command +

Vector or matrix addition. Operands must be of the same type and have the same dimensions.

Operands must be of the same type and have the same dimensions.

times: command * or

Product of matrices or scalar product of vectors.

The number of columns in the first operand must be the same as the number of rows in the second. In WIRIS, all vectors

are row vectors, but this is not a restriction. In order to multiply a matrix by a row vector, the vector is considered as a

column vector as long as this permits multiplying.

The symbol * always appears as in accordance with typographical convention.

- 25 -

powered by WIRIS

(c) maths for more sl. All rights reserved. Legal notice

Product of a vector or matrix by a scalar.

The symbol, * , always appears as in accordance with typographical convention.

, command * or

The symbol * always appears as in accordance with typographical convention.

, command vectorial_product

The cross product is defined for two vectors of length 3.

- 26 -

powered by WIRIS

(c) maths for more sl. All rights reserved. Legal notice

Linear algebra

inverse: Icon

, command inverse

Inverse matrix.

If the matrix can be inverted, its inverse is returned.. If the matrix cannot be inverted, an error is returned.

exponentiation: Icon

, command ^

A square matrix can be raised to a whole number power. If we raise it to a negative power and the matrix can be inverted,

the inverse of the matrix is raised to the absolute value of the exponent. If the matrix cannot be inverted, an error is

returned.

Functions

- 27 -

powered by WIRIS

(c) maths for more sl. All rights reserved. Legal notice

length: command length

If applied to a vector, the number of components is obtained; if applied to a matrix, the number of rows is obtained.

WIRIS returns the sequence formed by the number of rows and the number of columns in a matrix, respectively.

transpose: Icon

Given two or more vectors of the same length, the following is obtained:

false if they are not.

- 28 -

powered by WIRIS

(c) maths for more sl. All rights reserved. Legal notice

Linear algebra

rank: command rank

Calculates the rank of a matrix.

determinant: Icon

or

, command determinant

Given a square matrix, A and two integers i and j, this calculates the minor corresponding to the position Aij of the

matrix. This minor is the determinant of the matrix obtained by eliminating, from A the row i and the column j.

- 29 -

powered by WIRIS

(c) maths for more sl. All rights reserved. Legal notice

WIRIS uses the most advanced techniques available to solve linear and non-linear equations and systems of equations. It

can also use some numerical methods to approximate solutions to equations and systems. Additionally, WIRIS can solve

inequalities and ordinary differential equations.

>>fast

Solving equations and systems of equations Equation

System of Equations

Linear systems in matrix form

Numerical methods

Using solutions

Ordinary differential equations

Solving equations and systems of inequalities

Solving equations and systems of equations

solve is the command used to solve equations and systems of equations. The section, Mathematical Objects

explains how to build equations.

WIRIS first attempts to find all solutions to the equation or system of equations using exact procedures. If it is not successful

in finding an exact solution, it can always attempt to find the numerical solution using the command numerical_solve.

WIRIS returns the solutions found in list format. If it cannot find a solution by exact means or by numerical procedures,

WIRIS returns an empty list.

Equation

To solve an equation, enter it as the first argument in the solve command, followed by the variable to be isolated. If

this variable is not specified, WIRIS assumes that the user wishes to use all the variables that appear in the equation and

isolate one as a function of the others. Use the

Whether or not the variable to be isolated is specified or not, it is possible to add the argument at the end in order to search

for solutions among the complex numbers. In that case, the equations and systems of equations must be polynomials.

- 30 -

powered by WIRIS

(c) maths for more sl. All rights reserved. Legal notice

System of Equations

A system of equations is a list of equations. The simplest way to build a system of equations is to use vertical lists,

which can be created using the icon

As with the solving of equations, if the variables to be isolated are not specified, WIRISconsiders all the system variables,

and if necessary, it returns a parametric solution. To specify the variables to be isolated, enter these as the second argument

of the solve command within a list.

T T

Given a linear system in matrix form Ax =b , where A is the matrix for the system, x is the vector of unknowns and b

is the vector of independent terms, the system can be solved using the command solve(A,b). The elements of matrix

A and vector b can be any mathematical expression.

The results from this command vary according to the type of system:

If the system is determinate compatible, the result is a vector solution.

- 31 -

powered by WIRIS

(c) maths for more sl. All rights reserved. Legal notice

If it is indeterminate compatible, WIRIS returns a list made up of a matrix and a particular solution. The matrix has the

T

property that its columns form the basis of a vector space of solutions of the homogeneous system Ax =0.

If the system is not compatible, WIRIS returns null.

Numerical methods

WIRIS uses different numerical methods to solve equations. In each case it chooses the most appropriate and tries to find

a solution starting from an initial point or interval.

The command to solve equations using these methods is numerical_solve. WIRIS chooses the most appropriate

method for each case, so it is not necessary for the user to understand the different methods available and the advantages

of each one. Note that the act of searching for a unique solution to the equation means that the results obtained are different

in nature from those obtained by the command solve.

The numerical_solve command can also be applied to a system of equations, but keep in mind that this only returns

one solution to the system.

Using solutions

The solution of an equation or system of equations is a list of lists. The outermost list is necessary when the equation has

more than one solution. The inside list is comprised of pairs x=a where x is a variable of the equation or system and a

is its value for the given solution.

To work with the solutions, we can obtain the values for these solutions in a number of ways:

- 32 -

powered by WIRIS

(c) maths for more sl. All rights reserved. Legal notice

Using the properties of a list of pairs x=a.

WIRIS has a way to solve ordinary differential equations. Notice that when entering the derived function, the

icon can

be used.It is necessary to indicate the independent variable that the function depends on, or the dependent variable, by

writing it in parentheses after the function:y'(x), y(x).

- 33 -

powered by WIRIS

(c) maths for more sl. All rights reserved. Legal notice

WIRIS is also capable of solving inequalities and systems of inequalities, with a single variable, using exact methods or

numerical procedures to obtain an approximate solution.

In a similar way to the previous cases, the solve_inequation command can be called without specifying the variable

to be isolated, or the variable can be specified as a second parameter after the equation or system.

Notice that if the inequality or system does not have a solution or alternatively if it is true for all variable values WIRIS returns

false or true, respectively. This particular behaviour is due to the common use of inequalities for control of flow in

programming languages (and specifically in WIRIS). To learn more about this, see the section on WIRIS ++.

- 34 -

powered by WIRIS

(c) maths for more sl. All rights reserved. Legal notice

Analysis

Analysis

Analysis is the area of mathematics devoted to the study of functions.

>>fast

Differentiation

Integration

Integral calculus

Definite integral

Calculus of

Limit

limits

Horizontal limit

Taylor Series

Series

Differential

vector fields

equations

integral curves

integral curve

Differentiation

To differentiate use the

Clicking on the

icon brings up the common expression for differentiation with respect to a variable, including two empty

green boxes. In the upper box, enter the expression to differentiate, and in the lower box the variable with respect to which

we wish to differentiate.

The differentiate command takes 2 arguments; the first corresponds to the expression to be differentiated and

the second to the variable with respect to which we wish to differentiate. In the case of a function of a single variable, the

second argument may be omitted.

The ' sign can be used after the expression to be derived, in accordance with normal mathematical notation. Note that here

there is no need to state the variable with respect to which we are differentiating, because WIRIS will identify it automatically.

If this operator is applied to an expression with more than one variable, an error is returned.

- 35 -

powered by WIRIS

(c) maths for more sl. All rights reserved. Legal notice

The ' sign can also be used to differentiate functions. In fact, if f=f(t) is a function of a single variable f' is the derivative

of f with respect to t). Therefore, the derivative of f at point a is f'(a) in accordance with normal analysis notation.

Let's look at some examples.

Integration

Integral calculus

To obtain the antiderivative or indefinite integral of a given function, we use the Icon

integrate.

or

Clicking on the

icon brings up the common expression for the indefinite integral with respect to a variable, including

two empty green boxes. In the first box, enter in the expression to be integrated, and in the second enter the variable of

integration. If f is the integrand, F is the indefinite integral and x is the variable of integration, it can be said that F is a

primitive (or primitive function) of f and it can be verified that the derivative of F with respect to x is f.

Alternatively the integrate command can be used with two arguments, the first corresponding to the expression and

the second to the variable.

If there is no doubt about the variable of integration, the indefinite integral of the function can also be obtained using the

icon,

. On clicking this icon, a symbol appears with an empty green box in which to enter the function to be integrated.

If the expression to be integrated has no variables, WIRIS will integrate it with respect to a made up variable. If there is

only one variable, it will be integrated with respect to it, and if there is more than one, an error will be returned. In all cases,

the result is a primitive function of the argument.

Alternatively, the integrate command can be used, with a single argument, instead of the

works exactly as described for the icon.

- 36 -

powered by WIRIS

(c) maths for more sl. All rights reserved. Legal notice

Analysis

Definite integral

or

icons or the command integrate. WIRIS

attempts to calculate the integral of the function and apply Barrow's rule, which only requires evaluating the integral obtained

at the limits of integration and then subtracting. If it cannot find the integral, it carries out the calculation using numerical

methods and returns a warning message.

Upon clicking the

, the standard definite integral symbol will appear with four green, empty boxes. Those which appear

at the upper and lower extremes of the integral sign correspond to the upper and lower limits of integration, respectively. In

the other two boxes, enter the expression to be integrated in the first and the variable of integration in the second.

Alternatively the integrate command can be used with four arguments. The first corresponds to the expression, the

second to the variable and the third and fourth correspond to the lower and upper limits of integration, respectively.

Where there is no doubt about the variable of integration, the definite integrals of functions can be obtained using the icon

. Upon clicking the icon, the standard definite integral symbol will appear with three empty boxes. Those which appear

at the upper and lower extremes of the integral sign correspond to the upper and lower limits of integration, respectively.

Enter the function or expression to be integrated in the third box. If the expression to be integrated has no variables, it will

be integrated with respect to a made up variable. If there is only one variable, it will be integrated with respect to it, and if

there is more than one, an error will be returned.

- 37 -

powered by WIRIS

(c) maths for more sl. All rights reserved. Legal notice

Alternatively the integrate command can be used with three arguments. The first corresponds to the function or

expression to be integrated and the second and third correspond to the upper and lower limits of integration, respectively.

Calculus of limits

To calculate function limits, use the

or

Limit

icon, the standard limit symbol will appear along with three green, empty boxes. In the upper box, to

the right of lim enter the expression for which the limit should be calculated. In the lower boxes, enter the variable in the

first box and the limit we wish the variable to approach in the second. If the limit command is used instead of the icon,

the limit of function f when x approaches a can be entered using one of the following methods:

limit(f,x->a)

limit(f,x,a)

Notice that the

icon).

- 38 -

powered by WIRIS

(c) maths for more sl. All rights reserved. Legal notice

Analysis

Horizontal limit

The

and

icons allow us to calculate the left and right limits, respectively. The parameters to be entered in the empty

To calculate right and left limits, use the command limit. To calculate the limit of function f when x approaches a from

the right (or from the left), either of the two following expressions can be used:

limit(f,x->a,1) (from the left, limit(f,x->a,-1) )

limit(f,x,a,1) (from the left, limit(f,x,a,-1) )

Taylor Series

- 39 -

powered by WIRIS

(c) maths for more sl. All rights reserved. Legal notice

WIRIS supports calculation of the Taylor Series of a real function at a given point.

To calculate the Taylor Series of a function at a given point, use the taylor_series command with three arguments.

The first argument corresponds to the function, the second to the variable and the third corresponds to the value for which

the Taylor Series should be calculated (remember that the Taylor Series permits us to approximate the value of any function

at a given point). If you would like to view a specific number of terms of the series, which is infinite, specify this number

in the fourth argument.

In order to obtain the Taylor polynomial of a given order for a particular function, use the taylor command, followed by

the four arguments just described. Note, the fourth argument is necessary for this purpose.

Series

WIRIS allows us to determine whether a series is convergent, as well as calculating the sum of a convergent series.

Use standard mathematical notation to express the series, as shown in the following examples. The response will give the

value for the sum of the series if it is convergent (or if it is divergent, but WIRIS knows how to calculate the relevant infinite

value), and the series itself in other cases.

To ask WIRIS about whether a series is convergent or divergent, use the convergent? command, and enter the series

as the only argument.

- 40 -

powered by WIRIS

(c) maths for more sl. All rights reserved. Legal notice

Analysis

Differential equations

See the solve command to find the exact solutions of a differential equation.

Vector fields in the plane can be used to analyze first degree differential equations. We can plot such a vector field by

using the vector_field command.

- 41 -

powered by WIRIS

(c) maths for more sl. All rights reserved. Legal notice

integral curves: command integral_curves

It draws a sample of solutions of a differential equation, which can be plotted over its vector field.

Calculates a particular solution of a differential equation.

- 42 -

powered by WIRIS

(c) maths for more sl. All rights reserved. Legal notice

Functions

Functions

One of the most valuable capabilities of WIRIS is that it allows us to define new functions in such a way that these functions

are treated the same way as those already built into WIRIS. The arguments to these functions can be any mathematical

object.

In this section we will learn how functions are defined and how they are used. We will also study the various functions of

real variables which are of fundamental importance in mathematics, and which WIRIS already has built in.

>>fast

Defining functions

Real functions

square root

exponential

sign

root

logarithm

maximum

trigonometry

absolute value

minimum

Defining functions

To define functions, use the symbol :=, created using the keyboard or the icon

. To the left of this symbol we enter

the name of the function followed by the list of function arguments in parentheses. To the right we enter the body of the

function. That is, we enter the operations that need to be carried out on the arguments.

A function can have as many arguments as we like, or none. The body of the function can use other functions previously

defined. To use the function with specific arguments, enter the function name followed by the arguments in parentheses,

separated by commas. (This structure is referred to as a Sequence).

If you attempt to use a function that has not been defined, no calculation is carried out.

The function f in the example above takes one argument. However, as we have already stated, the number of arguments

can be any non-negative number. Furthermore, the same function can have different definitions depending on the number

of arguments passed to it.

A function can also have more than one definition depending on the domain of its arguments. In the definition of a function,

to specify the domain of one of its arguments, enter the argument followed by the character : and the name of the domain.

- 43 -

powered by WIRIS

(c) maths for more sl. All rights reserved. Legal notice

It is also possible to define a function for a specific object. The following examples illustrate all these options. Note that the

command definition applied to a function, gives us the definitions of that function.

A useful command to define a function, which is evaluated one way with certain elements in its domain of application but

in another way for a different subset of the domain is the command check. Write it between the function arguments

and the symbol := in the form check <condicin>, where <condicin> is a boolean expression (that is, it

is an expression that can always be evaluated as true or false) constructed from function arguments. In this way it

is possible to define discontinuous functions that cannot be converted into analytical elements (they can be evaluated but

limits, derivatives and integrals cannot be calculated).

The names we can give to functions are of the same form as those that can be used with variables.

Functions, like any object in WIRIS are entities independent of the names given to them. For example, the function that

returns the square of a number and then adds 1 can be understood as a function in its own right. Nonetheless, it is

helpful to give it a name for convenience. A function, which does not have a name assigned to it, is called an anonymous

function. Anonymous functions are defined using the icon

, which is equivalent to --> entering their arguments between

parentheses to the left of the symbol --> and the body of the function to the right of this symbol. Note that the command

definition, as seen in previous examples, returns a list of anonymous functions.

If a function has been defined, and we wish to delete it, apply the command clear

- 44 -

powered by WIRIS

(c) maths for more sl. All rights reserved. Legal notice

Functions

Real functions

Here, we will discuss some of the predefined real functions in WIRIS that correspond to basic mathematical functions.

Calculates the square root of the argument. Another way to calculate the square root of a number is to raise it to the 1/2.

The command sqrts or square_roots command calculates all the square roots of a real number.

root: Icon

, command root

Calculates the nth root of x, where x is the first argument (the one in the main box if the icon was used) and n is the

second (the one in the upper box). As in the previous case, the calculation of the nth root is equivalent to raising x to

1/n. The command roots calculates all the complex (or real) roots of a real number.

trigonometry:

The trigonometric functions are as follow:

- 45 -

powered by WIRIS

(c) maths for more sl. All rights reserved. Legal notice

sin

cosec

cos

sec

tan

cotan

These correspond respectively to the sine, cosine, tangent, cosecant, secant and cotangent. The argument for these

functions is assumed to be expressed in radians. To use degrees, apply the symbol , which is located in the tab Units.

The inverse trigonometric functions included in WIRIS are:

asin

acos

atan

These correspond respectively to arcsine, arccosine and arctangent. The argument of these functions is a real number.

-1

The result of all these is the main result of the function, expressed in radians (the same given by the keys sin , cos

and tan

-1

-1

commonly found on a pocket calculator). If the answer is required in degrees, use the function convert.

or

Calculates the result of applying the exponential function to its single argument (that is, the number that results from

raising the number e to the argument). The icon

can be used to obtain exact values (i.e. without evaluating) and the

icon can be used to obtain approximations. WIRIS also incorporates complex exponentials.

If the commands above are given a single argument, they calculate the natural (Naperian) and decimal logarithms,

respectively. If log takes two arguments a and b, it calculates the logarithm of a in base b.

- 46 -

powered by WIRIS

(c) maths for more sl. All rights reserved. Legal notice

Functions

logb(a) calculates the logarithm of a in base b. It is equivalent to log(a,b). Remember that to create a subscript

use the icon

, command absolute

Obtains the sign of a real number. Returns 1 if the number is positive, -1 if it is negative and 0 if it is neither positive

nor negative.

Calculates the maximum values of the functions arguments. If the argument is a

maximum of its elements.

- 47 -

powered by WIRIS

(c) maths for more sl. All rights reserved. Legal notice

minimum: command minimum or min

Calculates the minimum of the arguments entered in the function. If the argument is a

the maximum of its elements.

- 48 -

powered by WIRIS

(c) maths for more sl. All rights reserved. Legal notice

Progressions

Progressions

>>fast

Functions

step

ratio

progression

WIRIS detects if a sequence of numbers, given its first few terms, follows a constant, arithmetic, geometric or polynomial

progression. This allows the general term of a sequence to be determined or its terms to be summed using the familiar

formulae. The command progression allows us to determine which type of progression a sequence of numbers follows.

WIRIS classifies progressions in accordance with the order in which we have just listed them. So, if a progression is

constant, it classifies it as constant, even though it is also arithmetic and geometric. Equally, an arithmetic progression,

which corresponds to a first degree polynomial, is categorised as arithmetic.

For every finite sequence of n numbers, there is a single polynomial of degree no higher than n-1, such that the first n

terms in the corresponding polynomial sequence coincide with those of the sequence. WIRIS always forms the polynomial

sequence corresponding to the polynomial of the lowest degree that meets this condition.

Once the progression is defined, we can save it in a variable. If p is a variable, then the expression p(i) returns its ith term

for any number i, and if n is a variable, the expression p(n) returns the formula for the general term of the progression.

Functions

The functions associated with progressions are:

Given an arithmetic progression, it obtains a step (that is, the difference between two terms). If working with a constant

progression, the function returns the value 0.

- 49 -

powered by WIRIS

(c) maths for more sl. All rights reserved. Legal notice

ratio: command ratio

Given a geometric progression, its ratio is calculated. If working with a constant progression, the function returns the

value 1.

Given a progression, the sum of its terms is obtained. Note that the result does not always have the appearance usually

associated with a sum, due to the generality of the methods used. Nonetheless, the value of the expression obtained will

logically be the same as for the conventional expression.

This command has three arguments: the progression (the first) and the upper and lower summation limits (second and

third, respectively). The summation limits can be whole numbers (including negative numbers) or polynomials with whole

number coefficients.

If the user wishes to sum an infinite series, i.e. the sum from a coefficient n to infinity, different functionality must be

used in WIRIS: limits, which are explained in the chapter Analysis. The following example demonstrates how these

functionalities can be combined.

- 50 -

powered by WIRIS

(c) maths for more sl. All rights reserved. Legal notice

Geometry

Geometry

WIRIS allows us to work with geometric elements in the plane and in space (Euclidean geometry in the plane and in space)

and, in particular, to display them graphically.

The first section is dedicated to the different types of geometric objects available. The second section focuses on the

functions that permit the user to act on these objects. The graphical display of geometrical elements is discussed in the

Graphics chapter (for plane geometry) and in the 3D Graphics chapter (for geometry in 3D space).

>>fast

Geometric

objects

points

circumferences

lines

conic sections

segments

triangles

planes

polygons (or

polygonals)

Functions

polyhedras

Geometric study

distance

midpoint

bisector

median line

intersect

perpendicular

bisector

area

parallel

translation

rotation

height

angle

Transformations

symmetry

perimeter

perpendicular

Geometric objects

This section explains the geometrical figures that can be constructed.

or

Constructs a point from coordinates a and b, for which function arguments are real numbers. Note that upon writing the

expression (a,b) without the word point, we only have the sequence a and b. We have not defined a point.

Some functions related to points are midpoint or colinear?.

For points in 3D space, the command point(a,b,c) constructs a point from coordinates a, b and c, just as for a point

on the plane.

- 51 -

powered by WIRIS

(c) maths for more sl. All rights reserved. Legal notice

Allows us to create a line. The different arguments it can take are:

two points on the line (we can use the icon

),

an equation for the line, or

a point and a real number (the slope of the line).

If r is a line, then slope(r), point(r) and vector(r) return the slope of the line, a point on the line and a

direction vector of the line, respectively. To study other functions that can also be used to build a line, see parallel,

perpendicular and bisector.

two points on the line (we can use the icon

two equations (of secant planes).

- 52 -

powered by WIRIS

(c) maths for more sl. All rights reserved. Legal notice

Geometry

Allows us to create a segment. The different arguments it can take are:

the segment endpoints (use the icon

),

Some functions related to segments are length or midpoint.

This allows us to create a plane. The different arguments it can take are:

three points (use the icon

),

a point and two vectors,

a linear equation.

Some functions related to planes are parallel, perpendicular or bisector.

or

This allows us to create a circle. The different arguments it can take are:

a point (center point of the circumference) and a real number (its radius), using the icon

three unaligned points (representing points on the circumference), using the icon

- 53 -

powered by WIRIS

(c) maths for more sl. All rights reserved. Legal notice

two points (the center point and a point on the circumference, respectively) using the icon

If c is a circle, then center(c) and radius(c) return the centre and the radius of the circle, respectively.

If P is a point on the circumference c, then tangent_line(c,P) the tangent line to c through point P.

This allows us to create a conic. The different arguments it can take are:

five points (pertaining to the conic), using the icon

The commands ellipse, hyperbola and parabola allow us to construct conics from the fundamental elements

of a conic such as the focus, the vertex and the focal distance. For a detailed description of the many components used

to construct these elements, see the section Reference.

Some functions related to conics are center, vertex,

semiminor_axis or focal_semidistance.

This function is used to construct a triangle, using the vertices as arguments. It is also possible to use the icon

command equilateral_triangle allows us, as its name suggests, to create an equilateral triangle.

- 54 -

. The

powered by WIRIS

(c) maths for more sl. All rights reserved. Legal notice

Geometry

or

Generates the polygon (or the polygonal), which results from joining the points that are entered as arguments. Remember

that a polygon is a closed plane, while polygonals are segments that join a set of points, and in general they are open

figures and not flat.

or

functions

related

to

the

polyhedra

are

tetrahedron,

cube,

octahedron,

dodecahedron, icosahedron, polyhedra_cylinder_with_lids, polyhedra_cylinder,

polyhedra_cone_with_lid, polyhedra_cone, polyhedra_sphere or polyhedra_thorus.

Some

- 55 -

powered by WIRIS

(c) maths for more sl. All rights reserved. Legal notice

Functions

As arguments, the geometrical functions accept geometrical figures, which are generally constructed using the functions

described in the previous section, but they also directly accept the equation of the figure as an argument. The latter feature

is used repeatedly in this section.

Geometric study

Calculates the distance between two points, a point and a line or a point and a circumference.

In 3D space, it is also possible to calculate the distance between two non-secant planes, between a non-secant line and

plane or between a point and a plane.

Calculates the midpoint between two given points, on the segment formed by the two points. The command midpoint

accepts two points or a segment as an argument. For the latter, it calculates the midpoint of the segment's endpoints.

- 56 -

powered by WIRIS

(c) maths for more sl. All rights reserved. Legal notice

Geometry

Calculates the perpendicular bisector of a segment, i.e. the line perpendicular to the segment that passes through its

midpoint. It can also be defined as the set of points which are equidistant to the endpoints of the segment.

This command accepts a segment or two points as an argument, and it calculates the perpendicular bisector of the

segment formed by those points. It is also possible to use a triangle and the number of the side for which the perpendicular

bisector is required.

More information on circumcenter or circumradius.

- 57 -

powered by WIRIS

(c) maths for more sl. All rights reserved. Legal notice

bisector: Icon

or

, command bisector

two secant lines,

three unaligned points (thus, defining an angle).

and an angle of a triangle.

More information on incenter or inradius.

For the case of geometry in 3D space, it is possible to calculate the bisector of two intersecting planes.

- 58 -

powered by WIRIS

(c) maths for more sl. All rights reserved. Legal notice

Geometry

height: command height

Calculates the height corresponding to the ith vertex of the triangle, i.e. the line that passes through the vertex and that

is perpendicular to the opposite side. This command accepts, as arguments, a triangle and the vertex number for which

the user wishes to calculate the height.

More information on orthocenter.

This calculates the line from the triangle vertex to the midpoint of the opposite side. This command accepts as arguments

a triangle and the vertex number for which the user wishes to calculate the median.

More information on barycenter.

- 59 -

powered by WIRIS

(c) maths for more sl. All rights reserved. Legal notice

This calculates the area of a figure, received as an argument, on the basis that the figure is closed (triangle, polygon,

circumference or ellipse).

More information on oriented_area.

- 60 -

powered by WIRIS

(c) maths for more sl. All rights reserved. Legal notice

Geometry

perimeter: command perimeter

This calculates the perimeter of a closed figure (triangle, polygon or circumference), which is received as an argument.

This calculates the minor angle defined for two lines or two vectors (planes if working in 3D space). In the first case, it

returns a value between 0 and #/2 and in the second case between 0 and #.

If F is a Triangle, Polygon or

corresponding to its ith vertex.

For work in 3D space, the function is named angle3d and it can also be applied to planes. It is also possible to use

the command geometry_status to learn how to simplify this command.

- 61 -

powered by WIRIS

(c) maths for more sl. All rights reserved. Legal notice

intersect: Icon

, command intersect

This returns a list of the elements that form the intersection of two figures, received as arguments.

parallel: Icon

or

, command parallel

This function accepts a line or segment as the first argument and a point as the second argument. Accordingly, it finds

the line parallel to the first argument that passes through the point. More information on parallel?.

When working in 3D space, the function can be applied to a plane just as it is applied to a line or segment in two dimensional

space.

- 62 -

powered by WIRIS

(c) maths for more sl. All rights reserved. Legal notice

Geometry

perpendicular: Icon

or

, command perpendicular

This function accepts a line or segment as the first argument and a point as the second argument. Accordingly, it finds

the line perpendicular to the first argument that passes through the point. More information on perpendicular?.

When working in 3D space, the function can be applied to a plane just as when working in two dimensional space.

Transformations

- 63 -

powered by WIRIS

(c) maths for more sl. All rights reserved. Legal notice

WIRIS allows us to calculate and display the transformation of a Figure by way of plane movement. Transformations

can also be applied to a list of figures and the result is the list that corresponds to applying the transformation to each of

the figures in the list.

Axial or radial symmetry can be calculated for a given figure. In the former case, the command symmetry takes as

arguments the line that acts as axis of symmetry and the figure. In the case of radial symmetry, the arguments are the

centre of symmetry and the figure.

- 64 -

powered by WIRIS

(c) maths for more sl. All rights reserved. Legal notice

Geometry

translation: command translation

Given a vector and a figure, the translation of the figure can be calculated with respect to the vector.

Given point P, real number a and figure F, this calculates the centre of rotation P and anglea of figure F. The real number

is interpreted as an angle in radians. To work with degrees, use the icon

- 65 -

powered by WIRIS

(c) maths for more sl. All rights reserved. Legal notice

2D Graphics

WIRIS provides procedures for graphical display in two dimensions. The main application of these procedures is to display

2D geometrical figures and functions.

The graphical display is produced on a Plotter using the commands plot, if it you only wish to draw an object, or

represent, if we wish the system to draw certain characteristic elements of the object, such as asymptotes and critical

points in the case of functions. To add text to the drawing, use the command write.

You can also use the command geometry_status to learn how to simplify this command.

>>fast

Draw command

Region drawing

Display command

Commands for writing text

Plotter

Interactive geometry

draw an object

drawing an equation

options plot

region drawing

represent

write

options plotter

slider

draw a function

vector drawing

region

options represent

options write

closest point

Draw command

This function is generally used to draw d on a "drawing board". Some objects that can be drawn include: Point, Line,

Circumference, Segment, Triangle, Polygonal, Function, Curve or Text_box. If the argument

is a List, then all its elements are drawn.

It is worth mentioning the case where parameter d is an identifier (variable). If its value is a drawable object then it is

drawn, otherwise no action is taken and a warning is returned. Later, if the value of d changes then the drawing is updated

to show the new object. You could say that the drawing board remembers the elements that are drawn on it and redraws

them if their value changes.

The example below demonstrates this behaviour. If P is defined as point (3,5,0) and we draw it (first block), it appears

drawn as point (3,5,0) on the drawing board. If then P takes as its value the point (2,-1), this is the point that appears on

the drawing board. Note that this happens without having to use the command plot with point P.

- 66 -

powered by WIRIS

(c) maths for more sl. All rights reserved. Legal notice

2D Graphics

We can specify how to draw a function in many ways. In most cases it is sufficient to specify the expression of the function

that we wish to draw and the system will take care of selecting the path and what variables act as x and y coordinates.

The following examples show how we can also indicate the variable and the path.

Parametric curves

To draw parametric curves we will always have to indicate the variable that acts as a parameter and its path.

- 67 -

powered by WIRIS

(c) maths for more sl. All rights reserved. Legal notice

Implicit curves

In order to plot an implicit function, it is sufficient to provide its formula. Optionally, its variables and the ranges of its

variables can be provided.

The command plot also accepts an equation as an argument. This command graphs the mathematical object

associated with this equation.

The equations accepted by the command are those corresponding to objects of type

Conic.

A vector is drawn by indicating the vector itself and a point. The options indicate the style of the arrow.

options plot: Optionally, the last argument to the plot command can be a List of options.

- 68 -

powered by WIRIS

(c) maths for more sl. All rights reserved. Legal notice

2D Graphics

Options give the user control over the figure appearance (colour, thickness, etc.). The functionality or quality of some

options depends on the version of Java (JVM) installed on your computer. If you have Java version 1.3 (Java 2) or

later, then in the second example you can see lines of different width. Download the latest version of Java.

Enter the option values separated by commas in the following format 'option_name=option_value'. Example:

color=green.

The main options for the plot command are

color

Here, enter the colour to be used for drawing.

Possible values: lists of three integers between 0 and 255 in '{r,g,b}' form, where r,g,b correspond to the

amount of red, green and blue, which define the colour. For simplicity, some colours have been defined:

black, white, red, green, blue, cyan, magenta, yellow, brown, orange, pink, grey,

dark_grey, light_grey and the complete list of HTML colours.

Default value: black

border

This defines whether or not the border of closed figures is painted.

Possible values: true and false.

Default value: true

fill

In the case of a closed figure, the command determines whether the interior is filled.

Possible values: true and false.

Default value: false

fill_color

If working with a closed figure, and if the value defined for fill is true, this command indicates the colour

to be used to paint the inside of the figures.

Possible values: A Color and "automatic"; if the second option is chosen, the inside of the figure is

filled using the colour given by the colour option color.

Default value: "automatic"

visible

This command determines whether the element is visible or not.

Possible values: true and false.

Default value: true

mobile

If the object to plot has not been defined as static, the image is allowed to move, or not move, in the plane.

Possible values: true and false.

Default value: true

evaluate

- 69 -

powered by WIRIS

(c) maths for more sl. All rights reserved. Legal notice

This command defines whether the element should be evaluated when drawing or not.

Possible values: true and false.

Default value: false

fixed_dimensions

This defines whether or not objects must be repositioned in the plane, when the drawing board dimensions

are changed. By default, they are repositioned.

Possible values: true and false.

Default value: false

point_size

This sets the size of points plotted on the drawing board.

Possible values: any positive Realnumber.

Default value: 5

line_width

This command is used to set the thickness of lines, segments or functions drawn on the drawing board.

Possible values: any positive Real number.

Default value: 1

show_label

This command defines whether or not a label is displayed for the figure.

Possible values: true and false.

Default value: false

label

This defines the label that should be displayed next to the figure.

Possible values: any object and "automatic". If we choose the second option, the label will be the name

of the figure.

Default value: "automatic"

label_font

This sets the type of font that should be used to write the labels on the drawing board.

Possible values: any object of type Font.

Default value: {bold=false,italic=false,name="SansSerif",size=12}

name

If the command plot does not know the name of the object to be drawn, enter it. This only has an effect

when working with a single element and not with a list.

Possible values: any object of type String.

Default value: null

seed_name

If the command plotdoes not know the name of the object to be drawn, the name of the figure is the value

of this option concatenated with a number.

Possible values: any object of type String.

Default value: null

- 70 -

powered by WIRIS

(c) maths for more sl. All rights reserved. Legal notice

2D Graphics

Region drawing

We can draw the region delimited by some inequalities directly with the

operator to intersect several regions. See also region.

region: region(...)

The region command can be used to draw a wider set of regions than is available with plot. For instance, you can

draw the area delimited by any set of curves, even if defined by implicit functions.

- 71 -

powered by WIRIS

(c) maths for more sl. All rights reserved. Legal notice

Equalities in region are used to indicate that the desired region is the bounded one:

In order to draw the region delimitated by an explicit function, we will just do:

In order to draw the region between two explicit functions, we will write:

Display command

represent: represent(...)

The purpose of this function is to draw objects and show the relevant information for each one. For example, functions

are represented by plotting the graph and features of interest such as individual points, asymptotes and local maximum

values. It accepts the same arguments as the function plot.

It is defined for objects of type:

Function, Circumference and Conic ( Hyperbola, Ellipse and Parabola)

If the command is applied to an object that WIRIS does not regard as applicable or for which it does not know how to

calculate any particular element, the command works in the same way as plot.

- 72 -

powered by WIRIS

(c) maths for more sl. All rights reserved. Legal notice

2D Graphics

options represent:

The options for represent are the same as those for plot.

write: write(d,P:Point)

This function allow us to write d at point P. Usually d will be of type String although it can be any object. In general,

you can think of the command write as a quick way of drawing objects of type Text_box.

options write: Optionally, the last argument to the write command can be a List of options.

Options that can be used with the command write include the command text_box commands such as plot (they

can be viewed here) since write(t,d,P,O) is the same as plot(t,text_box(d,P,O),O), where t is

a Drawing board, O is a List of options and d and P are as described in the previous paragraph.

The main options for the text_box command are

background

This indicates whether or not the background of the object being represented should be painted.

Possible values: true and false.

Default value: false

background_color

If the value for background is true, this indicates the colour to paint the background of the object being

represented.

Possible values: any Color, in {r,g,b} format, or by name if it has been defined.

Default value: {255,255,255} (white)

- 73 -

powered by WIRIS

(c) maths for more sl. All rights reserved. Legal notice

border

This defines whether or not a border will be applied around the displayed object, and in the former case it

defines the border thickness.

Possible values: any non-negative Integerinteger.

Default value: 0

border_color

If the value for border is a positive Integer, the value defines the border colour.

Possible values: any Color, in {r,g,b} format, or by name if it has been defined.

Default value: {0,0,0} (black)

horizontal_position

This defines the horizontal position of the Text_box from the specified reference point.

Possible values: "left", "center" and "right".

Default value: "right"

vertical_position

This defines the vertical position of the Text_box from the specified reference point.

Possible values: "top", "center", "base_line" and "bottom".

Default value: "base_line"

max_width

This defines the maximum width of the Text_box. When the text exceeds this width, a line break will be

inserted.

Possible values: any positive Real number.

Default value: # (infinity).

font

This defines the font to be used when writing text on the drawing board.

Possible values: any object of type Font.

Default value: {bold=false,italic=false,name="SansSerif",size=12}

bold_font

This defines whether or not the text on the drawing board should be bold.

Possible values: true and false.

Default value: false

italic_font

This defines whether or not the text on the drawing board should be in italics.

Possible values: true and false.

Default value: false

font_name

This indicates the name of the font type used.

Possible values: "Serif", "SansSerif" and "Monospaced".

Default value: "SansSerif"

font_size

This indicates the size of the font type used.

Possible values: any positive Integer.

Default value: 12

Plotter

The commands plot, represent or write can optionally accept, as the first argument, the drawing board where

the graphic should be displayed. If the first argument is not a drawing board, WIRIS provides one with predefined features.

- 74 -

powered by WIRIS

(c) maths for more sl. All rights reserved. Legal notice

2D Graphics

Each set of calculations has a default drawing board. In practice, you can have as many as you wish. The commands to

create a drawing board are plotter() or plotter(P,x,y); the latter creates a drawing board centred on point

P, of width x and height y.

By default, when a drawing board is created the coordinate axes and an orange grid are shown. If the user does not want

these elements to appear, he or she should execute show_axis(false) and show_grid(false), respectively,

before creating the drawing board or drawing anything. If a drawing board has a visible grid, the points can only be moved

to the vertices of the grid. Once a drawing board has been generated, the axes and grid can be controlled with the icons

or

, respectively.

In the example below we create a drawing board where, unlike with the default, there are neither axes nor grid:

options plotter: The main options for the plotter command are

center

Sets the centre point of the drawing board.

Possible values: any Point.

Default value: point(0,0)

height

Sets the height of the drawing board.

Possible values: any positive Real number.

Default value: 21

width

Sets the width of the drawing board.

Possible values: any positive Real number.

Default value: 21

visible

This defines whether the drawing board is visible or not.

Possible values: true and false.

Default value: true

background_color

Sets the background colour of the drawing board.

Possible values: any Color, in {r,g,b} format, or by name if it has been defined.

Default value: {255,255,240}(cream)

aspect_ratio

- 75 -

powered by WIRIS

(c) maths for more sl. All rights reserved. Legal notice

This defines the height to width ratio (aspect ratio) for the drawing board.

Possible values: any positive Real number.

Default value: 1

information

This defines the information that should be displayed when the mouse is scrolled over a figure. This information

can be changed, once the drawing is on the screen, using the icons

,

and

toolbar:

More information on label or show_label.

Possible values: "none", "name", "definition" and "value".

Default value: "name"

Window attributes

window_height

Sets the height of the drawing window, in pixels.

Possible values: any positive Integer.

Default value: 450

window_width

Sets the width of the drawing window, in pixels.

Possible values: any positive Integer.

Default value: 450

window_aspect_ratio

This attribute defines the ratio between the windows height and width (aspect ratio).

Possible values: any positive Real number.

Default value: 1

Coordinate axis attributes

show_axis

Determines whether or not the coordinate axes appear in the drawing.

Possible values: true and false.

Default value: true

axis_color

If the value for show_axis is true, this command indicates the colour of the axes.

Possible values: any Color, in {r,g,b} format, or by name if it has been defined.

Default value: {150,150,255} (light blue)

axis_style

This defines how the coordinate axes will be displayed: as two perpendicular lines or as a pair of arrows, one

perpendicular to the other. Additionally, in the second case, the abscissa axis can be identified by x or by X

and the ordinate axis can be defined by y or by Y.

Possible values: "none", "arrow", "arrow_xy" and "arrow_XY".

Default value: "none"

axis_font

This defines the font to be used when writing the text and values associated with the axes.

Possible values: any object of type Font.

Default value: {bold=false,italic=false,name="SansSerif",size=10}

axis_label

This defines the coordinate axis names. The first component in the list names the abscissa axis, and the

second names the ordinate axis.

- 76 -

powered by WIRIS

(c) maths for more sl. All rights reserved. Legal notice

2D Graphics

Possible values: any List of two components.

Default value: {,} (an Empty_list of two elements).

Grid attributes

show_grid

Determines whether or not the grid appears in the drawing. If the grid is displayed, the movement of drawn

points is limited to the points on the grid. If the grid is not displayed, the points can be moved freely around

the drawing board.

Possible values: true and false.

Default value: true

grid_color

Sets the grid colour.

Possible values: any Color, in {r,g,b} format, or by name if it has been defined.

Default value: {255,200,100} (light orange)

Interactive geometry

We can draw a series of objects using geometrical relations and see how these relations are maintained by moving some

of them. To do so, we need to declare what objects depend on others using the symbol :=.

After calculating the following example, try moving point P.

We will use the slider command and declare a variable with := for choosing real numbers interactively.

This command receives a path and optionally, an initial value as arguments.

- 77 -

powered by WIRIS

(c) maths for more sl. All rights reserved. Legal notice

closest point: command closest_point

In interactive geometry we sometimes need to fix a point to stay over a figure. This command receives as a first argument

a geometrical object and as a second argument the value of the initial point.

- 78 -

powered by WIRIS

(c) maths for more sl. All rights reserved. Legal notice

3D Graphics

3D Graphics

WIRIS provides procedures for graphical display in three dimensions. The main application of these procedures is to display

geometrical figures and functions.

The graphical display is produced on a Plotter" using the command

command write3d.

You can also use the command geometry_status to learn how to simplify this command.

>>fast

Draw command

Plotter

Interactive geometry

draw an object

drawing an equation

vector drawing

write3d

options plotter3d

Draw a function

level curves

options plot3d

options write3d

Draw command

This function is generally used to plot an object d on a "drawing board". Some objects that can be drawn include:

Point, Line, Plane3d, Segment, Triangle, Polygonal, Polyhedra3d, Surface, Curve3d and

Text_box. If the argument is a List, then all its elements are drawn.

It is worth mentioning the case where parameter d is an identifier (variable). If its value is a drawable object then it is

drawn, otherwise no action is taken and a warning is returned. Later, if the value of d changes then the drawing is updated

to show the new object. You could say that the drawing board remembers the elements that are drawn on it and redraws

them if their value changes.

In the example below this behavior can be confirmed. If P is defined as point (3,5,0) and it is drawn (first block), it appears

drawn as point (3,5,0) on the drawing board. If, then, P takes as value the point (2,-1,0), this is the point that appears on

the drawing board. Note that this happens without having to use the command plot3d with point P.

- 79 -

powered by WIRIS

(c) maths for more sl. All rights reserved. Legal notice

To draw both curves and surfaces, we use the command plot3d. In most cases, it is sufficient to indicate the expression

of the function that we wish to draw and the system will take care of selecting whether it is a curve or a surface, its path

and what variables play the part of x, y or z.

Lets look at a few examples of surfaces.

Parametric curves

To draw parametric curves we will always have to indicate the variable that acts as a parameter and its path.

- 80 -

powered by WIRIS

(c) maths for more sl. All rights reserved. Legal notice

3D Graphics

Parametric surfaces

We can draw parametric surfaces by specifying the two variables on which the surface depends and their respective paths.

The command plot3d also accepts an equation as an argument. This command produces a graph of the

mathematical object associated with this equation.

The equations accepted by the command are those corresponding to objects of type Plane3d.

level_curves command allows us to create and draw the level curves of a surface. The result of

level_curves can be plotted both in the plane or in 3D.

The

- 81 -

powered by WIRIS

(c) maths for more sl. All rights reserved. Legal notice

vector drawing: plot(v:Vector,P:Point)

A vector is drawn by indicating the vector itself and a point. The options indicate the style of the arrow.

options plot3d: Optionally, the last argument to the plot3d command can be a List of options.

Options give the user control over the appearance of the figure (colour, thickness, etc.). The functionality or quality of

some options depends on the version of Java (JVM) installed on your computer. If you have Java version 1.3 (Java 2)

or later, then in the second example you can see lines of different width. Download the latest version of Java.

Enter the option values separated by commas in the following format 'option_name=option_value'. Example:

color=color=green.

The main options for the plot3d command are

color

Here, enter the colour that should be used for drawing.

Possible values: list of three integers between 0 and 255 in '{r,g,b}' form, where r,g,b corespond to the amount of

red, green and blue, which define the colour. For simplicity, some colours have been defined: black, white,

red, green, blue, cyan, magenta, yellow, brown, orange, pink, grey, dark_grey,

light_grey and the complete list of HTML colours.

Default value: black

border

This defines whether the border of closed figures is painted.

Possible values: true and false.

Default value: true

fill

In the case of a closed figure, the command determines whether the interior is filled.

Possible values: true, false and "automatic".

- 82 -

powered by WIRIS

(c) maths for more sl. All rights reserved. Legal notice

3D Graphics

Default value: "automatic"

fill_color

If working with a closed figure, and if the value defined for fill is true, this command indicates the colour

that should be used to paint the inside of the figures.

Possible values: A Color and "automatic"; if the second option is chosen, the inside of the figure is

filled using the colour given by the colour option color

Default value: "automatic"

visible

This command determines whether the element is visible or not.

Possible values: true and false.

Default value: true

transparency

This command determines the element's degree of transparency. Choosing 0 sets transparency to totally

opaque. Choosing 1 sets transparency to totally transparent.

Possible values: any Real number between 0 and 1.

Default value: 0.3

mobile

If the object to draw has not been defined as static, the image can move, or not move, in space.

Possible values: true and false.

Default value: true

wired

This option sets whether the image should be shown wire-framed or not.

Possible values: true, false and "automatic".

Default value: "automatic"

point_size

This sets the size of points drawn on the drawing board.

Possible values: any positive Real number.

Default value: 5

line_width

This command is used to set the thickness of lines, segments or functions drawn on the drawing board.

Possible values: any positive Real number.

Default value: 1

evaluate

This command defines whether the element should be evaluated when drawing or not.

Possible values: true and false.

Default value: false

show_label

This command defines whether or not a label is displayed for the figure.

Possible values: true and false.

Default value: false

label

This defines the label that should be displayed next to the figure.

Possible values: any object and "automatic". If we choose the second option, the label will be the name

of the figure.

Default value: "automatic"

label_font

This sets the type of font that should be used to write the labels on the drawing board.

Possible values: any object of type Font.

- 83 -

powered by WIRIS

(c) maths for more sl. All rights reserved. Legal notice

Default value: {bold=false,italic=false,name="SansSerif",size=12}

name

If the command plot3d does not know the name of the object to be drawn, enter it. This only has an effect

when working with a single element and not with a list.

Possible values: any object of type String.

Default value: null

seed_name

If the command plot3ddoes not know the name of the object to be drawn, the name of the figure is the

value of this option concatenated with a number.

Possible values: any object of type String.

Default value: null

write3d: write3d(d,P:Point)

This function allow us to write d at point P. Usually d will be of type String although it can be any object. In general,

you can think of the command write3d as a quick way of drawing objects of type Text_box.

- 84 -

powered by WIRIS

(c) maths for more sl. All rights reserved. Legal notice

3D Graphics

options write3d: Optionally, the last argument to the write3d command can be a List of options.

Options that can be used with the command write3d include the text_box commands such as plot(They can

be viewed here) since write3d(t,d,P,O) is the same as plot(t,text_box(d,P,O),O), where t is a

Plotter3d, O is a List of options and d and P are as described in the previous paragraph. To learn more about

the options for this command, see the relevant section in the chapter 2D Graphics.

Plotter

The commands plot3d or write3d can optionally accept, as the first argument, the drawing board where the graphic

should be displayed. If the first argument is not a drawing board, WIRIS provides one with predefined features.

Each set of calculations has a default drawing board. In practice, you can have as many as you wish. The command used

to create a drawing board is plotter3d() or plotter3d(P,x,y,z); the latter creates a drawing board centred

on point P, of width x, height y and depth z.

Once a drawing board has been created its attributes can be modified using the function attributes3d. In the example

below we create a drawing board where, unlike in the default case, neither the axes nor the cube are displayed:

options plotter3d: The main options for the plotter3d command are

center

Sets the centre point of the drawing board.

Possible values: any Point.

Default value: point(0,0,0)

height

Sets the height of the drawing board.

Possible values: any positive Real number.

Default value: 21

width

Sets the width of the drawing board.

Possible values: any positive Real number.

Default value: 21

- 85 -

powered by WIRIS

(c) maths for more sl. All rights reserved. Legal notice

depth

Sets the depth of the drawing board.

Possible values: any positive Real number.

Default value: 21

background_color

Sets the background colour of the drawing board.

Possible values: any Color, in {r,g,b} format, or by name if it has been defined.

Default value: {255,255,240} (cream)

information

This defines the information that should be displayed when the mouse is scrolled over a figure. This information

can be changed, once the drawing is on the screen, using the icons

,

toolbar.

More information on label or show_label.

Possible values: "none", "name", "definition" and "value".

Default value: "name"

or

visible

This defines whether the drawing board is visible or not.

Possible values: true and false

Default value: true

transform_matrix

This command indicates the position of the display cube within the drawing window. Every time the cube is

moved, we can find the new position using the icon

on the drawing board toolbar:

Possible values: any Matrix of Real numbers 3x3.

Default value: Window attributes

window_height

Sets the height of the drawing window, in pixels.

Possible values: any positive Integer.

Default value: 450

window_width

Sets the width of the drawing window, in pixels.

Possible values: any positive Integer.

Default value: 450

Coordinate axis attributes

show_axis

Determines whether or not the coordinate axes appear in the drawing.

Possible values: true and false.

Default value: true

axis_color

If the value for show_axis is true, this command indicates the colour of the axes.

Possible values: any Color, in {r,g,b} format, or by name if it has been defined.

Default value: {150,150,255} (light blue)

Cube attributes

- 86 -

powered by WIRIS

(c) maths for more sl. All rights reserved. Legal notice

3D Graphics

show_cube

Determines whether or not a cube appears in the drawing. Points can be moved freely around on the drawing

board.

Possible values: true and false.

Default value: true

cube_color

Sets the colour of the cube.

Possible values: any Color, in {r,g,b} format, or by name if it has been defined.

Default value: {150,150,255} (light blue)

Interactive geometry

Interactive geometry acts the same way in space as it would do in the plane. See Interactive geometry in the

plane.

- 87 -

powered by WIRIS

(c) maths for more sl. All rights reserved. Legal notice

Statistics

>>fast

Functions

Two variable

functions

mean

geometric mean

standard deviation median

covariance

correlation

harmonic mean

quartile

regression line

variance

mode

Descriptive Statistics is the branch of statistics that concerns collecting data, analysing it and presenting the results

graphically or via the calculation of statistical parameters, numbers used to describe a set of data. However, it is often not

possible to obtain the value of a variable for every member in of population. In such a case data is collected from a sample,

or a portion of the population, and used to infer information about the characteristics of the population as a whole. This is

the situation to which the procedures described in this chapter are best suited.

On other occasions observations in Descriptive Statistics relate to the values observed when carrying out a random

experiment. In such a case the objective of the sample results is to try to establish a theoretical model which governs the

experiment.

In Statistics, WIRIS always works with decimal numbers, unlike other areas of knowledge. This is done in order to follow

the norms of practice in this area.

Take a look at how a sample consisting of 3 zeros and 4 ones can be represented.

In the first case a List, which contains the elements of a sample, was considered, and in the second case, a Divisor

was used to indicate how may times each value appears. Now let's look at some operations we can carry out with samples.

To finish the introduction, it should be noted that it is possible to group different samples of random variables using a

Divisor. A detailed explanation of this functionality can be found in the Multisample description in the alphabetical

index.

Before proceeding let's look at some examples to clarify what we mean:

- 88 -

powered by WIRIS

(c) maths for more sl. All rights reserved. Legal notice

Statistics

Functions

In this section we explain the functions that WIRIS can apply to a data set (observations from a statistical variable),

x={x1,x2,...,xn}.

where n=length(x).

where n=length(x).

- 89 -

powered by WIRIS

(c) maths for more sl. All rights reserved. Legal notice

harmonic mean: command harmonic_mean

where n=length(x).

Calculates the variance in accordance with the inferential definition. That is,

- 90 -

powered by WIRIS

(c) maths for more sl. All rights reserved. Legal notice

Statistics

median: command median

If x1,x2,...,xn is an ordered sample, it is defined as

xk

if

n=2k-1

(xk+xk+1)/2

if

n=2k

where k is a whole number. If the sample is not ordered, it can simply be ordered and the definition above can then

be applied.

Calculate the various quartiles of a sample. See the complete definition of the command quartile in the alphabetical

index.

Calculates the most commonly occurring value in the sample. If there is more than one value occurring the maximum

number of times, a list is returned with the various mode values.

WIRIS has various functions that accept samples with bivariate data as the argument, i.e. a sample of the following form

(x1,y1),(x2,y2),...,(xn,yn). Notice from the examples below that, although data entry can be carried out independently for the

first and second variables, it has to be assumed that they represent bivariate data.

- 91 -

powered by WIRIS

(c) maths for more sl. All rights reserved. Legal notice

All bivariate data commands accept a list of data points as an argument in place of two lists of numbers. In a perfectly

natural way, WIRIS takes the abscissae of the points as the values of the first variable and the ordinates as the values of

the second variable observed in the elements of the sample.

This calculates Pearson's correlation coefficient for a set of bivariate data taken from a sample. This parameter indicates

the degree of 'linear relationship' between one sample and another.

- 92 -

powered by WIRIS

(c) maths for more sl. All rights reserved. Legal notice

Statistics

regression line: command regression_line

Given a data sample (x1,y1),(x2,y2),...,(xn,yn), calculates the regression line determined using the least squares method,

taking x as a predictor variable and y as a response variable.

- 93 -

powered by WIRIS

(c) maths for more sl. All rights reserved. Legal notice

Combinatorics

>>fast

Functions

combinations

variations

permutations

variations with repetition

permutations with repetition

All combinatorial commands (permutations, combinations and variations, with or without repetition) have an associated icon

and text command.

These commands are commonly used to calculate the number of components in a list of combinatorial selections, but they

can also return the selections themselves.

Except for the special case of permutations with repetition, explained below, when the first argument of these commands

is a list (shown with curly brackets) or a vector (shown in square brackets), the command returns the corresponding list of

combinatorial selections from the set.

In WIRIS the elements of a list or vector are distinct, even if there are repetitions. Thus, when combinations, variations or

permutations are calculated they are treated distinctly, rather than as indistinguishable, except in the case of permutations

with repetition.

Functions

combinations: Icon

or

, command combinations

The combinations command takes two arguments, m and n. If m and n are non-negative integers, it calculates the

number of combinations of m elements taken from n in n. If m is a List or Vector and n is a non-negative integer,

it returns the list of combinations of its elements taken from n in n.

Upon clicking the

icon, the standard combinations symbol will appear along with two green, empty boxes. Enter the

argument m in the first and the argument n in the second.

Upon clicking the

icon, two boxes will appear. Enter the argument m in the top box and the argument n in the lower box.

- 94 -

powered by WIRIS

(c) maths for more sl. All rights reserved. Legal notice

Combinatorics

, command combinations_with_repetition

The combinations_with_repetition command takes two arguments, m and n. If m and n are non-negative

integers, it calculates the number of combinations with repetition of m elements taken from n in n. If m is a List or

Vector and n a non-negative integer, it returns the list of the combinations with repetition of its elements taken from

n in n.

Upon clicking the

icon, the standard symbol for combinations with repetition will appear along with two green, empty

boxes. Enter the argument m in the first and the argument n in the second.

variations: Icon

, command variations

The variations command takes two arguments, m and n. If m and n are non-negative integers, it calculates the

number of variations of m elements taken from n in n. If m is a List or Vector and n a non-negative integer, it returns

a list of the variations of its elements taken from n in n.

Upon clicking the

icon, the standard variations symbol will appear along with two green, empty boxes. Enter the

argument m in the first and the argument n in the second.

- 95 -

powered by WIRIS

(c) maths for more sl. All rights reserved. Legal notice

, command variations_with_repetition

The variations_with_repetition command takes two arguments, m and n. If m and n are non-negative

integers, it calculates the number of variations with repetition of m elements taken from n in n. If m is a List or Vector

and n a non-negative integer, it returns the list of the variations with repetition of its elements taken from ninn.

Upon clicking the

icon, the standard symbol for variations with repetition will appear along with two green, empty

boxes. Enter the argument m in the first and the argument n in the second.

permutations: Icon

, command permutations

The permutations command takes one argument, n. If n is a non-negative integer, it returns the number of

permutations of n elements, that is n!. If n is a List or Vector then it provides the list of all the permutations of

its elements.

Clicking the

icon will bring up the standard permutations symbol, containing an empty green box corresponding to

the argument n.

, command permutations_with_repetition

whole number (otherwise the command has no effect) and a sequence of one or more additional arguments n1 , n2

,..., nr.

If the additional arguments are non-negative whole numbers such as n = n1+n2+...+nr, the command will obtain

the number of permutations for n elements taken from r different elements and such that the ith element repeats ni

times. If these conditions are not met, the command has no effect.

In place of the sequence of additional arguments it is possible to enter a List (or a Vector) L of nelements, comprised

of r different elements and such that the ith element repeats ni times. If n = n1+n2+...+nr, the command provides

the list of all the different distinct permutations of L otherwise it has no effect. To calculate the set, enter the list of the

elements to be combined as the second argument.

Clicking the

icon, the standard symbol for permutations with repetition will appear along with two green, empty boxes.

Enter the additional arguments (that is, the sequence ni, or the List or Vector) and the argument n in the second

box.

- 96 -

powered by WIRIS

(c) maths for more sl. All rights reserved. Legal notice

Combinatorics

- 97 -

powered by WIRIS

(c) maths for more sl. All rights reserved. Legal notice

Units of measurement

>>fast

Notation

Arithmetic

Functions

convert

conversion factor

coefficient

unit

Basic units of the SI

Units derived from SI

Units from other systems

Prefixes for the SI System of Units

Tables

Units of measurement are the basic tools of physics and also some aspects of mathematics.

Units of measurement that WIRIS allows us to represent include all of those in the International System of units (SI) and

some others, such as the litre and the bar (atmospheric pressure), which have a practical relevance. It also allows users

to define their own units with the command unit.

In addition to the principal units, the SI system includes decimal multiples and submultiples, denoted using the prefixes

deka, hecto, kilo, deci, centi, milli... The complete list of units in the SI, along with their prefixes, names,

abbreviations and the corresponding conversion factors with respect to basic units, can be found in the tables at the end

of the chapter. The icons on the tab Units of measurement can be used to create units and measurements. For example,

to express the metre, use the icon

and then click on the icon

to express the decimetre, select the icon deci from the drop-down menu on the left,

Some of the more common units we can use, from the SI or other systems, are:

meter, gram, amper, kelvin, mol, liter, hour, minute, second, coulomb, henry,

newton, joule, volt, ohm, hertz, pascal, bar, radian, siemens, farad, tesla, watt,

weber

You will find the complete list of units included in WIRIS in the tables at the end of the chapter.

Units can be multiplied and divided together to define new units. If a unit of measurement is multiplied by a number we

obtain a quantity, which can represent the value of a measurement. Quantities corresponding to measurements of the same

magnitude can be summed, multiplied or divided together even if not expressed in the same units. The units in which they

are represented can be changed.

To express a complex quantity in a single unit, use the command convert with the quantity as the first argument and

the unit in which we wish the express the result as the second argument. Let's look at some examples:

- 98 -

powered by WIRIS

(c) maths for more sl. All rights reserved. Legal notice

Units of measurement

Notation

Physical quantities can be added, subtracted, multiplied and divided. In general, to add or subtract quantities we use the

notation we refer to as complex. That is, we separate the quantities (remember that a quantity is a number followed by a

unit) with spaces. WIRIS understands complex notation. Nonetheless, when in doubt it is advisable to use the usual symbols

for addition and subtraction.

Arithmetic

When adding and subtracting physical quantities, negative quantities can arise. When possible, WIRIS transforms these

into the positive equivalent. Lets look at some examples:

Functions

The functions to convert quantities to different units are:

The command convert can take one or two arguments. In the first case, we get the quantity that was entered,

expressed in SI basic units. In the second case, the second argument is the unit of measurement in which the specified

quantity should be expressed.

- 99 -

powered by WIRIS

(c) maths for more sl. All rights reserved. Legal notice

This command can take one or two units of measurement as arguments. If it is given two arguments, it returns the factor

by which the quantities expressed should be multiplied in the first unit to obtain the equivalent in the second unit. If it

is given only one argument, which we assume is a unit of measurement, it calculates the factor to convert quantities

expressed in this unit into SI basic units.

Given one quantity this returns its coefficient if there is only one summand. If there is more than one summand, it returns

the coefficient of the quantity transformed into SI units.

Given one quantity this returns its unit of measurement if there is only one summand. If there are more summands it

returns the equivalent SI unit.

Tables

Besides these, other units are defined:

SI unit

Magnitude

Name

Symbol

length

meter

mass

kilogram

kg

- 100 -

powered by WIRIS

(c) maths for more sl. All rights reserved. Legal notice

Units of measurement

time

second

electric current

amper

thermodynamic temperature

kelvin

quantity of substance

mol

mol

luminous intensity

candela

cd

Defined from the basic units:

SI unit

Expression

in other units

Magnitude

Expression

in basic units

Name

Symbol

plane angle

radian

rad

mm =1

solid angle

steradian

sr

m m =1

frequency

hertz

Hz

force

newton

kgms

pressure, strain

pascal

Pa

N/m

m kgs

joule

Nm

m kgs

watt

J/s

m kgs

electromotive force

volt

W/A

m kgs A

capacitance

farad

C/V

m kg s A

electrical resistance

ohm

V/A

m kgs A

electrical charge

coulomb

FV

As

electrical conductivity

siemens

A/V

m kg s A

magnetic flux

weber

Wb

Vs

m kgs A

tesla

Wb/m

- 101 -

-1

-2

-1

-2

-1

-2

-2

-3

-3

-1

-2

-1 4

-3

-2

-2

-1 3

-2

-2

kgs A

-1

-1

powered by WIRIS

(c) maths for more sl. All rights reserved. Legal notice

-2

-2

inductance

henry

Wb/A

m kgs A

luminous flux

lumen

lm

cdsr

m m cd=cd

illuminance

lux

lx

lm/m

radioactivity

becquerel

Bq

absorbed dose

gray

Gy

J/kg

m s

equivalent dose

sievert

Sv

J/kg

m s

catalytic activity

katal

Kat

-2

-4

-2

m m cd=m cd

-1

2 -2

2 -2

-1

s mol

Unit

Magnitude

Name

Symbol

time

hour

time

minute

min

time

second

volume

liter

pressure, strain

bar

Prefix

Symbol

Factor

10

deka

da

10

hecto

10

kilo

10

mega

- 102 -

powered by WIRIS

(c) maths for more sl. All rights reserved. Legal notice

Units of measurement

giga

10

12

tera

10

15

peta

10

18

exa

10

21

zetta

10

24

yotta

Prefix

Symbol

10

Factor

10

-1

deci

10

-2

centi

10

-3

milli

10

-6

micro

10

-9

nano

10

-12

pico

10

-15

femto

10

-18

atto

10

-21

zepto

10

-24

yocto

The nomenclature in this chapter is based on the standard of the European Standards Committee.

- 103 -

powered by WIRIS

(c) maths for more sl. All rights reserved. Legal notice

Menus, icons,...

>>fast

Toolbar tabs

General

Analysis

Geometry

Plotter

Edit

Matrices

Greek

Operations

Units

Programming

Symbols

Combinatorics

Format

In this chapter, we will discuss how to use the different menus and icons in WIRIS.

On opening the WIRIS page, a collection of tabs will appear. Examples include Edit, Operations or Analysis. At any time

the contents of only one tab are visible. To reveal the contents of a tab, click on the tab name.

Each tab has a set of icons and menus to facilitate building mathematical expressions.

To begin, we will review the content on the tab Operations.

Toolbar tabs

For each of the tabs on the toolbar, a table is presented below to describe the icons and the functions each icon performs,

and when applicable a link to a more detailed description is provided. The columns of these tables show us:

Action

A brief explanation of the icon's functionality.

Keyboard

The keystroke combination that can be used as an alternative to the icon in order to speed up the process of building

expressions. When such a combination exists, it is included in the icon explanation.

More info

This column provides links that take the user to the quick reference guide section, where a detailed description of the icons

functionality is provided along with examples of how the icon can be used.

Code

This code is the text that should be entered when the user builds a custom toolbar. For more information, see the chapter

on the Toolbar.

- 104 -

powered by WIRIS

(c) maths for more sl. All rights reserved. Legal notice

Menus, icons,...

Action

Keyboard

calculations where the cursor is located).

A floating arrow appears close to the active block. It can be used

to carry out the calculations, and it disappears when using the

keyboard (Ctrl + Enter) to calculate. To make the floating arrow

reappear, use the icon at the right of the toolbar.

More info

Code

1 minute

compute

Ctrl +

Enter

stop

Action

Keyboard

More

info

Code

newsession

newblock

save

printPreview

Ctrl

+C

copy

Ctrl

+X

cut

Ctrl

+V

paste

Ctrl

+Z

undo

Ctrl

+Y

redo

converts it into a comment.

Ctrl

+T

- 105 -

comment

powered by WIRIS

(c) maths for more sl. All rights reserved. Legal notice

when something is entered into it and has no value set. These

boxes are used to create problem statements. By default they

take the value 'a'.

argument

removeresults

logoicon

Opens Help.

help

Action

Keyboard

More info

Code

Creates

variable

parentheses

size

Ctrl

Ctrl

+(

+)

parenthesis

pparenthesis

Creates

variable

square brackets.

size

Ctrl

Ctrl

+[

+]

vector

bparenthesis

brackets (braces).

Ctrl

Ctrl

+{

+}

list

BBparenthesis

bars for a real number or for

the determinant of a matrix.

absolute value

determinant

vparenthesis

bars that denote a normal

vector.

norm

VVparenthesis

division

frac

eucdiv

Ctrl +

Up arrow

Ctrl +

Shift + ^

exponentiation

power

+

Down

arrow

Ctrl + .

extraction

logarithm

Creates a fraction.

Creates

associated

division.

the

with

Ctrl

+/

icon

integer

Creates an exponent.

Creates a subscript.

Ctrl

Ctrl

+Q

square root

sqrt

Ctrl

+A

root

root

- 106 -

powered by WIRIS

(c) maths for more sl. All rights reserved. Legal notice

Menus, icons,...

Creates a summation.

sigma

a range.

sum

sumx

Creates a product.

product

range.

prod

prodx

Creates

the

icon

associated with rounding

up to a whole number.

ceil

ceil

Creates

the

icon

associated with rounding

down to a whole number.

floor

floor

plot graphs

plot

plot 3D graphs

plot3d

Display graphs

represent

Solving equations

solveequation

Solving systems

solvesystem

Creates

the

command

the

command

the

command

plot

Creates

plot3d

Creates

represent

Creates

the

command

enter the equation.

Creates

the

command

to enter a

equations.

system

of

allows addition or deletion

of elements in a vertical list.

Creates a vertical list of n

elements in order to write a

system of n equations. By

default, n=3 .

menu

Shift

+ Enter

(add

a line)

vertical list

vertlist

Symbols: creates the symbols associated with certain operations, constants and mathematical concepts.

- 107 -

powered by WIRIS

(c) maths for more sl. All rights reserved. Legal notice

Action

Keyboard

whether it is true by entering ? after it.

Creates a 'greater than or equal to' inequality.

Check whether it is true by entering ? after it.

Ctrl

More info

Code

equations and

inequalities

gt

+>

geq

it is true by entering ? after it.

Creates a 'less than or equal to' inequality.

Check whether it is true by entering ? after it.

lt

Ctrl

+<

leq

or

and

by entering ? after it.

Ctrl

+=

Ctrl

+!

Rule and substitution builder.

Divisor and relation builder.

eq

neq

assign

defining

a function

define

define

assign

rules and

substitutions.

RRightarrow

divisors

relations

rightarrow

delayedruletuple

anonymous

functions

longmapsto

union

cup

intersect

cap

Used to build a boolean expression equivalent

to the command belongs?

in

to the command not_belongs?

notin

Ctrl

- 108 -

+P

irrationals

Opi

powered by WIRIS

(c) maths for more sl. All rights reserved. Legal notice

Menus, icons,...

of decimal places to which we are working.

Creates the irrational number and.

Ctrl

+E

decimals

pifloat

irrationals

Oe

decimals

efloat

complex

numbers

Oi

limits

pinfty

of decimal places to which we are working.

Creates the complex number i, the square root

of -1.

Ctrl

+I

Creates minus infinity.

minfty

pminfty

natural numbers.

NN

integers.

integers

ZZ

rational numbers.

rational

numbers

real numbers.

real numbers

RR

complex numbers.

complex

numbers

CC

Action

Keyboard

Creates the symbol for integrating a function with

respect to a variable.

Ctrl +

Shift + P

iintegral

integral

with respect to a variable.

Ctrl

+I

respect to a variable.

Ctrl

+D

- 109 -

Code

antiderivative iintegralf

function.

function.

More info

integralf

integral

differentiate differentiate

differentiate derivate

powered by WIRIS

(c) maths for more sl. All rights reserved. Legal notice

respect to a variable.

Ctrl

+L

limit

limit

with respect to a variable.

right

side and

left side

limit

rightlimit

with respect to a variable.

right

side and

left side

limit

leftlimit

Action

Keyboard

More info

Code

m columns. By default, n=3 and

m=3.

matrix

pmatrix

determinant of a square matrix

with n rows. By default, n=3 .

determinant

vmatrix

identity_matrix

identitymatrix

Accesses a menu for modifying

vectors and matrices.

Creates a vector of

By default, n=3 .

menu

n elements.

vector

bvector

vector

bparenthesis

Creates

the

symbol

for

transposing a matrix or vector.

transpose

transpose

matrix.

inverse

inverse

Ctrl + Up

Ctrl +

Shift + ^

exponentiation

power

Ctrl + Down

Ctrl + .

extraction

determinant

vparenthesis

Creates variable

brackets.

size

square

Creates an exponent.

Creates a subscript.

Ctrl

Ctrl

matrix.

- 110 -

+[

+]

powered by WIRIS

(c) maths for more sl. All rights reserved. Legal notice

Menus, icons,...

denote a normal vector.

norm

VVparenthesis

product of two vectors.

scalar product

scalarprod

product of two vectors.

cross product

times

A unit of measurement is created with the icons we can see if we click on the Units tab. In the chapter Units of

measurement there are tables provided, relating symbols to units of measurement. If a prefix is selected in the left

hand menu, the relevant multiple is created for the selected unit of measurement.

In this folder, there are four groups of units. The first group is made up of the most common units (metre, gram, second

...); the second contains units relating to angles and time, for example:

Action

Keyboard

degree (angular)

More info

Code

Units of measurement

degree

angle minute

angleminute

angle second

anglesecond

In the third group are units which are also part of the S.I. system but less commonly used (volt, watt, newton). Finally, in

the fourth are icons to create powers of 2 and 3 to facilitate expression building.

Action

Keyboard

More info

Code

Squares an expression.

^2

Cubes an expression.

^3

Combinatorics: icons to for counting operations in combinatoric problems and setting out all the possible outcomes in

detail.

- 111 -

powered by WIRIS

(c) maths for more sl. All rights reserved. Legal notice

Action

Keyboard

Creates the

repetition.

symbol

for

combinations

with

Creates the symbol for variations with repetition.

Creates the

repetition.

symbol

for

permutations

with

More info

Code

combinations

combinations

combinations

with

repetition

combinationsr

variations

variations

variations

with

repetition

variationsr

permutations

permutations

permutations

with

repetition

permutationsr

combinations

combinationsfrac

More info

Code

Action

Keyboard

Sets 2D mode.

mode2d

Sets 3D mode.

mode3d

point

point

point

point3d

line

line

segment

segment

triangle

triangle

plane

plane

polygonal

polygonal

polygon

polygon

Creates a polygonal figure from several points.

Creates a polygon from several points.

- 112 -

powered by WIRIS

(c) maths for more sl. All rights reserved. Legal notice

Menus, icons,...

circumference

circumference

circumference.

circumference2

circumference3

conic

conic

polyhedra

polyhedra

Accesses

a

menu

which

allows

creation

of

polihedra:

tetrahedron,

cube, octahedron, icosahedron,

dodecahedron,

prism,

pyramid,

polyhedra_cylinder,

polyhedra_cone,

polyhedra_sphere

and

polyhedra_thorus.

polyhedra

polyhedra_menu

through a given point.

parallel

parallel

passes through a given point.

parallel

parallel3d

passes through a given point.

perpendicular

perpendicular

which passes through a given line.

perpendicular

perpendicular3d

bisector

bisector

bisector

bisector3d

intersect

intersection

The icons in this folder permit Greek letters to be used in expression building. In particular the Greek letter pi, which is

different from the irrational number, can be created noting that it is shown in black whereas the irrational is blue.

NOTE: If you see no letters in this tab, this means your computer does not have the UNICODE font system installed. This

problem does not affect the functionality of the rest of the system.

- 113 -

powered by WIRIS

(c) maths for more sl. All rights reserved. Legal notice

Action

Keyboard

More info

Code

if...

pr_if

otherwise carries out a different instruction.

pr_ifelse

of else and else_if in control statements

if... .

menu

define a function, for example.

programming

pr_begin

pr_local

values.

for...

pr_for

while...

pr_while

repeat...

pr_repeat

library

library

which is evaluated before each block which comes

after the library and before any other library.

Action

Code

font

on the toolbar.

iconszoom

fontsize

boldstyle

italicstyle

colors

Plotter

- 114 -

powered by WIRIS

(c) maths for more sl. All rights reserved. Legal notice

Menus, icons,...

Action

Keyboard

More info

Code

logoicon

save

show_axis

axis

space).

grid

drawing board keeping the centre fixed. That is,

we see less area but with more detail and centred

on the area of interest.

zoomin

drawing board keeping the centre fixed. That is,

we see more area but with less detail and centred

on the area of interest.

zoomout

the same proportions

aspect_ratio

aspectratio1

blackwhite

when a point is clicked this will zoom in on the

viewing area, and the point clicked will become

the new centre point. That is, we see less area

but with more detail.

actionzoom

user to grab plot points and move them. When

we release the point, the view will redraw as a

function of the new point. This is activated by

default.

actionmove

allows retention of the changes made as a

consequence of moving the points when making

new calculations or saving the session.

resetplotcode

moving the points with the GRAB mouse icon).

recompute

been decreased and some elements were not

fully drawn, it tries to redraw them.

refresh

- 115 -

powered by WIRIS

(c) maths for more sl. All rights reserved. Legal notice

If selected, when the mouse is moved over a

figure a label appears showing its name.

information

actionshowname

a figure, a label appears showing its value.

Example: the value of a point is given by its

coordinates.

actionshowvalue

a figure, a label appears showing its value.

Example: the value of a point is given by its

coordinates.

actionshowdef

- 116 -

powered by WIRIS

(c) maths for more sl. All rights reserved. Legal notice

Toolbar

Toolbar

>>fast

Who can configure the toolbar?

Why configure the toolbar?

How do you configure the toolbar?

Example

Who can configure the toolbar?

Anyone can configure the toolbar.

Why configure the toolbar?

By configuring the toolbar, the user can customize WIRIS and thus produce higher quality results. Making changes to the

toolbar has no effect on the mathematical behaviour of the calculator.

For example, you can have a calculator where the only icons on display are those relating to units of measurement (metre,

second, ...) which you want to learn about in a lesson.

How do you configure the toolbar?

Once saved as an HTML page with the WIRIS material to be displayed, the page can be edited and a parameter added

with the name ToolbarDef. The value of this parameter determines the toolbar configuration for this html document.

Example

Suppose you want to add the tabs shown in the image:

To generate these tabs, we have added the following code (in bold) to the html file:

<PARAM NAME='...' VALUE='...'/>

<PARAM NAME='...' VALUE='...'/>

<param name='ToolbarDef'

value='{Arithmetics}plus minus@{Analysis}integral iintegral

leftlimit rightlimit@'/>

</applet>

- 117 -

limit

powered by WIRIS

(c) maths for more sl. All rights reserved. Legal notice

Let us see in more detail how each part of the code is compiled:

First tab:{Arithmetics}plus

minus@

Second tab:{Analysis}integral

Note that:

separators can be inserted between symbols using the "|" symbol,

the space for an icon can be reserved using "*",

content can be left justified by entering "@" at the end of the line for that tab.

The codes for the symbols (plus, minus, integral,

are provided in the section, Menus, icons,....

- 118 -

powered by WIRIS

(c) maths for more sl. All rights reserved. Legal notice

Primary

Primary

What is it?

The WIRIS calculator has a toolbar suitable for primary education.

This toolbar contains an appropriate selection of icons, set at the right level, so that a primary school pupil will feel comfortable

with the symbols displayed.

Besides these icons in the calculator toolbar, there is a keypad on the right hand side with icons for numbers, parentheses,

basic operations (addition, subtraction, multiplication, decimal division, square root, fraction), the decimal point and the

equals sign:

Where is it?

The calculator suitable for primary education can be found in wiris primary.

1 minute

In a work session with the WIRIS calculator various calculations grouped in blocks can be carried out. The calculation

process steps are as follow:

1. An expression be calculated is built to using the keyboard or using the icons associated with the various commands.

2. In each block as many expressions as desired, can be entered. To add a new expression, following the expression

where the cursor is located, use the key Enter (Carriage return).

3. Evaluate an expression or block of expressions by clicking on the icon

4. The result is shown to the right of the original expression and separated by the arrow

To create more elaborate calculations, bear in mind the following points regarding page layout in WIRIS

A block can be added to the session with the icon

When you evaluate (click on the icon

or Ctrl + Enter), all expressions in the active block are calculated. The

results are shown and a new empty block, which becomes the active block, is created below. The cursor appears

in the active block.

The variables and calculations in one block are independent of the variables and calculations in all the other blocks.

- 119 -

powered by WIRIS

(c) maths for more sl. All rights reserved. Legal notice

To start a new work session, use the icon

Arithmetic operations:

Symbols:

and

and

- 120 -

powered by WIRIS

(c) maths for more sl. All rights reserved. Legal notice

Primary

Units of measurement:

NOTE 1

Lower case and upper case letters are understood as different characters. Tan is not the same as tan.

NOTE 2

>>fast

- 121 -

powered by WIRIS

(c) maths for more sl. All rights reserved. Legal notice

Desktop

User interface

The WIRIS desktop is divided into three main sections:

WIRIS Toolbar (for more information, see the Quick Guide)

Menus

User interface

>>fast

Menus

User interface

Menus

You can use the menus to carry out the more general tasks. There are four menus, which we do not describe in detail here,

given that they are for common general purpose tasks:

Edit: the standard copy and paste functions as well as undo and redo.

Tools: provides other functions such as customising the application.

Help: the place to access this manual!

User interface

The main window is the data window (called WIRIS CAS), where the user can enter WIRISinstructions and obtain responses.

- 122 -

powered by WIRIS

(c) maths for more sl. All rights reserved. Legal notice

User interface

When the user requests a graphical image, WIRIS Desktop opens a new window and places it within the group of other

windows currently open, resizing the other windows. The user can adjust the size of each window by moving the window

separators.

The user can launch a number of graphics windows simultaneously, and these can be navigated using the maximize, restore

and minimize buttons.

It is also possible to drag and drop the windows. WIRIS Desktop will easily adjust the size of all windows to they can all

fit in the workspace available.

- 123 -

powered by WIRIS

(c) maths for more sl. All rights reserved. Legal notice

The graphics windows can be minimized, and then display as a small tab in the lower left hand corner of the screen. The

user can preview or restore any of the tabs by moving the cursor over the relevant tab or by clicking on it respectively.

- 124 -

powered by WIRIS

(c) maths for more sl. All rights reserved. Legal notice

User interface

- 125 -

powered by WIRIS

(c) maths for more sl. All rights reserved. Legal notice

Appendix

SYMBOLS

'

transpose (A:Matrix )

A'

-p

a-b

- 126 -

powered by WIRIS

(c) maths for more sl. All rights reserved. Legal notice

APPENDIX

P-Q

P-v

-P

- 127 -

powered by WIRIS

(c) maths for more sl. All rights reserved. Legal notice

-r

if r=line(P,v) then -r=line(P,-v).

-s

if s=segment(A,B) then -s=segment(B,A).

More information on

n!

factorial (n:ZZ )

- 128 -

powered by WIRIS

(c) maths for more sl. All rights reserved. Legal notice

APPENDIX

!!

n!!

n, 0<=n<65536 ,

0!!=1!!=1.

"arrow"

"arrow"

"arrow_xy"

"arrow_xy"

- 129 -

powered by WIRIS

(c) maths for more sl. All rights reserved. Legal notice

"arrow_xy"

"arrow_XY"

"arrow_XY"

"arrow_XY"

"automatic"

More information on fill , fill_color , label , wired

"bar"

"bar"

- 130 -

powered by WIRIS

(c) maths for more sl. All rights reserved. Legal notice

APPENDIX

"bar"

"base_line"

"base_line"

"base_line"

"bisection"

- 131 -

powered by WIRIS

(c) maths for more sl. All rights reserved. Legal notice

"bisection"

"bisection"

"bottom"

"bottom"

"bottom"

"center"

- 132 -

powered by WIRIS

(c) maths for more sl. All rights reserved. Legal notice

APPENDIX

"center"

"center"

"definition"

"definition"

- 133 -

powered by WIRIS

(c) maths for more sl. All rights reserved. Legal notice

"definition"

"divisor"

"divisor"

"free_division_gauss"

- 134 -

powered by WIRIS

(c) maths for more sl. All rights reserved. Legal notice

APPENDIX

"free_fraction_gauss"

- 135 -

powered by WIRIS

(c) maths for more sl. All rights reserved. Legal notice

"frequency_polygon"

"frequency_polygon"

"frequency_polygon"

"gauss"

- 136 -

powered by WIRIS

(c) maths for more sl. All rights reserved. Legal notice

APPENDIX

"horizontal"

"horizontal"

"horizontal"

"left"

- 137 -

powered by WIRIS

(c) maths for more sl. All rights reserved. Legal notice

"left"

"left"

"list"

"list"

"list"

"list_of_equations"

- 138 -

powered by WIRIS

(c) maths for more sl. All rights reserved. Legal notice

APPENDIX

"list_of_equations"

"list_of_equations"

"minor_expansion"

"Monospaced"

- 139 -

powered by WIRIS

(c) maths for more sl. All rights reserved. Legal notice

"Monospaced"

"multiple_value"

"multiple_value"

"name"

"name"

- 140 -

powered by WIRIS

(c) maths for more sl. All rights reserved. Legal notice

APPENDIX

"name"

"newton"

"newton"

"none"

"none"

"none"

- 141 -

powered by WIRIS

(c) maths for more sl. All rights reserved. Legal notice

"none"

"only_one_solution"

"only_one_solution"

"percentage"

"percentage"

"percentage"

"regula_falsi"

- 142 -

powered by WIRIS

(c) maths for more sl. All rights reserved. Legal notice

APPENDIX

"regula_falsi"

"relation"

"relation"

"right"

"right"

"right"

- 143 -

powered by WIRIS

(c) maths for more sl. All rights reserved. Legal notice

"SansSerif"

"SansSerif"

"secant"

"secant"

"sequence"

"sequence"

"sequence_of_equations"

- 144 -

powered by WIRIS

(c) maths for more sl. All rights reserved. Legal notice

APPENDIX

"sequence_of_equations"

"Serif"

"Serif"

"slice"

"slice"

- 145 -

powered by WIRIS

(c) maths for more sl. All rights reserved. Legal notice

"slice"

"smart"

"smart"

"smart"

"substitution"

"substitution"

"table"

- 146 -

powered by WIRIS

(c) maths for more sl. All rights reserved. Legal notice

APPENDIX

"table"

"top"

"top"

"top"

"value"

- 147 -

powered by WIRIS

(c) maths for more sl. All rights reserved. Legal notice

"value"

"value"

"vector"

"vector"

"vector"

"vector_of_equations"

- 148 -

powered by WIRIS

(c) maths for more sl. All rights reserved. Legal notice

APPENDIX

"vector_of_equations"

"vertical"

"vertical"

"vertical"

$$

i$$o

wherei:Identifier ,o:Any

&

- 149 -

powered by WIRIS

(c) maths for more sl. All rights reserved. Legal notice

a & b

true

true

false

&

true

false

l1

false

false

false

& l2

NOTA:

- 150 -

powered by WIRIS

(c) maths for more sl. All rights reserved. Legal notice

APPENDIX

ab

a*b

#*P

x1 ,x2 ,,xn

x1 ,x2 ,,xn

- 151 -

powered by WIRIS

(c) maths for more sl. All rights reserved. Legal notice

li1 ,,in

l.(i1 ,,in )

wherel:List

Table | Rule ,i:NN

Vector

Range

Relation

Divisor

{l1 ,,lm }i1 ,i2 ,...,in ={l1 i2 ,,in ,,lm i2 ,,in }i1

[l1 ,,lm ] i1 ,i2 ,...,in = [l1 i2 ,,in ,,lm i2 ,,in ] i1

- 152 -

powered by WIRIS

(c) maths for more sl. All rights reserved. Legal notice

APPENDIX

replace ({l1 ,...,li ,...,lm },i,x)={l1 ,...,li-1 ,x,li+1 ,...,lm }

replace ({l1 ,...,li1 ,...,lm },i1 ,...,in ,x)={l1 ,...,li-1 ,replace (li1 ,i2 ,...,in ,x),li1 +1 ,...,lm }

- 153 -

powered by WIRIS

(c) maths for more sl. All rights reserved. Legal notice

| Range ,x )

Vector

Vector

li

l.i

wherel:List |

- 154 -

powered by WIRIS

(c) maths for more sl. All rights reserved. Legal notice

APPENDIX

{l1 ,,ln }i =li

[l1 ,,ln ] i =li

(a..b..d)i =a+d*(i-1)

{i1 #v1 ,,in #vn }j =(ij #vj )

[i1 #v1 ,,in #vn ]j =(ij #vj )

{i1 = v1 ,,in = vn }j =(ij =vj )

if i<1 | i>n returns an error.

l{i1 ,,in }

l.{i1 ,,in }

wherel:List

Table | Rule ,i:NN

Vector

Range

Relation

Divisor

l{i1 ,...,in } ={li1 ,...,lin } if l={l1 ,...,lm } or l=a..b..d

l{i1 ,...,in } =[li1 ,...,lin ] if l=[l1 ,...,lm ]

- 155 -

powered by WIRIS

(c) maths for more sl. All rights reserved. Legal notice

l [i1 ,,in ]

l.[i1 ,,in ]

wherel:List

Table | Rule ,i:NN

Vector

Range

Relation

Divisor

la..b..d

l.(a..b..d)

| Rule ,i:NN

wherel:List

Vector

Range

Relation

Divisor

Table

l : not Range

la..b..d =l [a..b..d]

l : Range

si l=#..#..# then la..b..d =(#+(a-1)*#)..(#+(b-1)*#)..(d*#) where 1<=a<=length(l), 1<=b<=length(l).

[la..b..d ] = [l] a..b..d .

- 156 -

powered by WIRIS

(c) maths for more sl. All rights reserved. Legal notice

APPENDIX

l.i1 .....in

wherel:List

Table | Rule ,i:NN

Vector

Range

Relation

Divisor

{l1 ,,lm }.i1 .i2 .....in ={l1 .i2 .....in ,,lm .i2 .....in }.i1

[l1 ,,lm ].i1 .i2 .....in =[l1 .i2 .....in ,,lm .i2 .....in )].i1

D(x)=y

Pn

Icon

P.n

- 157 -

powered by WIRIS

(c) maths for more sl. All rights reserved. Legal notice

P1

P2

Icon

P.1

P.2

R(x)=y

s.1

s.2

- 158 -

powered by WIRIS

(c) maths for more sl. All rights reserved. Legal notice

APPENDIX

T(x)=y

..

a..b

a..b..d

a/b

- 159 -

powered by WIRIS

(c) maths for more sl. All rights reserved. Legal notice

complement (l1 :List |Vector ,l2 :List |Vector )

l1 /l2

Icon

P/#

//

quotient (a:ZZ,b:ZZ )

quo (a:ZZ,b:ZZ )

a//b

- 160 -

powered by WIRIS

(c) maths for more sl. All rights reserved. Legal notice

APPENDIX

quo (p1 :Polynomial ,p2 :Polynomial )

p1 //p2

o:D

:=

v:=x

- 161 -

powered by WIRIS

(c) maths for more sl. All rights reserved. Legal notice

v:=x

identifier():=

identifier(A)[check

C]:=B

identifier(:):=

- 162 -

powered by WIRIS

(c) maths for more sl. All rights reserved. Legal notice

APPENDIX

:=>

{p1 1

o1 ,,pn n

on }

b?

- 163 -

powered by WIRIS

(c) maths for more sl. All rights reserved. Legal notice

P==Q ?

Icon

Icon

[x1 ,,xn ]

[a..b..d]

[x

with

i1 ,,in

in

r1 ,,rn ]

- 164 -

powered by WIRIS

(c) maths for more sl. All rights reserved. Legal notice

APPENDIX

[x

with

i1 ,,in

in

r1 ,,rn

where

p]

\\

e\\r

^

More information on

{x1 ,,xn }

- 165 -

powered by WIRIS

(c) maths for more sl. All rights reserved. Legal notice

{x

with

i1 ,,in

in

r1 ,,rn }

{x

with

i1 ,,in

in

r1 ,,rn

where

p}

a | b

true

true

true

true

false

r1

false

true

false

| r2

- 166 -

powered by WIRIS

(c) maths for more sl. All rights reserved. Legal notice

APPENDIX

t|x

x|t

|?

|?

a+b

- 167 -

powered by WIRIS

(c) maths for more sl. All rights reserved. Legal notice

P+Q

P+v

v=x

- 168 -

powered by WIRIS

(c) maths for more sl. All rights reserved. Legal notice

APPENDIX

-->

Icon

A [check

C]--> B

ab

a*b

- 169 -

powered by WIRIS

(c) maths for more sl. All rights reserved. Legal notice

a

absolute

|r|

absolute (r:RR )

acos

asin (x:RR )

acos (x:RR )

atan (x:RR )

acosec

- 170 -

powered by WIRIS

(c) maths for more sl. All rights reserved. Legal notice

APPENDIX

asec (x:RR )

acosec (x:RR )

acotan (x:RR )

acosh

asinh (x:RR )

acosh (x:RR )

atanh (x:RR )

acotan

asec (x:RR )

acosec (x:RR )

acotan (x:RR )

adjoint_element

- 171 -

powered by WIRIS

(c) maths for more sl. All rights reserved. Legal notice

adjoint_element (R:Extension )

adjoint_matrix

adjoint_matrix (A:Matrix )

all_variables

all_variables (f:Fraction )

all_variables (p:Polynomial )

amplitude

- 172 -

powered by WIRIS

(c) maths for more sl. All rights reserved. Legal notice

APPENDIX

amplitude (a:Arc )

angle

angle ()

if geometry_status =2 then angle =angle2d else angle =angle3d end

More information on angle

angle2d

angle2d (c:Conic )

- 173 -

powered by WIRIS

(c) maths for more sl. All rights reserved. Legal notice

angle2d (r:Line )

angle ()

if geometry_status =2 then angle =angle2d else angle =angle3d end

angle3d

angle3d (r:Line ,p:Plane )

angle3d(r,p)=angle3d(p,r)

angle3d(p,s)=angle3d(p,line(s))

- 174 -

powered by WIRIS

(c) maths for more sl. All rights reserved. Legal notice

APPENDIX

angle3d(s,p)=angle3d(p,s)

- 175 -

powered by WIRIS

(c) maths for more sl. All rights reserved. Legal notice

angle ()

if geometry_status =2 then angle =angle2d else angle =angle3d end

annihilating_polynomial

Any

Any

apolonius_hyperbola

- 176 -

powered by WIRIS

(c) maths for more sl. All rights reserved. Legal notice

APPENDIX

append

append ({l1 ,...,ln },x)={l1 ,...,ln ,x} append ([l1 ,...,ln ],x)=[l1 ,...,ln ,x] where 1<=i<=length(l)+1

arc

- 177 -

powered by WIRIS

(c) maths for more sl. All rights reserved. Legal notice

Arc

Arc

midpoint closest_point2d closest_point3d oriented_area perimeter plot

plot2d plot3d point radius

- 178 -

powered by WIRIS

(c) maths for more sl. All rights reserved. Legal notice

APPENDIX

area

area (a:Arc )

area (c:Circumference )

area (c:Ellipse )

area (T:Triangle )

- 179 -

powered by WIRIS

(c) maths for more sl. All rights reserved. Legal notice

area (pol:Polyhedra )

argument

argument (c:CC )

argument (v:Vector )

arguments

- 180 -

powered by WIRIS

(c) maths for more sl. All rights reserved. Legal notice

APPENDIX

arguments (f )

arithmetic

arithmetic

arithmetic?

arithmetic? (p:Progression )

asec

- 181 -

powered by WIRIS

(c) maths for more sl. All rights reserved. Legal notice

asec (x:RR )

acosec (x:RR )

acotan (x:RR )

asin

asin (x:RR )

acos (x:RR )

atan (x:RR )

asinh

asinh (x:RR )

acosh (x:RR )

atanh (x:RR )

aspect_ratio

aspect_ratio

This defines the height to width ratio (aspect ratio) for the drawing board.

Possible values : any positive Real number.

Default value : 1

- 182 -

powered by WIRIS

(c) maths for more sl. All rights reserved. Legal notice

APPENDIX

More information on options

plotter , plotter

asymptote

asymptote

atan

asin (x:RR )

acos (x:RR )

atan (x:RR )

atanh

asinh (x:RR )

acosh (x:RR )

atanh (x:RR )

attributes

attributes ()

if geometry_status =2 then attributes =attributes2d else attributes =attributes3d

end

attributes_for_all

- 183 -

powered by WIRIS

(c) maths for more sl. All rights reserved. Legal notice

attributes_for_all ()

if geometry_status

=2 then attributes_for_all

else attributes_for_all =attributes_for_all3d end

=attributes_for_all2d

attributes_for_all2d

attributes_for_all2d (o: )

attributes_for_all ()

if geometry_status

=2 then attributes_for_all

else attributes_for_all =attributes_for_all3d end

=attributes_for_all2d

attributes_for_all3d

attributes_for_all3d (o: )

attributes_for_all ()

if geometry_status

=2 then attributes_for_all

else attributes_for_all =attributes_for_all3d end

=attributes_for_all2d

attributes2d

- 184 -

powered by WIRIS

(c) maths for more sl. All rights reserved. Legal notice

APPENDIX

attributes2d (o: )

attributes ()

if geometry_status =2 then attributes =attributes2d else attributes =attributes3d

end

attributes3d

attributes3d ()

attributes3d (d:Plotter )

attributes ()

if geometry_status =2 then attributes =attributes2d else attributes =attributes3d

end

automatic

- 185 -

powered by WIRIS

(c) maths for more sl. All rights reserved. Legal notice

automatic

auxiliar_central_symmetry_axis

auxiliar_central_symmetry_axis

axis

axis (c:Conic )

axis_color

axis_color

If the value for show_axis is true, this command indicates the colour of the axes.

Possible values : any Color , in {r,g,b} format, or by name if it has been defined.

Default value : {150,150,255} (light blue)

- 186 -

powered by WIRIS

(c) maths for more sl. All rights reserved. Legal notice

APPENDIX

axis_color

If the value for show_axis is true, this command indicates the colour of the axes.

Possible values : any Color , in {r,g,b} format, or by name if it has been defined.

Default value : {150,150,255} (light blue)

axis_font

axis_font

axis_font

This defines the font to be used when writing the text and values associated with the axes.

Possible values : any object of type Font .

Default value : {bold =false ,italic =false ,name ="SansSerif",size =10}

plotter , plotter

axis_label

axis_label

axis_label

This defines the coordinate axis names. The first component in the list names the abscissa axis, and the second names

the ordinate axis.

Possible values : any List of two components.

Default value : {,} (an Empty_list of two elements).

plotter , plotter

axis_style

- 187 -

powered by WIRIS

(c) maths for more sl. All rights reserved. Legal notice

axis_style

axis_style

axis_style

This defines how the coordinate axes will be displayed: as two perpendicular lines or as a pair of arrows, one

perpendicular to the other. Additionally, in the second case, the abscissa axis can be identified by x or by X and the

ordinate axis can be defined by y or by Y .

Possible values : "none", "arrow", "arrow_xy", "arrow_XY". "none" , "arrow" , "arrow_xy" and

"arrow_XY"

Default value : "none"

plotter , plotter

- 188 -

powered by WIRIS

(c) maths for more sl. All rights reserved. Legal notice

APPENDIX

b

background

background

background

This indicates whether or not the background of the object being represented should be painted.

Possible values : true, false. true and false

Default value : false

write , text_box

background_color

background_color

If the value for background is true, this indicates the colour to paint the background of the object being

represented.

Possible values : any Color , in {r,g,b} format, or by name if it has been defined.

Default value : {255,255,255} (white)

background_color

Sets the background colour of the drawing board.

Possible values : any Color , in {r,g,b} format, or by name if it has been defined.

Default value : {255,255,240} (cream)

background_color

Sets the background colour of the drawing board.

Possible values : any Color , in {r,g,b} format, or by name if it has been defined.

Default value : {255,255,240}(cream)

text_box

barycenter

- 189 -

powered by WIRIS

(c) maths for more sl. All rights reserved. Legal notice

.

barycenter (T:Triangle )

barycenter (T)=barycenter (T1 ,T2 ,T3 )

b:=barycenter(polygon(p1 ,p2 ,...,pn ))=barycenter(p1 ,p2 ,...,pn )

b:=barycenter(polygonal(p1 ,p2 ,...,pn ))=barycenter(p1 ,p2 ,...,pn )

base

- 190 -

powered by WIRIS

(c) maths for more sl. All rights reserved. Legal notice

APPENDIX

base (k:Extension )

base_change

base_change (n:ZZ,b:ZZ )

belongs?

belongs? (x,l )

- 191 -

powered by WIRIS

(c) maths for more sl. All rights reserved. Legal notice

- 192 -

powered by WIRIS

(c) maths for more sl. All rights reserved. Legal notice

APPENDIX

belongs_to_domain?

belongs_to_domain? (a,f,x:Identifier )

- 193 -

powered by WIRIS

(c) maths for more sl. All rights reserved. Legal notice

bernouilli_number

bernouilli_number (n:Natural )

bernouilli_numbers

bernouilli_numbers (n:Natural )

bezout

bezout (a:ZZ,b:ZZ )

- 194 -

powered by WIRIS

(c) maths for more sl. All rights reserved. Legal notice

APPENDIX

binomial

Icon

combinations (n:ZZ,k:ZZ )

Icon

binomial (n:ZZ )

bisector

- 195 -

powered by WIRIS

(c) maths for more sl. All rights reserved. Legal notice

- 196 -

powered by WIRIS

(c) maths for more sl. All rights reserved. Legal notice

APPENDIX

bit

black

More information on color

black

black

black ={0,0,0}

blue

More information on color

- 197 -

powered by WIRIS

(c) maths for more sl. All rights reserved. Legal notice

blue

blue

blue ={0,0,255}

bold

bold

Possible values : true or false

Default value : false

bold_font

bold_font

This defines whether or not the text on the drawing board should be bold.

Possible values : true, false. true and false

Default value : false

write , text_box

Boolean

Boolean

border

- 198 -

powered by WIRIS

(c) maths for more sl. All rights reserved. Legal notice

APPENDIX

border

border

This defines whether or not the border of closed figures is painted.

Possible values : true, false. true and false

Default value : true

border

This defines whether or not a border will be applied around the displayed object, and in the former case it defines the

border thickness.

Possible values : any non-negative Integer integer.

Default value : 0

border

This defines whether the border of closed figures is painted.

Possible values : true, false. true and false

Default value : true

border_color

border_color

border_color

If the value for border is a positive Integer , the value defines the border colour.

Possible values : any Color , in {r,g,b} format, or by name if it has been defined.

Default value : {0,0,0} (black)

write , text_box

- 199 -

powered by WIRIS

(c) maths for more sl. All rights reserved. Legal notice

box

box

box_border

box_border

boxplot

boxplot (VA:Statistics_data )

brown

More information on color

brown

brown

brown ={180,60,0}

- 200 -

powered by WIRIS

(c) maths for more sl. All rights reserved. Legal notice

APPENDIX

c

canonic_vector

canonic_vector (n:ZZ,k:ZZ )

cardinal

cardinal (A )

Cartesian_curve

Cartesian_curve

Cartesian_surface

- 201 -

powered by WIRIS

(c) maths for more sl. All rights reserved. Legal notice

Cartesian_surface

category

category (p:Progression )

ceil

ceil (r:RR )

- 202 -

powered by WIRIS

(c) maths for more sl. All rights reserved. Legal notice

APPENDIX

ceil (c:CC )

center

center (a:Arc )

center (c:Circumference )

center

Sets the centre point of the drawing board.

Possible values : any Point .

Default value : point (0,0)

- 203 -

powered by WIRIS

(c) maths for more sl. All rights reserved. Legal notice

center

Sets the centre point of the drawing board.

Possible values : any Point .

Default value : point (0,0,0)

Centered_conic

Centered_conic

Ellipse or Hyperbola

central_moment

central_symmetry

central_symmetry

cfr

- 204 -

powered by WIRIS

(c) maths for more sl. All rights reserved. Legal notice

APPENDIX

cfr (... )

circumference (... )

More information on

characteristic

characteristic (R:Ring )

characteristic_matrix

characteristic_matrix (A:Matrix ,t )

characteristic_polynomial

characteristic_polynomial (A:Matrix )

characteristic_polynomial (A:Matrix ,x:Any )

- 205 -

powered by WIRIS

(c) maths for more sl. All rights reserved. Legal notice

characteristic_polynomial (A:Matrix ,x:Any ,o: )

check

identifier(A)[check

C]:=B

chinese_theorem

chinese_theorem_coefficients

- 206 -

powered by WIRIS

(c) maths for more sl. All rights reserved. Legal notice

APPENDIX

circumcenter

circumcenter (T:Triangle )

circumcenter (T)=circumcenter (T1 ,T2 ,T3 )

circumference

cfr (... )

circumference (... )

- 207 -

powered by WIRIS

(c) maths for more sl. All rights reserved. Legal notice

circumference (p:Polynomial )

circumference (a:Arc )

More information on

Circumference

Circumference

internal? inversion matrix closest_point2d closest_point3d perimeter plot

- 208 -

powered by WIRIS

(c) maths for more sl. All rights reserved. Legal notice

APPENDIX

tangent_line tangent_lines tangent_points

radius

tangent_axle

circumradius

circumradius (T:Triangle )

circumradius (T)=circumradius (T1 ,T2 ,T3 )

clear

clear

v1 ,,vn

closest_point

closest_point ()

if geometry_status =2 then closest_point =closest_point2d else_if geometry_status

=3 then closest_point =closest_point3d end

More information on closest point

closest_point2d

- 209 -

powered by WIRIS

(c) maths for more sl. All rights reserved. Legal notice

closest_point ()

if geometry_status =2 then closest_point =closest_point2d else_if geometry_status

=3 then closest_point =closest_point3d end

closest_point3d

closest_point ()

if geometry_status =2 then closest_point =closest_point2d else_if geometry_status

=3 then closest_point =closest_point3d end

- 210 -

powered by WIRIS

(c) maths for more sl. All rights reserved. Legal notice

APPENDIX

coefficient

coefficient (s:Series ,n:Natural )

coefficient (x:Quantity )

coefficient_domain

coefficient_domain (p:Polynomial )

coefficient_of_variation

- 211 -

powered by WIRIS

(c) maths for more sl. All rights reserved. Legal notice

coefficient_of_variation (X:Statistics_data )

coefficient_si

coefficient_si (x:Quantity )

coefficients

coefficients (p:Polynomial )

coefficients (p:Polynomial ,x:Identifier )

colinear?

- 212 -

powered by WIRIS

(c) maths for more sl. All rights reserved. Legal notice

APPENDIX

collect

- 213 -

powered by WIRIS

(c) maths for more sl. All rights reserved. Legal notice

color

color

Here, enter the colour to be used for drawing.

Possible values : lists of three integers between 0 and 255 in '{r,g,b}' form, where r,g,b correspond to the amount of r

ed, g reen and b lue, which define the colour. For simplicity, some colours have been defined: black, white, red, green

black , white , red , green , blue , cyan , magenta , yellow , brown , orange , pink ,

grey , dark_grey , light_grey and the complete list of HTML colours .

Default value : black

color

Here, enter the colour that should be used for drawing.

Possible values : list of three integers between 0 and 255 in '{r,g,b}' form, where r,g,b corespond to the amount of r

ed, g reen and b lue, which define the colour. For simplicity, some colours have been defined: black, white, red, green

black , white , red , green , blue , cyan , magenta , yellow , brown , orange , pink ,

grey , dark_grey , light_grey and the complete list of HTML colours .

Default value : black

Color

More information on axis_color , background_color , border_color , cube_color , fill_color , grid_color

Color

Color

- 214 -

powered by WIRIS

(c) maths for more sl. All rights reserved. Legal notice

APPENDIX

white

white ={255,255,255}

black

black ={0,0,0}

red

red ={255,0,0}

green

green ={0,255,0}

blue

blue ={0,0,255}

cyan

cyan ={0,255,255}

magenta

magenta ={255,0,255}

yellow

yellow ={255,255,0}

brown

brown ={180,60,0}

orange

orange ={255,200,0}

pink

pink ={255,175,175}

grey

grey ={128,128,128}

- 215 -

powered by WIRIS

(c) maths for more sl. All rights reserved. Legal notice

dark_grey

dark_grey ={192,192,192}

light_grey

light_grey ={64,64,64}

column

combinations

Icon

combinations (n:ZZ,k:ZZ )

- 216 -

powered by WIRIS

(c) maths for more sl. All rights reserved. Legal notice

APPENDIX

Icon

combinations_with_repetition

Icon

combinations_with_repetition (n:ZZ,k:ZZ )

Icon

compare

- 217 -

powered by WIRIS

(c) maths for more sl. All rights reserved. Legal notice

compass

complement

- 218 -

powered by WIRIS

(c) maths for more sl. All rights reserved. Legal notice

APPENDIX

complement (l1 :List |Vector ,l2 :List |Vector )

l1 /l2

Complex

CC

Complex

complex_variable_name

complex_variable_name (id:Identifier )

complex_variable_name ()

components

- 219 -

powered by WIRIS

(c) maths for more sl. All rights reserved. Legal notice

components (b:Element (Ring ) )

composition

conic

- 220 -

powered by WIRIS

(c) maths for more sl. All rights reserved. Legal notice

APPENDIX

conic (M:Matrix )

conic (p:Polynomial )

conic (P1 :Point ,P2 :Point ,P3 :Point ,P4 :Point ,P5 :Point )

More information on

Conic

Conic

Centered_conic or Non_centered_conic

- 221 -

powered by WIRIS

(c) maths for more sl. All rights reserved. Legal notice

equation focal_semidistance matrix closest_point2d closest_point3d plot

plot2d

plot3d

polar

polo

position

semimajor_axis

semiminor_axis

tangent_lines

conjugate

conjugate (c:CC )

conjugate (p:Polynomial )

conjugates

conjugates (c:CC )

- 222 -

powered by WIRIS

(c) maths for more sl. All rights reserved. Legal notice

APPENDIX

conjugates (x:Element (Field ) )

constant_list

constant_list (n:ZZ,x )

constant_matrix

constant_matrix (n:ZZ,x )

constant_matrix (m:ZZ,n:ZZ,x )

constant_sequence

- 223 -

powered by WIRIS

(c) maths for more sl. All rights reserved. Legal notice

constant_sequence (n:ZZ,x )

constant_vector

constant_vector (n:ZZ,x )

constrained_maximum

constrained_minimum (f:Function ,l:List )

constrained_minimum

constrained_minimum (f:Function ,l:List )

content

- 224 -

powered by WIRIS

(c) maths for more sl. All rights reserved. Legal notice

APPENDIX

content (p:Polynomial )

content_and_primitive_part

content_and_primitive_part (p:Polynomial )

convergent?

conversion_factor

conversion_factor (u:Unit )

- 225 -

powered by WIRIS

(c) maths for more sl. All rights reserved. Legal notice

convert

convert (x:Quantity )

coplanars?

coplanars? (L:List )

- 226 -

powered by WIRIS

(c) maths for more sl. All rights reserved. Legal notice

APPENDIX

correlation

correlation (M:Multisample )

correlation_n

cos

- 227 -

powered by WIRIS

(c) maths for more sl. All rights reserved. Legal notice

sin (x:RR )

cos (x:RR )

tan (x:RR )

cosec

sec (x:RR )

cosec (x:RR )

cotan (x:RR )

cosh

sinh (x:RR )

cosh (x:RR )

tanh (x:RR )

cotan

- 228 -

powered by WIRIS

(c) maths for more sl. All rights reserved. Legal notice

APPENDIX

sec (x:RR )

cosec (x:RR )

cotan (x:RR )

count_element

count_element (l,x )

count_multiplicities

- 229 -

powered by WIRIS

(c) maths for more sl. All rights reserved. Legal notice

factor (p:Polynomial ,A:Ring ,O: )

covariance

covariance (M:Multisample )

cube

cube

cube()=cube(1)

- 230 -

powered by WIRIS

(c) maths for more sl. All rights reserved. Legal notice

APPENDIX

cube (c:Real )

cube(c)=cube(point(0,0,0),c)

cube_color

cube_color

Sets the colour of the cube.

Possible values : any Color , in {r,g,b} format, or by name if it has been defined.

Default value : {150,150,255} (light blue)

plotter3d , plotter3d

curve

curve ()

if geometry_status =2 then curve =curve2d else curve =curve3d end

Curve

- 231 -

powered by WIRIS

(c) maths for more sl. All rights reserved. Legal notice

Curve

point polygon polygonal polygonals range variables

curve2d

curve ()

if geometry_status =2 then curve =curve2d else curve =curve3d end

- 232 -

powered by WIRIS

(c) maths for more sl. All rights reserved. Legal notice

APPENDIX

Curve2d

Curve2d

curve3d

- 233 -

powered by WIRIS

(c) maths for more sl. All rights reserved. Legal notice

curve3d

curve ()

if geometry_status =2 then curve =curve2d else curve =curve3d end

Curve3d

Curve3d

cyan

More information on color

cyan

cyan

cyan ={0,255,255}

cycles_representation

- 234 -

powered by WIRIS

(c) maths for more sl. All rights reserved. Legal notice

APPENDIX

cycles_representation (p:Permutation )

- 235 -

powered by WIRIS

(c) maths for more sl. All rights reserved. Legal notice

d

dark_grey

More information on color

dark_grey

dark grey

dark_grey ={192,192,192}

decimal

decimal (r:RR )

decimal (c:CC )

default

- 236 -

powered by WIRIS

(c) maths for more sl. All rights reserved. Legal notice

APPENDIX

default (f:Function )

default_plotter

default_plotter ()

if geometry_status =2 then default_plotter =default_plotter2d else default_plotter

=default_plotter3d end

default_plotter2d

default_plotter ()

if geometry_status =2 then default_plotter =default_plotter2d else default_plotter

=default_plotter3d end

default_plotter2d ()

default_plotter2d (d:Plotter )

default_plotter3d

default_plotter ()

if geometry_status =2 then default_plotter =default_plotter2d else default_plotter

=default_plotter3d end

default_plotter3d ()

default_plotter3d (d:Plotter )

definition

- 237 -

powered by WIRIS

(c) maths for more sl. All rights reserved. Legal notice

definition (f:Identifier )

degree

degree (p:Polynomial )

degree (p:Polynomial ,x:Identifier )

degree (f:Fraction )

degree (f:Fraction ,t:Identifier )

degree (u:Unit )

- 238 -

powered by WIRIS

(c) maths for more sl. All rights reserved. Legal notice

APPENDIX

degrees_minutes_seconds

degrees_minutes_seconds (x:Quantity )

den

denominator (q:QQ )

den (q:QQ )

denominator (f:Fraction )

den (f:Fraction )

denominator

denominator (q:QQ )

den (q:QQ )

- 239 -

powered by WIRIS

(c) maths for more sl. All rights reserved. Legal notice

denominator (f:Fraction )

den (f:Fraction )

dense_coefficient_list

dense_coefficient_list (p:Polynomial )

depend

depend (o )

depth

depth

Sets the depth of the drawing board.

Possible values : any positive Real number.

Default value : 21

plotter3d , plotter3d

determinant

- 240 -

powered by WIRIS

(c) maths for more sl. All rights reserved. Legal notice

APPENDIX

|A|

Icon

determinant (A:Matrix )

diagonal_matrix

- 241 -

powered by WIRIS

(c) maths for more sl. All rights reserved. Legal notice

diagonal_matrix (n:ZZ,x )

diagram

differentiate

df/dx

Icon

differentiate (f,x:Identifier )

differentiate (f )

differentiate (f,n:ZZ )

- 242 -

powered by WIRIS

(c) maths for more sl. All rights reserved. Legal notice

APPENDIX

dimensionless_unit

dimensionless_unit

dimensions

dimensions (A:Matrix )

directrix

directrix (p:Parabola )

discontinuities

- 243 -

powered by WIRIS

(c) maths for more sl. All rights reserved. Legal notice

discontinuities (f,x:Identifier )

discontinuities (f )

discontinuities (f,v:Vector )

distance

- 244 -

powered by WIRIS

(c) maths for more sl. All rights reserved. Legal notice

APPENDIX

distribution

distribution (V:Vector )

diverse_results_as

diverse_results_as

divisor

Divisor

- 245 -

powered by WIRIS

(c) maths for more sl. All rights reserved. Legal notice

Divisor

divisors

divisors (n:ZZ )

divisors (n:ZZ,b:Boolean )

divisors_mu_moebius

divisors_mu_moebius (n:ZZ )

do

- 246 -

powered by WIRIS

(c) maths for more sl. All rights reserved. Legal notice

APPENDIX

while...: Icon

, sentence

while B do A end

Carry out the instructions in A if the following condition is met B .

for...: Icon

, sentence

for R do A end

Carry out the instructions in A over the range R .

dodecahedron

dodecahedron

dodecahedron()=dodecahedron(1)

- 247 -

powered by WIRIS

(c) maths for more sl. All rights reserved. Legal notice

dodecahedron (c:Real )

domain

domain (f,x:Identifier )

domain (f )

domain (r:Relation )

- 248 -

powered by WIRIS

(c) maths for more sl. All rights reserved. Legal notice

APPENDIX

domain (t:Table )

Domain

Domain

drop

- 249 -

powered by WIRIS

(c) maths for more sl. All rights reserved. Legal notice

- 250 -

powered by WIRIS

(c) maths for more sl. All rights reserved. Legal notice

APPENDIX

e

e_

Icon

e_

E_

Icon

E_

eccentricity

eccentricity (C:Conic )

eigenvalues

eigenvalues (A:Matrix )

- 251 -

powered by WIRIS

(c) maths for more sl. All rights reserved. Legal notice

eigenvalues_and_vectors

eigenvalues_and_vectors (M:Matrix )

eigenvectors

eigenvectors (A:Matrix )

element

element (i:ZZ,R:Ring )

element (i:ZZ,A:Zn )

Element

- 252 -

powered by WIRIS

(c) maths for more sl. All rights reserved. Legal notice

APPENDIX

Element

inverse invertible? lcm minimum_polynomial norm one? order residue? ring

root roots sqrt square_roots trace zero?

element_of_order

elements

elements

- 253 -

powered by WIRIS

(c) maths for more sl. All rights reserved. Legal notice

ellipse

Ellipse

- 254 -

powered by WIRIS

(c) maths for more sl. All rights reserved. Legal notice

APPENDIX

Ellipse

plot3d point

else

if...: Icon

or

, sentence

if B then A end

if B then A else A2 end

if B then A else_if B2 then A2 else A3 end

Carry out the instructions in A if the following condition is met B . If the condition is not met and there is an else

statement, then the instructions below are carried out A2 . It is also possible to have multiple conditions and various

groups of instructions by inserting conditional else_if statements from the programming tab menu.

else_if

if...: Icon

or

, sentence

if B then A end

- 255 -

powered by WIRIS

(c) maths for more sl. All rights reserved. Legal notice

if B then A else_if B2 then A2 else A3 end

Carry out the instructions in A if the following condition is met B . If the condition is not met and there is an else

statement, then the instructions below are carried out A2 . It is also possible to have multiple conditions and various

groups of instructions by inserting conditional else_if statements from the programming tab menu.

Empty

Empty

empty_divisor

- 256 -

powered by WIRIS

(c) maths for more sl. All rights reserved. Legal notice

APPENDIX

empty_divisor

Empty_list

Empty_list

empty_relation

empty_relation

empty_table

empty_table

empty_table (x)=null .

end

- 257 -

powered by WIRIS

(c) maths for more sl. All rights reserved. Legal notice

while...: Icon

, sentence

while B do A end

Carry out the instructions in A if the following condition is met B .

for...: Icon

, sentence

for R do A end

Carry out the instructions in A over the range R .

if...: Icon

or

, sentence

if B then A end

if B then A else A2 end

if B then A else_if B2 then A2 else A3 end

Carry out the instructions in A if the following condition is met B . If the condition is not met and there is an else

statement, then the instructions below are carried out A2 . It is also possible to have multiple conditions and various

groups of instructions by inserting conditional else_if statements from the programming tab menu.

- 258 -

powered by WIRIS

(c) maths for more sl. All rights reserved. Legal notice

APPENDIX

equation

, y:Variable }:List )

equation (r:Line )

- 259 -

powered by WIRIS

(c) maths for more sl. All rights reserved. Legal notice

equation (c:Circumference )

equation (p:Plane )

xyz

Equation

- 260 -

powered by WIRIS

(c) maths for more sl. All rights reserved. Legal notice

APPENDIX

Equation

attributes2d attributes3d

plot3d plot3d

closest_point2d

closest_point3d

plot

plot2d

equation_vector

equation_vector (r:Line )

equilateral?

equilateral? (T:Triangle3d )

equilateral? (T:Triangle )

equilateral_triangle

- 261 -

powered by WIRIS

(c) maths for more sl. All rights reserved. Legal notice

equilateral_triangle (s:Segment )

erase

- 262 -

powered by WIRIS

(c) maths for more sl. All rights reserved. Legal notice

APPENDIX

erase (l )

erase (l)=l

erase (l,i:ZZ )

erase (l,i)=lrange

(l)/{i}

erase (l,i)=lrange

(l)/v

- 263 -

powered by WIRIS

(c) maths for more sl. All rights reserved. Legal notice

evaluate

evaluate (p:Polynomial ,{x1 =>a1 ,,xn =>an } )

- 264 -

powered by WIRIS

(c) maths for more sl. All rights reserved. Legal notice

APPENDIX

evaluate (f:Fraction ,{x1 #a1 ,,xn #an } )

evaluate

This command defines whether the element should be evaluated when drawing or not.

Possible values : true, false. true and false

Default value : false

evaluate

This command defines whether the element should be evaluated when drawing or not.

Possible values : true, false. true and false

Default value : false

exact_computations

- 265 -

powered by WIRIS

(c) maths for more sl. All rights reserved. Legal notice

exp

exp (x:RR )

expand

expand (p:Polynomial )

expand (f:Fraction )

expansion_point

- 266 -

powered by WIRIS

(c) maths for more sl. All rights reserved. Legal notice

APPENDIX

expansion_point (s:Series )

expression

expression (t:String )

Expression

Expression

extended_gcd

- 267 -

powered by WIRIS

(c) maths for more sl. All rights reserved. Legal notice

extended_quartile

extended_quartile (VA:Statistics_data )

extension

- 268 -

powered by WIRIS

(c) maths for more sl. All rights reserved. Legal notice

APPENDIX

extension (A:Ring ,f:Polynomial )

extension (A:Ring ,x:Identifier ,f:Polynomial ,b:Boolean )

Extension

Extension

base

inverse

polynomial

total_degree tower

precedent

relative_degree

subextension?

exterior_bisector

- 269 -

powered by WIRIS

(c) maths for more sl. All rights reserved. Legal notice

external?

- 270 -

powered by WIRIS

(c) maths for more sl. All rights reserved. Legal notice

APPENDIX

f

factor

factor (n:ZZ )

factor (p:Polynomial )

factor (p:Polynomial ,A:Ring )

factor (p:Polynomial )

- 271 -

powered by WIRIS

(c) maths for more sl. All rights reserved. Legal notice

factor (p:Polynomial ,A:Ring ,O: )

factor (p:Polynomial ,a )

factor_in_square_free

- 272 -

powered by WIRIS

(c) maths for more sl. All rights reserved. Legal notice

APPENDIX

factor_in_square_free (p:Polynomial )

factor_in_square_free_multiplicity

factor_in_square_free_multiplicity (p:Polynomial )

factorial

n!

factorial (n:ZZ )

- 273 -

powered by WIRIS

(c) maths for more sl. All rights reserved. Legal notice

factorial (n:ZZ,k:ZZ )

false

false

More information on background , bold , bold_font , border , evaluate , fill , fixed_dimensions , italic , italic_font , mobile ,

show_axis , show_cube , show_grid , show_label , visible , wired

fibonacci

fibonacci (n:ZZ )

field

- 274 -

powered by WIRIS

(c) maths for more sl. All rights reserved. Legal notice

APPENDIX

Field

Field

factor

field

finite_field

frobenius

gcd

irreducible?

irreducible_polynomial irreducible_polynomials lcm minimum_polynomial

norm number_of_irreducible_polynomials order primitive_element residue?

root roots square_roots trace

field?

field? (A )

figure

figure (f:Function )

Figure

- 275 -

powered by WIRIS

(c) maths for more sl. All rights reserved. Legal notice

Figure

figure2d

figure2d (f:Function )

Figure2d

- 276 -

powered by WIRIS

(c) maths for more sl. All rights reserved. Legal notice

APPENDIX

Figure2d

Point , Line , Circumference , Arc , Segment , Triangle , Polygonal or Conic

figure3d

figure3d (f:Function )

Figure3d

Figure3d

Point3d , Line3d , Plane3d , Polygonal3d , Polyhedra3d , Quadric3d or Segment3d

fill

fill

In the case of a closed figure, the command determines whether the interior is filled.

Possible values : true, false. true and false

Default value : false

- 277 -

powered by WIRIS

(c) maths for more sl. All rights reserved. Legal notice

fill

In the case of a closed figure, the command determines whether the interior is filled.

Possible values : true, false, "automatic". true , false and "automatic"

Default value : "automatic"

fill_color

fill_color

If working with a closed figure, and if the value defined for fill is true, this command indicates the colour to be used

to paint the inside of the figures.

Possible values : A Color and "automatic" ; if the second option is chosen, the inside of the figure is filled

using the colour given by the colour option color.color

Default value : "automatic"

fill_color

If working with a closed figure, and if the value defined for fill is true, this command indicates the colour that

should be used to paint the inside of the figures.

Possible values : A Color and "automatic" ; if the second option is chosen, the inside of the figure is filled

using the colour given by the colour option colorcolor

Default value : "automatic"

find_one

find_one (A:Ring )

find_one (a:Element (Ring ) )

find_zero

- 278 -

powered by WIRIS

(c) maths for more sl. All rights reserved. Legal notice

APPENDIX

find_zero (A:Ring )

find_zero (a:Element (Ring ) )

finite?

finite? (A:Ring )

finite_field

finite_field (n:ZZ,x:Identifier )

finite_field (n:ZZ )

finite_field (K:Field ,n:ZZ )

- 279 -

powered by WIRIS

(c) maths for more sl. All rights reserved. Legal notice

Finite_set

Finite_set

first_vertex

first_vertex (s:Segment )

fixed_dimensions

fixed_dimensions

This defines whether or not objects must be repositioned in the plane, when the drawing board dimensions are

changed. By default, they are repositioned.

Possible values : true, false. true and false

Default value : false

plot , plot

Float

- 280 -

powered by WIRIS

(c) maths for more sl. All rights reserved. Legal notice

APPENDIX

Float

floor

floor (r:RR )

floor (c:CC )

focal_semidistance

- 281 -

powered by WIRIS

(c) maths for more sl. All rights reserved. Legal notice

focal_semidistance (c:Conic )

focus

focus (p:Parabola )

font

italic

Possible values : true or false

Default value : false

size

Possible values :

Default value : 12

- 282 -

powered by WIRIS

(c) maths for more sl. All rights reserved. Legal notice

APPENDIX

name

Possible values : "Serif" , "SansSerif" or "Monospaced"

Default value : "SansSerif"

bold

Possible values : true or false

Default value : false

More information on font , font , font , font , font , font , font , font

Font

More information on axis_font , font , label_font

font

font

The main options for the font command are

italic

Possible values : true or false

Default value : false

bold

Possible values : true or false

Default value : false

size

Possible values :

Default value : 12

name

Possible values : "Serif" , "SansSerif" or "Monospaced"

Default value : "SansSerif"

font_name

- 283 -

powered by WIRIS

(c) maths for more sl. All rights reserved. Legal notice

font_name

font_name

This indicates the name of the font type used.

Possible values : "Serif", "SansSerif", "Monospaced". "Serif" , "SansSerif" and "Monospaced"

Default value : "SansSerif"

write , text_box

font_size

font_size

This indicates the size of the font type used.

Possible values : any positive Integer .

Default value : 12

write , text_box

for

- 284 -

powered by WIRIS

(c) maths for more sl. All rights reserved. Legal notice

APPENDIX

for...: Icon

, sentence

for R do A end

Carry out the instructions in A over the range R .

Fraction

Fraction

Icon

collect degree den den denominator denominator evaluate expand gcd lcm num

num numerator numerator simple_fractions variable variables

Frequency_sample

Frequency_sample

Frequency_sample_of

- 285 -

powered by WIRIS

(c) maths for more sl. All rights reserved. Legal notice

Frequency_sample_of

frobenius

frobenius (a:Element (Field ) )

p

a , p=characteristic (K) , K=field (a)

frobenius (K:Field )

frobenius (cardinal (K))

function

Function

Functions

One of the most valuable capabilities of WIRIS is that it allows us to define new functions in such a way that these

functions are treated the same way as those already built into WIRIS . The arguments to these functions can be any

mathematical object.

- 286 -

powered by WIRIS

(c) maths for more sl. All rights reserved. Legal notice

APPENDIX

In this section we will learn how functions are defined and how they are used. We will also study the various functions of

real variables which are of fundamental importance in mathematics, and which WIRIS already has built in.

Defining functions

To define functions, use the symbol := , created using the keyboard or the icon

. To the left of this symbol we enter

the name of the function followed by the list of function arguments in parentheses. To the right we enter the body of the

function. That is, we enter the operations that need to be carried out on the arguments.

A function can have as many arguments as we like, or none. The body of the function can use other functions previously

defined. To use the function with specific arguments, enter the function name followed by the arguments in parentheses,

separated by commas. (This structure is referred to as a Sequence ).

If you attempt to use a function that has not been defined, no calculation is carried out.

The function f in the example above takes one argument. However, as we have already stated, the number of arguments

can be any non-negative number. Furthermore, the same function can have different definitions depending on the number

of arguments passed to it.

A function can also have more than one definition depending on the domain of its arguments. In the definition of a function,

to specify the domain of one of its arguments, enter the argument followed by the character : and the name of the

domain. It is also possible to define a function for a specific object. The following examples illustrate all these options. Note

that the command definition applied to a function, gives us the definitions of that function.

- 287 -

powered by WIRIS

(c) maths for more sl. All rights reserved. Legal notice

A useful command to define a function, which is evaluated one way with certain elements in its domain of application but

in another way for a different subset of the domain is the command check . Write it between the function arguments

and the symbol := in the form check<condicin>, where <condicin> is a boolean expression (that is, it is an

expression that can always be evaluated as true or false ) constructed from function arguments. In this way it is

possible to define discontinuous functions that cannot be converted into analytical elements (they can be evaluated but

limits, derivatives and integrals cannot be calculated).

check

<condicin>

The names we can give to functions are of the same form as those that can be used with variables.

Functions, like any object in WIRIS are entities independent of the names given to them. For example, the function that

returns the square of a number and then adds 1 can be understood as a function in its own right. Nonetheless, it is helpful

to give it a name for convenience. A function, which does not have a name assigned to it, is called an anonymous function.

Anonymous functions are defined using the icon

, which is equivalent to --> entering their arguments between

parentheses to the left of the symbol --> and the body of the function to the right of this symbol. Note that the command

definition , as seen in previous examples, returns a list of anonymous functions.

If a function has been defined, and we wish to delete it, apply the command clear

- 288 -

powered by WIRIS

(c) maths for more sl. All rights reserved. Legal notice

APPENDIX

Real functions

Here, we will discuss some of the predefined real functions in WIRIS that correspond to basic mathematical functions.

Calculates the square root of the argument. Another way to calculate the square root of a number is to raise it to the 12.

The sqrtssquare_roots command calculates all the square roots of a real number.

root: Icon

, command root

Calculates the n th root of x , where x is the first argument (the one in the main box if the icon was used) and n is

the second (the one in the upper box). As in the previous case, the calculation of the n th root is equivalent to raising

x to 1/n . The command roots calculates all the complex (or real) roots of a real number.

trigonometry:

- 289 -

powered by WIRIS

(c) maths for more sl. All rights reserved. Legal notice

The trigonometric functions are as follow:, sin, cos, tan, cosec, sec, cotan

These correspond respectively to the sine, cosine, tangent, cosecant, secant and cotangent. The argument for these

functions is assumed to be expressed in radians. To use degrees, apply the symbol , which is located in the tab Units .

sin

cosec

cos

sec

tan

cotan

The inverse trigonometric functions included in WIRIS are: , asin, acos, atan

These correspond respectively to arcsine, arccosine and arctangent. The argument of these functions is a real number.

The result of all these is the main result of the function, expressed in radians (the same given by the keys sin-1, cos-1

and tan-1 commonly found on a pocket calculator). If the answer is required in degrees, use the function convert .

asin

sin

-1

cos

-1

tan

acos

atan

-1

or

Calculates the result of applying the exponential function to its single argument (that is, the number that results from

raising the number e to the argument). The icon

can be used to obtain exact values (i.e. without evaluating) and the

icon can be used to obtain approximations. WIRIS also incorporates complex exponentials.

- 290 -

powered by WIRIS

(c) maths for more sl. All rights reserved. Legal notice

APPENDIX

If the commands above are given a single argument, they calculate the natural (Naperian) and decimal logarithms,

respectively. If log takes two arguments a and b , it calculates the logarithm of a in base b .

ba calculates the logarithm of

in base

the icon

, command absolute

Obtains the sign of a real number. Returns 1 if the number is positive, -1 if it is negative and 0 if it is neither positive

nor negative.

Calculates the maximum values of the functions arguments. If the argument is a

the maximum of its elements.

- 291 -

powered by WIRIS

(c) maths for more sl. All rights reserved. Legal notice

Calculates the minimum of the arguments entered in the function. If the argument is a List or Vector , it calculates

the maximum of its elements.

Function

attributes3d

composition

constrained_maximum

constrained_maximum

constrained_minimum constrained_minimum curve2d default figure figure2d

figure3d map closest_point2d closest_point3d numerical_differentiation

numerical_integration plot plot2d plot3d select series sort taylor_series

Function

- 292 -

powered by WIRIS

(c) maths for more sl. All rights reserved. Legal notice

APPENDIX

g

gaussian_elimination

gaussian_elimination (A:Matrix )

gcd

gcd (a:ZZ,b:ZZ )

- 293 -

powered by WIRIS

(c) maths for more sl. All rights reserved. Legal notice

gcd ({a1 :Element (Ring ),,an :Element (Ring )} )

gcd ([a1 :Element (Ring ),,an :Element (Ring )] )

gcd (r:QQ,s:QQ )

- 294 -

powered by WIRIS

(c) maths for more sl. All rights reserved. Legal notice

APPENDIX

More information on greatest common divisor

geometric_mean

geometric_progression

geometry_status

geometry_status (c:String )

- 295 -

powered by WIRIS

(c) maths for more sl. All rights reserved. Legal notice

geometry_status (n:Natural )

geometry_status ()

get_domain

get_domain (o )

greatest_common_divisor

More information on greatest common divisor

green

More information on color

green

green

green ={0,255,0}

grey

More information on color

- 296 -

powered by WIRIS

(c) maths for more sl. All rights reserved. Legal notice

APPENDIX

grey

grey

grey ={128,128,128}

grid_color

grid_color

Sets the grid colour.

Possible values : any Color , in {r,g,b} format, or by name if it has been defined.

Default value : {255,200,100} (light orange)

plotter , plotter

- 297 -

powered by WIRIS

(c) maths for more sl. All rights reserved. Legal notice

h

harmonic_mean

head

head (x:List )

height

- 298 -

powered by WIRIS

(c) maths for more sl. All rights reserved. Legal notice

APPENDIX

height (A,B,C)=height (triangle (A,B,C),2)

- 299 -

powered by WIRIS

(c) maths for more sl. All rights reserved. Legal notice

height

Sets the height of the drawing board.

Possible values : any positive Real number.

Default value : 21

height

Sets the height of the drawing board.

Possible values : any positive Real number.

Default value : 21

height_foot

- 300 -

powered by WIRIS

(c) maths for more sl. All rights reserved. Legal notice

APPENDIX

hermite_basis

hermite_basis (M:Matrix )

hessenberg_reduction

- 301 -

powered by WIRIS

(c) maths for more sl. All rights reserved. Legal notice

hessenberg_reduction (A:Matrix )

homotecy

horizontal_asymptote

- 302 -

powered by WIRIS

(c) maths for more sl. All rights reserved. Legal notice

APPENDIX

horizontal_asymptote

horizontal_position

horizontal_position

horizontal_position

This defines the horizontal position of the Text_box from the specified reference point.

Possible values : "left", "center", "right". "left" , "center" and "right"

Default value : "right"

write , text_box

householder

householder (v:Vector )

hyperbola

- 303 -

powered by WIRIS

(c) maths for more sl. All rights reserved. Legal notice

Hyperbola

Hyperbola

plot3d point

- 304 -

powered by WIRIS

(c) maths for more sl. All rights reserved. Legal notice

APPENDIX

i

i_

Icon

i_

icosahedron

icosahedron (p:Point ,c:Real )

icosahedron (c:Real )

icosahedron(c)=icosahedron(point(0,0,0),c)

icosahedron

icosahedron()=icosahedron(1)

Identifier

Identifier

- 305 -

powered by WIRIS

(c) maths for more sl. All rights reserved. Legal notice

annihilating_polynomial

belongs_to_domain?

coefficients

collect

complex_variable_name

curve2d

definition

degree

differentiate

discontinuities

domain

extension

finite_field

function

integrate

interpolate

irreducible_polynomial

irreducible_polynomials

limit

maclaurin

maclaurin

minimum_polynomial

plot2d

plot3d

polynomial

progression represent resultant resultant_matrix solve_inequation taylor

taylor taylor unit

identity

identity (p:Permutation )

identity?

identity? (p:Permutation )

identity_function

identity_function (x:Any )

identity_matrix

- 306 -

powered by WIRIS

(c) maths for more sl. All rights reserved. Legal notice

APPENDIX

Icon

identity_matrix (n:ZZ )

if

if...: Icon

or

, sentence

if B then A end

if B then A else A2 end

if B then A else_if B2 then A2 else A3 end

Carry out the instructions in A if the following condition is met B . If the condition is not met and there is an else

statement, then the instructions below are carried out A2 . It is also possible to have multiple conditions and various

groups of instructions by inserting conditional else_if statements from the programming tab menu.

image

- 307 -

powered by WIRIS

(c) maths for more sl. All rights reserved. Legal notice

image (A:Matrix )

image (l )

imaginary_part

imaginary_part (c:CC )

imaginary_part (p:Polynomial )

imply

- 308 -

powered by WIRIS

(c) maths for more sl. All rights reserved. Legal notice

APPENDIX

imply?

in

[x->y

with

i1 ,,in

in

r1 ,,rn ]

[x->y

with

i1 ,,in

in

r1 ,,rn

{x

with

i1 ,,in

in

where

p]

r1 ,,rn }

- 309 -

powered by WIRIS

(c) maths for more sl. All rights reserved. Legal notice

{x

with

i1 ,,in

in

r1 ,,rn

where

{x->y

with

i1 ,,in

in

r1 ,,rn }

{p=>v

with

r1 ,,rn

in

R1 ,,Rn

[x

with

i1 ,,in

in

r1 ,,rn ]

[x

with

i1 ,,in

in

r1 ,,rn

p}

[where

where

]}

p]

in

- 310 -

powered by WIRIS

(c) maths for more sl. All rights reserved. Legal notice

APPENDIX

Vector | Range ,expr:Expression

- 311 -

powered by WIRIS

(c) maths for more sl. All rights reserved. Legal notice

whereij :Identifier ,rj :List

| Vector | Range ,expr:Expression ,expr:Expression

sigma

expr

with

in

a..b

wherei:Identifier ,a:ZZ,b:ZZ,expr:Expression

- 312 -

powered by WIRIS

(c) maths for more sl. All rights reserved. Legal notice

APPENDIX

Vector | Range ,expr:Expression

- 313 -

powered by WIRIS

(c) maths for more sl. All rights reserved. Legal notice

whereij :Identifier ,rj :List

| Vector | Range ,expr:Expression ,expr:Expression

product

expr

with

in

a..b

wherei:Identifier ,a:ZZ,b:ZZ,expr:Expression

- 314 -

powered by WIRIS

(c) maths for more sl. All rights reserved. Legal notice

APPENDIX

sigma x with

| Range

i1 ,,in

in

r1 ,,rn

Vector

Vector

Range

wherei:Identifier ,a:ZZ,b:ZZ,x:Expression

- 315 -

powered by WIRIS

(c) maths for more sl. All rights reserved. Legal notice

| Vector | Range

r1 ,,rn

where

sigma x with

| Range

i1 ,,in

in

r1 ,,rn

- 316 -

Vector

powered by WIRIS

(c) maths for more sl. All rights reserved. Legal notice

APPENDIX

| Vector | Range

r1 ,,rn

where

product

with

i1 ,,in

in

r1 ,,rn

product

with

i1 ,,in

in

r1 ,,rn

where

incenter

- 317 -

powered by WIRIS

(c) maths for more sl. All rights reserved. Legal notice

incenter (T:Triangle )

incenter (T)=incenter (T1 ,T2 ,T3 )

index

index (x,l )

index (x,l,i:ZZ )

- 318 -

powered by WIRIS

(c) maths for more sl. All rights reserved. Legal notice

APPENDIX

index_erase

Inequation

Inequation

infinity

- 319 -

powered by WIRIS

(c) maths for more sl. All rights reserved. Legal notice

Icon

positive_infinity

infinity

Infinity

Infinity

inflection_point

inflection_point

information

- 320 -

powered by WIRIS

(c) maths for more sl. All rights reserved. Legal notice

APPENDIX

information

information

This defines the information that should be displayed when the mouse is scrolled over a figure. This information

can be changed, once the drawing is on the screen, using the icons actionshowname.png, actionshowvalue.png,

actionshowdef.png on the drawing board toolbar:

,

and

Possible values : "none", "name", "definition", "value". "none" , "name" , "definition" and "value"

Default value : "name"

information

This defines the information that should be displayed when the mouse is scrolled over a figure. This information

can be changed, once the drawing is on the screen, using the icons actionshowname.png, actionshowvalue.png,

actionshowdef.png on the drawing board toolbar.

,

or

Possible values : "none", "name", "definition", "value". "none" , "name" , "definition" and "value"

Default value : "name"

initial_angle

- 321 -

powered by WIRIS

(c) maths for more sl. All rights reserved. Legal notice

initial_angle (a:Arc )

initial_point

initial_point

inradius

inradius (T:Triangle )

inradius (T)=inradius (T1 ,T2 ,T3 )

insert

- 322 -

powered by WIRIS

(c) maths for more sl. All rights reserved. Legal notice

APPENDIX

insert ({l1 ,,ln },i,x)={l1 ,,li-1 ,x,li ,,ln }insert ([v1 ,,vn ],i,x)=[v1 ,,vi-1 ,x,vi ,,vn ]where 1<=i<=length(l)+1

polygonal (P1 ,...,Pi-1 ,A,Pi ,...,Pn ) where n=length (P), 1<=i<=n+1

integer

Integer

- 323 -

powered by WIRIS

(c) maths for more sl. All rights reserved. Legal notice

Integer

ZZ

integral_curve

More information on integral curve

integral_curves

More information on integral curves

integrate

- 324 -

powered by WIRIS

(c) maths for more sl. All rights reserved. Legal notice

APPENDIX

#

Icon

integrate (f,x:Identifier )

#

Icon

integrate (f )

#

Icon

#

Icon

integrate (f,a,b )

internal?

- 325 -

powered by WIRIS

(c) maths for more sl. All rights reserved. Legal notice

internal_order

- 326 -

powered by WIRIS

(c) maths for more sl. All rights reserved. Legal notice

APPENDIX

interpolate

interpolate

interpolate

interpolate

interpolate

interpolate

({x1 ,,xn },{y1 ,,yn },x:Identifier )

({point (x1 ,y1 ),,point (xn ,yn )} )

({point (x1 ,y1 ),,point (xn ,yn )},x:Identifier )

({x1 #y1 },,{xn #yn } )

interpolate (X,Y):=interpolate (point (a1 ,...,b1 ),...,point (an ,...,bn )) where

{X={a1 ,...,an

}, Y={b1 ,...,bn }}

- 327 -

powered by WIRIS

(c) maths for more sl. All rights reserved. Legal notice

interquartile_range

interquartile_range (VA:Statistics_data )

intersect

f1 #f2

- 328 -

powered by WIRIS

(c) maths for more sl. All rights reserved. Legal notice

APPENDIX

intersect (l1 :List |Vector ,l2 :List |Vector ) intersect (l1 ,l2 )=l1 /(l1 /l2 )=l2 /(l2 /l1 )

intersection_axis

intersection_axis

intersection_x_axis

intersection_x_axis

intersection_y_axis

intersection_y_axis

inverse

- 329 -

powered by WIRIS

(c) maths for more sl. All rights reserved. Legal notice

A-1

Icon

inverse (A:Matrix )

inverse (a:ZZ,m:ZZ )

- 330 -

powered by WIRIS

(c) maths for more sl. All rights reserved. Legal notice

APPENDIX

inverse (p:Permutation )

inverse (r:Relation )

inversion

- 331 -

powered by WIRIS

(c) maths for more sl. All rights reserved. Legal notice

invertible?

Irrational

- 332 -

powered by WIRIS

(c) maths for more sl. All rights reserved. Legal notice

APPENDIX

real_constants ()

real_constants (b:Boolean )

rationalize (r:RR )

simplify_radical (r:RR )

- 333 -

powered by WIRIS

(c) maths for more sl. All rights reserved. Legal notice

Icon

Pi_

Icon

pi_

Icon

E_

Icon

e_

- 334 -

powered by WIRIS

(c) maths for more sl. All rights reserved. Legal notice

APPENDIX

Icon

root (r:RR,n:ZZ )

roots (r:RR,n:ZZ )

Icon

- 335 -

powered by WIRIS

(c) maths for more sl. All rights reserved. Legal notice

Irrational

irreducible?

irreducible? (p:Polynomial )

irreducible? (p:Polynomial ,A:Ring )

irreducible_polynomial

irreducible_polynomial (K:Field ,n:ZZ )

irreducible_polynomials

- 336 -

powered by WIRIS

(c) maths for more sl. All rights reserved. Legal notice

APPENDIX

irreducible_polynomials (K:Field ,n:ZZ )

irreducible_polynomials (m:ZZ,K:Field ,n:ZZ )

is?

is? (o,D:Domain )

italic

italic

Possible values : true or false

Default value : false

italic_font

- 337 -

powered by WIRIS

(c) maths for more sl. All rights reserved. Legal notice

italic_font

This defines whether or not the text on the drawing board should be in italics.

Possible values : true, false. true and false

Default value : false

write , text_box

- 338 -

powered by WIRIS

(c) maths for more sl. All rights reserved. Legal notice

APPENDIX

j

j_

j_

jacobi

jacobi (a:ZZ,n:ZZ )

join

join (p,q)=polygon /al(p1 ,...,pn ,p1 ,q1 ,...,qm )

get_domain (join (p,q))=get_domain (q)

- 339 -

powered by WIRIS

(c) maths for more sl. All rights reserved. Legal notice

jordan

jordan (A:Matrix )

- 340 -

powered by WIRIS

(c) maths for more sl. All rights reserved. Legal notice

APPENDIX

k

kernel

kernel (A:Matrix )

kurtosis

kurtosis (VA:Statistics_data )

- 341 -

powered by WIRIS

(c) maths for more sl. All rights reserved. Legal notice

l

label

label

This defines the label that should be displayed next to the figure.

Possible values : any object and "automatic" . If we choose the second option, the label will be the name of the

figure.

Default value : "automatic"

label

This defines the label that should be displayed next to the figure.

Possible values : any object and "automatic" . If we choose the second option, the label will be the name of the

figure.

Default value : "automatic"

label_font

label_font

This sets the type of font that should be used to write the labels on the drawing board.

Possible values : any object of type Font .

Default value : {bold =false ,italic =false ,name ="SansSerif",size =12}

label_font

This sets the type of font that should be used to write the labels on the drawing board.

Possible values : any object of type Font .

Default value : {bold =false ,italic =false ,name ="SansSerif",size =12}

lcm

lcm (a:ZZ,b:ZZ )

- 342 -

powered by WIRIS

(c) maths for more sl. All rights reserved. Legal notice

APPENDIX

lcm ({a1 :Element (Ring ),,an :Element (Ring )} )

lcm ([a1 :Element (Ring ),,an :Element (Ring )] )

lcm (r:QQ,s:QQ )

leading_coefficient

- 343 -

powered by WIRIS

(c) maths for more sl. All rights reserved. Legal notice

leading_coefficient (p:Polynomial )

leading_term

leading_term (p:Polynomial )

least_common_multiple

More information on least common multiple

legendre

legendre (a:ZZ,p:ZZ )

length

- 344 -

powered by WIRIS

(c) maths for more sl. All rights reserved. Legal notice

APPENDIX

length (l:List

Vector

Range

Relation

Divisor

Table

Rule )

length (s:Segment )

lengths

let

- 345 -

powered by WIRIS

(c) maths for more sl. All rights reserved. Legal notice

let

let

v=x

v:=x

level_curves

More information on

library

library

library

- 346 -

powered by WIRIS

(c) maths for more sl. All rights reserved. Legal notice

APPENDIX

library: Icon

light_grey

More information on color

light_grey

light grey

light_grey ={64,64,64}

limit

- 347 -

powered by WIRIS

(c) maths for more sl. All rights reserved. Legal notice

lim x#a

Icon

limit (f,x#a:RR | Infinity )

limit (f,a:RR | Infinity )

lim x#a+

lim x#aIcon

f

f

or

limit (f,x#a:RR | Infinity ,dir )

limit (f,a:RR | Infinity ,dir )

limit_left

- 348 -

powered by WIRIS

(c) maths for more sl. All rights reserved. Legal notice

APPENDIX

lim x#a+

lim x#aIcon

f

f

or

limit (f,x#a:RR | Infinity ,dir )

limit (f,a:RR | Infinity ,dir )

limit_right

- 349 -

powered by WIRIS

(c) maths for more sl. All rights reserved. Legal notice

lim x#a+

lim x#aIcon

f

f

or

limit (f,x#a:RR | Infinity ,dir )

limit (f,a:RR | Infinity ,dir )

line

- 350 -

powered by WIRIS

(c) maths for more sl. All rights reserved. Legal notice

APPENDIX

- 351 -

powered by WIRIS

(c) maths for more sl. All rights reserved. Legal notice

line (s:Segment )

- 352 -

powered by WIRIS

(c) maths for more sl. All rights reserved. Legal notice

APPENDIX

More information on

Line

Line

inversion closest_point2d closest_point3d parallel parallel? perpendicular

perpendicular? plane plot plot2d plot3d point polo position projection

segment slope symmetry vector

Line

Allows us to create a line. The different arguments it can take are:

two points on the line (we can use the icon

),

an equation for the line, or

a point and a real number (the slope of the line).

If r is a line, then sloper, pointr, vectorr return the slope of the line, a point on the line and a direction vector of the

line, respectively. To study other functions that can also be used to build a line, see parallel, perpendicular, bisector.

slope (r) , point (r) and vector (r) parallel , perpendicular and bisector

- 353 -

powered by WIRIS

(c) maths for more sl. All rights reserved. Legal notice

two points on the line (we can use the icon

two equations (of secant planes).

line_width

line_width

This command is used to set the thickness of lines, segments or functions drawn on the drawing board.

Possible values : any positive Real number.

Default value : 1

line_width

This command is used to set the thickness of lines, segments or functions drawn on the drawing board.

Possible values : any positive Real number.

Default value : 1

Line2d

- 354 -

powered by WIRIS

(c) maths for more sl. All rights reserved. Legal notice

APPENDIX

Line2d

inversion closest_point2d closest_point3d parallel parallel? perpendicular

perpendicular? plane plot plot2d plot3d point polo position projection

segment slope symmetry vector

Line3d

Line3d

inversion closest_point2d closest_point3d parallel parallel? perpendicular

perpendicular? plane plot plot2d plot3d point polo position projection

segment slope symmetry vector

linearly_independents?

linearly_independents? (l:List )

More information on

list

- 355 -

powered by WIRIS

(c) maths for more sl. All rights reserved. Legal notice

list (p:Permutation )

list (p:Polygonal )

list (A:Point )

- 356 -

powered by WIRIS

(c) maths for more sl. All rights reserved. Legal notice

APPENDIX

list (F:Frequency_sample_of ( ZZ ) )

List

List

append

collect

column

combinations

combinations

combinations_with_repetition

constrained_maximum

constrained_maximum

constrained_minimum

constrained_minimum

coplanars?

correlation_n

count_element curve2d diagonal_matrix diagram divisor elements equation

erase geometric_progression head index_erase insert interpolate inverse

lengths linearly_independents? matrix max min moment multiplicity

numerical_solve permutation permutations permutations_with_repetition

plane point prepend progression quadric quadric3d range relation replace

resultant resultant_matrix reverse_range roots_to_polynomial select set

solve sort standard_deviation_n substring table tail take to_decimal

variance_n variations variations_with_repetition zero?

List_of

List_of

List_sample

- 357 -

powered by WIRIS

(c) maths for more sl. All rights reserved. Legal notice

List_sample

List_sample_of

List_sample_of

ln

ln (a:RR )

log

- 358 -

powered by WIRIS

(c) maths for more sl. All rights reserved. Legal notice

APPENDIX

log b (a)

log (a:RR,b:RR )

log (a:RR )

log10 (a:RR )

log10

log (a:RR )

log10 (a:RR )

log2

log2 (a:RR )

- 359 -

powered by WIRIS

(c) maths for more sl. All rights reserved. Legal notice

lu_decomposition

lu_decomposition (A:Matrix )

lucas

lucas (n:ZZ )

- 360 -

powered by WIRIS

(c) maths for more sl. All rights reserved. Legal notice

APPENDIX

m

maclaurin

taylor (e,x:Identifier ,n:ZZ )

magenta

More information on color

magenta

magenta

magenta ={255,0,255}

map

Vector )

map (f,{l1 ,...,lm })={f(l1 ),...,f(lm )}

map (f,[l1 ,...,lm ])=[f(l1 ),...,f(lm )]

- 361 -

powered by WIRIS

(c) maths for more sl. All rights reserved. Legal notice

map (f,r)=map (f,list (r))

Divisor

Table

Rule )

matrix

- 362 -

powered by WIRIS

(c) maths for more sl. All rights reserved. Legal notice

APPENDIX

matrix (c:Circumference )

matrix (c:Conic )

matrix (l:List )

Matrix

Matrix

Matrix (D:Domain )

- 363 -

powered by WIRIS

(c) maths for more sl. All rights reserved. Legal notice

conic

determinant

determinant

determinant

determinant

dimensions

eigenvalues

eigenvalues_and_vectors

eigenvectors

gaussian_elimination

gaussian_elimination

gaussian_elimination

hermite_basis hessenberg_reduction hessenberg_reduction image inverse

jordan jordan kernel kernel lengths lu_decomposition lu_decomposition

matrix_range minimum_polynomial minimum_polynomial minor n_columns n_rows

number_of_columns number_of_rows projectivity qr_decomposition rank

smith_normal_form smith_normal_form_basis solve subspace_intersection

subspace_sum supplement symmetric? trace transpose

Matrix

vectors and matrices: a vector is a sequence enclosed in square brackets, which we can create with the keys [ , ] ,

with the icon

, separating its elements with commas, or using the icon

. If the square brackets are created with

the icons, the size of the square brackets will adjust to the size of the contents. The same result can be obtained with

keystroke combinations [, ] Ctrl + [ and Ctrl + ]

A matrix is a vector formed from vectors of the same size. Each of these vectors corresponds to a row of the matrix.

The icons

matrices.

and

explained in detail in the chapter Menus, icons,... , enable easy creation of vectors and

To learn more about how the program works with vectors and matrices, see chapter Linear algebra .

- 364 -

powered by WIRIS

(c) maths for more sl. All rights reserved. Legal notice

APPENDIX

Subscripts are created using the icon

and they are the principal tool for manipulating vectors and matrices; in

particular, to extract and change their elements.

Given a list or a vector v and a whole number i , vi is the i th component of v , as long as 1ilengthv.

vi 1<=i<=length (v)

As every matrix is a vector of vectors, if

i th row (assuming that it exists).

A is a matrix, then Ai is its i th row and Ai,j(, Aij) thej th element in the

Ai Ai,j(Ai,j or Aij)Aij

An alternative but equivalent notation is to use the period, such that the expression An is the same as A.n, and Ai,j is

the same as A.i.. Along the same lines, if v is a vector, v.i is the i th component of v .

To change the value of a component in a list, vector or matrix, the syntax explained in the previous subsection can be

used, and it can be assigned a new value with the operator = .

- 365 -

powered by WIRIS

(c) maths for more sl. All rights reserved. Legal notice

matrix_range

matrix_range (A:Matrix )

max

- 366 -

powered by WIRIS

(c) maths for more sl. All rights reserved. Legal notice

APPENDIX

max_width

max_width

max_width

This defines the maximum width of the Text_box . When the text exceeds this width, a line break will be inserted.

Possible values : any positive Real number.

Default value : # (infinity).

write , text_box

maximum

More information on maximum

mean

- 367 -

powered by WIRIS

(c) maths for more sl. All rights reserved. Legal notice

median

More information on median

median_line

method

- 368 -

powered by WIRIS

(c) maths for more sl. All rights reserved. Legal notice

APPENDIX

method

midpoint

midpoint (A,B)=A+B/2

- 369 -

powered by WIRIS

(c) maths for more sl. All rights reserved. Legal notice

midpoint (s:Segment )

midpoint (segment (p,q))=p+q/2

midpoint (a:Arc )

min

- 370 -

powered by WIRIS

(c) maths for more sl. All rights reserved. Legal notice

APPENDIX

minimum

More information on minimum

minimum_polynomial

minimum_polynomial (A:Matrix )

minimum_polynomial (A:Matrix ,x:Any )

minimum_polynomial (A,{name_identifier =k})=minimum_polynomial (A,k)

minimum_polynomial

minimum_polynomial

minimum_polynomial

minimum_polynomial

(a:Element (Field ),K:Field )

(a:Element (Field ),t:Identifier )

((a:Element (Field )) )

- 371 -

powered by WIRIS

(c) maths for more sl. All rights reserved. Legal notice

minor

missing

missing

missing

missing?

missing? (X:Statistics_data )

- 372 -

powered by WIRIS

(c) maths for more sl. All rights reserved. Legal notice

APPENDIX

mobile

mobile

If the object to plot has not been defined as static, the image is allowed to move, or not move, in the plane.

Possible values : true, false. true and false

Default value : true

mobile

If the object to draw has not been defined as static, the image can move, or not move, in space.

Possible values : true, false. true and false

Default value : true

mod

mod

mode

- 373 -

powered by WIRIS

(c) maths for more sl. All rights reserved. Legal notice

mode (VA:Statistics_data )

moment

monic

monic (p:Polynomial )

monic?

monic? (p:Polynomial )

- 374 -

powered by WIRIS

(c) maths for more sl. All rights reserved. Legal notice

APPENDIX

move

mu_moebius

mu_moebius (n:ZZ )

multiplicities

factor (p:Polynomial ,A:Ring ,O: )

multiplicity

- 375 -

powered by WIRIS

(c) maths for more sl. All rights reserved. Legal notice

Multisample

Multisample

- 376 -

powered by WIRIS

(c) maths for more sl. All rights reserved. Legal notice

APPENDIX

n

n_columns

n_columns (A:Matrix )

n_rows

n_rows (A:Matrix )

n_terms

n_terms (p:Polynomial )

n_variables

n_variables (p:Polynomial )

name

- 377 -

powered by WIRIS

(c) maths for more sl. All rights reserved. Legal notice

name

Possible values : "Serif" , "SansSerif" or "Monospaced"

Default value : "SansSerif"

name

If the command plot does not know the name of the object to be drawn, enter it. This only has an effect when

working with a single element and not with a list.

Possible values : any object of type String .

Default value : null

name

If the command plot3d does not know the name of the object to be drawn, enter it. This only has an effect when

working with a single element and not with a list.

Possible values : any object of type String .

Default value : null

name_identifier

minimum_polynomial (A,{name_identifier =k})=minimum_polynomial (A,k)

names

names

- 378 -

powered by WIRIS

(c) maths for more sl. All rights reserved. Legal notice

APPENDIX

Natural

Natural

Icon

polyhedra

polyhedra_cone

polyhedra_cone_with_lid

polyhedra_cylinder

polyhedra_cylinder_with_lids polyhedra_sphere polyhedra_thorus series

show_terms substring taylor_series term term_list terms terms_list

truncate

negative?

negative? (x:Real )

negative_infinity

Icon

negative_infinity

new_identifier

- 379 -

powered by WIRIS

(c) maths for more sl. All rights reserved. Legal notice

new_identifier (v )

new_identifier (v,n:ZZ )

Non_centered_conic

Non_centered_conic

Parabola

non_differentiable_point

non_differentiable_point

norm

- 380 -

powered by WIRIS

(c) maths for more sl. All rights reserved. Legal notice

APPENDIX

||c||

Icon

norm (c:CC )

norm (v:Vector )

norm (a,L:Field )

norm (a:Element (Field ) )

- 381 -

powered by WIRIS

(c) maths for more sl. All rights reserved. Legal notice

norm_1

norm_1 (p:Polynomial )

norm_2

norm_2 (p:Polynomial )

norm_infinity

norm_infinity (p:Polynomial )

normal_vector

normal_vector (p:Plane )

not

- 382 -

powered by WIRIS

(c) maths for more sl. All rights reserved. Legal notice

APPENDIX

not

not false =true

not_belongs?

not_belongs? (x,l )

not_null?

null

null

- 383 -

powered by WIRIS

(c) maths for more sl. All rights reserved. Legal notice

Null

Null

null .

null?

num

numerator (q:QQ )

num (q:QQ )

numerator (f:Fraction )

num (f:Fraction )

- 384 -

powered by WIRIS

(c) maths for more sl. All rights reserved. Legal notice

APPENDIX

number_of_arguments

number_of_arguments (f )

number_of_columns

number_of_columns (M:Matrix )

number_of_irreducible_polynomials

number_of_irreducible_polynomials (n:ZZ,K:Field )

number_of_irreducible_polynomials (n:ZZ,q:ZZ )

number_of_irreducible_polynomials (n:ZZ )

number_of_rows

- 385 -

powered by WIRIS

(c) maths for more sl. All rights reserved. Legal notice

number_of_rows (M:Matrix )

number_of_terms

number_of_terms (p:Polynomial )

number_of_variables

number_of_variables (p:Polynomial )

numerator

numerator (q:QQ )

num (q:QQ )

- 386 -

powered by WIRIS

(c) maths for more sl. All rights reserved. Legal notice

APPENDIX

numerator (f:Fraction )

num (f:Fraction )

numerical_differentiation

numerical_integration

numerical_solve

numerical_solve

- 387 -

powered by WIRIS

(c) maths for more sl. All rights reserved. Legal notice

- 388 -

powered by WIRIS

(c) maths for more sl. All rights reserved. Legal notice

APPENDIX

o

oblique_asymptote

oblique_asymptote

octahedron

octahedron (c:Real )

octahedron(c)=octahedron(point(0,0,0),c)

octahedron

octahedron()=octahedron(1)

one?

one? (n:Element )

- 389 -

powered by WIRIS

(c) maths for more sl. All rights reserved. Legal notice

only_one_element

orange

More information on color

orange

orange

orange ={255,200,0}

order

order (p:Permutation )

orientation

- 390 -

powered by WIRIS

(c) maths for more sl. All rights reserved. Legal notice

APPENDIX

orientation

orientation (T:Triangle )

oriented_angle

argument (w)-argument (v)

oriented_area

- 391 -

powered by WIRIS

(c) maths for more sl. All rights reserved. Legal notice

oriented_area (p:Polygon )

oriented_area (T:Triangle )

oriented_area (a:Arc )

orthocenter

- 392 -

powered by WIRIS

(c) maths for more sl. All rights reserved. Legal notice

APPENDIX

orthocenter (T:Triangle )

orthocenter (T)=orthocenter (T1 ,T2 ,T3 )

- 393 -

powered by WIRIS

(c) maths for more sl. All rights reserved. Legal notice

p

parabola

Parabola

Parabola

plot3d point vertex

parallel

- 394 -

powered by WIRIS

(c) maths for more sl. All rights reserved. Legal notice

APPENDIX

parallel?

- 395 -

powered by WIRIS

(c) maths for more sl. All rights reserved. Legal notice

perimeter

perimeter (a:Arc )

perimeter (c:Circumference )

perimeter (T:Triangle )

permutation

permutation (r:Relation )

permutation (r:Relation ,m:ZZ )

- 396 -

powered by WIRIS

(c) maths for more sl. All rights reserved. Legal notice

APPENDIX

permutation (l:List )

permutation (v:Vector )

Permutation

Permutation

permutation_matrix

- 397 -

powered by WIRIS

(c) maths for more sl. All rights reserved. Legal notice

permutations

permutations(L)

Icon

Icon

permutations (n:ZZ )

permutations_with_repetition

- 398 -

powered by WIRIS

(c) maths for more sl. All rights reserved. Legal notice

APPENDIX

permutations_with_repetition(n,n1 ,...,nk )

permutations_with_repetition (n:ZZ,n1 :ZZ,...,nk :ZZ )

permutations_with_repetition(n,L)

perpendicular

Icon

or

- 399 -

powered by WIRIS

(c) maths for more sl. All rights reserved. Legal notice

perpendicular (v:Vector )

perpendicular?

perpendicular_bisector

- 400 -

powered by WIRIS

(c) maths for more sl. All rights reserved. Legal notice

APPENDIX

perpendicular_bisector (s:Segment )

perpendicular_vector

phi_euler

phi_euler (n:ZZ )

pi_

- 401 -

powered by WIRIS

(c) maths for more sl. All rights reserved. Legal notice

Icon

pi_

Pi_

Icon

Pi_

pink

More information on color

pink

pink

pink ={255,175,175}

plane

plane (p:Point ,r:Line )

plane=plane(p, vector(l))

- 402 -

powered by WIRIS

(c) maths for more sl. All rights reserved. Legal notice

APPENDIX

plane=plane(p,vector(r1),vector(r2))

plane=plane(p, vector(s))

plane (l:List )

- 403 -

powered by WIRIS

(c) maths for more sl. All rights reserved. Legal notice

Ax+By+Cz+D=0

More information on

Plane3d

Plane3d

normal_vector plot plot2d plot3d symmetry symmetry_matrix vector

plot

- 404 -

powered by WIRIS

(c) maths for more sl. All rights reserved. Legal notice

APPENDIX

plot ()

if geometry_status =2 then plot =plot2d else plot =plot3d end

More information on

plot

This function is generally used to draw d on a "drawing board". Some objects that can be drawn include: Point, Line,

Circumference, Segment. If the argument is a List , then all its elements are drawn.

or Text_box

It is worth mentioning the case where parameter d is an identifier (variable). If its value is a drawable object then it

is drawn, otherwise no action is taken and a warning is returned. Later, if the value of d changes then the drawing

is updated to show the new object. You could say that the drawing board remembers the elements that are drawn on

it and redraws them if their value changes.

The example below demonstrates this behaviour. If P is defined as point (3,5,0) and we draw it (first block), it appears

drawn as point (3,5,0) on the drawing board. If then P takes as its value the point (2,-1), this is the point that appears

on the drawing board. Note that this happens without having to use the command plot with point P .

plot2d

- 405 -

powered by WIRIS

(c) maths for more sl. All rights reserved. Legal notice

plot ()

if geometry_status =2 then plot =plot2d else plot =plot3d end

plot2d (f:Plotable2d )

- 406 -

powered by WIRIS

(c) maths for more sl. All rights reserved. Legal notice

APPENDIX

plot2d (e:Equation )

plot2d (f,x:Identifier )

plot2d (f )

plot2d (f,r:Range )

plot3d

plot ()

if geometry_status =2 then plot =plot2d else plot =plot3d end

plot3d (p:Plotter3D ,f:Plotable3d ,t:Table )

- 407 -

powered by WIRIS

(c) maths for more sl. All rights reserved. Legal notice

plot3d (v:Variable(Plotable3d) )

plot3d (e:Equation )

plot3d (f:Plotable3d )

- 408 -

powered by WIRIS

(c) maths for more sl. All rights reserved. Legal notice

APPENDIX

plot3d (f )

- 409 -

powered by WIRIS

(c) maths for more sl. All rights reserved. Legal notice

More information on

plot3d

This function is generally used to plot an object d on a "drawing board". Some objects that can be drawn include:

Point, Line, Plane3d, Segment. If the argument is a List , then all its elements are drawn.

, Curve3d and Text_box

It is worth mentioning the case where parameter d is an identifier (variable). If its value is a drawable object then it

is drawn, otherwise no action is taken and a warning is returned. Later, if the value of d changes then the drawing

is updated to show the new object. You could say that the drawing board remembers the elements that are drawn on

it and redraws them if their value changes.

In the example below this behavior can be confirmed. If P is defined as point (3,5,0) and it is drawn (first block), it

appears drawn as point (3,5,0) on the drawing board. If, then, P takes as value the point (2,-1,0), this is the point that

appears on the drawing board. Note that this happens without having to use the command plot3d with point P .

- 410 -

powered by WIRIS

(c) maths for more sl. All rights reserved. Legal notice

APPENDIX

Plotable

Plotable

Plotable2d

Plotable2d

Plotable3d

- 411 -

powered by WIRIS

(c) maths for more sl. All rights reserved. Legal notice

Plotable3d

plotter

plotter ()

if geometry_status =2 then plotter =plotter2d else plotter =plotter3d end

Plotter

Plotter

attributes_for_all3d

attributes2d

default_plotter3d plot2d

attributes3d

default_plotter2d

plotter2d

- 412 -

powered by WIRIS

(c) maths for more sl. All rights reserved. Legal notice

APPENDIX

plotter2d ()

plotter ()

if geometry_status =2 then plotter =plotter2d else plotter =plotter3d end

plotter2d (o: )

Plotter2d

Plotter2d

plotter3d

plotter3d ()

plotter ()

if geometry_status =2 then plotter =plotter2d else plotter =plotter3d end

- 413 -

powered by WIRIS

(c) maths for more sl. All rights reserved. Legal notice

plotter3d (o: )

o.

Pdxdydz

Pdxdydzo.

Plotter3d

Plotter3d

point

point (x:RR,y:RR )

- 414 -

powered by WIRIS

(c) maths for more sl. All rights reserved. Legal notice

APPENDIX

point ()

point (c:CC )

point(v)=point(v1 ,v2 ,v3 )

point (v:Vector )

- 415 -

powered by WIRIS

(c) maths for more sl. All rights reserved. Legal notice

point (x:RR )

point (r:Line )

- 416 -

powered by WIRIS

(c) maths for more sl. All rights reserved. Legal notice

APPENDIX

point (T:Triangle )

point (c:Circumference )

- 417 -

powered by WIRIS

(c) maths for more sl. All rights reserved. Legal notice

- 418 -

powered by WIRIS

(c) maths for more sl. All rights reserved. Legal notice

APPENDIX

- 419 -

powered by WIRIS

(c) maths for more sl. All rights reserved. Legal notice

point (qt:Text_box )

More information on

Point

Point

Icon

or

apolonius_hyperbola

append

arc

argument

attributes3d

barycenter

belongs? bisector circumcenter circumference circumradius colinear?

compass conic cube distance dodecahedron ellipse equilateral_triangle

exterior_bisector

external?

height

height_foot

homotecy

hyperbola

icosahedron

incenter

inradius

insert

internal?

interpolate

inversion

line

list

midpoint

closest_point2d

closest_point2d

closest_point3d closest_point3d octahedron orthocenter parabola parallel

perpendicular perpendicular_bisector plane plot plot2d plot3d plotter2d

plotter3d point polar polygon polygonal polyhedra polyhedra_cone

polyhedra_cone_with_lid polyhedra_cylinder polyhedra_cylinder_with_lids

polyhedra_sphere polyhedra_thorus position power prepend projection

- 420 -

powered by WIRIS

(c) maths for more sl. All rights reserved. Legal notice

APPENDIX

pyramid

radical_axle

regular_polygon

rotation

rotation_matrix

segment simple_ratio symmetry tangent_axle tangent_line tangent_lines

tangent_points tetrahedron text_box translation triangle vector write

More information on center

point_size

point_size

This sets the size of points plotted on the drawing board.

Possible values : any positive Real number.

Default value : 5

point_size

This sets the size of points drawn on the drawing board.

Possible values : any positive Real number.

Default value : 5

Point2d

Point2d

Icon

Point3d

- 421 -

powered by WIRIS

(c) maths for more sl. All rights reserved. Legal notice

Point3d

Icon

polar

polar (c:CC )

polar (r:RR,w:RR )

- 422 -

powered by WIRIS

(c) maths for more sl. All rights reserved. Legal notice

APPENDIX

polar_curve

Polar_curve

Polar_curve

plot3d point polygon polygonal range variables

plot

plot2d

polo

- 423 -

powered by WIRIS

(c) maths for more sl. All rights reserved. Legal notice

polygon

polygonal (C:Curve )=polygonal (polygon (C))

More information on

- 424 -

powered by WIRIS

(c) maths for more sl. All rights reserved. Legal notice

APPENDIX

Polygon

Polygon

angle2d angle3d append attributes3d drop erase insert join line map

closest_point2d closest_point3d oriented_area plot plot2d plot3d point

polygonal prepend prism pyramid segment vertex vertices

Polygon2d

Polygon2d

angle2d angle3d append attributes3d drop erase insert join line map

closest_point2d closest_point3d oriented_area plot plot2d plot3d point

polygonal prepend prism pyramid segment vertex vertices

Polygon3d

- 425 -

powered by WIRIS

(c) maths for more sl. All rights reserved. Legal notice

Polygon3d

angle2d angle3d append attributes3d drop erase insert join line map

closest_point2d closest_point3d oriented_area plot plot2d plot3d point

polygonal prepend prism pyramid segment vertex vertices

polygonal

polygonal (p:Polygon )

- 426 -

powered by WIRIS

(c) maths for more sl. All rights reserved. Legal notice

APPENDIX

More information on

Polygonal

Polygonal

angle2d angle3d append attributes3d drop erase insert join line list map

closest_point2d closest_point3d plot plot2d plot3d point polygon prepend

segment sequence vertex vertices

Polygonal2d

- 427 -

powered by WIRIS

(c) maths for more sl. All rights reserved. Legal notice

Polygonal2d

angle2d angle3d append attributes3d drop erase insert join line list map

closest_point2d closest_point3d plot plot2d plot3d point polygon prepend

segment sequence vertex vertices

Polygonal3d

Polygonal3d

angle2d angle3d append attributes3d drop erase insert join line list map

closest_point2d closest_point3d plot plot2d plot3d point polygon prepend

segment sequence vertex vertices

polygonals

polygonals (c:Curve )

polyhedra

polyhedra (n:Natural )

polyhedra(n)=polyhedra(n,point(0,0,0),1)

polyhedra(n,p)=polyhedra(n,p,1)

- 428 -

powered by WIRIS

(c) maths for more sl. All rights reserved. Legal notice

APPENDIX

polyhedra(n,c)=polyhedra(n,point(0,0,0),c)

More information on

polyhedra_cone

polyhedra_cone (n:Natural ,p:Point ,r:Real ,h:Real )

polyhedra_cone (n:Natural )

polyhedra cone(n)=polyhedra cone(n,point(0,0,0),1,1)

polyhedra cone(n,p)=polyhedra cone(n,p,1,1)

polyhedra cone(n,r,h)=polyhedra cone(n,point(0,0,0),r,h)

polyhedra_cone_with_lid

- 429 -

powered by WIRIS

(c) maths for more sl. All rights reserved. Legal notice

polyhedra cone with lid(n,p)=polyhedra cone with lid(n,p,1,1)

polyhedra cone with lid(n,r,h)=polyhedra cone with lid(n,point(0,0,0),r,h)

polyhedra_cone_with_lid (n:Natural )

polyhedra cone with lid(n)=polyhedra cone with lid(n,point(0,0,0),1,1)

polyhedra_cylinder

polyhedra_cylinder (n:Natural )

polyhedra cylinder(n)=polyhedra cylinder(n,point(0,0,0),1,1)

polyhedra cylinder(n,p)=polyhedra cylinder(n,p,1,1)

polyhedra cylinder(n,r,h)=polyhedra cylinder(n,point(0,0,0),r,h)

- 430 -

powered by WIRIS

(c) maths for more sl. All rights reserved. Legal notice

APPENDIX

polyhedra_cylinder_with_lids

polyhedra_cylinder_with_lids (n:Natural ,p:Point ,r:Real ,h:Real )

polyhedra_cylinder_with_lids (n:Natural )

polyhedra cylinder with lids(n)=polyhedra cylinder with lids(n,point(0,0,0),1,1)

polyhedra cylinder with lids(n,p)=polyhedra cylinder with lids(n,p,1,1)

polyhedra cylinder with lids(n,r,h)=polyhedra cylinder with lids(n,point(0,0,0),r,h)

polyhedra_sphere

polyhedra_sphere (r:Real )

polyhedra sphere(r)=polyhedra sphere(20,point(0,0,0),r)

polyhedra sphere(p, r)=polyhedra sphere(20,p,r)

polyhedra sphere(n, r)=polyhedra sphere(n,point(0,0,0),r)

- 431 -

powered by WIRIS

(c) maths for more sl. All rights reserved. Legal notice

polyhedra_thorus

polyhedra_thorus (n:Natural ,r:Real ,R:Real )

polyhedra thorus(n,r,R)=polyhedra thorus(n,point(0,0,0),r,R)

polyhedra thorus(r,R)=polyhedra thorus(20,point(0,0,0),r,R)

polyhedra thorus(p,r,R)=polyhedra thorus(20,p,r,R)

Polyhedra3d

Polyhedra3d

polynomial

- 432 -

powered by WIRIS

(c) maths for more sl. All rights reserved. Legal notice

APPENDIX

polynomial (B:Extension )

Polynomial

Polynomial

all_variables

attributes2d

attributes3d

bezout

chinese_theorem_coefficients

circumference

coefficient_domain

coefficients collect conic conjugate content content_and_primitive_part

degree

dense_coefficient_list

evaluate

expand

extended_gcd

extension

factor

factor

factor

factor_in_square_free

factor_in_square_free_multiplicity

gcd

imaginary_part

inverse

irreducible?

lcm

leading_coefficient

leading_term

monic

monic?

multiplicity

n_terms

n_variables

closest_point2d

closest_point3d

norm_1 norm_2 norm_infinity number_of_terms number_of_variables plot

plot2d plot3d polynomial_to_companion_matrix power_modulo primitive_part

pseudoremainder

quo

quo

quo

quo_rem

quo_rem

quotient

quotient

quotient_and_remainder quotient_and_remainder real_part rem rem remainder

remainder resultant resultant_matrix roots square_free? tail variable

variables

polynomial_to_companion_matrix

polynomial_to_companion_matrix (p:Polynomial )

- 433 -

powered by WIRIS

(c) maths for more sl. All rights reserved. Legal notice

polynomic?

polynomic? (p:Progression )

position

- 434 -

powered by WIRIS

(c) maths for more sl. All rights reserved. Legal notice

APPENDIX

positive?

positive? (x:Real )

- 435 -

powered by WIRIS

(c) maths for more sl. All rights reserved. Legal notice

positive_infinity

Icon

positive_infinity

infinity

power

power_modulo

precedent

- 436 -

powered by WIRIS

(c) maths for more sl. All rights reserved. Legal notice

APPENDIX

precedent (B:Extension )

precision

precision (n:ZZ )

precision ()

prepend

prepend ({[ [l1 ,...,ln ]]},x)={[ [x,l1 ,...,ln ]]}prepend ([ [l1 ,...,ln ]],x)=[ [x,l1 ,...,ln ]]where 1<=i<=length(l)+1

- 437 -

powered by WIRIS

(c) maths for more sl. All rights reserved. Legal notice

prime

prime (n:ZZ )

prime?

prime? (n:ZZ )

prime_power?

prime_power? (n:ZZ )

- 438 -

powered by WIRIS

(c) maths for more sl. All rights reserved. Legal notice

APPENDIX

primitive_element

primitive_element (K:Field )

primitive_part

primitive_part (p:Polynomial )

prism

prism (pol:Polygon ,h:Real )

product

- 439 -

powered by WIRIS

(c) maths for more sl. All rights reserved. Legal notice

product

expr

with

in

a..b

wherei:Identifier ,a:ZZ,b:ZZ,expr:Expression

Vector | Range ,expr:Expression

- 440 -

powered by WIRIS

(c) maths for more sl. All rights reserved. Legal notice

APPENDIX

whereij :Identifier ,rj :List

| Vector | Range ,expr:Expression ,expr:Expression

progression

progression (a:List |Vector )

- 441 -

powered by WIRIS

(c) maths for more sl. All rights reserved. Legal notice

Progression

Progression

progression_sigma

More information on

progression_terms

progression_terms (n:ZZ )

progression_terms ()

projection

- 442 -

powered by WIRIS

(c) maths for more sl. All rights reserved. Legal notice

APPENDIX

projectivity

|Polygonal3d )

projectivity (M:Matrix ,F:Line3d |Plane3d |Polyhedra3d |Quadric3d )

pseudoremainder

- 443 -

powered by WIRIS

(c) maths for more sl. All rights reserved. Legal notice

pyramid

pyramid (pol:Polygon ,v:Point )

- 444 -

powered by WIRIS

(c) maths for more sl. All rights reserved. Legal notice

APPENDIX

q

qr_decomposition

qr_decomposition (A:Matrix )

quadric

quadric (L:List )

Quadric

Quadric

quadric3d

- 445 -

powered by WIRIS

(c) maths for more sl. All rights reserved. Legal notice

quadric3d (L:List )

Quadric3d

Quadric3d

quantity

Quantity

- 446 -

powered by WIRIS

(c) maths for more sl. All rights reserved. Legal notice

APPENDIX

Quantity

unit_si

quartile

quartile (k:ZZ,VA:Statistics_data )

quartile (VA:Statistics_data )

quo

- 447 -

powered by WIRIS

(c) maths for more sl. All rights reserved. Legal notice

quotient (a:ZZ,b:ZZ )

quo (a:ZZ,b:ZZ )

a//b

quo (p1 :Polynomial ,p2 :Polynomial )

p1 //p2

quo_rem

quotient_and_remainder (a:ZZ,b:ZZ )

quo_rem (a:ZZ,b:ZZ )

quo_rem (p1 :Polynomial ,p2 :Polynomial )

- 448 -

powered by WIRIS

(c) maths for more sl. All rights reserved. Legal notice

APPENDIX

More information on quotient and remainder

quotient

quotient (a:ZZ,b:ZZ )

quo (a:ZZ,b:ZZ )

a//b

quotient_and_remainder (a:RR,b:RR )

quotient (a:RR,b:RR )

remainder (a:RR,b:RR )

quo (p1 :Polynomial ,p2 :Polynomial )

p1 //p2

quotient_and_remainder

- 449 -

powered by WIRIS

(c) maths for more sl. All rights reserved. Legal notice

quotient_and_remainder (a:ZZ,b:ZZ )

quo_rem (a:ZZ,b:ZZ )

quotient_and_remainder (a:RR,b:RR )

quotient (a:RR,b:RR )

remainder (a:RR,b:RR )

quo_rem (p1 :Polynomial ,p2 :Polynomial )

- 450 -

powered by WIRIS

(c) maths for more sl. All rights reserved. Legal notice

APPENDIX

r

radical_axle

radius

radius (a:Arc )

radius (c:Circumference )

random

- 451 -

powered by WIRIS

(c) maths for more sl. All rights reserved. Legal notice

random

random

random

random

(n:Integer )

(x:Real )

(a:Integer ,b:Integer )

(x:Real ,y:Real )

range

range (l:List )

Range

- 452 -

powered by WIRIS

(c) maths for more sl. All rights reserved. Legal notice

APPENDIX

Range

plot3d represent reverse_range select slider sort

Range

ranges: These are objects of form a..b or a..b..d where a , b and d are real numbers (a..b equivalent

to a..b..1 ). If d is a number other than 0 , the range a..b..d represents the list formed from the elements

of the arithmetic progression a, a+d, a+2d, ... , not exceeding b . If d is zero the range represents

an empty list. For example, 1..6 represents {1,2,3,4,5,6} , 1..6..2 represents {1,3,5} and

6..1..-3 represents {6,3} .

The function list list applied to a range returns the list which it represents.

rank

rank (A:Matrix )

- 453 -

powered by WIRIS

(c) maths for more sl. All rights reserved. Legal notice

ratio

ratio (p:Progression )

rational

rational (f:Float )

e

m#10 .

Rational

- 454 -

powered by WIRIS

(c) maths for more sl. All rights reserved. Legal notice

APPENDIX

Rational

rational

rational numbers: Rational numbers are created as a fraction from two integers, with the icon

or with the symbol

/ . There are two functions associated with rational numbers numerator and denominator . If q is a

rational number, then numerator(q) and denominator(q) give us, respectively, the numerator and the denominator of the

irreducible fraction equivalent to q .numerator (q) denominator (q)

rationalize

rationalize (r:RR )

real

- 455 -

powered by WIRIS

(c) maths for more sl. All rights reserved. Legal notice

real (x:Complex )

Real

RR

Real

dodecahedron

homotecy

icosahedron

moment

negative?

numerical_differentiation

numerical_integration

octahedron

plane

plot2d plot3d plotter2d plotter3d point polyhedra polyhedra_cone

polyhedra_cone_with_lid polyhedra_cylinder polyhedra_cylinder_with_lids

polyhedra_sphere

polyhedra_thorus

positive?

prism

quotient

quotient

quotient

quotient_and_remainder

quotient_and_remainder

quotient_and_remainder random remainder remainder remainder represent

rotation_matrix series sign0 tangent taylor_series tetrahedron to_decimal

zero0 zoom

More information on aspect_ratio , depth , height , line_width , max_width , point_size , transform_matrix , transparency ,

width , window_aspect_ratio

real_constants

real_constants ()

- 456 -

powered by WIRIS

(c) maths for more sl. All rights reserved. Legal notice

APPENDIX

real_constants (b:Boolean )

Real_dimensionless_quantity

Real_dimensionless_quantity

Real_or_infinity

Real_or_infinity

real_part

- 457 -

powered by WIRIS

(c) maths for more sl. All rights reserved. Legal notice

real_part (c:CC )

real_part (p:Polynomial )

red

More information on color

red

red

red ={255,0,0}

regression_line

regression_line (M:Multisample )

- 458 -

powered by WIRIS

(c) maths for more sl. All rights reserved. Legal notice

APPENDIX

More information on regression line

regular_polygon

regular_polygon (n:ZZ,s:Segment )

relation

Relation

- 459 -

powered by WIRIS

(c) maths for more sl. All rights reserved. Legal notice

Relation

Relation

relations: From the syntactic point of view, a relation is a list of objects of type x->y . It can be said that x is an

index, y is its associated value and x->y is a pair within the relation. The most important aspect of relations is

that they permit the user to retrieve the value (or sequence of values) associated with an index. This is achieved by

applying the object to the relation. If an object does not have an index associated with a relation, the result of applying

it to the relation is null .

The symbol -> can be created using the icon

relative_degree

relative_degree (B:Extension )

relative_tolerance

- 460 -

powered by WIRIS

(c) maths for more sl. All rights reserved. Legal notice

APPENDIX

relative_tolerance (b:Boolean )

rem

remainder (a:ZZ,b:ZZ )

rem (a:ZZ,b:ZZ )

rem (p1 :Polynomial ,p2 :Polynomial )

remainder

- 461 -

powered by WIRIS

(c) maths for more sl. All rights reserved. Legal notice

remainder (a:ZZ,b:ZZ )

rem (a:ZZ,b:ZZ )

quotient_and_remainder (a:RR,b:RR )

quotient (a:RR,b:RR )

remainder (a:RR,b:RR )

rem (p1 :Polynomial ,p2 :Polynomial )

repeat

- 462 -

powered by WIRIS

(c) maths for more sl. All rights reserved. Legal notice

APPENDIX

repeat...: Icon

, sentence

repeat A until B

Carry out the instructions in A until the following condition is met B .

replace

- 463 -

powered by WIRIS

(c) maths for more sl. All rights reserved. Legal notice

replace ({l1 ,...,li ,...,lm },i,x)={l1 ,...,li-1 ,x,li+1 ,...,lm }

replace ({l1 ,...,li1 ,...,lm },i1 ,...,in ,x)={l1 ,...,li-1 ,replace (li1 ,i2 ,...,in ,x),li1 +1 ,...,lm }

- 464 -

powered by WIRIS

(c) maths for more sl. All rights reserved. Legal notice

APPENDIX

| Range ,x )

Vector

Vector

represent

- 465 -

powered by WIRIS

(c) maths for more sl. All rights reserved. Legal notice

represent (x... )

represent (f,x:Identifier )

represent (f )

represent (f,r:Range )

represent_sign

represent_sign (b:Boolean )

- 466 -

powered by WIRIS

(c) maths for more sl. All rights reserved. Legal notice

APPENDIX

represent_sign ()

residue?

residue?

residue?

residue?

residue?

(a:Element

(a:Element

(a:Element

(a:Element

(Field

(Field

(Field

(Field

)),K:Field ,r:ZZ )

),r:ZZ )

),K:Field )

) )

result

- 467 -

powered by WIRIS

(c) maths for more sl. All rights reserved. Legal notice

result

resultant

- 468 -

powered by WIRIS

(c) maths for more sl. All rights reserved. Legal notice

APPENDIX

resultant (p:Polynomial ,q:Polynomial ,{t1 ,,tn }:List )

resultant_matrix

resultant_matrix (p:Polynomial ,q:Polynomial ,{t1 ,,tn }:List )

reverse

reverse (l:Range )

reverse (a..b..k)=b..a..-k

- 469 -

powered by WIRIS

(c) maths for more sl. All rights reserved. Legal notice

reverse (l:Relation

Divisor

Table

Rule )

reverse (l)=l

reverse (l:List

reverse (l)=llength

Vector )

(l)..1..-1

reverse_range

reverse range(l)=reverse range(range(l))

reverse_range (r:Range )

reverse range(a..b..step)=b..a..-step

ring

- 470 -

powered by WIRIS

(c) maths for more sl. All rights reserved. Legal notice

APPENDIX

Ring

Ring

factor factor factor_in_square_free factor_in_square_free_multiplicity

find_one find_zero finite? index inverse invertible? irreducible? ring

root roots simple_fractions sqrt square_roots

ring?

ring? (A )

root

- 471 -

powered by WIRIS

(c) maths for more sl. All rights reserved. Legal notice

Icon

root (r:RR,n:ZZ )

Icon

- 472 -

powered by WIRIS

(c) maths for more sl. All rights reserved. Legal notice

APPENDIX

Icon

Icon

roots

roots (r:RR,n:ZZ )

roots (p:Polynomial )

roots (p:Polynomial ,A:Ring )

- 473 -

powered by WIRIS

(c) maths for more sl. All rights reserved. Legal notice

roots (p:Polynomial ,A:Ring ,O: )

roots (p:Polynomial )

roots_to_polynomial

- 474 -

powered by WIRIS

(c) maths for more sl. All rights reserved. Legal notice

APPENDIX

rotation

rotation (#:RR,v:Vector )

- 475 -

powered by WIRIS

(c) maths for more sl. All rights reserved. Legal notice

rotation (#:RR,f:Figure )

rotation (#,f)=rotation (point (0,0),#,f )

rotation_matrix

- 476 -

powered by WIRIS

(c) maths for more sl. All rights reserved. Legal notice

APPENDIX

rotation_matrix (x:Real )

rotation_matrix (center :Point ,orientation :Vector ,angle :Real )

round

round (r:RR )

- 477 -

powered by WIRIS

(c) maths for more sl. All rights reserved. Legal notice

round (c:CC )

Rule

Rule

Rule

rules and substitutios: From the syntactic point of view, a rule is a list of objects of type x=>y or x:=>y . The

variable or template is called x depending on whether it is a variable or not, respectively. The image is called y and

a pair is of the form x=>y or x:=>y . A substitution is a rule defined for variables exclusively. If the user chooses

=> , it uses the value of y to define the rule. On the other hand, if the user chooses :=> , it considers y as a

variable for purposes of defining the rule.

The symbols => and :=> can be created with the icons

and

, respectively.

When applying a rule to an expression, all occurrences of each template (or variable) in the expression are replaced by

the image of its template (or variable). The terms that do not match the template (or variable) do not change.

- 478 -

powered by WIRIS

(c) maths for more sl. All rights reserved. Legal notice

APPENDIX

- 479 -

powered by WIRIS

(c) maths for more sl. All rights reserved. Legal notice

s

Sample

Sample

sec

sec (x:RR )

cosec (x:RR )

cotan (x:RR )

second_vertex

second_vertex (s:Segment )

- 480 -

powered by WIRIS

(c) maths for more sl. All rights reserved. Legal notice

APPENDIX

seed_name

seed_name

If the command plot3d does not know the name of the object to be drawn, the name of the figure is the value of

this option concatenated with a number.

Possible values : any object of type String .

Default value : null

seed_name

If the command plot does not know the name of the object to be drawn, the name of the figure is the value of this

option concatenated with a number.

Possible values : any object of type String .

Default value : null

segment

- 481 -

powered by WIRIS

(c) maths for more sl. All rights reserved. Legal notice

segment (A:Point )

- 482 -

powered by WIRIS

(c) maths for more sl. All rights reserved. Legal notice

APPENDIX

segment (v:Vector )

segment (r:Line )

More information on

Segment

Segment

line midpoint closest_point2d closest_point3d perpendicular_bisector plane

plot plot2d plot3d point regular_polygon second_vertex vector

- 483 -

powered by WIRIS

(c) maths for more sl. All rights reserved. Legal notice

Segment

Allows us to create a segment. The different arguments it can take are:

the segment endpoints (use the icon

),

length midpoint

Segment2d

Segment2d

Segment3d

- 484 -

powered by WIRIS

(c) maths for more sl. All rights reserved. Legal notice

APPENDIX

Segment3d

select

semimajor_axis

semimajor_axis (c:Conic )

semiminor_axis

semiminor_axis (c:Conic )

sequence

- 485 -

powered by WIRIS

(c) maths for more sl. All rights reserved. Legal notice

sequence (l:List

Vector

Range

Relation

Divisor

Table

Rule )

sequence (p:Polygonal )

Sequence

Sequence

series

- 486 -

powered by WIRIS

(c) maths for more sl. All rights reserved. Legal notice

APPENDIX

Series

Series

set

- 487 -

powered by WIRIS

(c) maths for more sl. All rights reserved. Legal notice

set (l:List )

set (v:Vector )

show_axis

show_axis

Determines whether or not the coordinate axes appear in the drawing.

Possible values : true, false. true and false

Default value : true

show_axis

Determines whether or not the coordinate axes appear in the drawing.

Possible values : true, false. true and false

Default value : true

show_cube

show_cube

Determines whether or not a cube appears in the drawing. Points can be moved freely around on the drawing board.

Possible values : true, false. true and false

Default value : true

plotter3d , plotter3d

show_grid

show_grid

Determines whether or not the grid appears in the drawing. If the grid is displayed, the movement of drawn points is

limited to the points on the grid. If the grid is not displayed, the points can be moved freely around the drawing board.

Possible values : true, false. true and false

Default value : true

plotter , plotter

show_label

- 488 -

powered by WIRIS

(c) maths for more sl. All rights reserved. Legal notice

APPENDIX

show_label

This command defines whether or not a label is displayed for the figure.

Possible values : true, false. true and false

Default value : false

show_label

This command defines whether or not a label is displayed for the figure.

Possible values : true, false. true and false

Default value : false

show_terms

show_terms (n:Natural )

side

sides

- 489 -

powered by WIRIS

(c) maths for more sl. All rights reserved. Legal notice

sigma

sigma

expr

with

in

a..b

wherei:Identifier ,a:ZZ,b:ZZ,expr:Expression

- 490 -

powered by WIRIS

(c) maths for more sl. All rights reserved. Legal notice

APPENDIX

Vector | Range ,expr:Expression

- 491 -

powered by WIRIS

(c) maths for more sl. All rights reserved. Legal notice

whereij :Identifier ,rj :List

| Vector | Range ,expr:Expression ,expr:Expression

sign

sign (r:RR )

- 492 -

powered by WIRIS

(c) maths for more sl. All rights reserved. Legal notice

APPENDIX

sign (c:CC )

sign (p:Permutation )

sign0

similar?

- 493 -

powered by WIRIS

(c) maths for more sl. All rights reserved. Legal notice

simple_fractions

simple_fractions (f:Fraction )

simple_fractions (f:Fraction ,A:Ring )

simple_ratio

simplify

- 494 -

powered by WIRIS

(c) maths for more sl. All rights reserved. Legal notice

APPENDIX

simplify (x )

simplify_radical

simplify_radical (r:RR )

sin

sin (x:RR )

cos (x:RR )

tan (x:RR )

singular_and_inflection_point

singular_and_inflection_point

singular_point

- 495 -

powered by WIRIS

(c) maths for more sl. All rights reserved. Legal notice

singular_point

sinh

sinh (x:RR )

cosh (x:RR )

tanh (x:RR )

size

size

Possible values :

Default value : 12

skewness

skewness (VA:Statistics_data )

slider

- 496 -

powered by WIRIS

(c) maths for more sl. All rights reserved. Legal notice

APPENDIX

slider (r:Range )

slope

- 497 -

powered by WIRIS

(c) maths for more sl. All rights reserved. Legal notice

slope (r:Line )

slope (v:Vector )

smith_normal_form

smith_normal_form (M:Matrix )

smith_normal_form_basis

smith_normal_form_basis (M:Matrix )

solve

- 498 -

powered by WIRIS

(c) maths for more sl. All rights reserved. Legal notice

APPENDIX

solve (e1 ,,en )

- 499 -

powered by WIRIS

(c) maths for more sl. All rights reserved. Legal notice

solve_inequation

solve_inequation (e,x:Identifier )

sort

- 500 -

powered by WIRIS

(c) maths for more sl. All rights reserved. Legal notice

APPENDIX

split

- 501 -

powered by WIRIS

(c) maths for more sl. All rights reserved. Legal notice

sqrt

Icon

Icon

- 502 -

powered by WIRIS

(c) maths for more sl. All rights reserved. Legal notice

APPENDIX

Icon

sqrt (u:Unit )

Icon

sqrt (x:Quantity )

sqrts

square?

square? (n:ZZ )

square_free?

- 503 -

powered by WIRIS

(c) maths for more sl. All rights reserved. Legal notice

square_free? (p:Polynomial )

square_root

More information on square root

square_roots

standard_deviation

- 504 -

powered by WIRIS

(c) maths for more sl. All rights reserved. Legal notice

APPENDIX

standard_deviation_n

standard_deviation_n (x:List )

standardize

standardize (VA:Statistics_data )

Statistics_data

- 505 -

powered by WIRIS

(c) maths for more sl. All rights reserved. Legal notice

Statistics_data

harmonic_mean interquartile_range kurtosis mean missing? mode quartile

skewness standard_deviation standardize variance

step

step (p:Progression )

string

string (x )

String

- 506 -

powered by WIRIS

(c) maths for more sl. All rights reserved. Legal notice

APPENDIX

String

string_substitution

subextension?

submatrix

- 507 -

powered by WIRIS

(c) maths for more sl. All rights reserved. Legal notice

submatrix

subset?

subspace_intersection

subspace_sum

substitute

- 508 -

powered by WIRIS

(c) maths for more sl. All rights reserved. Legal notice

APPENDIX

substitute (a,b,c )

Substitution

Substitution

substring

supplement

supplement (A:Matrix )

support

- 509 -

powered by WIRIS

(c) maths for more sl. All rights reserved. Legal notice

support (D:Divisor )

surface

surface

Surface

Surface

closest_point3d plot3d

symmetric?

- 510 -

powered by WIRIS

(c) maths for more sl. All rights reserved. Legal notice

APPENDIX

symmetric? (M:Matrix )

symmetry

- 511 -

powered by WIRIS

(c) maths for more sl. All rights reserved. Legal notice

- 512 -

powered by WIRIS

(c) maths for more sl. All rights reserved. Legal notice

APPENDIX

symmetry_axis

symmetry_axis

symmetry_matrix

- 513 -

powered by WIRIS

(c) maths for more sl. All rights reserved. Legal notice

t

table

Table

Table

Table_of

Table_of

tail

- 514 -

powered by WIRIS

(c) maths for more sl. All rights reserved. Legal notice

APPENDIX

take

tan

sin (x:RR )

cos (x:RR )

tan (x:RR )

tangent

tangent (x:Real )

tangent_axle

- 515 -

powered by WIRIS

(c) maths for more sl. All rights reserved. Legal notice

tangent_line

tangent_lines

- 516 -

powered by WIRIS

(c) maths for more sl. All rights reserved. Legal notice

APPENDIX

tangent_points

tanh

sinh (x:RR )

cosh (x:RR )

tanh (x:RR )

tartaglia

tartaglia (n:ZZ )

- 517 -

powered by WIRIS

(c) maths for more sl. All rights reserved. Legal notice

taylor

taylor (e,x:Identifier ,n:ZZ )

taylor_series

term

- 518 -

powered by WIRIS

(c) maths for more sl. All rights reserved. Legal notice

APPENDIX

term_list

term_list (s:Series ,n:Natural )

terms

terms (s:Series ,n:Natural )

- 519 -

powered by WIRIS

(c) maths for more sl. All rights reserved. Legal notice

terms_list

terms_list (f:Series ,n:Natural )

tetrahedron

tetrahedron (c:Real )

tetrahedron(c)=tetrahedron(point(0,0,0),c)

tetrahedron

tetrahedron()=tetrahedron(1)

text

text (qt:Text_box )

text_box

- 520 -

powered by WIRIS

(c) maths for more sl. All rights reserved. Legal notice

APPENDIX

text_box (t,P:Point )

Text_box

- 521 -

powered by WIRIS

(c) maths for more sl. All rights reserved. Legal notice

Text_box

then

if...: Icon

or

, sentence

if B then A else A2 end

if B then A else_if B2 then A2 else A3 end

Carry out the instructions in A if the following condition is met B . If the condition is not met and there is an else

statement, then the instructions below are carried out A2 . It is also possible to have multiple conditions and various

groups of instructions by inserting conditional else_if statements from the programming tab menu.

to_decimal

- 522 -

powered by WIRIS

(c) maths for more sl. All rights reserved. Legal notice

APPENDIX

to_decimal (x:Real )

to_decimal (x:List )

to_decimal (x:Expression )

tolerance

- 523 -

powered by WIRIS

(c) maths for more sl. All rights reserved. Legal notice

tolerance (x:RR )

tolerance ()

total_degree

total_degree (A:Extension )

- 524 -

powered by WIRIS

(c) maths for more sl. All rights reserved. Legal notice

APPENDIX

tower

tower (A:Extension )

tower (R:Zn )

trace

trace (a,L:Field )

trace (a:Element (Field ) )

trace (A:Matrix )

- 525 -

powered by WIRIS

(c) maths for more sl. All rights reserved. Legal notice

transform_matrix

transform_matrix

This command indicates the position of the display cube within the drawing window. Every time the cube is moved, we

can find the new position using the icon

on the drawing board toolbar:

Possible values : any Matrix of Real numbers3x3. 3x3

Default value : -

plotter3d , plotter3d

transformation_matrix

translate

translation

- 526 -

powered by WIRIS

(c) maths for more sl. All rights reserved. Legal notice

APPENDIX

translation (p):=translation (vector (p))

translation_matrix

translation_matrix (V:Vector )

transparency

- 527 -

powered by WIRIS

(c) maths for more sl. All rights reserved. Legal notice

transparency

transparency

This command determines the element's degree of transparency. Choosing 0 sets transparency to totally opaque.

Choosing 1 sets transparency to totally transparent.

Possible values : any Real number between 0 and 1.

Default value : 0.3

plot3d , plot3d

transpose

transpose (A:Matrix )

A'

transpose (F:Multisample )

- 528 -

powered by WIRIS

(c) maths for more sl. All rights reserved. Legal notice

APPENDIX

transposition

transposition (a:ZZ,b:ZZ )

triangle

More information on

Triangle

Triangle

angle2d

angle3d

area

attributes3d

barycenter

belongs?

bisector

circumcenter circumradius equilateral? equilateral? exterior_bisector

external? height height_foot incenter inradius internal? internal?

internal? line median_line median_line median_line closest_point2d

closest_point3d orientation oriented_angle oriented_area orthocenter

perimeter perpendicular_bisector plot plot2d plot3d point polygon position

projectivity segment side similar? vertex vertices

Triangle

- 529 -

powered by WIRIS

(c) maths for more sl. All rights reserved. Legal notice

This function is used to construct a triangle, using the vertices as arguments. It is also possible to use the icon

command equilateral_triangle allows us, as its name suggests, to create an equilateral triangle.

. The

Triangle2d

Triangle2d

angle2d

angle3d

area

attributes3d

barycenter

belongs?

bisector

circumcenter circumradius equilateral? equilateral? exterior_bisector

external? height height_foot incenter inradius internal? internal?

internal? line median_line median_line median_line closest_point2d

closest_point3d orientation oriented_angle oriented_area orthocenter

perimeter perpendicular_bisector plot plot2d plot3d point polygon position

projectivity segment side similar? vertex vertices

Triangle3d

Triangle3d

- 530 -

powered by WIRIS

(c) maths for more sl. All rights reserved. Legal notice

APPENDIX

angle2d

angle3d

area

attributes3d

barycenter

belongs?

bisector

circumcenter circumradius equilateral? equilateral? exterior_bisector

external? height height_foot incenter inradius internal? internal?

internal? line median_line median_line median_line closest_point2d

closest_point3d orientation oriented_angle oriented_area orthocenter

perimeter perpendicular_bisector plot plot2d plot3d point polygon position

projectivity segment side similar? vertex vertices

true

true

More information on background , bold , bold_font , border , evaluate , fill , fixed_dimensions , italic , italic_font , mobile ,

show_axis , show_cube , show_grid , show_label , visible , wired

truncate

truncate (s:Series ,n:Natural )

type

- 531 -

powered by WIRIS

(c) maths for more sl. All rights reserved. Legal notice

type

- 532 -

powered by WIRIS

(c) maths for more sl. All rights reserved. Legal notice

APPENDIX

u

union

union (l1 :List |Vector ,l2 :List |Vector ) union (l1 ,l2 )=set ( l1 | l2 )

unit

unit (x:Quantity )

unit (u:Identifier )

- 533 -

powered by WIRIS

(c) maths for more sl. All rights reserved. Legal notice

More information on unit

Unit

Unit

unit_si

unit_si (x:Quantity )

unsigned_infinity

Icon

unsigned_infinity

until

- 534 -

powered by WIRIS

(c) maths for more sl. All rights reserved. Legal notice

APPENDIX

repeat...: Icon

, sentence

repeat A until B

Carry out the instructions in A until the following condition is met B .

- 535 -

powered by WIRIS

(c) maths for more sl. All rights reserved. Legal notice

v

variable

variable (p:Polynomial )

variable (f:Fraction )

variable (s:Series )

Variable

Variable

taylor_series

- 536 -

powered by WIRIS

(c) maths for more sl. All rights reserved. Legal notice

APPENDIX

Variable (:Domain )

variables

variables (o )

variables (p:Polynomial )

variables (f:Fraction )

- 537 -

powered by WIRIS

(c) maths for more sl. All rights reserved. Legal notice

variance

variance_n

variance_n (L:List )

variations

- 538 -

powered by WIRIS

(c) maths for more sl. All rights reserved. Legal notice

APPENDIX

Icon

Icon

variations (n:ZZ,k:ZZ )

variations_with_repetition

Icon

variations_with_repetition (n:ZZ,k:ZZ )

Icon

vector

- 539 -

powered by WIRIS

(c) maths for more sl. All rights reserved. Legal notice

vector (s:Segment )

vector (p:Plane )

[a,b,c,d]a,b,cdax+by+cz+d=0

- 540 -

powered by WIRIS

(c) maths for more sl. All rights reserved. Legal notice

APPENDIX

vector (r:Line )

vector (p:Permutation )

vector (A:Point )

Vector

- 541 -

powered by WIRIS

(c) maths for more sl. All rights reserved. Legal notice

Icon

[x1 ,,xn ]

Vector

append

argument

base_change

bisector

column

combinations

combinations combinations_with_repetition count_element diagonal_matrix

discontinuities distribution divisor ellipse erase geometric_progression

householder hyperbola insert lengths line linearly_independents? list

max min move norm numerical_solve oriented_angle parabola parallel?

permutation

permutations

permutations_with_repetition

perpendicular

perpendicular? perpendicular_vector plane point prepend prism progression

projection relation replace reverse_range rotation rotation_matrix segment

select set slope solve sort symmetry table translation translation_matrix

variations variations_with_repetition vectorial_product versor zero?

Vector (D:Domain )

Vector

vectors and matrices: a vector is a sequence enclosed in square brackets, which we can create with the keys [ , ] ,

with the icon

- 542 -

powered by WIRIS

(c) maths for more sl. All rights reserved. Legal notice

APPENDIX

the icons, the size of the square brackets will adjust to the size of the contents. The same result can be obtained with

keystroke combinations [, ] Ctrl + [ and Ctrl + ]

A matrix is a vector formed from vectors of the same size. Each of these vectors corresponds to a row of the matrix.

The icons

matrices.

and

explained in detail in the chapter Menus, icons,... , enable easy creation of vectors and

To learn more about how the program works with vectors and matrices, see chapter Linear algebra .

Subscripts are created using the icon

and they are the principal tool for manipulating vectors and matrices; in

particular, to extract and change their elements.

Given a list or a vector v and a whole number i , vi is the i th component of v , as long as 1ilengthv.

vi 1<=i<=length (v)

As every matrix is a vector of vectors, if

i th row (assuming that it exists).

A is a matrix, then Ai is its i th row and Ai,j(, Aij) thej th element in the

Ai Ai,j(Ai,j or Aij)Aij

An alternative but equivalent notation is to use the period, such that the expression An is the same as A.n, and Ai,j is

the same as A.i.. Along the same lines, if v is a vector, v.i is the i th component of v .

- 543 -

powered by WIRIS

(c) maths for more sl. All rights reserved. Legal notice

To change the value of a component in a list, vector or matrix, the syntax explained in the previous subsection can be

used, and it can be assigned a new value with the operator = .

vector_field

More information on vector field

vectorial_product

- 544 -

powered by WIRIS

(c) maths for more sl. All rights reserved. Legal notice

APPENDIX

Icon

versor

versor (v:Vector )

vertex

vertex (c:Parabola )

- 545 -

powered by WIRIS

(c) maths for more sl. All rights reserved. Legal notice

vertical_asymptote

vertical_asymptote

vertical_position

- 546 -

powered by WIRIS

(c) maths for more sl. All rights reserved. Legal notice

APPENDIX

vertical_position

vertical_position

This defines the vertical position of the Text_box from the specified reference point.

Possible values : "top", "center", "base_line", "bottom". "top" , "center" , "base_line" and

"bottom"

Default value : "base_line"

write , text_box

vertices

visible

- 547 -

powered by WIRIS

(c) maths for more sl. All rights reserved. Legal notice

visible

This command determines whether the element is visible or not.

Possible values : true, false. true and false

Default value : true

visible

This defines whether the drawing board is visible or not.

Possible values : true and false

Default value : true

visible

This defines whether the drawing board is visible or not.

Possible values : true, false. true and false

Default value : true

visible

This command determines whether the element is visible or not.

Possible values : true, false. true and false

Default value : true

, plot3d , plotter , plotter3d

volume

volume (pol:Polyhedra )

- 548 -

powered by WIRIS

(c) maths for more sl. All rights reserved. Legal notice

APPENDIX

w

where

{x

with

{p=>v

[x

i1 ,,in

with

with

in

r1 ,,rn

i1 ,,in

in

r1 ,,rn

in

where

R1 ,,Rn

r1 ,,rn

p}

[where

where

]}

p]

where

- 549 -

powered by WIRIS

(c) maths for more sl. All rights reserved. Legal notice

whereij :Identifier ,rj :List

| Vector | Range ,expr:Expression ,expr:Expression

whereij :Identifier ,rj :List

| Vector | Range ,expr:Expression ,expr:Expression

- 550 -

powered by WIRIS

(c) maths for more sl. All rights reserved. Legal notice

APPENDIX

| Vector | Range

r1 ,,rn

where

r1 ,,rn

where

| Vector | Range

- 551 -

powered by WIRIS

(c) maths for more sl. All rights reserved. Legal notice

product

with

i1 ,,in

in

r1 ,,rn

where

while

while...: Icon

, sentence

while B do A end

Carry out the instructions in A if the following condition is met B .

white

More information on color

white

white

white ={255,255,255}

width

width

Sets the width of the drawing board.

Possible values : any positive Real number.

Default value : 21

- 552 -

powered by WIRIS

(c) maths for more sl. All rights reserved. Legal notice

APPENDIX

width

Sets the width of the drawing board.

Possible values : any positive Real number.

Default value : 21

window_aspect_ratio

window_aspect_ratio

This attribute defines the ratio between the windows height and width (aspect ratio).

Possible values : any positive Real number.

Default value : 1

plotter , plotter

window_height

window_height

Sets the height of the drawing window, in pixels.

Possible values : any positive Integer .

Default value : 450

window_height

Sets the height of the drawing window, in pixels.

Possible values : any positive Integer .

Default value : 450

window_width

window_width

Sets the width of the drawing window, in pixels.

Possible values : any positive Integer .

Default value : 450

window_width

Sets the width of the drawing window, in pixels.

Possible values : any positive Integer .

Default value : 450

- 553 -

powered by WIRIS

(c) maths for more sl. All rights reserved. Legal notice

wired

wired

This option sets whether the image should be shown wire-framed or not.

Possible values : true, false, "automatic". true , false and "automatic"

Default value : "automatic"

plot3d , plot3d

with

{x

with

i1 ,,in

in

r1 ,,rn }

{x

with

i1 ,,in

in

r1 ,,rn

{p=>v

[x

with

with

r1 ,,rn

i1 ,,in

in

in

where

R1 ,,Rn

p}

[where

]}

r1 ,,rn ]

- 554 -

powered by WIRIS

(c) maths for more sl. All rights reserved. Legal notice

APPENDIX

[x

with

i1 ,,in

in

r1 ,,rn

where

p]

with

Vector | Range ,expr:Expression

- 555 -

powered by WIRIS

(c) maths for more sl. All rights reserved. Legal notice

whereij :Identifier ,rj :List

| Vector | Range ,expr:Expression ,expr:Expression

- 556 -

powered by WIRIS

(c) maths for more sl. All rights reserved. Legal notice

APPENDIX

Vector | Range ,expr:Expression

- 557 -

powered by WIRIS

(c) maths for more sl. All rights reserved. Legal notice

whereij :Identifier ,rj :List

| Vector | Range ,expr:Expression ,expr:Expression

- 558 -

powered by WIRIS

(c) maths for more sl. All rights reserved. Legal notice

APPENDIX

sigma x with

| Range

i1 ,,in

in

r1 ,,rn

- 559 -

Vector

Vector

Range

powered by WIRIS

(c) maths for more sl. All rights reserved. Legal notice

| Vector | Range

r1 ,,rn

where

sigma x with

| Range

i1 ,,in

in

r1 ,,rn

- 560 -

Vector

powered by WIRIS

(c) maths for more sl. All rights reserved. Legal notice

APPENDIX

| Vector | Range

r1 ,,rn

where

product

with

i1 ,,in

in

r1 ,,rn

product

with

i1 ,,in

in

r1 ,,rn

where

write

- 561 -

powered by WIRIS

(c) maths for more sl. All rights reserved. Legal notice

write (x,P:Point )

write ()

if geometry_status =2 then write =write2d else write =write3d end

write2d

write ()

if geometry_status =2 then write =write2d else write =write3d end

write3d

write ()

if geometry_status =2 then write =write2d else write =write3d end

- 562 -

powered by WIRIS

(c) maths for more sl. All rights reserved. Legal notice

APPENDIX

y

yellow

More information on color

yellow

yellow

yellow ={255,255,0}

- 563 -

powered by WIRIS

(c) maths for more sl. All rights reserved. Legal notice

z

zero?

zero0

zeros

zeros (n:ZZ )

Zn

- 564 -

powered by WIRIS

(c) maths for more sl. All rights reserved. Legal notice

APPENDIX

Zn (n:ZZ )

Zns

Zns

zoom

zoom_in

zoom_in (T:Plotter2d )

zoom_in (T:Plotter2d ,P:Point2d )

- 565 -

powered by WIRIS

(c) maths for more sl. All rights reserved. Legal notice

zoom_out

zoom_out (T:Plotter2d )

zoom_out (T:Plotter2d ,P:Point2d )

- 566 -

powered by WIRIS

(c) maths for more sl. All rights reserved. Legal notice

Index

SYMBOLS

'............................................ 126

-............................................ 126

!............................................ 128

!!........................................... 129

"arrow"...................................... 129

"arrow_xy"................................... 129

"arrow_XY"................................... 130

"automatic".................................. 130

"bar"........................................ 130

"base_line".................................. 131

"bisection".................................. 131

"bottom"..................................... 132

"center"..................................... 132

"definition"................................. 133

"divisor".................................... 134

"free_division_gauss"........................ 134

"free_fraction_gauss"........................ 135

"frequency_polygon".......................... 136

"gauss"...................................... 136

"horizontal"................................. 137

"left"....................................... 137

"list"....................................... 138

"list_of_equations".......................... 138

"minor_expansion"............................ 139

"Monospaced"................................. 139

"multiple_value"............................. 140

"name"....................................... 140

"newton"..................................... 141

"none"....................................... 141

"only_one_solution".......................... 142

"percentage"................................. 142

"regula_falsi"............................... 142

"relation"................................... 143

"right"...................................... 143

"SansSerif".................................. 144

"secant"..................................... 144

"sequence"................................... 144

"sequence_of_equations"...................... 144

"Serif"...................................... 145

"slice"...................................... 145

"smart"...................................... 146

"substitution"............................... 146

"table"...................................... 146

"top"........................................ 147

"value"...................................... 147

"vector"..................................... 148

"vector_of_equations"........................ 148

"vertical"................................... 149

$$........................................... 149

&............................................ 149

'..............................................35

*............................................ 151

,............................................ 151

............................................. 151

............................................. 159

/............................................ 159

//........................................... 160

:............................................ 161

:=........................................... 161

:=>.......................................... 163

?............................................ 163

[............................................ 164

\\........................................... 165

^............................................ 165

{............................................ 165

|............................................ 166

|?........................................... 167

+............................................ 167

=............................................ 168

-->.......................................... 169

............................................ 169

a

absolute..................................... 170

acos......................................... 170

acosec....................................... 170

acosh........................................ 171

acotan....................................... 171

adjoint_element.............................. 171

adjoint_matrix............................... 172

all_variables................................ 172

amper........................................ 100

amplitude.................................... 172

angle........................................ 173

angle.......................................... 61

angle2d...................................... 173

angle3d...................................... 174

annihilating_polynomial...................... 176

Any.......................................... 176

apolonius_hyperbola.......................... 176

append....................................... 177

arc.......................................... 177

Arc.......................................... 178

area......................................... 179

area...........................................60

argument..................................... 180

arguments.................................... 180

arithmetic................................... 181

arithmetic?.................................. 181

asec......................................... 181

asin......................................... 182

asinh........................................ 182

aspect_ratio................................. 182

asymptote.................................... 183

atan......................................... 183

atanh........................................ 183

atto.......................................... 102

attributes................................... 183

attributes_for_all........................... 183

attributes_for_all2d......................... 184

attributes_for_all3d......................... 184

attributes2d................................. 184

attributes3d................................. 185

automatic.................................... 185

auxiliar_central_symmetry_axis............... 186

axis......................................... 186

axis_color................................... 186

axis_font.................................... 187

axis_label................................... 187

axis_style................................... 187

b

background................................... 189

background_color............................. 189

bar...........................................102

barycenter................................... 189

base......................................... 190

base_change.................................. 191

becquerel......................................101

belongs?..................................... 191

belongs_to_domain?........................... 193

bernouilli_number............................ 194

bernouilli_numbers........................... 194

bezout....................................... 194

binomial..................................... 195

bisector..................................... 195

bisector........................................ 58

bit.......................................... 197

black........................................ 197

black........................................ 197

blue......................................... 197

blue......................................... 198

bold......................................... 198

bold_font.................................... 198

Boolean...................................... 198

Boolean........................................ 16

border....................................... 198

border_color................................. 199

box.......................................... 200

box_border................................... 200

boxplot...................................... 200

brown........................................ 200

brown........................................ 200

c

candela....................................... 100

canonic_vector............................... 201

cardinal..................................... 201

Cartesian_curve.............................. 201

Cartesian_surface............................ 201

category..................................... 202

ceil......................................... 202

center....................................... 203

Centered_conic............................... 204

centi......................................... 102

central_moment............................... 204

central_symmetry............................. 204

cfr.......................................... 204

characteristic............................... 205

characteristic_matrix........................ 205

characteristic_polynomial.................... 205

check........................................ 206

chinese_theorem.............................. 206

chinese_theorem_coefficients................. 206

circumcenter................................. 207

circumference................................ 207

Circumference................................ 208

circumradius................................. 209

clear........................................ 209

closest_point................................ 209

closest_point.................................... 78

closest_point2d.............................. 209

closest_point3d.............................. 210

coefficient.................................. 211

coefficient..................................... 100

coefficient_domain........................... 211

coefficient_of_variation..................... 211

coefficient_si............................... 212

coefficients................................. 212

colinear?.................................... 212

collect...................................... 213

color........................................ 214

Color........................................ 214

Color........................................ 214

column....................................... 216

combinations................................. 216

combinations.................................... 94

combinations_with_repetition................. 217

combinations_with_repetition........................ 95

compare...................................... 217

compass...................................... 218

complement................................... 218

Complex...................................... 219

Complex........................................ 8

complex_variable_name........................ 219

components................................... 219

composition.................................. 220

conic........................................ 220

Conic........................................ 221

Conic..........................................54

conjugate.................................... 222

conjugates................................... 222

constant_list................................ 223

constant_matrix.............................. 223

constant_sequence............................ 223

constant_vector.............................. 224

constrained_maximum.......................... 224

constrained_minimum.......................... 224

content...................................... 224

content_and_primitive_part................... 225

convergent?.................................. 225

conversion_factor............................ 225

conversion_factor................................. 99

convert...................................... 226

convert........................................ 99

coplanars?................................... 226

correlation.................................. 227

correlation...................................... 92

correlation_n................................ 227

cos.......................................... 227

cosec........................................ 228

cosh......................................... 228

cotan........................................ 228

coulomb.......................................101

count_element................................ 229

count_multiplicities......................... 229

covariance................................... 230

covariance...................................... 92

cube......................................... 230

cube_color................................... 231

curve........................................ 231

Curve........................................ 231

curve2d...................................... 232

Curve2d...................................... 233

curve3d...................................... 233

Curve3d...................................... 234

cyan......................................... 234

cyan......................................... 234

cycles_representation........................ 234

d

dark_grey.................................... 236

dark_grey.................................... 236

deci.......................................... 102

decimal...................................... 236

default...................................... 236

default_plotter.............................. 237

default_plotter2d............................ 237

default_plotter3d............................ 237

definition................................... 237

degree....................................... 238

degrees_minutes_seconds...................... 239

deka......................................... 102

den.......................................... 239

denominator.................................. 239

dense_coefficient_list....................... 240

depend....................................... 240

depth........................................ 240

determinant.................................. 240

determinant..................................... 29

diagonal_matrix.............................. 241

diagram...................................... 242

differentiate................................ 242

differentiate..................................... 35

dimensionless_unit........................... 243

dimensions................................... 243

dimensions..................................... 28

directrix.................................... 243

discontinuities.............................. 243

distance..................................... 244

distance........................................56

distribution................................. 245

diverse_results_as........................... 245

divisor...................................... 245

Divisor...................................... 245

Divisor......................................... 18

divisors..................................... 246

divisors_mu_moebius.......................... 246

do........................................... 246

dodecahedron................................. 247

domain....................................... 248

Domain....................................... 249

drop......................................... 249

e

e_........................................... 251

E_........................................... 251

eccentricity................................. 251

eigenvalues.................................. 251

eigenvalues_and_vectors...................... 252

eigenvectors................................. 252

element...................................... 252

Element...................................... 252

element_of_order............................. 253

elements..................................... 253

ellipse...................................... 254

Ellipse...................................... 254

else......................................... 255

else_if...................................... 255

Empty........................................ 256

empty_divisor................................ 256

Empty_list................................... 257

empty_relation............................... 257

empty_table.................................. 257

end.......................................... 257

equation..................................... 259

Equation..................................... 260

Equation....................................... 30

Equation........................................ 9

equation_vector.............................. 261

equilateral?................................. 261

equilateral_triangle......................... 261

erase........................................ 262

evaluate..................................... 264

exa.......................................... 102

exact_computations........................... 265

exp.......................................... 266

expand....................................... 266

expansion_point.............................. 266

exponential..................................... 46

expression................................... 267

Expression................................... 267

Expression......................................12

extended_gcd................................. 267

extended_quartile............................ 268

extension.................................... 268

Extension.................................... 269

exterior_bisector............................ 269

external?.................................... 270

f

factor....................................... 271

factor.......................................... 23

factor_in_square_free........................ 272

factor_in_square_free_multiplicity........... 273

factorial.................................... 273

false........................................ 274

farad......................................... 101

femto......................................... 102

fibonacci.................................... 274

field........................................ 274

Field........................................ 275

field?....................................... 275

figure....................................... 275

Figure....................................... 275

figure2d..................................... 276

Figure2d..................................... 276

figure3d..................................... 277

Figure3d..................................... 277

fill......................................... 277

fill_color................................... 278

find_one..................................... 278

find_zero.................................... 278

finite?...................................... 279

finite_field................................. 279

Finite_set................................... 280

first_vertex................................. 280

fixed_dimensions............................. 280

Float........................................ 280

Float........................................... 8

floor........................................ 281

focal_semidistance........................... 281

focus........................................ 282

font......................................... 282

Font......................................... 283

font......................................... 283

font_name.................................... 283

font_size.................................... 284

for.......................................... 284

for............................................ 15

Fraction..................................... 285

Frequency_sample............................. 285

Frequency_sample_of.......................... 285

frobenius.................................... 286

function..................................... 286

Function..................................... 286

g

gaussian_elimination......................... 293

gcd.......................................... 293

geometric_mean............................... 295

geometric_mean................................. 89

geometric_progression........................ 295

geometry_status.............................. 295

get_domain................................... 296

giga.......................................... 102

gram......................................... 100

gray.......................................... 101

greatest_common_divisor...................... 296

greatest_common_divisor........................... 23

green........................................ 296

green........................................ 296

grey......................................... 296

grey......................................... 297

grid_color................................... 297

h

harmonic_mean................................ 298

harmonic_mean.................................. 90

head......................................... 298

hecto......................................... 102

height....................................... 298

height......................................... 59

height_foot.................................. 300

henry......................................... 101

hermite_basis................................ 301

hertz......................................... 101

hessenberg_reduction......................... 301

homotecy..................................... 302

horizontal_asymptote......................... 302

horizontal_position.......................... 303

hour..........................................102

householder.................................. 303

hyperbola.................................... 303

Hyperbola.................................... 304

i

i_........................................... 305

icosahedron.................................. 305

Identifier................................... 305

identity..................................... 306

identity?.................................... 306

identity_function............................ 306

identity_matrix.............................. 306

if........................................... 307

if............................................. 14

image........................................ 307

imaginary_part............................... 308

imply........................................ 308

imply?....................................... 309

in........................................... 309

in........................................... 310

incenter..................................... 317

index........................................ 318

index_erase.................................. 319

Inequation................................... 319

infinity..................................... 319

Infinity..................................... 320

inflection_point............................. 320

information.................................. 320

initial_angle................................ 321

initial_point................................ 322

inradius..................................... 322

insert....................................... 322

integer...................................... 323

Integer...................................... 323

Integer..........................................7

integral_curve............................... 324

integral_curves.............................. 324

integrate.................................... 324

integrate....................................... 36

internal?.................................... 325

internal_order............................... 326

interpolate.................................. 327

interquartile_range.......................... 328

intersect.................................... 328

intersect........................................62

intersection_axis............................ 329

intersection_x_axis.......................... 329

intersection_y_axis.......................... 329

inverse...................................... 329

inverse........................................ 27

inversion.................................... 331

invertible?.................................. 332

Irrational................................... 332

irreducible?................................. 336

irreducible_polynomial....................... 336

irreducible_polynomials...................... 336

is?.......................................... 337

italic....................................... 337

italic_font.................................. 337

j

j_........................................... 339

jacobi....................................... 339

join......................................... 339

jordan....................................... 340

joule......................................... 101

k

katal......................................... 101

kelvin.........................................100

kernel....................................... 341

kilo.......................................... 102

kilogram.......................................100

kurtosis..................................... 341

l

label........................................ 342

label_font................................... 342

lcm.......................................... 342

leading_coefficient.......................... 343

leading_term................................. 344

least_common_multiple........................ 344

least_common_multiple............................ 23

legendre..................................... 344

length....................................... 344

length......................................... 28

lengths...................................... 345

let.......................................... 345

level_curves................................. 346

library...................................... 346

library...................................... 346

light_grey................................... 347

light_grey................................... 347

limit........................................ 347

limit_left................................... 348

limit_right.................................. 349

line......................................... 350

Line......................................... 353

Line......................................... 353

line_width................................... 354

Line2d....................................... 354

Line3d....................................... 355

linearly_independents?....................... 355

list......................................... 355

List......................................... 357

List........................................... 10

List_of...................................... 357

List_sample.................................. 357

List_sample_of............................... 358

liter.......................................... 102

ln........................................... 358

log.......................................... 358

log10........................................ 359

log2......................................... 359

logarithm....................................... 46

lu_decomposition............................. 360

lucas........................................ 360

lumen........................................ 101

lux........................................... 101

m

maclaurin.................................... 361

magenta...................................... 361

magenta...................................... 361

map.......................................... 361

matrix....................................... 362

Matrix....................................... 363

Matrix....................................... 364

matrix_range................................. 366

max.......................................... 366

max_width.................................... 367

maximum...................................... 367

maximum.......................................47

mean......................................... 367

mean.......................................... 89

median....................................... 368

median........................................ 91

median_line.................................. 368

median_line..................................... 59

mega......................................... 102

meter.........................................100

method....................................... 368

micro......................................... 102

midpoint..................................... 369

midpoint........................................56

milli.......................................... 102

min.......................................... 370

minimum...................................... 371

minimum....................................... 48

minimum_polynomial........................... 371

minor........................................ 372

minor.......................................... 29

minute........................................ 102

missing...................................... 372

missing?..................................... 372

mobile....................................... 373

mod.......................................... 373

mode......................................... 373

mode.......................................... 91

mol.......................................... 100

moment....................................... 374

monic........................................ 374

monic?....................................... 374

move......................................... 375

mu_moebius................................... 375

multiplicities............................... 375

multiplicity................................. 375

Multisample.................................. 376

n

n_columns.................................... 377

n_rows....................................... 377

n_terms...................................... 377

n_variables.................................. 377

name......................................... 377

name_identifier.............................. 378

names........................................ 378

nano......................................... 102

Natural...................................... 379

negative?.................................... 379

negative_infinity............................ 379

new_identifier............................... 379

newton........................................101

Non_centered_conic........................... 380

non_differentiable_point..................... 380

norm......................................... 380

norm_1....................................... 382

norm_2....................................... 382

norm_infinity................................ 382

normal_vector................................ 382

not.......................................... 382

not_belongs?................................. 383

not_null?.................................... 383

null......................................... 383

Null......................................... 384

null?........................................ 384

num.......................................... 384

number_of_arguments.......................... 385

number_of_columns............................ 385

number_of_irreducible_polynomials............ 385

number_of_rows............................... 385

number_of_terms.............................. 386

number_of_variables.......................... 386

numerator.................................... 386

numerical_differentiation.................... 387

numerical_integration........................ 387

numerical_solve.............................. 387

o

oblique_asymptote............................ 389

octahedron................................... 389

ohm.......................................... 101

one?......................................... 389

only_one_element............................. 390

orange....................................... 390

orange....................................... 390

order........................................ 390

orientation.................................. 390

oriented_angle............................... 391

oriented_area................................ 391

orthocenter.................................. 392

p

parabola..................................... 394

Parabola..................................... 394

parallel..................................... 394

parallel........................................ 62

parallel?.................................... 395

pascal........................................ 101

perimeter.................................... 396

perimeter....................................... 61

permutation.................................. 396

Permutation.................................. 397

permutation_matrix........................... 397

permutations................................. 398

permutations.................................... 96

permutations_with_repetition................. 398

permutations_with_repetition.........................96

perpendicular................................ 399

perpendicular.................................... 63

perpendicular?............................... 400

perpendicular_bisector....................... 400

perpendicular_bisector............................. 57

perpendicular_vector......................... 401

peta.......................................... 102

phi_euler.................................... 401

pi_.......................................... 401

Pi_.......................................... 402

pico.......................................... 102

pink......................................... 402

pink......................................... 402

plane........................................ 402

Plane3d...................................... 404

Plane3d........................................ 53

plot......................................... 404

plot......................................... 405

plot2d....................................... 405

plot3d....................................... 407

plot3d....................................... 410

Plotable..................................... 411

Plotable2d................................... 411

Plotable3d................................... 411

plotter...................................... 412

Plotter...................................... 412

plotter2d.................................... 412

Plotter2d.................................... 413

plotter3d.................................... 413

Plotter3d.................................... 414

plus........................................... 25

point........................................ 414

Point........................................ 420

Point.......................................... 51

point_size................................... 421

Point2d...................................... 421

Point3d...................................... 421

polar........................................ 422

polar_curve.................................. 423

Polar_curve.................................. 423

polo......................................... 423

polygon...................................... 424

Polygon...................................... 425

Polygon........................................ 55

Polygon2d.................................... 425

Polygon3d.................................... 425

polygonal.................................... 426

Polygonal.................................... 427

Polygonal.......................................55

Polygonal2d.................................. 427

Polygonal3d.................................. 428

polygonals................................... 428

polyhedra.................................... 428

polyhedra_cone............................... 429

polyhedra_cone_with_lid...................... 429

polyhedra_cylinder........................... 430

polyhedra_cylinder_with_lids................. 431

polyhedra_sphere............................. 431

polyhedra_thorus............................. 432

Polyhedra3d.................................. 432

Polyhedra3d.................................... 55

polynomial................................... 432

Polynomial................................... 433

Polynomial.......................................9

polynomial_to_companion_matrix............... 433

polynomic?................................... 434

position..................................... 434

positive?.................................... 435

positive_infinity............................ 436

power........................................ 436

power_modulo................................. 436

precedent.................................... 436

precision.................................... 437

prepend...................................... 437

prime........................................ 438

prime?....................................... 438

prime?......................................... 24

prime_power?................................. 438

primitive_element............................ 439

primitive_part............................... 439

prism........................................ 439

product...................................... 439

progression.................................. 441

Progression.................................. 442

progression_sigma............................ 442

progression_terms............................ 442

projection................................... 442

projectivity................................. 443

pseudoremainder.............................. 443

pyramid...................................... 444

q

qr_decomposition............................. 445

quadric...................................... 445

Quadric...................................... 445

quadric3d.................................... 445

Quadric3d.................................... 446

quantity..................................... 446

Quantity..................................... 446

quartile..................................... 447

quartile........................................ 91

quo.......................................... 447

quo_rem...................................... 448

quotient..................................... 449

quotient........................................ 22

quotient_and_remainder....................... 449

quotient_and_remainder............................ 22

r

radian........................................ 101

radical_axle................................. 451

radius....................................... 451

random....................................... 451

range........................................ 452

Range........................................ 452

Range........................................ 453

rank......................................... 453

rank...........................................29

ratio........................................ 454

ratio...........................................50

rational..................................... 454

Rational..................................... 454

rational..................................... 455

rationalize.................................. 455

real......................................... 455

Real......................................... 456

real_constants............................... 456

Real_dimensionless_quantity.................. 457

Real_or_infinity............................. 457

real_part.................................... 457

red.......................................... 458

red.......................................... 458

region......................................... 71

regression_line.............................. 458

regression_line...................................93

regular_polygon.............................. 459

relation..................................... 459

Relation..................................... 459

Relation..................................... 460

relative_degree.............................. 460

relative_tolerance........................... 460

rem.......................................... 461

remainder.................................... 461

remainder...................................... 23

repeat....................................... 462

repeat......................................... 15

replace...................................... 463

represent.................................... 465

represent....................................... 72

represent_sign............................... 466

residue?..................................... 467

result....................................... 467

resultant.................................... 468

resultant_matrix............................. 469

reverse...................................... 469

reverse_range................................ 470

ring......................................... 470

Ring......................................... 471

ring?........................................ 471

root......................................... 471

root........................................... 45

roots........................................ 473

roots_to_polynomial.......................... 474

rotation..................................... 475

rotation........................................ 65

rotation_matrix.............................. 476

round........................................ 477

Rule......................................... 478

Rule......................................... 478

s

Sample....................................... 480

sec.......................................... 480

second........................................102

second........................................100

second_vertex................................ 480

seed_name.................................... 481

segment...................................... 481

Segment...................................... 483

Segment...................................... 484

Segment2d.................................... 484

Segment3d.................................... 484

select....................................... 485

semimajor_axis............................... 485

semiminor_axis............................... 485

sequence..................................... 485

Sequence..................................... 486

series....................................... 486

Series....................................... 487

set.......................................... 487

show_axis.................................... 488

show_cube.................................... 488

show_grid.................................... 488

show_label................................... 488

show_terms................................... 489

side......................................... 489

sides........................................ 489

siemens....................................... 101

sievert........................................ 101

sigma........................................ 490

sign......................................... 492

sign........................................... 47

sign0........................................ 493

similar?..................................... 493

simple_fractions............................. 494

simple_ratio................................. 494

simplify..................................... 494

simplify_radical............................. 495

sin.......................................... 495

singular_and_inflection_point................ 495

singular_point............................... 495

sinh......................................... 496

size......................................... 496

skewness..................................... 496

slider....................................... 496

slider.......................................... 77

slope........................................ 497

smith_normal_form............................ 498

smith_normal_form_basis...................... 498

solve........................................ 498

solve_inequation............................. 500

sort......................................... 500

split........................................ 501

sqrt......................................... 502

sqrts........................................ 503

square?...................................... 503

square_free?................................. 503

square_root.................................. 504

square_root..................................... 45

square_roots................................. 504

standard_deviation........................... 504

standard_deviation................................ 90

standard_deviation_n......................... 505

standardize.................................. 505

Statistics_data.............................. 505

step......................................... 506

step........................................... 49

steradian...................................... 101

string....................................... 506

String....................................... 506

string_substitution.......................... 507

subextension?................................ 507

submatrix.................................... 507

subset?...................................... 508

subspace_intersection........................ 508

subspace_sum................................. 508

substitute................................... 508

Substitution................................. 509

substring.................................... 509

supplement................................... 509

support...................................... 509

surface...................................... 510

Surface...................................... 510

symmetric?................................... 510

symmetry..................................... 511

symmetry.......................................64

symmetry_axis................................ 513

symmetry_matrix.............................. 513

t

table........................................ 514

Table........................................ 514

Table_of..................................... 514

tail......................................... 514

take......................................... 515

tan.......................................... 515

tangent...................................... 515

tangent_axle................................. 515

tangent_line................................. 516

tangent_lines................................ 516

tangent_points............................... 517

tanh......................................... 517

tartaglia.................................... 517

taylor....................................... 518

taylor_series................................ 518

tera.......................................... 102

term......................................... 518

term_list.................................... 519

terms........................................ 519

terms_list................................... 520

tesla......................................... 101

tetrahedron.................................. 520

text......................................... 520

text_box..................................... 520

Text_box..................................... 521

then......................................... 522

times.......................................... 25

to_decimal................................... 522

tolerance.................................... 523

total_degree................................. 524

tower........................................ 525

trace........................................ 525

transform_matrix............................. 526

transformation_matrix........................ 526

translate.................................... 526

translation.................................. 526

translation...................................... 65

translation_matrix........................... 527

transparency................................. 527

transpose.................................... 528

transpose.......................................28

transposition................................ 529

triangle..................................... 529

Triangle..................................... 529

Triangle..................................... 529

Triangle2d................................... 530

Triangle3d................................... 530

true......................................... 531

truncate..................................... 531

type......................................... 531

u

union........................................ 533

unit......................................... 533

Unit......................................... 534

unit.......................................... 100

unit_si...................................... 534

unsigned_infinity............................ 534

until........................................ 534

v

variable..................................... 536

Variable..................................... 536

variables.................................... 537

variance..................................... 538

variance........................................90

variance_n................................... 538

variations................................... 538

variations....................................... 95

variations_with_repetition................... 539

variations_with_repetition........................... 96

vector....................................... 539

Vector....................................... 541

Vector....................................... 542

vector_field................................. 544

vectorial_product............................ 544

vectorial_product................................. 26

versor....................................... 545

vertex....................................... 545

vertical_asymptote........................... 546

vertical_position............................ 546

vertices..................................... 547

visible...................................... 547

volt.......................................... 101

volume....................................... 548

w

watt.......................................... 101

weber........................................ 101

where........................................ 549

where........................................ 549

while........................................ 552

while.......................................... 15

white........................................ 552

white........................................ 552

width........................................ 552

window_aspect_ratio.......................... 553

window_height................................ 553

window_width................................. 553

wired........................................ 554

with......................................... 554

with......................................... 555

write........................................ 561

write.......................................... 73

write2d...................................... 562

write3d...................................... 562

write3d........................................ 84

y

yellow....................................... 563

yellow....................................... 563

yocto......................................... 102

yotta......................................... 102

z

zepto......................................... 102

zero?........................................ 564

zero0........................................ 564

zeros........................................ 564

zetta......................................... 102

Zn........................................... 564

Zns.......................................... 565

zoom......................................... 565

zoom_in...................................... 565

zoom_out..................................... 566

- OPEN DIOPHANTINE PROBLEMSCaricato daidownloadbooksforstu
- 280898790-maths-ian-jacques-8th-ed-title-pdf.pdfCaricato dagabboudeh
- Maths Spm SyllabusCaricato daJunior Blade
- Midterm f10Caricato daBinbin Chen
- 03-Eduardo Vieira Martins Saint HilaireCaricato daMaicon Fecher
- educ 334 lesson plan final draft 4Caricato daapi-383897639
- Linear Equations in Two VariablesCaricato daArzoo Bhanushali
- Systems of Linear Equations TutorialCaricato daNoor Hayati
- Linear SystemsCaricato daFerrick Gray
- How Do You Factor PolynomialsCaricato daRam Singh
- Algebra II m1 Topic c Lesson 30 Teacher (1)Caricato daJaqueline McGrath
- How to Solve Differential EquationsCaricato daTristan Moran
- DarsCaricato daWorse To Worst Satittamajitra
- g8m4 sg key system of equations l21-27Caricato daapi-276774049
- 4Pair.pdfCaricato daRaviteja Kala
- Class10 Math Unit03 NCERT TextBook EnglishEditionCaricato dasqaiba_g
- Practica Algebra Lineal - 2doCCaricato daRicardo Bomar
- 1516 QS015_1 Solution (1)Caricato daDinie Bidi
- unit and lesson plan finalCaricato daapi-299112322
- MODULE 01. MATHEMATICSCaricato daPart-66 Free
- plugin-BBACaricato daMohammad Asif
- DIRECT METHODS FOR SOLVING SYSTEMS OF LINEAR EQUATIONSCaricato damileacre
- Differential equationCaricato daNadda Muhamad
- Diff EQ Cheat SheetCaricato dakykjhjhkjhkj
- new05.pdfCaricato davazzoleralex6884
- IEEE_EDL_99Caricato daSooraj Shenoy
- DSST-The Official Test Preparation GuideCaricato daShivnetra Singhgargvanshi
- Notes Important Questions Answers 12th Math Chapter 3 Exercise 3.8Caricato dashahid
- taiwan 1.12.09Caricato daTracy Baker
- Math WorksheetCaricato daAweng Topex

- Example for Solution of Transportation ProblemCaricato daEmmanuel Kwame Ocloo
- Derivative of Function of a FunctionCaricato daGurvir Sidhu
- 258414 Peranan Auditor Internal Terhadap Kualit 4b1798b0Caricato daprasdiani shinta
- Gams Help Guide for ProgrammersCaricato daFranco Antonio Calle Falcón
- Keypoints Algebra 1 ACaricato datnezki
- 25Caricato daSravya Reddy
- DLP-6-MATH-Q3-NOV.-25-29-WEEK-5Caricato daJohniel Vidal
- Breguet s FormulasCaricato dajoereis
- Countdown Math 6Caricato dazahoormunir6737
- Chapter 1 Basic AlgebraCaricato daSam Clf
- statisticsCaricato daHoussem Djeddou
- Cot Lesson PlanCaricato daCecille Cervantes
- abw8205.0001.001.umich.edu_djvuCaricato dagaud28
- 9783319014043-c2Caricato daAlex VC
- Reddy 3e Chapter 6Caricato daAnonymous ya6gBBwHJF
- Research Methodology Unit 1,2Caricato dalokeshpayasi
- TI36ProCaricato daRyan Mills
- Elements of Infinitesimal CalculusCaricato daKarina Yesenia Salinas
- Instructions for Authors IJMMM 10-05-17Caricato daToni Pachri Sirait
- QBD impCaricato daAnonymous xVTtvM5pI
- Chapter 2Caricato daanil.gelra5140
- RISKTutorial.pdfCaricato daharry_1981
- ELEMENTARY MATH ASSIGNMENTCaricato daPrince Piron
- Gale A. - Watkeys C. Elementary functions and applications 1920.pdfCaricato daΙωάννης Ανυφαντάκης
- DLL GEN MATHCaricato daAura Ner
- Modeling Intro Early ExamplesCaricato dapromatest2013
- SPE-89030-PA[1].pdfCaricato daFernando Arteaga Pinto
- Cfx12 11 Cel ModCaricato daaruatscribd
- Math Refresher Student Book2Caricato daMuhammad Rehan Javed
- All Units i.e. 1 to 9 (MBS 1st)Caricato daLaxmi Dhakal

## Molto più che documenti.

Scopri tutto ciò che Scribd ha da offrire, inclusi libri e audiolibri dei maggiori editori.

Annulla in qualsiasi momento.