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Understanding, Managing and

Implementing Quality

This book considers strategic aspects of Quality Management and selfassessment frameworks, and provides an in-depth and systematic examination of
a number of the main quality improvement tools and techniques.
Incorporating a critical orientation, the text reviews the implementation of a
variety of Quality Management programmes across a range of organizational
contexts, including manufacturing, higher education, health care, policing and
retailing.
With case studies illustrating good practice in all contexts, including
manufacturing and service organizations, critiques and further reading, Understanding, Managing and Implementing Quality is a highly useful resource for
students, researchers and those studying for professional qualications.
Jiju Antony is a Senior Teaching Fellow at the International Manufacturing
Centre of the University of Warwick.
David Preece is Professor of Technology Management and Organization
Studies and Head of the Human Resource Management Corporate Strategy
Group at the Business School of the University of Teesside.

Understanding, Managing
and Implementing Quality
Frameworks, techniques and cases

Edited by Jiju Antony and


David Preece

London and New York

First published 2002


by Routledge
11 New Fetter Lane, London EC4P 4EE
Simultaneously published in the USA and Canada
by Routledge
29 West 35th Street, New York NY 10001
Routledge is an imprint of the Taylor & Francis Group
This edition published in the Taylor & Francis e-Library, 2002.
2002 Jiju Antony and David Preece, selection and editorial matter;
individual chapters, the contributors.
All rights reserved. No part of this book may be reprinted or reproduced or
utilized in any form or by any electronic, mechanical, or other means, now
known or hereafter invented, including photocopying and recording, or in
any information storage or retrieval system, without permission in writing
from the publishers.
British Library Cataloguing in Publication Data
A catalogue record for this book is available from the British Library
Library of Congress Cataloging in Publication Data
A catalog record for this book has been requested
ISBN 0-415-22271-0 (hbk)
ISBN 0-415-22272-9 (pbk)
ISBN 0-203-46408-7 Master e-book ISBN
ISBN 0-203-77232-6 (Glassbook Format)

This book is dedicated to:


Frenie and Evelyn and
Maureen, Laura and Jamie

Contents

List of gures
List of tables
List of contributors
Acknowledgements
Glossary
Introduction

xii
xiv
xv
xvi
xvii
xviii

PART I

Developing a strategic orientation for Quality Management

1 Promoting a strategic approach to TQM using a case-based


intelligent system

ANDREAS J. FRANGOU

Introduction 3
Linking TQM and performance: a strategic perspective 4
The use of intelligent systems to support TQM initiatives 9
Development of the Enterprise Strategic Advisory System 10
ESAS: promoting strategic quality through case-based
strategies 13
System evaluation 20
Analysis of the evaluation results 21
Conclusion and future research possibilities 22
Notes 23
References 24

viii

Contents

2 Self-assessment frameworks for business organizations

29

ASHOK KUMAR AND CEASAR DOUGLAS

Introduction 29
TQM vs organization-based self-assessment frameworks 30
Self-assessment in the context of TQM 31
Implementation of self-assessment process 33
Self-assessment frameworks 38
Self-assessment frameworks and models 40
A comparative study of ve self-assessment frameworks 49
Concluding remarks 49
Notes 50
References 50

PART II

Quality improvement tools and techniques for the


twenty-rst century
3 QFD: customer driven design of products and services
GRAEME KNOWLES

Introduction 57
Denition of QFD 58
The need for QFD 58
The principles of QFD 58
Who is the customer in QFD? 59
The customer view of quality 60
Implications of the model for QFD 61
Establishing the requirements 62
QFD case study 63
Building the QFD chart 65
Linking customer requirements to product features 66
Interactions between product parameters 68
Ratings and targets for the hows and technical difculty 69
Analysing the chart 71
The expanded QFD process 73
Managing QFD 74
Making QFD successful 74
QFD applications 75
The benets of QFD 75
Critical review of QFD 76
Conclusion 78
References 78

55
57

Contents
4 Taguchi methods of experimental design for continuous
improvement of process effectiveness and product quality

ix
81

JIJU ANTONY

Introduction 81
Experimental design using the Taguchi approach 82
Applications and benets of Taguchi methods in industry 83
The Taguchis quality philosophy 85
A systematic methodology for the Taguchi approach to
experimental design 87
Case study 95
A critique of the Taguchi approach to experimental design 99
Conclusion 101
Note 101
References 101
5 Statistical process monitoring in the twenty-rst century

103

MICHAEL WOOD

Introduction 103
The philosophy, purpose and potential benets of SPC/M 105
An illustrative case study 107
SPC/M in practice: problems and suggested solutions 110
Conclusion 116
Notes 117
References 118

PART III

Case studies in Quality Management


6 TQM in higher education institutions: a review and case
application
JAIDEEP MOTWANI AND GLENN MAZUR

Introduction 123
Why implement TQM in HEIs? 124
Dening the customer in HEIs 125
Classication of literature on TQM in HEI 126
Application of TQM in HEI: a case study 131
Future research directions 137
Conclusion 139
Note 139
References 139

121
123

Contents
7 Do customers know what is best for them?: the use of
SERVQUAL in UK policing

143

NICK CAPON AND VIVIEN MILLS

Introduction 143
The SERVQUAL method 144
Evaluating SERVQUAL 145
Quality Management in policing 146
SERVQUAL in the Sussex Police Force 150
Data results 151
Conclusion 156
Acknowledgements 158
References 158
Appendices 161
8 Quality in the NHS: can we master the art of conversation?

166

HARRIET JEFFERSON

Introduction 166
Background to quality in healthcare 167
Total Quality Management (TQM) 168
Audit 170
Health outcomes/health gain 173
Evidence-based medicine 174
Current approach to quality in healthcare 174
Evaluating health services 175
An ethnographic approach to service evaluation 178
Conducting the evaluation: a case study 181
Conclusion 189
Acknowledgement 190
References 190
9 Quality Management in public house retailing: a case study
DAVID PREECE, VALERIE STEVEN AND GORDON STEVEN

Introduction 195
Bass Taverns 196
Change and restructuring in Bass Taverns 198
Quality Management initiatives 201
Conclusion 207
Note 209
References 209

195

Contents
10 Changing supervisory relations at work: behind the success
stories of Quality Management initiatives

xi
211

PATRICK DAWSON

Introduction 211
Quality Management: the new enlightenment? 211
Supervision and Quality Management: some critical
reections 214
Quality Management and supervision in the Australian
workplace 219
Conclusion 223
References 224
Index

227

Figures

1.1
1.2
1.3
1.4
1.5
1.6
2.1
2.2
2.3
2.4
2.5
2.6
3.1
3.2
3.3
3.4
3.5
3.6
3.7
4.1
5.1
5.2
5.3
6.1
6.2
6.3
6.4
7.1

CBR process in strategic quality problem-solving


ESAS scope and domain coverage System Conceptual
Framework (SCF)
ESAS structure
Case describing an experience of competitor threat via
new product release
Symbol hierarchy within ESAS
Form-like user orientated case representation
Determination of variance/gaps between the business
excellence and existing model
Self-assessment/TQM models for organizational
performance improvement
Malcolm Baldridge Award criteria and their
inter-relationship
Business Excellence model
The continuous improvement model for self-assessment
Self-assessed Quality Management systems
The Kano model of quality
Afnity diagram for mountain bike
Customer information in the QFD chart
Linking customer requirements to product features
Adding the correlation matrix
Completed QFD chart
The expanded QFD process
The four phases of the methodology
Mean chart of hospital journey time
Mean chart similar to actual charts used
Correct version of the mean chart
Akaos concept of university evaluators
Afnity diagram of engineering managers needs
AHP to prioritize engineering managers requirements
Quality table for managers needs vs students skills
The SERVQUAL model

12
15
16
17
18
19
37
39
43
43
46
47
60
64
65
66
68
70
73
88
106
110
111
133
134
135
136
145

Figures
7.2
7.3
7.4
7.5
7.6
7.7
7.8
7.9
7.10
8.1
8.2
8.3

UK police organizational structure


Who assesses the quality of our performance?
What do the police authority think of our performance?
Challenge analysis
What do all customers of our performance?
Revised results using factor analysis
Root causes
Reasons for Gap 2
Scope of quality in Police Service
A history of quality in healthcare
Approach most frequently used in services
Service evaluation framework

xiii
147
150
151
152
153
154
155
156
157
167
176
180

Tables

1.1
1.2
1.3
2.1
2.2
2.3
2.4
4.1
4.2
4.3
4.4
4.5
4.6
7.1
7.2
7.3
7.4

Reasons for TQM failures


Advantages of using CBR for Strategic Quality
Management
Evaluation results for ESAS
Malcolm Baldridge National Quality Award (2000):
criteria for performance excellence
Malcolm Baldridge National Quality Award:
criteria score sheet
Scoring criteria for EFQM Business Excellence model
Comparison of self-assessment models
A four-trial OA for studying two 2-level factors
Typical applications of Taguchi method in
manufacturing sector
List of control factors for the Taguchi experiment
Experimental layout used for the study
Average SNR values
Results of pooled ANOVA on SNR
Use of Quality Management tools in the 43 forces of
England and Wales
Sample sizes used for external data collection
Revised dimension clusters using factor analysis
Sample sizes used for internal data collection

6
14
21
41
42
45
501
83
84
96
96
97
98
148
151
153
154

Contributors

Jiju Antony is a Senior Teaching Fellow at the International Manufacturing


Centre of the University of Warwick, Coventry, UK.
Nick Capon is a Senior Lecturer in Operations and Quality Management,
Portsmouth Business School, University of Portsmouth, UK.
Patrick Dawson is a Professor in the Department of Management Studies,
University of Aberdeen, Aberdeen, Scotland, UK.
Ceasar Douglas is a Professor of the Department of Management, Seidman
School of Business, Grand Valley State University, Michigan, USA.
Andreas J. Frangou is a Business Modeller within the Modelling Services
Group, DHL Worldwide Express, Hounslow, Middlesex, UK.
Harriet Jefferson is a Senior Research Fellow in the School of Nursing and
Midwifery, University of Southampton, UK.
Graeme Knowles is a Senior Teaching Fellow in Quality & Reliability,
Warwick Manufacturing Group, University of Warwick, Coventry, UK.
Ashok Kumar is an Assistant Professor of the Department of Management,
Seidman School of Business, Grand Valley State University, Michigan, USA.
Glenn Mazur is an Executive Director of QFD Institute, an adjunct lecturer of
TQM and President of Japan Business Consultants Ltd, Michigan, USA.
Vivien Mills is a retired Superintendent from Sussex Police.
Jaideep Motwani is a Professor in the Department of Management, Seidman
School of Business, Grand Valley State University, Michigan, USA.
David Preece is Professor of Technology Management and Organization
Studies and Head of the Human Resource Management Corporate Strategy
Group at the Business School of the University of Teesside.
Gordon Steven is the Managing Director of Betting Direct.
Valerie Steven is a Senior Lecturer in Human Resource Management of
Coventry Business School, Coventry University, UK.
Michael Wood is a Principal Lecturer in Portsmouth Business School, University of Portsmouth, Portsmouth, UK.

Acknowledgements

As editors and as chapter authors, we have beneted from the advice and help of
a number of people in the preparation of this book. At Routledge, the book was
conceived during Stuart Hays stewardship of the Business and Management
list, carried forward by his one-time assistant and subsequent successor,
Michelle Gallagher, and the manuscript was submitted to one of her successors,
Francesca Lumkin. We thank them for their encouragement and forbearance and
we also thank the two reviewers appointed by Routledge to comment upon
earlier drafts of the chapters.
This collection of ideas on Quality Management and quality engineering was
conceived during the year 199899 when Jiju had nished writing his book on
Experimental Quality. When he took his ideas to David, he foresaw the potential
which resulted in the present volume. Jijus work on this book reects his
experiences and lessons learned from his previous book as mentioned above. He
would like to thank Dr Hen Rowlands of the University of Wales Newport and
Dr Ranjit K. Roy of Nutek, Inc. for their critical comments on the earlier drafts
of his chapter. Special thanks also go to the members of the Quality and Reliability Group of the University of Warwick for facilitating his work.
Davids work on the book was greatly facilitated by the sabbatical he enjoyed
during the second semester of the 19992000 academic year, and he would like
to thank his colleagues in the Department of Business and Management at the
University of Portsmouth for their support, particularly Peter Scott who took
over most of his teaching for that semester. In addition, a number of people from
public house retailing companies were only too pleased to divert their time to
responding to questions and observations on Quality Management matters; it is a
pity they cannot be mentioned by name for reasons of condentiality.

Glossary

AHP
AI
ANOVA
BEM
BPR
CA
CBR
CEO
COQ
EFQM
EQA
ESAS
HEIs
HMIC
ISO
MBNQA
OA
OFAAT
QA
QCIM
QFD
ROI
SERVQUAL
SNR
SPC
SPM
TQM
WPC

Analytic Hierarchy Process


Articial Intelligence
Analysis of Variance
Business Excellence Model
Business Process Re-engineering
Clinical Audit
Case-based Reasoning
Chief Executive Ofcer
Cost of Quality
European Foundation for Quality Management
European Quality Award
Enterprise Strategic Advisory System
Higher Education Institutions
Her Majestys Inspectorate of Constabularies
International Organization for Standardization
Malcolm Baldridge National Quality Award
Orthogonal Array
One Factor At A Time
Quality Assurance
Quality Competitiveness Index Model
Quality Function Deployment
Return on Investment
Service Quality
Signal-to-Noise Ratio
Statistical Process Control
Statistical Process Monitoring
Total Quality Management
Worker Participation Committee

Introduction

In the pursuit of continuous improvement of product and service performance,


quality is a major focus for contemporary organizations. This book is designed
to provide the reader a critical appreciation of key Quality Management tools,
techniques and implementation into both manufacturing and service organizations through drawing upon the research ndings of a range of specialist
scholars who have gathered together an extensive range of new data from
organizations in the manufacturing, healthcare, higher education, policing, and
leisure retailing sectors across a number of countries.
Given that the subject of Quality Management has become quite broadly
based and generated a considerable number of tools, techniques and frameworks, we have had to be rather selective in the particular tools, techniques and
frameworks we have chosen to review and evaluate. All the more so because, in
any event, this is not a textbook, but rather is centrally concerned to explore the
challenges faced and issues raised when those tools, techniques and frameworks
are applied in organizations and how, if at all, attempts were made to resolve
those challenges. What we are arguing, then, is that Quality Management can
only really be understood through a critical examination of its implementation,
and that this necessitates a research design which incorporates an attempt to get
close to the action of everyday practice (see also Wilkinson and Willmott,
1995; Wilkinson et al., 1998). This is not to argue or imply that the strategic
dimension should or can be ignored in focusing upon implementation for, while
we are primarily interested in the latter, we recognize that some at least of this
activity takes place within a context which is framed by wider, especially managerial, considerations relating to such matters as corporate, business unit,
human resource management, and manufacturing/service quality strategies.
Hence, we felt it important to begin the book with two chapters which concentrate upon this strategic dimension of quality and which provide some frameworks and means for developing or extending an organizations strategic Quality
Management capability (that is, by using case-based systems or self-assessment
frameworks).
There are an extensive number of texts and textbooks on Quality Management
(see, for example, Beckford, 2001; Dale, 1994; Oakland, 1993; Kolarik, 1995;
Bergman and Klefsjo, 1994). What we are offering here is not another textbook,

Introduction

xix

but rather a book which will allow the reader to appreciate some of the complexities and problems associated with the implementation of some of the key tools,
techniques and frameworks of Quality Management in contemporary organizations. Thus, it is assumed that readers are already acquainted with the broad
subject matter of Quality Management though having taken an introductory
course and/or relevant work experience and reading. The present book is
designed to build upon this grounding by offering a more specialist treatment of
certain aspects of Quality Management which are either not covered or only
summarily covered in the textbooks. This treatment is facilitated through the
brief overview which is provided by the chapter author(s), where appropriate, of
that particular tool, technique or framework, followed by a critical review and
case study application, along with a guide to further reading. The references for
each chapter are gathered together, chapter by chapter, at the end of the book, in
order that the reader can more readily gain an overview of all the secondary
material referred to in the book.
The book, then, focuses upon Quality Management implementation issues and
challenges. It adopts a critical orientation, one which is based upon an engagement with practice through case study research. It also provides a systematic
approach for both understanding and assessing the implementation of quality
tools and techniques in a variety of business contexts. Many of the texts available in the area adopt a technicist/rationalistic approach: If only people in
organizations acted more rationally and followed the tools and techniques to the
letter, then most quality problems could be resolved. They also commonly have
a limited anchorage in the organizational literature and/or make no or only very
limited use of primary data. Our view is that this leads to both a poor understanding of practice and (hence) a weak basis upon which to intervene in or
manage Quality Management initiatives. It is intended that the material presented in the rst two chapters should provide a strategic orientation of quality.
It should be added at this juncture that the data has been gathered from organizations in three countries: the United Kingdom (Chapters 1, 35, 79), the
United States (Chapters 2 and 6) and Australia (Chapter 10), although there is,
of course, quite a bit of overlapping of the countries implied or considered at
various points. Given that many of the literature reviews are cross-national,
there is, then, an international avour to the overview and evaluation of Quality
Management implementation presented here.
The book is carefully designed and presented so that it will be suitable for a
wide spectrum of readers, ranging from undergraduates to Quality Management
practitioners in the eld of Quality Management. To illustrate, we are thinking
of courses such as BA/BSc Business/Management Studies/Business Administration, International Management, Mathematics and Statistics, BEng Mechanical,
Chemical, Electrical, Electronic, Manufacturing, Engineering, where Quality
Management is taught as either a core or optional subject or forms an important
part of a wider subject, and covered typically in the nal year of the programme,
following groundwork studies in earlier years. With respect to postgraduate
programmes, we are thinking particularly of Masters/courses in Business

xx

Introduction

Administration, Quality Management, Quality and Reliability, Manufacturing


Management/Engineering Business Management, Industrial and Systems Engineering/Manufacturing Systems Engineering. The book will also be of relevance
for people who are studying programmes leading to professional examinations/membership in cognate areas such as the Institute of Quality Assurance,
Certied Quality/Reliability Engineer/Technician.
Provided below is an overview of the chapters which make up the rest of the
book. We move from a consideration of some key strategic issues associated
with Quality Management, through an in-depth examination of certain key
Quality Management tools, techniques and frameworks, to ve case study chapters which relate, evaluate and comment upon the implementation of Quality
Management in a variety of sectors, both public and private: manufacturing,
higher education, healthcare, police, and public house retailing. These chapters
illustrate many of the challenges and problems which are posed when the
various tools and techniques are applied, and how actors in the relevant organizations have attempted to overcome them and whether indeed (and if so in
what senses) they can be said to have succeeded.
More specically, then, Part I of the book consists of two chapters: Chapter 1
addresses the strategic issues of Quality Management using the application of AI
techniques such as Case-Based Reasoning (CBR) and Chapter 2 provides a comparative evaluation of self-assessment frameworks for business organizations for
developing and facilitating change. Part II consists of three chapters all of
them are arranged in a sequential order for designing quality into products and
processes. The contents in these chapters are essential for organizations embarking on what we call today Six Sigma Business Improvement Strategy. The techniques and tools presented in Part II provide invaluable guidance for designing,
optimizing and controlling product and process quality. Part III, which consists
of ve chapters, centres around the presentation and analysis of case study
research into the implementation of some of the tools, techniques and/or frameworks, considered in the previous two main sections of the book, in contemporary organizations. While this is also the case in many of the previous chapters,
here there is a focus upon a particular sector, such as healthcare or higher education, and more attention is devoted to the organizational, people and managerial
issues and contexts associated with implementation. In other words, while the
tools, techniques and/or frameworks are foregrounded in the rst two sections,
in this last section it is the organizational issues which are foregrounded, with
the tools etc., being backgrounded. It is also the case that the majority of the
illustrative/primary material presented in Part II is drawn from the manufacturing sector, whereas in Part III non-manufacturing sectors are represented much
more strongly, in particular policing, leisure retailing, healthcare and higher
education.
Chapter 1 introduces the reader to general Articial Intelligence (AI) techniques and explores the notion of strategic quality from the perspective of continuous improvement and business performance. The chapter also describes in
detail the development and evaluation of a case-based intelligent system to

Introduction

xxi

encourage the application of case-based reasoning methodology to quality and


business.
Chapter 2 examines critically the topic of self-assessment in relation to ve
diverse frameworks: Malcolm Baldridge National Quality Award model, Business Excellence model, Continuous Improvement model, Quality Management
systems model and Quality Competitiveness Index model. A comparative evaluation of these ve frameworks over several desirable attributes is also presented.
Chapter 3 establishes the core principles of Quality Function Deployment
(QFD) as a technique to design and develop products or services which is driven
by the needs of the customer. The chapter also elucidates the strengths and
limitations of the technique, the critical factors for the successful implementation of the technique and also throws light on the issues around the team formation for the application of QFD.
Chapter 4 illustrates the importance of experimental design technique in
particular Taguchi approach to industrial experimentation. A systematic methodology for design/process optimization is also presented in order to assist people
in organizations with limited skills in experimental design techniques. A case
study from a hot forming process is presented. The chapter concludes by revealing a critique of experimental design advocated by Taguchi.
Chapter 5 provides a brief overview of Statistical Process Control (SPC) and
explains its potential benets and underlying assumptions. The chapter also
looks at the difculties in the application of SPC (or more accurately SPM
Statistical Process Monitoring) and possible ways of resolving them. A case
study from a manufacturing company is presented to illustrate various issues
involved in the implementation of SPM.
Chapter 6 discusses the implementation of TQM in Higher Education Sector.
The chapter fundamentally explains a case application of QFD in designing a
new course in TQM at the University of Michigan, USA.
Chapter 7 discusses whether a customer centred approach to Quality Management is appropriate in UK policing. The paper describes the application of
SERVQUAL (or the so-called GAP model) in assessing service quality. The
chapter concludes that apart from the Gap model, other methods such as process
mapping and the Business Excellence model need to be used to improve value
quality and technical quality respectively.
Chapter 8 introduces the evaluation of quality in the healthcare sector in
particular the National Health Service (NHS) in UK. The paper reveals the difculties in the successful application of TQM principles in the NHS.
Chapter 9 focuses upon Quality Management initiatives within the UK public
house retailing sector. It was found that QC/QA orientation predominates within
the sector and that a TQM project introduced in the early 1990s did not become
embedded within the organization, although a number of public house managers
were predisposed towards it and were beginning to adopt TQM-type practices
within their pubs.
Chapter 10 emphasizes the importance of supervisory relations at work in
organizations. The chapter highlights the more complex process of supervisory

xxii

Introduction

change by drawing longitudinal data from a National Programme of Australian


research. The chapter concludes that there are no simple prescriptions for the
development of harmonious quality cultures or one-minute recipes for implementing new forms of industry democracy at work.

References
Beckford, J. (2001) Quality: A Critical Introduction, 2nd edn. London: Routledge.
Bergman, B. and Klefsjo, B. (1994) Quality from Customer Needs to Customer
Satisfaction. McGraw-Hill, UK.
Dale, B. (1994) Managing Quality, 2nd edn. Hemel Hempstead: Prentice Hall.
Kolarik, W. (1995), Creating Quality: Concepts, Systems, Strategies and Tools. New
York: McGraw-Hill.
Oakland, J. (1993) Total Quality Management: The Route to Improving Performance.
London: Butterworth-Heinemann.
Wilkinson, A. and Willmott, H. (1995) Making Quality Critical: New Perspectives on
Organizational Change. London: Routledge.
Wilkinson, A., Redman, T., Snape, E. and Marchington, M. (1998) Managing with Total
Quality Management: Theory and Practice. Basingstoke: Macmillan.

Part I

Developing a strategic
orientation for Quality
Management

Promoting a strategic
approach to TQM using a
case-based intelligent system
Andreas J. Frangou

Introduction
Intelligent systems research is an area of articial intelligence (AI) dedicated
to the study and development of machines (notably computers) that can
display and replicate human intelligent behaviour such as understanding,
learning, reasoning and problem-solving (Michalski and Littman, 1991:
64; Schank, 1990). Traditionally AI research is concerned with the broad
study of human intelligence and its replication. This can have more
theoretical, technical and philosophical implications for AI research such as the
following:

the nature of intelligence itself (i.e. what is intelligence and what are its
components);
the development of models of human reasoning, problem-solving, knowledge representation and cognition;
the development of tools and techniques such as AI programming environments (i.e. LISP and PROLOG) and learning algorithms to assist knowledge elicitation.

The eld of intelligent systems is distinct from other areas of AI, only in that it
focuses on the advancement of methodologies and tools that can aid in the
development, application and evaluation of systems to real world systems. This
chapter therefore does not aim to provide a deep theoretical and philosophical
understanding of AI, rather, it focuses on the application of intelligent systems
to business, by reporting on research into the development and evaluation of a
prototype intelligent system called ESAS (Enterprise Strategic Advisory
System). ESAS is a case-based intelligent system1 designed to provide support
for TQM and competitive advantage. The overall goal of the system is to
encourage proactivity and creativity in organizations during strategic quality
problem-solving and decision-making.
In sharing the experiences of developing and evaluating ESAS, this chapter
aims to demonstrate to the reader the potential of AI and intelligent systems for
business through the following: