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International Journal of Advanced Engineering Technology E-ISSN 0976-3945 Research Article AN EXPERIMENTAL INVESTIGATION

International Journal of Advanced Engineering Technology

E-ISSN 0976-3945

Research Article AN EXPERIMENTAL INVESTIGATION ON THE PROPERTIES OF CONCRETE CONTAINING MANUFACTURED SAND

Priyanka A. Jadhav a and Dilip K. Kulkarni b

Address for Correspondence

a Research Scholar, Civil Engineering Department, Indian Institute of Technology, Bombay, Maharashtra, India- 400 076. b Assistant Professor, Civil Engineering Department, Rajarambapu Institute of Technology Rajaramnagar, Islampur, Maharashtra, India-420 409

ABSTRACT

The effect of water cement ratio on fresh and hardened properties of concrete with partial replacement of natural sand by manufactured sand was investigated. Concrete mix design of M20 (2900 psi) grade was done according to Indian Standard code (IS: 10262). Concrete cube, beam and cylindrical specimens were tested for evaluation of compressive, flexural and split tensile strength respectively. Workability was measured in terms of slump and compacting factor. The concrete exhibits excellent strength with 60% replacement of natural sand, so it can be used in concrete as viable alternative to natural sand. This paper puts forward the applications of manufactured sand as an attempt towards sustainable development in India. It will help to find viable solution to the declining availability of natural sand to make eco-balance. KEY WORDS: manufactured sand, natural sand, aggregate, cement.

INTRODUCTION Conventionally concrete is mixture of cement, sand and aggregate. Properties of aggregate affect the durability and performance of concrete, so fine aggregate is an essential component of concrete. The most commonly used fine aggregate is natural river or pit sand. Fine and coarse aggregate constitute about 75% of total volume. It is therefore, important to obtain right type and good quality aggregate at site, because the aggregate form the main matrix of concrete or mortar [1, 2]. The global consumption of natural sand is very high, due to the extensive use of concrete. In general, the demand of natural sand is quite high in developing countries to satisfy the rapid infrastructural growth, in this situation developing country like India facing shortage in good quality natural sand [3, 4]. Particularly in India, natural sand deposits are being depleted and causing serious threat to environment as well as the society. Increasing extraction of natural sand from river beds causing many problems, loosing water retaining sand strata, deepening of the river courses and causing bank slides, loss of vegetation on the bank of rivers, exposing the intake well of water supply schemes, disturbs the aquatic life as well as affecting agriculture due to lowering the underground water table etc are few examples. In past decade variable cost of natural sand used as fine aggregate in concrete increased the cost of construction. In this situation research began for inexpensive and easily available alternative material to natural sand. Some alternatives materials have already been used as a part of natural sand e.g. fly- ash, slag limestone and siliceous stone powder were used in concrete mixtures as a partial replacement of natural sand [5]. However, scarcity in required quality is the major limitation in some of the above materials. Now a day’s sustainable infrastructural growth demands the alternative material that should satisfy technical requisites of fine aggregate as well as it should be available abundantly. Amnon and Hadassa (2006) studied the effect of high levels of fines content on concrete properties. Hudson B.P. (1997) has taken a review of various tests in his article manufactured sand for concrete. Ilangovan et.

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al (2006) studies the strength and behaviour of concrete by using crushed rock dust as fine aggregate, they investigated the possibility of using crushed rock as 100 % replacement for sand, with varying compacting factors. Nagraj T.S. (2000) studied the proportioning concrete mixes with rock dust as fine aggregate. Safiuddin et. al (2007) carried investigation on utilization of quarry waste fine aggregate in concrete mixtures. On this basis, manufactured sand offers viable alternative. It is purpose made fine aggregate produced by crushing and screening or further processing i.e. washing, grading, classifying of quarried rock, cobbles, boulders or gravels from which natural fine aggregate had been removed. RESEARCH SIGNIFICANCE The main objective of the present work was to systematically study the effect of water cement ratio and percentage replacement of manufactured sand by natural sand as 0.4, 0.45, 0.5, 0.55 and 0%, 20%, 40%, 60%, 80% and 100% respectively on the strength propertied of concrete. The study was carried out on M20 grade concrete with 0.5 water cement ratio. Manufactured sand can be used as fine aggregate, but it has to satisfy the technical requisites like workability and strength. On this aspect research on concrete with manufactured sand is scarce, so this paper investigates the concrete produced with manufactured sand. MATERIALS Aggregate: - Coarse aggregate (12mm [70%] and 10mm [30%] [0.5 and 0.4 in]) was used, which was manufactured from locally available rock. Summary of material properties were presented in Table 1 according to Indian Standard [6, 7]. Locally available river sand as fine aggregate (4.75mm to 75 micron [0.2 to 0.003 in]) was used. Manufactured sand (4.75mm to 75 micron [0.2 to 0.003 in]) was used for partial replacement to natural sand. Both fine aggregate, natural and manufactured sand were from zone II according to [6]. Sieve analysis and material properties were presented in Table 1 and 2 according to Indian Standards [6, 7]. Cement: - The cement used was 53 grade (Ordinary Portland Cement) [13].

International Journal of Advanced Engineering Technology

E-ISSN 0976-3945

Table 1: Physical Properties of Materials.

E-ISSN 0976-3945 Table 1: Physical Properties of Materials. Table 2: Details of Sieve Analysis of Natural

Table 2: Details of Sieve Analysis of Natural Sand and Manufactured Sand.

of Sieve Analysis of Natural Sand and Manufactured Sand. EXPERIMENTAL INVESTIGATION The strength [flexural, split

EXPERIMENTAL INVESTIGATION The strength [flexural, split tensile and compressive] and workability [slump and compacting factor] were studied on concrete with partial replacement of natural sand by manufactured sand. This paper extends the previous study [8] toward the change of water cement ratio from 0.5 to 0.4, 0.45 and 0.55. Table 3 presents the M20 grade concrete mix design for concrete and six trial mix series based on partial replacement of natural sand by manufactured sand [8]. All of the experiments were performed in normal room temperature. The concrete ingredients namely coarse aggregate, fine aggregate and cement were first mixed in dry state, then calculated amount of water was added and mix it thoroughly to get a homogeneous concrete mix. Workability of fresh concrete was determined by the slump and compacting factor test according to Indian standers

[10].

Compressive strength was measured on 150mm (5.9 in) cubes and Split tensile strength was measured on 100mm (3.9 in) diameter and 200mm (7.9 in) height cylinder that were cured in water for 28 days and it tested at 28 day’s on compression testing machine of 20 ton. Flexural strength was measured on 100 mm (3.9 in) width, 100mm (3.9 in) depth and 500mm (19.7 in) length beam that were also cured in water for 28 days and it tested on Universal Testing Machine (UTM) of 60 ton, two point loading adopted over an effective span of 400mm (15.7 in). Table 4 and 5 presented the summary of workability and strength test results of concrete respectively. The percentage increases in all three strength as compared with reference mix were seen in Table 5. For each trial mix three cube, three beam and three cylinders were casted.

Table 3: Concrete Mix Design for M20 Grade.

were casted. Table 3: Concrete Mix Design for M20 Grade. Table 4: Workability of Fresh Concrete.

Table 4: Workability of Fresh Concrete.

Mix Design for M20 Grade. Table 4: Workability of Fresh Concrete. IJAET/Vol.III/ Issue II/April-June, 2012/101-104

IJAET/Vol.III/ Issue II/April-June, 2012/101-104

International Journal of Advanced Engineering Technology

E-ISSN 0976-3945

Table 5: Test Results of Concrete

E-ISSN 0976-3945 Table 5: Test Results of Concrete RESULTS AND DISCUSSION Fresh Concrete Workability: -

RESULTS AND DISCUSSION Fresh Concrete Workability: - Increasing percentage replacement of manufactured sand decreased the workability. As compared to previous work [8], as water cement ratio decreases workability decreases as seen in Table 4. Manufactured sand consumes higher amount of water to satisfy the workability. Hardened Concrete Concrete mixes revealed an increase of up to 12.61% in compressive strength, 11.44% in split tensile strength and 14.60% in flexural strength as a result of replacement of manufactured sand up to 60% as seen in Table 5 and Fig.1, 2 and 3 respectively.

to 60% as seen in Table 5 and Fig.1, 2 and 3 respectively. Fig 1: Variation

Fig 1: Variation in compressive strength of concrete.

Fig 1: Variation in compressive strength of concrete. Fig 2: Variation in Split tensile strength of

Fig 2: Variation in Split tensile strength of concrete. Concrete with manufactured sand gives better surface finishes as seen in Fig 4. It has been observed that the compressive, split tensile and flexural strength of concrete with replacement of natural sand by manufactured sand goes on increasing up to 60% replacement. This may be due to the fact that 60% replacement of natural sand by manufactured sand may show the optimum reaction with optimum filler capacity. It can be concluded that 60% replacement

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of natural sand by manufactured sand will yield the maximum strengths for concrete. In this study we observe that the overall strength of concrete is higher and workability is lower if results are compared with reference mix.

is lower if results are compared with reference mix. Fig 3: Variation in Flexural strength of

Fig 3: Variation in Flexural strength of concrete.

mix. Fig 3: Variation in Flexural strength of concrete. Fig 4: Comparison of Surface Finishes CONCLUSION

Fig 4: Comparison of Surface Finishes CONCLUSION The effect of concrete with partial replacement of manufactured sand on the properties of normal strength concrete with water cement ratio of 0.45 and 28 day’s compressive, split tensile and flexural strength of 20Mpa (2900 psi) and workability (slump and compacting factor) were studied. The effect of percentage replacement of manufactured sand on strength property and workability were evaluated and compared with reference mix of 0% replacement of natural sand by manufactured sand.

1. The compressive, split tensile and flexural strength of concrete with 60% replacement of natural sand by manufactured sand reveals higher strength as compared to reference mix.

2. The overall strength of concrete linearly increases from 0%, 20%, 40% and 60% replacement of natural sand by manufactured sand as compared with reference mix (mix 1). These results were compared with previous work [8] then found that, present study gives better strength and higher water cement ration gives better workability.

3. Manufactured sand has a potential to provide alternative to natural sand and helps in

International Journal of Advanced Engineering Technology

E-ISSN 0976-3945

maintaining the environment as well as economical balance. Non-availability of natural sand at reasonable cost, forces to search for alternative material. Manufactured sand qualifies itself as suitable substitute for river sand at reasonable cost. The manufactured sand found to had good gradation and nice finish (See Fig. 4), which was lacking in natural sand. This had been resulted in good cohesive concrete. This sand is considered as an ideal for concrete. ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS The authors would like to thanks to Dr. (Mrs) S. S. Kulkarni, Principal Rajarambapu Institute of Technology, Rajaramnagar, Islampur, Maharashtra, India-420 409, for giving all the encouragement needed which kept our enthusiasm alive. This research was completed during Master Degree project of first author at Rajarambapu Institute of Technology, Rajaramnagar, Islampur, Maharashtra, India. REFERENCES

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