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Virus General Info + Classification Viruses are tiny, nonliving structures-even smaller than ribosomes.

A virus is an infectious particle made up of a


nucleic acid in a protein coat, and in some cases surrounded by a membranous envelope. The protein coat surrounding the genetic material is called the
capsid. The capsid can take different shapes depending on the virus. Capsids are
built from protein subunits called capsomeres. Rod-shaped viruses are known as
helical viruses because their genetic material is wound up in a helix, an example
being the tobacco mosaic virus. Adenoviruses, which infect the respiratory tract
of animals, have 252 identical protein molecules arranged in 20 triangular sidesan icosahedron, leading to their name icosahedral viruses. Along with their
shape, adenoviruses have a glycoprotein spike coming out of each vertex. Some
viruses have other structures that help them infect. In the influenza virus, a
membranous envelope covers the capsid. These viral envelopes are made from
the membrane of the host cell, which also provides the viral envelope with
phospholipids and glycoproteins. Some of the most complex viruses are
bacteriophages, which as their name suggests infect bacteria. Retroviruses are
viruses that use RNA rather than DNA for genetic material and use the enzyme
reverse transcriptase to convert DNA to RNA in host cells the most notable one
being HIV
. Viruses can be classified in two ways: The Baltimore classification system is
based on the nucleic acid present in the genome (DNA or RNA), whether is
single-stranded or double-stranded, whether the genome is positive-sense or
negative-sense, and their method of replication. The second method of
classification is the ICTV classification system, which shares many features with taxonomy classification of cellular organisms like animals and bacteria.
The names of orders and families are italicized, unlike normal taxonomic systems. Classified as: order, family, subfamily, genus, and species. Specie names
are based on the disease they cause (e.g. Cowpox virus or West Nile virus). There are currently 7 orders, based on common ancestry, host organisms, and
genomes. Virus Reproduction- Bacteriophages are understood the most among
viruses, so we examine the reproduction of viruses through them. A virus can
replicate in two ways. One is the lytic cycle, where the bacteria lyses and releases the
phages. Each new phage goes and infects its own phage, spreading the virus. A phage
that only replicates by the lytic cycle is a virulent phage. Phages can also be used
beneficially to remove bacterial infections in humans. However, this does not always
eliminate the bacteria. One, bacteria can mutate and gain immunity. Two, when viral
DNA enters a bacterium, the DNA is considered foreign and is cut up by restriction
enzymes, restricting the viruss ability to infect the bacterium. Viruses can also go
under the lysogenic cycle, where the host cell co-exists with the virus, rather than
dying. Viral Diseases Mononucleosis is spread through bodily fluids. Commonly
caused by the Epstein-Barr virus, it can be prevented by sharing personal items,
food, or saliva. In extreme cases, swelling may occur, in which case it will be treated
by corticosteroids. Other virus may also cause mono such as, cytomegalovirus, HIV,
rubella, hepatitis A, B, or C, and adenovirus. AIDS is caused HIV, and has no cure available. However, those with AIDS can be treated to live a long life,
but the best way to prevent getting AIDS is to avoid having unprotected sex and sharing needles. There is some treatment to the HIV virus such as
azidothymidine (AZT), which blocks the synthesis of DNA by reverse transcriptase. Currently, there is also research going on into treating HIV more
effectively. Cocktails, multidrug treatments, are treatments that include a combination of two nucleoside mimics and a protease inhibitor, which interferes
with an enzyme required to assemble the virus. These cocktails have been found to be extremely effective against HIV. Chickenpox is caused by the
varicella-zoster virus, and can be prevented by getting a vaccine. There are many treatments that can be done for chicken pox, such as calamine lotion, or
acyclovir, an antiviral medication. Shingles is another virus caused by the varicella-zoster virus. Shingles cannot be given to other people, however contact
with people who have shingles can cause one to get chickenpox if they have not before. Polio is a deadly virus caused by the poliovirus, paralyzing and
killing its victims. Although deadly back in the 1950s, a vaccine has been made, and the virus has all but faded. The Common Cold is caused by many
viruses, the most common one being rhinovirus. Others include respiratory syncytial virus, human parainfluenza virus, and human metapneumovirus. The
virus can spread through the air and through any contact with the infected. Although there is no cure for the cold, you should drink lots of water to try and
remove the virus from your body. To prevent the virus, avoid contact with infected and wash hands frequently. Rabies is a virus that affects all mammals,
passed by bites and saliva. To prevent animals from getting rabies, spay and neuter pets, and get them vaccinated. Because rabies is extremely common in
dogs, limit exposure to wild dogs. Rabies is treated with a direct fluorescent antibody, which detects rabies virus antigens in the brain. Dengue Fever can be
caused by multiple viruses, labeled from dengue 1 to dengue 4. Dengue fever is passed through mosquitoes, so the best way to prevent getting dengue fever
is to avoid getting bit by mosquitoes, as there is no medication or vaccine to cure dengue. Treatment only consists of painkillers and fluids. Rubella is a
virus passed through human contact and can be spread through pregnancy. There is no medication that can slow rubella or improve ones condition. The best
way to prevent rubella is by getting the MMR vaccine (measles-mumps-rubella). Ebola Hemorrhagic Fever is a virus that has no method of prevention, no
vaccine, and so the best way to stop ebola is to practice good hygiene, and avoid contact with the infected. There is little treatment and diagnosis for ebola
since much is not known about the virus. Smallpox is a disease caused by the variola virus. There is no treatment to smallpox, but antiviral drugs such as
Tecovirimat may help. There is a vaccine to prevent smallpox, but it is not available to the public. Hepatitis A is a liver infection caused by the hepatitis A
virus, and is highly contagious. To prevent getting hepatitis A, a vaccine has been made. Hepatitis B is a liver infection that spreads through sexual contact.
Chronic Hepatitis B can lead to serious health issues, like cirrhosis or liver cancer. The best way to prevent Hepatitis B is by getting vaccinated. Hepatitis C
is a liver infection caused by the hepatitis virus C, which can be passed by sharing needles and injected drugs. To prevent this disease, avoid sharing needles
with anyone. West Nile Fever is a virus passed to humans, horses, birds, alligators, crocodiles, and amphibians by
mosquitoes (mainly Culex pipiens), caused by the West Nile virus. There are antiparasitics such as Dihydroartemisinin,
Chloroquine, Primaquine, Quinine (Qualaquin), Pyrimethamine (Daraprim), Artemether / Lumefantrine (Coartem),
Atovaquone / Proguanil (Malarone) that kill parasites and antibiotics such as Clindamycin (Clindagel, Clindesse,
Evoclin, ClindaMax, Clinda-Derm, and Cleocin) Doxycycline (Doryx, Oracea, Atridox, Monodox, Vibra-Tabs,
Morgidox, Alodox, Ocudox, Acticlate, Doxy, and Vibramycin) to treat malaria such as 80% of cases are symptomatic.
About 20% of cases show signs of headaches, fever, nausea, vomiting, swollen lymph glands, and skin rashes. Around
1% of cases show encephalitis, meningitis, poliomyelitis, or encephalomeningitis. Influenza is a disease caused by
multiple influenza viruses. There are antivirals to treat the flu such as relenza, tamiflu, rapivab, but these only lessen the
time you are sick at most, and do not cure the virus. There are many vaccines to prevent influenza as many strains of the
virus exist. There are trivalent flu shots (those with 3 components) and quadrivalent flu shots (those with four
components). Intradermal flu shots are shot into the skin rather than the muscle. Yellow Nile Fever is a viral disease
passed through mosquitoes. To prevent getting the yellow fever, avoid mosquitoes and get a vaccine. Because yellow fever causes internal bleeding,
jaundice, hepatitis and organ failure, there is little treatment for it. It mostly occurs in Africa. Measles is a viral disease that can be prevented by the MMR
vaccine, but has no real treatment. Mumps is another disease that be prevented by the MMR vaccine.
Protozoan & Algal Diseases Algae is an informal term for a large, diverse group of photosynthetic organisms which are not necessarily closely
related, and is thus polyphyletic. exhibit a wide range of reproductive strategies, from simple asexual cell division to complex forms of sexual
reproduction Included organisms range from unicellular genera, such as Chlorella and the diatoms, to multicellular forms, such as the giant kelp,
a large brown alga which may grow up to 50 m in length. Most are aquatic and autotrophic and lack many of the distinct cell and tissue types,
such as stomata, xylem, and phloem, which are found in land plants. The largest and most complex marine algae are called seaweeds, while the
most complex freshwater forms are the Charophyta, a division of green algae which includes, for example, Spirogyra and the
stoneworts.Protozoa are a diverse group of unicellular eukaryotic organisms. Historically, protozoa were defined as single-celled organisms with
animal-like behaviors, such as motility and predation. mainly microscopic organisms, ranging in size from 10 to 52 micrometers. Some,
however, are significantly larger. Among the largest are the deep-seadwelling xenophyophores, single-celled foraminifera whose shells can
reach 20 cm in diameter. Free-living forms are restricted to moist environments, such as soils, mosses and aquatic habitats, although many form
resting cysts which enable them to survive drying. Many protozoan species are symbionts, some are parasites, and some are predators of
bacteria, algae and other protists. pellicle is a thin layer supporting the cell membrane in various protozoa, such as ciliates, protecting them and
allowing them to retain their shape. Protozoa are abundant in aqueous environments and soil, occupying a range of trophic levels. Malaria:
mosquito-borne infectious disease affecting humans and other animals caused by parasitic protozoans (a group of single-celled microorganisms)
belonging to the Plasmodium type. Malaria causes symptoms that typically include fever, fatigue, vomiting, and headaches. In severe cases it
can cause yellow skin, seizures, coma, or death. Symptoms usually begin ten to fifteen days after being bitten. most commonly transmitted by an
infected female Anopheles mosquito. Symptoms: headache, fever, shivering, joint pain, vomiting. Most drugs used in treatment are active
against the parasite forms in the blood (the form that causes disease) and include:chloroquine, atovaquone-proguanil (Malarone), artemetherlumefantrine Paralytic Shellfish Poisoning- is a serious illness caused by eating shellfish contaminated with dinoflagellate algae that produce
harmful toxins. one of the four recognized syndromes of shellfish poisoning, which share some common features and are primarily associated
with bivalve mollusks (such as mussels, clams, oysters and scallops). These shellfish are filter feeders and, therefore, accumulate neurotoxins,
called Saxitoxin. nausea, vomiting, diarrhea, abdominal pain. only treatment for severe cases is the use of life support systems such as a
mechanical respirator and oxygen until the toxin passes from the victim's system. Survivors recover fully. Estuary Associated Syndromesymptom constellation attributed to Pfeisteria piscicida exposure. CDC criteria require symptoms within 2 weeks of exposure to estuarine
waters; memory loss or confusion; and/or three or more selected symptoms (for example, headache, rash at water contact site, sensation of
burning skin, URI symptoms, muscle cramps, and GI symptoms) that must (except for skin complaints) persist at least 2 weeks Giardiasis (popularly known as beaver fever)is a zoonotic parasitic disease caused by the flagellate protozoan Giardia lamblia (also sometimes called
Giardia intestinalis and Giardia duodenalis).The giardia organism inhabits the digestive tract of a wide variety of domestic and wild animal
species, as well as humans. Symptoms vary from none to severe diarrhea with poor absorption of nutrients. caused by the protozoan Giardia
lamblia.The infection occurs in many animals including beavers (hence its nickname), as well as cows, rodents, and sheep ransmitted via the
fecal-oral route with the ingestion of cysts. Primary routes are personal contact and contaminated water and food. infection usually resolves on
its own. However, if the illness is acute or symptoms persist and medications are needed to treat it, a nitroimidazole medication is used such as
metronidazole, tinidazole, secnidazole or ornidazole.Cryptosporidiosis - diarrheal disease caused by microscopic parasites, Cryptosporidium,
that can live in the intestine of humans and animals and is passed in the stool of an infected person or animal. Both the disease and the parasite
are commonly known as "Crypto. You can become infected by swallowing the parasite, if it is in your food, drinking water, or water that you
swim in. You can also get it by touching your mouth with contaminated hands. Dehydration, Weight loss, Stomach cramps or pain, Fever,
Nausea, Vomiting. Most people who have healthy immune systems will recover without treatment. Diarrhea can be managed by drinking plenty
of fluids to prevent dehydration.

Binary fission and other cell division processes bring an increase in


the number of cells. Microbes are usually grown in a batch culture-incubated in a closed vessel with a single batch. The growth of
microbes typically has 4 stages, resulting in the curve to the left.
When microbes are first introduced, there is no immediate increase of
microbes. This period is known as the lag phase. What they actually
do in the lag phase is synthesize new organelles, which has many
reasons behind it. Cells may be depleted of ATP, cofactors, and
ribosomes. The cell might be trying to replicate or it may be injured.
Eventually, the cells will begin to replicate DNA, ready to divide.
Next is the exponential phase, where microbes grow and divide at
the fastest rate possible. If growth is exponential, then it is said to be
balanced. However, growth can be unbalanced due to lack nutrients
or change in the environment. If this occurs, then the rate of synthesis
will vary. In the stationary phase, population growth will cease and
the curve becomes flat. The average population for bacteria in the stationary phase is 10^9. For Protista it is approximately 10^6. There are
multiple reasons why microbes enter the stationary phase. Oxygen availability, nutrient limitation, accumulation of toxic waste, are all reasons
why a microbe may enter the stationary phase. Starvation is also another major reason, as some bacteria produce starvation proteins to protect
themselves from further damage. Some starvation proteins increase peptidoglycan in the cell walls. DNA-binding proteins protect the DNA.
Chaperonin proteins prevent denaturation. The final stage, death or senescence phase, is very much debated over whether cells die or not. One
alternative theory is that the cells continue to live but they do not grow, in which case they will be called viable but non culturable. Another
alternative is that cells go under a programmed cell death rate a simple death phase. Bacterial Diseases Botulism is a disease where certain
toxins are produced by the bacteria Clostridium botulinum inhibits the presynaptic cells of neurons from releasing their neurotransmitters,
acetylcholine, and stop muscles from contracting, causing muscle weakness, fatigue, vision problems, and hearing problems. Botulism can be
obtained through eating food (mostly canned) that contains those toxins (foodborne), through birth when the bacteria develops in the intestines
and spreads (infant), and by injecting drugs, where the spores from the drug enter a wound (wound). Anthrax is a disease caused by the bacteria
Bacillus anthracis, which is rod-shaped, gram-positive, and spread by infected spores, penicillin is used to treat it, if exposed to spores,
antibiotics are used as prevention. Cholera is caused by gram-negative vibrio cholerae, spread by contaminated food or water, antibiotics are
used to treat it, preventing it includes cooking food well and using clean water. Chlamydiasis caused by gram-negative chlamydia trachomatis,
spread by infected bodily fluids, antibiotics are used as treatment, prevention includes use of condoms and limiting number of sexual partners.
Dental Caries (tooth decay) is caused by gram-positive streptococcus mutans and lactobacillus, happens when sugars react with the bacteria on
the dental biofilm, fillings and pulp capping and root canals, prevention it to maintain good oral hygiene. Legionnaire's Disease is caused by
gram-negative legionella bacteria, airborne, antibiotics are used to treat, avoiding smoking and frequent disaffecting of water systems. Lyme
Disease is caused by gram-negative borrelia burgdorferi bacteria, transmitted by the bite of infected black-legged ticks, antibiotics are used to
treat, avoid areas where deer ticks live as prevention. MRSA is caused by gram-positive staphylococcus aureus bacteria, airborne and direct
contact, antibiotics are used as treatment, scrubbing hands with soap and water many times throughout the day prevents it. Peptic Ulcer Disease
is caused by the gram-negative helicobacter pylori, transmitted person-to-person by saliva or by fecal contamination of food or water, good
hygiene is aa way to prevent it, and antibiotics are used as treatment. Pertussis (whooping cough) is caused by the gram-negative bordetella
pertussis, airborne, frequent hand washing can prevent it, and antibiotics are used as treatment. Rocky Mountain Spotted Fever is caused by
the gram-negative rickettsia rickettsii, spread by the bite of an infected tick, avoid tick bites as prevention, antibiotics are used as treatment.
Strep Throat is caused by the gram-positive streptococcus pyogenes, airborne or spread by shared drinks, prevent by washing hands frequently
and not sharing eating utensils, antibiotics are used as treatment. Syphilis is caused by the gram-negative treponema pallidum, sexually
transmitted, practice safe sex and monogamous relationships in order to prevent, antibiotics are used to treat. Tuberculosis is a communicable
lung disease caused by an infection by mycobacterium tuberculosis bacteria; airborne transmission bacteria remain dormant until a later time
FUNGAL DISEASES: Any member of the group of eukaryotic organisms that includes unicellular microorganisms such as yeasts and molds,
as well as multicellular fungi that produce familiar fruiting forms known as mushrooms. These organisms are classified as a kingdom, Fungi,
which is separate from the other eukaryotic life kingdoms of plants and animals. A characteristic that places fungi in a different kingdom from
plants, bacteria and some protists, is chitin in their cell walls. Similar to animals, fungi are heterotrophs; they acquire their food by absorbing
dissolved molecules, typically by secreting digestive enzymes into their environment. Fungi do not photosynthesize. Growth is their means of
mobility, except for spores (a few of which are flagellated), which may travel through the air or water. Fungi are the principal decomposers in
ecological systems. Athletes Foot tinea pedis, common skin infection of the feet. Itching, scaling, and redness. Often grows between the toes
or bottom of foot. treatment can be either with antifungal medication applied to the skin such as clotrimazole or for persistent infections
antifungal medication that are taken by mouth such as terbinafine. Affects about 15% of global population. As the disease progresses, the skin
may crack, leading to bacterial skin infection and inflammation of the lymphatic vessels. Caused by dermatophytes which feed on keratin. Most
commonly caused by molds known as Trichophyton rubrum(general pop) and T. mentagrophytes (athletes). Dutch Elm Disease - caused by a
member of the sac fungi (Ascomycota) affecting elm trees, and is spread by the elm bark beetle. sign of infection is usually an upper branch of
the tree with leaves starting to wither and yellow in summer, months before the normal autumnal leaf shedding. biological vaccine by the late
1980s. Dutch Trig is nonchemical and nontoxic, consisting of a suspension in distilled water of spores of a strain of the fungus Verticillium alboatrum that has lost much of its pathogenic capabilities, injected in the elm in spring.(induced resistance). Caused by 2 closely related fungi,
Ophiostoma ulmi and Ophiostoma novo-ulmi. The fungus cannot move by air or water to infect new trees but rather is carried by beetles or
transmitted through grafted (connected) roots. Ergotism - effect of long-term ergot poisoning, traditionally due to the ingestion of the alkaloids
produced by the Claviceps purpurea fungus that infects rye and other cereals. Convulsive symptoms include painful seizures and spasms,
diarrhea, paresthesias, itching, mental effects. Symptoms include desquamation or peeling, weak peripheral pulses, loss of peripheral sensation,
edema.Histoplasmosis - infection caused by the fungus Histoplasma. The fungus lives in the environment, particularly in soil that contains large
amounts of bird or bat droppings. Symptoms of histoplasmosis include:Fever, Cough, Fatigue (extreme tiredness), Chills, Headache, Chest pain
Body aches. Prescription antifungal medication is needed to treat severe histoplasmosis in the lungs, chronic histoplasmosis, and infections.
Histoplasmosis is not contagious, but is contracted by inhalation of the spores from disturbed soil or guano. dimorphic fungus that remains in a
mycelial form at ambient temperatures and grows as yeast at body temperature in mammals. Potato Blight - Phytophthora infestans is an
oomycete that causes the serious potato disease known as late blight or potato blight. Can also infect tomatoes and some other members of the
Solanaceae. Diploid, with about 11-13 chromosomes. Mandipropamid, chlorothalonil, fluazinam, triphenytin, mancozeb and others are
fungicides. Ringworm(tinea corporis)- initially presents itself with red patches on affected areas of the skin and later spreads to other parts of the
body. About 40 types of fungi can cause ringworm. They are typically of the Trichophyton, Microsporum, or Epidermophyton type. thrive in
moist, warm areas, such as locker rooms, tanning beds, swimming pools, and skin folds. Antifungal treatments include topical agents such as
miconazole, terbinafine, clotrimazole, ketoconazole, or tolnaftate applied twice daily until symptoms resolve. Thrush - trange white rash inside
your mouth, infection caused by the candida fungus, which is yeast. You can get it in your mouth and other parts of the body. It can cause diaper
rash in infants or vaginal yeast infections in women. Causes: Uncontrolled diabetes, HIV infection, Cancer, Dry mouth, Pain when you swallow
or difficulty swallowing, antifungal medication. that comes in several forms, including lozenges, tablets, or a liquid that you swish in your
mouth.

Prions are proteins that are infectious. Prions can fold in many ways, leading to transmission
to other prions, and causing virus-like diseases. Prions are acellular and are characterized by
loss of motor control, dementia, paralysis, wasting, and eventually death. They are believed
to be the cause of transmissible spongiform encephalopathies (TSEs) such as mad cow
disease (bovine spongiform encephalopathy), which is scrapie in sheep. In humans,
prions cause Creutzfeld-Jacob disease (CJD), Gerstmann-Straussler-Scheinker
syndrome, Kuru. This disease is seen in New Guinea. It's caused by eating human brain
tissue contaminated with infectious prions. To prevent getting kuru, avoid cannibalism.
Some people can prevent getting kuru because they have immunity to it, due to a genetic
variant of prion protein G127V. Kuru is a prion disease suffered by the Fore due to
consuming humans through cannibalism specifically by consuming the brains/nervous
system of the dead. Symptoms include insomnia, lack of coordination/balance, eventually
death. Scrapie is a communicable spongiform encephalopathy of the central nervous system
of sheep and goats caused by a prion and characterized by a very long incubation period followed by pruritus, abnormalities of gait, and
invariably death; it resembles Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease and kuru in humans. When cows were fed infected tissue from sheep, they developed
Mad Cow Disease.