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Exploring 64 Sound

May 1984 ©
Issue 11 Vol. 2, No. 5
02220 El.95 UK J3.25C<.nado

For Owners And Users Of Commodore VIC-2(TAnd 64'vPersonal Computers

Sound SpeedScript
Sculptor Revisited
A comprehensive, Tips on advanced
menu-driven utility uses of the GAZETTE'S
that takes all the favorite word
work out of pro processor.

gramming and
saving sound on the
64. Simply use the
"mouse" and the
function keys to
select any sound

Also in This issue

Sound Story Props
New Column:
A unique story presen Home An innovative and
tation which demon Telecommunications
strates the capabilities nonviolent game for
ofsoundontheVIC-20. Power BASIC: the 64 which uses
Step lister machine language
animation, eight
Machine Language
For Beginners sprites, and all three
7H86 02220
Commooore is a traflemarK ol
Commodore Electronics, Ltd

Panther Computer Corporation



The Assembler
for the Commodore 64



Commodore IS a trademark oi Commodore 64 disc retail price: $59.95

Commodore Electronics. Lid.

1 W-t" H?,
Dealer Inquiries Invited
InCA 1-800-821-7644

anther Computer Corporation -;.•'■.


12021 Wtlshire Blvd. Los Angeles, CA 90025



on't Play this Game.

(Habit Forming)



■ -::


Commodore 64 disc retail price: $29.95
Commodors Is a Iradsma'K ol Commodore Electronics, Lid.
VIC 20 Is a Irademark ot Commodore Electronics, Lid.
VIC 20 cassette retail price: $15.95

Dealer Inquiries Invited


m In CA 1-800-821-7644

Panther Computer Corporation

12021 Witshlre Blvd., Los Angeles, California 90025 mm
And notjust because they're educational, but also because they happen
In fact they're so much fun. parents have been known to sneak in a
few hours of play when the kids are asleep.
After all, if your kids are actually enjoying a learning game, there must
be something to it And there is: fun. excitement and real educational
value. That's what sets Spinnaker games apart from all the rest. And
what brings parents back for more.
We offer a wide range of learning games for a wide range of age groups:
3 to 14. One look at these two pages will show you how we carefully
designed our line of learning games to grow right along with your child.
So if you're looking for a line of learning games that are as much fun to
play as they are to buy. consider Spinnaker games. They're compatible
with Apple,' Atari.* IBM" PC, PCjr. Commodore 64." Coleco Adam"
and parents who don't mind their kids having fun while they learn.

Its new! BUBBLE BURST™ Ifs new! ALF in the Color Caves":
is bursting with fun! a colorful adventure!
Ages 4 to 8. Ages 3 to 6.
Soapie the Sea Serpent is This cheerful game lets children
counting on your kids to keep the guide lovable Alf through the color
pesky Zeobingers from spoiling her caves to the color room at the bot
bubble-bath fun. tom where he dances to his own
And while children are helping special music.
Soapie, they're developing strategy and As kids maneuver Alf through the
prediction skills plus an understanding maze and past the Wuffiegumps,
of cause-and-effect relationships. they're improving their routing and
|f BUBBLE BURST provides hours of prediction skills. And the enclosed
1 S&fun - and it comes with a workbook activities workbook offers a rainbow
of challenging projects. of colorful projects!



The story of STORY MACHINE." DELTA DRAWING." Have fun KIDS ON KEYS" helps kids
Ages 5 to 9. creating pictures and computer catch on to letters, numbers-
STORY MACHINE is like a story programs. and computers.
book come to life. Using the key Ages 4 to Adult. Ages 3-9.
board, your children write their own Kids love to draw. And DELTA KIDS ON KEYS offers children
fun little stories. The computer then DRAWING Learning Program lets three terrific games that teach them
takes what they've written and them enjoy creative drawing and the location of the letters and num
animates their story on the screen, coloring while they learn computer bers while they have fun with the
complete with full color graphics programming concepts. computer.
and sound. With DELTA DRAWING,even The games are fast and fun, with
STORY MACHINE helps your chil kids who have never used a computer exciting sound effects and colorful
dren learn to write correctly, become before can learn to write programs graphics. It's a great way for kids to
familiarwith the keyboard,and lets and build an understanding of proce enjoy learning to identify numbers,
them have fun exercising their crea dural thinking. It's easy.clear, and letters, and words and associating
tivity at the same time. lots of fun! them with images on the screen. And
KIDS ON KEYS certainly do have fun!

SPf/YAMAB? V\fe make learning fun.

Disks for: Apple, Atari, IBM PC ana PCjr. Commodore 64.
Cartridges for: Atari. IBM PCjr, Commodore Gd.Coleco Adam.

'- 9V9^^H


■!>:•'■■'-■■ '■■ -■'-:■;■■■ ■.'■■

mTHIC C A MF OkaV- boss- now wh3t d0 we d0? Researcn & Development is work-
I III* wHIVlE/ ing 'round the clock coming up with new products, the warehouse
1*1V- it Ii:*] i!lit i« * »i-1 -1* iit '■ it tftii.' *= [*
customers are lickle. and the competition just slashed their prices.

THE BUSINESS Were"' wa'iin°-lorY°ur decis<°n-

Put yourself at the helm of this enterprising new software company.
Every major decision is in your hands. Use your logic and intuition to
spot market trends. Keep a close eye in your balance sheet. Get a
grip on your company, a leg up on your competition, and a strangle
hold on the market. Do you have what it takes to be King of Silicon
Valley? Or will you end up selling apples on skid row?
Intense strategic challenge combined with a real education in the
workings ol big business make In The Chips one game anyone can
i profit from.

IN THE CHIPS. Concept Education for the VIC-20,

Commodore 64, IBM PC and PCjr.

vie-so Mi) coMuoooitctfj miimtwmsofQoimmmiuciimtcs no ibmpc *hd k»•arcrs«f»MH«so*wrf»w»wi juswessu*.wms me
May 1984 Vol. 2, No. S

Exploring 64 Sound Selby Bateman 18 64
Inside View: Will Harvey, The Programmer Behind Music Construction Set Kathy Yakal 34 *
SpeedScripl Revisited Charles Brannon 38 '
Sound Sculptor For The 64 Todd Touris 46 64

Props Philip I. Nelson 50 64

Mind Boggle James E. Rylee 60 V/64
SuperSprite Nick Sullivan 64 64

REVIEWS flp&r :HMf

Knights Of The Desert For The Commodore 64 Arthur B. Hunkins 66 64
CodeWriter Richard E. DeVore 68 64
The Commodore 1650 Automodem Robert Sims 70 V/64

Computing For Families: New Standards For Home Learning, Part 1 Fred D'lgnazio
Memo Writer Mark R. Brown
Fast Add J.C.Bye
Ski Physics Gerald and Betty Schueler

The Beginner's Corner: Teaching Music With Computers C. Regena
Hints & Tips: Speeding Up BASIC Robert Friessen and Ramunas Motekaitis
Cassette Beeper Don Brady
Machine Language For Beginners: Mods And Bombs Richard Mansfield . .
Sound Story Bruce Bartlett
Joystick Control For The 64 Sterling N. Augustine
Print Sound For The VIC-20 Alejandro A. Kapauan

Editor's Notes Robert Lock
Gazette Feedback Editors And Readers
Simple Answers To Common Questions Tom R. Halfhill
User Group Update Kathy Yakal
Power BASIC: Step Lister E. A. Cotlrell
Home Telecommunications Robert Sims
Horizons: 64 Charles Brannon
VICreations: Sound On The VIC-20 Dan Carmichoel .,
News & Products

Bug-Swatter: Modifications And Corrections ....
The Automatic Proofreader
A Beginner's Guide To Typing In Programs
How To Type In COMPUTEI's GAZETTE Programs
Program Listings V/64

Author Guide .. 169

Product Mart . . . 173
Advertisers Index 176

' = General, V=VIC-20, 64 = Commodore 64.

COMPUTE'.'s GAZETTE is published monthly by COMPUTCI Publications, Inc., Poal Office Box 5406, Gieensboio, NC 27403 USA. Phone (919)275-9809. Editorial
offices are localed at 324 West Wenduver Avenue, Greensboro, NC 27408. Domestic subscriplions: 12 issues, $20. Send subscription orders ur change of address
{P.O. Form 3S79] to Circulation Depl., COMPUTE'S CA7.LTTE, WO. Box 961, FsrminRdale, NY 11737. Second class aPi.lica!ion pcndiiiR at Creensbcir.., NC
2740S and additional mailmB office*. Entire contents copyright © I9«4 by COMPJIEI Publications, Inc. All ri^hls reserved, ISSN (1737-3716. KjOBC
COMCUTEI Publicalians, Int.. Oni! nf tile ABC 1'ublbhlng Compjnini AMC Publinhing, Preiident, KobeH C. BuHoni MX Avi>niiL>i)l Ihe Anwiicin; New Vork, Ntw V«rk 1J019.

First things first... As I write this, chided us for raising the notion letters. We should comment
the final master copy of the May of protecting our disks while now, however, on one point
GAZETTE DISK is going to the du concurrently running ads for that a few readers have raised-
plication service. For a variety of programs designed to back up public domain software.
good reasons, we have decided disks. It does get confusing. I don't know why, but some
that, initially at least, it will not Software vendors currently have readers assume that if a program
be protected. We made that de the right to protect programs on appears in a magazine, it be
cision several weeks before a disk, and the market in large comes "public domain," thereby
recent flood of letters started part helps determine their back leaving the realm of copyright
coming in as a response to my up policies. Users, on the other law. We hold copyright on al
last editorial. I should say I'm hand, have the right to make most all of the material we pub
gratified to discover that so many backup copies for their own se lish; very little of what we pub
of you read the Editor's Notes. curity/use. The catch-22 is that lish is placed in public domain.
The first two letters arrived seven while some users may use such The "publication" of a record
working days ago... the torrent programs to generate "bootleg" over the airways no more places
escalates; we're into the hun copies of programs, far more it in the public domain than the
dreds now, and as promised, users use them simply to gener publication of a program in the
I'm reading them all, some of ate backup copies for their per GAZETTE.
them several rimes. sonal use. We therefore do accept All in all, the letters and the
We're a few issues (and I and publish what we consider to thoughtfulness you've shown in
suspect several thousand letters) be legitimate advertising which responding are impressive {re
away from my sharing much of allows a user to do just that. gardless of the positions taken).
the substantive content of these So the biggest topic area so Another frequent comment is
letters with you, but I've held up far has been the need to make the notion that the price is quite
this issue's Notes as long as pos personal backups; the need to be fair, and that service will even
sible to collect as many letters as able to group programs onto dif tually win out.
I could. There have been numer ferent disks for various uses; and Finally, here's a quote from
ous arguments, both for and especially the need to be able to one letter's closing lines. It's
against protection. The most alter, enhance, and generally indicative of the opening/closing
frequent argument against pro have a good time "fiddling" comments of many of you, re
tection is the necessity not only with the code. gardless of your positions on the
of backup copying but also the Also, some people were subject at hand.
desire to have the disk reflect quite surprised that anyone "You guys do good work.
the flexibility and tutorial nature would copy the disk to share; Keep it up."
of the magazine. That is also some felt it's perfectly legitimate Thanks. We intend to.
our desire, and probably the among friends; and some
foremost reason for our deci strongly argued that they can
sion to carry through with our hand out copies as desired (this
original inclinations and goals: last group is a small minority,
no protection. and contains the bulk of the un
The other arguments are far signed letters). At this point, I'm
Editor In Chief
more mixed, and in this editorial just reporting the contents of the
we'll present some of the various letters rather ihan responding to
points raised. One frequently the points raised. Part of the
recurring point is that users have deal from this end is that we
a right to back up their disks, a want to collectively put as much
point we clearly agree with (as time and energy into developing
does the 1980 amendment to the a perspective on GAZETTE DISK as
Copyright Act). Some readers many of you have put into these

6 COMPUTE!1:: Gazette May 1984

These are the hands ofa
mastertypist. (Jonathan Pandolfi, age 7.)

MasterType—the best-selling program that

turns learning into child's play.
Given the choice of learning a skill or playing a
game, most kids go for the game.
So how has MasterType" gotten so many
young kids to sit still long enough to learn to type?
By being fun. By bringing the fast action of
video games to each of MasterType's lesson
program segments.
Kids get so caught up in zapping spaceships,
Warning: Parents like it, too. And may find
themselves unwittingly becoming expert typists
before they know it.
Disks: Apple; Atari; Commodore 64" $39.95
IBM-PC $49.95
Cartridges: Atari; Commodore 64" $39.95

Try the other programs in the Scarborough

System—Songwriter'," PictureWriter'," Phi Beta
Filer'," Pattern Maker'" and RunfortheMoney'." All
Scarborough software utilizes your computer's
capabilities to the fullest. And perhaps more Apple, IBM and Atari are registered trademarks of Apple Computer Inc., International
Business Machines Corp. and Atari. Inc. respectively. Commodore 64 is a irademark of
importantly, all are easy to use. Commodore Electronics Limited.

^^■M ^^W ■ ■ ^^W ■ You'll tjra*, within*.

© Scarborough Systems, Inc., 25 N.Broadway, Tarrytown, NewYork 10591^^ m

Jules E. Thompson, Inc.
National and Canadian Sales Representatives
One ol flie ABC Pub&hing Companies 1290 Howard Avenue, Suite 3(13
Burlingame, CA 9401(1
Publisher Gary R, Ingersoll
Editor in Chief Robert C. Lock Address all advertising materials to:
Director of Administration Alice 5, Wolfe Patti Williams, COMPUTE!'* GAZETTE,
324 West Wendover Ave., Greensboro, NC 274118
Senior Editor Richard Mansfield
Managing Editor Kathleen li. M.irlinek Sales Offices, The Thompson Company
Editor Lance Blko New England 617-72(1- 1B8H
Production Director Tony Roberts Mid-Atlantic 212-772-0933
Southeast 919-275-9H09
Editors Midwest 312-726-6047
Tom R. Halfhill, PC and PCjr Editor; Stephen Levy, Editor, Texas 713-731-2605
COMPUTE! Books Division; Gail Walker, Production Editor; Ottts R. Northwest 408-354-5553
Cowper, Technical Fditor; Charles Brannon, Program Editor Northern CA 415-348-8222 or 408-354-5553
Southern CA 619-941-2313 or 213-378-8361
Assistant Editors
Nevada, Arizona 619-941-2313
Dan Carmlchael (Submissions]; Gregg Keizer, Steve I ludson (Hooks); 213-378-8361
New Mexico
John ECrause, George Miller (Technical)) Todd i [elmarck, Robert Sims
Colorado 303-595-9299
(Publications); Selby Bateman (Features), Kalhy Yakal,
Assistant (Features), Randall Fosner, Assistant Managing Editor COMPUTE! Publications, Inc., publishes
Editorial Programmers
Patrick Parrish (Supervisor), Gregg Peele (Assistant), Jeff Hamdani, Corporate Office:
Kevin Martin, Chns Poer 324 West Wendover Ave., Suite 200, Greensboro. NC 27408

Technical Assistant Mailing Address:

Dale Me Bane Post Office Box 54(16, Greensboro, NC 27403

Programming Assistants Telephone: 919-275-9809

tvlark Futile, David Florence, Kevin Mykytyn Office 1 lours: 8:30 AM to 4:30 I'M Monday-Friday

Copy Editors Chief Executive Officer Robert C. Lock

Juanita Lewis, Joan Rouleau President Gary R. Ingersoll
Copy Assistants Vice President, Finance & Planning Paul J Megliola
Linda Shaw, Martha Banks Executive Assistant Debi N.ish
Assistant Cassandra Robinson
Becky Hall, Ethel Silver, Dwight Smith
Administrative Staff Subscription Information
Vicki Jennings, Laura MacPadden, Julia Fleming, Susan Young, COMPUTE!'* Gazette Circulation Dcpt.
Sue Booth P.O. Box54O6, Greensboro, NC 37403

Production TOLL FREE

lima Swain, Production Manager; Janice Fary, Art & Design Director;
Subscription Order Line
De Potter, Mechanical Art Supervisor; Tern- Cash, Debi Thomas,
Typesetting 800-334-0868
In NC 019-275-9009
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Subscription Rales
Associate Editors [12 Issue Year): US (one year) S20. Canada, Mexico and
Jim Butterfidd (Toronto), Harvey Herman (Greensboro),
Foreign Surface Mail S25. Foreign Air Mail S45.
Fred D'Ignazio (Roanoke], David Thornburg (Los Altos),
Bill Wilkinson (Cupertino]
The COMPUTE! a CAZETTn subscriber list is made available to carefully
Operations/Customer Service screened organizations with a product or service which may be of
Patty Jones, Subscriber Services Supervisor; Assistants: Chris Patty, Interest lo our readers. If you prefer not to receive such mailings,
Chris Gordon, Sharon Sebastian, Rosemarie Davis; Fran Lyons, please send an exact copy of your subscription label to: COMPUTE'"*
Dealer Sales Supervisor; Assistants: Gail Jones, Sharon Minor, gazette, P.O. Bo\961,Farmingdale, NY 11737. Include a note indi
cating your preference to receive only your subscription.
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Customer Service Staff Authors of manuscripts warrant that all materials submitted to
Dorothy Bogan, Supervisor; Judv Taylor, Lisa Flaharty, Anita Roop, COM ruTH!* Gazette are original materials with full ownership rights
Debi Goforth, Jenna iVash; Elizabeth White, Sybil Agee, Mary resident in said authors, fly submitting articles to COMPUTED gazette,
Sprague; Jim Coward (Warehouse Manager), Larry O'Connor, authors acknowledge that such materials, upon acceptance for
Dai lues, Jack McConnell, Eric Staley, Eddie Rice, Sam Parker, publication, become the exclusive property of COMPUTE! Publica
David Hensley tions, Inc. No portion of this magazine may be reproduced in any
form without written permission from the publisher. Entire contents
Data Processing copyright D 1%4, COMPUTE! Publications, Inc. Rights to programs
Leon Stokes, Manager; Joan Compton, Chris Cain, Assistants
developed and submitted by authors are explained in our author
contract. Unsolicited matenals not accepted for publication will be
returned if author provides a self-addressed, stamped envelope.
Paul J. MeglioTa, VP, Finance & Planning; R. Steven Vetter, Director,
Finance & Planning; James M. Hurst, Controller; Assistants: Linda
Where programs are included in an article submission, a tape or disk
must accompany the submission. Printed listings are optional, but
Miller, Doris Hall, Jill I'ope; Staff: Anna Harris, EmilieCovil, Anne
helpful. Articles'should be furnished as typed copy (upper and
Ferguson, Tracey Hutch ins
lowercase, please) with double spacing. Each article page should
Advertising Sales bear the title of the article, date, and name of the author. COMPUTE!
Ken Woudard, Director of Advertising Sales; Patti Williams, Production Publications, Inc., assumes no liability for errors in articles or adver
Coordinator; Bonnie Valentino, Accounting Coordinator; Joyce Margo, tisements. Opinions expressed by authors are not necessarily those
Production Assistant of COMPUTE! Publications, Inc.

Sales Representatives PET, CBM, VIC-20, and Commodore 64 are trademarks of Commo
Jemp Thompson 415-348-8222 dore Business Machines, Inc., and/or Commodore Electronics Limited.
Phoebe Thompson 408-354-5553 Other than as an independent supplier of quality information and
JoAnn Sullivan 619-941-2313 services to owners and users of Commodore products, COMPUTE!
Ed Winchell 213-378-8361 Publications, Inc., is in no way associated with Commodore Business
Harrv Blair 919-275-98U9 Machines, Inc., or any of its subsidiaries.

8 COMPUTEI's Gazelle May 1984

WordPro 3 Plus764
The #1 Selling Word Processor for the Commodore 64™

WordPro 3 Plus"764 and SpetlRight Plus'" provide a total word SpellRight Plus locates and highlights misspelled words and
processing solution for the Commodore 641" which gives you: then allows you to quickly correct the misspellings —
Sophisticated Word Processing improving the quality of your letters and reports.
Built-in Mail Merging for Form Letters And, best of all, WordPro and SpellRight's powerful arsenal
Math Functions for Column Totals of features can be put to use almost immediately — by even
Fast and Complete Spell Checking via SpellRight Plus the novice user. So whether you're a student, professional
A Super Value {two programs) for Only $99.95! writer, in business, education or a hobbyist, you'll quickly
WordPro and SpellRight are both specifically designed for the become a WordPro Pro!
novice user with no computer or word processing experience Both WordPro and SpellRight Plus are also available separately
whatsoever. And with over 40,000 WordPro versions sold, you at popular computer outlets nationwide.
can be sure that WordPro is a very sophisticated word
processor loaded with powerful features including: Transfer,
Invest In the best.. .WordPro Plus. In a class by Itself.
Insert, Delete, and Rearrange Text, Auto Page Numbering, Math
Functions, Headers. Footers, Global Search and Replace, the
Ability to Create Multiple Personalized Letters and Documents,
and much more. WordPro can create documents of virtually Professional Software Inc.
any length and will print up to 165 columns wide. You get all of 51 Fremont Street (617) 444-5224
this PLUS fast and complete spell checking using SpellRight Needham, MA 02194 Telex: 951579
Dealer and Distributor inquiries are invited.
WordPro 3 Plus'*/64 and SpellRight Plus™ are trademarks ol Professional Software Inc.
The WordPro Plus Series was designed and written by Steve Punter ol Pro-Micro Software Ltd.
SpellRlghi Plus was designed and written by Dwlghi Hull and Jos Spaiafora of SpellMaster Systems, Inc.
Some printers may not support certain WordPro 3 Plus (unctions and/or require an Interface. Please check with your dealer.
Commodore 64" is a trademark of Commodore Electronics Ltd.

Do you have a question or a problem? Have a 0.005 ,uF capacitor would pass almost all of the
you discovered something that could help other chroma signal, but less than 10 percent of the
VIC-20 and Commodore 64 users? Do you have luminance component.
a comment about something you've read in Again at Radio Shack I discovered a very
computed gazette? We want to hear from you. small 0.005 fiF, 50 volt disk capacitor (catalog #272-
Write to Gazette Feedback, computed gazette, 130). I placed this capacitor in the DIN connector
P.O. Box 5406, Greensboro, NC 27403. between pin 4 and the wire to the red phono plug.
This arrangement gives almost perfect perfor
mance and the scope confirms good separation of
Color Connections On chroma and luma.
Commodore Monitors From other letters to the editor that I have
I know that many people have had trouble con read, I suspect that this problem also exists in
necting Commodore's 1701 color monitor to the some VICs and possibly in some of the newer 64s
VIC-20 and the 64. I have read several suggestions with the eight-pin DIN connectors. A quick test
on this, but when I recently purchased a 1702 would be to plug the red chroma phono plug into
monitor (updated version of the 1701), I found the yellow luma plug input on the back of the
that neither Commodore's instructions nor the monitor. The picture will be very washed-out in
past suggestions went far enough. appearance and low in contrast, but you should
The 1702 is apparently identical to the 1701 look for horizontal or vertical rolling only. Also,
on the outside, and the electrical connections are try plugging it into the yellow video input on the
also identical. A cable was supplied with three front. If a stable picture results with either of these
phono plugs on the monitor end (white, yellow, hookups (no horizontal or vertical rolling), your
and red), and an eight-pin DIN plug on the com computer has sync and video mixed with the
puter end. Since my year-old 64 has a five-pin chroma on this output and you should try the
DIN plug connection for the monitor, I first pur 0.005 fiF capacitor in series with pin 4 of the five-
chased a five-pin male DIN plug from Radio Shack pin DIN connector or pin 8 of the eight-pin DIN
(Catalog # 274-003) and consulted the Commodore connector.

64 User's Guide for the proper pin connections. If you are not experienced and equipped for
Using this modified cable, I connected to the soldering small assemblies like this, I strongly
three phono sockets on the rear of the monitor recommend that you have a qualified technician
and tried it out (this is the "best" hookup accord perform these changes.
ing to all that I have read). I was disappointed to
find out that although it worked well with some I
colors, other bright colors like yellow caused the
monitor to revert to black and white.
Being a TV engineer, I broke out my scope
and started to examine the signals. The video
signal (pin 4 of the DIN connector) was a combi
nation of about 25 percent luminance and 75 per
cent chrominance. Since I was feeding this into
the chroma input of the monitor, it seems that the DIN
Pin Pin PLUG
luminance component was upsetting the color
circuitry. Breaking out my calculator, I found that Edward P. Alciatore III
10 COMPUTE!'s Gazette Mayl984
Handle —A Complete Line
ofProducts to Keep Your
Commodore 64 Busy
Develop your bridge
Whether you're an experienced bridge
player or a beginner, polish your skills or
learn the game with BRIDGE 64. Play
North-South, then switch to East-West in
the same deal, the return to that deal again
Handle your home and test your skill with a different strategy.
A complete database
budget, stock portfolio, for the home
loans and mortgages Addresses, telephone numbers, appoint
ments, birthdays, or records-whatever you
with Calc Result want to remember-put it on DIARY, an
Calc Result Easy is a simple-to-use spread electronic notebook for home use. DIARY
sheet program for the Commodore 64. It comes on a plug-in cartridge. Its easy to
includes 254 lines X 64 columns, built-in use and easy to learn, giving you the
graphics, and flexible printout formats. flexibility to design a personal calendar
Plug-in cartridge... just plug it in and its or address book.
ready. Perfect for cash flow analysis, perso
nal net worth, IRA analysis, travel expenses,
credit card expendilures, gas and elec
tricity bills, etc. Bridge $39.95
Handle—for the
broadest range of
Commodore products
As the largest independent developer of
Commodore software and accessories,
Handic's broad range of business, educa
tion and recreation products are designed
Diary $29.95 exclusively for the Commodore user who
demands quality and reliability.
lorn statistical
information into
Calc Result Easy $49.95
graphic format
Calc Result Advanced gives you 32 pages of GRAF 64 converts mathematical functions
interrelated information. The three-dimen into graphical analysis on the Commodore
sional feature allows you to consolidate 64. An ideal program for studying math.
calculations in summary format. Calc Re Define a function, set the limits of an axis,
sult Advanced comes on plug-in cartridge plot a graph and display the extreme For more information and a catalogue of
and disk. Disk drive required. points, intersection values, etc. I our products, see your nearest Commo
dore dealer, or call us direct.

Handic Software, Inc.

Fellowship Business Center
520 Fellowship Road, B 206
Mount Laurel, NJ 08054
Phone (609)663-0660
Calc Result Advanced $99.95 Graf 64 $29.95 i^k dI I n, -|. ,r,' I |«lrinlL i, Ml
Thank you for the tip, Mr. Atciatore. We'd like to men 10 PRINT"[CLR}BYTE","VALUE{DOWN]"SSYS5749
tion that as of this writing, the new Commodore 1703 5
monitor should be on the market. The above information
should also apply to the 1703. For more information, 25 PRINT"(2 DOWN) (PRESS RETURN)"
consult your monitor user's manual, or talk to your 30 GETAS:IFA5=""THEN30
Commodore dealer. 40 GOTO10

The above program will work on a Commodore 64. The

Testing For Free Memory VlC-20's random number routine is located at $E094,
I didn't discover this little tidbit, but I thought it so you would have to change line 10 of the program to
useful enough to be passed on to other readers. SYS 57492.
To find out how much free BASIC programming Of course, processing the random numbers that
memory is available, you type PRINT FRE(O) then are produced in the random seed bytes each time you
press RETURN. However, when the amount of ISR $£097 is up to [/ou, and specific to your program
unused memory exceeds 32,000 bytes, the number or application.
displayed will be negative. This is confusing to It should be noted that the numbers generated in
the random seed bytes are limited in range. Here is a
many people. An easy way around this quirk is
chart that will give the approximate ranges of values
PRINT FRE(O) + 2116 then press RETURN. This
that will be seeded in these bytes.
gives you the actual amount of free BASIC memory
in a positive number format. Byte Low Value High Value
139 114 128
Mark Cowan
140 0 127

Wafer Drive Update 141 0 255

142 0 255
We've received several letters asking about the Exatron
143 0 255
string!/ floppies (July 1983) and the Unilmnks wafer
drive module (September 7983). Neither company is For more on random numbers, see "Inside Random
currently manufacturing these products. However, Jim Numbers" in next month's issue.
Howell (formerly of Exatron) informed us that his com
Too Many Peripherals For
pany, A & } Microdrive, is introducing an updated
stringy floppy with added features. The new product The 64?
should be available in May and will sell for $99.50. He I have several questions I hope you can address.
also noted that blank wafers are available. I have a Commodore 64 and a Datassette at
For further information, contact: present, and plan on adding two disk drives, a
A&j Microdrive
printer, a Rabbit cartridge for the Datassette, and a
1050 East Dunne Ave. dedicated color monitor in the near future. My ques
Suite I tion is, is it possible to have all of these peripheral
Sunnyvale, CA 94086 devices connected to the 64 simultaneously?
Second, what purposes do accessory mother
Random Numbers And boards serve?
Machine Language Concerning the 1541 disk drives, I read some
where that Commodore has had mechanical prob
I would like to know how to derive random num
bers in machine language on the Commodore 64. lems with the head staying in alignment, and had
I have looked through the Programmer's Reference temporarily halted shipments of the 1541s until
Guide for possibilities, but have found none. I am the problem could be cleared up. I've been want
currently using part of the timer {memory location ing to buy a disk drive, but I'll wait until I hear
162), but I would like to have a truly random the outcome to this problem.
number instead of a constantly increasing one for Donald N. Pering DSC
game programming.
Yes, your 64 can handle all of the peripheral devices
Josh Hickman
you desire, and more. Using one printer, monitor, and
Generating random numbers within a machine language the Rabbit cartridge shouldn't create any problems.
program can be done a number of different ways. The However, there are limits to the number of disk drives
easiest way is to use the RND function and the random the 64 can support.
If you decide to use several disk drives and change
The RND function can be found in Kernal ROM
at $E097 (57495). If, within a machine language the device numbers via the hardware method (see your
routine, you JSR SE097, the five random seed "bytes 1541 user's manual), you are limited to four (device
($8B-$8F, decimal 139-143) will be "seeded" with numbers 8 through 11). If you change the device num
random numbers as if an RND statement were used bers via software, the 1541 user's manual says the 64
within a BASIC program. Enter this short demonstra can handle up to five disk drives and one printer.
tion program to sec how it works: Accessory motherboards make it possible to plug in

12 COMPUTEI's Gazette May 1984

With Advanced Ideas
Bring the whole family together with
programs that are educational, flexible,
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you'll be glad you did.
Families like yours know programs aren't
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as good as the software that runs on it
So go ahead. Demand programs flexible
enough to fit your children's abilities as
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subject matter as far as you want to take
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You'll discover that you've really started

How to Choose Software

for Your Home
"As an educator with over a decade of
experience using computers with child
ren, I've found there are key features in
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is extendability.
Look for enough variety to hold your
child's attention over time. Some games
are appealing in the short run, but are
quickly mastered. Supplementary materi
als such as disks of added lessons can
continue your child's interest and
The ability to modify a program is another
form of extendability. Authoring systems
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topic areas for any age level and allow
children to create and save original work,
giving a sense of completion and pride
vital to learning."

Software of Choice
Advanced Ideas (formerly Computer-
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deas programs are compatible with ihe most popu
lar computers1 Apple. ■ IBM* and Commodore.™
Aople is a registered trademark of Apple Computers. Jric IBM is
a registered trademark of IBM Coip. Commodore ,s s trade
mark oi Commodore Business Machines. Inc.
more than one ROM cartridge at a time. The mother or LOAD a program. Is there any particular place
boards plug into the expansion port and then can to put that name in a BASIC program? How do
accommodate two or more ports to accept cartridges. you get a program name into a machine language
The deluxe motherboards offer the option to switch program?
in or out the various expansion port outlets. For ex Donald Kaja
ample, if you hud five favorite cartridge games you like
A program name is optional if you are using a cassette
to play, [/ou could plug the motherboard into the com
drive. It is, however, a good idea to name your programs,
puter, and then plug in the five game cartridges (as
especially if you are SAVEing more than oneon each
suming it had at ieast five slots). You could play game side of the tape.
one in expansion slot 1. If you wanted to play game two
Disk drive users have no choice; they must name
in the second expansion slot, i/ou would turn off the
each program they LOAD or SA VE. The name can be
computer, turn off the switch for slot I, turn on the slot
up to 16 characters long. If you forget the name of a
for expansion port 2, turn on the computer, and game
program, you can look at the disk directory with the
two could be played.
command 'LOAD' '$",8 followed by LIST'
The one big advantage to motherboards is that you
Regardless of whether you use tape or disks, the
don't have to continually plug and unplug cartridges
only time you need to give a name to a program is when
into the computer's expansion port. This might he espe
you LOAD or SA VE (or VERIFY). When a program is
cially good where young children are playing games on
SA VEd, the computer automatically saves the name of
the 64. By being able to switch games on or off on the
the program (on a header) with the program itself.
motherboard, the possibility of the child breaking a car
You don't have to put the name inside the program.
tridge (or Hie 64) by inserting a cartridge the wrong
But it is common practice to use REMarks at the begin
way would be eliminated.
ning of a program to indicate the name of the program,
Concerning your third question, yes, there u>ere
the person who xorote it, and so on. If you enter programs
apparent mechanical problems 'with the 1541s. The
from COMPUTE!'* GAZETTE, you might also include the
problem allegedly centered around the step motor—it
title, page number, and issue. For example, you could
controls the positioning of the read/write head on the
add this line: 1 REM DYNAMIC SAVE 120 MARCH
1541—causing the drive to become misaligned.
1984 GAZETTE. When your computer sees a REMark,
However, this problem is now a thing of the past.
it ignores the rest of the line. REMarks take up space in
As a matter of fact, the 1541s we've recently purchased
memory, but in most cases a few dozen bytes will not
zoork very smoothly and haven't presented us with any
make a difference.
problems. The availability problem of the 1541 disk
To put a name in an ML program, you could POKE
drives is also a thing of the past, anil they, or the new
1542s, should be available at your local Commodore
the ASCI! codes into memory, but unless you are famil
iar with machine language, you might alter part of the
program. Simply name the program when you SA VE it.
Multiple GOTOs? Where To POKE And SYS On
I have seen a program with the command GOTO
46,52,78 and so on. How can the computer go io all
The 64
these line nunilxTs at the .same time? POKE and SYS seem to be very powerful com
Tom Smith mands. 1 am aware that there are 65,535 locations
you can POKH and SYS on the 64. Where can I
It is not possible to use GOTO with more than one line find a list of the important memory areas?
number. Your computer can execute only one command
Steve Schmidt
at a time; when it sees GOTO 500 the program moves to
line 500. This is called an unconditional branch. Each byte in memory contains eight bits, each of which
The program you saxv probably used the ON-GOTO can be either on or off. There are 256 different possible
command, which is used for conditional branches. For patterns; you can POKE numbers from 0 to 255 into
example, you might use this Hue in a program: ON AZ the 65,536 locations.
GOTO 710, 50, 632, 22, 590. The program checks the The computer interprets the numbers either as
value of variable AZ. If AZ equals 1, the program moves instructions to do something or as data to be used in a
to line 710. If AZ equals 2, it goes to 50, and so on. Under program.

certain conditions, the program will GOTO one line; The SYS command tells the computer to forget
under other conditions it will GO IO another. Other BASIC for a while and execute the machine language
conditional commands include ON-GOSUB, TF-GOTO, (ML) instructions at a certain area of memory. One of
and IF-THEN. For more details see the user's manual or the instructions in ML is RTS (ReTurn from Sub
tiie Programmer's Reference Guide. routine), which can se)id the program back to BASIC.
SYS is powerful but can easily be used improperly. If
Naming Programs you accidentally SYS to a section containing data, your
I understand you need a program name to SAVF, computer nun/ crash, unless you're lucky enough to
14 COMPUTEIS Gazelle May 1981
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sendilloan RTS. program you have in memory and is not advisable. The
Most ML programs are written using an As stack, found at 256-511, is used by GOSUB-RETURN
sembler, although you can also POKE them into memory and FOR-NEXT to remember where to jump. Zero
directly from BASIC. page (0-255) contains many pointers, flags, and
If you're programming in BASIC, there aren't a vectors.
lot of useful SYSes available. It would be possible to
LOAD a program by POKEing a few memory locations A More Visible Checksum
and then SYSing to the LOAD routine, but it is much Readers using "Automatic Proofreader" might
easier to simply type LOAD. find this discovery useful. My 64 is attached to a
POKE can be a useful command, though. POKE TV set that cuts off the top corners of the screen.
XXX, YYY puts the number YYY into memory location This is a trivial problem, except when I want to
XXX. Try changing the screen color In/ putting different use Automatic Proofreader. POKE 53265,31 lowers
numbers into 53281 (36879 on a VIC). the screen enough so the number is visible.
To understand what happens in each of the various Paul Hollander
memory locations, you need a memory map. The shorter
Readers who own 64s should note that this POKE also
maps tell you the name of the memory location and a
cuts off about half of the bottom line.
brief description of what it does. More detailed maps
contain information on how memory 'works and the
Touch Typing Tutor Update
effects of POKEs. You can find memory maps in Com
In the January GAZETTE, we featured programmer
modore's Programmer's Reference Guide (available
Marion Taylor's Touch Typing Tutor. Several readers
for both VIC and 64) and in various COMPUTE! Books,
have written asking for further information about this
including the recently published Mapping The VIC
typing tutorial. This can be obtained by writing or
and Mapping The Commodore 64.
A memory map of the Commodore 64 would show
you numerous useful locations to PEEK or POKE. Taylormade Software
Screen memory (1024-2Q23) and color memory (55296- P.O. Box 5574
56295) control the image on the screen. POKEing to Lincoln, NE 68505
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In COMPUTE!'* Gazette you'll learn How
to Use Tape and Disk Files. How to Pro Namo.
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portable Basic. How to Make Custom Address.

Graphics Characters. New Ways to More buying City.

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64 Sound
Selby Bateman, Assistant Editor, Features

Thanks to a microelectronic marvel called SID 1982. The power of the SID chip lies not so much
(Sound Interface Device), the Commodore 64 in its capabilities, which are outstanding, but in
has the most advanced music and sound crea its program mabiliJy. You can do things with the
tion system available on any home computer. SID that the sound systems on other microcom
Packed into one tiny computer chip is nothing puters won't allow.
less than a sophisticated, programmable, three- Simply stated, the SID chip works by com
voice synthesizer. bining certain sound waveforms to make a variety
of other sounds through its three independent
voices, or oscillators. SID's waveforms are the
triangle, sawtooth, pulse (or square), and noise. These
Imagine yourself at the keys of a music syn
are the frequency configurations from the com
thesizer. You deftly finger through a Bach
puter's output.
concerto or pound out The Pretenders' latest
Sound itself is little more than a type of kinetic
hit. Meanwhile, your Commodore 64 is
energy produced when, for example, air molecules
channeling the keyboard input into nearby
vibrate in response to the vibrations of some other
speakers, memorizing the music for later playback
medium. The Commodore 64's voices produce
and print-out, and offering you sounds that range
electrical signals which you shape through pro
from (he clarity of a harpsichord to the whine of
gramming. The resulting electrical impulses can
an electric guitar.
be sent to an amplifier and then to a speaker sys
Sound far-fetched? The Commodore 64 has
tem, the vibrating medium which makes the
what it takes to deliver all of that. And a new breed
sound waves we hear.
of music software is emerging Jo help the 64's
For each voice in the 64, you have a choice of
remarkable sound system live up to its potential
the four waveforms mentioned earlier, plus pro
while painlessly educating even the most ignorant
grammable high-, low-, band-, and notch-pass
wouid-be musicians.
filters; 16-bit frequency resolution over a nine-
octave range; variable resonance; synchronization;
**[ the heart of this musical scenario is the ver ring modulation; and volume control. Another
satile SID chip, an electronic synthesizer which important property of the SID is that you can pro
hasn't been matched by another home computer gram the attack, decay, sustain, and release for the
since Commodore introduced it on the 64 back in notes of each voice. Attack is the rate at which a
18 COMPUTE'S Gazelle May 19B4
Waveform Corporation's Coiortone synthesizer keyboard for the Commodore 64. Scheduled for release by May I, the keyboard
will be priced between $200 and $300.

note reaches its peak. Decay is the speed at which The first computer sound effects made use of
a note declines from its peak. Sustain is the volume just about any piece of hardware available, pro
(often thought of as the duration) of the sound ducing some rather strange results. For example,
after the decay. And release is the rate at which a innovative computer users wrote programs to
note falls into silence. make the keys on printers strike in rhythmic pat
terns. Others altered the sounds from transistor

B ob Yannes, (he designer of the SID chip, says radios by experimenting with the frequency inter
ference created when programs run at high speed
there are a couple of reasons why we haven't seen
in a computer. Even the cassette port on a com
the SID duplicated or surpassed in other personal
puter, which is an audio output, has been used to
computers. "No one has really taken the approach
make limited sounds.
of doing the music synthesizer in a computer the
Since the primary purpose for sound in per
way music synthesizers are really done. Most of
the people who work with LSI [Large-Scale Inte sonal computers began with the demand for game
gration of computer circuits] don't have that much sound effects, tone generator chips with simple
experience with synthesizers. They don't know oscillators have been used extensively. These
generators allow you to control the pitch and vol
what features are important. They don't know
ume, and often have more than a single voice.
what you do with the things that you put in
But none of them has the programmability of the
SID. Even Atari's four-voice sound chip, which
You don't have to be a professional musician
to understand that the SID chip's capabilities offer represented the state of the art in home computer
many opportunities for you to affect the forms of sound for several years, doesn't have the 64's
sound coming from the Commodore 64. (See versatility.
COMPUTE!'* First Book of Commodore 64 Sound and Paul Higginbottom, software development
Graphics and the soon-to-be-published COM- manager at Commodore's Dallas, Texas, offices
PUTEI's Beginner's Guide to Commodore 64 Sound.) says the SID chip is still a unique component.
To appreciate fully all of this programmability, it "We're probably the leader in terms of the way
helps to understand that the SID is a giant step in we've packaged that chip and what we've put
the relatively brief history of sound-producing into it. It was certainly unusual to put that in a
computers. micro.

COMPUTEI's Gazelle May 1984 19

Bui what excitdt Higginbotiom now is the for "people to have fun first, and then to learn
availability of a growing number of software pack the skills later." The company wanted to market a
ages which use the SID chip effectively. "We've product that would easily introduce nonmusicians
been doing a lot of thinking here about what is to a broad range of musical applications, while at
not out there [in music software]. And we've been the same time allowing the experienced musician
having a hard time because we think that most plenty of options, he adds.
people are slowly covering the areas," he-says, A key to this in the Waveform packages are
laughing. "There's some pretty good software companion disk templates, each of which contains
out there. There's no question about that." over a thousand combinations of sounds and
That's important. As would-be music pro melodies, and has preprogrammed musical
grammers soon find out, with the Commodore 64 scores. Selling for $24.95 each, the first template
there are plenty of POKE commands to iearn and contains African and Latin rhythms while the
a considerable number of memory locations in second template has new wave and rock rhythms.
volved. The values for each location must be en You hear the music by hooking your Commodore
tered as well. All of that adds up to a daunting 64 to a television, stereo system, or musical in
task for beginners. strument amplifier with RCA-plug patch cords.
Waveform plans to offer other templates later,
depending on the success of the first two.
the newer software products aimed at MusiCalc 2 ScoreWriter shows MusiCalc 1 users
simplifying your musical efforts is Waveform how their compositions and improvisations would
Corporation's MusiCalc, a series of four interre look in standard musical notation, complete with
lated disk-based packages. The programs are bass and treble clefs, staffs, sharps, flats, and
based on MusiCalc 1, which turns the Commodore incidentals. Pricedat$34.95, MusiCalc 2 ScoreWriter
64 into a three-voice synthesizer with advanced translates score sequences into notation that ap
features like interactive real-time sequencing, pears on the screen in either one, two, or three
slide controls, modulators, and transposers. The voices. Connected to a compatible Epson printer
program allows users to play along with preset with the Graftrax option or to a Commodore VIC-
melodies, or create and store their own music for 1525 graphics printer, the ScoreWriter permits
later playback. MusiCalc 7 has a suggested retail print-outs of musical scores.
price of $74.95, and forms the basis for several MusiCalc 3 Keyboard Maker, at $34.95, turns
other related products. the 64's keyboard into a synthesizer keyboard. It
The concept behind the series of products, also provides a set of 72 scales, which you can
says Waveform President Thomas McCreery, is structure. The effect is to allow you to arrange
30 COMPUTED Gazotle Moyl984
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and design musical scales on the Commodore moves, single note editing, and storing and print
64's keyboard. ing of the compositions. The music scrolls across
By May 1, Waveform is scheduled to offer an the screen as it plays.
actual synthesizer keyboard for the 64, which will The Alien Group offers the \Nhcn I'm 64 Ad
be priced between $200 and $300. It will come with vanced Music Synthesizer System for the Commodore
an interface that allows it to work with MusiCak 1, 64 on disk or cassette for $29.95. This package
and lets the user play music and automatically converts the top two rows of the computer
record it on disk for later playback or print-out. keyboard into a music synthesizer keyboard. It
All of this represents quite an extensive line includes advanced features such as vibrato, pulse-
of music software and hardware from one com width phasing, attack-triggered filter sweep, and
pany for the Commodore 64. But it's an indication a metronome timing track. The SHIFT and CON
of just how attractive a product the 64 is when it TROL keys extend the synthesizer's range to seven
comes to programming sound. We will probably octaves. There are thirty prerecorded songs in
be seeing even more sound and music programs cluded, with menus and written instructions to
during 1984, and possibly even other keyboards help you write and save compositions.
specifically for the 64. Although Commodore itself This software package also supports The
has actually shown prototypes of a 64 keyboard, Alien Group's VOICE BOX Singing Speech Syn
it has so far not put one on the market. But, ac thesizer, which sells for $129. The VOICE BOX
cording to one Commodore official, the company plugs into the user port of the computer and trans
is presently in the development stage on a lates text into speech. Used with the When I'm 64
keyboard and eventually plans to make it avail software, the music may be used with a vocal
able. No dates or product specifications have as part, including harmony, if you wish.
yet been announced, however. Jim Mason, manager of customer relations
for the Alien Group, points out that the SID chip
is a big advantage for programmers. "It gave us
W ithout attempting a comprehensive list of the opportunity to get better sounds from the
every music program available for the Commodore computer other than whatever kind of generators
64, here are a few of the packages aimed at the the Atari and the Apple used. So, the music system
SID chip. that's available for the Commodore 64 is superior.
The Commodore Software division offers a Again, specifically because we're able to utilize
couple of cartridge-based programs, Music Com the SID system," he says.
poser and Music Machine for the 64. No musical Electronic Lab Industries has three sound
ability or computer knowledge is required for and music programs for the 64. Note Pro II, for
Music Composer. The computer keys become a $46.95 on tape or $49.95 on disk, lets you control
piano keyboard, and special "help" guides cover the pitch of all three voices. In addition, it offers
basic editing through advanced techniques. Simi high-speed play (up to 450 notes per second),
larly, Music Machine uses the keys as a music eight-measure treble clef display, eight-octave
keyboard and requires no previous musical knowl range, ADSR control, and arrangement capa
edge. Melodies and percussion rhythms may be bilities. Note Pro 1 is a less powerful program,
played at the same time since the program has giving you control of a four-octave range, and is
three keyboard sections. Special musical effects available for $24.95 on tape and $27.95 on disk.
like vibrato, glide, and two-voice harmony are Finally, Note Pro Bridge, for $24.95 on tape and
among its options. Each program is available for $27.95 on disk, is a machine language subroutine
$19.95. which allows you to play Note Pro music from
Electronic Arts has produced Music Construc within programs.
tion Set, available for $40 on disk. (See "Inside Quicksilva Ltd. has released ULTISYNTH 64,
View" in this issue.) Using a menu of music and a sound and music package on disk for $39.95
action icons controlled by your joystick, Music and on tape for $34.95. The program incorporates
Construction Set allows you to build your own many of the features found on other packages,
compositions, and to play with a variety of op including controls for filters, envelope, keyboard,
tions, such as sound, speed, and volume. Flexible pulse parameters, modulation, synchronization,
cut-and-paste editing techniques are included, and other options. As with all music programs for
and your compositions can be printed out as well. the Commodore 64, ULTISYNTH 64 encourages
The package also features a dozen compositions you to experiment.
ranging from baroque music to rock and roll which
may be played and altered.
En-Tech Software sells Studio 64, a $39.95 iven the great versatility and programmability
disk-based music package which will write the of the SID chip, what's the next step? How can it
music you play on the screen, and allow block be improved?
22 COMPUTE'S Gazelle May 1984
If you're having a hard time
getting organized,
here's some • good news.

The Home Cataloger.'" ways you can use The Home Caialoger.
More ways to use
With The Home Cataloger, you ran set Stop by your nearest dealer and
The Home Cataloger:
up a complete home Inventory system check out The Home Cataloger. You'll
to cross-file your wine, hook and rec be amazed ai al! the different ways the
Organize your stamp
ord collections. Or even keep your Home Cataloger will work for you.
collection according w
favorite recipes. country, enmmem- You'll also be amazed at the low price.
Rememher birthdays, anniversaries oralives, people, places If fact, you'll probably wonder what
and your Christmas card list effortlessly. mint, cancelled, or first you ever did without it.
day categories.
You won't even have to try to recall who
Available for; Apple ll/lle, Commodore
sent you a Christmas card last year— dialog your coin 64, IBM PC/XT and PCjr.
The Home Cataloger will tell you. collect ion using
And since it's such a flexible and easy Price: from $49.95.
categories such as date,
to use program, you'll be able to put it mini, country, type of For your free 64 page booklet, "Tips for
coin, or condition.
to work almost immediately. Even if Buying Software," and complete prod
And, find things
you're new to computers. easily: uct catalog, please write Continental
To help you out, The Home Cataloger Software, Dept. GA2, 11223 S. Minclry
Organized your wine
comes wiih 10 re:idy-to-u,se cataloging cullcciicm by vintner, Avenue, Los Angeles, CA 90045,
formats for some of [lie most common year, classification, 213/410-3977.
uses: telephone list, inventory, travel district, grape, color, The HoineCatdtserUnrfflTfleTed trademark of Gonlincmd
purchase price, or sofw-jrv AppJt? lI/lte,Ccmmottore64jBMPCWTand PCJraro
plans, restaurants, insurance policies,
current value. reslttcred trademark*, respectively, of Apple Computer, Inc.,
coins, growth (height and weight), run Commodore Rut I nets Machine*, trie :iml him Cwp,
V idem apes can be filed
ning, studies, and book list. All you have
in a number of ways:
to do is pluy in your own information. corned)', drama, Continental
If you want additional categories, Just mystery, adventure,
add them on—simple as that documentary, store, Software
director, or year made,
Your imagination is the only limit to A Division ol Arrays. Inc.
SID designer Yannes, who has worked with
synthesizers for years and now runs his own elec
Still the Best! tronic design company, Peripheral Visions, Inc.,
says that to improve on SID, manufacturers will
have to make a quantum leap to a far more complex
and expensive type of chip.
Rated THE BEST educational
praaram for the VIC 20TM by "It's hard to justify doing a fantastic sound
Croal/vs Computing magazine.
synthesizer built into any particular personal com
Commodore S4 varslon: "This
is the best typing tutor we have puter now because to make that quantum leap is
seen yet; It can get your
children touch typing In short
going to cost a lot of money," he says. "Just to do
order and bring an old hand up a custom LSI chip in general is going to cost a lot
to speed. Includes excellent
training modules and an of money. Commodore was obviously able to
arcade type mode to liven
things up and put some handle that since they have their own design cen
pressure On;**** + "lNFO-64
ter and processing."
Our customers continue to tetl
us of their success.... And that may be the answer. As the cost of
!'.. delighted with my son's making computer chips continues to fall, Com
progress ... he is the only
one in his second grade class modore itself—with its own chip design center—-
who touch types at the computer."
may be the most likely candidate to come up with
(58 year old man writes)... "great, excellent. To me a source
of great learning ... I fust can't express how much I have a new, improved SID.
enjoyed 111"
In dally use by schools across the USA.
In fact, Commodore is rumored to be de
"Computer aided Instruction at Its best" Commander magazine
veloping just such a new, more efficient synthe
sizer chip—a super SID. But don't expect to see it
TYPING TUTOR + WORD INVADERS this year. According to one industry source, the
The proven way to learn touch typing. improved SID will be for a new generation of
COMMODORE64 Tape$21.95 Commodore computers, not for the 64 or the al
COMMODORE 64 Disk $24.95 ready announced 264 series (which does not have
VIC20(unexpanded) Tape$21.95 the SID chip). No matter what happens in the
future, however, for now your Commodore 64
continues to be a music-making personal com
puter second to none.

IFR Waveform Corporation

1912 Bonita Way
Berkeley, CA 94704
DISK OR TAPE (415)841-9866
FOR THE Electronic Arts
COMMODORE 64 2755 Campus Drive
$29.95 SanMateo,CA94403

CARTRIDGE En-Tech Software

FOR THE VIC 20 P.O. Box 881
$39.95 Sun Valley, CA91353
(213) 768-6646
Commodore Business Machines
Put yourself in the pilot's seat! A very challenging realistic 1200 Wilson Dr.
simulation of Instrument (lying In a light plane. Take off, West Chester, PA 19380
navigate over difficult terrain, and land at one of the 4 airports.
Artificial horizon, ILS, and other working Instruments on (215)431-9100
screen. Full aircraft features. Realistic aircraft performance —
The Alien Group
stalls/spins, etc. Transport yourself to a real-time adventure
in the sky. Flight tested by professional pilots and |udged 27 W. 23rd St.
■'terrific"' Rated "Excellent" by Midnlte Software Gazette, New York, NY WOW
Shipping and hamiiir-i 61.00 pei ^*>#*\ (212)741-1770
order. CA residents add 6% tax. ^gft0:
Electronic Lib Industries
WOW. 22nd St.

Baltimore, MD 21218

P.O. Box 6277, San Rafael, CA 94903 (415) 499-0650
Quicksiiva, Inc.
426 West Nakoma
Programmers: Writs lo our Naw Program Manager concerning
San Anhmio, TX78216
any exceptional VIC .'n i ■',' or Commodore wTM glmB
or other program you have developed. (512)340-3684 <Sr


The endless Russian sleppe trembles again with

The Streets of London are threatened v. 3th deadly
the nimble of invading panzers, and this lime you are
V-l rockeis. You, as a member of Her Majesty?
Royal tiiHiib Squad, must disarm each one before its
in command! Your units include platoons of Panthers
and PiKw Ill's with infantry support, all maneuver
timed fuse detonates. A variety of bombs with infinite
ing over an eve [--changing I1 .i-l '':■■] < tnap. Off-map
defusing combinations make for endless nail-biting
artillery support is also available to help you combat
the hordes of Russian units.
A combination 01 logic, skill and a little luck is re
Not juSI .in arcade shoot'em up, Punier Jjgd
quired in this highly-acclaimed computer masterpiece.
requires careful tactical planning and. above all, a
Cai&etle for Coannodutc 64'. S2O
determination to win, Hi-rea graphics and sound
Disk far Commodore EJ-T. 325
£3 ffeels.
Playing lime; 20 minutes to 3 hours:
intermediate complexity level tasttrtt* Tor Atari" [32K] and Commodore M1. $25
lilt. Disk Tor Atari' Homo Computers. S30
G4K ttisl for Commodore 64*. S30
P toy in* time: 1-t hours; Tutermndiate complexity level

Legioi TAC
A World
of Games

Tho beat of barbarian war drums echoes through

microcomputer games"
the valleys of Gaul: the crack legions of Imperial Rome A Division of The AVALON HILL Game Company The wooded pin ins of Gurmany are furrawydonce
are on the move. Outnumbered two-to-one by multitudes 4517 Harford Road • Baltimore, Maryland 21214 itynin by the steal tnonslers. the armored fighting
of heathen infantry and cavalry, you. as Caesar, must
machines of WWII. In this re-iJistic tactical war^uin&,
select your terrain and tactics carefully or face an These and many other fine Avalon Hill you chuasc your force from a variety of WWII era
nihilation. Beautifully detailed scrolling map EetS you
Microcomputer Games are available nrmor nmi i[ifantr\. DtStiign your own scenario or
examine the entire battlefield In this realtime game of
at leading computer game stores everywhere . . . setae! une of those provided and pit your German.
ancient warfare,
British, American or Russian forces against thai ofa
' iv.mi ,- (or Atari' (16K) and Commodore 54", £35 or call Toll-free: 1 [800) 63B-9292 for the name of a Eriend or pkiy aoliiaircj vs. your computer.
4BK Disk for Apple? II, [I * & lie, S4O
store near you. Ask for Operator Wl. 48K Apple' iii Atari'- Disk for S40
32K n\-.\ for Atari1 Home Computer. S4n
HK Disk tor Commodore 64', 540 1 Tradomacfcs «l Applv Cqjupuuts, li";.. Warnrr Commuiviciiliona. G4K llt.M-1'i or Comntbdorc 64' Disk for $40
Playing time: 20 ta 45 minifies:Inlermcdi&lc complexity level (iurnnuiclurc Busine1.-. M-i^'hiiSL'i uitiJ ]ni4jrn:iliu[i.>l [i-tisirif^ss MjiHiinr*. Ploying lime: 20 minutes to 1 hour; Advanced complexity level

New Standards
For Home Learning
Part 1
Fred D'lgnazio garrisoning us off and forcing us onto tiny reser
vations. We still have too much exploring to do.
Recently I read an article by a leading educator in
which he called for standards for educational soft
Structured Vs. Unstructured
ware for the home. "Who must design these stand
ards?" he asked rhetorically. "We must design Learning
the standards," he answered emphatically, "be According to one expert, over 10,000 companies
cause we are the experts." have already created over 40,000 software pack
But this is not necessarily true. Expertise in ages, any of which, potentially, could be used for
using computers in the schools may not carry learning. And, within another year, this number
over into the home. will double!
Why? First, learning at home is not the same Much of the software is excellent. But there is
thing as learning at school. also a lot of junk out there. And there is no way
Second, we are a long way from realizing the for the average consumer, a parent or a teacher,
potential of learning using a computer. 1 have a to separate the junk from programs that will help
strong conviction that there are whole realms of them or their children—especially since most soft
computer learning that we have yet to explore. If ware can't be previewed before taking it home.
we were to establish a single set of standards right People are concerned. It is natural for them
now, we would stifle software companies' ability to turn to government policy makers and educa
to lead us into these new realms. tional experts for some help and respite. And
when the policy makers and experts get involved,
The Wild, Wild West it will be natural for them to create a model for
Computer learning, especially in an unstructured home learning based on learning at school.
environment like the home, is a vast, unexplored Unfortunately, this would be a mistake.
terrain. It would be foolish to try to define and Why? First, because learning takes place in
map this terrain even before we have explored it. school primarily in a structured environment,
We would end up roping off a small part of the while learning at home is largely unstructured.
territory to confine ourselves in. The rest of the Second, learning at school takes place under
territory, beautiful and vast, would remain beyond the pressure and prod of a teacher's leadership,
our reach and the reach of our children. the school's disciplinary and academic atmos
The present stage in home computer learning phere, and the competition, opinions, and watch
is like the days of the Wild West. We have all sorts ful eyes of one's peers.
of people in the home-learning software industry, In comparison, learning at home is normally
including cutthroats, gunslingers, and the like. done in a psychological vacuum. Parents cannot
But we also have pioneers, scouts, traders, hope to duplicate the school environment. Most
settlers, and explorers. And we have gypsylike parents do not have the time to play the roles,
Indians roaming freely through the whole terrain. night after night, of cheerleader, coach, task
We certainly need some sheriffs and marshals master, teacher, and friend that a learner, espe
in all this hooting rowdiness, in these gun duels cially a young learner, often finds vital.
and disorder. But we do not need an outside expert Learning at school is curriculum-based,
or government official to impose mock order by cumulative, and progressive. It follows a well-
26 COMPUTEfs Gazelle Ma/19B4

At Timeworks, we know to freedom, you must search

that kids' minds and through the Dungeon for the
curiosity never stop two Magic Keys... But beware
growing. So we create of the Algebra Dragons. If
educational soitware they find you, you must use
for kids of all ages. your Algebra skills to
Little kids. Big kids. outwit them or your
Even teenagers, too, escape maybe foiled.

Our educational pro Timeworks Spellbound

grams tor your Commo is an educational spell
dore 64* go far beyond ing game with arcade
the kind of software action and ten skill levels
others offer. Our pro for ages 6 to 18. Spell
grams are adventures bound is a captivating
in learning, with real combination of Edu
arcade action. They're cation and Strategy,
totally entertaining, in to keep your child
volving, challenging, Spellbound while
and enlightening. learning basic
spelling skills.
Timeworks Dungeon
of the Algebra Dragons Timeworks learning
for instance. A challenging systems are super easy
and enjoyable way to develop algebra skills, to understand and play. Because helping kids
with 3-D graphics, 5 skill levels, forages 14 and up. learn is something Timeworks is deeply com
You have been locked in the infamous Dungeon mitted to doing. We believe the substance
of the Algebra Dragons. To make your way of success is thinking and learning. So we
create educational software with substance —
for everyone.
Now at your favorite dealer, Or contact
Timeworks, Inc: PO. Box 321, Deerfield, IL
60015. 312-291-9200. And be sure to ask about
our Exclusive Cassette-to-Disk Conversion

Software With Substance

— For Everyone.


t™--. I cu, ;ittii>

"-"■ I emit 0 ;

' Roaistorod Trademark ol Commodore Computer Systnmj c 1983 Timewoilts. Inc AllnghU rosoivod

IfyOU can learn to use this word processor

in 90 seconds, can it really be any good?
GOOD IS IT? Cut & Paste has all
the features you'll ever need to use
at home. Here are a few of them:
How are you? How's Dad? Little Ernie?
1. Scrolling dynamic menus
I'n hawing a great time"here at school 2. Automatic word wrap
euen -though- as a freshman again; I
didn't get all the classes that I hoped 3. Simple cut Si paste editing
for 4- Block indenting
Here's my schedule so fa 5. Set margins and paper size in
icaB i Bk?
MMF' Hist. 18-11, Eng. 1-2
TTh- Bio. 8-18, Drana 2-4 6. Tabs
7- Automatic page numbering
Let's be frank flora. I need moneu> lot.?
CTMiy Materials went up this year, io 8. Controllable page breaks
could uou please send me $5(30 or -so for 9. Headings
pens; pencils, etc. Please hurry.
10. Scrolling text windows

Loye ■
11. Automatic widow and orphan
! I Sh'JE PRINT LUT PttSTE CftTftLQtj BUFr- control
Hrrows select text :, ESC enters menu 12. Clear and concise manual
In other words, Cut ck Paste
will do just about everything other
CUT & PASTE" displays its commands on a single line at the bottom of the screen. This word processors do. But Cut &. Paste
mula working with it easier and also gives you more usable space on the screen. will do it more easily. Without com
Of all word processors on the stretch it through to the end of your plex commands and modes.
market today, Cue & Paste may cut.Then you send the cursor down to If you think about a word proc
well be the easiest to use. In the "CUT" command on the bottom essor in termsof what it replaces (type
fact, by the time you finish reading this of the screen. Done. writers, pens and paper, files). Cut &.
section of the ad, you'll know how If, on the other hand, you want Paste begins to look very good indeed.
to work with Cut &. Paste. So read on. to keep that line, but put it in a differ And when you consider that all (his
START TYPING. Working with Cut ent part of your draft, you use the potver can be had {or approximately
& Paste is like working with a type "PASTE" command. You mark the $50, we think you'E see why we believe
writer. If you know how to use a type point of insert with the cursor.Then Cut &. Paste is something of an
writer, you already know how to type you put the cursor over "PASTE." achievement.
in your draft with Cut & Paste.The That's alt there is to it. A PHILOSOPHY OF DESIGN.
only real difference is, with Cut & PRINTING IT OUT. When you The people who designed, devel
Paste it's easier to correct typos. like the way your work looks, you print oped and programmed Cut ck Paste
MAKING CHANGES. Let's say it. Put the cursor on the "PRINT" have some fairly heavy credentials.
you've decided to make a cut in your command. Then set your margins, in They are people who worked on
rough draft.To do this you put the inches.That's it. the internationally-famous user inter
cursor (the bright block) at the start You now know how to use Cut face designs that led to the Xerox Star*
of the text you want to delete, and &. Paste. and Apple's Lisa" They are also
THE CHANGING OF THE GUARD. Until quitt realty we used pens and paper
and typewriters to write with, mostly because we knew how to use them. They have been good
tools, but limited. You tend to mate messes when you work with them, and getting rid of those
messes makes extra work. Cut & Paste is an inexpensiwand practical alternative. Because iris as
easy to use as a cypewriter.youreally will use it. Which may make it the first sensible word processor
for the home. Thus an alleged labor-savingdet'icehas comelo a position where it really cansai^ea
significant amount of labor, i.e., yours.

THE PRODUCTS o/E(earonicAmcan

be found in jour favorite computer stores, soft
ware centers, and in leading department stores
g the country.
y Both Cm &

d Financial
Fl Cookbook
Ckbk are now available
at a suggested retail price of $50 for the Appie
Ik and the Commodore 64 and wilt soon be
available for the IBM-PC and Atari-

Cut &. Paste is just one of a ("rowing
number of products we're publishing
within the category of "home manage
ment software." These products are all
built around (he same program archi
tecture, making them all equally "friend
ly." as well as remarkably straightfor
■'-,"■ ward and practical. We believi: that
■■■■". — :.
■■ designs like these will soon make home
computers as functional and efficient as
today's basic appliances.
Our next product in this line is called
Firumda! Cookbook It's a realistic alterna
tive to the complex, pre-programmed fi
THE MEN WHO MADE CUT & you'd best study the way people use
nancial calculators we all wish we knew
PASTE. The Linotype machine fnctured here the tools they already have. how to use, With a few.simple keystrokes,
was the 19th centurys most important contri As a result of this thinking, Cut & Financial Cookbook lets you make more
bution 10 word processing technology [r let Paste was designed to work much in than 30 key time-value-of-money
typesetters compose and rearrange rexr in the computations—just about all the ones
the same way that you already work you'd ever use for personal finances—
form of metal casting. The importance of Cut
with a typewriter or with pen and like calculating
& Paste, of course, must await the judgment
o/history. Nevertheless, the seven mm who de- paper.The most complex and power mortgages wirh
changing inter
veloped it look confident here. Standing left to ful parts of the program are hidden
est rates, com
right, they arc Norm Lane, Steve Shaw, Dawd from view. The work they do takes pounding the
Majnard, Dan Silva, Steve Hayes and Jerry place deep in the machine. All you get inrerest on IRA
Morrison. Seated at the console is Tim Mott,
to see are the results. and savings ac
whose idea this was in the first place. counts, and buy-
But beyond that, there is something
versus - lease
people who have in common a very almost indefinable about a good de comparisons for
lucid philosophy of design. sign.Things about it just seem to work automobile pur
Computers and the programs they crisply. Little touches and features chases.
To find out more about these home
run are tools, they believe.Tools are that you notice make you want to smile.
management products and about what
never noticed unless they are bad tools. If it's really good, = ^z= =^ we have planned for the future, call or
When they're good, they become, in it feels good. = - — write: Electronic Arts, 2755 Campus
effect, invisible. And if you want to Drive, San Mateo, CA 94401 (415)
make a good tool—an invisible tool — feels good. Electronic Arts"

t'lrurul [Juan let/atctrtl irtulr'natk\"f A(j|^r CtnnjmttK,Jnc.Star nu f rrd trvdrn\a*k"f the Xrn" CQfftfrflifpiL C<ifflrnr>[irfTf 64to art^tttrrdt k D/CpmnudercJhtifiwiMw'tiVl, fm PC a a
ieiiatk uf Jnifmuikmal JluiJnru Mi* fun**, hd Aftm n a itntUccA ta rh W Arun Fiu ,<j UEinirr Gomnuaikdtfonj camptmy

11 free Etrccromc Am aulos, *cnJ n Hanificil. icK'ihIJt"ic<I fin r

marked path laid out by the teacher's learning later, I still have a mental block about sitting down
plan, by the school board, the boards of education at the piano and playing anything.
and testing, and the committees of accreditation. If parents are to succeed over the long run,
On the other hand, learning at home is ad computer learning at home must be fun, even
hoc and sporadic; il happens in bursts. There is joyful. And it must be meaningful to the child.
no curriculum or lesson plan to follow. There are The purpose and meaning of what the child is
no formal standards to meet, to fail, or to surpass. doing must be clear, not just to the parent, but
Learning at home is usually marked by the joy, also to the child.
the pain, or the insight of the moment, rather Equally important, the child must have con
than the result of a coordinated plan followed trol over the direction and extent of his or her
over days, months, and years. learning. Otherwise the child is an automaton or
puppet, and will derive very little satisfaction,
A Sense Of What Is Right pleasure, or real learning from .ill those accumu
lated hours in front of the computer.
At school, a teacher can be a leader because he or
she has some sense of what is right. This sense
comes from training, years of experience, fellow Opportunities For Home
teachers and colleagues, from the insights gleaned Learning
from professional books and magazines, and from If school models for education are artificially
attendance at conferences and meetings. grafted onto the home, computer learning could
In contrast, at home a parent, as teacher, flies become very dreary indeed!
by the seat of the pants. Parents have to trust Yet something must be done.
their gut feelings and their dim memories of being Home learning using computers may soon be
students themselves. Parents can certainly nag the complement to and the extension of learning
and demand that their children sit down and do in the school. Preschool children will learn at home
their work, but they can't get them to learn— on computers. School-age children will do their
unless they can somehow lead them into learning. homework on computers and get remedial in
But how can a parent be a leader unless he or she struction. Handicapped children and those with
knows where or how to lead? learning disabilities will get valuable learning
assistance from the computer to help them keep
A New Curriculum For Home up with or even move ahead of their classmates.
Learning Talented and gifted children will be able to use
Parents need guidelines for a home-learning cur the computer as a "Space Shuttle" of learning.
riculum. But it must he something totally new, They will be able to blast off into new areas, on
unlike any curriculum found in school. And par their own, areas that challenge and stretch them
ents need help in making decisions as to which to the utmost. They will be able to free themselves
home-learning software they should purchase, from the fetters and the crippling fear of failure
and how to derive the greatest benefit from that they may feel in front of parents, teachers, and
software for their children. peers.

They can't follow the school model. The Computer learning at home will also be valu
school "carrots and sticks" will probably not work able as an "eleventh period." Children will be
at home. Children who learn at home, over the able to learn subjects and skills not offered by
long term, will need more incentive than their their school.
mom or dad threatening and nagging them, day Adult computer learning, too, will be impor
after day, week after week. Children who learn at tant. Schools will be able to provide "continuing
home will need software that inspires them, chal education" courses for adults at home, using com
lenges them, and gives [hem free rein to learn puters. Adults will be able to acquire valuable job
independently and at their own pace. skills and gain academic degrees by using com
Above all else, learning software for the home puters to learn at home.
must be entertaining. The incentive for learning
must come from learning itself. It cannot be im The Free Enterprise Model
posed from outside. Otherwise, the long-term Learning at home shouldn't be constricted by a
effect on the child is likely to be more negative school-like institutional curriculum or standards.
than positive. Children will come to resent en Instead, new kinds of curricula and standards
forced learning on the computer just as much as I should be created, based on realistic conditions
resented being "strapped into" the piano seat for that exist in the average home.
a half-hour of practice every day when 1 was grow Learning at home on a computer should be
ing up. After eight years of this kind of "educa as diverse as possible to reflect different families'
tion" J came to hate the piano. Today, many years and individuals' interests, personalities, goals,

30 COMPUTEI's Gazelle Mayl9B4


Home Organizer'

^i, software tha

your Commodore 64 feel
comfortable at home
Now your home computer can help you cook, keep your accounts, find an address or
keep track of your record and book libraries—with first-class software specially tailored
for the home environment.

The Home Organizer" series includes a wide range of separate and individual programs for
different activities like stamp collecting, personal banking, or home photo and movie
collections. Each one is pre-programmed with a "page" format planned out by experts to
make it easy for you to store and retrieve the information you'll want for your special activity.
You don't have to program anything yourself. |ust load the disk and start feeding in your data.

If you're used to run-of-the-mill home computer software, the speed and simplicity of the
Home Organizer" series will surprise you. Each program is written entirely in "machine
language", the most basic computer code. So they search, sort and analyze your data with
amazing speed.

The Home Organizer'" is fast enough to sort through your household belongings in
seconds, yet so simple the children can use it to look up a phone number. Choose any or all
program modules that fit your needs. They make ideal gifts, too!


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and abilities. Diversity in computer learning courseware aimed primarily for the school could
should reflect (and enhance) the diversity in be used, with proper materials and parental
people. guidance, in the home. Above all, there should
Educators need to work along with educa not be a wall separating learning at home from
tional policy makers, parents, children, and learning at school, instead, it should be a broad,
computer users to come up with a diversity of circular continuum that melts together and meets
new standards, materials, and curricula for home at either end.
The best model for home learning might be a Horse Breeders, Plumbers, And
free enterprise model Major government bodies,
computer users groups, educators, private com
Brain Surgeons
panies, and consumer groups should each come Completely new modes of learning may be dis
up with their own packages. There might, for covered yet.
example, be a McGraw-Hill Comprehensive Pack A home-learning curriculum might be devised
age of Computer Home Learning Materials, and based entirely on real-world career domains. For
other packages from Scott Foresman, Addison- example, all computer-based home-learning
Wesley, D.C. Heath, etc. There might also be courses shouldn't just be on knowledge domains,
packages from MECC {the Minnesota Educational such as Algebra 1 or language arts. Software com
Computing Consortium), the Apple Computer panies should also offer children full-scale courses
Company, IBM, Atari, Tandy, and, of course, on how to be a space shuttle pilot, how to manage
Commodore. Consumers Union might have its a nuclear reactor, how to be a software designer,
own package. Children's Television Workshop, a fashion photographer, a horse breeder, an ar
CBS Software, Scholastic, Reader's Digest, Sun chaeologist, a diplomat stationed in Latin Amer
burst Software, and HesWare might have their ica, an executive in a multinational corporation, a
own packages. plumber, brain surgeon, or a police detective.
Each of these packages would compete for In these courses, knowledge domains would
the biggest share of computer users. Parents could be subsidiary to career domains. Kids would pick
read evaluations and descriptions of the packages, up the physics, math, language arts, and social
talk to dealers, and preview the software before studies they needed to get their credentials in the
choosing the package that was right for them and various fields. The youngest kids would naturally
their family. become junior horse breeders and archaeologists.
The models that they would have to master would
be simpler, yet for them, no less exciting and
Extra-curricular Learning challenging.
Not all home learning should be curriculum- Older kids would have to work with more
based. Not even if we redefine "curriculum" to complex, lifelike models of the real world and of
be something appropriate for homes and families. the careers they were studying. They would work
Many kinds of software companies should for milestones like Apprentice and Assistant on
continue producing what they do best—one-shot, the way to achieving mastery of the career.
maverick programs that are unlike anything any Perhaps work-study internships could even
one has ever seen. These are works of art that be set up to coincide with advanced home-study
delight, charm, entertain, and educate, all at the programs for teenagers and young adults. Com
same time. They might not fit easily into a package panies and government agencies could open their
or a curriculum, but they deserve to be seen and doors to student interns who had mastered their
experienced by every family. "career courses." In this way, young people could
Also, there should be lots of room for content- complement their home learning with on-the-job
free, "learning how to learn" software. 1 would training and real-world experiences. Employers
welcome lots of new programs that don't teach us would benefit by getting to see a crop of en
when the Pilgrims landed on Plymouth rock, or thusiastic, well-trained young people.
how to conjugate a verb in Spanish, or how to The programs of study should be diverse,
solve an algebra problem. Instead they would entertaining, and short enough to encourage
teach us to be better learners. These programs children to try as many careers as possible. The
would help us in all our learning, at home and at programs should be rewarding, playful, and en
school. courage social and emotional skills as well as in
Furthermore, learning at home and at school tellectual skills.
are not always different. 1 think that many of the My thanks to the many industry watchers
unstructured learning exercises targeted at the who, through discussions during the recent Con
home could be used in special, unstructured sumer Electronics Show, helped contribute to the
learning times at school. And many types of ideas in this article. <B
32 COMPUTEI's GazoHe May 1984
COMPUTEi's gazette disk will premier with the May
1984 issue of COMPUTEi's gazette. When you subscribe
to COMPUTEi's GAZETTE DISK, each month you will re
ceive a fully tested 5 '/4-inch floppy disk which will
run on eitheryour Commodore VIC-20 or 64 personal
computer. Each issue of computei's gazette disk
will contain all of the programs which appear in
the corresponding issue of computei's gazette. You'll
save hours of typing time and be able to enjoy all of the high
quality software found each month in computei's gazette.

Here are Just a few of the quality programs

which will appear in the May 1984 issue:

- a Jasr-paced, nonviolent game for the Commo- • PRINT Sound — a utility for the VIC-20 which translates
dore 64. Animated with machine language, the game letters into musical notes. All you supply is a simple PRINT
puts you in control of.) pigeon lost in a dangerous sky statement,
Riled wiih whirling propellers. Your goal is to make it
• Sound Story— an exciting demonstration program that
across the sky to find your skittish mate, who moves un~
predictably from coop to coop, illustrates the sound capabilities of the VIC-20. A story
with screen text comes to life with the sound of crickets,
• SuperSpriie— an unsteady flyer depends on you to guide
lightning and thunder, a UFO in flight, and Morse code.
him down through a series of unfriendly kryptonite bar
riers For the Commodorp 64. SuperSpme makes effective and many morel
I use of sprite animation and sound.

Ordering Information

To Order: Subscription Rates:

To reserve YOUR copy of [he premier issue of the gazette Six month subscription S39 95
disk and enter your subscription, return the attached post (add SIS shipping and handling outside the US and
paid card or call coMFirrm gazette TOLL FREE 800-334- Caf\ada)
0868 [in North Carolina 919-275 -9809). All orders must be Oneyear (12 mo.| subscription S69.95
prepaid—send check or money order or charge to VISA, (add S36 shipping and handling outside the US and
MasterCard, or American Express. Canada,

Individual Issues:
individual issues of the gazette disk can be oidered for FREE 800-334-0868 fin North Carolina call 919-275-98091,
$7.95 (in the US and Canada add SI per issue for shipping or by sending your prepaid order to: gazette disk, P.O. Box
.and handling. Outside the US and Canada add S3 per 5406, Greensboro, NC 27403.
issue). Individual issues can be? ordered by calling TOLL ■
■ Mi
Will Harvey
The Programmer Behind
Music Construction Set
Kothy Yakal, Editorial Assistant

Some professional program But Will Harvey may decide

mers draw a blank when you that he has other plans for the
ask what they do in their spare future. "Computers are just
time. "There isn't any," they another hobby for me," he says.
say. Not so with the subject of "I wouldn't consider it a profes
this month's "Inside View," sion, or anything that takes
Will Harvey, the programmer precedence over any of my other
behind Music Construction activities."
Set. Those other activities are
many and varied. Seventeen-
year-old Harvey is president of
the student body at Uplands
F rogrammer doesn't mean Senior High School near his
what it used to. home in Foster City, California.
The next generation of pro A straight-A student, he plays
gram designers will need more Will Harvey, designer of Music football and basketball, sings in
than just expertise in BASIC and Construction Set. the school chorus, and is an
machine language. As program Eagle Scout.
ming itself becomes less complicated, and hard School celebrity? Not really. "People at school
ware capabilities allow better graphics, sound, know I'm interested in computers. They know
and depth of play, the intricacies of the programs I've been in some big magazines," he says. "But
themselves will become more important. The that's not a big thing."
successful designer will be the one who can de
velop glorious ideas, the "guy with the vision,"
according to many of today's programmers. M usic Construction Set evolved in a rather
Will Harvey, the designer/programmer of roundabout way. Harvey bought a Commodore
Electronic Arts' Music Construction Set has a good PET about five years ago. "It was the only one I
chance of being one of those people, considering could afford," he says. "It was the kind of thing
his early success—and his confidence, technical where you save up money from a paper route,
ability, and emphasis on ideas. and your parents go half and half with you.
3A COMPUTED Gazelle May 1984
When it comes to superior performance,
we study our lines very careMy.
Superior printer performance is not a fluke. instruction, giving GeminMOX the capability
It evolves from analyzing printed line after to perform
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After 30 years of manufacturing precision feec system that has a friction and fully adjust
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able tractor feed. Then we even built in the
And so we took the GeminMOX and method- dexi
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"I just played around with it as if it were a
toy at first. I had no serious interest until about
two years ago, when I started using it as a tool to
program on."
Harvey traded his PET for an Apple at about
that lime. He was working on a game called
Lancaster, which was to contain some music. To
incorporate music into the program, he created a
mini-music construction set. "I had to convert
sheet music into numbers the computer could
understand," he says. "Originally, it was a tool for
me, an interface between me and the computer."
In the process, Harvey found out that creating
music on the computer was fun. Having com
pleted Lancaster, which was published by Silicon
Valley Systems, he set to work on a program that
would allow people to learn about and have fun
By moving the hand (bottom right of the screen) ivith a joy
with music. stick, you can easily create unit edit your own music.
"i didn't know much about music be
forehand," he says. "I went up to people in the
school chorus and asked them questions. ground, but that's not really what makes a good
"The more I learned and put into the program, program."
the more I realized that this was a fun thing to do. So what does it take? "I have sufficient back
What the program could do for people was to ground in electronics and computer programming
provide an environment where they could learn to do it," says Harvey. "But that's not really what
about composing and playing music without makes a good programmer. It's like having writing
having to learn an instrument." skills. That doesn't mean you're going to write a
Another aspect of the program that Harvey good book.
discovered later was its use as a tool. "It's very "What you need is lots of imagination and
much like a word processor for music," he says. confidence in yourself. I think the biggest thing is
"It lets you move around notes and transpose enough confidence in yourself so you can take an
music, just like you would move around text when idea and develop it.
you're writing something." "Once you've got the perfect idea, only then
Electronic Arts discovered Harvey through do you say, 'How am I going to do this?' That, in
one of its programmers, and published Music my opinion, is the perfect approach to writing a
Construction Set. program. The ideal program doesn't have any
thing to do with how difficult it is to program, or
how impossible. You have to develop the idea
JM usic Construction Set lets you do just what the around the ideal."
name says. It allows you to compose three-part
melodies, listen to them, and print them out. It's
easy to use, and uses the graphics and sound ext fall will probably find Will Harvey at
capabilities of the Commodore 64 quite well. tending classes at nearby Stanford University.
You might imagine that its programmer was a Studying computer science? "No. I'll probably
technically-oriented tyke who grew up taking study the pure sciences, or maybe history. I know
apart the toaster and television and anything else as much about computers as I want to know," he
he could get his hands on. says. "Not to say that I know everything, or even
That kind of image is inaccurate among a whole lot about computers. I know enough to
today's young programmers. "I'm not an elec keep doing what I'm doing right now. I'm sure
tronics whiz," says Harvey. "I'm not even a com I'll continue programming."
puter whiz. I'm just able to take an idea and put it Harvey is currently finishing up an Atari
in a fantastic form. version of Music Construction Set. Beyond that,
"There's a difference between a computer he's planning two different types of games, one
whiz and a computer artist. A computer whiz is fast-action and one fantasy. He's also working on
someone who's a very good programmer. A com some programming utilities. "There's still a very
puter artist is someone who designs and fully wide gap between the way people think and the
makes a game. A programmer is just someone way computers work," he says. "Resolving that
who programs it. problem will be the ultimate breakthrough. I'm
"You have to have some technical back- endeavoring to close that gap." (Sf
36 COMPUTERS Gazette May 1984
Quality Software that Outshines the Rest
Programs for the Commodore 64

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Features: • Modifies diskette directory.

• Map search technique to achieve a "logical AND",
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Software by SoftPeople u Programs for the Commodore 64 u Connecting People with Great Ideas.

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Charles Brannon, Program Editor

Got a question about "SpeedScript"? Find an SpeedScript without even having to type it in. I'd
answer here, along with some tips on advanced call thnt quite a deal.
uses for this popular word processor.
A Hidden Command?
Many readers "discovered" a new command in
The letters keep pouring in: The response to
SpeedScript that sets the line spacing. The [s]
"SpeedScript" (COMPUTED GAZETTE', January
command was not mentioned in the article, al
1984) is overwhelming. Our readers are well
though there is a cryptic reference to it. There are
pleased with the speed, power, and low cost of
no hidden commands in SpeedScript, just poorly
this powerful word processor.
documented ones! It's just as well that [n] was left
To help answer the deluge of questions
off the quick-reference card, but [s] works just
brought up by our readers, we'll cover them here
fine. First type CTRL-£ (or CTRL-3), then enter [s]
in this artide.
and follow it with the number you want for line
The Good, Bad, And The Ugly spacing: I, 2, or 3. You can use any number, really,
if you want something like four or five spaces
SpeedScript was extensively tested before we
between lines.
released it. That's good. However, a few changes
were made after this testing to improve efficiency.
That's also good. But after this change, one com The Deadly Linefeed
mand was not adjusted. That's bad. The [n] com SpeedScript will double-space by default, though
mand, for next page, does its job too well. It feeds you can change it with the (s] command. Some
on to the next page, and the page after that, the people found they were getting triple-spacing,
page after that, endlessly. And that's ugly. There's though. Worse still, this threw off paging, so
no simple fix for this command; you cannot insert headers and looters would be in the middle of
changes in machine language like you can in the page. The problem is caused by the deadly
BASIC. It would require you to retype the entire linefeed.
program. And that would be uglier still. A carriage return should return the print
Fortunately, this command has been fixed position to the left, then down a line, simulating
on the version of SpeedScript available on the carriage return on a typewriter. Two operations
GAZETTE DISK. Those who order the first issue of are involved, though. Carriage return just returns
the GAZETTE DISK, either through subscription or the carriage (printhead) to the start of the same
single-copy, will receive as a bonus a revised, line. The platen or tractor feed then scrolls the
updated version of SpeedScript. If you were un paper up a line. This is called a linefeed. The com
able to obtain a copy of the January GAZETTE, bination is a CRLF, Carriage Return/Linefeed.
which quickly sold out, you can still obtain The code for carriage return is 13, and on
38 COMPUTEI's Gazelle May 5 984
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most computer screens acts as a CRLF. Many You can also change this mode from within
printers are set up like this, too. But some pro SpeedScript. On a separate line enter:'
grammers realized that if you could separate car
riage return from linefeed, you could overstrike a
line. If you returned the carriage without line- Remember that commands, represented here in
feeding, you could underline a whole line by just brackets ([ ]), are obtained by typing CTRL and
printing a bunch of underlines after you did a the English pound symbol (£), followed by the
carriage return. You would then send a linefeed desired letter or number. Commands appear on
by itself (CHRS(IO)) to advance the page for the the screen in inverse video. Now you can embed
next line. the [9] by itself on another line, or at the start of a
But if you are not trying to do this little trick, line by itself. Here are three ways:
you get a 50-png'e document all on one line. For
SpeedScript, you need the printer to go up a line
The quick brown fox
at each carriage return.
Since printer manufacturers want their printers S6*
quick fcn-own fox. . . *■
to be flexible, they allow either option: CHR$(13) E]=:Sf>ElTli(? quick br-own fox. .
performs a carriage return or a linefeed. Since
SpeedScript does not send linefeeds (to make life I gave all these examples to help those of you
easier), your printer should be set up to make who are confused about how to use the pro
automatic linefeeds. The Commodore printers grammable numbers. Some of them are predefined,
will always perform a CRLF (although you can as in [1] = 27. If you want to go into emphasized
send CHR$(141) to return without a linefeed). mode on the Epson printer, you would send in
You can usually open up your printer (or reach BASIC: PRINT#1,CHR$(27);CHR$(69).
through a slot in the back, or under the paper Since CHR${69) is the code for E, you could
cover) and slide tiny little DIP (Dual In-line Pack also use PRINT#1,CHR$(27);"E". In SpeedScript,
ages) switches to change the way carriage returns you would embed [1]E. The [1] will send out
work. Get out your manual and a magnifying CHR$(27), and the E right after it would then be
glass. sent. By the way, be sure you use a capital E, since
a lowercase E would be sent as a CHR$(101).
Paper Alignment Some interfaces have their own escape com
Other readers find it hard to print a document of mands, so CHR$(27); "E" would either perform
several pages. The first page looks okay, but the an interface command, or it would be ignored, in
subsequent pages are off by one line, with the either case, you wouldn't get Enhanced mode.
fooler appearing not on the bottom of one page, You may be able to get past the interface by send
but at the top of the next. This is not a problem ing ESCape twice: [1][1]E. Otherwise, you may be
with SpeedScript, but with paper alignment. You able to turn off your interfaces's emulation mode
must have the printhead set so it would print its and operate SpeedScript in the true ASCII mode
first line exactly at the top of the page. SpeedScript by placing an [a] at the top of your document.
will skip a bit past this, but it is important for the On some printers you'll get better perfor
sake of paging, especially if you use headers and mance by adding 128 to the mode code: [1] = 155
footers. Trial and error will leach you where to instead of [1] = 27.
position the paper. Remember that SpeedScript doesn't under
Gemini printer owners sometimes find that stand the intent of the programmable numbers. It
paging is very inaccurate. Their problem is that just sends the codes out. If you sent out a
some Gemini printers (and Epson printers with CHR$(12) as a formfeed, the printer would indeed
Graftrax Plus or better) will automatically skip skip to the next page, but SpeedScript thinks it is
over the paper perforation. The printer may do still on the same page, and will probably try lo
this while SpeedScript is trying to skip lines to get skip over the perforation in the middle of a page.
to the next page. Doubie-wide characters are aiso treated as single-
The trick is to disable the automatic skip-over- width by SpeedScript. If you center a doubie-
perf mode. The code for this on Gemini printers width phrase, SpeedScript will skip to the center
is 56. To send this code, OPEN 4,4:PRINT#4, position as if the phrase were single-width, then
CHR$(56):CLOSE 4 before you load and run print the double-wide characters off-center.
SpeedScript. You can also initialize other printer Again, only the printer knows to print double-
features this way before you run SpeedScript, but wide characters. One way to get around it is to
be sure not to turn off your printer, or this will pad out the line you want to center with an equal
reset all the default modes. Consult your manual number of spaces. The centering will be based on
for a list of codes you use to change modes on twice as many characters, but the extra spaces
your printer. will not be visible. W
40 COMPUTEIS Gazelle May 1984
I Beyond Compare

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If you can't put your finger on your total financial
Even offers mini accounts receivable and accounts
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payable ledgers.
has a personal software accounting package
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Even if you're all thumbs, we offer a support line Control your expenses with the 64-ACCOUNT1MG
and an easy-to-follow manual written in plain SYSTEM'S budgeting ledgers. Monitor your past
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For use with Commodore 64" and disk drive.
Copyright 1983 — Software Design, Inc.
Commodore 64 B a regislcred trademark of Commodore Business Machines, tnc P.O. Box 570, Waterloo, Iowa 50704
Speaking of centering, SpeedScript will al Q.'. When I print out something with
ways center in the middle of a 8'/2-mcn wide piece SpeedScript, it will always skip to the next page
of paper. If you had a 40-column printer and after it finishes.
changed the left and right margins, centering
would not conform Id the new page width.
A; Sorry. There's a tradeoff involved: Some
people want to go ahead and remove the docu
SpeedScript thinks the page is SO columns wide
ment from the printer right after they print it, so
no matter what the left and right margins are.
it's nice that SpeedScripf ejects the last page. But
SpeedScript also assumes the page length is
the real reason is that SpeedScript must go to the
always 66, for 11-inch paper. If you have a 40-
bottom of the last page in order to print the footer,
column printer or 10-inch paper, you have my
sympathy. Next lime I'll gel it right. if any.

: For several reasons, I want to be able to print

Questions And Answers
out in all uppercase. 1 could type it all in lowercase,
Many people had the same questions, so I
then use CTRI.-A to reverse it all, but this seems
can sum up a good many answers to letters right
like a lot of trouble.

n! You don't have to use CTRL-A. Just type it

l Is SpeedScript compatible with EasyScript 64?
all in lowercase. If you havea Commodore printer
A.'. No. SpeedScripf and EasyScript store text or an interface that emulates one, put an [a] at the
within memory and on disk in different ways. very top of your file. This will have the effect of
You can load an EasyScftpi file into SpeedScript, reversing upper- and lowercase. If you usually
but you will have to do a lot of work to get it right. use [a| to get upper- and lowercase, just omit it.

Most other word processing files cannot be seen

Q.I How do you insert a line in the middle of text?
by SpeedScript, either. Many people would also
like to be able to send SpeedScript files over a A: A blank line is represented by a carriage return
modem in ASCII, or create an ASCII sequential symbol {a back-arrow) on a line by itself. Just go
file from a SpeedScript program file. Program 1 is into insert mode (CTRL-I) and press RETURN
a file conversion program for SpeedScript. A disk wherever you want a line break to appear. The
drive is required. text after the carriage return will be pushed down
Q." Can I save SpeedScript files in "rabbitized" to the next line. If you want to insert a line of text,
just put the cursor on top of the carriage return,
then type it in.
Al Many VIC-20 and 64 owners with tape use
the ROM Rabbit from Eastern House Software, or KsL". Can you get more than SO columns on the
the Arrow from Skyles Electric Works. These pro printer? I'm using my printer's proportional mode,
grams in ROM add commands to BASIC that per which can lake 100 characters to fill up a line.
mit you to load and Have tape programs at a sub
A: Just increase the right margin, as in fr]100.
stantially accelerated rale. But these products are
not hardware peripherals, and there is no way to ". 1 low do you abort a printout?
treat them as such. In any case, SpeedScript
doesn't like ROM cartridges, since they reside A: Hold down the RUN/STOP key while the
within SpeedScripfs usable text area. printer is printing. This key is checked for only
while text is being printed, not form feeds. You
6tl I am n Francophone, and would like to be need to hold it down until it "catches." When
able to print letters of the alphabet with accent you let go, you'll be back in SpeedScript.
marks. 1 low do 1 modify SpeedScript to do this? SpeedScript waits for you to let go of the key to
prevent you from accidentally inserting spaces
A: You don't have to. If you don't need to see into your text.
them on the screen, you can have them on paper.
Just overstrike the letter with an accent mark.
Q.I How can I get SpeedScript to work with an
Define a programmable number, and use it to
80-column board?
print the letter e, the code for backspace
(CHRS(S)), then an accent mark, like this: A: You would need to be a machine language
programmer and have a copy of the source listing
Je suis Chan"* eH ■ t a i r <? v of SpeedScript. You would also have to have
c o nn 3 i s anct?. <-
documentation on how the 80-column board in
If you can't do it with oveistriking, you may be terfaces with your machine. SpeedScript updates
able to define a character on your printer (see the directly on the screen. It does not go through
example in the SpeedScript article). PRINT, which is all most 80-column boards trap.
42 COMPUTERS Gazelle Mayl9B4
Software artists?
S^dASaSRuST?^ShETL How we sot this year's hottest sports game out of
BALL PROGRAM that feels like the ° J I 1 ■
real thing, it helps to start with two guys two rather inexperienced designers.
who know what the real thing feels like.
Enter Larry Bird and Julius Erving.
Bird — the hustler, the strong man,
deadly from outside. Erving —The
Doctor, maybe the most explosive
player in the history of the game.
We talked to them, photographed
them in action, studied their moves and
their stats and their styles. Then we
set out to create on computer disc an
event which may never happen in real
life. We put the two of them together
on a dream court of light, for an elec
tronic afternoon of one-on-one.
It wasn't easy. When
they talked, we listened.
When they criticized,
we made big changes.
When they gave sug
gestions, we took them.
And it shows.This
thing is absolutely un
canny. You actually
take on all the skills and
characteristics of Bird
or The Doctor — their
own particular moves,
shooting abilities, even
strength and speed.
You'll meet with
fatigue factors, hot and
cold streaks, turn
around jump shots,
and 360-degree slam
dunks. But there's some whimsy in
here, too —a funny referee, a shattering
backboard, even instant replay.
It's called Mius Erving and Larry Bird
Go One- on- One." You're Bird. Or you're
The Doctor. And that's th~ last dcci-
sion you'll have plenty of time to make.
Juliu. Erving »nei Larry Bird Clo Onc-i>n-Onc» iw«- ...iliN<-<*. J.Uni- II-..nj llr itmfuirn
ii*imuTt jf Atv^f Oinpuiffr Todmloul morrataur Rlffrrrrnf Ant >r«l in pi.-xiiKt


Hints And Tips The following memory locations contain the
Many people have written in with new ways of default settings for several of the printer com
using SpeedScript Also, the more you work with mands. This was discovered by Ken McEnany for
a word processor, the more tricks you learn. Here the 64:
Location He* Value Hem
are some suggestions to make the most of
SpeedScript. 5200 1450 05 left margin
5201 1451 75 right margin
If you have a special format line that you al
5202 1452 66 page length
ways use, save it to disk. You can then call it up 5203 1453 05 top margin
every time you start to write. You can also create 5204 1454 58 bottom margin
fi!l-in-the-hlank form letters. If you use some 5205 1455 02 line spacing

strange character for the blank, you can use Hunt A treat, indeed! If you have nonstandard
to quickly find it and, while in insert mode, fill in paper, or prefer single-spacing, you can load
the information. You could have forms for articles, SpeedScript, use POKE to change a default (such
personal letters, business letters, etc. The point is as page length), then save the new SpeedScript
to save repetition. back to disk. For example, POKE 5205,1 would be
Although SpeedScript doesn't have search used for single-spacing.
and replace, you can use the cut and paste feature Jeffrey C. Edman owns a Brother CE50 type
of the text buffer to memorize the string you want writer and an RS-232 interface. Unfortunately,
to replace with. Use Hunt to find each occurrence, SpeedScript doesn't work with the RS-232 port—
then CTRL-R in insert mode to substitute. You ordocs it? Mr. Edman pored over a disassembly
can then use the DELete key to remove the original of SpeedScript, and found that his setup would
phrase. (Don't use CTRL-back arrow, since it work with the following POKEs:
chains to the buffer.) Sounds a bit klutzy, but
POKE 659,6 (sets the RS-232 control register)
after practice you can be quite proficient.
POKE 660,0 (sets [he RS-232 command register)
Don't forget that you can use SHIFT-CTRL-P. POKE 7812,2 (changes SuHvctScript)
This will ask you for the device number and sec
Mr. Edman continues:
ondary address of the printer. Answer with a
"Using a device #2 and a secondary address
device number of 3 and a secondary address of 0,
#2 (in response to the prompt after a CTRL-SHIFT-
and SpeedScript will print to the screen. You can
P) plus true ASCII formal (using [a]) will result in
sec where line and page breaks occur, as well as
an excellent print-out.
how many pages your document runs (if you
"With these changes the output to the printer
have a header or footer with [#] embedded).
does not print out approximately the last 120
This may seem trivial, but if you copy
characters of the text. 1 get around this by adding
SpeedScript as the first file on each document
greater than 120 spaces to the end of the text."
disk you use, it will make life easier. You don't
I hope owners of RS-232 printers can apply
have to remember which disk has SpeedScript on
these suggestions to get SpeedScript to work with
it. Just insert your document disk, LOAD "*",8
their printer.
and you're in business.
This isn't the last time we'll look at
Watch out for repeating keys. SpeedScript is
SpeedScript. Keep sending in your suggestions.
so fast you could insert a paragraph with CTRL-R
When the time is right for SpeedScript Deluxe, it
two or three times before you realize what's
will owe a debt to the readers of COMPUTEI's
GAZETTE for their many good ideas and construc
Modifying SpeedScript tive criticism.
We've received more than a few letters asking for See program listing mi page 141. ©
an assembly source listing of SpeedScript. We
don't have the manpower (or personpower) to
mail listings to individuals, not to mention the
A utility program that adds over 40 A full-featured word processor at a

postage it would take to mail 100 pages of source commands to your C-G4 Doesn'Iuseany (faction of the cost. More powerful tnan
all w/p under $50.00 Has features even
BASlCmemory IMS mactirne language
code. It goes without saying that we can't publish FEATURES:
• Un-new—gel bae* BASIC programs FEATURES
it in the magazine for space reasons. Besides, the after reset ■ 100*9 machine code, the fastest w/p
■ Screen Dump—lo printer ve\B seen
source code isn't even commented. • £j«y, aDbroviated Dis* Commands • Works with aM pnniera^ntarfacet
■ Mflcrunn Language Monitor with • Semi-automatic hyphenation
Without the source code, it's very difficult to A a sem rj I o r/Dis B s semlj I ei ■ Justification
Tran&lor. Fill. Hum. etc. • Form tetters automatically
add anything to SpeedScript, or make significant Adda BASIC commands • Block Transler. Delete, Insert.
F|n0 ■ Change Append,
changes, since it is machine language, but you Renumber • Delete ■ Auto page numbers, headsrg and
Auto line numbers foolers
can overwrite parts of the code. Following the Excellent manual • Send disk commands
■ PRE-VIEW—see left nr ngnt side Of
disassembled listing of a mass of raw numbers $19.99
page before printing
IndicBtetapeordisk Send check or m o • Full-screen editing with rapid scroll
without labels or remarks is like reading a book {include $2 DO p.'h) (o Educomp • Easily send special primer commands
2139 Nfmcflitio A*e • CardilT. CA9200? • r ■r."iip-i: manual
upside down. (61&I942-3Q39
U COMPUTEI's Gazette May 1984
Developing a mind
for the Future. SUPER BASIC S39"U.S:
- Gf^es you 3 dilfe*onl versions of Commodore
Baa*c Prt>orHi(Tiina Language Veriwo 4 PLUS'
A BljiIT in Mac Mine Language Monitor'
- Disk & File Maintenance Command*
Data Handling Commands
Graphics Plus Basic
Coinpatcte with Commmodores "B" Series &
Much Much MoreH


R7C"s Answers to Psogram Recrcat-on
Converts Printers F iFo rr> SCRIPT fl4"s Files


Super Fast Disk Copies en a 1 541
Ccp-y Entire Disk jn 7 MmUes or Less
Copy Selected fries
Complete Paltern Matching
Full Prompts


Color 80 S49"U.S: Vour- Aid (o Writing programs
Allows So roll1 ng Through Programs
A<JUa33moreCornmanris to the Basic Language
Produces 60 Columns With Color1
Has Find. ChflnQO, Mojqo. Mavo Commanda
Needs NoEHtra Hardware
Convert Hoi-, Bmary and Decimal Numboja and More'
Uae With Programs
Uses No Basic Memory in me 64
Develop Vour Owi Programs


SCRIPT 64 & SCRATCH PAD 64 $105" US:

Scfipi 64
Word Procossor m FrencrianQ Enghsb
SO Columns
Global Search m>d Replace
Uw Created Dictionary
Spelling Check
Scraich Pad 64
The Database-Mail Ust m One'
Merges wiihScnpi 6 J Word Processor
Printou! Labels Envelopes. Mail Lists More'
Suitable with both Single and Dual D:sk Drives
Fully C6«* LmK Compatible


Canndpe Audio Serial I/O

Expansion Siol Video Port Cassette Port

The Smart 64 Up lo 6 more 64s IEEE Disks
12O3?)!B2Sm[4O40l Tape

Give These Expanded Capabilities IB050) (939CI

to Your 64 and VIC 20 EEEf Pnnlers 1M1 Dnvs wVUCobto

[10221 [8023] And IMS Printer loParWW
(8300) eic. or 1515 Primer Printer
• The ability to irantler Otza from any type at device lo anoiher
I IEEE, SerLaL Parallel I
lEEEloParallsJ IEEE to Serial
MULTI-LINK- Inlertace Inierfscs
1 BASfC 4-9 which allows you lo run mare PET BASIC program*
ParsHeT Devices True Serial Devices
and gives you extended disk *rnd 1/0 commands

■ The ability to have severe! Ws on lino togothef ■ shorinQ com

4 future 1
mon: '■-: T ■: ■. <-, ..!!■. disks or print era with Spooling
Capability. Mather BoaiO

1 Sultl-in machine language monitor.

S149.0 us.
• A built-in terminal or modem program which allows ihosyiiorn TTTn r-Ti r- r . -\


to communicaTe through a modam to many bulletin board
SyStomsandaEher computer mainframes.

■ CnmpatabHily with CP/M. Compatibility
Printar Hoard""
Contact va"r |ocaI Commodore dealer or RTC.
Payments by VISA, MASTERCARD or BANK TRANSFER. 10610BavviewAvenue (Ba/view Plazal Richmond Hill, Ontario, Canada L4C3NB 1416)884-4165
Mail orders also by certified chnquo, ate
Sound Sculptor
For The 64
Todd Touris

With formatted screens and a joystick-

controlled pointer, "Sound Sculptor" gives
you the ability to quickly and easily create
your own music and save your creation.

"Sound Sculptor" uses several graphics screens

to take the tedium out of creating data for your
music or sound programs. It is not difficult to use
and therefore needs little explanation; a basic
understanding of the SID chip would probably he
helpful, however. The Programmer's Reference
Guide is a good source of information.
After you have loaded and run the DATA
program (Program 1), the main program (Program
2) should LOAD automatically if you have saved
Program 2 immediately following Program 1 on
the same (ape. Disk users should SAVE Program
2 with the filename "2".
RUN the program and you should be pre
sented with a main menu. Press the fl function
key. (Don't worry about loading a file right now.)
You will then be asked to choose a sound between
0 and 1250. Enter the one you want and press
You will then get a menu which allows
you to set one of the three voices, work on
the filter settings, clear the sound, choose
a new sound, change joystick speed, or
quit. If you don't clear the sound, the
settings will be random and probably
won't produce any sound at all. Use the
keyboard to make your selection.

Set The Volume First

Before you jump right to the voice settings, make
sure you go to the filter display and set the volume
control, or you won't be able to hear anything. To
46 COMPUTE!'* Gazette May 1984
change the various settings, you simply move the locations 251 and 252. For the example above, this
sprite arrow over the appropriate display and would be accomplished by:
press the fire button. When a word or character is
20 POKE252,49152/256:POKE251,49152-256*PE
in reverse display, it means that the particular
setting is on or, if the display is a scale (+ signs),
it shows what value that setting contains.
To trigger the voices, you must use the func ■ i U 1 -l

tion keys (fl for voice one, f3 for voice two, f5 for OCTftPE
voice three, and il for all voices). If the voice is MQTE C C D 0 C F r C C Ij] (1
off, it should go through attack and decay and « « 11 H It

then remain at the sustain level; when the key is

pressed again, the sound should be released and ATTACK
PECfiV 1 i|]im»t
fall to zero volume. When pressing the function SUSTAIN
keys or switching a setting, you must be careful. KtUASC l[ll(IIHIIIIIMI
The program is very fast and the keys are very
responsive and sometimes the voice or setting AAA
can be triggered twice, so hit the keys quickly. •■§■■«
When you are finished experimenting with PULSE HIDTH
the various settings, press the space bar to return
to the selection menu. You can continue working USE VOICE

on more sounds, or you can press f8 to quit. When

you quit, you will get another menu with three
options. Moving the sprite arrow with a joystick affords easy selection
for all sound parameters.
Saving Sounds
The first option is to save a series of sounds on
A Fast Sound Switch
tape or disk as a file (depending on your earlier
selection). You can load these sounds back for This process only has to be done once. Whenever
later use by pressing f3 at the beginning of the you wish to call upon a certain sound, just POKE
program instead of going right to the design/ the sound number into location 2. For example,
review routine. This feature allows you to build a POKE 2,1, selects the first sound in memory. Fol
library of various sounds. low this with a SYS 828 (or to whatever memory
Your second choice is to create DATA state location you have relocated the routine) and you
ments of your sound or sounds. With the program now have your sound in the SID chip. With this
below, you can use these DATA statements to routine you can switch various sounds in and out
incorporate complex and fast sound effects into of the SID at lightning speed. For example, to
your BASIC programs. turn on voice one, use this line in your program:
SI =54276: POKE SI, PEEK(Sl) OR 1. To turn it
1000 FORL=0 TO 42iREADDA:POKE828+L,DA:NEX off, POKE SI, PEEK(Sl) AND 254. The same logic
would apply to voices two and three, except you
1010 DATA 166,2,165,251,133,253,165,252,1
would use S2 = 54283 and S3 = 54290.
If you don't want to type in this program
1020 DATA 253,133,253,169,0,101,254,133,2 yourself, I will make a copy of the program and
54,202,208,240,160,0,177,253 include the much faster loading ML program.
1030 DATA 153,0,212,200,192,26,208,246,96
Just send a blank tape, S3, and a self-addressed,
stamped envelope to:
This is a machine language routine that is POKEd
Todd Touris
into the cassette buffer (starting at 828), but it is 32 Slurhum Drive
relocatable and can be put anywhere in free mem Hamburg, NY 14075
ory. To use it, you must POKE the values from
See program listing on page 161. (2
the DATA statements created by Sound Sculptor
into any free memory. For example, you could
put the sound data into the block of free memory
beginning at 49152 with:
COMPUTEfes Gazette
Toll Free Subscription Order Line
If you have more sounds, POKE the DATA into 800-334-0868
memory immediately following the first. Next,
In NC 919-275-9809
POKE the starting address of the sounds into

COMPUTEI's Gozalla May 1984 47


COMPUTE Is Reference VIC Games For Kids

Guide To "■FOR KIDS*"*" Contains 30 games written
Commodore 64
just forfeids (although adults
will enjoy them too). This
A complete tutorial on book is an inexpensive
Commodore 64 graphics. source of educational soft
Noted Commodore author ware for children. The
John Heilborn explains games are designed ro
how to program sprites, leach math, geography,
multicolored screens, ani history, and other topics.
mation, custom characters, Children learn while they're
and more. Beginners will having fun. They will return
like the step-by-step in to these games again and
structions and clear ex again.
ample programs. Advanced
programmers can build up
theif tool kit with the character editors, sprite editors, screen 240 pages, paperback.
design program, and other useful utilities. Spiral bound for easy access to programs.
218 pages, paperback. SI 2.95
Spiral bound for easy access to programs. ISBN O-W3S6-35-3

J 12.95
ISBN 0-942386-29-9

Machine Language COMPUTE Is First

For Beginners Book Of
Commodore 64
Much commercial software
is written in machine fan- An excellent resource for
guage because it's faster users of the 64, with some
and more versatile than thing for everyone: BASIC
BASIC. Machine Language programming techniques,
For Beginners is a step-by- a memory map, a machine
step introduction to the language monitor, and
subtleties of machine code. information about writing
Includes an assembler, a games and using peripher
disassembler, and utilities, als. Many ready-to-type-in
to help beginners write programs and g3mes.
programs more quickly and
easily. Covers many pop
ular home computers.
350 pages, paperback. 264 pages, paperback.
Spiral bound for easy access to programs. Spiral bound for easy access to programs.
$14.95 112.95
ISBN 0-942386-11-6 ISBN 0-943306-20-5


Book Of Book Of Tl Games
Commodore 64 Games
Although this book is
Packed full of games: packed with ready-to-iype-
"Snake Escape." "Oil Ty in games (29 in all), it is
coon," "Laser Gunner," more than just a book of
"ZuiderZee,"and many games. It is designed to
more. Machine language teach game programming
games requiring fast hands techniques. Introductory
and a good eye. as well as chapters explain the special
strategy games which will features of the Tl-99/4 and
exercise your mind. Intro 99/4A, giving advice on
ductory chapters and an coding techniques. Most
notated listings provide games include an explana
ideas and techniques for tion of how the program
writing games. An excellent works. Contains mazes.
introduction for 64 owners who want to begin writing games. chase games, old favorites, thinking games, creative chal
217 pages, paperback. lenges, and more.
Spiral bound for easy access to programs. 211 pages, paperback.
SI 2.95 Spiral bound for easy access to programs.
ISBN 0-9^2386-34-5
SI 2.95
ISBN 0-942386-17-5


COMPUTE! s Second
Book Of 64 Sound
Book Of VIC
And Graphics
This is just the book to
follow the best-selling First
SOUND Gear explanations of the
Book of VIC. clear explana AND 64's sound and graphics
capabilities. Includes many
tions of programming
techniques, an extensive
GRAPHICS tutorials and example pro
grams: "MusicMaster,"a
memory map, a mini word
complete music synthe
processor, a system for
sizer; "High-Resolution
creating sound effects, a
Sketchpad, "an all-
custom character maker, a
machine-language pro
machine language assem
gram for making computer
bler, and "Gumba!I,"an
art; and "Ultrafont Character
extraordinary all-machine-
Editor," one of the best
language game.
character editors available.
■ The appendices feature
274 pages, paperback.
useful reference charts and conversion tables.
Spiral bound for easy access to programs.
275 pages, paperback.
ISBN 0-942386-16-7 Spiral bound for easy access to programs.
S 12.95
ISBN 0-942386-21 -3

COMPUTE!" Publicationsjnc
One of the ABC Publishing Companies

Post Office Box 54D6. Greensboro. North Carolina 27403

Philip I. Nelson

"Props" is a fast-paced, nonviolent game for responsible for virtually all the animation. The
the 64 with six levels. Animated in machine first one reads the joystick, moves your bird shape
language, it uses all eight sprites, programmed accordingly, and flaps the wings of both birds. The
characters, and all three SID voices for sound second rotates the eight propeller sprites and moves
them up or down. Two additional small routines
Included in the article is a detailed pro help program a new character set and fill color
gram discussion which offers a variety of ex memory with white values for the new-ROM 64s.
cellent programming tips and techniques. Let's look first at the bird-moving routine
(Birdmove), which you could adapt for just about
any graphics game. Birdmove animates our bird-
You are a lonely pigeon, lost in a dangerous sky
shaped character. The routine keeps track of a
filled with whirling propellers. Your mission is to
variable, B1RDLOC, that represents the bird's
return to your coop and your mate, for a brief rest
current screen location. To move the bird around
before flying away again. To make matters worse,
in screen memory (locations 1024-2023), first we
every time you leave, and at other uncertain in
put a blank space into BIRDLOC to erase the
tervals, your mate moves to a new coop.
While in flight, you must avoid getting pulled
Next we check to see whether any movement
into the propellers. If that happens, you lose
has been requested through the joystick. If so, we
points. Unless you escape quickly, the props may
change the BIRDLOC variable to represent the
pull you back again and again. The props start in
new screen location. If not, BIRDLOC stays the
orderly formation, but every collision will bump
same. In either case, we then plant a new bird
one out of line; so the worse you play, the more
shape in the updated BIRDLOC screen location.
confusing things get.
To play, plug your joystick into port 2. The
six skill levels range from leisurely to manic.
Setting The Bird's Boundaries
Whenever you reach home, your score is dis To move the bird left or right, Birdmove will sub
played briefly. If you press the fire button during tract or add 1 to BIRDLOC. To move the bird up
the score display, the game pauses to let you catch or down on the 40-column screen, we subtract or
your breath. During the pause, you can change to add 40 to BIRDLOC. Before moving our pigeon
a different skill level by pressing number keys 1 around in memory, we need safeguards to prevent
through 6. To quit, just pause and press the 0 the bird figure from flying above screen memory
key. If you score well at any given level, the game into the BASIC program space, or below it into
pauses by itself and lets you pick a new skill level. the sensitive zero page of memory, either of which
could crash the computer.
The Animation Subroutines Birdmove uses two techniques to confine the
Two main machine language (ML) routines are bird. The first compares BIRDLOC to absolute
50 COMPUTE!'s Gazette May 1984
Meet the Alienators. A fiend and try to work your way down, or try to hurdle
ish bunch who've planted bombs him and defuse the bombs closest to you
throughout your Jupiter Command before they go off?
Headquarters. If you move fast you'll earn extra lives.
Your job? Use your lightning But if you're not careful, it's a long way down.
speed to scale ladders, scurry So jump to it. And find out why Jtimpman
across girders, climb ropes and race and Jmnpinan Jr. are on a level all their own.
through 30 levels lo defuse the bombs before they go off. One to four players; 8 speeds; joystick
That's the kind of hot, non-stop action we've conttvLJutnpman has 30 screens, jtimpman jr.
packed into the award-winning* best-selling JumpmanT has 12 screens.
and into Jumpman Jr.^our new cartridge version with
12 all-new, different and exciting screens.
Both games force you to make tough choices.
Should you avoid that Alienator, climb to the top
•I9H3 C.E.S. nwnrclwiimcr.
upper and lower limits. If you try to move lower program and then press the STOP key while the
(<1024) or higher (>2023) than the bounds of instructions are displayed. Hold down the SHIFT
screen memory, Birdmove will terminate without key and press CLK7HOME to blank the screen.
changing BIRDLOC. Now type in this line. You'll have to use abbrevia
tions to fit it all on two lines.
Collision Detection PRINT"[CLR)"TAB(255): K=90:FORJ=1024TO1
The second safeguard is a collision-checker for 276STEP42:POKE54272+J,1:POKEJ,K:K=K+1iN
sideways movement. When you move left, for EXTJ
example, Birdmove holds the updated BIRDLOC Press RETURN and you'll see the coop character
position in temporary storage. Before it moves a and six bird shapes in the upper left of the screen.
bird figure into the new location, the routine
checks that spot to see which of the three possible Flapping From BASIC
characters is there. Now let's make our bird flap its wings from BASIC
If the desired spot contains a space, your bird in immediate mode. Type this line and then press
can move left. If the new spot holds the coop RETURN:
character, the old BIRDLOC is restored and you FORK=1TO100000:FORJ=91TO96:POKE1024,J:F
exit Birdmove without changing position. If ORL=1TO30:NEXTL,J,K
neither character is found, then the spot must The bird should be flapping at top left. Press STOP
contain the mate character, so the routine sets a when you've seen enough. While we're at it, let's
flag to show that the bird has reached home, and do the same job with our ML routine. To set things
ends with the wing-flapping display. up, type this line and press RETURN.
To modify Birdmove for your own games,
POKE251,0 SPOKE252,4:POKE834,91
just add more comparisons to check for as many
possibilities as you need. For example, your game This puts information in memory locations which
might check the desired location and then branch the ML routine uses to position the bird and start
to appropriate routines to score if you've hit a the wing-flapping character series. Now type this
treasure, faint if you've hit a troll, rejoice if you've line and press RETURN:
bumped into a friend, and so on.

The Joystick Flags

The joystick reader at the front of Birdmove is
Using The Routine's Modules
from the Commodore 64 Programmer's Reference As before, press STOP when you've seen enough.
Guide. It will store flag values in a memory location The entire Birdmove routine starts at location
which you can then PEEK to determine move 49408 in memory, with its flap portion toward the
ment. In "Props," the joystick flag values are in end of the routine (49608). At certain points during
the cassette buffer, but you could put them in any Props (the reunion or a pause), we want the birds
safe memory spot. The right/left flag is stored in to flap their wings without moving. So we just
location 832, and the up/down flag in 833. The bypass the movement parts entirely, starting at
value in 832 will be 255 for left, 1 for right, and 0 location 49608. If ail we want is to place Hie mate
for no movement. The value in 833 will be 255 for somewhere, without any moving or flapping, we
up, 1 for down, and 0 for no movement. Note can jump in even later, at 49615. By structuring
that leftover flag values will remain in the com our ML program in distinct modules, we're able
puter's X and Y registers, though, so if your ML to get maximum use out of what we've written.
program goes from this routine to one that uses Now let's call the whole Birdmove routine to
indirect addressing, you should clear the X and Y let our bird fly free. First, type this line and press
registers to 0 to keep things straight. RETURN.
Programmed characters are used to make the
230:POKE838,6iPOKE251,255:POKE2 52,5
birds' wings flap. In lines 62000-63000 of Props,
we first copy the character set from the ROM chip We just positioned the bird and set limits to keep
into RAM memory beginning at location 14336. it on the screen. Now enter this as one line.
Then we create new shapes for characters 90-96 PRINT"(CLRj"iFORJ=1024TO2008STEP41:POKE
by POKEing new values into the right places in J,90:POKEJ+54272,l:NEXT:FORJ=lTO100000i
our RAM character set. Character 90 is pro SYS49408tNEXT

grammed to serve as our coop character, and the You'll see the bird wrap around the side of
other six are a series of bird shapes. the screen when its way is clear, but stop when it
Each time we call the Birdmove routine, we hits a coop character. The up-and-down move
also flip to the next character in this wing-flapping ment routine contains no collision-checker,
series to create the illusion of movement. To see though, so moving in those directions will erase
all the programmed characters, first RUN the any character you encounter.
52 COMPUTEfs Gazelle May 1984
looonsur- ATARI 4O0/BO0" view
Authors. M:uh A Ihch iril Author- H.i'm Sharmm Author, tndatcomp Author: U. Sudwonh Author U. Walker Author: Chartec
Moor* Turn your CBM 64 into a Jvmp your way out ol the Explosions mushroom INCREDIBLY VERSATILE A quiet European village is
A tally animated arcade sophisticated synthesiser, caves with Bugaboo the flea around you ana me rear CHARACTER GENERATOR attacked, pilot the pi fighter
game ruth Loreabie Turtles, a piano, violin, organ, gotta'or but beware ol the fearsome scanner shows following craft, Dettne characters on a v g Skyhawk against the
Cuddly Graphics and more harpsichord Woodwind, Dragon as you jump around you increase speed and fire at grid Savetotapo Loadfiom attackers.
Cuteness than you'll find in drums or cymbals and play the exotic vegetation the ducts, dodging trom side tape f-'&efy morgos character
any other Commodore 64 along with your own or any of to side ol the narrow corndor. Also available
sels mlo existing programs.
game'. A gams lor the young thoproset rhythms Also available Tornado*
Hex S Dec CW%. Charade'
at heart andpeople who have Xadom • Astro Blasler * Aiso available
manipulation. Minor, rotate,
tired of alien Dashing Also available Games Designer • Damper & Gloopei • Croaka
Bugaboo •Aquaplane • 3D Strategy • AnlAttacK • invert, lelt. ngnt. up down,
Crawla • Pioneer Trait •
Ring ol Power • Sting • The Chess Player * hold, wipe, cancel. Redelme
Munchees whole character set. Also
Qwntic Warrior Smugglers Cove •
Velnor's Lair ■ Trader* works in colour mode
Excellent examples supplied.
Traxx • Time Gate

QUICKSILVAINC426 West Nakoma San Anionio Texas 78216. (512) 340 3684.
specially reserved to hold the address where this

interrupt routine begins. When you turn on your
64, it automatically sticks the normal (default)
address in these locations. The first part of

mm ™
Spritemove just changes this vector to point the
computer to the beginning of our ML program.
■-* nw mi
At the end of our ML routine, we send the
• •«»• computer on to its normal interrupt program at
'- -: : ■_ " SEA31, rather than returning to the program as
we do in a conventional ML subroutine.

Watch It In Isolation

Such an interrupt-driven Ml. routine will seem to
M^ run independent of BASIC. To watch Spritemove
in isolation, first RUN Props and press the STOP
key when the props move. You'll see the blinking
cursor and READY signal, which shows the com
7/ it)l71 take some tricky maneuvering to free this bird from the
whirling propellers. puter has quit executing our BASIC program.
We're back in BASIC immediate mode, but
Spritemove is still working along with the inter
Vary The Difficulty With rupts, so our graphics and sound keep going.
We can do anything we'd normally do from
Delay Loops BASIC, even call other ML subroutines as we did
Running at full ML speed, Birdmove is fun to in the examples above, but there's a limit to how
play with, but too fast to be practical. Props uses far we can take this technique. Grafting a lengthy
a variable delay loop (pegged to skill level) to slow ML routine onto our interrupts will make those
things down to a manageable speed. "time-outs" so long that they slow our BASIC
Spritemove, the second big ML routine in operations down to a crawl.
Props, handles the sprite animation, moving the To stop Spritemove, first clear the screen of
eight propellers up or down at the correct speed character graphics by holding down SHIFT and
and twirling them in unison. pressing CLR/HOME. Now type SYS49152 and
Look at lines 2-6 of Props and you'll see some press RETURN. The props and sound should
thing odd. The game works by cycling through freeze.
these lines, calling the Birdmove routine over and To restart the props, move your cursor up to
over with the statement SYS 49408. But Sprite- the same tine and press RETURN again. The in
move is called only once (SYS 49152) in line 1, terrupt vector now points to Spritemove again,
while we're setting things up. Yet the sprites move and we're back in business. Spritemove (as in
continuously as long as we're playing. How can "Hawkmen") is designed to alternately change
we make Spritemove work all the time without and restore the interrupt vector, every time we
calling it repeatedly? Easy—just let the computer call the routine, letting us turn it on or off at will.
do it along with its other housekeeping.
The Sprites Are Still There
Harnessing The Hardware Note that stopping Spritemove doesn't erase
Interrupt the sprites. If we want them to disappear at
In addition to executing your programs, your certain points in Props, we have to disable their
computer's processor chip has continual house display with the statement POKE SP + 21, 0. When
keeping to do like updating timers and scanning that's done, the sprites are all still moving in the
the keyboard, But it can do only one thing at a sense that Spritemove keeps changing their loca
time. So occasionally the computer stops doing tion registers and shape pointers as always. But
your work and takes time out for its own. You none of this is visible since we've commanded the
never notice these interrupts, because they happen computer not to show it on the screen.
about 60 times every second. Compared to the interrupt routine, the rest
Like Birdmove, the 64's hardware interrupt of Spritemove is simple. The BASIC setup portion
routine is just another ML program, starting at of Props sets all eight sprites to fixed horizontal
location 59953 (SEA31) in memory. By changing locations, giving each a track to run up or down
one pointer (vector), we can have the computer in. Each prop always flies in the same direction—
perform our ML routine first, then on to do its one space up or down on the sprite grid for every
housekeeping as usual—60 times a second. execution of Spritemove at skill level I.
Memory locations 788-789 (S0314-0315) are Each sprite has a register (memory location)
54 COMPUm's Gazollc May 1984
game yet- M^

Commodore ^
64 disk &
Commodore 64
disk & cassette
containing its vertical location. To move the props, and forth from ML to BASIC sections of your pro
Spritemove increments or decrements every gram. In BASIC, of course, we'd name a variable
vertical location register one or more times, de something like HOME, and say that HOME = 1
pending on skill level. when home is reached, making sure that
Believe it or not, this is simpler in ML than in HOME =0 at all other times. But ML doesn't rec
BASIC. Let's say sprite 1 starts out at vertical loca ognize names—just numbers inside memory lo
tion 100. If we start plopping bigger values into cations. So, in Spritemove we choose a special
its vertical location register, sprite 1 will move memory location (842) to represent the condition
down the screen. of our home flag. Then we store a 1 value into 842
as a signal whenever home is reached.
Safe Increments Are Assured Line 3 of the BASIC program uses the PEEK
In BASIC we'd have to program in a safeguard to function to check that same memory location
make sure we couldn't POKE a value larger than (HM = 842) for a nonzero value, branching to the
255 into the register, since that would abort our BASIC "home" subroutine at line 20 if that condi
program with an ILLEGAL QUANTITY error. tion is satisfied. Once we've performed our home
But ML lacks the error-checking mechanics of routine, we set the flag back to 0 in line 24, so that
BASIC, and simply won't let you put a number our bird can get lost again.
bigger than 255 into any memory cell. Trying to
increment a register from 255 to 256 will just flip Synchronizing Sound And
its value back to U. Increment that register again, Action
and it'll contain the value of 1, and so on. Props also creates its filtered and ring-modulated
The same thing works in reverse—decre sound effects by passing values from ML to
menting a register that contains a 0 value will give BASIC. When the bird flies around the screen, a
us the value of 255. This characteristic of ML, soft musical tone is heard, changing constantly in
which might seem a limitation, is used to advan relation to screen position. We start making this
tage in Spritemove, which just keeps incrementing sound in line 2 by POKEing voice 1 on. In line 6
and decrementing the vertical sprite registers we change the pitch of voice 1 by PEEKing into
blindly- We know ML won't let us exceed the safe location 251 which, you'll recall, is used by
0-255 range which, conveniently enough, the Birdmove to store our bird's screen location. In
sprites also use for vertical location. this simple way, we can link the bird's sound
effect to its graphics action.
Animating The Propellers Voice 2 is always on during the game, set to
You define a sprite's shape by pointing it to a the noise waveform to make a swooshing sound.
block of shape information which you've placed The effect of fading in and out is created, not with
in memory beforehand. To rotate the props, we the volume control {which affects all three voices
just flip them through a series of related shapes, equally), but with a filter, which we can set to
much as the birds are made to flap their wings. affect any or all of the voices at a given time. In
Spritemove points all eight sprites in unison to line 1002 of Props we POKE register 54296 with a
successive sets of shape data which was stored value of 47. Besides volume, this register lets you
when we set up Props. Since props are bilaterally select what type of filter you want. So we started
symmetrical, we can save memory space and get with a value of 15 for maximum volume in all
the effect of an eight-position rotation by flipping voices, then added 32 (15 + 32 = 47). This turns on
them repeatedly through a series of only four bit 5 of the register to activate the bandpass filter,
shapes, which will cut out all but a narrow band of fre
Just as the computer looks in a special place quencies in the tone of the filtered voice.
to find the address of its interrupt routine, Next we have to tell the computer which of
Spritemove checks and changes a special spot for the three voices it should send through the filter.
the current shape pointer, location 828 ($033C). Also in line 1002, we POKE the value of 66 into
We've used other memory registers in the register 54295, which sends voice 2 through the
cassette buffer to store things for our ML routines. filter and selects a moderate amount of resonance.
Locations 832 and 833 hold values received from (If you've never played with filter resonance, try
the joystick, as we've seen. Location 842 holds editing line 1002 to substitute the value of 226
the home flag: The Birdmove routine will store a instead of 66, to hear the more pronounced effect
value of 1 here if the bird reaches home; otherwise, of maximum resonance.)
the register contains a 0.
A Swoosh Is Filtered Noise
Passing ML Values To BASIC Now the filter's ready to use. Picking the noise
This is an example of how to use variables in waveform for voice 2 gives us a more or less ran
machine language, and pass information back dom mishmash of all audible frequencies to work
56 COMPUTE!1! Gazette Mp/1984
If you've been having a hard time
teaching your newly-adopted computer
there's more to life than fun and games,
you're not alone.

Now, you can introduce your Commodore 64™ to the Work Force: affordable, easy-to-
use software and hardware that will unleash the power you always expected from your
Commodore 64 ™, but thought you might never see.

PaperCtfp"' BusCardlt"
is simply the best word processing program of its is a magic box that lets you transform your humble
kind—loaded with advanced features, yet so easy to home computer Into a powerful business machine. It
use even a novice can get professional results. With gives you the added power of BASIC 4.0, and lets
SpellPack ; it even corrects your spelling! Once you've you add IEEE disk drives, hard disk, virtually any
tried it, you'll never use a typewriter again. parallel printer, and other peripherals without extra
interfaces. Completely software invisible.
The Consultant™
(formerly Delphi's Oracle) B.I.-80 Column Adaptor
is like a computerized filing cabinet with a gives you crystal clear 80 column
brain. Organize files for recipes, albums, display. Using the highest quality
or the membership of your service club.
hardware, we've eliminated tne problems
Then search, sort, arrange and
of snow, fuzzlness and Interference.
analyze your information with speed
Basic 4.0 commands greatly simplify
and flexibility that's simply astounding. disk drive access. Switches easily from
40 to 80 column display.
teaches your 64 to spell. It checks an entire
Discover the true power of your
document in 2 to 4 minutes against a Commodore 64". Ask your dealer about
dictionary of over 20.000 words. And you
the Commodore 64™ Work Force, from
can add up to S.000 of your own
Batteries Included—the company that
specialized terms. Type letter perfect every doesn't leave anything out when it comes
to making things simple for you.


'Excellence in Software'
These products h.we been developed specificity lor Commodore computers by BanerieHnciuded and are totally compatible with each olfief. Foiafulkolor brochure write to:

186 Queen Street West, Toronto, Canada M5V 1Z1 {416) 596-1405 / 3303 Harbor Blvd., Costa Mesa, CA. 92626 (714) 979-0920
with. Setting the cutoff frequency low will pass ML. Take a look at lines 11050-11058, which govern
through a narrow band of low frequency tones for the animation and sound of wings flapping during
a roaring or rumbling sound, and cut off all other the instruction display. Here we're controlling the
tones. A high cutoff value gives us a narrow band filter frequency from an entirely different source.
of hissing, high-frequency tones. To make a
swooshing sound, we just change the cutoff fre A Special Number Generator
quency at high speed, from low to high values. Location 54299 (VM + 3) is a very special register
To tie this sound to the graphics action, we that can be made to produce four different number
let Spritemove change the cutoff frequency at ML sequences which are handy for controlling sound.
speed. At the very end of SPRITEMOVE is a little It can generate a 0-to-255 sweep like we've used
routine (hat stores a value info the filter cutoff up to now. Or it can sweep from 0 up to 255 and
frequency register. This value is the same one back down again. It can generate random num
used to control how many spaces the sprites move bers, and can also flip back and forth from 0 to
each 1/60 .second. So al higher skill levels we add 255 at varying rates.
bigger numbers to the cutoff frequency register, You choose which number sequence you want
to sweep the filter from low to high more rapidly. by selecting one of the four waveforms for voice
As with sprite positioning, we can increment 3. You control the rate at which the numbers
forever, without fussing over illegal quantity er change within that sequence by setting the fre
rors. What we get is a repeated iow-to-high sweep quency of voice 3.
in the range t) to 255. For a convincing wing-flapping sound, we
want the filter to sweep up and then back down
Filtering Voice Three again. So we select the up-and-down number
The echoing synthesizer tones heard while paus sequence by setting voice 3 to a value of 16 in line
ing, or when the bird's mate changes coops, are 11050. To time it to the beating of our birds' wings,
produced by applying similar bandpass filtering we just fiddle with various pitch frequency values
to voice 3. The technique is the same—we sweep for voice 3 (H3 and L3) until we get il right. Note
the filler cutoff frequency upward, over and over. that you don't want to hear voice 3—you're only
But instead of noise we're using a triangular using its pitch values to control the output of voice
waveform, ring-modulated by the pitch frequen 2. So W3 is POKEd to 16, which selects the triangle
cies of voice 2 {line 51). waveform without turning on the gate bit which
The pilch of voice 3 is linked to the bird's would make the voice audible (that is, by POKEing
screen position by using the value found in loca W3 to 17).
tion 251. And the pitch frequency of voice 2 is Once you have Props working, you can learn
also swept down over and over, in our familiar a lot about the 64's SID chip just by changing the
255-to-0 range, by the Sprilemove routine. values used in this and other sound sections.
Unlike the noise waveform, which contains If you'd rather not type in this game, I'll send
tones at almost every audible frequency, the you a copy. Send me a blank tape or disk with a
triangular waveform is rich in certain harmonic stamped, self-addressed mailer and a check for
frequencies and totally lacking in others. So at S3, to:
certain frequencies the bandpass filter cuts out Philip I. Nelson
just about everything, causing silence. Adding 3801 Garfield Avenue Smith
ring modulation suppresses the fluty tone we'd Minneapolis, MN 55409
otherwise get from a triangle wave, and adds See program listing on page 141. "■}
new harmonics for an even stranger effect.


One final, important difference between this and Our company is small enough that you won't get lost in
the swoosh sound is in the ADSR (atlack/decay/ the shuffle and our distribution is large enough for you to
sustain/release) envelope. For the prop sound, we make significant royalties. One of our outside program
set voice 2's sustain value to the maximum of 240 mers made over $18,000.00 in royalties from our first
sale of his program to one mass merchandiser! (Our
(line 1082), and trigger the ADSR envelope only
royalties are generous.) His program wasn't quite finished
once at the beginning (line 111)50).
when it was submitted to us, but we could see its possi
With maximum sustain, the tone will never
bilities and aided in its completion.
fade out naturally—it only seems to reach silence
If you have an exceptional original program for the Com
when our filter is set to its lowest cutoff frequencies.
modore 64 that would appeal to a wide audience, contact
For contrast, we trigger the ADSR envelope for
our new program manager.
voice 3 every time we make the synthesizer sound,
causing the slow, ghostly fade-out.
P.O. Box 6277, San Rafael, CA 94903 (415) 499-0850
But you do fancy filtering without mastering
5B COMPUTSIS Gazetto May 1984

For CBM-64
and VIC
owners only:
This is just ] of
20 pages of the
newest and biggest
Skyies catalog, hot
off the press.
We know you'll
want this page, in
From Skyies
its full 7x10
Electric Works, the
splendor, and sending you your
oldest and largest
another 19 pages very own copy
of peripherals, within the last few
specialists in the
software and books weeks, call us at
that will make your (800) 227-9998
CBM-64 or VIC (unless you live
computer even in California, in
nicer to live with. which case call Skyies Electric Works
231-ES. Whisman Road
So, if we missed (415) 965-1735. Mountain View, California 94041
James E. Rylee

"Mind Boggle" is a result in an ILLEGAL

game of logic based INPUT message and ask
on the popular game you to again SELECT
Master Mind. You can COLORS. The computer
play alone or against then analyzes your
others, trying to solve guess and gives you the
the puzzle in the results.
fewest moves. Origi A black dot (•) indi
nally written for the cates you have guessed
VIC-20, we've added the correct color in the
In the 64 version, the solution has teat found in only five
a version for the 64. correct position. A white
dot (Q) indicates you
have guessed a correct
First "Mind Boggle" selects four colors out of six color only. The position of a clue does not corre
possible choices and arranges them in a random spond directly to any one color or correct position.
sequence. You must find the correct four colors You must move the colors around and analyze
and arrange them in the correct order, using clues the clues to determine which are the correct colors
given by the program. Each color has a musical and positions.
sound associated with it. Your selection is dis For example, if you guess 1234 and the com
played on the left side by number, and your clues puter responds with two white dots, you know
are on the right. two of the numbers are correct, but in the wrong
place. If your next guess, 3214, gains two black
Guess The Colors And dots, you can deduce that 3 and 1 were correct
Sequence and that the hidden code is 3xlx (where x is an
When the computer asks SELECT COLORS you unknown number).
may enter your guess of four colors by entering The program rates you on your skill or luck.
the numeric values for the colors indicated and The colors are displayed for you if you do not
pressing RETURN. Any entry with digits other find them in ten tries. In either case, you can
than 1-6 or more than the four required digits will choose to play again. (Answer Y or N.)

60 COMPUTEI's Gazette May 1984


; , ■■■■■

The world1
is in your hands.
Picture yourself as the tortuous way through the deadly rooms. Test
world's greatest super- your cunning against overwhelming odds!
agent, Graham Crackers.
Chilling suspense and unknown terrors await
You must go undercover and sneak into an you behind every door. You must evade man-
enormous art museum. Incredibly, it's a front for eating robots, monstrous stompers, sweeper
an international terrorist organization! drones and tons of falling boxes — and make
death-defying leaps from moving platforms.
Your secret mission is to heist all the artwork in
search of a classified microfilm. If you don't Only your artful handling of this dangerous
carry it off in time, the world is doomed! assignment can save the world from destruction!
Grab the keys to the 90 fiendishly boobytrapped
rooms (144 in Apple). Brave the multitude of For Apple II & He, IBM PC <£ jr, Atari,
heart-stopping dangers as you make your Commodore 64, CokcoVision & Adam,

j, Inc. The Heist isa registered trademark

of MicroLab, Inc. Apple D & He, IBM PC & jr. Atari
Commodore 64, ColecnVision & Adam are registered
trademarks of Apple Computer, Inc.. IBM Corp., Atari. Inc..
Commodore Electronics, Lid. and Coieco Industrie, Inc.
2699 Skokie Valley Road. Highland Park, IL 60035 • (312) 433-7550
the same, except that a color may now appear
two, three, or even four times.
■;'■ 7///. Ml il !
To accomplish this on the VIC, change these
mm <w)m «*: r j
lines in Program 1:
mm an
MB MM 4MB • «ara "iCLR :rem 178
9 A5="1234 56"iGOSUB13:A15=RSiA1=VAL{A1S)
m mm ma
10 GOSUB13iA2$=R$:A2=VAL(A2$)
tt A • 4ft
•_ :- -; 12 GOSUB13:A4S=R$:A4=VAL(A4$}:GOTO16
13 R=INT(RND(l)*6)+lsR$=MID$(A$,R,l):RETU

To accomplish this modification in the 64 version,

these lines should be changed in Program 2:
^_ 300 PRINT"[CLR}[13 DOWN}[13 RIGHT){BLK}MI
:rem 202
Bi/ combining logic and intuition, the player has successfully
400 A$="12 3456"iGOSUB450tAl$=R$tAl=VAL(Al
broken tin- code (VIC version).
401 GOSUB450iA2$=R$iA2=VAL(A2$)
402 GOSUB450iA3$=RSiA3=VAL(A3$)
Making It Harder 403 GOSUB450iA4S=R$tA4=VAL(A4S):GOTO500
450 R=INT(RND(1)*6)+1:R$=MID(A5,R,1)sRETU
If Mind Boggle doesn't provide sufficient chal
lenge, a few simple changes will produce a more
difficult version. As the game is written, each of If you're having trouble telling the colors
the four positions will contain a different one of apart {perhaps you're using a black and white TV
the six possible colors. If you allow the same color set), the following changes to Program I will cause
to appear in more than one position, the number the numeric value for the color to be displayed:
of possible sequences soars. Game play remains

For the 64 version (Program 2), change these



POKESO+1,100 JGOTO1750
POKESO+1,165iGOTO17 50

A potential flaw in the game will occur if you

use any of the cursor keys or cause the screen to
scroll: The playing screen could be changed. The
CHECK MONEYORDER game will continue but you won't be able to see
Penguin Pioducls
P.O. Boi 700B
the entries which have scrolled off the screen.
Rosoville, Ml 46305-7006 or call tolllree 1-BOO-732-0614
Sec program ti*lin$s on page 165. ©
62 COMPUTE!'* Gazette May 1984
Look at these
• Fully screen-oriented

• Horizontal and vertical scrolling

• Terminal mode — never seen before on a wordprocessor

• Supports Commodore disk and cassette handling BLKTEXTIi.

tredemark of ELCOMP
• Imbedded commands


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LI U i ^Jl . VIC-20 «e trademarks NEW
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Assembly can be started from trio editor. Translates In FloFORTH for C-64
Small Bujinew Program) for the Commodoro-64 Ordar-tVo.4960B39,-
3 pastes, More than 1.000 lables. screen orientod/no line
by S. Roburts
numbers, scrolling, includei dilk film.
How to make money using your C-G4. Mailing list, For your VIC-Z0
Practically everything the serioui machine language
invoice writing, inventory, simple word processing and Trickt for VICt
programmer need i everyday I
much more.
Ord»r-No. 176 £0.05
Manual only £19.95
Universal Experimari'
Order $4963 £89.00 Order # 186 812.95
tar board
Dealer and Disvibulof inouiries are invited. BookNo.183E9.9S Ordar-No. 4844S9.B5

CARD. Eurocheclt, ACCESS, Interbank
53 Red rock Lane
Prepaid orders add 83.50 for shipping (USA)
£5.00 handling for C.O.D. Pomona, CA 91766
All orders outside USA: add 15 % shipping, Califor
nia residents add 6.5 % i*lei tax.
Phone: (714)623 8314
Telex; 29 B1 91
Nick Sullivan

Guide "SuperSprite" through the kryptonite TURK: 12 SCORE- 12

barriers using the function keys as cursor con BEST VET: 64
trols. For the Commodore 64.

The game "SuperSprite" makes use of two fas

cinating aspects of Commodore 64 sprite graphics. -Yf/mmnm
First, the size of a sprite is doubled at the flip of a
bit in either or both of its two dimensions. Second
is the ability to detect, by PEEKing a single register, HMMHM m I
collisions between sprites and other graphic data.
The SuperSprite character resembles a super-
powered being with arms outstretched in flight.
SuperSprite is not a steady flyer. This is unfortu
nate, as his flight path is blocked by barriers of
kryptonite, impassable except for narrow gaps.
The gaps are movable—luckily, for SuperSprite SuperSprite has made it through the first two barriers, but
does not wear a helmet—but moving them re the third will be more difficult.

quires a deft hand at the controls. And that's

where you come in. Special Scoring Technique
You are the keeper of the Spritely Gates, and Scoring is based on several factors linked through
you get 20 turns to manipulate the barriers on the the expressions on lines 210, 590, and 600. The
screen so that SuperSprite can make his way to program displays and saves the best score yet
the bottom. If you make it, you increase your score achieved by players of SuperSprite on your com
and begin a new turn at the top of the screen. puter. The record is stored in a location whose
You will need the four function keys, each of contents are displayed in line 10 between the REM
which controls a gap in one of the four barriers. keyword and the colon. When you type in the
These keys work as cursors to move the gaps into program, the character in this position is the letter
SuperSprite's path so he can fly through. If A. After you have finished entering the program,
SuperSprite hits a barrier you lose a turn, and but before you save, you should type:
SuperSprite starts over at the top of the screen.
POKE PEEK(44)"256 + PEEK(43) + 5,1
Unshifted, a function key will cause its gap to
move to the right; a SHIFTed function key moves This will properly initialize the high-score record
the gap to the left. Holding the keys down causes for you.
them to repeat. ' If you break the record, a special message
The soothing SuperSprite soundtrack is will remind you at the end of the session to SAVE
created by feeding a slightly altered version of the program so you can preserve your high score.
SuperSprite's y-position data to the frequency It is good practice to perform a VERIFY to make
registers of the sound chip. The swooshing sound sure that the SAVE was successful.
gets deeper as SuperSprite flies down the screen. See prognwi listing on page 145. <B>

64 COMPUTE!'! Gazette Mo/1984

! :"-.■-■■■■
■"■■■' '■


Imagine. You're deep within an ancient Aztec pyramid.
You're searching forthe Golden Idol — running, jump- f^
ing, crawling, fighting cobras, scorpians, giant lizards
and Aztecs with a wide assortment of weapons, falling
through trapdoors and blowing up walls. ALL IN REAL
a your life. Only $39.95. U
Also available forthe Apple IH &//e."

H. LJ/\I A\|) Visa/Mastercard accepted


8943 Fullbright Avenue, Chatsworth, CA 91311-2750 (Cahformaresidents add

Copyright 1984 OATAMOST. Inc. (818) 709-1202 6/!% sales tax)-
All Rights Resumed
■Commodore Gd is a iiidummk of Commodore Buiinasi Mtchlnoi. Inc. Apple II ■ S II* are trademarks or Apple Computart Inc

an enormous complex of inter

Knights Of The Desert acting variables. It has tre
mendous depth and staying
For The Commodore 64 power; once the battle's on, it is
even exciting (in a strategic sort
Arthur B. Hunkins of way).
You can play against another
Knights Of The Desert, by Strategic all based on historical fact. The person or the computer (the
Simulations, is a war-game accompanying booklet is well computer is always the Allies);
Simulation of the North African produced and includes a densely you can select one of six scenarios
Campaign of L941-43. It pits the packed, 11-page article detailing (from a one-turn battle to the
Axis (Germany and Italy, led by every aspect of the two-year entire campaign); and each
Rommel) against the Allies campaign. player chooses one of ten diffi
(mostly British). It is most defi culty levels on each of three dif
nitely a real thinker's game. A Multitude Of ferent scales. Furthermore, there
The entire scenario is well Options are three different degrees of
researched and documented (as Knights Of The Desert is a chal winning or losing—marginal,
is usual with Strategics games). lenging and instructive game, tactical, or strategic.
Situations, events, and odds are one with involved strategy and As even further evidence of
the game's sophistication, each
"turn" consists of seven different
ATTENTION COMMODORE 64 QWJv phases per player, along with
"limited reaction" options from

WE'LL BACK YOU the opponent during these seg

ments. The seven phases are
Operational, Resupply, Depot
Mac... Movement, Enemy Reaction,
Operations, Second Resupply,
NEW IMPROVED and Second Depot Movement.
WITH UNGUARD* The supply phases are
Package includes
handled in terms of individual
1) Complete and thorough users manual
2) Copy with one or two drives
units (up to 28 units per player,
3) Investigate and back-up many "PRO in different categories—depot,
TECTED" disks infantry, mobile infanlry,
4) Copy all file types including relative armor). Cycling through all of
them takes some time. During
5) Edit and view track/block In Hex or
the Operations phase, the at
6) Display full contents of directory and -£.. tacking player may choose which
print /,.. ''I,. units to commit to battle, the
7) Change program names, add, delete /ff, - ^ battle intensity level, level of
files with simple keystrokes ''•' Clone M**" risk, and number of air points.
8) Easy disk initialization
The defender specifies level of
9) Supports up to four drives
' UNGUARD Now allows you to read, write and verily bod sectors and errors risk and air points. Additional
on your disk making it easy to back-up most protected software. factors can affect (he outcome:
morale, defender odds, terrain
$4995 CALL (201) 838-9027
effects, and a unit cadre factor
(which allows some defeated
1342 B Rt. 23
Dealers S Distributors units with good supply lines
Butler, N.J 07405
Inquiries Invited and high morale to return later

66 COMPUJEI's Gazelle May 1984



The fastest and easiest to use Is an easy to use spelling checker This brand new offering from the
assembler for the Commodore 64 + with a standard dictionary expandable originators of the WordPro Series
I Pal 64 enables the user to perform no 80,000 words. SpellPro 64 quickly brings professional wordprocetsing to the
assembly language programming using the adapts Itself to your personal vocabulary Commodore 64 (or the first time. Two
standard MOS mnemonics. $49.95* and business jargon allowing you to add and years under development, WordPro 64
POWER 64 delete words to/from the dictionary, edit features 100% proportional printing
Is an absolutely indiscernible aid to documents to correct unrecogniied words capability as well as 40/80 column display,
the programmer using Commodore and output lists of unrecognized words to automatic word wrap, columnization,
64 BASIC. Power 64 turbo-charges primer or screen. SpeilPro 64 was designed alternate paging for headers & footers, (our
resident BASIC with dozens of new super to work with the WordPro Series and way scrolling, extra text area and a brand
useful commands tike MERGE. UNDO, other wordprocessing programs using the new "OOPS* buffer that magically brings
TEST and DISK as well as all the old WordPro file format. S49.95* back text deleted in error. All you ever
Standby* such as RENUM and SEARCH & MAILPRO, SPELLPRO arid PAL are dreamed of in a wordprocessor program.
REPLACE. Includes MorePower 64. available for Commodore 8032 computers WordPro 64 sew a new high standard for
S49.95' equipped with cither Commodore 4040 or the software industry to meet. S49.95'
8050 Disk Drives. Furthor information on MAILPRO 64
BOX 64
request. A new generation of data
Is the ultimate programmer's utility
package. Includes Pal 64 assembler organizer and list manager, MailPro
Distributed In Canada by;
64 Is the easiest of all to learn and use.
and Power 64 BASIC soup-up kit all PACO ELECTRONICS LTD
together in one fully integrated and Handles up to 2,000 records on one disk,
20 Steelcase Rd.. West. Unit 10
economical package. $89.95* prints multiple labels across, does minor
Markham. One, L3R IB2
text editing ie: setting up. invoices. Best of
416-475-0740 Telex 06-966655
all, MailPro 64 resides entirety within
U.S. Dealer. Distributor inquiries invited. memory so you don't have to constantly
"Prices shown are In U.S. Dollars, slightly juggle disks like you must with other data
higher in Canada base managers for the Commodore 64.
■(■Commodore 64 trrd Commodore are S49.K*
[r^dejiurks of Commodore Bu^rrtcu
Machin« Inc.


as fighting units). documentation is written for the sign a program.

Turns begin only after a Apple, Atari, and TRS-80. The There isa tutorial that serves
mobilization segment that in 64 version adds only a single as good practice by taking you
cludes reinforcement, supply, loose sheet, which I didn't spot through the setup of a sales/
logistics, and initiative phases. until well into my work. invoice program. The manual
At the end of each player's turn Strategic Simulations has fully explains what you are
the game may be saved to disk produced more than 20 war- accomplishing with the input
or tape, and continued either game simulations, the majority and tells you why you make
then or later. of them modeled on historical each entry. The methods of es
events. Like Knights Of The tablishing alphanumeric,
Few Drawbacks Desert, each of their games numeric, money, and date fields
The graphics are reasonably teaches strategy, often within a are well explained.
good, documentation is excel real-world, educational, and
lent, but sound effects are non historical context, and teaches it Setting Up Fields
existent. The only audio is soft interestingly and well. Having designed the screen lay
blips when it's time for the player Knights Of The Desert out, you then determine if input
to act, or when an inappropriate Strategic Simulations, Inc. will be from the keyboard or if
key has been pressed. 883 Stierlin Raul, Building A-200 the program will calculate the
I encountered a small diffi Mountain View, CA 94043 figures. This includes totals
culty in using the program. The S39.95 <ta}v or disk) <Bf which the program will handle
for you.
Next, you return to the
screen format menu, which al
CodeWriter Richard E. DeVore
lows you to change, edit, save,
or reload the screen you just set
CodeWriter, from Dynatech dual drive. A nice extra to have up, or go to the Creation menu.
Microsoftware, inc., is a program is a printer. The program works To see how this menu works,
generator that helps you write with the Commodore 1525 and you are led through the change
your own BASIC programs. other printers. and edit options. Then the screen
You don't need to know Menus are used extensively: is saved to your formatted disk.
how to program to use this prod The manual is almost unneces After you have established
uct. You simply input your pro sary. Start by loading Disk 1, the the screen format and data fields,
gram using normal English, and Data Entry System. The first the Creation menu is accessed.
CodeWriter converts it into a screen to appear is the Main This sets up calculations for the
BASIC program. Menu. It allows you to set up fields. The program asks about
the display colors of your televi each field in turn. It is here that
Operation Clearly sion or monitor. It also lets you the power of your program is
Explained format a disk to use with the determined. The manual ex
program if you need to do so plains how and why the calcula
The 60-page manual (with an
before loading the program. At tions are entered and what each
index) illustrates program de
this point, you can go back to accomplishes in the program.
sign, with screen examples every
BASIC, but if you want to put Having completed this, you
step of the way. The explanations
CodeWriter to work, select Create are asked for the number of rec
are clearly written and easy to
a Data Entry System. ords that will be needed for this
understand. Although Code-
Writer can be used to create many program. CodeWriter tells you
Begin With The the maximum number of records
types of programs, it seems best
suited for an application such as Screen which can be stored on the disk.
a mailing list, data base, accounts Program design starts with your Space for them is then set aside
receivable, and payroll. screen layout. From the next on the disk, along with the pro
To use CodeWriter you need menu you can choose to edit or gram title that you select. At this
a Commodore 64 and a disk create a screen. After reading time you choose the field key or
drive. The disk drive may be an the instructions and pressing fields that the program will use
upgraded 1540, a 1541, or a 4040 RETURN, you are ready to de to sort your records.

68 COMPUTEI's Gazette May 1984

Error Trapping
You have now reached the error-
trapping aspect of program de
sign where many programmers
have difficulty. The manual

really shines in its explanations
of what you should consider and
why. A four-page appendix de
voted to this subject takes you You deserve it... so does your Commodore 64!*
step by step through the process. COMM-FILE is a powerful data Data Capacity. . . Flexible User-
After the error-trapping base program that eliminates Designed Files and Fields. ..
routine is set up, CodeWhtcr will multiple data files and turns Complete Mathematical Cal
convert your design into a BASIC them into one organized and culation Abilities Powerful
concise information manage Search and Sort Control File
program. The process takes from
ment system. Offering extreme Merge Capability. Advance
30 minutes to more than an hour, ease of use and tremendous Text Editing Features. . and
depending on the size of the versatility, COMM-FILE can Custom-Designed Printer For
application. The final version maintain reports, records, form mats ... all to bring maximum
will run by itself. You don't need letters, invoices, listings, mailing efficiency and effectiveness to
addresses and any other infor any business!
to load CodeWriter or any other
mation vital to your business'
program into memory first. proficient operation.
After conversion, you are
COMM-FILE combines Extensive SOFTWARE
prompted to place your formatted
I'.O, iiox 94B. WaterlHiry, CT 06720
disk in the drive and press RE "LomniuiJori? i; a registered [rjd
commodore BustMSS Machines 203-621-9361
TURN. Your program will be
saved to disk.

Generating Reports
The ability to create programs is
The Commodore 64 is your first "real"
only part of CndcWrite/a power. computer. So. it stands to reason that
The second part, Disk 2, is the the software you use be real too. And,
Report Creation System. useful.
Report Creation lets you The INSTA series productivity
access the information from your software is just that - reai and useful
CodeWritcr programs and print it
With our tutorial manuals and HELP
to the screen or on paper. SCREENS we actually teach you what
The manual shows how to word processing, spreadsheets and
set up a report and how to use graphs are all about.
fields in the program to extract Games are fun....for foolin
specific information. Report Cre INSTA is for real.
ation allows the fields to be
manipulated mathematically in
the same manner as when you
designed the program.
In designing your report,
you may use a 40-column or 80-
column format. Paging from left
to right on the screen, you can
design in 80 columns and see
the results on the screen as they
would appear on paper.
As in the Data Entry System,
the computer converts your re
port design into a BASIC pro
gram which is saved on disk.

The program generation does the other. Backup disks are avail VICmodem Software
not take as long, usually finish able at a low cost after you regis
Works, Too
ing within 30 minutes. ter the warranty. Dynatech offers
Although using CodeWriter a one-year, free replacement If you already have VICmodem
warranty and a toll-free hotline terminal software with these
proficiently requires a bit of work
capabilities, it will also work with
and time, the effort is quickly to provide help when needed.
the Automodem. However, to
paid back when your custom Upgrades are free to registered
use the automatic dialing and
programs start clearing up the owners in exchange for their
answering features, you will
problems you bought your com original disk.
need software which includes
puter to solve. Cud (.■Writer
these routines.
CodeWriter comes on a Dynalech Mien/software, Inc.
The Automodem manual
double-sided disk, with the Data 7S47N.CaldwellAve.
explains clearly how to hook up
Entry System on one side and Niks, IL 60648
$99.95 © the modem and put it into oper
the Report Creation System on
ation. It explains how to use the
software, and includes a BASIC
program you can use to add auto
The Commodore dial and auto-answer capabilities
to your own software.
Robert Sims, Assistant Editor One of the few errors in the
manual occurs in this BASIC
The Commodore 1650 Auto- modular telephone plugs, one program listing on page 22. Lines
modem is designed specifically for the cord that connects it to 310-350 contain a routine to
for the VIC-20 and Commodore the telephone wall plug, and check for a ring signal and to
64. It plugs directly into the user one for a cord from the modem send the signal that puts the
port, with no need for the special to any modular telephone. This modem on-line (the electronic
cables and RS-232 interfaces re arrangement allows you to con equivalent to picking up the
quired by most non-Commodore nect the modem to the phone receiver). As written, the routine
modems. line without disconnecting the detects the ring, but never actu
Like all modems, the Auto- telephone. To switch from data ally answers the phone. A Com
modem translates your com mode to voice transmission while modore representative assured
puter's digital signals into sounds on-line, pick up the phone hand me that if you insert this line:
which can be transmitted over set and move the switch on the
335 IF X=0 THLN POKE Bl,32
telephone lines, and translates modem to the T position. This is
incoming sounds into the signals useful when you are swapping the program will answer the
files with a friend and want to phone properly.
your computer recognizes.
But unlike other modems in talk between data transfers.
Commodore has included A Duplex Glitch
its price range, it has the ability
everything you need for basic Another minor error of t nission
to automatically dial or answer
telecommunications. Besides the involves the duplex settings.
the phone, for faster and easier
300-baud Automodem, you get a With the Automodem, you have
telecommunications linkups.
modular cord which connects two ways of choosing the .setting:
your phone to the modem, and The H/F switch on the modem
The Function
a cassette tape containing two can be set to half or full duplex,
Switches simple terminal programs (one and your terminal software will
The Aulomodem's functions are for the VIC and one for the 64). also have a duplex setting.
changed with three switches, This software gives you the Whether you choose half or
which set the modem to originate capability to access bulletin full duplex will depend on how
or answer calls (O/A), to operate boards and information utilities you are using the modem. To
in half or full duplex (H/I;), and such as the CompuServe Infor access CompuServe, you set the
to switch the phone line connec mation Service, but it does not modem switch and your soft
tion back and forth between the include routines for download ware to full duplex. But for most
modem and a telephone (D/T). ing (receiving) or uploading bulletin boards, and to com
The modem also has two (sending) files. municate with a friend's com-

70 COMPUTE'S Goietle Moyl984

puter, you use half duplex. It's
in half duplex that the problem just

When operating in half du playing

plex, the Automodem sends all
data to your screen as it transmits games.
it, and your software does the
same. If you set both to half du
Learn to program with
plex, you will get double letters

on your screen, lliikkee tthhiiss. imaginative graphics and hands-
This problem is not mentioned on programming experience.
Each BASIC lesson is presented
in the manual, but the solution
A TUTORIAL on the monitor screen and in the
is simple. When you want half
BASIC, A TUTORIAL introduces manual for self-paced learning
duplex, set the modem switch to both at dnd away from the
you to the essential elements of
half and set the software to full programming your Commodore computer.
duplex (or vice versa). The half- 64 in the BASIC language, Every BASIC, A TUTORIAL helps you
duplex setting is dominant, so thing from keywords and state truly understand and use your
you will eliminate the double ments to data handling and computer to its fullest. Isn't that
printing and so much more! more challenging than 'just
letters but will still be trans
playing games'!
mitting in half duplex. BASIC, A TUTORIAL makes
learning fun for even the young
Pulse Dialing est computer "whiz" through
Finally, you should be aware 'Commodore is J ft'jjisttrcd trjcfenurk ol
Ci>mm(KlmF' timing Machines Box 94B, Walcrburv CT 06720 2OJ-021 -
that the Automodem's automatic
dialing feature uses pulses only.
The modem will work for ordi
nary dialing on residential
Touch-Tone lines, because tone
We know. You've been looking
line equipment also recognizes everywhere for 64 software, INSTA's
pulses. But pulse dialing is not interactive line of software is lust a
phone call away.
compatible with some special
phone company services. For Imagine, specially designed software
that "talks" to one another. Your home
example, in order to use a tele budget created with CALC instantly
phone calling card without becomes a GRAPH. And your club
operator assistance, you must be membership list with addresses and
monthly dues quickly becomes a form
able to generate the tones, using letter, printed over and over again,
either a Touch-Tone phone or automatically, for each member.
your modem. So, no more lookin' around. INSTA is
Such sophisticated uses here now!
require special software and
programmable firmware in the
modem, at prices double the
cost of the Automodem and

For most home telecomput

ing needs, however, the Auto
modem is more than adequate,
and you won't find a better buy
in this price range.
The 1650 Automodem
Commodore Business Machines, Inc.
1200 Wilson Drive
West Chester, PA 19380
$149.95 ©
Memo Writer
Mark R. Brown

Here's a mini word processor that's handy for You can save about half (he work of typing if
memos, notes, or lists. Written for the 64, we've you leave out line 9 and lines 500-780 and just
added a version for the unexpanded VIC. refer to the program listing for instructions. Line
500 sets the background and border colors; these
can be set to your preference.
With "Memo Writer" you can fill the screen with
text and then edit it using .ill of the editing keys A Caret Prompt
you are already familiar with: cursor controls, The caret marks at the left side of the screen help
insert and delete, and home and clear screen. keep track of where you are on the 80-cotumn
Since you are limited to one screen of text, line. Don't forget to erase them before you print
the program prevents you from doing anything or they'll appear in your printed output. You can
which would cause you to scroll off the bottom of eliminate or modify them in line 800.
the screen, thus losing the text at the top. Well, A side effect of having repealing keys is a
almost anything. If you use the INST key to insert possible inconsistency when selecting (toggling)
characters on the bottom line, the screen will between uppercase and lowercase. This may or
scroll, so avoid this if possible. may not be an aggravation. To turn off this func
The function keys are used for tabs and se tion, delete POKE 650,128 in line 10.
lecting print options. You can choose single- or
A Blinking Cursor
double-spacing and expanded or normal print
There are a couple of tricks in the input routine.
sizes. There are no set margins, but the tabs can
POKE 204,0 in line 10 turns the cursor on. Nor
be used to move the left margin.
mally you wouldn't have one during a GET and
PRINT sequence. POKE 205,3 in line 40 sets the
Two Typing Modes cursor blink countdown tinier to a short count, to
You can type in either capitals or lowercase letters. even out the timing jerks caused by the GET loop
The print subroutine PEEKs to see which shift in line 2(J. Without this, typing is not smooth at
mode you're in and sends the proper control all. WAIT 207,1 in line 40 waits for the cursor to
characters to the printer. blink off before printing. This keeps the PRINT
The 64 program structure can bo divided into statement from leaving reverse characters behind
five parts: during the cursor blink phase.
The PEEKs in lines 35 and 50 check to see if
1. Lines 9-60 handle the input and sort out
you are on the last screen line, and keep you from
the control keys from the text input.
doing anything which would cause the screen to
2. Lines 100-220 perform the control key
scroll. It should be fairly easy to add any special
features you want. This program supports the
3. Lines 500-780 print the instructions. full graphics character set, but of course it will
4. Lines 800-820 format the screen. only print properly on a Commodore-compatible
5. Lines 60000-60140 dump the screen con printer. Those with other printers may need to
tents to the printer. This is a modified ver make some changes in the control codes in order
sion of the screen dump program contained to make Memo Writer compatible.
in the VIC printer manual. See (iro^nun listings on page 148. W
71 COMPUTEI's Gazette May 1984
Food for Thought
Real computing at appetizing prices.
64 PAK;" A sell-leaching sampler
package of 10 menu-driven programs.
Inventory 64'" An easy-lo-use Ideal as an introduction to computing.
menu-driven program that lets you Or compute your lite expectancy,
(rack complete and complex invento your mortgage payments, even learn
ries. Pinpoint locations, vendors, Ihe language of the deaf, plus a lot
units of measure. Update prices, re more Only S19.95*, on tape;
orders, sales, entire stocks. A power S24 95: on disk
ful tool for your home computer at
only $29,95: on disk. "

PractiFile.'" A fully professional file

manager for your Commodore.
PractiFile can handle mailing list
entries by the thousands You can Total Heallh.'" The fun way to keep
change records, numbers, methods PractiCalc'" 64. The mosi powerful lit. Stay on lop of your daily intake
of filing, and a great deal more. Plus, spreadsheet available tor a home and outgo of calories. Balance your
it's easy to use. Only $54.95'. on disk. computer-at Ihe least cost. Track daily diet and graph your progress-
investments, inventories, expenses. all tailor-made to your body, past,
Project profits. Make charts. Keep present, and future. It's like having a
mailing lists. Sort alphabetically or health spa in your home lor only
numerically, instantly An incredible $24.95: oi tape; $29 95"on disk.
value at $49.95: tape; $54,95", disk.

Now you can do real, honest-to-goodness computing at computer-game prices. Computer Software
Associates brings you hard-working software that makes your work easy. (While it's easy on your budget.)
All programs are easy to work with right on the screen, from self-teaching instant software that tracks your
vital statistics to potent programs to track inventories and profits. ^^. p^MDHTrn
Of course, if it's games you want, we've got them too. But if you're look- jS^^ OvJJVlJrU 1 fcK
ing for home computer power with real brainpower, look no more. Now ■■ SOFTWARE
you can play for keeps, ^W ASSOCIATES, INC.
Exclusively distributed by Micro Software International, Inc. • The Silk Mill, 44 Oak St., Newton Upper Falls, MA 02164 • (617) 527-7510
'Pncesaresuggesiedreiail; actual retail prices may vaiy. ffi 1984 Computer Software Associates. Inc Commodore 64'", irademaik of Commodore Business Machines, Inc

Teaching Music
With Computers
One difference between microcomputers like the sound to indicate an incorrect or unacceptable
VIC-20 and Commodore 64 and "big" computers response. You could also use a noise instead of
(minis and mainframes) is that micros can play tones. Naturally, a correct response needs a posi
music and create sounds. They can play a variety tive reinforcement, like i\n arpeggio or a happy
of tones and three voices at once. They also have tune. Adding sound to an educational game will
a noise generator and can combine music with make the game more arcadelike and help to keep
noise for a variety of sounds—arcade-game noises the student's interest.
to three-part classical music. To play music on the VfC and 64, you must
To program music, you need to keep your first turn on the volume. You can choose a level
manuals handy. In Commodore BASIC there are from 0 to 15, where 15 is the loudest. If I use music
no PLAY or SOUND commands. Instead there in a program and won't be changing the volume,
are POKE statements, where different numbers 1 like to set the volume at the beginning of the
represent the voices and tones. In my column in program (before any sounds are used):
the August 1983 issue you'll find some pro VIC: 110 POKE 36878,15
gramming tips for creating music on the VIC. 64: 110 POKE 54296,15
Programming music on the 64 is more complex—
mainly because more options are available. You For each voice or sound channel there is a
can control the waveform, attack-decay, and different location to POKE the tones. Hach tone
sustain-release. Using different combinations, has a number. You'll find a chart in your user's
you can make your Commodore 64 sound like an manual that converts the letter names of the mu
oboe or a trumpet, a piano or a drum. Gregg Peele, sical notes to numbers for the POKE statements.
our musician-programmer, has written several Variables may be used for the numbers in the
GAZETTE articles in past issues to help readers POKE statements. The M has two values for each
understand the complexities of the 64's music. note, a high-frequency value and a low-frequency
value for each tone. To play the tone, find the
numbers needed from the Table of Musical Notes.
Sound And Music In
In one channel, the statements to play a high A
Educational Programs are:
This month we'll look at the use of music in edu
VIC: 130 S=36876iPOKE S,237
cational programs. Early programs for computers 64: 130 HF=54273:LF=54272:POKE HP,112iPOKE
were mostly "computing"—manipulating num LP ,199
bers for calculations in formulas or business pro
grams. Soon programmers discovered that self- For the 64 you'll need to choose some of the
paced instruction and drill work were ideal appli options also.
cations for these machines. Eventually educators 120 POKE 54277,64sPOKE 54278,128iW=54276
worked with programmers or wrote their own 140 POKE W,17
programs so that computerized instruction also
contained good educational concepts. Color and Timing Methods
music were then added to enhance educational The tone will play until you POKE numbers for
programs. different tones, turn off the volume, or POKE 0
How is sound used in programs? One tech for the tones (or on the 64 POKE a different
nique is to use an audio prompt when the user is number for the waveform). The most common
expected to respond. I usually use an "uh-oh" way to play a note for a certain length iif time is to
74 COMPUTE!'* Gazette May 1984
Universal Input/Output
Board for VIC-20/64

■ 16 channel 8-bll A/D converter with 100

microsecond sampling lime.
■ 1 a/A oulpul.
■ 16 high voltage/high current discrete out

• 1 EROM socket.
■ Use multiple boards tor additional channels
up to 6 boards,

VIC-20 am MW-311V S205.00

CBM-64 o»€iMW-311C S225.00

MW-302: VIC-20/64
Parallel Printer Interface.

Complacency or curiosity?
Move your children away from reviews, sports and weather. Plus,
the passive nature of TV viewing Dow Jones Current and His
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matrix 8 letter printers and plottBrs—
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use a delay loop, then turn off the tone: sound, too—have you ever heard "The Enter
tainer" at triple speed?
E S, 0 I used to teach piano and used the computer
64- 150 FOR DELAY=1 TO 100:NEXT DELAYtPOK for much of the drill work—the computer never
E W,0 lost patience or yelled at the students. The students
Instead of the delay loop you could draw pictures could work on a program as long as they wished
or do calculations. until a concept was learned. One of the first drill
Il is helpful to put different valued delay loops programs for my beginning piano students was
in subroutines. Then, to play a note of a certain to learn the names of the notes on the keyboard
duration, just go to the corresponding subroutine. (VIC version in the August 1983 Gazette).
For example, 1 use the program "Stepping Up Or Down"
to start a .student reading music. The musical staff
300 FOR D=l TO 100:NEXT D
is shown with two random notes. The student
310 FOR D=l TO 100:NEXT D
320 FOR D=l TO 100:NEXT D
needs to determine if the second note is higher,
330 FOR D=l TO 100:NEXT D:POKE S,0iRETURN lower, or the same as the first note. The same
graphics idea from this program can be applied to
For an eighth note, after the tone is chosen COSUB
a program that teaches intervals. We'll go into
330. For a quarter note, GOSUB 320. For a half more detail on Stepping Up Or Down later.
note, GOSUB 300.
Another method for the delay is to use a vari Other Piano Drills
able counter limit:
Two more music programs teach the treble clef
200 FOR D=l TO L*100:NEXT D notes and the bass clef notes. First, the letter names
of the notes on the staff are shown, then a drill of
where L could be 1 for an eighth note, 2 for a quar
random notes is presented and the student must
ter note, and 4 for a half note. You specify L before
name the note. These programs are in the book,
going to the delay statement.
BASIC Programs For Smalt Computers, published by
To create different sounds, instead of holding COMPUTE! Books. The nice tiling about computers
a tone during a delay loop, set the tone, then vary with music capabilities is that, as the drills appear
the volume in a loop.
on screen, the actual notes can be played so the
VIC:400 FOR V=15 TO 0 STEP -lsPOKE 36878, student hears the tones. You can probably think of
ViNEXT V many game ideas for learning note names.
64; 400 FOR V=15 TO 0 STEP -1:POKE 54296, Some ideas for other programs are teaching
ViNEXT V the differences between half steps and whole steps
on the keyboard or on a staff. This leads into teach
Try this technique with the noise channel to create
ing intervals and then chords. A program could be
fun sounds for your games. Of course, with the
written to teach the names of chords in which the
64 you need to spend some time experimenting
computer could also play the chords. Programs can
with the various waveforms and the rates of attack-
teach chord inversions, and the computer can either
decay and sustain-release.
play the chords a note at a time or together. Teaching
differences between types of chords—major, minor,
Practical Applications augmented, and diminished, for example-—could
There are many practical applications of computer be another program.
music, especially in education. Since a computer Another possible drill program could ask for
can play an exact tone, you can tune an instrument the key signature given a certain numberof sharps
to your computer. My daughter uses the computer or flats. Draw a staff, then use the # sign for sharps
to tune her clarinet. If you play a solo instrument, and a custom character for flats. Randomly choose
get the computer to play the accompaniment. a number of sharps or flats, then let the computer
Convert the accompaniment music to POKE! state POKE that many sharps or flats onto the screen.
ments then play or sing along with the computer. The computer could get the student's answer,
The computer can also help you learn music. then play a scale in that key.
By setting a variable duration at the beginning of Time signatures and rhythms could be incor
a song, you can play the song at a slower than porated into drill programs. Perhaps a measure
normal tempo. The durations of the notes are in with a given time signature could be shown, and
proportion, and you can practice the music at a the student would need to fill in a missing note to
slower rate until you learn the notes. Gradually make the meter correct.
increase the tempo by changing that one variable Music composition can also be enjoyable on
in the program, and play along with the computer the computer. I have seen several music programs
until you're up to standard tempo. Of course, for nonprogrammers in which you design a line
you can increase the tempo to hear how it would by choosing different kinds of notes and rests and
76 COMPUTEI's Gaiette May 1984

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placing them on the staff, then hear the computer Line 250 calculates the answer. The SGN
play what you have composed. You don't need to function returns a value of +1, 0, or-1 depending
be a musician to enjoy composition—just try on whether the number is positive, zero, or nega
things to hear how they sound. tive. By subtracting N2 from Nl we can determine
These are just a few ideas of how you can use whether the second note is up, same, or down
(he music capabilities of computers. I'm sure you from the first. 1 added 2 to the SGN to get an an
have other ideas ready to try. swer (A). Ii(A) will be the ASCII code of the correct
function key pressed. Line 250 also sets a flag FL
Stepping Up Or Down to zero.
This month's program, Stepping Up Or Down, is Line 260 plays the audible prompt, a short,
designed for students who are just beginning to high-pitched tone. Lines 270-290 then receive the
lead music. Students need to associate written student's answer, accepting only the fl, f3, and i5
music with moving up or down on the keyboard. keys.
This program shows two notes. To gel from Line 300 checks the key pressed, and if the
the first note to the second, do you step up, step answer is incorrect, FL is set equal to 1, the com
down, or stay the same? Press fl for up, f3 for puter plays an "uh-oh" sound, and the program
same, or f5 for down. Ten problems are presented branches back to line 280 for another answer. If
in the program. the answer is correct, then lines 350-360 play the
The line numbers for both the VIC and 64 notes shown and line 370 increments the score if
versions are related for this program explanation. this is the first response.
Line 1U branches past subroutines. Line 10 in the After ten problems, line 390 prints the score.
64 version also POKEs 53281,1 to change to a white Although a student must get the correct answer
screen. for the program to continue, the score represents
Lines 20-40 contain subroutines. Lines 20-26 answers correct on the first try.
print the message to PRESS RETURN, then wait Lines 400—120 present the option to try the
for the student to respond before continuing the drill again, and the program branches appropri
program. ately. Line 430 clears the screen and ends the
Line 30 is a short delay for playing tones for program.

the audible prompt and the "uh-oh" sound for an See program listing* on pa$e 150. Of
incorrect response. Line 40 is a delay used in play
ing the notes shown after the student has pressed
the correct answer. The notes are played so the
student can hear as well as see the interval. Software Is
Lines 100-13!) print the title and instruction
screen. Line 140 defines L$ for use in printing the Worth The
musical staff. To type this line, use SHIFT and *
to get a horizontal line. For the VIC use 22 lines,
and for the 64 use 40 lines. Find out in:
Lines 150-160 define the tone numbers for
playing the notes. The numbers are read in as di\ The SOFTWARE
array. Two numbers are necessary for each tone BUYER'S REPORT"
in the 64 version. Line 170 defines the B array. The newsletter that gives you
The three numbers are the ASCII codes for the the real story behind the software hype.
keys fl, f3, and f5. Line 175 POKEs values neces
• No ttdveniyng means honest, unbused evaluations
sary to play music. Line ISO calls the subroutine
• Topnotch reviewers olfer opinion;, you c^n irusi
to wait for the student.
• Gel in-depth reviews of software for'
Lines 190-380 present the quiz of ten prob
G.inifi jnd Entertainment • Graphics .ma Musil ■ Home
lems. SC is the score. Line 200 prints the musical Appliudioni • Eduction ■ Busmen • Programming Aids
staff. Note that after L$ a blank line is printed ■ Telecommunications -And more'

because LS ends in the last column. You should NEW11 COMMODORE 64/VIC 20 EDITION
see five horizontal lines with blank lines between
Published ten times a year.
them if you have typed L$ correctly.
Subscription rate S3S.00 a yfear U S
Line 211) chooses a random number for the
fi in ididriiind Overseas Addtlior f£$. fS~
first note. There are nine possible positions, so
INT(9*RND(0)) chooses a number from 0 to 8. PI Start Getting The Most Out Of Your
is the screen memory location calculated, so line Software Dollar!
220 can POKE a red circle representing the note in To Order Or Gat Mare Information
Call U» At800-336-3535 IlnPanna 215-691-1912) Or
the chosen position. Lines 230-240 similarly
Write To Us At The Software Buyers Report-RA
choose the second note. 824 Eighth Ave, Bethlehem, PA 18O1B
78 COMPUTE'S Gatette Moyl98<l
If you want [o stay ahead of the personal computing to trade-offs to ultimate success.
revolution ...
Telecomputing with Your IBM. How to'link up with dis
... welcome to COMPUTED PC & PCjr! tant computers over ordinary phone lines, access infor
This exciting new magazine from COMPUTE.' takes mation sendees, even do office work at home with your
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P.O. Box 971. Fiirmiiijidiii

Speeding Up BASIC
Robert Friesen and Ramunas Motekaitis

If you've discovered a clever timesaving tedinique, or brief 3 A=l:B=2iC=3:D=4:E=5:F=6:G=7:H=8:I=9:J=l

but effective programming shortcut, send it to "Hints & 0:K=ll:L=12iM=13!N=14:O=15iP=16

Tips," do COMPUTERS GAZETTl for Commodore. If we use

When you RUN the program, you'll find that
it, we'll pay you $35.
adding just 16 variables slows it considerably. A
This month, we've combined programming tips (nun
lenders Robert Friesen and Ramunas Mofekailis, who iiave 64 uses 19 seconds, a VIC 17 seconds. Variables
each discovered techniques to make BASIC programs run are stored in the order they are assigned, so every
faster. time the program encounters NEXTZ in line 9, it
has to search through the 16 variables that come
before Z. To speed up the loop, use this line to
Benchmarks are a common way to compare com make Z the first variable in the program:
puters: You type a standard program into each
2Z = 0
computer you want to test and use a stopwatch to
determine how quickly each finishes the job. It's Since Z is now first in memory, the time
a race between computers. needed to execute the loop decreases. We're back
The same technique can be used to test varia where we started.
tions of a BASIC routine. And if you own a Com But that's not the best way to make a faster
modore, you don't need the stopwatch. You can FOR-NEXT loop.
use the built-in clock. First set it to midnight with
TI$ = "000000" and run the routine. When the NEXT Without A Variable
computer finishes, you can read the clock by
You may already know that NEXT will work with
printing the variable TI$ (which gives you hours,
or without the variable name. Try the following
minutes, and seconds) orTl (which measures
sixtieths of a second).
By testing different ways of doing the same 9 NEXT

thing, you can discover which is the fastest. Omitting the Z saves you one byte of memory,
and it shaves two seconds off the execution time.
Faster FOR-NEXT Loops Now, if you delete line 2, you might expect the
Enter the program below and RUN it. old search-through-sixteen-variables problem to
7 TI$="000000" appear. But it doesn't. When you ignore the vari
8 FORZ=1TO10000 able after NEXT, the computer seems to do the
9 NEXTZ same. It sees NEXT without a variable and looks
10 PRINT TI/60;"SECONDS" for a FOR. It doesn't need to check variable mem
This program does nothing—it simply loops ory for the value of Z. Using NEXT by itself can
save a lot of time, especially in a long program
10,000 times—but gives us a standard time (or
benchmark) for FOR-NEXT loops. On a 64, the containing lots of variables.
time should be 13 to 14 seconds. An unexpanded The lesson is clear: Use NEXT alone whenever
VIC is approximately 10 percent faster; the same possible. And if certain variables are used fre
test takes 12 to 13 seconds. quently in a program, their values should be de
Now add this line: fined early.
80 COMPUTE''* Gazelle May 1994
Faster Multiplication 2 A=3:B=123.4567
9 C=A*B
If you have tried the programs above, type NEW.
Then type this short program: You've cut execution time to just six seconds,
7 TIS="000000" saving almost 20 seconds by assigning values to
8 FORZ=1TO1000 variables before multiplying. When you multiplied
9 C=3*123.4567 with regular numbers (C = 3*123.4567) they were
stored as ASCII characters. The computer had to
translate from ASCII to floating-point before it
The program (which loops 1000 times and could do any math—a time-consuming chore. But
multiplies two numbers) gives us an idea of how when you assign the values to variables, it has to
much time it takes a computer to multiply. A 64 translate the ASCII only once.
takes about 25 seconds to complete the program.
A VIC uses 23 seconds. Again, the VIC is faster. Change the program once more:
Now replace line 9: 2A = 123.4567:B = 3
9C = 123.4567*3 Again we find that putting the longer number
It seems to be almost exactly the same pro first speeds up multiplication. The execution time
gram. Everyone knows thai A*IJ is the same as drops from six seconds to less than five. This rule
P3*A, right? Hut when you RUN the program, you of thumb can be useful when you write a program
will find that it runs one or two seconds faster. using the RND (RaNDom) function or pi, both of
The number 123.4567 contains seven signifi which are long numbers. And, whenever possible,
cant digits; the number 3 has just one. If you try predefine the variables before you multiply.
different values in line 9, you will discover that if You may want to set up other benchmark
the number with more digits is first, the multipli tests to discover other methods of speeding up
cation is faster. BASIC programs. For example, try AA2 against
There is another technique to speed up A*A (multiplying is faster than squaring a
multiplication. Make the following changes to the number). Or test A%*B% against A*B (integers
program: are slower than floating-point numbers). Q

Why Blank "Cheat" Sheets?

OK So now you've got the Because They're
best Commodore M in Better Blank
the world, and lots ol
complex software lo
run on it. One prob
lem. Unless you work
with some ol these
programs everyday
or ate a computer genius,
who can keep all those commands
straight? "F5" in one program means
one thing, and "F5" in anolhei program means
something else. A lew companies do oHer a solu
tion... a die cut "cheat" sheet that attaches to your key
board with all the commands ol one program printed
on it. Great idea, unless you need them (or 1O or 20
programs. You could purchase another disk drive lor
the same investment. Our solution? Simple. A pack ol 12
lined cards, die cut to ill your keyboard and Just
waiting lo be filled with those problem commands you
target most often. Simple? Yes. bul effective, Now you
can have all your program commands righi at your
E^.—- ===by Eastern House finger tips on YOUR VERY OWN, custom designed
"cheat" sheers. Order a couple packs lodayl
A Communications Cartridge PIMM Mnd me th» following:
for the Commodore 64. Qty. S«m
Sets of 12 C-64 Keyboard Cheat Sheets (»S1595 S
Upload/Download, Status Line, etc. Works with 2 Packs C24 Sheets) for S24.95 s
your Commodore 1600 or 1650 Modem. Total for Merchandise Shipping and Handling S
Auto-dlaling, eic. whBn used with trie new 5% State Tax (WI Residents only) 3
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Cartridge and Manual - $49.95 Number ExpUes _.
Dealer Inquiries Invited
55O N. fiflth Stteet

* Bptes & Pieces, Inc. Wauwatosa. Wl 53213


COMPUTE!1! Caielie Ma, 1984 81


Each month, COMPUTE!^ GAZETTE tackles some language—not really a language at all in the same
questions commonly asked by new VlC-20/Commodore sense as BASIC, but rather the set of very elemen
64 users and In/ people shopping for their first home tary instructions recognized by the computer's
computer. main microprocessor chip. BASIC and all other
languages are actually large machine language
programs themselves, and the PRINT" command
is made up of many machine language commands.
I've seen references in articles, books, and
That's where the Kernal comes in handy.
Commodore manuals to something called the
Why go to a lot of programming trouble if there's
Kemal. It has something to do with pro
already a routine built into the computer which
gramming. Exactly what is the Kemal?
does the same thing? The routine is part of the
Kernal. The Kernal is full of routines, and one of
X»q It's not surprising that you've run across them prints characters on the screen.
this term because it's referred to quite frequently— To use this built-in routine, you could execute
yet your question is deceptively simple. To un the machine-language equivalent of a GOTO or
derstand the Kernal, you must first Learn a little GOSUB in BASIC, jumping directly to the
about machine language and computer operating routine's starting memory address (analogous to
systems. a line number in BASIC). However, this address
You're right that the Kernal has something to could vary on different Commodore computers, so
do with programming. It's a tool used mainly by the program still might work on only one model.
machine language programmers, but rarely (if The solution is the Kernal jump table. This is
ever) by BASIC programmers. The Kernal makes simply a table of memory addresses which point
it possible to write shorter machine language pro to other addresses. You jump to the table address
grams which are compatible with many different for the print-character routine, and the table
Commodore computers. passes you along to the routine itself. The jump
The term Kernal itself means slightly different table is the same for all Commodore computers, even
things to different people. Some use it to describe though the addresses for the routines themselves
a Commodore computer's entire operating system.
might be different.
An operating system is a complex housekeeping
Think of the Kernal jump table as a series of
program required by all computers. It performs
post office boxes. Someone who moves around a
various routine but vital tasks necessary to the lot within the same city could avoid mail problems
computer's operation. The computer would be by using a post office box as his mailing address.
helpless without it. The operating system is per No matter where he moved, his mail would always
manently stored in the computer's ROM (Read reach him through the same post office box. Simi
Only Memory) chips.
larly, by maintaining a jump table of common
Other people think of the Kernal not as the addresses in all its computers, Commodore is free
entire operating system, but as a collection of to change the addresses of the operating system
useful routines (subprograms) within it. Machine routines from model to model. Yet machine lan
language programmers often use these routines
guage programmers can always be sure their pro
to avoid writing similar routines themselves, and
grams will find the routines by using the jump
to help make their programs work on more than
table addresses, which stay the same.
one model Commodore computer.
The results are machine language programs
Let's say someone is writing a machine lan
which are easier to write, consume less memory,
guage program and wants to display a simple
and arc transportable among different models.
message on the screen, such as "Press any key to
Kernal routines are almost never used by
continue." In BASIC this would be a simple one-
BASIC programmers because they are more diffi
line instruction:
cult to access from BASIC, and also because BASIC
10 I'RINT "PRESS ANY KEY TO CONTINUE." already contains one-word commands which do
But machine language has no such command the same things anyway—commands such as
as PRINT". Machine language is the lowest-level PRINT, CET, PUT, etc. <E
82 COMPUTE'S Gazette Mayl984
how to get in touch with
your computer.

The Edumate™ Light Pen puts

you closer in touch with your com
puter than ever before. Paint a master
piece, or play an interactive game simply by
moving the pen across the screen. Compared to
other graphic peripherals, the Edumate stands
alone. Drawing is now easy. Because it's natural.
Just connect the Edumate and touch the screen. It's
as simple as that. No awkward touchpad surface. No un
natural joystick controls. And look what else is at hand.
You can choose from a complete line of educational and
entertainment software. Our Playground Software™ series
brings the magic of the Edumate together with the amazing
computer voice of S.A.M.™ the Software Automatic Mouth, so
children can interact directly with our teaching programs. Our new
advanced graphics program, Peripheral Vision™, allows you to draw
or fill in 16 different colors, a variety of sizes and textures, and zoom in
for greater detail. You can save your picture to disk, print a copy for your

V friends, and more. What could be,more natural than picking.up an

Edumate and letting your imagination run free!

See the Edumate™ Light Pen

at your local computer store or
call direct 1-800-334-SOFT. Available
for Commodore 64™ & Atari1" computers.
Please specify computer, memory, and disk/
cassette when ordering.


K; - '
*^- -r
1 1

pi 'gifounds;
HB3E9 P.O. Box 3470 Department C.
—i . ■
Chapel Hill. North Carolina 27514

Fast Add
J.C. Bye

The author, a parent of young children, wrote

this effective math drill program which is very
easy to use. For the VIC and 64.

When parents buy a computer, one of the first

types of programs they usually attempt to write is
a mathematical drill for their children. After ac
quiring a VIC-20, my first major programming
effort was this same project. The result is "Fast
Add," a math drill program which provides prac
tice on either one-, two-, or three-digit addition
problems. This selection is handled on the initial

The numbers are large and easy to read. When

a problem is presented, squares are displayed so
a child can see how many digits must be entered Answers are entered right to left in "Fast Add" (VIC
for the correct answer. Answers are entered right version).
to left just as though the problem was being
worked with pencil and paper.
A correct answer is rewarded with a short
fanfare prior to proceeding to the next problem.
An incorrect answer is signified by a contrasting 498
screen, and the entire problem is rewritten. The
correct answer is then given, right to left, so that
it is easy to see where the error occurred.
Adding Incentive
Each time the program is run, ten randomly gen
erated problems are presented and thirty seconds
are allowed for entry of each answer. A timer at
the bottom of the screen counts from 0 to 30 sec
onds so a child can work in a time frame. Upon
completion of the ten problems, a final screen
display shows the percentage correct and a timed
score provides added incentive to work faster. A "I" is about to be entered for a coned ansiver in the 64
The limed score is the total time remaining version of "Fast Add."
on all problems multiplied by the number of digits
missed problem is counted as no score.
in the problems. That is, the maximum score for
one-digit problems is 300, for two-digit problems Program 1 will run on a VIC with any memory
is 600, and for three-digit problems is 900. A configuration; Program 2 is the 64 version. Com-
84 COMPUTEt's Gazette May 1984
LEARN Computer
Have Complete Control
Over Your Commodore 64
• Write Fast-action Arcade-style graphics
• Fully use the Music synthesizer
• Completely understand the Computer VIDEO INSTRUCTION TAPES!
• Develop your skills inventory
Learn with the Tutorial that comes
complete with a Full set of professional
quality development tools.

Assembles 2000 lines of code in under 15 seconds TUTOR. PAUSE YOUR VCR TO REVIEW AND

Many new expanded features including direct TAPES NOW AVAILABLE

program file output to disk or tape, directory
display and disk wedge commands, full-screen Zkitt TOPIC PPRDX HUH TIME.

editing, copy/move/search/replace commands BP-3 LEARNING C-64 BASIC > HR J4995

breakpoints, trace, walk, go, full-screen BP-4 LEARNING VIC-20 BASIC ! HR
memory display and modify. Program included D10-1 COMMODORE 64 DISK 1(0 HR45 MIN 149.95
to convert Commodore assembly files. 1310? VIC 20 DISK I/O HR45 MIN H9.9S
EW-9 MULTIPLAN.C-64 HR50MIN 139.95
PLUSxhe Machine Language Programmer's EW-3 CALC-RE5ULT ADVANCED Hfl 30 MIN 139.95
Bible: EW-4 CALC RESULI EAZY HR 15 MIN 129.95
"Inside The Commodore 64" EW-6
123 95
flP-5 SCRIPT-64 HR30MIN 139.95

Electronic worksheets: EW-3-6. Detailed step by step In-

Plus S3.00 postage slurciion in the use of electronic spread/sheet software.
and handling. Work along and sel up a complete example worksheet.
IMinn residents add 6%l
Basic programming: BP-3 S 4. Teaches BASIC Language
commands and programming techniques. Builds your know
ledge from beginning in advanced levels.

Data File Programming. DIO-1 12 leaches BASIC Language

data file programming using random, sequential, and relative
access data files.


Add $3.00 per order for shipping and handling.
Add $3.00 lor C.O.D.

CallToll-Free 1-800-328-0145 To Order

or in Minnesota call: (612)871-4505 Phone or Write


6831 West 157th Street Tinley Park. Illinois 60477
P.O. Box 7426 Minneapolis, MN 55407 IS A TRADEMARK OF MICROSOFT.
VIC Program Structure
initial screen
setup for each execution
main routine
40-50 routine for wrong answer
55-65 fanfare for correct answer
Introducing PORTFOLIO MANAGER by Basic Byte, a high-
70-96 final screen
100-140 generate a new problem quality, easy-to-use software program for use on your
200-240 draw the current problem to the screen Commodore 64 or VIC 20 (16K RAM) personal computer.
300-370 get.the answer and write it to the screen It's designed to eliminate hours of time consuming
400-410 read the DATA statements into the arrays
paperwork. And make it easy (or you to handle your
500-510 routine to draw one large character to the

1100-1112 DATA statements for large characters PORTFOLIO MANAGER lets you instantly update your
1113 DATA statement for fanfare stock's current value. Calculate gains and losses. Record
dividends. Print reports. Even determine the price per
plex mathematical calculations have been avoided share after your broker's commission, All you have to do
so that the program can be easily understood and is follow the easy, step-by-step instructions.
modified. You may wish, for example, to create The price? Only $39.95. And that makes PORTFOLIO
subtraction and multiplication versions. MANAGER a great investment by itself.
If you would rather not type in the program You'll find PORTFOLIO MANAGER on tape or disk drive
(VIC version only), send a blank cassette tape, an at your local dealer. Or call direct (313) 540-0655 or write
SASE, and $3 to: PO Box 924. Southfield. Ml 48037 and order yours today.

/■ C Bye
23411 ParkRoyale Dr.
Katy, TX 77450

See program listings on page 151. ©



DataBase Management for the Commodore 64"
TOTL.INFOMASTER 3.6—only $50 on disk \

Money-Saving Bonus
Paks of 64 Software TAPE DISK
TOTL.TEXT2.0(VIC + 8K) 24.95 ■ I 28.95
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TOTL.BUSINESS 3.6 (C-64) D 94.95 Mailing List & Label (toll.label)
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User Group Update
Kathy Yakal, Editorial Assistant

Beginning this month, the GAZETTE will publish a person for the Next' London Count}/ Commodore 64
regular update on Commodore user groups. They user Croup, can be reached at (203)446-8491, or bv
arc listed alphabetically by state. The list is growing writing P.O. Box 1608, Groton, CT 06340.
so rapidly thai it's difficult to run it in its entirety, Inquiries regarding the Long Island VIC Society
but we'll try to do so a couple of times a year. If you (L.I.V.I.C.S.) should be forwarcted to Lawrence
have already sent us information about your group, Stefani, 20 Spyglass Lane, East Setauket, NY 11733.
please lei us know if there are any changes; other
The Metro Knoxville 64 User Club of Knoxville,
wise, we'll continue to publish it. If you have a new
Tennessee, now supports all Commodore com
group you wont listed, or need to update our infor puters. Its new name is the Metro Knoxville Commo
mation, please write to: dore User Club.
The new president and address for the Triad C-
COMPUTE! Publications
64 Users Group is George Shelhorse, P.O. Box 10833,
Greensboro, NC 27404.
Greensboro, NC274G3
attn: Commodore User Groups
The new address for the National Science Clubs
ofAmerica/Commodore iber Division is P.O. Box 10621,
Merrillville, IN 46411. Please send an SASE to this
Changes new address for information.
The Nezo London Area Commodore Users has a new All inquiries about MASSPETshould go to
name and phone number. Robert Kind, contact Harry Flaxman, P.O. Box 283, Taunton, MA 02780.

Commodore Club of Mobile PET Educators' Group Fairfield County Commodore

Tom Wyatt Palmer Johnson User Group
3868-H Rue Malson P.O. Box 434 Station A Linda Retter
Mobile, AL 36608 Windsor, Ontario, P.O. Box212
(205)343-1178 Canada N'JA 6L7 Danhury, CT06810
64/20 Club BiDdnille User Group (HUG) Commodore Computer User
Mike RgsalsM Hill Maxwell G ro u p
140S-A S. ALimilas St. 72 Murray St. Krnesl M. Juli.m
Monrovia, CA 91016 Urockville, Ontario, L65BS. BlgelowRd.
Canada K6V 2X1 Hampton, CT 06247
South Bay Commodore User
Group Budget Wise Computer User
(suburban Lo9 Angelas) Group Tri-Slate User Group
Lloyd Lehrer Dennis]. Lachance Russell Prince
4QT9thSl. 17 Chaplin Ave. 2312 Carpenter Rd,
Miinii.itl.m ISe'ach, CA 90266 St. Catherines, Ontario, Wilmington, PH 19810
Canada I-2R TEA (302)473-1351
Sixty Fou rum
John Dam Lino Qnlnie Commodore User Group SUNCOASTM's
P.O. Box 16098 Wayne Wickson eft) Little Professor Books
Fresno, CA '.13755 P.O. Box477 Curtis ]. Miller
IJilieviik-, Ontario, 2395 U.S. 19N.
F.T.D. Commodore Club Canada K8N 5B2 Palm Harbor, FL 33563
(Field Training Detachment ((, 13) %ft-7535 (fil,l]7H5-1036
Instructors only)
Larry Prince Commodore 64 User Group Golden Isles Commodore Users
Castle AFB.CA 95342 Walter Schdz Richard L. Younj;
568 Momington St. 1.15 Sherwood Forest Circle
PUG of the Silicon Valley Stratford, Ontarin, Brunswick, GA 31520
Marvin Vaniier Kooi Canada M5A 5G9 (912)267-2683
22355 Rancho Ventura St. (319) 271-5704
Cupertino, CA 95014

COMPUT&'s Gazette May 1984 87





PRINTER is typewriter friendly. It uses a simple
drop in cassette ribbon. Just turn on the COM
STAR 13" for Crip executive quality cor
respondence at 18 CPS with a daisy wheel that
prints 96 power type (lawless characters, bi
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applications. COMSTAR 13" carriage accepts
paper from letter to legal size, continuous com
puter paper or single sheets, you can set right
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(Serial and parallel interface). LIST PRICE '599"
computer printer



the fr Olympia computer printer

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lift oft correction. Baud rates, Jumper selectable
75 through 19,200 (parallel interface)
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Enclose Cashiers Check, Money Order or Personal Chech. Allow ENTERPRIZES WE lOVEOUH CUSTOMERS!

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PRINTING-160 CPS, 100% duty cycle, date of purchase you simply send your
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special symbols and true decenders, ver prepaid. We will IMMEDIATELY send you
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for delivery. 2 to 7 days for phone orders, 1 day express mail! Canada ENTERPRIZES ■:■■' C LOVE OUH CJSIOMEB5!

orders must be in U.S. dollars. VISA - MASTER CAHD ACCEPTED We BOX 550, BARRINGTON, ILLINOIS 60010
ship COD.
Phone 312/382-5244 to ordtr
Buy 1 (at Sale Price!) Get One
Commodore 64

A ward Winning Games
Jumpmon — If you like Donkey Kong, you'll love Jumpman. Over 30
different screens with 8 speeds and 5 skill levels make this the fastest action
game in the country. You must leap girders, climb ropes, and scale ladders to
reach and diffuse bombs while avoiding robots, birds, bullets, explosives,
crumbling walls, vanishing escape routes, and many other obstacles. (Truly a
fantastic game!) List $39.95. Sale $24.95 (Disk only).

Temple of Apshoi — (computer game of the year). This is the standard by

which other adventure games are judged. Full color graphics portray the
temple and all its contents — magic, monsters, doomed cities and damsels in
distress. Do battle in real time with over 20 monsters, expansion modules will
keep your adventure alive in the future. List $39.95. Sale $24.95. (tape/disk).
(Also Available For VIC-20)
Summer Games — Now you can compete in the Olympics right along with
the real competitors. Compete in track, swimming, diving, cycling, archery,
weight lifting, rowing and more. This Olympic game is so realistic it even
includes a beautiful opening ceremony and an awards presentation after each
event. (Highly recommended, by far the best Olympics game we've seen).
List $39.95. Sale$28.00. (disk only).

Dragon Riders of Pern — Based on the best selling book series by Anne
McCaffey (over 10 million sold). This program forces you to make an alliance
with the Lord holders, then mount your dragon {stunning graphics) and battle
the dreaded thread. (Super fast action with a great theme).
List $39.95. Sale $24.00. (tape/disk).

Fax — Stop wasting quarters! Now you can play Exidy's Fax at home. Play
against the computer or an opponent to get the answer first, over 3,700
questions dealing with sports, television, movies, histories, and many more
subjects will keep you playing for hours (a must for trivia buffs).
List $34.95. Sale $24.95. (disk only).
• Buy Any Epyx Gomo From Prolecto And Send The Proof Of Purchase Seals To Epyx And Epy* Will Sond You A Frea Game.

Aoa S300 io' posiage Ada seoOfor Canada puertorico Hawaii '
Enclose Cashiers Check. Money Order or Personal Cnec" Allow it |
days Io' delivery, 2 Io 7 days 'or phone orders. I Oay e»oress mail1 | ENTERPRIZES iWI 1OVE OUHCU5IOMEH5)

Canada orders musl Be in U S dollars We accent Visa ana Masler

Card Wb ship c.O.D
PhonB 312J382-52<1<1 to order
Factory Clearance
No. 1 Seller In U.S.A

Astroblitz Serpentine —
9C (Like Defen Awarding win
der.) Voted No. ning game.
1 computer Avoid hostile
game overall by red snakes and
Creative Com lay your young
puting ! Fan while getting
tastic copy of an food to keep
arcade classic. you alive. Fan
Destroy alien saucers and gun tastic strategy game that has
towers while avoiding enemy become a classic. List $34.95.
objects that float by. List $34.95. Sale $9.95.
Sale $7.95. __
Apple Panic — The fast Then simply beat them
action computer game on the head to push it
hit now comes to the through and destroy the
Priced apple. Otherwise the
VIC-20. You must dig
Below traps in the brick floor apple's will roll right
Cost and wait for the wander over you and kill you. Last
ing apples to fall in. (Fast action.) List $34.95.
Sale $7.95.
Rat Hotel — Here you get to play the Terraguard — Your mission is
rat. Running and jumping from floor to destroy the aliens before
to floor in Hotel Paridisimo you must their ship hos o chance to land.
eat whatever you find but Waldo the Move your base along the
maintenance man has set many ground and shoot up at them
traps for you that you must avoid. List S34.95. Sole $9.95.
Plus Waldo has an atomic elevator
that let's him jump several floors at Video Mania — You're in an
once. See if you can get fo the bot open field and strange alien
tom before Waldo does you in. Fantastic graphics creatures are roaming all over. If
and sound. List $34.95. Sale $9.95. you stand still too long, they'll
collide with you, causing instant , .
Spills & Fills — How much is too
annihilation. Your only defense■s£Mj?
much? How much isn't enough? With
is to destroy them by throwing your electronic,
this original concept educational
footbali-shaped alien zapper at them. Sale $9.95.
game designed for grade schoolers
through high school students, you
can develop ratio and perspective Household Finances — This 4 part
skills. With three exciting and program will take care of all your
challenging skill levels, this program family's finances. Record, change
presents new and ever-changing and delete expense and income
challenges for the inquisitive mind. Sale $9.95. items from 16 categories, monthly
and yearly totals are easily graphed
Nationally and even a budgeting program to
Advertised help you clamp down on excessive
spending. List $34.95. Sale $9.95.

Ada 13 00 lor postage Aaa 16 00 lor Canada. Puerto Rico Hawaii '
Enclose Cashiers Check, Money Order or Personal Cneck Allow 14 j
days for delivery. 2 to 7 days (or phone orders. I day exp'ess mail' j
BOX 550, BARRINGTON, ILLINOIS 60010 Canada orders must be in U S dollars We accepl Visa and Master i
Phon« 312/3825244 to ordur Card We shinCO.D 1
Commodore 64
No. 1

Educational Software
At Its Best

We make learning fun. Sale!!

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80 Columns x 24 lines
Green text display
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Attractive metal cabinet
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9" Doto Monitor

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12" Screen-Green Text Display (anti-reflective screen) *$ 99.00
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14" Screen -Color Monitor (national brand) *$239.00
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Phono 312/382-5244 to order
Treasure Valley Commodore M Computer Operators Ei^ht Squared
User GrOOp M. Gauthier J, A.Skelton
P.O. fiox 45477 St, Clafr Community College P.O. Box 76
Boise, ID H3711 Port Huron, M14H0M) Mt. Holly Springs, I'A 17065
(313)364-6804 (717)776-3469
Champjign-Urbjiii) Commodore
User Group (CUCUG) Michigan C-64 User Group A-K64 User Group
Jeff Stevenson P.O. Bos 539 Alton E. Glubish
2006 Crescent Dr. East Detroit, MI 48021 1762Fiitrm(mlSt.
Champaign, [L61821 New Kensington, I'A 1506B
Btalneid Area Commodore (412)335-90/0
User Group
Logansporl Commodore Club Norm Saavedra Commodore User Group
Mark Bender 121'IS.F. lltliSt. Alan B. Karpe
i02QMichigan Ave, Bralnerd, MN 56401 c/o Lincoln Technical Institute
. LogansporY, IN -WH7 (2IH)S2'l-|]«0S 5151 TllghmanSt,
(21')) 722-5205 Allentown, IJA
Commodore liiloxi User Group (215)770-1(132
Capitol Complex CM Computer (ComBUG)
Club do Universal Computer Services dBas
Doren Hulet 3O02Hwy.9OE. Maria Franco Arroyo
Grimes Bldg. 3rd Fl. Ocean Springs, MS 39564 14-DLaSaUeSt.
DesMoines,IA 50319 (601)875-1173 Cubao,
(515)281-3550 |ohn I assen Quezon City, Philippines

Co mm iid ii re Usei Group of MOARK Commodore User Commodore Club of I'awicys

Central Kentucky Group Ml'j; Shin.ill
Robert Dickow Marshall B. Furner I'.O. Box82S
2095 Rambler Rd. I'.O. Box 5114 Pawleys Island, SC 29585
Lexington, KY 40503 Golden, MO 65658
(606)277-6981 (417)271-3293 Spartanburg Commodore User
Group (SI'ARCUC)
Commodore 64 User Group Commodore Computer Club |ames B. Paslay
Richard L. Hood Dave Westplialen 803 Lucerne l>r.
P.O. Box 1422 308 Palieade Ave. 29302
Baton Rouge, LA 70821 Union City, N| 07087 (803) 582-5897
Computer User Society of Commodore Buflalo User Group Tri-Slale Cummodorc User
I1 e nobs cot (COMBUG) Group (TRICUG)
da Art Pele David A. Newton Chink Carroll
101 Crosby Hall 199 Dale Dr. 5132Malador
University oi Maine .it Orono Tonovvamlj, NY 14150 Amarillo,TX 79109
Orono. ME 04469 (716)631-3932 (806)355-4170
Commodore User Group n( Commodore User Group of
Maine C u nun I nl lire b4 User Greater New York
Croup Elmo Chrislian/James Wattaon P.O. BOX 49138 Brazer P.O. Box 812 Austin, TX 7H7(>5
P.O. Box 542 Adelphl Station,
Ogunquit, ME 03907 Brooklyn, MY 11233 Irving Commodore User Group
(207) 646-2097 (212) 776-0608 or fi93-f.H8 Robert 1 Iftyes
3237 Northgate #1289
Commodore/VIC User Group Mohawk Valley Commodore
Irving, TX 73062
(COM-VIC5) User Group
(21<I) 252-71117
Paul i odgo William A. Nowak
KFD#1 Box 2086 P.O.Box3«l Heari Of Texas Commodore User
Hebron, MB 04238 Tribes Hill, NY 12177 Group (HOT CIIUGI
(207)966-3641 Lt. Mike Stuff
2UM1N. NewKJ.
Uown East Commodore User
Montgomery County Waco, TX 76710
Commodore Computer Society U.S. Naval Reserve
Bruce E. 1 heden Training Center
Meryle B. Pounds
302 Bolllown Rd.
[J.O: Box 6414
Havelock, NC 28532
Silver Spring, MD 20906 Central Vermont Commodore 64
(301)946-1564 User Group
Gallon Commodore User Group Al Pieeush
Pioneer Valley VIC Club Philip G Seltz R.R.I, Trow Hill,
Marvin Yak' 361 S- Market Barre,VT 05641
34 Bales St, Gallon, Ol 144833
Westfield, MA 01085 Commodore Personal Users
(413)562-1027 Greater Oklahoma Commodore Trading Expertise & Resources
Club c/o I loneywi'll Inc.
EM 20/64 User Group Randy Hill 5303 ShOshoIe Ave. NW
John Chaplain 1-101 N. RodcweD Seattle, WA 98107
36 Buckman St. Okl.ihom,i City, OK 73127 P06} 789-2000 ext, 1402
Wobum, MA 01801 (405) 789-3229 Art mtbeck

Commodore User Group University VlC-Commmodore Commadom M User Group

Robert Olari User Support System Jerry and I Inda Hiifihi's
c/o Comm'Data Syelems 3311 Sutherland Dr.
244 Summit St, DcMii G, Thomas Gillette, WY 82716
Milford, MI4HO42 RD 1 Box21OA (307) 686-0633
(313) 684-6767 Edinburg, PA 16116

94 COMPUTEIS Gazelle May 1


Step Lister
E. A. Cottrell

"Step Lister" lets you look at your BASIC pro stores PRINT, for example, as 153.)
gram lines without repeatedly typing LIST. No interpretation of the characters following
This is a machine language routine, but it re the line number is made until the program is RUN.
quires no special knowledge to use it. For VIC If the first character is not numeric, the line is
and 64. tokenized and placed in the BASIC input buffer at
locations 512-600 ($0200-$0258). The interpreter
then calls the CHRGET subroutine to get the
"Step Lister" is a machine language wedge characters from the buffer and return them for
(explained below) which allows you to step interpretation.
through a BASIC listing one line at a time. To implement a wedge, the CHRGET sub
To sec the first line of your program, just routine located at 115-138 ($73-$8A) must be al
type: tered to go to your machine language program
@0 before returning to the interpreter. At the entry
point of the wedge, a check is made to see if the
(Entering any other number after the (a will start
special character (in this case, (<i) has been en
the listing at that line. There should be no spaces
tered. If it has, the special routine is executed.
between the (a and the line number, and the @
Otherwise, the character is sent to the interpreter
must be on the left margin.)
for normal BASIC interpretation and execution.
Then, press any key, and the next lino will be
displayed. Press the SPACE bar and hold it down, Using ROM Routines
and (he listing will continue scrolling until the
Step Lister uses many of the subroutines which
space bar is released.
are part of the BASIC ROM in the VIC and 64.
If you wish to stop Step Lister, press RUN/
Analyzing some of the subroutines already in the
machine can prove useful.
Be sure to SAVE the program before you RUN
Although the BASIC ROMs in the VIC and
it because the VIC version is self-erasing, and if
64 are located at different addresses, they are very
there are any undetected errors, the computer
similar. If you find a subroutine in the VIC, you'll
may crash.
have little (rouble finding it in the 64. For example,
the subroutine to return to BASIC with READY is
What Is A Wedge? at SC474 in the VIC. In the 64 it's located at
To understand a wedge, you must first have some $A474.
knowledge of how BASIC works. When you press The wedge can be a powerful tool. If you
RETURN, one of two things happens. If (he en decide to write a wedge program of your own,
tered line has a number as the first character, the heed one word of caution: Do not try to alter the
computer assumes that a BASIC line is being en CHRGET subroutine with BASIC. You will be
tered. This line is then converted to BASIC tokens changing the way BASIC gets its instructions in
and put in its proper place in memory. (Tokens the middle of a BASIC program, and this will crash
are single-byte symbols which represent BASIC your computer.
commands. To save space and time, the computer See program listings on page 153, US
COMPUTEfs Gazelle Moy 1984 95


We are pleased to welcome Robert Sims and How Will You Use It?
his new column, "Home Telecommunica Users who rush into telecommunications unpre
tions," to COMPUTED GAZETTE. pared can find the process frustrating, time-
Robert has a thorough background with consuming, and prohibitively expensive. So
the VIC and 64, and has been involved in tele before you commit yourself to a telecomputing
communications for several years. system, you should ask the same question you
asked before you bought a computer: What will I
use it for?
I lome telecomputing is in a state of rampant Your investment in hardware and software,
growth. There arc thousands tif new users every the amount of money you must spend on connect
month. Understandably, such growth has given charges, and what you ultimately get out of it,
rise to a number of myths. Some of the most com can ail depend on this question.
mon mixtures of fact and fiction are: The simplest, and least expensive, service
• Telecommunications is just a vast play available to you is one-to-one communication.
ground for business executives and profes You call a friend, hook the computers to the phone
sional programmers. line, and swap data and programs or type mes
sages to each other using your keyboards.
• It's very expensive.
The next level of service is the bulletin board
• The information networks want commercial system (BBS). It's the electronic equivalent of those
customers; they don't like to bother with notice boards found in laundromats, libraries,
beginners on a budget. and other public places. A BBS is usually run by a
• You have to know all about things like computer user or by a user group. You can dial
ASCII, A and B protocols, and file translation. the BBS phone number, hook up your modem,
and read the messages left by other users or leave
Finding What You Need messages of your own.
The purpose of this monthly column is to help Some boards have a chat feature which allows
dispel these myths, and others, and to help you you to "talk" with the sysop (system operator)
become an accomplished telecommunicator. via your keyboard.
The emphasis here is on communication, on You can access these two levels with an inex
obtaining information for your own use, or to pensive modem and a dumb terminal program.
share with others. Although we will examine Copies of such programs are in the public domain,
some technical aspects of the subject in passing, and are often available from user groups. (Some
the main idea is to help you find what you need, manufacturers, like Commodore, provide pro
rather than to talk about how the computers do grams with their modems.)
their job.
Home telecomputing is barciy out of the ex Transferring Files
perimental stage, and there is already more infor So far, all you're basically doing is dialing a phone
mation available in more data bases than you can and typing on the keyboard. Anything you send
access in a lifetime. In addition, you can choose to anybody else must be entered manually.
from a long list of modems and software, each You will probably also want to send long
with different features. Your range of choices is messages or programs which you have already
limited only by how much time and money you typed into your computer or saved on disk or
decide to spend. cassette. To send it (or receive it) all at once without
96 COMPUTE! S Gazelle May 1984
^olumn Smart Termii
For Your C64 Without Any Hardware Change!
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wth m iwh 9*rtn>tn. to & town dispbj sire he *li «rth ■ Built-in 40, 64, 60 and 106 columns
rf les tte «, « *>J 1$ (tor«Ur display - ard it dt ■ Word wrap for a formatted display
=ry hritar? charts. I«sif^ lftrfi-rjrtsrsaio Inn?;. Ha*, th ■ Talk to any computer
rtn> tfwt en w sreen than on nj utlf's frpfe cr m dsJ's IBM- PC!
I rut auto-dwl to ict* rtfit *ay. 1 aXiroiakd Cop^erw, but ■ Use any modem and printer
wukh't *t ttro*, so I hsi WP TffHirul r*dul 'til it 9* trrixtf - it ■ Written in fast machine code
ctuled fw hhjUs strait*! Ten I aAr-kffltf en ui\h cw of ty & ■ 15 entry phone directory
i i^E, aid dwikafel km? g-$nks screens, 3rd stock aote fir ffei
frited it ja axi it to di* ^ it a* en tte screm. lW fM rcu I e
■ 20 programmable keys
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1» w. flrd Kith the «arw eptxrii trer* art a atfuter I can't tafc to.
list's rsalfc nwt is M Wtl* te a i^le WP Lkr^y of ■ 128 character ASCII keyboard
tf,FTog-«, iire Wire i *r>J fc-icKscr, spreadsheet f ■ Simultaneous on line printing and
■tan mil bbe cutt son. Sis
Si &iV* rfBle set far hj biHMay. saving of files to tape and disk
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oducing The VIP Library

The Library Concept Icons Make Learning Easy Professional Displays
The VIP Terminal is only the first in a Hi-res technology and sprites allow The 40-characters-per-line display of
whole series of elegant software for VIP Library programs to bring you task the Commodore 64 is inadequate for
your Commodore 64 called the VIP Icons, made famous by the Apple Lisa" serious computing. An BO-column
Library. This complete collection of and the Xerox Star™. With these display is the industry standard. VIP
easy-to-use, serious, high quality, advanced sprite representations of the Library programs bring this standard to
totally interactive productivity software task options open to the user, even the your Commodore 64 with state-of-the-
includes VIP Writer, VIP Speller, VIP total novice can, at a glance, perform "art graphics, without need for costly
Calc, VIP Database, VIP Oisk-ZAP, VIP every task with ease. Just look at the hardware modifications. With VIP
Accountant and VIP Tax. Ail are equal icon and press a keyl No programs are Library programs you can freely choose
in quality to much more expensive easier or more fun lo learn and use! from four displays: the standard 40
software for the IBM PC,' and all are column display, plus a 64. 80 and even
very affordable! Total Compatibility a 106 column by 25 line display. With
All VIP Library programs are these programs you can have more text
compatible with each other and other on your screen than on an IBM PC or
computers for easy file transfer. Each an Apple Me with an 80-column board!
uses ASCII, the universal language of Welcome to the professional world!
computer communications so that files
can be sent to and received from other Who Is Softlaw?
computers without modification! The
Library also gives you the benefit of a Softlaw Corporation has years of soft
consistent icon and command ware experience in micros. We currently
structure. Once you have learned one offer the full-line VIP Library for other
program, the others will come easily. micros in the U.S. and in Europe. Now we
are bringing this experience to the Com
modore 64 so you get ultra-hrgh quality
For Orders ONLY software at very affordable prices.
— Call Toll Free — I
Virtual Memory
VIP Library programs are not limited
by the size of your computer's Order Status and Software Support avj
memory. All programs use virtual call (612) 881-2777
memory techniques to allow creation
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and use of files larger than your
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computer's available work area. You're
only limited by the space on your disk! MAIL ORDERS: $3.00 U.S. Shipping ($5.00
C19S3 by Soltbw Corporation checks allow 3 weeks. ARE ENCOURAGED.
retyping it, you will need software which has The Fees Are Higher
upload (send) and download (receive) capabilities. Most dedicated data bases, however, are not in
Most dumb terminal software does not have expensive. Whereas the most popular utilities
these capabilities, so if you want to upload and charge $5 to S8 per hour for connect time in the
download, you'll have to purchase a commercial evening, the usage fees for dedicated data bases
package, or write the routines yourself. There are are generally much higher. Also, some data bases
terminal software packages available for under transmit data at faster speeds than most low-cost
$40 which allow you to upload and download. modems can accept.
These packages usually offer additional features Before you purchase your modem and soft
such as a screen dump lo your printer, and include
ware, you should decide at what level you will be
programs to translate your files into the proper looking for information. If you buy a simple
formats for uploading, and translate downloaded modem and inexpensive software and then decide
files to fit your computer's formats. to access a dedicated data base, you may find that
your system is incompatible because of the wrong
A Wider Choice transmission rate or special characters missing
The next level up is the information utility (also from the software.
called a network). Utilities offer a collection of
different, often unrelated, services which arc ac Remote Access
cessible through a single phone number. The If you want to call (or let others call) your computer
CompuServe Information Service, The Source, from another location to upload data or download
Dow Jones News/Information Retrieval Service,
from your own files, you will need a modem that
and Delphi are some examples.
automatically answers the phone, and software
On the utility you will find hundreds of data
that allows the remote user to download data
bases and service companies, providing bulletin from the unattended computer. For this kind of
boards aimed at different computer brands, con advanced telecommunications, you may want lo
ference lines on which you can talk to other users have a modem with programmable features and
or manufacturer spokespersons, data bases full of special software, so you can use private control
public domain programs which you can down codes to lock out uninvited callers.
load, shop-at-home and bank-at-home services,
You may want to use a computer and modem
and many others. away from home and charge the call to your home-
Again, you can access this level of service
phone, using a calling card number to save
with the least expensive modem and any terminal operator-assistance charges. In that case, you
software (to upload or download, of course, your must either dial the call yourself (on a Touch-Tone
software must have the capability). phone) or have a modem that automatically dials
the phone using tones. Some auto-dial/auto
Getting Special Service
answer modems send tones and some send pulses;
Some network services require special software. some allow you to choose which to send.
For example, CompuServe offers Vidtex, a terminal If you travel a lot and take your computer
software package designed to access special fea with you, you should consider buying a modem
tures such as color graphics and screen formatting,
which will dial on both pulse and tone phone lines.
in addition to regular services. You can access
regular CompuServe services without Vidtex, but
you won't get the full use of the network. Next
Price And Compatibility
month we'll look at this package in more detail. Generally, the more sophisticated your needs,
The next level of service you might want to the more expensive it will be to meet those needs.
consider is the dedicated data base. If you are a It is not necessary to become a telecommunications
farmer, there are data bases of agricultural infor expert to make a decision about what lo buy, but
mation. If you are a doctor, a free-lance writer, a it is necessary to do some homework in order to
stockbroker, or an environmental activist, there is know if a product or service meets your needs at
a data base dedicated to your field. In fact, what a price you can afford.
ever your profession or interest, you will probably Once you've decided which services, modem,
find a data base designed for your use. and software you want, ask the service firms if
Some dedicated data bases are operated by your modem and software are compatible with
individual companies, for their customers. Some their access requirements. And while you're at it,
large banks now have phone numbers available you could order their user manuals. They are
which allow customers to hook up their modem- usually inexpensive and up-to-date, and are your
equipped computers. This allows the user to pay best resources for finding the best route through
bills and transfer money between accounts from the many menus you will encounter on the
home. utilities.

9a COMPUTEIS CaiollB Moyl9B^


$199 1701 Color Monilor $249.00 MSD
VIC EO CAU OPS Dalsywheel Primer .,, S4 59.O0 SO 1 Dish Drive 1349 00
M-BOl DolMalrn/Parillal. tSIB.DO Magic Vole* Speech Module ... $54.00 SD 2 Dnk 0'iva $533.00
Epson CAIL
MCSB01 Color Primer S499 00 Desk Organiser Lock,...,,, ,.$49.00 CABPCO. Okldaia CALL
1520 Color Prin1er/Plonar ...SI 29.00 1311 Joytiick.aach ....$4.99 Light Pan S32.0O
Star Gemini ki OX $309.00
1530 Data&etle S69.OO 1312 Paddles .511.99 3 Slot VIC Expansion tni $32.00 Slar Gemini Delia 10 S55Q.00
1541 Dish Drive S249.00 11 10 VIC BK -.$42.00 6 Slot Expansion Int S79.OO
SmllhCorona TP-2 $399.00
ifioo vic Modem S59.0O 1111 VIC 1BK --S69.O0 Caasslfe Interlace $29.00 C.lioh Prowriler H51OP S379.OO
1610 VIC Term 40 S59.00 1011 HS-232 Interface .-$42.00 Parallel Printer InierfBcn S49.00 C.lioh Gorilla $209.00
1850 AD/AA Modem $89.00 1311 Super Expander ..$53.00 Parallel Interface w/Graphlct-.SB9.O0 HMCBK80 S269 00

| COM B4 Hororonce Guide .. S1U.0O
Hoitid Inventory SI 1.00 Spelling Bae-
j EaiyCalc S65.00 Centipede .......,..........,.$37.99
Household Finance S23.O0 GraQei 2. 3, 4. 5. or 6 . $8.00
EaiyFinancel, II. III. IV PacMan S37.99
CB4 CARTRIDGES Math Drill .. . .sa.oo
I EaiyMail S19.00 Tr ashman $39-00
Donkey Kong $37.BB
Portfolio Manager........... $16.00
EaiyScnpl ..$39-00 Dig Dug $37.99
C<64 DISKS Dala Manager ....... .... SI 6.00
Worfl/Name Machine S19.00
Home inventory ..S11.00 Defender $37.99
EaiySpell S19.O0 VIC 20 DISKS
Household Finance S29.O0 Robotron .,,.,,..,..S37.ftB
Accounti Receivable ........S39.00 General Ledger S69.DD
VIC 20 CASSETTES Slargale S3* .99
Account Payable 539.00 Mailing LisE Manager S35.00
Home Invonlory $12.00 HES
General Ledger ....£39.00 Inventory Package ......... $69-00
Household Finance $14.00 VIC 30CAHTHIDGES
Auamblar SI 9.DO Payroll .169.00
VIC 20 CARTRIDGES VIC Forth $32 00
Logo 539.00 Data Bale S49.O0
Aslro Dlitf ........$21.00 HES Mon $29 00
Pilot S39.O0 C-84 CASSETTES
Slack Hole S32.00 KES Writer $29 00
Pol Emulator SI 9.00 Slack Bo* $13.00
Trashman $21.00 Aggressor .,.$39.00
! Screen Editor S19.00 ChoDlll'er S21.00 Synthesound S31.00
Color Sketch . S20.0D
Muilc Machine SI 5.00 Match Maker S16.00
Shamut $29.00
Music Composer £15.00 C-64 DISKS
DYNATECH Protector $29.00
VIC .'II (,.M!TRIOGE5 S DISKS Mailing List Manager .$45.00
C-64 DISK Turtle Graphics $29.00
j Gorlek*tfieMiCroChlOS(C)...STS.OO Code writer $75.00 C 64 CARTRIDGES
Inventory Package .179.00
Super Slol <R| 114.00 HES Mon $29.00 General Ledger $79.00
Super Allen (R| SI 4.00 EPYX HES Writer.,.,,,..,.,.,, S35.00 Payroll .170.00
I Jupiter Lander|H) $14.00 NUFEKOP Data Base . 169 00
Fljiclnr nm Race | P.} $14.00 HiCUChel $32.00 VIC 30 CASSETTES Caicnertult SI 39.00
Count Anvonture IB) S21.00 Sword Of Far goal S24.00 Alien Panic S1O00 □ lack Bon .118.00
Plnbnll Spectacular (H) II9.00 Race Fun-Drag Race SI 6 00 Color Sketch $33.00
Hoscuo nl Riael $24.00
| VIC Holeronco Guide SIS.00 The Catup S10O0 Match Maker $20.00
ABTWQRX Exterminator $19 00
C-64/VIC 30 CARTRIDGE 3-D Man ..$16.00
I Bridge 3.0 S15.00 Galactic Bhu... 519.95
| Teacher's Pel rSl 2.00 Word Processor........ S49.O0
Swarm $22.95
Typo (20/641 S39.OO
Sidewinder 522.95
| Martian Raid SI 6.00 VIC 20 CARTRIDGES Personal Finance $48.00 C 64/VPC 20 CASSETTES
Shark Trap SIB.00 Amok $30.00 Writers Assistant $95.00 Adventure Pak 1(3 games) ...$12-00
| Mullitaund Synlhetiier Sib.00 Meteor Run $40.00 Spreadsheet Assistant $05.00 Adventure Pak ll[3 games]... SI 2.00
Allen mill S30.00 QUANTUM Annihilation ..,-.-..-. .SIC 00
VIC 20 CASSETTES VIC 30 CASSETTES 40/8DColumnVideo Board- -$95.00 Grave Robber $11.00
| Mrjlor Huh S23.00 Cloud Bunt SI 5.00 40/80Col Video Board 116KI. $ 179.00 Kongo Kong , $16.00
Conlipod S23-00 Video Verman $1 3.00 SIRIUS Trek Sti.00
C 64 CASSETTES duet covens Deadly Duck S21.00 SOFTWARE
] Road Toad.., S24.00 CC4/VIC 20 Cover $9.99 Spider City $19.00 Word Pro 64 plus spell - S65 00
We ct i r'v & DolGctian from th r: above manufacturers plus...

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Home Telecommunications Glossary
A And B Protocols: Two sets of telecommuni munications software makes some provision
cations guidelines used by the CompuServe for file translation, the only thing you need
Information Service. Protocols include infor to know is what kind of file it is and which
mation on how information is lo be stored translation program to use.
and transmitted, and which special characters Modem: Modulator/demodulator. An inter
are used to control the information exchange. face which translates a computer's digital
ASCII (American National Standard Code for In signals into sounds which can be transmitted
formation Interchange): Data is transferred over over telephone lines, and translates incoming
phone lines as ASCII codes. Several varia sounds into the signals which your computer
tions exist (including Commodore ASCII) in recognizes.
which nonstandard codes are used. In order Public Domain: If an article or program is in
for a VIC-20 or Commodore 64 to communi the public domain, anyone may use it for
cate with a non-Commodore computer, Com any purpose. Copyrighted material (such as
modore ASCII must be translated to standard the articles and programs in COMPUTED
ASCII. This is one of the functions which your GAZETTE) is not in the public domain. Dis
terminal program performs automatically. tributing copyrighted material, or using it in
Data Base: Also called a data bank, it's an or your own software which you distribute, is
ganized mass of information. against the law.
Dumb Terminal: Software which causes your Pulse Dialing: When you dial a number on a
computer to act as a terminal for a remote regular dial phone, you send a set of clicks,
computer. A dumb terminal is used as a or pulses, over the line. A Touch-Tone phone
keyboard only; all processing is done by the sends tones of different frequencies which
host computer. represent the numbers 0-9 and some special
characters. Pulse dialing will work on a
File Translation: Different services organize
Touch-Tone line, but Touch-Tone dialing
files using their own formats. Before you can
use them, downloaded files must be trans will not work on a pulse line.
lated into a format compatible with your Screen Dump: Copy the contents of screen
computer and software. Since most telecom memory to the printer.

Other Resources complicated choices between modems, software,

If your telecomputing needs require you lo access and services, the temptation might be to restrict
dedicated data bases and bulletin boards in some your use to brief forays into local bulletin boards
special field of interest, you may want to add some and familiar services on the networks.
directories to your computer library. They contain If you are daunted by that mountain of data,
categorized listings and descriptions of hundreds keep in mind that it took 6000 years, more or less,
to put il together. Don't expect to have access to
of data bases.
Two recently published directories are the the accumulated written knowledge of the human
Omm Online Database Director}/ and The Computer race after spending only a few dollars and a couple
Phone Book. of hours at a keyboard.
The Omni directory contains information on If you have questions or ideas about subjects you'd like
more than 1000 commercial and governmental to see coi'ered in this column, write to: Home Telecom-
data bases in 50 categories. The Computer Phone munications, COMPUTE'S GAZETTE, P.O. Bax5406,
Book is oriented more toward the home com- Greensboro, NC 27403. Or scnti EMAIL. My Compu
puterist; it lists more than 400 national networks Serve ID is 75005,1553. My Delphi ID is BOZART.
and local bulletin boards. This book also contains Omni Online Database Directory
information for the beginner on how telecom edited by Mike Edelhart ami Owen Davies
munications works, and in the case of the national Macmillan Publishing Company
networks, provides tips on how to log on, with 866 Third Avc.
facsimiles of the menus you will encounter. Both NeivYork, NY 10022
books include information on connect charges, ISBN: 0-02-079910-1 570.95
on-line services, and addresses where you can The Computer Phone Book
write for more information. by Mike Cane
Nciv American Library, Inc.
After 6000 Years 1633 Broadway
It's easy to be overwhelmed by the massive New York, NY 10019
amount of information available. After facing the ISBN: 0-452-25446-9 $9.95 <$
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Order tram MFJ and try it. If not delighted, Planeliall (0) 37 00 Brothar/Drna> DX-15
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Cassette Beeper
Don Brady

Watching and waiting for programs to load there even after other programs have been executed.
and save is often tedious and time-consuming. Even a SYS 64802, which resets the computer, does
This program will signal you when your VIC not affect the program in the stack. After a reset or
or 64 is ready for more work. a RUN/STOP-RESTORE, you'll need to SYS 267 on
the VIC to reset the LOAD and SAVE pointers.
The 64 version of Cassette Beeper (Program 2)
If you use a DataSSette with your VIC-20 or Com resides at $C000 (49152) and works just like the VIC
modore 64, you know how long it can fake to version. To start the 64 version, you must RUN
load or save programs on tape. "Cassette Beeper" Program 2 and (hen enter SYS 49152. You'll also
will change the LOAD and SAVE operations to need this SYS to restart the beeper after a reset or
signal you with a beep when the LOAD or SAVE RUN/STOP-RESTORE.
is completed. You can go on to other work until See program listings on page 753. <&
the beep sounds, instead of just staring at the

Program 1 (the VIC version) locales itself at

the top of memory and will remain there until the
computer is turned off, or the top of memory
pointers (locations 55 and 56) are changed. If the
RUN/STOP and RESTORE keys are used, a SYS
to the start of the program is needed to reset the
LOAD/SAVE vectors. Since the address of the top
of memory will vary depending on the amount of People
expansion RAM installed on the VIC, the program
will print the appropriate SYS location. Remember
this value in case you need it later to restart the
Using The Stack know what today's young
If you have an unexpanded VIC, or are loading or people are doing with com
saving a program that uses all available memory,
you may want to delete lines 20 and 25 and change
puters. We want our readers to
the following lines: know, too. If you've written an
10 EM=267 interesting program for the
15 PT=EM
VIC-20 or Commodore 64, share
These changes cause the machine language to be
it with us. See the Author Guide
located in the operating system's stack so that no
BASIC memory is used. elsewhere in this issue, and tell
The stack is used for temporary storage by us your age when you submit
machine language programs, and by the computer's
an article.
operating system. These changes locate the beeper
routine deep enough in the stack to remain un
touched by most programs. The program is still
102 COMPUTE!'* Goielle Moyl98<1
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Mods And Bombs

Our all machine language game is nearly finished. pointer (253) is pointing to the next position up
Everything we've done so far—the frame, the screen from the previous bomb print. We cannot
enemies, the paddle, and this month's addition, just put a new bomb image there without first
the bombs—is contained in Programs 2 and 3. checking to see if we're up at the top border or
Those are UASIC loader programs, .so you can have encountered an enemy character. Line 49401
type them in and RUN them without knowing CoMPares this new position against a blank. LDA
anything about machine language (ML). But our has put whatever is in this position into the A
goal is to become familiar with ML, so let's look at register for tine comparison. In other words, if the
Program 1, the routine which fires bombs. character is not a blank (32), then we have hit some
This is a disassembly (a LISTing) of the 64 thing. BNE (Branch Not Equal) sends us down to
version, but the VIC version is essentially identi 49412 for further comparisons: Is it a border? (224),
cal. Lines 49370-49376 lake the paddle position an enemy? (90). In either case, we go back to the
address and put it into a new pointer, the bomb main loop (at 49260). Later we'll add some scoring
position address. When first fired, a bomb will and visual effects to show that we've hit an enemy
come out of the paddle and, thus, share the character.
paddle's address. Then line 49378 sends us to a If we've not hit anything, however, the BNE
subroutine (lines 49423-49436) which subtracts 40 at 49403 doesn't send us anywhere. We slide
from the bomb position. (This is the only differ through it to 49405, load in a bomb character,
ence between the 64 and VIC versions: The VIC store it at the new bomb position, and JuMP back
version subtracts 22 since VIC lines are 22 charac up to repeat the blank-checkit-printbomb loop.
ters long.) This loop will continue until that BNE forces an
This subtraction has the effect of moving the exit because we've encountered a border or an
bomb up one screen line. If we do this repeatedly, enemy. That's it for this month's new routine.
in a loop, the bomb appears to leave the paddle However, the game is beginning to take shape and
and travel up towards the enemies. to draw us towards its final form. Sometimes the
game itself, not the programmer, dictates required
The Bomb Image modifications and reveals improvements.

After RTS (ReTurn from Subroutine), we land up

Shrinking The Paddle,
at line 49381 where tho Y register is loaded with
zero and the A register is loaded with the bomb Improving The Timer
character, 193. Then 5TA (253) Y prints a bomb In the March issue, we drew a paddle that was
on screen at the correct bomb address. Now we've five characters wide. This would be fine for a game
got to slow things down a bit. Without a delay which bounced a ball around the screen and used
loop, you'd never see the bombs at all. Line 49387 the paddle to smack it as in Ping-Pong. But we're
puts the amount of delay into the X register and firing bombs. With such a fat paddle, we can't get
jumps to a SubRoutine. This subroutine (see near enough to the sides to send bombs at enemies
below) counts down X (and also Y) and serves located close to the right or left border. What to
only to take up some time. do? It's simple; we'll just draw a paddle that's
The next job is similar to printing the bomb only one character wide. There are four places
except that this time (linos 49392-4) we're printing where the size of the paddle is controlled by the
a blank character, the space, number 32. Without number placed into the Y register (49300, 49313,
this, we'd have a trail of bombs running up the 49333, and 49351). Those numbers have been
screen. Then, once again we JSR down to the sub reduced this month to shrink the paddle size.
tract 40 from bomb address routine. You can disassemble the program after running
After returning this time, the bomb address the BASIC loader to see this modification.
104 COMPUTEIS Gazelle May 1984
the Word Processor
with Less."

WORD COMMANDER 64 Your Commodnrt never f[>r words.

ou have to look very closely to find what we left out of our new word processor. But
once you try the WORD COMMANDER 64 you'll discover what's missing. We've taken the
process out of word processing and put it where it belongs—in our software. With the
WORD COMMANDER 64 there's less for you to do and more that it does. And that makes
you look good. ■
•extremely user friendly
Only Two Hands. Follow Your Ideas.
• menu driven
The WORD COMMANDER 64 is a •full word wrap The words you need to write represent
complete word processor. We've •block text right your ideas; and they flow—one after
•center text another. So we designed the WORD
included every function you'll need and
•right justify text
some comforts you'll enjoy. And we COMMANDER 64 to work along witr
•delete a block of text
didn't hide them in complicated codes your thought processes. And not slow
•insert a block of text
or commands that require three hands. •move a block of text you down. We did that by making it
Everything about the WORD •copy a block of text less complicated and easier to use. So
COMMANDER 64 makes plain sense. •three different fonts supported easy you probably already know how
•print in bold type to use it.
•print in elongated type
Less Hassle. •allows sending of any control codes to
Oh, there's one more thing missing
When you write you probably change your printer from the WORD COMMANDER 64,
your mind a lot, Now changing your •select any background color of your the high price: Only $49.95
text is almost as easy as changing your preference Includes full manual and tutorial.
mind. Like when you want to •select any character color as well
underline a word or group of words all •select cursor color
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COMMODORE Is a legistsrad tradsmark of COMMODORE BuslnosaMocMnosLld.
We've also improved the delay timer. In 49376 STA 254

March, this subroutine just LoaDed Y with zero 49378 JSR 49423

and counted down until Y reached zero again. 49381 LDY # 0

This month, we've added an outer loop involving 49383 LDA 193

X. Not only will this cause much longer delays, 49385 STA ( 253 )Y
49387 LDX # 10
hut it's also more flexible. Before we JSR to the
49389 JSR 49361
delay subroutine, we first load X with a number
49392 LDA # 32
reprcseniing the amount of delay we want. See
49394 STA ( 253 )Y
line 49387. This lets us fine-tune the game so that
49396 JSR 49423
it's challenging yet fair and also gives us greater
49399 LDA I 253 )Y
control over the animation effects. 49401 CMP # 32
49361 LDY # 0 49403 BNE 49412
49363 DEY 49405 LDA # 193
49364 BNE 49363 49407 STA i; 253 )Y
49366 DEX 49409 JMP > 49387
49367 BNE 49361 49412 CMP # 224
49369 RTS 49414 BEQ 49420
One last modificalion. In March, the main 49416 CMP # 90
49418 BEQ 49307
loop checked for only three keypresses: 1 for left
49420 JMP > 492613
paddle movement, 3 for tight, and 0 for exit. This
49423 SEC
month we've added (w to fire a bomb. Next month
49424 LDA 253
we'll take care of one final oddity about the be
49426 SBC # 40
havior of the paddle (can you spot it?) and add
49428 STA 253
the final animated objects—descending spikes.
49430 LDA 254
49432 SBC # 0
Program 1: Fire Bomb
49434 STA 254
49370 LDA 251 49436 RTS
49372 STA 253
49374 LDA 252 See program listings an page 154.

VIC - 20 / COM - 64
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104 COMPUTE!'! Gazelle May 1984



Commodore £* >S J trxfcmarK ol CemmrWore i

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• Line editing capability allows correcting and resending long command lines. RABB'T is not cfily fosi Dui reliable
• 9 Quick Read functions. (Tho Rabbii lew the VIC 20 coniacns an eipansi on con-
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COMPUTEI's Gazelle Mo/1994 107


well-made, but the number one priority is com

Mysterious Lockup Revisited
patibility. What good is a $100 warp-speed drive
In the January GAZETTE, I documented a strange
with printer port and five-year warranty if you
lockup. The lockup happens when you type two
can't read and write lo and from standard Com
full screen lines at the bottom of the screen (until
modore disks? Without compatibility, how can
the cursor wraps around the right margin twice),
you trade programs with your friends, or load
then try to back up to the long line with INST/DEL.
commercial software from the drive?
As it DELetes the seventy-ninth character, LOAD,
There are several levels of compatibility. First,
then RUN are fed into the keyboard buffer. If you
you should be able to format, read, and write to
have a BASIC program in memory, it will be run.
your own disks. That's taken for granted. You
Otherwise, READY will appear, with the cursor,
should also be able to load almost any Commodore
but no typing will be accepted. In January, 1 said
disk. 1 say almost because not even 1541s can al
there is no way to correct the problem short of
ways read each other's disks. A third level of
turning off the computer (or using the Emergency
compatibility is that you should be able to write
without harm to any Commodore disk. Again,
Actually, you can escape the lockup without
some flaky 1541s can read but not write to a disk
such drastic measures. Press SH1FT-3, then let
they haven't formatted.
go. You'll see "PRESS PLAY ON TAPE." If you
More subtly, the disk should be as much like
have a cassette unit, press PLAY, then RUN/
the 1541 internally as possible. The hardware
STOP. Now press RUN/STOP-RESTORE. You're
doesn't have to be the same, but the DOS inside
saved! The lockup only seems to happen with
the disk drive should support every tricky 1541
certain cursor colors: red, cyan, blue, yellow, light
technique, from relative files to Block-Allocate.
red, dark gray, light blue, and light gray. The safe
There's just one complication. If a company used
colors are black, white, purple, green, orange,
the same DOS as the 1541, there would be a po
brown, medium gray, and light green.
tential copyright violation. Apple and Franklin
Tae Kyun Kim aiso noticed that the lockup
(who makes an Apple-compatible computer) are
will not happen if the following program is in
still slugging it out in court over the question of
ROM copyrights. If it's better to be safe than sorry,
10 OPEN 15,8,15 the manufacturer will have to rewrite the DOS.
20 !NPUT#15,A$
In any rewrite, you leave the security of a
Of course, unless you always type this in, the debugged, tested DOS. You try to copy all the
chances are slim that it will be there. Special thanks features and functions of the 1541 DOS, but DOS
to readers Peter Ulrich and Graydon W. Harman is not a trivia! program. One little error, and you
who also sent in solutions to the strange lockup have to face hordes of angry owners with trashed
bug. disks.
Considering the difficulty, Micro Systems
New Hardware Development's (MSD) Super Disk Drive is re
We know that everyone is completely satisfied markably compatible. We received a unit for re
with the Commodore 1541 disk drive. It's quiet, view, so I thought I'd give you an early look.
fast, reliable, and inexpensive. What's that? A The MSD unit comes in a metal case and is
few dissenters? Well, if you don't agree, there are slightly smaller than the 1541. The disk slot is
some alternatives to the 1541 drive. vertical instead of horizontal, and there is a more
There are a few manufacturers that sell disk reliable drive clamp, which centers and grabs
drives for the Commodore 64, and we can expect onto the inner hub of the diskette. There are two
more third-party drives in the future. When LEDs: power on (green) and drive busy (red). The
shopping for a drive, you need to look for several power on light also flashes between red and green
things: compatibility, price, compatibility, relia when you get an error. The 1541 also has two
bility, compatibility, speed, compatibility, fea LEDs: a green one for power, and a red one that
tures, and compatibility. I suppose the point's flashes when you get an error, stays steady when
108 COMPUTE!'* Gazelle May 1984

we sa/tf ivfre/7 our new
"invention " solved all our VIC-20™ and
Commodore-64 ™ programming problems

We had a problem. So we invented For the Commodore 64 we came up with SOLVE YOUR PROGRAMMING
PC-DocuMate1" to solve it. The problem was a really clever summary table for showing PROBLEMS WITH PC-DocuMate"
how to quickly master the VIC-20 and almost everything you ever need to know for Order your PC-DocuMato loday (by
CBM-64 keyboards and easily start pro sprite graphics. phone or mail) and solve your VIC-20 or
gramming in BASIC on our new personal CBM-64 programming problems. Send only
computers. First we went through the GETTING EASIER S12.95 and specify which computer you
manuals. Now we had organized the most essential have. We pay for shipping and handling
information for our VIC ant) 64 in Ihe most Use ihe coupon below or call 919-787-7703
logical way. BASIC, music, color graphics, for laster service.
The user's guide was a nuisance and the
and sprites all seemed a lot easier. Our
programmer's reference manual was just
imlial problem was solved by PC-Docu-
plain inconvenient to use. We found the
control key combinations confusing and Ihe
But we have a confession to make. ! Please RUSH me VIC-20
introduction to BASIC to be loo "basic" for
our needs. We needed a simple solution to WE CHEATED templates and/or CBM-64 tem
our documentation problems. We had solved this kind of problem plates at $12.95 each. I have enclosed
So we decided lo surround tho keyboard before. In fact, many times before You see.
S by:
of each PC with the inform a lion we wanted. we at SMA developed Ihe original PC-Docu
Check Money order MC/VISA
We decided to print whatever we needed on Mate lor the IBM PC. We've made templates
sturdy plastic templates which would fit the for IBM BASIC and DOS. for WORDSTAR",
keyboard of either the VIC-20 or Commo VISICALC" and other best-selling soltware
dore 64. packages for the IBM PC.
So we knew we could invent another Name
PC-OocuMate" to solve our problems with
This was the simple solution to our prob
the VIC-20 and Commodore 64. Now our
lem. Now we could have the essential
solution can be yours and you can join Ihe Address
information right at our fingertips.
thousands of satisfied users of our template
On the lefl side and top of the templates
we pul BASIC lunclions. commands, and
Take advantage of our experience and
statements On the lower lefl we used key City Slate Zip
success with PC-DocuMate templates Gel
symbols to remind us of how to use SHIFT,
one tor your personal computer.
RUN/STOP. CTRL and the ".Commodore"
key. Over on the bottom righl side we put SOME SPECIFICS
Card It Exp.
some additional keys to help remember Our templates for the VIC and 64 are
about CLR/HOME and RESTORE. But we made from the same high quality non-glare
were slill a little contused. plaslic as the more expensive IBM PC
versions. Signal me
The templates are an altraclive gray
We found we were confused about music
color and are imprinied wtlh a special black Foreign orders (except Canada) add 55 CO US
programming, color graphics, and sprites.
ink which bonds permanently lo ihe plastic.
On both the VIC-20 and the CBM-64 tem
They are precision die-cut to fit your
plates we carefully organized and summar Mail to: Systems Management Associates
ized the essential reference data for music 3700 Computer Drive, Dept. J-1
Unlike some other products we've seen
programming and put it across the top- P.O. Box 20025
in this category. PC-DocuMate templates
showing notes and Ihe scale. All those Raleigh, North Carolina 27619 I
are professionally and expertly designed.
values you must POKE and where to POKE
And they are fully guaranteed.
them are listed.
Then to clarify color graphics we laid out
screen memory maps showing character
and color addresses in a screen matrix (We We guarantee your satisfaction You musl
got this idea from the manuals.) be satisfied with you! PC-DocuMale for your
For the VIC-20 we added a complete VIC-20 or CSM--64. Try il for 10 days and il VlC'20 and Commodore £4 ,im' tr.ui- rr.»h \ tji Ccin.rnodcKt.- Buju-
for any reason you are not satisfied ml urn il
memory address map for documenting nflss Machines, Inc
to us (undamaged} lor a full relund No rirt.
where everything is in an expanded or Ad no 731 Copyright 19S3. SMA

unexpanded VIC. O* ■ I or Jnqulrltt Jnwlnd.

the drive is busy, and turns off when there is no Well, MSD recently extended its 90-day warranty
access. The MSD LED scheme seems slightly more to a full year. For servicing, you return the unit to
logical. MSD, or go through a cooperative dealer.
Included with the drive is a serial cable to It just so happened that our MSD drive mal
attach the drive to the computer, a detachable functioned on us. When we first got it, it worked
power plug, and a 45-page "preliminary" manual. perfectly. Later on, though, it would refuse to
No sample disk was included, such as the 154! read any disks after it had been on for an hour or
test/demo disk which comes with the 1541. The so. Something in the drive was getting very hot.
MSD manual is a little better for beginners than Turning it off and letting it cool restored the drive.
Commodore's. The metal case may be a plus, but it makes it harder
Like the 1541, the MSD has its own operating for heat to escape. It wouldn't hurt the MSD drive
system, driven by a 6511Q microprocessor (similar lo have a small built-in fan. We can't say that this
to the 6502). It has 4K of RAM, which is used to is a problem with all MSD drives. MSD claims
buffer data. In addition to the serial port (with a their return rate is about I percent, and many of
.second port to let you chain another serial device, these do not suffer from hardware problems.
such as a printer), the MSD Super Disk Drive has Major software companies such as Broderbunci
an 1EEE-488 parallel bus. With an IEEE cartridge, have been using the drive and have no complaints.
.such as the CIE or VIH sold by MSD, you can sig- If you've used an MSD drive, wrile us and tell us
nilicanfly speed up disk access to the speed of a how it's worked for you.
Commodore 4040 (dual-drive unit used with the As mentioned, with an IEEE interface, you
PET/CBM). Unfortunately, this interface was not can substantially speed things up; but without it,
included in the review package, so we cannot I could hardly detect any difference in speed be
vouch for the speed with a VIC or 64. We did attach tween a 1541 and the MSD drive. The MSD may
the MSD drive to a Commodore 8032 instead of a be slightly faster, but not appreciably.
4040. The data transfer was fully up to the speed The MSD drive we used was a single drive
of a 4040, about twice as last as the 1541. unit. It offers only an IEEE port over the 1541.
Otherwise, there are no added features or en
Compatibility hancements. However, MSD also manufactures a
From all appearances, the MSD drive is completely dual-drive model.
compatible with existing 1541 disks. I read and
wrote to the same disk with both the MSD and a
Why Buy MSD?
1541 over a period of about a week. I never got a Given that the MSD costs more than a 1541, why
bad sector, nor a program that wouldn't load. would you buy it? First, it is less expensive than a
But when you get to the tricky details, the 2031 or 4040 if you want to use the IEEE cartridge.
MSD is not a 1541. Its DOS is a software product, Second, the metal case (which blocks moderate
and is constantly being "perfected." When we magnetism and RF interference) may extend the
were using it to make a backup copy of a disk, it life of the read/write head. Third, you might want
would not accept the command to change its de to own a dual-drive model (two drives in one case),
vice number from 8 to 9, even though this com not available from Commodore. Fourth, you may
mand is mentioned in the manual. This is be not be able to find .my 1541s in slock (or one that
cause we were using a drive which underwent a works). But otherwise, it's up to you.
revision in the DOS. Present drives have had this Micro Systems Development
problem fixed. 10031 Monroe Drive
MSD says they will offer a practically free Dallas, TX 75229

upgrade to the DOS whenever a new version is $399 (single disk drive)
available. You buy a new BPROM chip, and send $695 (dual drive unit)
in your old one for credit. Alternately, you could Although we haven't seen one yet, Concorde
go through your dealer, who would make the Peripheral Systems has its own 1541-compatible
exchange and work with MSD. disk drive. The Concorde C-321-P comes with a
parallel interface to speed up disk access "over
Reliability And Speed 100 percent." Promotional literature does not
The metal case and more positive head-centering indicate whether the interface is an IEEE-488.
lead you to believe thai the MSD drive is a heavy- Reliability is said to be enhanced by the use
duty piece of equipment. The MSD drive is a little of "full ball bearing mountings, with no pulleys
louder during disk access, making metallic clicks or belts, helping lo minimize spindle run-out and
and whines instead of the softer plastic-on-plastic to provide a 10,000-hour mean time between fail
sounds of the 1541. This also gives you a feeling ure rate." Whew! Concorde alludes to a major
of solid, metal construction. cause of 1541 failure: spindle run-out. The 10,000
How reliable does MSD think the drive is? MTBF rate should give you plenty of time to use
110 COMPUTE!1* Goietle Mayl98d
How to do your own maintenance, troubleshooting, GHIDIHON STflATEGV "64
schematics, theroy of operation, cleaning hints,
conversion from one power source to anolherand calibra AND YOU THOUGHT FOOTBALL SEASON WAS OVER
tion. These topics and many more GRIDIRON STRATEGY '64 and the Commodore 64 now
will make this manual a valued addi give you a year-round seat on the 50-yard line GRIDIRON
tion to your reference shell. Whettier STRATEGY '64 is a highly realistic simulation of football
you are an amateur electronics instincts NOT "Joystick Reflexes". Most football games
technician or a seasoned profes let you control a few players an a scrolling field. NOT
sional, you will be able to realize the GRIDIRON. In GRfDIRON. you coach the entire team and
full potential of your VIC-1541 by us ihe colorful field and the stadium styled Scoreboard are
ing this manual. Step-t>y-step In completely visiable at all times. Also, with Ihe use of TEAM
structions will lead you through the DATA DISK '84, the teams you control are the actual pro
proper methods to get your VIC-1541 teams, based on their performances in the '84-'85 season.
up and going in a hurry. The manual These disk can be updated every year, so you can constant
is 170 pages long, has two foldouts ly keep up with the rise and fall ol each team. Finally, com
and over 100 illustrations, including: pare these features with any other football game on the
Block Diagrams market, for any other computer:
Schematics Real time game anfl 30-second play clocks?
Waveforms Colorful Graphics, and Sprite animation?
Isometric (Pictoral) views Realistic sounds of a packed stadium?
Test point locators Optional print out copy of plays and statistics?

With all these illustrations and the detailed theory for each
Individuaoized teams, based on actual performances?
96 possible play combinations, inflnate results?
circut Involved, along with stop-by-step procedures to
Does not reguire and charts or dice for results?
follow, the manual is a great lime and money saver.
In-depth playbook and strategy sections?
GRIDIRON STRATEGY 64 offers all of these qualities.
Front Matter
Suggested retail price:
Section 1 Introduction
Section 2 Theory of Oporalion
TEAM DATA DISK '84 ■ $14.95
Section 3 Initial Configuration
Section 4 Performance Tost
Section 5 Calibration
Section 6 Disassembly/Reassembly
Section 7 Preventive Maintenance
Section B Troubleshooting
Section 9 Schematics and Parts Layout
Suggested list price: £39.05


20 keys. 19 of which may have 3 seperate definitions! Com

plete documentation! Works on the VIC-20(Expanded]and
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For VIC-1541 and 1541 Disk Drives
Great for use with business programs and electronic
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Reduces internal temcralures to safe operating levels.
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Increases life expectancy and icallabllltv ot disk drlva.
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QOSUB of Sildell, Inc.
Installs on both VIC-1541 and 1541 Disk Drives.
P. O. Box 17B1
The deal Dissipating hit cools the Internal components
Sildell. LA 70459
ot Iha Disk Drive by Uunsferrlng Internal heat to an exter.
(504) 641-8307
nai heat sink, where the heat is then dlssipaleded Into the
MasterCard and VISA
surrounding air. The kit will lower operating tompratures
Shipping & Handling S2.00
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thus allow all the IC's to operato within their absolute max
imum temprature ratings.
Dealer and Distributor Inquires welcoms
Suggested list price: $24.95
Here comes the new generation of SM's
the drive before it and your computer became
obsolete. Concorde also says that programs load
in one-fifth the time of the Commodore drive.
The Concorde drive attaches to the game
port (expansion port for those of you who scorn
program series for the 64.
games), and does not use any of the 64's memory.
An extension of the port allows you to plug other
cartridges into the interface. You can also attach /III TEXT64
The professional wordprocessar with more than 80 functions
up to three "slave" drives, which depend on the like multi-color selection, up to 120 columns/line without
intelligence of the master drive, so they will pre additional hardware, find tt replace, enhanced blockhandling.
direct-access to SM-ADREVA-lilas, and alt
sumably be cheaper. The price of the master drive The other usual features,

is $356, making it competitive with the 1541 (if the

extra speed is worth $100 to you). A half-height,
double-sided unit with 3S4K of storage is also
available for $446. We should be receiving a test
unit in a few weeks, and I'll give you a full report,
including details on compatibility.

Why 40 Columns?
A television can display no more than a certain
number of dots on a single line. A dot is formed
by a change in the signal going into the TV, and
that change can't happen faster than the TV can
keep up with it. Either you'll get a picture out of
sync, with tearing and rolling, or the TV will just
ignore the extra signal changes. This is partly due
to electronics that prevent bleedover between
adjacent channels.
With 8 dots per character horizontally, 40 SM SOFTWARE INC. 252 Bethlehem Pike Coimar. PA 18915

Here comes the new generation of SM's columns require 320 dots per line. This is just
about the limit of a TV. Eighty columns requires
640 dots per line, and this is too much for a TV (or
a color monitor, which has the same limitations).
So unless you use less than 8 dots per character,
program series for the 64. you can't get 80 columns on a TV set. One solution
is to draw characters in the high resolution mode.
Characters are just plotted from dots. To get 80
This Jndsx-soQuentinl lile manager given you a now dimension columns, we'll need to use 4 dots per character (4
on direct access files. Up to 40 kayi. various length for each x 80 = 320). One dot per character will need to be
record ond up to 10 files can be handled at the
some lime by this sophisticated modulo. How could your blank, otherwise the characters will run into each
programs survive without 5M-ISM?
other, rendering the text unreadable. It's pretty
PLACE YOUR CHECK OR MONEY ORDER NOW! tricky to define a recognizable character set with
only three dots horizontally. The figure shows
you how some of these characters would look.
Lowercase a <S>' Symbol

Capital A Lowercase g
with Descender

There are several word processing and termi

SM SOFTWARE INC. 252 Bethlehem Plkfl Coimar. PA 18915 nal programs which use this technique for 80 col-
112 "COMPUTEIS Gazelle May 1984
Here comes the new generation of SM's
umns. Since it is done in software, though, it is in
danger of being wiped out or interfered with by
other programs you run with it. Many programs
do not PRINT to the screen, either. A number
representing a character is just POKEd into the
program series (or the 64.
character memory, and the video chip is respon
sible for displaying the character. It" software is
responsible for displaying the character, it would SJHKIT64
The famous programming tool with powerful basic eitentions
have to update the screen 60 times a second, read like merge, find, renumbor. dump, trace, enhanced
ing an area of memory to see what's been changed. floppy-monitor (disc-docto(| and high efficient muchine-language-
monilor with bulk-In assembler, dlasgomblar, trace and lots
Impossible. You just can't update 8,000 bytus 60 of mors helpful leaturos-roally o golden tooM
times a second. Furthermore, if the software was
written for 40 columns, you can't change the
screen width and hope the software is smart
enough to figure it out.

Why 80 Columns?
Even hardware 80 column cards have this prob
lem—what do you do with it? You can write your
own programs to use 80 columns, even edit your
programs with it. But don't expect to plug in the
card and have your word processor or spreadsheet
adapt to the new screen width. Very little com
mercial software is written for 80 columns, and to
be honest, if it wasn't designed for 80 columns, it
won't adapt. BASIC programs that use PRINT to
display to the screen will still work, but since
they're based on a 40-column width, tables and
other screen formatting will be skewed all over. It SM SOFTWARE INC. 252 Bethlehem Piks Colmar. PA 18915

Here comes the new generation of SM's would be like running a 22-column VIC program
on your 40-column 64.
This may change in the future, as more com
panies support the Data 20 Video Pak 80. This
cartridge offers generation of 80 columns in
program series for the 64. hardware. This is true 80 columns, so it won't
work with a TV. A monochrome (green screen)
monitor, though, does have the necessary
Your personal professional .nitiiuv, M<- ■.y.ti-m. Up to 620
bandwidth to resolve 80 columns. Operation of
Addresses per disc in direct access. Including 5 extra lines for the Video Pak is fairly simple: just plug it into the
individual text/record. Totally menue-drivon.
Powerful editing and backup facilities. cartridge port (however, there's no extension to
Several hardcopy features.
let you chain other cartridges into the Video Pak),
PLACE YOUR CHECK OR MONEY ORDER NOW! then attach a supplied cable from the computer's
audio/video port into the cartridge. Turn on the
power, and you've got—40 columns.
To get into 80-column mode, you have to
SYS 36867. The screen clears, and with easy to
read characters, you're in 80-column mode. It's
surprising how well the normal Commodore
editor is supported. You can cursor around, insert
and delete, and change lines by pressing
RETURN. Scrolling is a little slower, and there is
some snow (similar to sparkle) during the scroll.
The function keys are also "live." The fl key
will shift into lowercase mode; f2 will switch back.
f3 will erase to end of line; f4 erases to the end of
the screen. If you have an RS-232 port already
open, you can press f6 to dump the screen to an
SM SOFTWARE INC. 262 Bethlehem Pike Colmnr. PA 1B916 RS-232 printer. I would have preferred that the
COMPUTE!1* Gazelle May 1984 113
dump work with a printer attached through the functional 80-column word processor, with many
serial port. A handy bonus is terminal mode in 80 commands. It formats on the screen, so you can
columns. It's a dumb terminal; it simply lets you see how the output will look, but you have to put
communicate with a modem plugged into the up with a few inconveniences to get this. A mailing
user port, with no frills like upload/download. list program is also included, and you can merge
You can also get an improved 40-column data created by the mailing list program with a"
display with SYS 36864. It should be noted that document on the word processor.
you can switch modes with software. This lets the
Data 20
computer control the cartridge, instead of your 23077 Moulton Parkway
having lo manually flip switches. An audio con Suite B10
nector on the cartridge lets you easily attach your isiytHti 1 lilh, CA 92653
computer to an amplifier or stereo system. There $179.95 (Video Pak 80) @
is documentation on accessing the Video Pak from
machine language.
One complication with many cartridges is
that they have to reside somewhere in the com
puter's address space—they take up memory.
Video Pak 80 resides at $9000-$9FFF, right at the Send for your FREE COPY of
top of user RAM, leaving you 4K less for BASIC
programming. You may not mind losing that 64 SHOPPER
RAM, given 80 columns, but certain machine
language programs may not be so sanguine. |Your complete source for C-64 and Vic software!
They'll try to use the RAM at $9000, and find that You've never seen anything like it!!
it's ROM, crashing both the Video Pak and the
machine language program. 64 SHOPPER
If nothing else, you can use Wordmaster20
BOX 187, FRASER, Ml. 48026
from Data 20, included with the Video Pak. It's a

Finally, Excellent Sottware
COMPUTE !'s At An Affordable Price!
Subscription Fas! random access In any record.

Order Line Search on any field. Machine Language

The Banner Machine'" sons Prints mailing labels Large
800-334-0868 For the Commodore 64 (3 extra fonts available)
For the VIOtO with S4K memory (! eitra lonti
records. Eight fislds.
InHC available). • Use on any Gemini of Epson MX with LOAN ANALYSIS SYSTEM
Graftm or the FX and HX printer!. Also Commo
919-275-9809 dore 1SS5E and Banana with the C-6* • Menu- Calculate a loan's term, interest
driven program operates like a word processor. ' rate, principal or monthly payment.
Makes signs up to 13" tail by any length • Makes
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114 COMPUTEI't Gotette May 198-1
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Here is the most extensive
A HIRES GRAPHIC ADVENTURE guerrilla tactics that have dim
hi-res adventure game ever
inished the Kings army. If the
developed and created for the
rebellion and the organization
Commodore 64. It encom
can be thwarted the rebel force
passes both sides of the disk
will be eliminated. His Majesty
and includes full color hi-res
is presently in hiding. YOUR
pictures. The story begins in
MISSION - You have been hired
the Kingdom of Acritym.
as a mercenary of your land.
You must locate the rebel
For numerous years the
meeting place. The journey will
Kingdom of Acritym has been
long and hard. Others before
ruled by Lord Cybal. A rebel REBEL you have fought valiantly, as
group has formed in an attempt FORCE you shall, only to meet their
to overthrow his majesty's
death inside the walls of Acritym.
Acritym's government. The
rebellion has left the majority of
Its all part of the most
Acritym's people exhausted,
complex intricate and huge
famished and defenseless. De
adventure ever created for the
spite the small size of the group,
Commodore 64. GOOD LUCK!
they have a major advantage.
Keyboard Control.
They are very well organized.

Because of this they have de
veloped a sturdy network of


COMPUTERMAT . Box 1664G . Lake Havasu City, Arizona 86403

Sound Story
Bruce BartleH

Here's a clever program that narrates a story The chirps repeat continuously with another loop.
on screen and enlivens the drama with a variety Finally, the chirps gradually fade out or decrease
of sounds. For the unexpanded VIC-20. in volume as the slory ends. That's one more loop.
The dropping ping-pong Kill is a series of
very short tones and silences. The silences gradu
"Sound Story" tells a complete story in a succes ally become shorter as (he ball loses height with
sion of sound effects, much like an old radio each bounce.
drama. The warble tone in the musical introduction is
ll was created by listening to natural sounds, done by alternating rapidly between two pitches.
analyzing them In terms of pitch, noise, durations, Lightning and thunder are simulated by a
and repetitions, then converting these parameters rapid downward sweep of the noise generator (a
to program statements. thunder crack) followed by low-pitched noise
For best visual effect, be sure that the back which gradually decreases in volume (thunder
ground on your TV or monitor is black. That is, rumbling).
turn down the brightness control just to the point The train sound is a series of accelerating
where the screen background is fully black. puffs or noise bursts. Each puff and silence re
The effects in Sound Story are produced using quires a FOR-NEXT loop for duration. The dura
nested FOR-NEXT loops to control both the dura tion of each silence is long when the train starts
tion of repetitive sound patterns and the silences up (that is, the train puffs slowly). Gradually the
between patterns. train accelerates—the silences between puffs get
shorter, so the puffs speed up. Finally, the train
From Crickets To UFOs attains top speed, so the puffs repeat rapidly at a
The crickets sound is an example. Consider the constant rate.
sound pattern of a cricket chirping (see the figure).
It consists of a series of tone bursts and silences. Fade In And Out
Each tone burst and each silence requires a FOR- In addition, the train sound fades in and out. The
NEXT loop for duration. Each chirp consists of fade-in is accomplished by incrementing the vol
five tone bursts and five silences—another loop. ume during each noise burst. Another FOR-NEXT

Two Cricket Chirps


-_- ■*- —


,80: NEXTT




116 COMPUTE!1! Gazelle May 1984

loop slowly decreases the volume, fading out the Lines 600-630 simulate crickets and PRINT
train sound. "The End."
The UFO sound is unusual. It's a series of Line 640 holds The End on the screen for a
tone bursts and silences in which the pitch of the few seconds, then resets the screen to its normal
tone sweeps Up and down. Without the silences condition.
between each tone, the effect is less interesting.
Morse code is simulated by a series of tone The Sound Of Snow
bursts and silences of random duration. Type in and run the following program. It's the
Here are the functions of the program lines: sound of someone walking in deep snow. As a
Lines 100-120 color the screen and print the walker steps into snow, the snow gives way with
title. a noise burst. As the walker puts his full weight
Lines 140, 260, 270, 330, 340, 450, 460, 490,
down, the snow becomes compacted and the
500, 530, 540, and 550 are story captions. bursts increase in frequency. In other words, a
Lines 150-190 are the musical introduction. footstep or crunch is a series of noise bursts that
Line 190 trills the last note of the intro. accelerate like a train, except much faster.
Lines 200-220 sweep the noise rapidly down
ward and flash the screen white (to simulate 10 POKE36878,15:S=36877
Line 230 produces a low rumble that fades
out {to simulate thunder). 40 FORL=lTO20a:NEXTiGOTO20
Lines 240-250 perform another lightning-and-
thunder subroutine. If you'd rather not type in the program, send
Lines 290-320 are the train sound. S3, a blank cassette with Sound Story printed on
Lines 360-440 are the UFO sound, inter the label, and a self-addressed stamped envelope
spersed with screen-color changes. to:

Lines 470-480 simulate Morse code. Bruce BarlUtt

Lines 510-520 simulate a dropping ping-pong 51941 leu in/ Lime

ball. Elkhart, Indiana 46574

Lines 570-590 display a night sky full of stars. See program lisfuigs on pn$e 155. flg

COMPUTE!'s Gazette Back Issues

JULY 1983: Commodore 64 Video Update, Commodore's Public Domain Programs, Oil
Snake Escape, Alfabug, VIC Marquee, Tycoon, Re-Beep, product reviews, Aardvark
Word Hunt, VIC Timepiece, product reviews, Attack, Word Match, A SHIFTy Solution:
Learning To Program In BASIC, Quickfind, The WAIT Command, Program Transfers,
64 Paddle Reader, Machine Language For Machine Language For Beginners, Improved
Beginners, Enlivening Programs With Paddle Reader Routine, How To Use Tape
Sound, Using Joysticks On The 64, Simple And Disk Files, Understanding 64 Sound -
Answers To Common Questions, VICreations Part 1, Speeding Up The VIC, Simple
- Speedy Variables, 64 Explorer, Answers To Common Questions, HOTWARE,
Horizons 64 — Improving 64 Video Quality,
OCTOBER 1983: The Anatomy of Com VICreations — Using The VIC's Clock, News
puters, Telegaming Today And Tomorrow, & Products.

Back issues of July and August 1983 are $2.50 each. Issues from October forward are $3. Bulk
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North Carolina residents please add 4% sales tax,
COMPUTERS Gazelle Mo/1984 117
Joystick Control
For The 64
Sterling N. Augustine

This tutorial on how to use the 64's joystick

Joystick Movement Schematic
ports includes a two-player game, "Chase And
Tag," which illustrates the way the joystick
ports are read.

The joystick ports on the 64 transmit data to regis

ters at memory locations 56321 (port 1) and 56320
(port 2). A register is a memory location used for
input or output instead of storing data. A simple
PEEK at one of these locations gives you a value
which corresponds to the position of the joystick.
Try plugging a joystick into port 1 and RUNning
the following:

10 PRINT PEEK (56321)

20 GOTO 10

Note how fast the value changes as you move

the joystick. Now hold the stick in one position
and press the fire button. If you play around a bit Chase And Tag
you will see that each position has two possible "Chase and Tag" is a two-player game using
values depending on whether or not the fire but simple keyboard graphics which illustrates the
ton is depressed. Below are a table and figure way the joystick ports are read. The object of the
which summarize all possible values for the two game is to score points by touching the opposing
port registers, and the joystick fire button status player while you are it, and to avoid the opposing
which they represent. player while he is it. The left player (controlled by
the joystick in port 2) is it first. The computer keeps
Joystick Control Values track of who is it, automatically switching after a
Control Port 1 ConIrolPort2 point is scored, or after each player has made 100
VV/OFire W/Fire W/O Fire W/Fire moves without a tag, whichever comes first. When
A 255 239 127 111 the player who is it catches the other player, a
B 254 238 126 110 colorful explosion takes place. The game ends

C 246 230 118 102 when one player scores 20 points.

D 247 2.11 119 103 Here's a breakdown of the program's
E 245 229 117 101 organization:
I 253 237 125 109 Line 40 POKEs the screen border color to
C 249 233 121 105 purple, the screen background color to light blue,
a 251 235 123 107 the screen character color to white, erases all vari
J 250 234 122 106 ables in memory, and branches to line 700.

11S COMPUTE!'* Gazelle Mny 1984


D of D lor up to 8 players. BAG-IT-HAN - The ultimate
Features full 3d GRAPHICS! arcade game for TRS80C or
You get a choice ol several MCD64. This one has three
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Available On IR5S0C IBM PC. CMDM
TAPE 119.95 DISK SZ4.Q5
TAPE 11985 DISK 2)95

QUEST ■ A different kind of STARFIRE

If you
Graphic Adventure, it is
played on a computer you will love Starfire. It is not
generated mape ol Alesia. a copy, but the best shoot-
You'll have to build an army ern-up. see them in the
and (eed them through window space game on the
combat, bargaining, explo CMD64 or TRSSOC. The
ration of ruins and temples, fantastic graphics will put
and outright banditry! Takes you right in the control room
2-5 hours to play and Is as you hyperspace from
different each lime. quadrant to quadrant
fighting the aliens and
Available Oil IF.SKC iEv CMD64. UEQ13K. MC10 protecting your bases.
Available On TRS80C M. CMD&t
TAPE 119.95 DISK Z2A 95

MARS ■ Your ship crashed on

the Red Plane and you have
to get home. You will have to
explore a Martian City, PYRAMID - ONE OF THE TOUGHEST
repair your ship, and deal ADVENTURES. Average time
with possibly hostile aliens to through the pyramid Is 50 -
get home again. This Is 70 hours. Clues are
recommended a3 a (Irst everywhere and some
Adventure. It is In no way Ingenious problems make
simple - playing time this popular around the
normally runs from 30 to 50 world. FULL GRAPHIC
hours, but It lets you try out ADVENTURE,
Adventuring before you Available On: IftSSDC 1BK. CMD64. MC101GK.IBM PC
battle the really tough ones.
Full Graphics Adventure. TAPE J1195 DISK 124.95

Available On TBS60C. CMD 64, ISM PC

TAPE 119.95 DISK E4.95


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AARDVARK 23E2 S. COMMERCE* WALLED LAKE, Ml ■13088 • (313) 669-3110

CMD64 / TRS80C / IBMPC / VIC20 / TI99

Lines 700-810 allow the two players to print
their initials on the screen above their scores. Val
ues are assigned to several other variables used in
the program.
Lines 900-1230 print the title of the game on
the screen, draw the playing field, reset both
scores to zero, and branch to line 55.
Lines 55-70 POKE the movement values into

Lines 100-290 make up the main loop of the

j COMPUTER GRADE program. Player movement is controlled using
*]/^ DATA TRAC the indirect address method. The right player's
direction is determined in line 140 by PEEKing
BLANK CASSETTES location 56321, adding a value 52000 to the PEEKed
C-05, C-06, C-10, C-12, C-20, C-24, C-32 value and assigning the total to variable X. If the
fire button is pressed, the value of X is less than
From (he leading supplier of Computer Casseltes, 52245, so the program waits for the fire button to
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Premium 5 screw shell with leader. are about to be tagged. If the fire button is not
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1 CADDY WITH EVERY the result (0) assigns the value of -41 to M. Since
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outside the border, lines 180 to 200 will allow the
Call: 213/700-0330 player to move to his new screen position: 1422 +
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Print Sound
For The VIC-20
Alejandro A. Kapauan

This utility translates letters into music. All silent, and produces a rest. Experiment further by
you supply is a simple PRINT statement. printing various alphabetic strings with (he com
mand PRINT#1,"string".
To incorporate the utility into your own pro
"Print Sound" is a machine language (ML) utility grams, just include lines 500 to 640, and include a
that enables you to produce musical tones on the GOSUB630 at the beginning of your program.
VIC with simple PRINT statements. Using the pro The PRINT#1 commands are completed even
gram requires no knowledge of ML programming, before the VIC is finished playing all the notes.
although intermediate ML programmers may be This is because the notes arc placed in the 255
interested in examining the code. character buffer usually reserved for the RS-232
To use Print Sound, type in the BASIC pro transmit channel, and an interrupt routine does
gram. Be very careful with the DATA statements, the actual transfer of data to the VIC sound regis
and SAVE the program before RUNning it. When ters. To synchronize the notes with your program,
you RUN the program, it prints a greeting, pauses, you may examine the contents of location 983.
then plays a few notes. It then plays a short clas This location contains the current number of notes
sical tune. If the program fails to work, or if the in the buffer. Line 50 of the sample program illus
VIC locks up, LOAD your SAVEd copy of the trates how to do the synchronization. If you want
program, LIST it, and check the DATA statements. to close the file to device 2 in your program, wait
Make the necessary corrections and again SAVE until the buffer is empty first. Most of the time
the program. you can just leave the file open.
When you RUN the program successfully, The rate at which notes are played can be
VIC device 2 (normally the RS-232 port) is re modified by changing the thirteenth number in
defined, so that you can print strings of letters to line 570 (third from the end), which is normally a
it to play your own music. 10, to some other value. This number represents
the duration of each note in jiffies {1/60 second).
Letters Equal Notes Try changing the value to a 5. You'll see how fast
If you examine the program, you will see that the VIC can play a tune.
logical file 1, which is opened to send data to de Since the ML program resides in the cassette
vice 2, is not closed. After RUNning the program, buffer, you can issue a NEW command and the
type the command PRINT#1,"ABCDEFGHIJKLM" utility will not disappear. It will function until
in the immediate mode. You will hear a chromatic you warm start the VIC by holding down the
scale. A chromatic scale is the series of 12 notes RUN/STOP key and hitting RESTORE. A word of
that are sounded when you play one octave of warning for cassette users: You must not perform
successive black and white keys on the piano, for cassette operations with the utility in place. Warm
example C, C#, D, D#, and so on to the next C. start the VIC before doing a cassette LOAD or
Printing a letter from A to Y will cause a note in SAVE. Disk users do not have this problem.
the chromatic scale lobe played. The letter Z is See program listing on page 157. ®
COMPUTEI's Gazelle MDyl984 121
Dan Carmichoel, Assistant Editor

Sound On
The VIC-20
This month we'll be discussing the fundamen POKEing values below 128 (0-127) into the
tals of sound on the VIC-20. We'll explore the tone generating locations will produce no sound.
VIC chip, and give you the basics of producing This technique can be used to turn off an indi
sound and music. So turn up the volume on vidual tone generator without turning down the
your monitor and away we'll go. volume. The volume control affects all three tone
generators and the white noise generator. You
can set the volume to any value between 0 and
Sound effects and music can add a lot to a com 15, with 15 being maximum volume. Here's a
puter program. Think how boring it would be to chart of the memory locations that control sound,
play a game like Defender if you couldn't hear the and what they do.
sounds of lasers blasting and enemy ships ex
Location Voice Noise Poke Tone
ploding. In business applications a "raspberry" Generated Values Range
sound can warn a user of bad input. Without a low
36874 1 tone 128-255
warning sound there would often be a potential 36875 2 lone 128-255 medium
for compounded errors, 36876 3 tone 128-255 high
You can communicate with the VIC chip in 36877 -
while noise 12S-25S noise
36878 volume control 0-15
side your VIC-20 via memory locations 36864 to -

36879. It is responsible for controlling the video Now that you have the basic information, let's
and audio functions of your VIC. Specifically, POKE around a little and produce some sounds
memory locations 36874 to 36879 control sound, on the VIC. Before we continue, make sure that
and by POKEing various values into these loca the volume setting on your TV or monitor is up.
tions, you can produce almost infinite combina If you're using a monitor, make sure that all or
tions of sounds and music on your VIC. the audio connections are made properly.
Enter POKE 36878,15 then press RETURN.
POKEing Values For Sound This will put the volume at the maximum setting,
The VIC has three separate tone generators, a but you still don't hear anything. Simply turning
white noise generator, and a volume control. Each on the volume doesn't produce sound. To do
tone generator covers a range of three octaves, that, we have to POKE a value into one of the
but because they overlap, the three together pro tone generators. Now enter POKE 36874, 128.
duce a range of five octaves. Sounds are produced You should hear a very low tone, the lowest note
on the VIC by POKEing the volume control loca that can be achieved on the VIC. Why? It's the
tion and then POKEing any value between 128 lowest because we POKEd the lowest legal value
and 255 into one of the four sound generators. (128) into the lowest of the three tone generators
For ease of reference, these tone generators are (36874). If you POKE values lower than 128 into
often called speakers. any of the four sound producing registers, no
152 COMPUTE'S Gazelle Moy!984
sound will be produced. To demonstrate this, struction book that came with your ViC), you'll
POKE 36874,127 with the low sound still on. find many sound demo programs. A few of them—
Now press RUN/STOP—RESTORE. Among like #10: birds chirping, #9: phone ringing, and
other things, this resets the VIC chip, setting all #12: ocean waves—are especially good. Studying
of the sound registers and the volume control to the techniques used in these demonstration
zero. programs will teach you a lot about sound on
(he VIC.
Combining Sounds
When producing sound on the VIC, you are by Programming Musical Notes
no means limited to using one speaker at a time. When you tire of the sounds of exploding
To see how to combine sounds, we'll turn on one, spaceships, you can use the VIC to play tunes.
two, then three of the speakers simultaneously. Mere is a chart of musical notes, and the values
First, let's turn on the volume by POKEing you need to POKE to produce them:
36^78,15. Now, let's turn on the speakers one at a
time. POKE 36874,131) produces a very low tone
by turning on the lowest speaker. POKE 36875, c 131 c 214
175 turns on the second (middle range) speaker, c# 140 G# 216
and you should be able to hear both (ones at the D 145 A 218 219
D# 151 A# 220 221
same time. Now we'll turn on the third or highest
E 158 B 222 223
speaker by POKEing 36876, 240. This adds a very
F 161 162 C 224
high tone to the other (wo. F# 166 167 C# 226
You can produce some interesting sound G 173 174 D 227 228
effects by using all three speakers simultaneously. G# 178 D# 229
A 181 182 E 231
You can turn off all three at oncebv pressing RUN/
A# 185 1S6 F 232
STOP—RESTORE or by turning off the volume
B 169 190 F# 233
with a POKE 36878,0. When you POKE off the C 192 193 G 234
volume, the speaker registers still contain sound C# 197 G# 235
producing values, but they're not audible with D 200 A 236
the volume off. D# 203 A# 237
E 206 207 B 238
When working with sound, you are not
F 208 209 C 239
limited to producing monotones/The frequency F# 211 212 C# 240
(note value} of the sound can be varied along with
the volume. Enter and RUN this program:
10 POKE36878.15
You'll notice that although a few of the notes have
20 FORA=128TO254:POKE36876,A:NEXT
30 FOftA=254TO127STEP-l:POKE36876,A:NEXT
one value listed, the majority need two. In some
cases, to produce a more pleasant and musically
Unlike the other three speakers which pro accurate note on the VIC you have to merge two
duce musical tones, the white noise generator tones. For example, the first G on the chart is
produces a hissing sound. Fora demonstration, achieved by using the two values 173 and 174.
POKE 36878,15:POKE 36877,240. You hear a high- This is done by alternately POKEing a speaker
pitched hissing sound. This is known as white with two different values. For instance, to produce
noise. The white noise speaker operates under the this G you would first POKE in the volume, then
same rules as the other three speakers (turn on POKE'the speaker with a value of 173, then a 174,
volume POKE values between 128 and 255, etc.). a 173, and so on. This alternate beating of two
The noise speaker can be used to produce sounds notes in one speaker serves to correct notes that
such as an explosion or the thrust of a jet plane arc slightly sharp or flat.
taking off. Here's a quick demonstration of an Here's a recognizable tune to show you how
explosion: it's done:
5 POKE36878.15 10 POKE36878,15:S3=36876
10 FORA=254TO210STEP-1:POKE36876,A:FORT=1 20 READA,B,T:IFA=999THENPOKE36878,0:END
30 POKE36876.0 40 POKES3,A!POKES3,B:NEXT
40 POKE36877,150:FORT=1TO500:NEXTT 50 GOTO20
50 FORA=15TO0STEP-lsPOKE36878,A:FORT=lTOl 60 DATA 224,224,100,239,240,50,218,219,50
50:NEXTTsNEXTA 70 DATA 214,214,50,206,207,50,214,214,150

Now that you have the basics, let's type in a 80 DATA 200,200,150,999,999,999

few small sound demonstration programs and Although the tune might be rather simple, study
see what the VIC can do. On pages 136 through the programming techniques involved. In this
138 of Personal Computing on the VIC-2Q (the in program, both the value (frequency) of the notes
COMPUTEI's Gazette May 1984 123
and the length of time the notes are played arc
READ via DATA statements. During each pro
Modem with Printer Interface for
gram cycle three values (A, B, and T) are READ.
The note values (A and B) are FOKEd into the
Atari, Commodore, and Vic
speaker (S3 = 36876), and the time delay value (T)
is used in the FOR/NEXT time delay loop. The
program stops as soon as it reads a value of 999.

Programming Hints
To save yourself some programming time as well
as BASIC memory, set your speaker and volume
registers as variables at the beginning of the pro
gram. For example:

10 SI = 36874:S2 = 36875:S3 = 36876:S4 = 36877:V ■ 36878 Direct connect, autodial, autoanswer modem,
In this example, the variables SI through S4 stand also runs a parallel printer. 300 baud modem has
for speakers one through four, and V is the built in Centronics printer port. Simultaneously
prints whatever appears on your screen as it
volume. After setting the registers as variables,
comes over the telephone.
referencing them in the body of the program is
easy. For example, to turn on the volume, POKE One box does it all so you can receive the most
V,15, or to POKE a value into one of the speakers, from your computer.
POKE S2,200. This not only saves programming
memory, but also simplifies the program logic. Auto-Print Microconnection retails for S 149.95.
Although the VIC-20 does not have the
sophisticated SID (sound interface device) like the
64, it can produce a myriad of sounds. With these the micropenpheral corporation

techniques in mind you can add sound to that 2565 ■ 152rC Avfnur NE. Redmond. WA 9SO5?
|206| BB1-754*
program you're writing, or even compose a
symphony. ©

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124 COMPUTE!'* Gazelle May 1984

sciek mm jr.-
(AS 115

hi f/ie WC version, a successful ski jump in progress after a Tlie skier's fate hangs in the balance in the 64 version.
coned answer.

Ski Physics
Gerald and Betty Schueler

"Ski Physics" is an educational game that numbers—A represents the units for each problem
teaches the relationship between velocity, dis (feet, minutes, etc.), B stands for one of three
tance, and time. If you answer questions cor word problems, and variables X and Y are the
rectly, you can watch the skier make a perfect numbers used in the problems.
jump. If your answer is wrong, the ski jumper Lines 290-300 print the background scene,
lands in a bale of hay. For the VIC-20 or Com using the redefined characters from the first
modore 64. program.

Line 315 accepts the player's input (answer).

"Ski Physics" begins by printing short definitions The program jumps to line 360 if the answer is
of time, velocity, and distance. The computer correct; the skier makes a successful jump. If the
then randomly selects a word problem involving answer is wrong, the skier fails. The process is
the three concepts. You solve the problem, enter then repeated with a new question.
the answer, and press RETURN. If the answer is The Commodore 64 version is similar in
correct, the ski jumper lands safely on a platform.
But if you are wrong, the skier falls short and
Typing In Ski Physics
lands in a pile of hay.
You might want to have paper and pencil (or If you have a VIC-20 with a tape drive, type in
a calculator) handy; some questions require more Program 1, SAVE, and VERIFY it. Then type NEW
effort than others. You should enter only numbers (or turn the computer off and then on again). Enter
for your answer—not the units such as feet, sec Program 2 and SAVE it immediately after Program
onds, miles per hour, etc. You can also ignore 1. To use Ski Physics, RUN Program 1. After it
remainders in the division problems. The com has set up the custom characters, it will automati
cally load Program 2.
puter expects answers that are integers.
If you have a VIC and n disk drive, enter and
How The VIC Version Works SAVE both programs. Before the first program
Program 1 plays the opening music, sets up the
loads the second, you will be asked if you are
using tape or disk.
custom characters in a protected area of memory,
and prints the instructions. It then automatically Commodore 64 owners should simply type
in Program 3, SAVE it, and RUN.
loads Program 2.
In Program 2, line 255 selects four random See program listings on page 157. Q
COMPUTEIS Gazelle Mayl984 125
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64 Music SAT English And Runner, you are a galactic com

mando fighting your way
System Math Aids through 24 different game
screens, picking up chests of
gold hidden in the Bungeling
With Studio 64, a music operating SAT English I and SAT Math 1, Empire's secret underground
system developed by Entech for Scholastic Aptitude Test prepa treasury. The VIC version also
the Commodore 64, you can ration aids, have been intro allows you to design screens.
compose music and add your duced by Micro Lab for the The game has a suggested
compositions to any other Commodore 64. retail price of $34.95 and requires
program. The packages are a part of a joystick.
The system operates like a the company's Micro Learn line Operation Whirlwind and
music word processor. Notes are of educational products, and MtilchbaxL's are two new games
written just as (hey are played, include test preparation ques for the Commodore 64. The first
and they scroll across the screen tions and information designed is a war game which incorporates
for easy reading. Studio 64 re to aid students who plan to take a chesslike strategy approach as
quires no programming experi the SAT test. you move your battalion through
ence. And if teaches the re The products cost $30 each. a series of testing skirmishes
lationship between how music Micro Lab and battle actions. Whirlwind is
looks and how it sounds. 2699 Skokie Valley Road priced at $39.95 on disk and
Add Miis'in, the operating Highland Park, 1160035 comes with a battle map and
system package of Studio 64, (312)433-7550 user manual.
adds your compositions to any Matchboxes is a memory
other program. Simple com game in which the player at
mands are used. For example, tempts to match identical
the command "MUSIC" will squares. It has additional modes
start the music, "SONG" will
Games And in which players solve word
start a particular song, "SPEED" Word Processing puzzles and create their own
will set the tempo, and "FEEL" puzzles. It is available for $29.95
will change the duration and Programs on disk.
tempo of the notes. Bank Street Writer is a word
The Studio 64 package is processing program now avail
available on disk or cassette for Hn/iderbund Software has re able for the Commodore 64 on
$39.95. leased a game for the VIC-20 disk. Functions and commands
Entech Software and two games and a word proc are displayed at the top of the
P.O. Box881 essing program for the 64. screen so that you don't have to
Sim Valley, CA 91353 Lode Runner is a cartridge memorize function codes.
(273) 768-6646 game for the VIC-20. In Lode Features include universal
COMPUTE!* Gazette May 1984 127

search and replace, block move

and "unmove," automatic cen
tering and indentation, word
wrap, a print format routine,
and other capabilities. Bank Street
Writer comos with a tutorial on
the disk that teaches word
processing basics. A reference
manual and back-up disk are
The price for Bank Street
Writer is $69.95,
Brtderbund Software, Inc.
17 Paul Drive
San Rafael, CA 94903

Tax, Data,
Word Writer and Data Manager 2 from Timeworks.

Timeworks, Inc., has introduced and other categories that are too
several new packages for the long for standard forms.
Commodore 64, plus a cassette- The suggested retail price
to-disk conversion plan. for Swiftax, which is available on
Swiftax is a menu-driven disk, is $49.95.
program that enables the user to Word Writer is a word proc
prepare annual income tax re essing package which can be
turns without prior knowledge used by itself or interfaced with
of computers or accounting. The Timeworks' Data Manager or
program guides the user through new Data Manager 2 programs.
the tax preparation process, The packages allow you to
gives instructions on which maintain and print out name
forms should be completed, and and address lists, produce cus
automatically checks tax alterna tomized reports up to 20columns
tives such as income averaging. wide, individually address and
It prints tax information on print form letters, print name
each IRS schedule and form, and address files onto standard
and makes itemized statements