Sei sulla pagina 1di 180

.50 r.

April W84
02220 El .95 UK J3.25 Canada

For Owners Ana Users Of Commodore VIC20 And 64" Personal Computers


M?£LNG Mobile Computers
Robots on the mar
ket and in the home.
An inside look at
what they do, what
Make any of four , . , .
impressive calendars
ld they cost, and what
with your VIC or 64 and to look for in the
printer. years ahead.

Power BASIC:
Numeric Keypad NBWETS
Turn your VIC or 64 An exciting
keyboard into an action-strategy
efficient numeric
keypad with this
game for the Also In This Issue

short machine lan VIC and 64. How To Start A

User Group
guage program.
French Tutor
Little Known BASIC
Adding A Second
Joystick To The VIC

7U86 02220
The Most Powerful $49.95 Cartridge Word Processor
for the Commodore 64™

The WRITENOWI Word Processor save text to tape or disk.

provides you with the easiest to use
& fastest to learn format available sends any 'special1 codes to the
for your C-64. Itglvesyouthe printer—even in the middle of
features you expect in a text (special codes are
professional word processor & 'user-definable').
some unique features not • optional joystick control for
available In any other C-64 word scrolling.

With WRITE NOW! you have Included with WRITENOW! isa 100
unlimited recall of often used text; plus page easy-to-understand
global string search makes it easy Instruction booklet—all for the
to find or replace any copy. Manufacturer's Suggested Retail
Editing copy is made easy with Price of $49.95.
simple commands and the full
block command enables you to
move or delete blocks of copy. You Other features of WRITE NOWI
can insert or delete text at will as
you scroll up or down through your INTERFACES With:
document line by line, page by
page, oryou can Jump directly to MAIL NOW! Professional mailing list
processor for the C-64.
the beginning or the end of your
document. VWMJE NOW? givesyou SPELL NOW! 30,000 word dictionary.
the option of text centering & GRAPH NOWI Full featured graphics
justification, along with the use of and chart processor.
multiple Ifne headers & footers. • program on cartridge (time not See a complete line of American
Page numbering can be set at the wasted loading from disk or made Cardco Products at a
top or bottom of a page and tape). computer store nearyou, today.
either in Arabic or Roman numbers.

313 Mathewson -Wichita, Kansas67214 • (316) 267-6525

C-M U a mgtetared Iiademaifc ol Commodort International

mreirrx inr
"Make note ofthat name, ElectronicArts.
It may well set the standard for sophisticated
entertainment software in the '80s."
— Creative Computing.

THE COMMODORE. ARCHON" by Fw Fail Assoaota
"No review could possibly do "... the offices of A.N.A.LO.G
more than hint at the manifold echo with the scaring roar of
excellence of Archon. It is dragon-fire and shouted
truly a landmark in the devel obscenities from angry players.
opment of computerized Archon turns friend against
strategy games." —Video friend and inspires grudge:, that
".. .you're bound to fall for it. can last for days. What better
Imagi ne a chessga me in w hich compliment can you give to a
you can cast, spells," computer program."
— Creative Computing -A.N.A.L.O.G.


^Awi;™ ^^. - Electronic Games
GAME OF ^MkA^«. T-^n ,,, ,-., ..r-c ,>T-
-Creative Computing M 1^


fcj Midmef Abbot and
Malign' Ataander
"An outsNinding. sin te-of-t he
art game. Hard Hnt Mack is the
blue collar hero of this rhrci*
screen climbing game and his
tasks are far from simple."
—Arcade Express ^ga.
"If you put Hard Hat Mack
In the ring with all other
games 011 the market, it
would win miw bouts in |
the opening seconds of the
first round. It's that good."

CM, A p. At

,. Inc t P4 !.„ mdcmuL o ■Buiinc*! Machine", Inc Aun L«a rriri»tr[ed trmicnuiV i<j Arm luc ,a WjuicrQiiimunisdiiuwCumpjuy
by Fnv Fall Associates
"Whodunit fans, drop your
Agatha Christie and come
running.This is your game! The
graphics are among the most
colorful and attractive I havi;
M.ULE.™ seen in anytime." — Antic
fry O;art Softscafie
"A must-have.™
— Electronic Fun
"May well become the Monopoly
of computer games."
—Personal Software
"Graphics, sound and humor
are superlative."
— Creative Computing
"Recommendation? Buy it."
-Electronic Games M



by Bill Budge
"The best program ever written
for an 8-bit machine."
— Steve Wozniak
"A fully integrated
design tool that lets
you create your own

video pinball games,

required study for all serious
software authors."
"A tour de force."
— Creative Computing

— Creative Computing

Electronic Arts
Home Software for tke Commodore 64
our .rthcr ifr H ii[!r» hV* AXIS ASSASSlSr anJ THE TEKSERACH1 STRATEGY*^ yin iompurPr Wl]TC. *jft*4ri- caircr irid a\ tine
(flrmowlpfomitKwabotfi ihe*r .inJ oih
-■ o.. - ■

' '■* ■■-

: '■


SJ^J&&*t&£Zf!z ■®S=L«=
SB ^


. ig 'round the dock coming up with new products, the warehouse

YOU REALLY GET is overflowing, the advertising agency wants more money, your
customers are fickle, and the competition just slashed their prices.
THE BUSINESS. We're ail waiting for your decision.

Put yourself at the helm of this enterprising new software company.

Every major decision is in your hands. Use your logic and intuition to
■>'■■« spot market trends. Keep a dose eye in your balance sheet. Get a
grip on your company, a leg up on your competition, and a strangle
hold on the market Do you have what it takes to be King of Silicon
Vailey? Or will you end up selling apples on skid row?

Intense strategic challenge combined with a real education in the

ii;s i ^« workings of big business make In The Chips one game anyone can
profit from.

IN THE CHIPS." Concept Education for the VIC-2Q,

Commodore 64, IBM PC artd PCjr,

April 1984 Vol. 2, No. 4

Commodore's New Computer Family: News From The Winter Consumer Electronics Show Selby Baleman 16
Robots: The New Mobile Computers Selby Bateman 26
How To Start A User Group Kalhy Yakai 40
A Guide To Commodore User Groups, Part 2 Kaihy Yakai 46
Some Answers From Commodore: A Conversation With Myrddin Jones Seiby Bateman and Tom Halfhill . 58

Nevets Steven R. McCloskey 52 V/64

Bingo 64 Richard L Witkover 54 64

Edumate Light Pen Dan Carmichael 74 V/64
In The Chips Tony Roberts 76 V
Beach-Head For The 64 Shay Addams 79 64
Lunar Leeper And Cannonball Blitz Harvey B. Herman 82 V

Computing For Families: Albert Zap, Won't You Please Come Home? Fred D'lgnazio 60 *
Making Calendars Paul C. Liu 67 V/64
French Tutor Michael Quigley ..... 70 V/64

The Beginner's Corner: Match-Em C Regena 86 V/64
Little Known BASIC Commands Todd Heimarck 90 V/64
Tankmania: Adding A Second Joystick To The VIC Ken Gibbons and Curtis Rich 102 V
Hints & Tips: Finding Incorrect DATA Statements Bruno Degazio 104 V/64
Variable Storage: A Beginner's Tour Of BASIC RAM For VIC And 64 Pete Marikle .... .108 V/64
Machine Language For Beginners: Talking To A Disk Richard Mansfield 116 V/64
POWER BASIC: Numeric Keypad Charles Kiueplel 120 V/64
Quick Fix For Color RAM: A Fast And Easy Way To Avoid 'Invisible Characters'
On The Commodore 64 David Cross 124 64

Editor's Notes Robert Lock 6 *

Gazette Feedback Editors and Readers 10 *
Simple Answers To Common Questions Tom Halfhill 84 '
Horizons: 64 Charles Brannon 106 64
VICreations: VIC Chip Utility Dan Carmichael 113 V
News & Products 129 *

Bug-Swatter: Modifications And Corrections 134 *
A Beginner's Guide To Typing In Programs 137 *
How To Type In COMPUTER'S GAZETTE Programs 138 •
Program Listings 140 V/64
Checksums For Early GAZETTE Programs 163 V/64

Product Mart 173 •

Advertisers Index 176 •

• = General, V = VIC-20,64 = Commodore 64.

COMPUTE!') GAZETTE is published monthly by COMPUTE! Publications, inc., Pust Office Box 5406, Green:.boro, NC 27-103 USA. PhotW (919J27WB09. Bdltorfal
uflitTfcare located ^l 324 West Wendover Avenue, Grveii'.boro, NC 27408. DomrettcjubKriptlDTig 121UUBS, 520. Send subscription orden or dungs of address
(P.O. Form 357V| to drculition Depl.,
p COMPUTE!! GAZETTE, P.O. Box 5406. tJre.-rwbnro, NC 37403 ik-cund class tpplkatlt>n pt-ndins at nr.vnsboro, NC 27-103
and milling
ng offlco*. Entire curtails copyright I 19SH by
by CQMPirrli Publication), Inc. All nghis n,w™l ISSN! 0737-3716. ROB
COMPUT11 1 ljI liulion*. Inc., One of Ihf ABC J'ubli«liin^ rci : ABC PublLihinKn Pf«iJ*nt, Kobf rt C. Huhap; vmtM uf Iht- ARlVrfGRSj Wiv Yi»k, New Yor

I had originally planned to write pages of our magazines. Some our efforts, something we pro
about Jack Tramiel's recent res times in a single issue. Our deci duced for wages, and give it to a
ignation from Commodore. He sion was to carry this thinking, user group or a group of friends,
was Us president, chief execu this philosophy, and these goals saying, "This is a portion of my
tive officer, and, not least, its forward into the new disk livelihood. Use it freely, knowing
founder. After starting the com magazine. that every time you share it you
pany 25 years ago, he has been a The response has been ex are reducing my salary by an
critical force in shaping this cellent, with one exception. Be equivalent percentage."
entire industry. Recent events, ginning several weeks ago, and If our expectations were off
however, dictated that I pull with increasing frequency, we're the mark, we should be charging
that editorial and replace it with getting calls from individuals $25 for each disk instead of less
this one. and user groups inquiring if the than $6.
We all have visions of this disk will be copy protected. I would welcome some feed
industry of ours and where it's Our thinking was that we back on this. Please address your
going. One of mine has always could price the disk magazine comments, thoughts, or argu
been to disseminate all types of (for the first time in the industry) ments to me, Personal and Con
interesting, useful software at a price only slightly higher fidential, at the address below.
through a magazine. We've done than a blank disk costs in many I'll read them all and respond to
that, done it well. And we've retail stores. We expected to be them in a future issue. Please
grown rapidly in the few years able to do this without adding indicate whether your letter (or
since this industry began and protection. We wouldn't need to parts of it) may be printed in the
our company began—with your build in a giant profit margin to magazine.
continued readership, support, cover theft, we decided; we'd It's not my intention to
and contributions of feedback, simply make the pricing very create a stir, but I think that as a
programs, articles, etc. reasonable. We're wondering if group of intelligent, active, in
For a long time we've been that thinking is correct. terested users we should start a
looking ahead, asking how we Many of our authors spend discussion on this. Unfortu
can help. That's a collective we. dozens, sometimes hundreds, of nately, we're probably going to
How can we move to a new hours developing the programs have to protect the disks for now.
plateau? Knowing that we that we print in this magazine And the reason for this editorial,
wanted to be able to move further each month. In return, they're the reason for my chagrin, is
in our goal of efficient dissemi- ■ paid for their work. They'll earn that we're fundamentally op
nation of software, we started additional royalties on diskette posed to such protection. We
the first of what I hope will be subscriptions—except for disk had decided we would be able to
come several disk magazines. ettes that are shared among doz approach it all differently.
We chose the GAZETTE to start ens of users. Our in-house staff I'm looking forward to
with because it was the easiest spends a comparable amount of hearing from you.
to transfer onto the new medium. time rewriting, testing, and
The logistics are, nevertheless, translating programs to work on
incredible. various computers. And they're
The final decision was to paid for their work as well. We
price our disk version of the truly do not understand the
magazine at a "mass-market" mentality which advocates a Editor In Chief
price, not at an incredible mark "sharing" that, in effect, reduces
up. Those of you who have been the wages of these authors.
readers of our publications for I assume that most of us Post Office Box 5406
some time are well aware that would resent this sort of theft if Greensboro, NC 27403
hundreds of dollars worth of it happened to us personally.
software is found within the Few of us would lake the result of
6 COMPUTER'S Gazelle April 1984
Handle —A Complete Line
of Products to Keep Your
Commodore 64 Busy
Develop your bridge
Whether you're an experienced bridge
player or a beginner, polish your skills or
learn the game with BRIDGE 64. Play
North-South, (hen switch to East-Wesl in
the same deal, the return to !hnt deal again
Handle your home A complete database and test your skill with a different strategy.

budget, stock portfolio, for the home

loans and mortgages Addresses, telephone numbers, appoint
ments, birthdays, or re cords-what ever you
with Calc Result want to remember-put it on DIARY, an
Calc Result Easy is a simple-to-use spread electronic notebook (or home use. DIARY
sheet program for the Commodore 64. It comes on a plug-in cartridge. Its easy to
includes 254 lines X 64 columns, built-in use and easy to learn, giving you the
graphics, and flexible printout formats. flexibility to design a personal calendar
Plug-in cartridge... just plug it in and its or address book.
ready. Perfect for cash How analysis, perso
nal net worth, IRA analysis, travel expenses,
credit card expenditures, gas and elec
tricity bills, etc. Bridge $39.95

Handle—for the
broadest range of
Commodore products
As the largest independent developer of
EC Commodore software and accessories,
Handic's broad range of business, educa
tion and recreation products are designed
Diary $29.95 exclusively for the Commodore user who
demands quality and reliability.
Turn statistical
' "
information into
Calc Result Easy $49.95
graphic format
Calc Result Advanced gives you 32 pages ol GRAF 64 converts mathematical functions
interrelated information. The three-dimen into graphical analysis on the Commodore
sional feature allows you to consolidate 64. An ideal program for studying math.
calculations in summary format. Calc Re Define a function, set the limits of an axis,
sult Advanced comes on plug-in cartridge plot a graph and display the extreme For more information and a catalogue of
and disk. Disk drive required. points, intersection values, etc. our products, see your nearest Commo
dore dealer, or call us direct.

•ttlGtl1! tt EJUObLI t-JtiJ

1 I 1UM0LC V


EfafAC a
It id
3fl '< jUi- l e as as ma
3^ 3b
■f'ftd BiflU ii§
ggftLL OIK zla 2tJD SOS
Handic Software, Inc.
Fellowship Business Center
H;Jmj:t pro Hft B 9 520 Fellowship Road, B 206
HP B ■
Mount Laurel. NJ 08054
Phone (609)663-0660
Calc Result Advanced $99.95 Graf 64 $29.95
Address all advertising materials to:
One cl Hie flEC ru*slnng Compares ^^^
324 West Wendover Ave., Greensboro, NC 27408
Publisher G.iry R. Ingersoll
Sale* Offices, The Company
EdHor In Chief Robert C. Lock New England 617-720-1888
Director sf AdmlnfafraHofi Alice S. Wolfe Mid-Atlantic 212-772-0933
Swnlor Editor Richard Mansfield Southeast 919-275-9809
Managing Editor Kathleen E. Martinek Midwest 312-726-6047
Art/Dwsign Mrector Georgia Bikas Davis Texas 713-731-2605
Northwest 408-354-5553
Editorial Northern CA 415-348-8222 or 408-354-5553
Lance Elko, Gazette Editor; Tom R. Halfhill, PC and PCjr Editor; Southern CA 619-941-2313 or 213-378-8361
Stephen Levy, Editor, COMPUTE! Books Division; Gail Walker, Nevada, Arizona 619-941-2313
Production Editor; Ottis R. Cowper, Technical Editor; Charles New Mexico 213-378-8361
Brannon, Program Editor; Tony Roberts, Assistant Managing Colorado 303-595-9299
Assistant Editors COMPUTE! Publications, Inc., publishes
Dan Carmichael {Submissions); Gregg Keizer, Steve Hudson COMPUTEI COMPUTEI Books COMPUTE!'* Gazotto
(Books); John Krause (Technical); Todd Heimarck, Robert Sims
(Publications); Selbv Bateman (Features), Kathy Yakal, Editorial Corporate Office:
Assistant (Features), Randall Fosner, Assistant Managing Editor 324 West Wendover Ave., Greensboro, NC 27408
(Books) Mailing Address:
Editorial Programmers Post Office Box 5406, Greensboro, NC 27403
Patrick Parrish (Supervisor), Gregg Peele (Assistant), Jeff Telephone: 919-275-9809
Hamdani, Kevin Martin, Chris Poer Office Hours: 8:30 AM to 4;30 PM Monday-Friday
Technical Assistant
Dale McBane Chi»* EmcuHv* OMcm- Robert C. Lock
Programming Assistants Pr«rid«wt Gary R. Ingersoll
Mark Tuttle, David Florance Vim President, Finance * Manning Paul J- Megliola
Copy Editing/Proofreading Executive Aubtont Debi Nash
Assistant Cassandra Robinson
Juanita Lewis (Assistant), Becky HaL, Linda Shaw, Martha Banks
Administrative Staff
Vicki Jennings, Laura MacFaddim. Julia Fleming
Subscription Information
Associate Editors
Jim Butterfield (Toronto), Harvey Herman (Greensboro), COMPUTE!'« Gaxette Circulation Dept.
Fred D'Ignazio (Roanoke), David Thomburg (Los Altos), P.O. Box 54O6, Greensboro, NC 37403
Bill Wilkinson (Cupertino)
Production Subscription Order Lino
Irma Swain, Assistant Production Manager; De Potter, Mechanical
Art Supervisor; Terry Cash, Debi Thomas, Typesetting
In NC 9I9-37B-9SO9
Leslie Jessup, Cindy Mitchell (Publications), Janice Fary, COMPUTE! 's Gazette
Debbie Bray (Books); Harry Blair, Illustrator Subscription Rates
Operations/Customer Service (12 Issue Year): US (one year) $20. Canada, Mexico
Patty Jones, Subscriber Services Supervisor; Assistants: Chris
and Foreign Surface Mail $25. Foreign Air Mail $45.
Patty, Chris Gordon; Fran Lyons. Dealer Sales Supervisor;
Assistants: Gail Jones, Sharon Minor, Rhonda Savage
Customer Service Staff The compute1', gazette subscriber list is made available to carefully
Dorothy Bogan, Supervisor; Judy Taylor, Lisa Flaharty, screened organizations with a product or service which may be of
Anila Rood, Sharon Sebastian, LVbi Goforth, (ertna fJash; interest lo our readers. II you prefer not to receive such mailings,
please send an exact copy of your subscription label to: COMPUTE!'!
Elizabeth white, Sybil Agee, Mary Sprague; Jim Coward (Ware
gazette, P.O. Box 961, Farmingdaie, NY 11737. Include a note indi
house Manager), Larry O'Connor, Dai Rees, Jack McConnell,
cating your preference to receive only your subscription.
Eric Staley, Eddie Rice, Sam Parker, David Hensley

Data Processing Authors of manuscripts warrant that all materials submitted to

Leon Stokes, Manager; Joan Compton, Chris Cain, Assistants coMFUTErs gazette are original malerials with full ownership rights
resident in said authors. By submitting articles to compi/te!'i gazette,
Accounting authors acknowledge that such matt'nals, upon acceptance for
Paul J. Meeliola, VP, Finance & Planning; R. Steven Vettur, publication, become the exclusive property of COMPUTE! Publica
Director, Finance & Planning; (ames M. Hurst, Controller; tions, Inc. No portion of this magazine may be reproduced in any
Assistants: Linda Miller, Doris Hall, Jill Pope; Staff: Anna Harris, form without written permission from the publisher. Entire contents
Emilie Covil, Anne Ferguson copyright © 1984, COMPUTE) Publications, Inc. Rights to programs
developed and submitted by authors are explained in our author
Advertising Sola* contract. Unsolicited materials not accepted for publication will be
Ken Woodard, Director of Advertising Sales; Patti Williams, returned if author provides a self-addressed, stamped envelope.
Production Coordinator; Bonnie Valentino, Accounting Where programs are included in an article submission, a tape or disk
Coordinator; Rosemarie Davis, Sales Assistant; Joyce Margo, must accompany the submission. Printed listings are optional, but
Production Assistant helpful. Articles should be furnished as typed copy (upper and
Sales Representatives lowercase, please) with double spacing. Each article page should
bear the title of the article, dale, and name of the author. COMPUTE!
Jerry Thompson 415-348-8222
Publications, Inc., assumes no liability for errors in articles or adver
Phoebe Thompson 408-354-5553
tisements. Opinions expressed by authors are not necessarily those
JoAnn Sullivan 619-941-2313 of COMPUTE! Publications, Inc.
Ed Winchell 213-378-8361
PET, CBM, VIC-20, and Commodore 64 are trademarks of Commo
Harry Blaii 919-275-9809
dore Business Machines, Inc., and/or Commodore Electronics Limited.
Jules E. Thompson, Inc. Other than as an independent supplier of quality information and
National and Canadian Sales Representatives services to owners and users of Commodore products, COMPUTE!
1290 Howard Avenue, Suite- 303 Publications, Inc., is in no way associated with Commodore Business
Burlingame. CA940H) Machines, Inc., or any of its subsidiaries.

8 COMPUTEI's Gozette April 1984

WordPro 3 Plus/64
The #1 Selling Word Processor for the Commodore 64T

WordPro 3 Plus"/64 and SpellRight Plus'" provide a total word SpellRight Plus locates and highlights misspelled words and
processing solution for the Commodore 64"" which gives you: then allows you to quickly correct the misspellings —
* Sophisticated Word Processing improving the quality of your letters and reports.
* Built-in Mail Merging for Form Letters And, best of all, WordPro and SpellRight's powerful arsenal
* Math Functions for Column Totals of features can be put to use almost immediately — by even
+ Fast and Complete Spell Checking via SpellRight Plus the novice user. So whether you're a student, professional
* A Super Value (two programs) for Only $99.95! writer, in business, education or a hobbyist, you'll quickly
WordPro and SpellRight are both specifically designed for the become a WordPro Pro!
novice user with no computer or word processing experience Both WordPro and SpellRight Plus are also available separately
whatsoever. And with over 40,000 WordPro versions sold, you at popular computer outlets nationwide.
can be sure that WordPro is a very sophisticated word
processor loaded with powerful features including: Transfer,
Invest in Ihe best.. .WordPro Plus. In a class by itself.
Insert, Delete, and Rearrange Text, Auto Page Numbering, Math
Functions, Headers, Footers, Global Search and Replace, the
Ability to Create Multiple Personalized Letters and Documents,
and much more. WordPro can create documents of virtually Professional Software Inc.
any length and will print up to 165 columns wide. You get all of 51 Fremont Street (617) 444-5224
this PLUS fast and complete spell checking using SpellRight Needham, MA 02194 Telex: 951579
Dealer and Distributor inquiries are invited.
WordPro 3 Plus'764 and SpellRight Plus" are trademarks ol Professional Software Inc.
The WordPro Plus Sorles was designed and written by Steve Punter ol Pro-Micro Softwaro Lid.
SpallRight Plus wns designed and written by Dwight Hud and Joe Spaiafora ol SpollMaaler Systems, (nc.
Some printers may not support certain WordPro 3 Plus (unctions and/or require an interface. Pleasa check with your dealer.
Commodore 64- is a trademark of Commodore Electronics Ltd.

Do you have a question or a problem? Have If your Datassette will be used only with a VIC or
you discovered something that could help other a 64, then cutting it off is a solution. It won't harm the
VIC-20 and Commodore 64 users? Do you have Datassette or the computer.
a comment about something you've read in
computers gazette? We want to hear from you. Programming On The 64
Write to Gazette Feedback, computed gazette, In the memory map included in the Commodore 64
P.O. Box 5406, Greensboro, NC 27403. Programmer's Reference Guide, locations 124-138
($7C-$8A) are not shown. What are these locations
for? Can they be used in machine language
The Datassette Mystery Ground Is it possible to write programs on the 64 that
Wire will run automatically when they are loaded? If
I own a Commodore 64 and recently encountered so, how is it done?
a problem that I thought should be passed on to How can I change the name of a disk with
you. programs on it without destroying or erasing the
The ground braid wire (the silver-colored programs?
bare wire) attached to the Commodore Datassette John W. Pitkin
plug accidentally came in contact with a metal tab
Bytes 124-138 are mentioned in the reference guide on
in the user I/O port and permanently damaged a
page 313. This area of zero-page memory is part of the
few chips in the computer. I had to take the 64 to
very important CHRGET subroutine, located at ad
a service center to be repaired. Even though the
dresses 115 to 138.
computer was only five weeks old, the damage
The CHRGET routine gets the next byte of BASIC
was not covered by the warranty. 1 had to pay for
text. When you run a BASIC program, this routine
the repairs myself.
scans the BASIC program lines looking for such things
In the instruction manual supplied with the
as command tokens, commas in DATA statements, etc.
Datassette, there is no mention made of either the
When they are found, they are processed by the BASIC
uses fur this wire or the aforementioned dangers.
interpreter, the commands are executed, and CHRGET
What is this ground wire to be used for, and
scans for the next token.
is it needed?
Because this routine is essential to BASIC, you
Frank Harris should not POKE this area or use it for machine lan
guage. If you're a machine language programmer, this
A Commodore representative informed us that the is a good place for a "wedge." For instance, if you want
ground braid wire is not needed on the Commodore 64 to change some of the BASIC commands, you can look
or the VtC-20, nor is there any place to attach it. If the for your character or token with the CHRGET routine
wire touches the metal tabs in the I/O port, it can indeed and process it accordingly.
do damage. To see just how important this small 24-byte sub
The easiest way to prevent this is to wind the routine is, enter and RUN this short BASIC program:
braided wire around the cassette's cord and then tape it
10 FOR A = 115 TO 138: POKE A,0: NEXT
in place.
You could simply cut it off, but consider this: The After RUNning, try typing something from the
ground wire is required for use with Commodore busi keyboard, then press RETURN. As you can see, the 64
ness computers. If the Datassette might be used with is unusable. Even RUN/STOP— RESTORE won't help.
one of Commodore's business computers, leave it on— However, these locations should be OK to use in
it's required by FCC (Federal Communications Com pure machine language programs that never access
mission) regulations. A Datassette connected to one of BASIC.
their commercial computers without the groi :' braid To answer your second question, yes, it is possible
also connected can cause serious television oi - 10 to LOAD and RUN a program automatically without
interference. pressing the SHIFT/RUN keys.
10 COMPUTE'S Gazelle April 1984
Get skilled

Com mod or o 64
Commodore 64

© Scarborough Sy ^25N.Broadway»TarrVlown, New York 10591
Changing the name (or header,) of a diskette after the modem function properly with this type of
it contains programs is tricky—and dangerous—busi hookup?
ness, but it can be done.
Jim Kohlenberg
Track 18, sector 0 of the Commodore diskettes
contains the directory information (what you see when Connectors for modular telephone cords come in two
you enter LOAD "$",8:UST) and the diskette header. sizes: one size on the cord that connects the phone to the
The partial layout looks like this: wall plug, and a smaller size on the cord between the
phone body and handset. The VICmodem takes the
Bytes 0-1 Pointer to directory
smaller, handset connector.
Bytes 4-143 Block Availability Map (BAM)
Bytes 144-161 Name of diskette
Another modem, of the auto-answerlauto-dial
Bytes 162-163 Diskette's two-character ID type, takes the larger connector and plugs into the wall
outlet. This type of modem works without a telephone.
The 18-byte area (144-161) that is used for the diskette
Remember that the VICmodem is designed to con
name contains the name plus shifted spaces (CHR$
nect to a standard desk phone (with either a dial or
160) to fill the 18 bytes. It is possible to change these
Touch-Tone buttons). You use the telephone to dial,
bytes on the diskette, but if it is done incorrectly the
and to make the connection with the other computer's
BAM could be altered, and you might not be able to
phone, then you remove the cord from the handset and
access the programs on the diskette. It's safer to simply
plug it into the modem. At this point your terminal
format a new diskette with the desired name.
software should send a signal to the other computer that
you are ready to communicate.
Using The Super Expander With If that plug on your speaker phone is of the smaller
"The Automatic Proofreader" size designed to take an extension handset, you should
be able to connect the VICmodem directly to the speaker
I recently purchased a VIC-20 Super Expander car
phone, using a handset-to-phone cord.
tridge, and have discovered something discouraging
However, if the plug on your speaker phone is
about it. When "The Automatic Proofreader" is
meant to hook up an extension telephone, you cannot
running and I try to use the KEY command or any
directly connect the modem.
of the function keys, the computer won't cooperate
You should also consider that, while a speaker
and sometimes crashes. What would cause this to
phone might have advantages for voice communications,
happen, and what can 1 do about it?
it can cause problems when you're using the modem. If
William O'Connor
the speaker is activated at the same time as the modem,
There is nothing wrong with your Super Expander car chances are good that sounds picked up by the micro
tridge. "The Automatic Proofreader" should not be used phone will garble the modem transmissions. Also, in
with the Super Expander cartridge plugged in. Both the coming signals ivill be broadcast over the speaker. This
cartridge and The Automatic Proofreader wedge a might be interesting at first, but it will wear on your
machine language program into the same area of the VIC's nerves after a while.
memory. Tiiis conflict causes your VIC to crash. Also, a wide variety of telephone models are avail
Although the Super Expander is incompatible with able, and many have special features which make them
The Automatic Proofreader, other memory expansion incompatible with direct-conned modems like the VIC
cartridges will work fine. modem. Before you purchase any phone (except the
standard desk set) for use with a modem, you should
Can I Use A VICmodem With make certain that the two are compatible. Discuss your

A Speaker Phone? intended application with a technician at the phone

store, and, if possible, talk to someone who is already
I belong to several user groups and communicate
using your brand of modem with the phone model you
with members on the telephone about specific
zvantto buy.
problems and programs. I have found that having
a telephone beside my computer is very helpful,
Cold Starting
because I can work with the computer while talk
Is there any way to reset the VIC-20 without
ing to someone about a problem. I just purchased
turning it off?
the VICmodem, and now want to purchase a tele
phone that can stay in my work area. Edward Wiebe
A speaker telephone would be great because Yes, there is. If you enter SYS 64802 then press RE
both my hands could be free for the computer. TURN, the VIC-20 tvill go through most of the same
The speaker telephone that 1 am interested in has reset routines that arc performed zohen you first turn it
a plug on the rear of the unit (to plug in a regular on. This SYS will reset the BASIC pointers, reset the
handset telephone). If I purchase a short telephone VIC chip, etc. The corresponding SYS address on the
extension cord, can I plug one end of the cord in Commodore 64 is 64738. This technique is often called
the modem and the other end into the modular a cold start. When you turn on your computer with
plug on the rear of the speaker telephone? Will the power switch, you are also performing a cold start.
12 COMPUTE'S Gazette April 19B4

I 41




Now that you have it. pur it to work. Great (or new users. C64 TUTOR cures
TUTOR puts you In charge with a Commodore compurerphobia and promotes computer
64 tutorial, screen display editor, sprite editor literocy.
music synthesizer 6 programmer's calculator. Take it from me. with a little power, the
Use the tutorial to learn what your possibilities ore endless.
Commodore 64 can do. And how ro do it. Available tor S29.95 at your computer
Create, edit & save one page of letters deoler.
and/or pictures with the screen display editor.
Enter sprites from the Commodoie Manual. Comprehensive Software Support,
Or make up your own. Then edit and save 2C16 Anesio Di. SuireD.
them using the sprite editor. Sprite creation is Redondo Deoch CA90276 i
quick, and easy. Ploy music with the music 213 3182561 \
synthesizer. Use Ihe programmer's calculator
to add. subtract, multiply & divide in decimal,
hexodecimal ond binary. Includes AND, OR,
XOR, Shlfr and 1 's complement functions.
Transferring Data From BASIC
To Machine Language
Still the Best! If there is a numeric constant (2, for example) that
you want to pass to a machine language program,
you can do so with the USR command. But how
can you transfer numbers from BASIC to a
RaieO THE BEST educational
program (or the VIC 20™ by machine language subroutine without using the
Creative Computing magazine.
USR command?
Commodore 64 version: "This
Is the best typing tutor we have Heimo Ponnath
seen yet; It can get your
children touch typing in short Using the POKE statement for passing parameters
order and bring an old hand up
to speed. Includes excellent (data) to a machine language (ML) routine from BASIC
training modules and an
arcade type mode to liven
is probably easier than using the USR command.
things up and put some Before you SYS (transfer control) to your ML
pressure on; ****+" INFO-64
Our customers continue to tell subroutine, POKE a byte or bytes with the data you
us of their success want to transfer, then pick it up in the ML progra?n
!'.. delighted with my son's
progress ... he is the only with either the LDA, LDX, or LDY commands. Here's
one In tils second grade class
who touch types at the corriDutet.'
an example.
(58 year old man writes! ■ ■ ■ "Q'eat, excellent. To me a source
ot great learning ... I just can't express how much I have
enjoyed It I"
300 A = 57
In dally use by schools across the USA.
310 POKE 251,A
"Computer aided instruction at Its best" Commander magazine
320 SYS 4096
TYPING TUTOR + WORD INVADERS In machine language:
The proven way to learn touch typing.
$1000 CLC
COMMODORE 64 Tape $21.95
$1001 LDA $FB
COMMODORE 64 Disk $24.95 (kind the accumulator with the transferred data)
VIC20(unexpanded) Tape $21.95 $1003 ADC #$05
$1005 etc

Here it is in reverse (transferring data back to BASIC).

In machine language:


(store value of data in the accumulator into bytt?
number 251)
COMMODORE 64 500A = PEEK(251)
DISK OR TAPE 510 continue BASIC program...

$39.95 With the single POKE you can transfer values of 0-255
JOYSTICK REQUIRED back and forth. If you want to transfer values larger
than 255, you can use the following formula.
Where N = number to be stored:

= INT(N/256):POKEbytel,N-(NN"256):POKE
Put youraall In the pilot's seatl A very challenging realistic byte2,NN
simulation of Instrument flying In a light plane. Take oft,
navigate over difficult terrain, and land at oneol the A airports. This method will automatically store a number from 0
Artificial horizon, ILS, and other working Instruments on screen.
Full aircraft features. Realistic aircraft performance — to 65535 using the standard LBHB (low byte, high
stalls/spins, etc. Transport yourself to a real-time adventure In
byte) format. That is, it will POKE byte 1 with the
the sky. Flight tested by professional pilots and Judged
"terrific"! least significant value, and byte 2 with the most signifi
Shipping and handling $1 DO per ^Mpt,
cant. You can then branch to your ML routine and
order. CA residents add 6% tax. "dmr process your values as you wish.
Some good areas on the VIC for temporary data

ACADEIiiV storage while doing the transfer are:

bytes 828-1019 cassette buffer

SOFTl/l^RE bytes 251-254 free zero-page locations

On the Commodore 64, you can use the above, plus:

P.O, Box 6277, San Rafael, CA 94903 (415) 499-QB50
Programmers: Wrlie to our Now Program Manager cone am Ing bytes 679-767 unused
any •neapllonal VIC 20TM or Cammodoro B4TM gima
bytes 49152-53247 free RAM 9
or dinar program you nava davalopad
Finally aliens your kids can reason with
instead ofdestroy
Spinnaker computer games are lots of fun. They're also AMAZING THING has real educational value.
instructive, (lot destructive. That's why IM 5EARCM OF THE Your kids will sharpen their ability to estimate distances
MO5T AMAZING THINCTlets your Kids negotiate with aliens. and quantities, and will become more aware of direction
Mot destroy them. and time. They'll develop a knack for economic principles,
Ifs Amazingly Fun! and learn to solve problems through trial and error
The Most Amazing Thing is out there somewhere. Find 5o if you're looking for exciting computer games that
ing It won't be easy. Luckily, your kids will have the help give your kids something to think about, Just go IN 5EARCH
of old Uncle 5moke Bailey. Because they'll have to fly the OF THE MO5T AMAZING THING at your local
B-liner, avoid dangerous Mire Crabs, and trade with aliens, retailer' It's so much fun
It takes skill, persistence and Imagination to find The Most you'll probably be
Amazing Thing. Because it's the most elusive thing in the ed to play It yourself.
whole wide galaxy. But that's what makes it so exciting.
It's Amazingly Educational! me mq5J AfwuiQ Tinnq
i'ti1*:* TH Apple/ IHft" AUn> tffl
Like all Spinnaker games, IM 5EARCM OF TME MO5T Commodore 64" CtJnpLttrs

V\te make learning fun.

Apple. IflMandA!flMAte H!fliH*rtd irjJrrnjrk^njf A[»cIcComDu(tr. I . lnTerij(.t)r^iau3irn!wMa(Hin«Cor& jnjAtjn In? r V COmmnrfoPrOil 144 I'S c [ipe 1'rwiK.&L1 n-,r.'. 1

n Of TMC HCAI Ar^-yirTQ TrTiriQ fotputup pFfHy*" •* a ttb

J. 50>nri4><fr Vlllwwe Ccp An "gtl[* ttnmvftc
New Computer
News From The Winter
Consumer Electronics Show
Selby Bateman, Assistant Editor

A new line of Commodore computers with But the biggest news was the announcement
built-in software options—the 264 family— of the new 264 family of Commodore computers,
created the biggest stir among computer in which will contain a consumer-selectable choice
dustry retailers and distributors at the 1984 of built-in software; a stronger BASIC language,
Winter Consumer Electronics Show (CES). with 60K available for BASIC programming (the
Commodore also displayed a growing collec Commodore 64 has less than 40K of usable BASIC
tion of 64 and VIC-20 software, a faster disk RAM) and more than 75 BASIC commands; a new
drive, and a new video monitor. Here's a report keyboard that includes a HELP key, four separate
on the new products and the new choices facing cursor keys, and other programmable function
owners and users of Commodore computers. keys; screen windowing capability; and a built-in
machine language monitor with 12 commands.
A company representative says the 264 should
be available by April 1. Customers will be able to
purchase the 264 with one of several application
Approximately 90,000 people crowded
program options built into ROM, such as a word
their way into the Winter Consumer
processor, spreadsheet, or data base manager.
Electronics Show, a breathtaking array
The consumer may have a choice of additional
of almost every conceivable electronic
software on plug-in ROM chips, but details of the
audio, video, computer, appliance, and peripheral
various options were still being developed during
product that manufacturers hope to sell during
CES. Although Commodore announced no price
for the 264, company representatives indicate the
Over one-fourth of the 725,000 square feet of
retail price will be under $500.
exhibit space this year was devoted to computer-
related displays, and nearly 300 of the more than
1300 exhibitors represented computer products—-a W, hat the new 264 series does not have is almost
record on both counts. as interesting as what it does. The Commodore
Among the hundreds of exhibition booths 64's versatile SID (Sound Interface Device) chip,
at CES, none seemed to attract more activity which features three independent voices over
and curiosity than Commodore's large gray and nine octaves, had been replaced by two tone
blue display on the floor of the Las Vegas Con generators. That will mean a reduction in sound
vention Center. and music capability. And the 64's eight pro
The company announced that during 1983 it grammable, independently moveable sprites have
became the first microcomputer firm to top the $1 not been included in the 264.
billion mark in sales, more than doubling its S458 Although Commodore says that virtually all
million 1982 sales figures. Commodore officials of the VIC-20 and 64 peripherals are compatible
said that all four of its microcomputer models—64, with the 264, the software is not. Internally the
VIC-20, PET, and CBM—achieved record sales 264 is significantly different than older Commo
levels during 1983. dores because of its new operating system and
16 COMPUTEl's Gazette April 1984


Introducing a computer game

that will bring out the railroad buff, the tycoon,
the adventurer, and the kid inyour kid.
TRAIM5 Is one computer game that will really bring out learning the economics of running a business.
the best in Kids. Of all ages. They're learning to manage financial resources, and to
Because TRAIN5 is a 5pinnaker game, which means It's use different Kinds of information in setting priorities.
a learning game that's really fun to play. And best of all, they're having fun while they learn,
TRAIM5 puts Kids In charge of an old-time railroad. And LooK for TRAIM5 on disk at your
whether their railway empire gets bigger or goes out of local software
business Is entirely up to them. retailer, and play
As they juggle the challenges of picking up supplies and It on your Apple/
delivering to various Industries, paying their employees, IBM* Atari* or
keeping the locomotive filled with coal, and making enough Commodore 64"
money to venture Into new territories, kids are actually computers.

SPf/MAKER We make learning fun.

5, 3pinnflkei5of[™a'rCtj<& All rights reserved Apple, i9tt ana <rdirMema<« of r\poir Computer, ifv:. International B PiaciuneiCorp ana Alary inc r
CDmrnodorp64iajirfldtmarMorCarr.m(K]OfeCiei:(ronic5iimitea T r Program n fl [ia<l*mfliti DT^pinndHet^aftwdre Corp
BASIC. Even the cassette buffer has been slightly • Commodore 264—In addition to the features
relocated in memory. Also, the central processing mentioned above, the 264 has 128 colors (16 colors
unit (CPU) is not the 6502/6510 chip found in the with 8 luminance levels); eight volume levels; a
VIC and 64; it is a new chip called the 7501. newly designed 67-key keyboard with four re
Luckily, the 7501 appears to be largely compatible programmable function keys; input/output (I/O)
with the 6500-series chips, sharing the same in ports compatible with 64 and VIC-20 peripherals;
struction sot. and display, resolution, and character features
similar to the 64.
• Commodore 364—Based on the 264, the
364 has built-in speech capability with a 250-plus
word capacity (additional vocabulary can be
loaded from optional cartridges or disks); 48K
ROM, including operating system, BASIC inter
preter, and speech operating system (up to 48K
additional ROM can be added with various built-in
software options); and an 86-key full-stroke
keyboard with a 19-key numeric keypad. No
suggested price was announced. One Commodore
representative said the 364 is expected to be avail
able by the end of the summer.
• SX64 Portable Computer—Formerly intro
Commodore's new 264 computer, showing the four separate duced as the SX-100 and later the Executive 64,
cursor keys (loxver right) am! the four programmable function the SX64 is a portable 64 rather than a 264-based
keys (at left above keyboard). The Commodore 364 will have a machine. The SX64 has a built-in 5-inch color
similar console, bill with a 19-key numeric keypad above the monitor, a 170K built-in 5'/i-inch floppy disk drive
cursor keys.
(second drive optional), plus other features identical
to the Commodore 64. The retail price is $995.
What does all this mean? BASIC programs
• 1703 Color Monitor—Housed in a charcoal
written for the VIC and 64 which do not rely
gray box, the new Commodore monitor is similar
heavily on PEEKs, POKEs, sound, or sprite
in other ways to the earlier 1702 and 1701. The
graphics probably will work with very little mod
1703 has a 13-inch diagonal screen and is compat
ification on the 264-series computers. But machine
ible with the 264 line as well as with the 64, VIC-20,
language programs—and BASIC programs which
and SX64.
manipulate memory with PEEKs and POKEs—will
• SFS 481 Fast Disk Drive—The new 5'/4-inch
need much more translating before they'll work
Commodore disk drive, for use with the 264 and
on the 264. Almost all commercial software falls
364 only, is reportedly five times faster than the
into the latter category. Commodore estimates
1541 drive.
that 80 to 90 percent of VIC and 64 programs
• 1542 Disk Drive—An upgraded version of
should be adaptable to the 264.
the 1541. Further details will be announced by
Commodore emphasizes that the new family
of computers in no way indicates a lessening of
• Commodore TouchScreen—A plastic over
support by Commodore for the 64, the VIC-20, or
lay that can be fitted over the front of a television
the company's other microcomputers. As one
set or a video monitor, the new TouchScreen al
Commodore pfficial says, the 264 is not directed
lows the user to bypass the keyboard completely
at the same set of consumers as are the other prod
in order to operate such programs as Commodore's
ucts, especially the top-selling Commodore 64. The
Magic Desk or to create graphics with the touch
264 offers built-in software for word processing,
of a finger. No word yet on availability or price.
spreadsheet analysis, data base management, or
• Commodore Light Pen—A pressure-
other small business applications, notes Myrddin
sensitive mechanism near the point of this light
Jones, Commodore's vice president for marketing
pen allows you to draw and to move objects on
{see interview elsewhere in this issue). The 64 is
the screen and to control programs such as Magic
more oriented toward music, sprites, and gaming,
he adds.
• Magic Voice Speech Module—The speech
Commodore is counting on the 264 family to
module plugs into the User Port of the Commo
complement the 64, VIC-20, and the others, rather
dore 64, and contains an additional port into which
than to compete with them, Jones says.
other cartridges can be inserted. The module has
a built-in vocabulary of 235 words, spoken by
A he new Commodore hardware products and what sounds like a female voice. Words can be
options include the following: user-defined for various speeds and programmed
18 COMPUTED Gazelle ApriM9B4
The day you bring your first CAP" learning
game home and watch your child play,
you'll know the excitement of a winning
Active Family
Your family and CAI's growing family of
animated, full-color programs have a lot to
share —beginning with a willingness to
reach beyond the ordinary to achieve the
At Your Command
You may meet a princess, a juggler or a
dragon in Wizard of Words ™ You may
appear as a guest on TV in Master Match™
Vie Game Show™ or Tic Tac Show7* Or,
you may extend these programs still further
with our LeamingWare™ diskettes, offering
hundreds of questions matched to the
teaching strategies in the games. In every
case, CAI puts a world of imagination and
learning at your fingertips. And puts you
and your child in control.
Unique Approach
Key features place CAI thinking tools in a
class by themselves: Each program comes
with Its own library of subjects. But that's
just the start. Our unique authoring system
let's you or your child create your own
lessons on any topic, tailoring the program
to your family's needs —and no computer
knowledge is required. Add the fact that
we've kept the vital ingredient -FUN- in
learning, and ourproven success is no
surprise. Over 2,000 school districts now
use CAI programs to teach essential
vocabulary and logic skills in a variety of
subject areas.
CAI supports its products —and you —with
an unconditional guarantee and a free
backup disk. And provides compatibility
with the most popular computers: Apple,®
1BMS (and soon Commodore™).
Wise Choice
CAI is a group of experienced educators
and programmers who believe that success
begins with opportunities you create at
home. Ask to see a demonstration of CAI
programs at your local computer store, and
see for yourself just how rewarding a good
education can be.

Computer TM

9a& Advanced
Bringing Ideas M Home
1442A Walnut Street Suite 341
Berkeley, CA 94709 {415)526-9100
App'e is aiegi$ie">(itrademark o>AppleCompuiers,lnc i
registered it&Jematk of IBM Coip ComrnQdot
r1 R Mft I
directly from BASIC and/or machine language. • Magic Desk II—Based on the Magic Desk 1—
Commodore promises that more words and dif Type and File cartridge introduced last year, this is
ferent voices will be available in the future on an enhanced program with an integrated text-
disk and cartridge. The speech module has a editor, spreadsheet, file manager, and calculator
suggested price of $59.95 and can be plugged into for beginning computer users. Help screens are
the SX64 portable computer as well. built-in, and the menu system uses icons, or
The introduction of the 264 line meant that picture-symbols, rather than words to convey the
Commodore was one of the few computer com different functions (similar to Apple's more com
panies to introduce a new machine at the four-day plex business-oriented Lisa).
CES show, a far cry from last summer's CES in
Chicago. Seventeen new microcomputers were
introduced at that time.
Atari, Inc. introduced no new computers at
the winter CES. Apple showed up for the first
time in three years, but chose not to unveil its
Macintosh at the show. IBM had no exhibit at all.
Coleco introduced some new peripherals for its
Adam computer, including an add-on tape drive,
a disk drive, 1200-baud modem, and a 64K mem
ory expander. Spectravideo announced two new
computers, and a British company exhibited pro
totypes of a new machine which might reach the
U.S. later this year. But none of these booths were
as consistently crowded as Commodore's.
MusiCalc I from Waveform Corporation turns a Commodore
64 into a musical instrument.
ommodore is continuing to expand its software
line and announced a variety of personal produc • Commodore 3-Phts-l—This integrated soft
tivity and game offerings. ware package includes a word processor, file man
For the Commodore 264, SigHartmann, presi ager, spreadsheet, and business graphics.
dent of Commodore Software, says that the com Through windowing, the word processor and the
pany plans to have more than 30 software products spreadsheet may be used simultaneously on the
available on cartridge, disk, and tape when the screen.

264 goes on sale. "The key area we're emphasizing • Superscript 264—-A multifunction word
in software for the Commodore 264 is productiv processor designed for both beginner and expert
ity, covering such areas as household manage users, the package includes text editing, number
ment, word processing, calculation, business calculations, mail-list functions, and a cut-and-
accounting, and education," says Hartmann. paste feature for on-screen text editing.
Commodore is continuing to encourage third- • EasyCalc 64 and EasyCalc 264—These are
party software development for its computers, spreadsheet programs with color selection and
and introduced a number of new packages which graphics. Both packages are sold on cartridge,
were created for it by such companies as Data 20, which Commodore says leaves more workspace
Digital Research, Infocom, Island Graphics, and in the computer than comparable disk-based
others. For example. Data 20 Corporation of spreadsheets.
Laguna Hills, California, created word processing, • Commodore BIGraph—A business graphics
spreadsheet, and graph software on ROM chips and statistics package, B/Craph computes and
for the new 264 computer line, some of which will converts financial and statistical results into three-
be built-in and some of which will be cartridge dimensional color charts, graphs, pie charts,
add-ons. histograms, and other graphics.
Of the more than 200 Commodore-brand • Financial Advisor—A financial aid program,
software products now in distribution, more than Financial Advisor computes loan, mortgage, and
half were produced by outside developers, a com investment formulas, and is available on cartridge.
pany official notes. • Teligraphics—This is videolext and graphics
Among the new products are seven personal software for use with Commodore telecommuni
productivity packages, which are scheduled to be cations modems. It allows transmission of pic
available by late spring on cartridge or disk for tures, text, and business graphics over the tele
(he Commodore 64 and 264. Several of the pro phone and between computers. The package also
grams are planned as built-in software options for allows users to upload and download data through
the 264 as well. The packages are: telecomputing services such as CompuServe.
20 COMPUTEIS Gazelle April 1984
owners, Relax...
with Mirage Concepts software

Mirage Concepts has mastered the art of uncomplicating

software. Before you buy—we help you determine which
Mirage Concepts package will meet your need. No guesswork!
With your purchase comes a menu-driven program ranked
by independent evaluators nationwide as among the finest
available. Relax as you learn how to operate your program .
with clear, concise tutorials written by professional writers...
not programmers. For consultation on your special questions,
technical support personnel are standing by on a toll-free basis.
• 100'r Machine Language • Free Form Design • Sorl On Any Field • Calculated Fields
■ Interlaces to W.P. » Record Size » 2,000 Characters
For Brochures, Support
tvn! li\fornuitiou. Cull... ADVANCED REPORT GENERATOR, 549.95
(800) 641-1441 • Companion to Database • Totals and Subtotals • Field Matching • Expanded Reports

In California. Call... ■ Sorting (Up & Down! • Calculated Fields

(800) 641-1442 WORD PROCESSOR, Professional Version S89.95

• 80 Col w/o Aiidt'l Hdwr • 100% Machine Language • Spelling Checker (30,000 Words)
• Over 70 Sinplc Keystroke Commands • Printer Command File ■ Interfaces to Datable

2519 W. Shaw Ave., i»106 • Fresno. CA 93711
TM—Commodorf Mhi Rctmleml Tradr Marl ill Ccmuiuxlon Electronics, [.id.
Commodore announced its intention to pro to require little or no instructions, setup process,
vide 100 different application templates for its or previous computer experience. The program
Manager 64 data base system used by the Commo will manage personal finances and records, bal
dore 64. The templates will include five to ten ance checkbooks, pay bills, provide a tax sum
specific applications per disk which, when used mary, and serve as an appointment or special
with Manager 64, will allow the user to computerize date reminder. The Silent Butler comes with a plas
home budgets, index recipes, keep track of sports tic form with pockets in which the user can place
statistics, track business accounts, and carry out personal checks for printing on a 1525, 1526, or
other functions. MPS-801 printer.

••mong the other software packages announced

independent companies continue to develop and
at CES by Commodore are:
market a growing number of hardware and software
• Ten new educational software products,
products for the Commodore microcomputers.
including the Milliken Edufun (VIC-20 and Com
Chalk Board, Inc., developer of the PowerPad
modore 64) series, the Kinder Koncepts (Commo
touch tablet, announced six new software pack
dore 64) series, and two now programs featuring
ages scheduled for release in the first quarter of
the animated "Commodore Kids," Math Facts and
1984. They include Leo's 'Lectric Graphics, a
Numbers Galore.
graphics system which allows users to do finger
• Commodore Logo programming language for
painting, multiple-contact drawing, or a fine,
the 64 and 264 computers, with 170K of available
point-to-point drawing; Leonardo's Logo, a turtle
disk storage.
graphics program which employs push-button
• International Soccer, the first in a series of
symbolic graphics in place of keyboard entry;
advanced games with three-dimensional color
Leonardo's Philharmonic, a music composition pack
animation which Commodore is calling the Gold
age; Boolean Blueprints, an advanced BASIC tutor
Medallion games. Suggested retail price is $34.95,
for the novice; Runway, an aircraft navigation and
and the game should be available by the time you
piloting simulation program based on geometric
read this.
principles; and Borderline, an international rela
• Other entertainment programs introduced
tions simulation game.
include Viduzzlcs, a series of video puzzles for AtariSoft, the third-party software publishing
children; jack Attack, an animated strategy game;
division of Atari, announced conversions of seven
and Solar Fox, a converted Bally Midway adventure
hit arcade titles for the Commodore 64 and VIC-20.
game. Initial deliveries are scheduled for this
The games are Joust, Battlezone, Pole Position, Ms.
Pac-Man, Moon Patrol, Calaxian, and jungle Hunt.
• Four new "talking" software products for
Suggested prices for each game are $34.95 on disk
use with Commodore's new Magic Voice speech
and $44.95 on cartridge.
module in the 64 and 264 computers. Two of the
Waveform Corp. introduced MusiCalc I, a
programs are Bally Midway games—Gor/and
software package designed to transform the Com
Wizard of War—and two are alphabet and number
modore 64 into a three-voice synthesizer with
educational packages for young children—A Bee
realtime sequencing, slide controls, modulators,
C's and Counting Bee. Prices for the games should
and transposes. The program allows users to
be in the $30-$40 range, Commodore announced.
play along with preprogrammed melodies, or
• Micro Illustrator for the Commodore 64 and
create and store their own melodies for later
264 computers, a popular "paint" system for cre
playback. The suggested price is $74.95.
ation of color graphics. The package uses a menu
of icons and either a joystick or light pen. The
Commodore 64 version will use all 16 of its colors Brdderbund Software has converted its popular
and was scheduled for February release, while word processing program, Bank Street Writer, to
the 264 version will have a range of 128 colors and disk format for the Commodore 64. Previously
is set for an April release. available for Apple and Atari computers, Bank
• Micro Cookbook for the Commodore 64, a Street Writer displays all functions and commands
household management program providing cook at the top of the screen in order to eliminate the
book and recipe management. Features include need for memorizing codes or command words.
meal planning (plus help with leftovers), a glos Suggested retail price is $69.95.
sary of cooking terms, calorie and nutritional in Human Engineered Software (HesWare), the
formation, and 155 recipes with space for 100 largest single-source supplier of software for the
more. Initial sales were scheduled for early Feb Commodore 64, announced seven new educa
ruary at under $40 each. tional and productivity programs for the 64. Turtle
• Silent Butler, a record-keeping and financial Toyland jr., produced for HesWare by ChildWare
management package on disk, which is designed Corporation of Menlo Park, California, operates
22 COMPUTEfs Gazette Apnll984

Here's a series of seven other TIMEWORKS MANAGE

easy-to-use Manage MENT INFORMATION pro
ment Information Re grams into a fully integrated
ports flexibly designed lo accounting system.
accommodate all small A Manual written in easy-to-
and medium size busi understand, people-friendly
ness accounting require English, abundantly illustrated
ments for Commodore 64' to provide further clarity
computers. and eliminate guesswork,
Inventory Management / Password Protection, to
Sales Analysis Managemenl/ prevent unauthorized ac
Accounts Receivable Manage cess to conlidential data.
ment and Invoicing / Accounts Payable Suggested Retail List at
Management and Checkwriting / Payroll S59.95 each.
Management / Cash Flow Management /
Customer Support Plan
General Ledger
Timeworks Telephone Con
sulting Service is available to
all users at no charge to support your installation
and ongoing operations,
For further details, contact your local Dealer
or Timeworks, Inc. Choose from a host of
Commodore 64 programs. Now at your favorite
dealer. Or, contact Timeworks, RO. Box 321,
Deerfield. IL 60015. 312-291-9200.

General Overview
Each system includes:
A Menu-driven program, sophisticated enough
to provide complete Management and Product
information/yet requires no prior computer or
accounting knowledge to operate.
A unique method of creating your own, un
limited array of reports — easily and quickly.
YOU select the information you want, and YOU
determine the sequence of the report column
A program which can be used by itself (stand SOFTWARE WITH SUBSTANCE
alone), or can be interfaced, one at a time, with - FOR EVERYONE.
ied Tiademaik o! Commodore Computer Syitems c I583Timewoito. Inc Ail nohls joserved
with a joystick and teaches turtle graphics and two three-program disks (sold separately) that
programming concepts to children. HesWare also teach the user about 64 programming, graphics,
announced three new educational titles from Sun and sound; and Bumblebee, an educational
burst Software—Factory, for those eight years or cartridge-based program for children six years
older, places the user in the role of a design en and older, which introduces the concepts of com
gineer who must create geometric products on an puter programming. Each of the programs sells
assembly line; M-ss-ng L-nks, ages ten and above, for $34.95.
is a language puzzle designed to improve spelling, Program Design, Inc. (PDI), of Greenwich,
grammar, comprehension skills, and writing; and Connecticut, announced the availability of ten
Tri-Math, ages 6-12 years, uses an alien space new program translations for the Commodore 64.
intruder, a dinosaur, and a mysterious mansion The programs include Analogies, Vocabulary Builder
as a part of a math skills program. 1 and 2, Rending Comprehension: What's Different?,
Creative Software, of Sunnyvale, California, Preschool IQ Builder I, Memory Builder; Concentra
introduced seven software programs for the tion, Story Builder/Word Master, Code Breaker,
Commodore 64. Three of them—Joe's Writer, Fred's Number Series, and Shaft Raider.
Filer, and Jack's Calc—are components of an inte PDI President John Victor no doubt spoke for
grated personal productivity series the company quite a few software firms when he stated, "We
calls the People's Choice. Designed for older chil have decided to translate many of our titles into
dren and adults, the series features a word proc the Commodore 64 format...based on its growing
essor, a file manager, and a spreadsheet. Each popularity in the marketplace."
program will be sold separately at a suggested Victor's comment is a good indication of what
price of $49.95. Commodore 64 owners and, to a slightly lesser
Also introduced by Creative Software were degree, VIC-20 users will be finding during 1984—
Crisis Mountain, an action game on cartridge; In improved and more plentiful software in all areas
The Chips (see a review of this game elsewhere in of computing. The Winter CES not only intro
this issue), a popular V1C-20 program now avail duced a new line of Commodore computers, it
able on cartridge for the 64, that teaches the player revealed more clearly that the company's growing
the economics of business by pitting him against installed base of 64s and VIC-20s is fertile ground
a rival computer software company; I Am The C-64, for software producers. ©



c control o


. SA/j
1.) Complete and thorough users manual
2.) Copy with one or two drives
3.) Investigate and back-up many "PROTECTED" disks
4.) Copy all file types including relative types
5.) Edit and view track/block in Hex or ASCII
6.) Display full contents of directory and print
7.) Change program names, add, delete files with simple
8.) Easy disk initialization
9.) Supports up to four drives
*UNGUARD Now allows you to read, write and verify bad sec
tors and errors on your disk making it easy to back-up most
protected software.

■♦ M ^2^— SS CALL (201) 838-9027

IV.ik'i-. & Distributors 1342 B RI. 23

Inquiries Invilcd Butler, N.J. 07405
B.Her Lattar m\ Writer " Quick Touch Typing "
We wrile your loiters Invitations. We teach you typing. Step by step.
Resumes. Announce men is Easy to follow lessons even kids
will love. And then, we make you
M - ■

Applications. Greetings. And many

mare. 100 letters just waiting for type FAST, You actually watch BO0Q0BB000D
you to fill in a few simple details, and your speed increase with every (300100000000
. . . PRINT! Select a lelter and load drill- 00QBBH000CQ1D
il into your lavorne word processor
11 you don't have one, use out simple
to operate Belter Writer"
supplied with the package
Than* You Letter

Supports most word processors using your compuler ASCII formal' £34.95 on otslt lor Commodore SK. 95 cassette, S24.95 on disk tor Commodore 64 and Aien(f6K I computers Soon lor Apple, IBM
64 and Alan (16K) computers Soon tor Apple, IBM and Colaco computers. and Coleco computers

Horn* Decorator '

By Stephanie Nouman, Ph.D.

We decorate- your home Or your olfico Wo teach you aboul colors, furniture
layout, and even the theory behind It, Then, by following simple inslructions you
select carpeting, paini walls, move heavy sofa beds - and you get to see it
BEFORE you make cosily mistakes. Amazingl

Furmfure Layout PlJrsptJCJwe

S3* 95 on disk for Commodore 64 Soon lor Alan. Apple. IBM and Coieco computers

We turn your diskdrive into a powerful, simple to use machine! Nomore lengthy
Basic commands.. call the menu anytime, your program in memory remains
intact until you Load or Run another. Indispensable tool for every drive owner.

Menu 2

S24 9S on (to* lor Commodore 64 and VIC 20 computers

li/DI(k Plm ■ Kay board Soft/lay "

We give you even more1 All Ez/Disk We save you time. All you need is
lunctions, PLUS: copy disks with immediately at your fingertips No
one or twodrives, print files directly more endless paging through
ftom disk, and more. manuals and books. Basic
command, memory locations and
maps, sprites, sound and more.

Menu 3 Soft/Lay 64

S3* 95 on ask lor CommooOro 64 tfl 95 lor Commodore M and VIC 20 computers

150 Nassau Street. ■ Suite 2024 ■ New York ■ NewYork10038 ■ Telephone: (212) 608-2922 ■ Orders Only: (800) 237-8400/Ext. 111
Dealer and Distributor Inquiries Invited



Send check or money order plus $2 00 to cover shipping costs. Add S3.00 tor COD. New York residents add 8.25% sales lax.

OtxnmodoiB Bt. VIC 20. Appln. Alan, IBM tna Colsco are naoemnrtj o' Commcraom f/aciromcs, LTD., Apple Compufo'. 'to . Aim, Inc , IBM Carp ana Cotoco resptaivert. SOFTRON, Better Letter Wnnr,
Belle' Writer. Home Decorator, Quick Touch Typing, EzlOisk, Plus anO Keyboard Sort/Lay ire trademarks 0' SOFTRON. Inc

t: I3BJ Stfiron inc Ail H.gris

The New Mobile
Selby Bateman, Assistant Editor, Features

The robot, one of the most popular of science It is no coincidence that the first International
fiction subjects, is now appearing on store Personal Robot Congress (IPRC) is set for this
shelves as a personal, programmable micro year. Between 3000 and 5000 people are expected
computer on wheels. Although personal robots to attend the three-day event, April 13-15 in
haven't achieved the mass popularity of home Albuquerque. A potpourri of commercial exhibits,
computers, they are finding an eager audience seminars, amateur robotics competitions, demon
as a combination computer toy and tinkerer's strations, and lectures by leading robotics experts
playground. is planned. And the first Golden Droid Awards will
be presented to the best amateur robot builders in
several categories.
B.O.B., Jenus, HERO I, RB5X, Shakey, Freddy, The idea for the IPRC began with Joseph
Epistle, Topo, F.R.E.D. Bosworth, president of RB Robot Corporation in
Golden, Colorado. RB Robot, maker of the RB5X
The names aren't as famous as the fictional personal robot, is one of the three major personal
R2D2 or C3PO, yet these are the real robot companies in the U.S. The other two are
pioneers that later generations of robots Androbot, Inc., of San Jose, California, producer
of Topo, B.O.B., and a couple of other robots;
may someday view as venerable ancestors.
They are contributing to what one American com and the Heath Company of Benton Harbor, Michi
pany now calls the Age of Robotics. gan, creator of the HERO I robot.
Bosworth talked over his idea for the congress
with executives from Androbot and Heath. He
several new robots are being introduced this found them interested. "In keeping with what all
spring and others that were marketed in 1983 are three of these companies are doing in pioneering
also available, with prices ranging from about the industry, there really needed to be some kind
$350 up to $5000. of industry kickoff," says Bosworth. "It's exciting
This generation of personal robots can speak, and it's been a lot of fun to plan. Albuquerque is
sing, deliver messages or trays of hors d'oeuvres, going to be one crazy town that weekend."
wake you up in the morning, answer phone calls, Appropriately, the keynote speaker for the
and play games—all under strictly limited condi event will be Isaac Asimov, whose prolific literary
tions. Their shapes are closer to fire hydrants on output has included three novels and more than
wheels than to humans, but manufacturers are (wo dozen stories with robots as central figures.
working to make them, as one industry leader Asimov essentially redefined the way science
says, "charming." fiction writers portrayed robots. His fictional
This year may well be remembered as the robots are machines of intelligence and rational
one in which personal robots first began to capture thought, programmed to follow Asimov's classic
the public's fancy. Three Laws of Robotics:
26 COMPUTEi's Gazette April 198J
last Night, CompuServe Turned This
Computer Into a Travel Agent For Jennie,
A Stock Analyst For Ralph, And Now,
It's Sending Herbie To Another Galaxy.
NO MATTER WHICH COMPUTER prestigious financial data bases. need a computer, a modem and
YOU OWN, WE'LL HELP YOU GET Access Value Line, or Standard and CompuServe. CompuServe connects with
THE MOST OUT OF IT. Poor's. Get the latest information on almost any personal computer, terminal,
If you've got places to go. 40,000 stocks, bonds or commodities. or communicating word processor.
CompuServe can save you time and Then, consult experts like IDS To receive an illustrated guide to
money getting there. Just access the orHeinold Commodities. All on line CompuServe and learn how you can
Official Airline Guide Electronic with CompuServe. subscribe, contact or call:
Edition-for current flight schedules and Or if, like Herbie, intergalactic
fares. Make reservations through our gamesmanship is your thing, enjoy the
on-line travel service. Even charter best in fantasy, adventure, and space CompuServe
a yacht through "Worldwide Exchange." games. Like MegaWars, the ultimate Consumer Information Service. P. O. Box 20212
5000 Arlington Centre Blvd.. Columbus. OH 43220
If your money's in the market, computer conflict.
CompuServe offers a wealth of To get all this and more, you'll In Oriio call 614-157-0802

An H&fl Block Company

1. A robot may not injure a human being, or eyes are animated; they follow the pen as it moves
through inaction, allow a human being to come to across a sheet of paper. The mechanism that drives
harm. The Scribe, and a similar automaton called The
2. A robot must obey the orders given it by Draughtsman, is an intricate clocklike machine
human beings except where such orders would with a complex series of disks, springs, and cams.
conflict with the First Law. Both of these early robotic forms are still func
3. A robot must protect its own existence tional. (Mary Shelley reportedly visited an exhibit
except where such protection would conflict with of these renowned automatons just a year before
the First or Second Law. her book, Frankenstein, appeared.)
The word robot comes from the Czech word
for worker, robota (or the closely allied word,
robotit, meaning "to drudge"). It was first used in
a 1921 play by Karel Capek, R.U.R. (Rossum's Uni
versal Robots), in which robots destroy the human
race. It was this negative view of robots as soulless
machines bent on destroying their makers from
which Asimov departed.
Since Capek, science fiction writers by the
hundreds have vested robots with a wide variety
of abilities and personality traits. Movies have
given us a clear, if fantastic, image of robots, rang
ing from the evil human impersonator in Fritz
Lang's Metropolis (1926) to the droids in George
Lucas's Star Wars trilogy, which possess the full
range of human characteristics.

Vw hile science fiction has aided us in visualizing

what we want in a personal robot, industrial ro
botics research has provided much of the
hardware development. American industry uses
robots in auto assembly lines, oil drilling opera
tions, coal mines, and hundreds of other places.
There are robotic mail carriers that roll through
corporate offices, automated tractors that deliver
and pick up parts, and welding machines that
exhibit tireless accuracy. Robots tend machines,
paint, handle parts, and inspect assembly of
Approximately 7000 industrial robots operate
Androbot's Topo, a three-foot-tall computer-peripheral robot, in the United States, about 9000 in Europe, and
will be available this year for Commodore, Apple, and IBM Japan may have as many as 30,000. The Japanese
computers. Base price is $1595. have made robot development a national goal,
with full government backing and a multimillion
dollar investment.
■ opular interest in robots has not been limited The Robot Institute of America, an industry
to our own time. History is full of examples of support association with 255 corporate members,
our fascination with automatons, the precursors estimates that by 1991 there will be more than
of robots which could move by themselves and 100,000 robots installed and operating in U.S.
be directed to perform predetermined morions. plants. Joseph Engelberger, considered the father
The ancient Egyptians constructed complicated of robotics, says that within ten years the robot
water clocks. The Greeks and the Chinese built industry will be a $3 billion a year enterprise.
water-driven figures which performed a variety This June the largest industrial robotics show
of movements. of its kind, Robots 8, is expected to draw more
One of the most famous automatons, The than 20,000 people to Detroit. Another industry
Scribe, was created in the eighteenth century by support group, Robotics International of the
Swiss craftsmen. This lifelike figure of a child Society of Manufacturing Engineers, has a mem
seated at a drawing table writes with a quill pen bership of more than 10,000 engineers, educators,
and dips the pen into an ink well. Even the doll's and consultants. It is planning a conference and
30 COMPUTEiS Gazelle April 1984
"Now Your Commodore 64
Can Print Like a Prol"

Grappler Printer Interface

The Revolutionary Printer Interface for the Commodore 64 TM

A New Era in A Uniquely Intelligent Interface:

Commodore Printing Power. • Prints Screen Graphics Without Software
Grappler CD offers the first complete answer to • Graphics Screen Dump Routines Include
your printer interfacing requirements, with many Rotated, Inversed, Enhanced and Double Sized-
powerful capabilities unique in the Commodore Graphics.
marketplace. Complete signal translation allows • Full Code Translation From Commodore's PET
many popular name brand printers to operate ASCII to Standard ASCII, the Language of Most
perfectly with the Commodore 64, or to imitate Printers.
Commodore's own printer. Even Commodore's • Complete Emulation of the Commodore 1525
graphic character set can be reproduced on Printer for printing of Commodore's Special
Epson, Okidata, Star, ProWriter and other popular Characters.
printers. • Dip Switch Printer Selection for Epson, Star,
Exclusive Grappler CD features provide a variety Okidata, ProWriter and other popular printers.
of graphic screen dumps, text screen dumps and • Conversion Mode for Easy Reading of Special
formatting. No other Commodore interface can Commodore Codes.
offer this. • Text Screen Dump and Formatting Commands
• 22 Unique Text and Graphics Commands
If you own a Commodore 64...
If you're serious about quality, trouble free
printing... You need the Grappler CD. Orange micro
— inc.
Contact your nearest Commodore dealer or call 1400 N LrtKEVIEW AVE., ANAHEIM. CA 92807 U.S.A.
Orange Micro for a dealer near you. (714)779-2772 TELEX: 183511CSMA
Commoi!on( 64 ana Commoiwj is?5 are iraaenwn or Cnmmouore El«['om:» L.miied
Epson 11 £iBgif1o<hTliaaemar*ol Eman Amerrca iv
trade show, Robots West, for next November in box was in the room occupied by Shakey? The
Anaheim, California, that may attract as many as computer program which drove Shakey had to
15,000 participants. work out each step of the desired action from a
1984's robots are a far cry from the multi- limited number of movements at its disposal. The
talented, two-legged science fiction versions. Yet, number of Shakey's potential decisions quickly
robotics technology has come a long way in a very produced a mathematical explosion of options.
short time. It has been the computer, with its tiny Freddy's job was no easier. The robot had to
chips and integrated circuits, that has made those be shown each step of a successful operation and
gains possible. then it repeated the process. If its limited sensing
mechanism couldn't find the correct shape of a
toy part from the pile of parts at its disposal, it
would pick through the pile. But if stymied,
Freddy would smash its arm into the pile of parts,
trying to break them into something it could

Kobots are getting smarter, however. Jenus, a

robot created by Robotics International Corpora
tion, rolls under its own power. When its batteries
weaken, it locates an electrical outlet and plugs
in. IBM is reportedly working on a robot called
Epistle that will read the mail and then pick out
the more important letters by looking for certain
phrases or words previously embedded in its

Robotics pioneer David Heiserman, a con

sultant and author of How To Design and Build
Your Own Custom Robot and four other books on
robotics, believes there are many people who
want robots but can't justify the expense. Unlike
the microcomputer, a robot cannot yet be called a
utility item for the home of the individual.
"I'm very optimistic about how it's going to
F.R.E.D. (Friendly Robotic Educational Device), a 12-inch, turn out," says Heiserman. "But the people who
$349 robot that speaks, moves, and draws, and can be directed are manufacturing these commercial hobby robots
by an infrared signal from the remote control device at right. will go through a difficult period. They have to
put a lot of money into product development and
support for the robot without any return for a
During the late 1960s, scientists at Stanford
Research Institute (SRI) International created a That's not the view that the manufacturers
forerunner of the present group of personal are taking. Rick Gibson, marketing manager for
robots. It was aptly named Shakey. Mounted on Androbot, says that initial response to the com
the robot were an arm, a television camera, and pany's product has been overwhelming. He be
grippers. Shakey was programmed to roll around lieves that sales of robots in 1984 will be brisk
in a small, five-room environment, shifting and among dedicated computer hackers and hobbyists.
stacking boxes on command. The real challenge for Androbot and other
In the 1970s, a robot named Freddy was de robot producers will follow this first burst of en
veloped at Edinburgh University. Freddy was a
thusiasm among those already fascinated with
large suspended arm with a gripper, similar in
robotics. "Right now we're trying to increase the
form to some assembly-line industrial robots of robots' capabilities so that after the initial market
today. Freddy's job was to choose appropriate
of instantly interested people is satisfied, we'll
parts from a pile in order to make toys. have robots that are more productive and can do
These and other early experiments in robotics
some things," says Gibson. "By the end of 1984,
demonstrated to engineers the enormous com
we'll be able to offer the options that will interest
plexity involved in creating robots which could
the next phase of the marketplace."
make decisions in even the simplest fashion. How
could someone tell Shakey all of the possible deci
sions to be made in finding a particular box and Lndrobot introduced a prototype version of its
moving it next to another box? And what if neither robot, Topo, in the spring of 1983. The 33-pound,
32 COMPUTED Gazelle April 1984
COMPUTEI's GAZETTE Disk will premier story with screen text comes to life
with the May 1984 issue of COMPUTED with the sound of crickets, lightning
GAZETTE. When you subscribe to COM- and thunder, a UFO in flight, and
PUTE!'s GAZETTE Disk each month you will Morse code.
receive a fully tested 5'/i-inch floppy disk and many more!
which will run on either your Commodore
VIC-20 or 64 personal computer. Each
issue of COMPUTEI's GAZETTE Disk will con
Only in the first issue (the May 1984 issue)
tain all of the programs which appear in
of the GAZETTE Disk will you receive a
the corresponding issue of COMPUTEI's
BONUS program:
GAZETTE. You'll save hours of typing time
and be able to enjoy all of the high quality • SpeedScript — a word processor for
software found each month in COMPUTED the VIC and 64. SpeedScript has all
GAZETTE. the major features of commercial
word processors. Written entirely in
Here are just a few of the quality programs machine language, SpeedScript is
which will appear in the May 1984 issue: fast, powerful, and easy to use.
!.. .■ ..■ ...■...-.■ . .: . ■, .:.

• Props — a fast paced, nonviolent

To Order:
game for the Commodore 64. Ani
To reserve YOUR copy of the premier issue of the
mated with machine language, the GAZETTE Disk and enter your subscription, return
game puts you in control of a pigeon the attached post paid card or call COMPUTEI's
lost in a dangerous sky filled with gazette TOLL-FREE 800-334-0868 (in North Caro
whirling propellers. Your goal is to lina 919-275-9809). All orders must be prepaid—
send check or money order or charge to VISA,
make it across the sky to find your
MasterCard or American Express.
skittish mate, who moves unpredict-
ably from coop to coop. : Subscription Rates:
• SuperSprite — an unsteady flyer de Six month subscription $39.95
pends on you to guide him down {add $18 shipping and handling outside the US ,
and Canada)
through a series of unfriendly kryp-
; One year (12 mo.) subscription $69.95
tonite barriers. For the Commodore
(add $36 shipping and handling outside the US
64, SuperSprite makes effective use of
and Canada)
sprite animation and sound.
Individual issues of the gazette Disk can be or-
• PRINT Sound — a utility for the VIC-
; dered for $7.95 (in the US and Canada add $1 per
20 which translates letters into musi issue for shipping and handling. Outside the US
cal notes. All you supply is a simple and Canada add $3 per issue). Individual issues
PRINT statement. . can be ordered by calling TOLL-FREE 800-334-0868
(in North Carolina call 919-275-9809}, or by sending
• Sound Story—an exciting demonstra
your prepaid order to: GAZETTEDisk, P.O. Box-5406,
tion program that illustrates the
Greensboro, NC 27403.
sound capabilities of the VIC-20. A
three-foot-tall robot was a
wheeled computer peripheral
that could be programmed
through the keyboard of a
microcomputer. All 650 of the
prototypes sold at a price of
$495 each.
At the Comdex show in
Las Vegas last November,
Androbot introduced a new
digital Topo. Although it shares
the name and physical appear
ance of the earlier prototype,
the new Topo is a much more
sophisticated robot. Topo can
be programmed to talk in two
different ways. It has a text-
speech capability that allows
the user to type in what to say, Androman, a 12-inch-tallcomputer-peripheral robot thai plays games.

Obstacles In Robot Development

Major advances have been made in the place to place like a pogo stick.
sophistication and adaptability of robots. An Adaptable Hand: Robotic hands are de
There are significant problem areas, however. veloped to the point that they can hold almost
Discriminating Vision: A robot's visual sen anything a human hand can. What hasn't
sor is usually a television camera. The camera been perfected is a robot's hand with the
translates what it sees into picture elements adaptability of our four fingers and opposable
(pixels). Each of the many pixels is then given thumb. For a robot to hold a paint sprayer
a numerical value based on the varying levels takes one type of gripper. The same robot
of light. The number patterns are analyzed needs a different mechanism to hold a can.
by the computer, which matches these pat And yet a third robotic hand might be re
terns to corresponding values previously quired to grasp a vacuum cleaner nozzle.
embedded in memory. In this way, for ex A Natural Language: To communicate with
ample, a robot can find a particular item it your Commodore 64 or VIC-20 requires a
has been programmed to seek, such as parts language such as BASIC, which will translate
of a machine it is building. human ideas into numbers the computer can
In the past, a computer's ability to proc understand. But there are tremendous prob
ess visual images has been relatively un lems involved in telling a robot to carry out
sophisticated and slow. Scientists are now what may appear at first to be even the
working to perfect a pattern-finding function simplest function. Computer-driven robots
which will allow the computer to discriminate cannot become popular and useful until there
swiftly among images and even to add new is a way for humans to communicate with
information to its visual senses. them without having to learn a complex
Bipedal Locomotion: Do you want your robot programming language.
to climb stairs, go up a ladder, or step over a This is a central concern of artificial in
curb? That's not yet possible. Why do you telligence research (AI), one of the most in
think most robots roll along like R2D2 rather triguing and controversial aspects of com
than walk as does C3PO? Even a toddler can puter science and robotics. For over 25 years
outwalk a robot. But that will change. AI researchers have worked to improve the
Robotics engineers at places like Carnegie- way in which humans communicate with
Mellon's Robotics Institute are making great computers. LISP (List Processing), SHRDLU,
strides in this area of research. There are and other experimental natural languages
already prototypes that walk with the multi- have been developed to help solve this fun
legged style of a spider and that bounce from damental problem. The search continues.

34 COMPUTED Gazette April 1984

.3 *



2000 and VIC20 SOFTWARE
COMMODORE 64 end for Advanced Informatii
SOFTWARE on our new Timex-Sinclair and
has Electron Range.
bst his mind and alcng Attacking":
with it zhe Crown Je-A'ais' out of the sky at you. you
Nmv whosoe^«r can find check your radar as an
tfta Jev.'eis sha;i be e*a'05Kin blossoms at
your Side you return their
Part jwi fire sending one of the
the QllirviTIC WARRIOR Can >oj~
s^iids a'^ng aga^ns: the
the fue! ga-jge flashes a Che ground installations
sinister C^abmen. low fuel warning...
with a GRAPHICS or. below the sound of
Domed City gone i jKYHAWK runs in 3K or
the distant fuiye TEXT option. explcsfcis rumbles away
BK//ithaJoystick. o^'er the landscape...
Are v^u warrior enough
:□ sta^d by hfa side m th TORNADO runs on an
MEGA- Arcaae Game. unexpanded VIC20 +

Please SBnd me a free color catatDg

I currently own or plen Cd buy a computer
QUICKSILVA INC. 1 enclose a stamped. Belf-eddressd envelope
426 West Nakome Name
San Antonio, TX 7B21B No/StreaC
TBl:C512D34OaBB4 Stata
Zip C3
press the return key, and have Topo speak. The B.O.B. has three megabytes of memory. It can be
other method is a phoneme system that allows programmed to navigate through an area, re
Topo to sing, to speak in foreign languages, and member those patterns, speak, and choose from
to make sound effects. This second form allows over 100 stored words and phrases.
the user to control the pitch, speed, and volume "Initially B.O.B. will be a robot for pro
of Topo's voice. grammers, hobbyists, and computer buffs," says
The base price for the new Topo is $1595. The Rick Gibson. "Through additional software in the
robot is controlled by an infrared link housed in a future, B.O.B. will develop into a highly sophisti
transceiver (base communicator) that plugs into cated robot, ultimately evolving over the years
an Apple computer. During the second half of into a personal servant. It has the equivalent
1984, Androbot has plans to introduce a Topo capabilities of an IBM PC on-board, and programs
version for Commodore and IBM PC computers. can be written either on an IBM PC or an Apple II
with a modem."
The base price for B.O.B. will be approxi
mately $2000. With accessories, the price can go
as high as $5000.
Androbot is also introducing F.R.E.D.
{Friendly Robotic Educational Device). Aimed at
the educational field, F.R.E.D. has an infrared
controller which can be used to make it talk, move,
or control a drawing pen mechanism. F.R.E.D. is
12 inches high, weighs two and a half pounds,
and costs $349.
F.R.E.D. comes with a utility wagon and a
pen activation arm that will accept future acces
sories. The robot has a 45-word vocabulary and is
expandable. Androbot plans to make F.R.E.D.
compatible with almost all personal computers,
although the infrared controller means that the
computer is not essential. Like the other robots,
F.R.E.D. can detect a void around it and thus
protect itself from rolling off the edge of a surface.
Finally, Androbot has created Androman, a
12-inch tall game robot for use with an Atari VCS
2600 or VCS-compatible machines. This game
robot comes with a joystick controller that works
via a remote infrared signal, a game cartridge, a
transmitter, a game-playing field, a set of game
pieces imprinted with coded information, and an
Heath's HERO I robot, a programmable computer on wheels instruction manual. Play involves shifts between
that sells for a base price of $2500 assembled ($1500 in full
the computer monitor and the playing field.
kit form).

Topo can move at a speed of about two feet

The HERO I (Heath Educational RObot) was
introduced a little over a year ago by the Heath
per second, contains three 8031 microprocessors
Company, which so far has sold several thousand
(two on-board and one in the base communicator),
and has eight card slots (two already in use for of them at about $1500 in kit form and $2500
motion control and communication/speech con factory-assembled. Without the optional arm and
trol). Also available are a number of educational voice capability, the kit sells for about $1000.
and instructional software programs and an at "It's been an extremely good seller for us,"
tachable Androwagon that carries up to 20 says Douglas Bonham, director of Heathkit/Zenith
■pounds. Topo is upgradable and takes commands Educational Systems. "The Heath robot incorpo
from the keyboard or through a joystick. rates all of the basic systems found on modern
Androbot, a company established by Atari industrial robots, plus a few that are still in the
founder Nolan Bushnell, is currently introducing experimental stage of industrial application."
two more personal robots. B.O.B. (brains-on At 20 inches tall and 39 pounds, HERO I looks
board), as its name implies, is the most sophisti something like the robot R2D2 of Star Wars fame.
cated of the robots being created by the company. The turret-like head rotates up to 350 degrees and
In addition to its two Intel 8086 microprocessors, carries an arm mechanism, programming
36 COMPUTED Gazette April 1984
pril 15th. is just around the

ivhich corner is up to you

With TaxWare™, a year round record keeping system, you can store all tax related Information on electronic copies
of the most popular tax forms. You may also calculate tax due at any time under a variety of circumstances. Make
any changB and all other forms are re-calculated.

• You can do endless 'what its', i.e., "what if your spouse takes a job", "what if I sell my stock", "what is the credit
for child care". . .
• You may tag any item as belonging to husband, wife or joint and see the different tax consequences.
• Handles itemized deductions, income averaging, dividends, stocks, self-employment, rents, royalties, childcare,
marriage deductions and mare.. .
• Eliminates the need for a separate data base program to store tax items — TaxWare™ stores and calculates all
in one.
• Create lists as you need for income, medical deductions, IRA payments or anything else.
• Lists are easily displayed and updated totals are automatically transferred to the proper tax forms.
• A unique bfend of Compiled Basic and Machine language used to improve speed and accuracy.
• Handles all forms: 1040; 2441, Schedules A, B, C, D, E, G and W.

FREE Backup Disk Included and Continuous Updates Available.

Tax Deductible as a Tax Preparation Aid. 2042 Marshall Ave.

Available on Disk Only. St. Paul, MN 55104
(612) 644-1551

Dealer Inquiries Invited

SoftPcople Inc.
Special P.O.P. Packages
& Prices Available

TtjWtn /■ > '•giifo/nf Utdtmuk of SmSoft.

keyboard, and experimental circuit board.
HERO I has its own on-board programmable
computer and contains electronic sensors to detect
light, sound, motion, and obstructions. The robot
is advertised with Heath's robotics education
course, which reflects their goal to market HERO
I as an instructional tool.
The unit uses a 6808 microprocessor, has a
hexadecimal keyboard with multifunction keys,
and includes a synthesized phoneme-based
speech system that generates 64 different basic
sounds to simulate human speech or sound effects.

RB5X, marketed by RB Robot Corporation,

stands about 23 inches tall without the optional
arm which can be mounted between the robot's
dome and the body. Cartridge slots are included
for later expansion.
Optional add-ons include a 10-key number
pad, a compass, and even a fire extinguisher
nozzle. It is programmable in BASIC on any com
puter using the RS-232 interface.
The unexpanded unit sells for $1795. An op
tional arm is priced at $595 and a voice capability
is available for $195.
"We think the personal robot industry will
follow the kind of explosive growth that we've
had over the past six years in the personal com The RB5X, produced by RB Robot corporation, is a 23-inch-
tall programmable robot, which can be plugged into a com
puter field," says RB Robot's Bosworth. "The
puter for instructions. Preprogrammed EPROM cartridges
horizon is more like 5 to 10 years and not 10 to 15
can also be used to direct the RB5X.
For the future, advances in robotics tech
nology will be affected by improvements in several
crucial areas of research. Large-scale integration International Personal Robot Congress
of computer systems will bring greater produc 1547 S. Owens St., #46

tivity and adaptability to entire factories of robots. Lakewood, CO 80226

(303) 278-0662
More sophisticated hierarchies in robot control
systems will mean that sensory devices will be Androbot, Inc.
101 East Daggett Dr.
more effectively used.
San Jose, CA 95134
Artificial intelligence (AI) research, the at (408) 262-8676
tempt to simulate human thought processes and
Heath Company
experiential learning in computers, may hold even
Dept. 150-055
greater solutions in the field of robotics. Some AI Benton Harbor, MI 49022
scientists envision that in the early years of the (616) 982-3200
twenty-first century there will be few areas of
RB Robot Corporation
human thought that computers will not be able to
14618 West 6th Ave., Suite 201
duplicate. Golden, CO 80401
Although the AI field is as controversial as it. (303) 279-5525
is complex, it has already brought advances in
computer languages, robotic sensory-control co
ordination, problem-solving structure, and a host
of human thought-related subjects.
Personal robots may not yet have all the ad COMPUTETs Gazette
vanced abilities we popularly associate with Toll Free Subscription Order Line
robots. But the HEROs, B.O.B.s, and RB5Xs that
may roll through your house this year are the first 800-334-0868
steps in making this science fiction staple a popu In NC 919-275-9809
lar, affordable science fact.
38 COMPUTEIS Gaiettt April 1984
Quality Software that Outshines the Rest
Programs for the Commodore 64

dMOS SoftLoc

^^fl Database Management ^^M The Program Security System

^k Operating System
Set up program security in minutes.
The BEST data base management tool
for the collection, arrangement and display of Lock up your personal, financial or business records.
alphanumeric data
A unique pattern matching and searching capabilities 3 types of protection:
make dMOS™ the easiest OB system available
on the market. • Re-encodes program.

Features: • Modifies diskette directory.

• Map search technique to achieve a "logical AND",
while searching between fields. ■ Selectable and reassignable 7 digit
• Display records found, or NOT found by a search. access code.
• Rearrange fields.
• Suppress fields and field titles.
• Insert short (10 character) text.
• Selectively print records. $3

and announcing...

Missing Key Phone Bos

A reset System
Personal Phone Directory Program
Restores your BASIC Program.
Designed to store and organize
After programming for hours you
your personal phone listings.
press RUN for a final check of your work —
the computer locks up. You press RUN, STOP. . .
nothing — you press RESTORE. . . nothing — you
look for the missing key but it isn't there. You
have to turn off your computer and lose hours of work!!

Now Add the Missing Key1":

• Press the "Missing Key1"" and the computer
resets itself from any lockup, and your BASIC
program is restored.
• Load and run the program included.
• Takes nothing away from your computer, neither
memory nor a plug-in port.
• Attaches to your C64 keyboard or any other
convenient location. The user has complete control of
• Will not void your CBM warranty. $2995 15 category titles and entries.

Software by SoftPeople m Programs for the Commodore 64 m Connecting People with Great ideas.

SoftPeople Inc.
Dealer Inquiries Invited
Special P.O.P Packages
2042 Marshall Ave. St. Paul, MN 55104 (612)644-1551 & Prices Available
How To Start
A User Group
Kathy Yakal, Editorial Assistant

A user group is a good .resource for program hesitated because of the enormity of the task, it
ming tips, free software, and new ideas on may be because you're looking at the huge groups
how to use your computer. If you can't find a that have evolved over months or years, like TPUG
group that meets near you, then why not start with more than 13,000 members. There are
your own? Here are some suggestions. thousands of programs in its public domain soft
ware library and an annual convention in Toronto
that attracts people from all over the world. A
When the first Commodore PETs were imported full-time staff runs the group's office.
into Canada about five years ago, Mike Bonny- Large, successful user groups don't just
castle bought one. He was looking for a micro materialize. Most of them start with a handful of
that he could use in his business and hadn't been individuals who want to learn more about an ex
pleased with other machines available at that time. citing hobby.
"Up to then, there wasn't a viable machine," he
says. "That 8K PET was about a hundred times "I Wanted Company"
better than I thought it would be." Frank Topping bought a VIC-20 in December,
But there were some things about the PET 1982. Retired, he lives in Englewood, Florida, a
that Bonnycastle didn't understand. He went community of about 20,000 people. An amateur
back to the Commodore dealer. "I don't know radio operator with several friends who owned
how to do that either," the dealer said, "but you computers, he looked around to see if there was a
might try calling a guy named Jim Butterfield." user group in the area.
Bonnycastle looked up Butterfield in the "1 wanted company," says Topping. "Com
Toronto phone book and called him. "Why don't puting is lonesome without other computer hob
you come over this afternoon?" Butterfield said. byists." Finding no established group close
Bonnycastle arrived at the house and found enough to join, he decided that, with a little initial
another Commodore owner, Lyman Duggan, organization on his part, the Commodore owners
also waiting to talk to Butterfield. The three of in Englewood could have their own group.
them sat down and talked Commodore. As they Topping contacted the local media to see if
parted, one of them said, "Why don't we do this he could get some publicity for the group's or
again sometime?" ganizational meeting. Four newspapers wrote
And that was the first meeting of TPUG, the articles about his efforts, and the station manager
Toronto PET User Group. of WENG-AM in Englewood interviewed him on
the air one morning.
Simple Beginnings "It was very successful," says Topping. "I
Though they didn't know it that Saturday after got lots of phone calls, and 14 people came to the
noon, what those three men started would grow organizational meeting at my home." It soon be one of the largest and most respected Com came evident that Topping's home wasn't big
modore user groups in the world. The single ele enough for group meetings, so they contacted a
ment that they had in common was a desire to local savings and loan who let them use a meeting
learn more about the ins and outs of Commodore room free of charge. "Bits & Bytes," the Computer
computers, and a willingness to share what they User Group of Englewood, Florida, that Frank
had learned with others. Topping started, has more than tripled in size
If you have wanted to start a user group but since that first meeting.
40 COMPUTEIS Gazette April 1984
Chances are, you got The faster you respond, the more points you
the answer right. Bui not nil score.
the questions in this computer So get the FAX. You'll find over 3700
version of the popular F,xidy questions and answers on Football, Baseball,
Arcade Quiz-game are so Television, Movies, Music, History, Science,
easy. Can you name the only Art, Literature and other subjects. FAX is mul
bachelor to become the tiple choice, multiple fun. If only school could
President of the United States? Or identify what the be like this.
initials stand for in 0. J. Simpson's name? (If you One or two players, keyboard controlled.
guessed "Orange Juice]' you won't score any points.)
Remember, FAX isn't just a thinking game-
it's a fast thinking game. FAX pits your knowl
edge and reflexes against the clock.. .or an opponent. EIML
Strategy Games for the Action-Game Player
Should We? appoint or elect people to be in charge of publicity
and refreshments.
Publicity and an organizational meeting do not a
Your bylaws can contain whatever informa
user group make—unless there is sufficient inter
tion you think is appropriate. Try to keep it flex
est. "The whole substance of our first meeting
ible. The rules don't have to be carved in stone,
was asking the question, 'Should we?'," says
but a little organization at the group's beginning
can save a lot of trouble and bad feelings later on.
Interest, a bit of organization, a place to meet,
and at least one computer is all you really need to Getting Down To Business
start a user group. There are no formal guidelines
Now that that's out of the way, you can get started
or requirements. Commodore appreciates its user
on what you set out to do: share information about
groups, but places no restrictions on them.
You may have actually started a user group
But what information? Who teaches and who
without knowing it. Do you get together with
learns? You can find this out by having everyone
friends occasionally and try to figure out pro
at the first meeting, and new members as they
gramming problems together? That's a user group.
come in, write down what they could do some
The only difference between your informal gather
kind of presentation about, and what things they
ings and the Montgomery County Commodore
would be most interested to learn.
Computer Society or the Eau Claire Commodore
Your agenda coordinator or committee can
64 User Group is a little formality.
use this information to plan each meeting. You
might want to bring in special speakers from local
Getting Formal computer stores or schools for certain topics, but
So you and a friend have decided to start a group. you may have enough talent within your group
You could follow Frank Topping's example and to plan a whole year's worth of meetings.
try to get some media coverage. You can post Some groups falter at this point. If no one is
signs at local computer stores, school bulletin comfortable enough with his or her computer
boards, even laundromats and grocery stores. Or knowledge to present something to the group,
word of mouth may be sufficient. you could start by bringing in software and giving
Try to have your first meeting at a public oral demonstrations and reviews. Or by having
place, rather than someone's home. You might be individuals study a tutorial in a book or magazine
surprised at the turnout. Many groups have and explain it to the group.
started in the back room of a computer store or a How you present information can be a prob
small school auditorium. lem as your group grows. A group of ten can
You will want to set some kind of agenda for gather around a couple of computers for demon
the first meeting, and select someone to serve as a strations. Seventy-five people may require some
temporary leader until officers are elected. Writing special equipment, like a large-screen video
bylaws may take up the whole first meeting. monitor.
There is no official set of Commodore user A word of encouragement: If you hesitate to
group bylaws. If the word bylaws is intimidating, join a small group because you just bought a VIC-
call them rules, or your charter, or group 20 and can't get through the first chapter in the
guidelines. All you're doing is defining the group manual, don't worry. Computer hobbyists love to
and how it will function. share what they've learned. So what if you can't
Your bylaws may contain a statement of pur explain string variables? Offer to bring oatmeal
pose, a mission, a reason for the group's existence. crunchies and a pound of coffee to the meeting.
Something like, "This group exists for Commo
dore owners to assemble and share information Growing Up
about their computers." If you live in a small town miles from a major
You can decide if you want to elect officers— metropolitan area, meeting once a month and
which you probably will—what their responsibili sharing new information may be sufficient to meet
ties will be, and how long they will stay in office. everyone's needs. But many groups that have
Dues is another issue. It may not seem neces grown to tens or hundreds of members find that
sary at first, but there are some things that might they want more than that. Here are some examples.
come up later that would cost money—-room A Newsletter. This can be a one-page mimeo
rental, postage fora newsletter, speakers, and graphed sheet with notes from the last meeting
refreshments, for example. Many user groups and announcements for the next. Some groups
just starting out set yearly dues at between ten have enough members and resources to put out a
and twenty dollars. monthly magazine with advertisements, pro
In addition, you might want to decide on a grams, reviews of new software and hardware,
name for the group, meeting time and place, and and programming tips.

42 COMPUTE!-! GozeHe April 1984

FCM: The Filing, Cataloging
and Mailing List Program
that does everything.
FCM. formerly 1st Class Mail, is a tot more than
just trie best mailing list program you can buy.
Because along with being the most flexible
and easy-to-use mailing Its! program there is.
FCM also handles a number of othtr tasks
more easily than any other program of its kind.
You can use FCM for anything you'd keep on
file. Like your address book, household bills,
stamp or com collections. Christmas card list
|know who sent you a card last year), fishing
gear inventory or medical records.
Or how about a list of important dates |FCM
will let you (lag them by name, date and occa
sion!. Or maybe you'd like to use FCM for a
guest list for a wedding. FCM will even record
RSVP's. gifts and thank you noies.
What's more. FCM is incredibly easy 10 use.

Special Features
FCM lets you create your own mailing label.
Which means you can make your labels look
the way you want them to. You can even
decide to print right on the envelope. Or add a
special message line like "Merry Christmas" or
"Attention: Sales Manager," FCM is extremely
And speaking of flexible. FCM lets you
search and sort in any of 12 different categories.
So you can organize mailings any way you
want; by state, company name, zip code or
whatever you like. If you're using FCM lo
catalog your home library, you might want to
son by title, author or category. It's completely
up to you.
But one of the best pans about FCM is being
able to create your own headings. Because
that lets you store, file and catalog just about
anything you'd like to keep tabs on.
The Form Letter Feature*
FCM is compatible with many word processing
programs sucli as Screenwriter II. Applewnter
l/ll/ilf. Apple Pie. Pie Writer, WordStar/Mail-
Merge and Magic Window l/ll. Jusi a few
simple commands and you can automatically
combine your form letters with your mailing list
for professionally formatted documents.
Stop by your Continental Software dealer.
Or call us today to find oui all about FCM.
No matter what you're cataloging, from a
household inventory (or insurance purposes to
a 25,000 person mailing list. FCM is the best
program you can buy.
It's true, you still have to lick the stamp.
But we're working on it.

Available for: Apple ll/lle, IBM PC/PC XT.

Commodore 64, Texas Instruments
"Available on most versions.

For your free 64 page booklet, "Tips for

Buying Software" and complete product

Well almost.
catalog, please write Continental
Software, Dept. GAZ, 11223 S. Hlndry
Avenue, Los Angeles, CA 90045,

■V".IP«ir.i**r,«*1MMnJHl>**i £"!■ ^Wu»»i - rtrtyinif,|i.«|i**in+ m-l i ■ -n1 iriVFCrfC JC J.
A division ol Arrays, Inc.
Resource Library. Thousands of public domain struggling through machine language, or maybe
programs are available through individuals, other just a VlC-20 and a Commodore 64 group meeting
user groups, bulletin boards, and Commodore separately.
itself. You can appoint a librarian to take charge Discounts. Buying certain items in bulk, such
of this, someone who will copy disks for group as blank diskettes, often greatly reduces individual
members. People could bring new disks to the cost. Also, local computer dealers and retailers
meeting and request copies, or the user group are often willing to offer discounts to user group
could purchase disks in bulk and charge a small members. This benefits not only the group, but
fee for the disk and the librarian's time. Remember also increases business for the dealer.
that it is illegal to copy anything but public domain

Books and magazines may also be a part of

Only A Framework
this library, as well as newsletters from other user The suggestions presented here are just that: sug
groups. Again, be aware of copyright laws. It is gestions. Each of the hundreds of Commodore
illegal to type in a program from a copyrighted user groups around the world has its own unique
publication that you have not purchased, just as history. Let yours evolve. Try to get as many
it is to get a copy of such a program on tape or people actively involved as you can. Everyone
disk. By buying a computer book or magazine, has something to bring to the group.
you are buying the right to copy the software con If you really run into trouble with the logistics
tained therein for your use only. of getting a group off the ground, it might be
Bulletin Board Systems. Most Commodore worth a long-distance phone call to a successful
BBS's were born out of user groups. They can be user group to find out how they solved similar
expensive to maintain and troublesome to keep problems.
running, but the shared information and new And try not to get too bogged down in or
knowledge they can provide Commodore users is ganization. Once your group reaches a certain
the reward. size, more of it will be necessary, but keep your
Subgroups. If there are enough members with purpose in mind. You're a group of Commodore
special interests, you could break into subgroups users spending some time together to enhance
for a portion of the meeting, or even hold sepa your own computer knowledge and share what
rate meetings-—a word processing workshop, you've learned with others. !fi

Vic 20™ or Commodore 64™ Computer

This exciting, new weather package
allows you to learn, monitor, and predict
the weather using the same equipment as
the pros.
Vour Own Weatherman Learn/Teach Meteorology
rThe new HAWS (Home Auto- More than a toy or game,
malic Weather Station) com HAWS provides the first oppor
bines a quality weather sensor tunity to use your computer as a
with software to lei you track data sampler and data analysis
weather conditions inside or system for meteorology, allow
outside your home. HAWS moni ing the user to interact with
tors weather data including dew incoming data to monitor and
point, temperature, humidity, forecast weather conditions.
and atmospheric pressure; plots HAWS Includes an instructive
historical data and graphically software program and a com
displays weather trends; deter plete user's manual that teaches
mines the comfort and chill fac meteorological terms and equa
tors to help you dress; HAWS tions to allow anyone to quickly
even forecasts the weather and grasp weather concepts either at
compares your predictions to home or in the classroom. Sim
the local weatherman's. ple plug-in components and
HAWS uses the same sensor easy hookup also means you
employed by weather services in Orflering Information
can free up your computer at
60 countries worldwide. The Send $199.95 in check or money order payable to
any lime for other duties. HAWS
HAWS package costs only Vaisala. Inc. Include name, address, telephone num
is a great educational tool lor
$199.95 ana includes the sensor, ber, your computer model (VIC 20 or Commodore 64),
anyone. Order today.
cassette or floppy disc program, and program preference (tape cassette orfloppy disc).
#Or call toll free to place your order.

15-foo! cable with connector (or
the computer, and a complete Major credit cards accepted.
user's manual. Dealer inquiries invited.
Send today or call toll free to
ordor your HAWS package, 1-800-227-3800 ext.HA-ws VAISALA INC.
VIC 20 and Commodore 64 aro trademarks of Commodcm ElucWDnlcs Lid. WOBURN, MA 01801

- : - - .- ■ -- - - ~'" - - -

game ot power ana conquest .ollide i nee
trial's right up mere wilt: ■ ■■ takes you io The desert oilfields of the Bulge, you must use your the start oi D-Day> As the
classics such as chess and go possible U.S.-Russia conlrontcr of Saudi Arabia. Soviet troops deadly Tiger tanks to break Allied Commander, you must
When you play Jhe computer, ticns. GERMANY 19S5" simu have captured these vital through the Allied lines in the see (o it that the invasion ■
il actually learns from you' lates an invasion ol Wesi points, and ii is up to the US, snow-covered Ardennes Forest, succeeds. As commander of
and improves with lime to Germany by Soviel battalions Rapid Deployment Force to As the Allied leader; you must the German forces, yau must
become the ultimate oppo NATO forces must repel this regain them. On disk $34.95. stop this German blitzkrieg. not let history repeat itself! On
nent On disk, $34.95. onslaught. On disk $59.95 On disk & cassette. $39.95. disk & cassette. S39 95.

Commodore 64 is a irademark of Commodore Electronics. Ltd Screen displays are not necessarily from the Commodore 6d'


M there are no convenient stor V1SA& Mastei l noiaers can order cureci CA 94043, include S2.00 lor shipping & handling. (California residents, add 65% sales
by calling 800-227-1617, eil 336 (toU free). In Califorrua. call 800-772-3545, ext 335. lax.) All our games carry a " 14-day satisfaction or your money back" guarantee.
Toorderby mail, sendyourcheckto: SSL 383 SlieriinRoad. Blag. A-200, Mountain View, WRITE FOR A FREE COLOR CATALOG OF All OUR GAMES.
A Guide To
Commodore User Groups
Part 2
Kathy Yakal, Editorial Assistant

Here is the second half of the list of Commo a user group, please enclose a self-addressed,
dore user groups that began in last month's stamped envelope.
gazette. If you are a new Commodore owner Additions, deletions, and corrections to this
looking for some support and assistance, you list should be addressed to:
may want to attend a meeting in your area. COMPUTE! Publications
P.O. Box5406
Greensboro, NC 27403
If you send a written request for information from attn: Commodore User Groups

NEBRASKA Commodore Friendly User Group NEW YORK

Rich Pinto
Greater Omaha Commodore 64 49HersheyRd. Adirondack Commodore 64 User
User Croup Wayne, NJ Group
Bob Quisenberry 201/696-8043 Paul Klompas, c/o Ray Supply
2932 Leawood Dr. Upper Glen St. I?O. Box 745
Omaha, NE 68123 Commodore-64 Users Group Glen Falls, NY 12801
402/292-2753 Thomas Martin
680 Leigh Terrace Brentwood-Bayshore VIC/64
Omaha VIC-20 User Group Westwood, NJ 07675 Users Club
BobRowe 201/664-3304 Serafin R. Vargas
1418 St. Raphael St. Brentwood Public Lib. Second
Bellevue, NE 68005 Computer Club of Ocean County
Ave. & Fourth St.
402/292-3961 Flavio L. Komuves
Brentwood, NY 11717
1170 Old Freehold Rd.
The National VIC-20 User Group Toms River, NJ 08753
George F. Kaywood 201/341-3797
RQ Box 34575 BBS 201/244-2259 Broom e County C-64 Users Group
Omaha, NE 68134 Richard Sher
Northwest Bergen VIC Users 31-S Jane Lacy Dr.
Group Endicott, NY 10760
Arnold Wiesen/eld 607/754-7382
NEW HAMPSHIRE 221 Wayfield Cr.
Wyckoff, NJ 07481 Capitol District Commodore 64/
C-64 User Software Exchange 201/891-5196 VIC-20 User Group
Resources (US.E.R.S.) William Pizer
Paul E. Kyle South Jersey Commodore
363 Hamilton St.
RQ Box 4022 Computer User Group
Albany, NY 12210
Rochester, NH 03867 Mark Orthner
46B Monroe Path
Southern New Hampshire VIC-20 Maple Shade, NJ 08052
User dub 609/667-9758 Commodore Computer Users
Don Osterman Group of Ithaca
RO Box 7067 VIC Software Development Club Max Paperno
Nashua, NH 03060 H. P Rosenberg 519 E. StateSt.
603/888-O959 77FqmalhautAve. Ithaca, NY 14850
Sewell, NJ 08080 607/277-3981
J. Newman VIC Times
Thomas R. Molnar COMMODORE SIG Computer
RO. Box 981 Club ot Rockland
Salem.NH 03079 46 Wayne S.
Edison, NJ 08817 Peter Bcllin
PQ Box 233
Tallman, NY 10982
NEW MEXICO 914/357-8941
New Mexico Commodore User
ACGNJ PET/VIOCBM User Group Commodore User Group of
Group Danny or Betsy Byrne Rochester
Joseph M. Pylka 6212 Karlson N.E. Thomas A. Werenski
30 Riverview Terrace Albuquerque, NM 87113 78 Hardison Rd.
Belle Mead, NJ 08502 505/821-5812 Rochester, NY 14617

46 COMPUTEI'! Gazette Aprill984

1 s K -.j'llh-J Taxpack so
you could do something
really practical with your
Commodore VIC 20.

Poet Liimfccri, MBA
Product Development
Conaopolitan Sofiuure

Powerful income tax computing
software specially designed for
the Commodore VIC 20.

Satisfaction Guaranteed
Now you can me your Commod Wi- jjuiirante^ that you will find
VIC ZO to perform all the Taxpixk an excellent software value.
calculations on your Canadian Tl hiippy returns If you arc not totally .satisfied, drop
fienersil tax form, Tuxlmck guides u,^ you can calculate :ind coll hi toll-free: us a note to say why, and return the
you easily through every aspect of preview man' tflJf sct'iiaTius with product post paid to us within 10
the form with friendly prompts and Tjixfi^icii :h;in v^ti'd have the 1-800-268-6364 days for a full refund of the
a comprehensive Instruction patifiKi1 or the time to do manually, (from B.C., call 11 i-Soo-iffrfijbt) purchase price.
manual. This new software i-s this software can help you ssive tux
available on Cassette tape and will dollars. Custom-Itf 1 lured to the
run on the standard i.5k memory Canadian Tl general form, Ttixpock 1 Want Taxpack!
in your Commodore VIC 20 home v.\\[ hi- updiiicJ every ytar to rcflt'ci PlcaK send me "Ihnpaclw ©$29.95 S.
computer.* changes in the government's income Nova ScOtlB residents only, ndd 10% Sales Tax +$-
Tm/iu.-'i lets you tackle your income t:ix regutarioni, Innovative program Add $2 pi-r unit thlpptng and handling|ics +$.
tax form at your own pace. A design allows us to updati1 Tiixpack Total $.
convenient save-and-restore within days of the nuwTl's
function lets you record and review availability.
historical results. Professional My Name
editinj: features assure easy and So easy to order
accurate dat;i entry, Tmjwcfc pul* To uw your Vim or Moncxcard, A.I, In-"
the power of rax modelling and phone us toll free; or, send your
planninn for lubftquent years In cheque or money order with the Province
your hands, today. haniiy mail-order form attached.
WcHH confirm your otJer by return Postal Code Telephone
mail. Your up-io-datc TaxfitKk
cassette and manual will be shipped
within 15 days of the release of the Mafcc Cfiajim in Money Order payable to:
1983 Tl general form. Cosmopolitan Software Services Li mi ml
'i-i, /i« the
nnd "utii *ir»^i thi% (m/t-r fotm tor
'ijii^ i if'ip'.wi.ri Boa 953, Dartmouth, Nova Scotia B2Y 3Z6 V11 ii- Order Desk
Commodore User Croup of VIC User Group NORWAY
Wes tchester Robert Wurtzel
Ben Weyer 7cStony BrookLeamine Center VIC Club of Norway
P.O. Box 1280 1424 Stony Brook Rd. Rolf Oberg
White Rains, NY 10602 Stony Brook, NY 11790' Liljegt. 4 1750 Halden
516/751-1719 Norway
Fblklife Ii'tiiiin.ii Club
John Kri'bs
ML Veoion, NY 10551
Nelson VIC User Group Akron Area Commodore User
Hudson Valley Commodore Club Peter Archer Group
John G. Rogers PQ Box 860 Patrick Papania
1 Convin Pi. Nelson, New Zealand Rm. B-201,80 W. Bowery
Lake Katrine, NY 12449 54/79362 Akron, OH 44308
HV Commodore Club NORTH CAROLINA Tim Sander
Rusty Staub 5771 Observation Ct.
Amateur Radio PET User Group Milford, OH 45150
35 Old Route 299
Hank Roth 513/831-5684
New Paltz, NY 12561
EO. Box 30694
Raleigh, NC 27622 Commodore Computer Club of
Kingcomp (Commodore User Toledo
Commodore 64 Research Triangle Gerald W. Carter
User Group 734 Donna Dr.
Dr. Lewis Levitt
Doug Latta Temperance, MI 48182
1250 Ocean Ave,
670A Glendower Rd. 313/847-0426
Brooklyn, NY 11230
Raleigh, NC 27612
919/787-5748 Commodore User Group
L.I.V.I.CS. Carl Skala
Commodore User Group, to 18813 Harlan Dr.
Eric Dusansky
Talton's Select Business Maple Heights, OH 44137
3 Blueberry Ridge Rd.
Equipment 2167581-3099
Setauket, NY 11733
Tom Stidham
National VIC Association PQ Box 749 CPU Connection (Commodore
Michael Kleiner I Durham, NC 27702 Preference Users)
9 Crabappie Ln. 919/4894155 Bill
Namaul, NY 10954 PO. Box 42032
Microcomputer User Group Cleveland, OH 44142
Joel D. Brown 216/696-5093
BBS 623-4248
Rt. 1, Box 134A
New York 64 User Group Boonville, NC 27011 Dayton Area Commodore User
Bruce D. Cohen Group
Raleigh VIC-Z0 User Group
222 Thompson St. Bernie Worby
Larry Diener 4154 Tareyton Dr.
New York, NY 10012
410-D Delta Ct.
212/673-7241 Bellbrook,'OH 45305
Cary,NC 27511
New York Commodore User 919/469-3862
Group (NYCUG) Licking County 64 User Group
Triad Amateur Computer Society/
Ben Tunkelang 323SchulerSt.
Commodore User Group Newark, OH 43055
380 Riverside Dr. 7Q
Dave Hill 614/345-1327
New York, NY 10025
PO. Box 7073
North Country Computer Club Greensboro, NC 27407 N.E. OHIO and N.W.PA.
Don Taber 919/275-8014 Commodore Users Group
RDI,Boxl53B Wes Boyd
Triad Cr64 User's Group P.Q Box 875
Ogdensburg, NY 13669
Gregg Peele
313/393-467? Youngstown, OH 44501
PO Box 5406
Scheneclady Commodore User Greensboro, NC 27403 Northeast Ohio Commodore User
Group 919/275-9809 Group
Timothy). Davis Davn Henry
Triangle Amaleur Computer Club
The Video Connection, 8751 W. Ridge Rd.
Russ Lyday
Canal Square Elyria, OH 44035
PO. Box 17523 216/322-7184
Schenectady, NY 12305
Raleigh, NC 27619
Superstar's User Group 919/787-4137 Northeast Ohio Commodore User
Jean E Coppola Group (NEOCUG)
Tryon Commodore 64 Club
151-2H 22ml Ave. Dennis Suiter
Robin Michael c/o Computer Comer
VVhitestone, NY 11357
P.O. Box 1016 51O4MayfieldRd.
Utica Commodore User Group Tryon, NC 28782 Lyndhurst, OH 44124
Phil Roths le in 704/859-6340
1801 Storrs Ave. The Cincinnati Commodore
VJC-20 User Group Computer Connection
Utica, NY 13503
315/733-2244 David C. Fortenberry Ted Stalets
Rt. 3, Box 351 816BeecherSt.
V1C-20 Commodore 64 User Lincolnton.NC 28092 Cincinnati, OH 45206
Group 704/732-0932 513/961-6582
Pete Lobf
31 Maple Dr. VIC-20 & 64 Group
Lindenhurst, NY 11757 Tim Gromlovits OKLAHOMA
516/957-1512 Rt. 11 Box 686E
Hickory, NC 28601 Commodore Hobby User Group
7047495-7922 c/oTulsa Computer Society
P.O. Box 1333
Tulsa, OK 74101

48 COMPUTEI's Gaietle April 1961

Commodore Users N.E. Portland VIC User Group Tektronics Employees VIC Users
Monte Maker Jerry Adams Rick Simonsen
PO. Box 268 5014 N.Montana 503/639-5451
Oklahoma City, OK 73101 Portland, OR 97217
503287-1433 United States Commodore Users
Southwest Oklahoma Computer Group
Club (S.W.O.C.C.) N/NE Portland VIC Users P.O. Box 2310
c/o Commodore Chapter Mike Healy Roseburg, OR 97470
PQ Box 6646 PO. Box 17405
Lawton, OK 73505 Portland, OR 97217 Vancouver Commodore User
503'283-5996 Group
Chris Brown
OREGON North/Northeast Commodore 503/573-8489
User Group
Albany Corvallis G64 User
Mike I Yamhill County Commodore User
PO, Box 17580 Group
AI Rasmus Dan Linscheid
Portland, OR 97217
2138 Chicago S.E. Rt. 2 Box 246
Albany, OR 97321 Sheridan, OR 97378
503/967-8701 Oregon Commodore Computer 503/843-2625
User Group (OCCUG)
Amateur Radio Group
John E Jones
Jim Mevers
2134 N.E. 45th Ave. PENNSYLVANIA
PQ Box 626
Portland, OR 97213
Molalla, OR 97038
503'281-4908 Capitol Area Commodore Club
George Crist
Pacific Northwesl Commodore 3410CloverfieldRd.
Astoria Commodore User Group
User Group Hamsburg, PA 17109
Kent Povilsen
Richard Tsukiji 717/652-8479
Rt. 3, Box 75
PO. Box 2310
Astoria, OR 97103
Roseburg, OR 97470 Commodore User Group
503'672-7591 Donald Moyer
Beaverton 64 User Group 252 Makefield Rd.
PGE Commodore User Group Morrisville, PA 19067
Jack Simpson
Richard Tumixrk
11855 S.W. Ridgeview Terrace
121 S.W. Salmon St. COMI'STARS
Beaverton, OR 97005
Portland, OR 97204 Mike Norm
503/220-3139 130 Blue Teel Circle
Central Oregon VIC/64 Users Audubon, PA 19403
Portland Airbase Officers Club
Marvin McCleary
(VIC and 64) Erie County Commodore Users'
499 N. Harwood Ave.
Frank Chase Group
Pineville, OR 97754
PQ Box 175H Robert T.Glenn
Portland, OR 97217 142 Forest St.
East Portland VIC User Group S03,'2894331 Cambridge Springs, PA 16403
Tern' Schultz {after 9:30 PM) 814/398-8146
S.E. Metro Commodore User Main Line Commodore User
Fire 10 VIC User Group Group (SEMCUG) Group (MLCUG)
Harlev Cissna John Lamport Emi! Volcheck
1927 S.E. 174th PQ Box 42082 1046 General Allen Ln.
Portland, OR 97233 Portland, OR 97242 West Chester, PA 19380
503/668-6520 503.7754232 215/368-1581

Foresl Grove Commodore Users Salcm 64 User Group Naval Air Development Center
Don Singer Bud Rasmussen Commodore User Club
503/357-4140 3795 Saxon Dr. S. Alan HI urn en thai
Salem, OR 97302 912FraserRd.
Grcsham VIC/64 User Group 503/585-1515 Erdenkeir, PA 19118
Hob Drown 215/441-2580
625 N.W. Battaglia Saleni Pacific Northwestern Bell
Gresham, OR 97030 VIC User Group PACSCBM User Group
503/6664131 Bill Black Ron Kushnier
PO. Box 106 Room 452 20th & Olney Sts.
Lake Oswego PET/C64 User Salem, OR 97308 Philadelphia, PA 19141
Group 503/3994850 215/951-1267
John Jones
2134 N.E. 45th Salem VIC User Group Pittsburgh Commodore Group
Portland, OR 97213 John Ing ram Joel A. Casar
503/281-4908 503,'370-8775 2015 Garrick Dr.
Pittsburgh, PA 15235
Lane County User Group Southern Oregon Commodore
Peter Rocksvold User Group VIC Software Development Club
584 Sierra Guy Slang! Tracy Lee Thomas
Eugene, OR 97402 230t> Dutcher Creek Rd. 440 W. Sedgwick Apt. A-l
5037688-1532 Grants Pass, OR 97527 Philadelphia, PA 19119
Southern Oregon VIC-20 C-«
Ml. Hood Community College
User Group Westmoreland Commodore User
PET/64 Users
James Powell Club
Ted Scheinman
3600 Madrona Ln. Jim M.i I hers
4044 N.E. Couch
Medford, OR 97501 3021 Ben Venue Dr.
Portland, OR 97232
503(779-7631 Groensburg, PA 15601
Tillamook VIC/C64 User Group
George Shiveley
10O9 5lhSt.
Tillamook, OR 97141

COMPUWs Catena April 1984 A9

Roanoke Area Computer
Commodore User Group of Commodore (Houston) User Larry Rackow
Puerto liii ii Group (CHUG) 4726 Horseman Dr.
Ken Burch Mary and John Howe Roanoke, VA 24019
RFD#IBoxl3 23502 Creekview Dr. 703/362-8960
San Juan, Puerto Rico 00914 Spring, TX 77379
7L3/376-7000 Southwestern Virginia
809/791-5840 (no calls before noon)
Commodore Users
BBS 781-0350 (8 p.m.-8a.m.)
64 User's Group Jimmy Richardson
Stan Grodin Rt. 1, Box 12A
RHODE ISLAND 2421 Midnight Circle Elk Creek, VA 24326
Piano, TX 75075 703/655-4144
Narragansett Commodore Users
Group, c/o EPA Mid-City Commodore User Tidewater Commodore User
Environmental Research Lab Group Group
Robert R. Pay no 413 Chisfiolm Tr. Fred Monson
South Forty Road Hurst, TX 76053 4917 West Grove Rd.
Narrngnnsiitl, Rl 02882 Virginia Beach, VA 23455
PET User Group
Newport Computer Club Jim Dallas VIC-20 & CBM 64 User Club
Dr. Matt McConeghy 14311 River Glen Dr. Donnie L. Thompson
lOMaitlandCt. Sugarland, TX 77478 1502 Harvard Rd.
Newport, R! 02840 Richmond, VA 23226
401/849-2684 Southeast Houston VIC User 804/288-4962
11423 Kirk Valley Dr. Washington Area Commodore
SOUTH CAROLINA Houston, TX 77089 User Group
713/481-6653 Richard Jackson
Beaufort Technical College User P.O. Box 93
Group VIC User Group Mount Vemon, VA 22121
Dean of Instruction Robert Massengale 703/360-7677
PO Box 1288 3817 64th Dr.
Beaufort, SC 29902 Lubbock, TX 79413
803/524-3380 WASHINGTON
Commodore Computer Club of UTAH CBM 64 Business & Utility User
Columbia Group
Duster White Central Utah Commodore Users Khamsing S., c/o Softechnics
318QuincannonDr. 1CUCU) 3212 Beacon Ave.
Columbia, SC 29210 Steve Graham Seattle, WA 98144
803/772-0305 1339 W. 1100 N. 20677234980
Pleasant Grove, UT 84062
801/785-7118 CBM Users Group
The Utah Commodore 64 and 803 Euclid Way
Sioux Falls User Group VIC-20 User Group Centralia, WA 98531
l>:.iii Inn Ulrich Rodney Keller
4200 S.Louise Suite 304 652 W. 700 N. Club 64
Sioux Falls, SD 57105 Clearfiold, UT 84015 Hal Scheidt
605/334-1059 801/776-3950 6735 Tracy ton Blvd. NW
Doug Jones Bremerton, WA 98310
VIC LICK 602/692-8295
VIG64 User Club David Pignar
Larry JL Lundeen % Mountain Computer Society Commodore Computer Club
608 W. 5th P.O. Box 1154 Donald H. Sims
Pierre, SD 57501 Sandy, UT 84091 P.O. Box 1471
605/224-4863 801/261-0119 Oak Harbor, WA 98277
TENNESSEE VIRGINIA Commodore Users of Tacoma
Chaltanooga Commodore User Marwan Samman
Capitol Area PET Enthusiasts
Group 1734FemsideDr.S.
Carolyn Bellah Tacoma, WA 98465
William Tyler
PO. Box 1406 206565-5023
607 Abbotts Ln.
Chattanooga, TN 37401 Falls Church, VA 22046 COMPUTER Club, c/o
Honeywell Inc.
Metro Computer Center Central Virginia User Group
John Goddard
Dale Moore
Memphis Commodore User Club 5303 Shilshole Ave. NW
Rt. 3 Box 451
Harry Ewart Seattle, WA 98107
Hurt, VA 24563
2476 Rod vorsAve. 206-789-2000
Memphis, TN 38127 Fredericksburg Area Computer
Edmonds Commodore User
901/358-5823 Enthusiasts
Michael Parker
Metro Knoxvitle 64 User Group Rick Ellis
PO. Box 324
Ed Pritchard 23404 74th W.
Locust Crow, VA 22508
7405OxmoorRd. Rl. #20 Edmonds, WA 98020
Knoxville, TN 37921 Lynchburg User Group 206/776-3539
615/938-3773 Dick Rossienol
Longview Commodore User
Rt. 2, Box 180
Nashville Commodore User Group
Lynchburg, VA 24501
Group Stephen Jones
Dave Rushing 626 26th Ave.
PO. Box 121282 Lorigview, WA 98632
Nashville, TN 37212 206/577-8317

50 COMPUTEI's Gazette AprillvB4

NW Commodore User Group WEST GERMANY Commodore Users of Systems,
Richard Ball Software and Hardware
2565 Dexter N. #203 VIC-20/64 Games Exchange (C.U.S.S.H.)
Seattle, WA 98109 Michael Block Tim Tremmel
206/284-941; Breukerskamp 35 3614 Sovereign Dr.
BBS 743-6021 D-5750, Menden 2 Racine, WI 53406
West Germany 414/554-0156
PSACE BBS 554-9520
Ken Tone
1800 Taylor Ave. N. WEST VIRGINIA Eau Claire Area CBM 64 User
Seattle, WA 98109 Group
Tri-State Commodore Users
Marc Hutton |ohn F Slavsky
Seattle Commodore i.-l User
Rt. 5Boxl79A
Group 73 Pine Hill Estates
Eau Claire, Wi 54701
Dr. Allen M. Gown Kenova,WV 25530
Dept of Pathology SM-30, 304/453-2124
Univ. of Wash. Madison Area Commodore User
Seattle, WA 98195 WISCONSIN Group
John Cnrvin
Spokane Commodore User Group Commodore and VIC Enthusiasts 1552 Park St.
Terry and Sara Voss (C.A.VE.) Middleton, WI 53562
W. 1918 Boono Ave. Mike Shaffer 608/831-4852
Spokane, WA 99201 PO. Box 33
509/327-7202 Crivitz, WI54114 Milwaukee Area Commodore 64
715/854-2269 Enthusiasts (M.A.C.E.)
World Wide User Group (Military Kevin D. Wilde
Personnel Only) Commodore 64 and VIC-20 PO Box 340
R. Smith Software Exchange Group Elm Grove, WI 53122
P.O. Box98682 E.J. Rosenberg 414/259-5991
Tacoma,WA 98498 EO. Box 224
206/535-0336 Oregon, WI 53575 S.W.I.TC.H.
608/835-5538 LenLutz
WASHINGTON P.C. W156 N8834 Pilgrim Rd.
Commodore Lovers Users Bunch Menomonee Fails, WI 53051
USO Computer Club VIC-20 and C-64 (C.L.U.B. 84) 41*255-7044
USO Outreach Center Roger Christensen
HO Box 72 Waukesha Area VIC Enthusiasts
Steven J. Guenther
Caledonia, WI (WAVEt
207 Beyer Rd. SW
414/632-6922 PO. Box 0641
Washington, DC 20332
Waukesha, WI 53187-0641 W


just when you thought a degree in accounting
was needed to wade through the morass of
federal tax preparation, along comes UNCLE!
UNCLEitakes your hand and guides you through
the tax manuals, asking just enough questions
to translate the Information for up to 28 forms
and schedules, UNCLEI has a good memory;
|ust give your name and SSN once and UNCLE!
will make sure they get on every required form.
Plus, if you want to noodle with numbers,
UNCLE! has a calculator-type scratch pad. You
can't fool your UNCLE!; If you enter an error, it
will be flagged. When you're through conversing
with UNCLE! on your Commodore 64 (single
drive), simply feed the forms and schedules
into a 16-17 cpl printer and UNCLE! will prepare
every one of them. How much to put UNCLE!
in your Commodore? $641

VARANGER Computing-180 Grand Avenue.

Suite 900, Oakland, CA 94612
Telephone (415) 482-3861
Calif. Res, add 6( Vi)% Salts T.ix. Visa/MasterCard .icccpled.

COMPUTE!'* Gazette April 1984 51

Nevets Steven R. McCloskey

A clever action game, "Nevets" requires both the time remaining times ten.
strategy and a lot of dexterity with your joy The game ends when time runs out or all
stick. Using character graphics, it is written four power capsules have been stolen. You then
for the unexpanded VIC. We've added a ver have the option of playing again. The game also
sion for the 64. keeps track of high score.

VIC Program Structure

In "Nevets," you are transported to the Land of Here's the VIC version program structure for those
Adnerb, where your mission is to protect four interested in how the program was written:
power capsules against the ever encroaching
Nevets. Your only defense against the thieving
Nevets is a turret gun, which you control with Lines
your joystick. 5-70 Title and graphics
The screen displays a lower and an upper 75-90 Screen setup
level, with two power capsules at the center of 110-160 Joystick reading routine
165-190 Variable seI up
each level. The Nevets may approach from right
200-330 Main program loop
or left on either level. The turret, at the bottom 400-410 Fire subroutine
center of the screen, can be moved up and down 500-510 Game over subroutine
with the joystick, and the gun can be aimed by 600-610 Nevet #2 subroutine
700-710 Nevet #1 subroutine
moving the joystick left and right. Pressing the
800-840 Nevet #2 variable subroutine
fire button fires the gun.
900-940 Nevet#l variable subroutine
There are 40 levels of play. You must destroy 950-960 Power capsule subroutine
your quota of Nevets (displayed on the screen)
within 60 seconds to get to the next higher level.
When you meet the quota, you receive a bonus— See program listings on page 143.

11 in -i:i


One power pod has already been stolen. The player is about If may be too late to defend both power pods; the Nevets are
to eliminate one of the thieving Nevets in the VIC version. getting too close (64 version). Qj

52 COMPUTE!'* Gazette Aprill984

What do voice hardware speech characters that converse or
synthesizers have devices. Without opponents that crack jokes.
in common with the hardware. And you can do it all with
movies? And without the ease. With phonetic or plain
They don't make high price. English input.
them like they S.A.M. is the S.A.M. can say anything you
used to. program that like, any way you like-you
Because now makes other pro choose the pitch, tone, speed
there is SAM. The grams talk. Busi and inflection.
Software Automatic Mouth'.' ness programs. Educational If you want, you can even
The first software-only speech programs. Recreational pro choose the voice.
synthesizer for Commodore 64. grams, too. Here's talking to you, kid.
Atari and Apple computers. You can use it in any num (The Apple version includes an
Developed by Mark Barton ber of useful ways. 8-bit digital-to-analog converter
of Don't Ask Software, S.A.M. To write instructions that talk. and audio amplifier on a card,
is designed to give you all Stories that tell themselves. It requires 48K and a speaker.
the power of conventional And creative new games with The Atari version requires 32K.)

Say it again, S.A.

" (213V 215
Bingo 64

Richard L. Wiikover

"Bingo 64" is a cleverly written computer ver C%. A cover token is then placed over the free
sion of the classic game. It makes good use of box in the center, giving it the status of a called
the 64's graphics and sound capabilities to pro number.
vide you and three friends with many exciting
games of bingo. A joystick is required. Ready To Play
The cards are on the screen, and you are ready to
begin playing. At the bottom of the screen are
Few people have not known the anticipation, five balls (sprites), each labeled with a letter in the
heard the click of the balls, the call of the number, word BINGO.
and finally, the excited shout of "Bingo!" Here's a Numbers are selected through a random
four-player version of this world-famous game graphics routine. The lettered balls jump up and
written for the Commodore 64. down like kernels of popcorn. The height a ball
reaches is random. If it jumps above a line on the
Setting Up The Game screen, it is selected. If not, it falls back with a
Before you begin playing, you have to choose plop, and another ball is given a chance.
your mode of piay from a menu. Manual ball feed After the column letter has been selected, a
allows you to control the pace of the game. If you random number is chosen. To prevent duplica
opt for auto ball feed, the computer automatically tion, all called numbers are entered in the two-
picks the next number. Choose manual cover if dimensional array N%. The newly selected
you want to cover the spots on your card yourself number is compared to the numbers in the array.
(using the joystick). If you want your 64 to cover If a match occurs, the number is discarded and
the spots, pick auto cover. another one generated. When a unique number is
After you make your choices, four blank cards found, it is printed on the enlarged sprite in the
are displayed on the screen. Each column on a middle of the screen, along with its letter.
card corresponds to one letter of the word BINGO.
The five numbers in each column are selected Checking For A Match
from 15 possible values and are checked to prevent Next, each number in the appropriate column on
duplication. This process is repeated for all four each card is checked for a match. A chime sound
cards. The selected numbers are displayed on the signifies a match. If the number doesn't appear
cards and stored in the three-dimensional array on any of the four cards, a sour bong sounds.
5A COMPUTED Gazette April 1984
The world may be short of oil. And short of jobs. But there's no shortage of entertainment.
Arcades. Movies, Amusement parks. TV Concerts. Records. You've got your choice. And every day,
more of you are choosing HesWare™computer games.
That's because only the best games earn the HesWare title. Tough, challenging, arcade quality
action games like Gridrunner,™ Predator,™ Retro Ball,™and Robot Panics
Mind-bending strategy and role playing adventures DIa««m fha
like Pharaoh's Curse™ and Oubliette:" : reaM»_Ul ,
Zany new titles that have to be seen to be believed. tOU£t1
Would you believe Attack of the Mutant Camels1"??
You don't need an expensive computer to enjoy
HesWare action, either. HesWare programs are available
on cartridge, diskette or cassette for VIC 20™ Commodore 64™
Atari® ana IBM® personal computers. HesWare
When you pick up a HesWare game, you know it's ready
for the toughest test of all: beating out the tough competition Human Engineered Software
150 North Will Drive
for your attention. Brisbane, CA 94005
HesWare games. Just one of the ways HesWare is 800-227-6703
(in California
expanding the computer experience. Look for them at your 800 632-7979)
favorite software retailer. Dept. C2O
VIC ZO and Commodore 64 are trademarks ol Commodore Electronics Ltd Atarns a registered ttademarkol Atari, Ire.
IBM PC is a registered trademark of InleraalBial Husiness Machines. Phataoti's Curse is a trademark ol Synapse Software,
e is a trademark ol ISA Software

you make a mistake, you lose the number.
When a number is covered, the program
14 23 33 lift 70
I 19 46 46 C? checks the row, column, and diagonal for a bingo.
1-1 a ■12 53 GJ. 7 13 55 lM Since the covered numbers have been printed in
il w r:i 5(1 r& [<ttl 9 H'i ■ 53 G3 reversed character mode, this is easily done from
i;> 39 CM 75 B 2-1 31 Iti 7-1
screen memory. The program needs to check the
five boxes to see if they all contain reversed char
3 22 3t 57 78 5 il! ■12 -1G 75
acters (screen codes greater than 127). If a winner
is found, the covers change color and music plays.
Each card is checked for the possibility of multiple
■1 Hi 33 9 2-1 39 53 71
:t ;>7 ■15 511 V5 1-1 2? ■13 ■IE 74

IB : ■17 Jtl 7 27 ■ . 5tt G6 One Machine Language

?li 4tl IK' 78
SI 51 tfri It
T> :m SG 1! ;-3 3b •17 B1
O ' <•» The first DATA line contains a short machine
language routine which initializes screen color
The computer calls the shots in "Bingo 64." and sprite memory locations. The remaining
DATA statements set up sprite data and music.
Variable Function The program contains extensive REMarks to make
AH Parameters of pattern for winner scan the logic flow easier to follow, and the variable
AU Mode flag for ball feed and cover names are listed below, with their functions. If
BO Bingo flag you would like a copy of this program, send $3, a
B0,l Digits under joystick cursor
self-addressed, stamped envelope, and a blank
C% Card numbers array
cassette or 1541 diskette to:
Joystick cursor position
CD Card number Richard L. Witkover
CL Column number P.O. Box 560
co% Bat] color array Upton, NY U973
DU% Duration of notes array
FB Fire butt on switch See program listing on page 157. Q
FH%,FL% Music frequency high and low bytes
FR Joystick row number
HB High byte of screen color memory
J0-3 Joystick direction switches
L Ballleflerarray
Modem with Printer Interface for
Length of ball numberstring
N% Called number array Atari,* Commodore, and Vic
NC Ball color index
NM Called number
NN No-number match flag
NU Value of called number within column (1-15)
Nl,2 Digits of called number
OB Reversed number flag (logical variable)
PD Joystick memory register conlents
PI Screen memory location of Nl
RN Row number on card
S Start of screen memory for cards
SD% Sprite data array
SN Screen memory location of box digit
ss Sound chip memory location; also, screen-to- Direct connect, autodial, autoanswer modem,
color memory offset also runs a parallel printer. 300 baud modern has
V Video chip memory location built in Centronics printer port. Simultaneously
WI.VVJ Indices of box to be checked for winner prints whatever appears on your screen as it
WM Memory location of box lo be checked for winner comes over the telephone.
WP Contents of WM
One box does it all so you can receive the most
Ball X-position array
from your computer. Terminal program supplied,
Y Ball Y-position array
YM Maximum ball height complete and ready to run. ■
z Present box number value Auto-Print Microconnection retails for S149.95.
*ls not a replacement for Atan 850 Interface.
If you selected auto cover, the computer
covers a matched number by printing it as a red the micropenpheraf corporation
reversed character. If you chose manual cover, 152nd Avenue NE. Redmond" WA 98052
you must use the joystick to position the marker 1206) 881-7544

and press the fire button to cover your number. If

56 COMPUTEIS Gaiotte April 1984
You're a mad
Irishman digging
your way through
an abandoned mine
filled with oil, MOON
cool, gold, rubies,
hungry creatures. Your screen ex
You'll need the luck plodes with lite-
of the Irish to sur threatening action
vive, but with so as you pilot your
much at stake, it's Moon Shuttle
a chance you're through outer space
willing to take. in this home version
of the Nichibutsu®
fovorite. Awaiting you
is The Prince of Dark
ness and his forces,
which mysteriously


One of the
biggest arcade
game hits from
Konami is a game
of fast action in
life-and-death en- GENESIS"
couniars. You battle a
pack of hungry wolves Balanced on the
eoger to catch your de edge of disaster, you
fenseless piglets. You'll are the deadly King
need quick reflexes and Scorpion defending
a good arm in the new your domain against
arcade hit from Datasoft fatally venomous
spiders. Genesis cap
tures all the intensity
of Design Labs'
arcade version of
the first great
battle on earth.
POOYAN ' a-ailabl* lot Alan". Borfio
Shatk Color1, Aool*', taming won lor
Commedoro 6dT

Our reputation as one of the premier game manufacturers

assures you of the highest quality attainable in action, strategy
ond graphics. For the hottest titles in entertainment, keep your eye on the leader—DATASOFT.

You'll Find The Best In Home Computer Software GENESIS" (r.ailab!« fo< Ata/i1.
from Appb", IBM-PC'.end

Pooyon" 11 a irooVmof k of Konami InduiTriai Company, Ltd. Moon Shuttle* ii a r#giilir*d Imdflmark of Nirhibutiu, USA.

O'Rilap'i Mins" ond Dalaioft* on rogi»t»r*d Trodflmorlii GENESIS " and D*tign Lobi arv trodomorl-i of Deiign Labi.
or Da la i of11nc. O/lV I
Avenue, Chatsworth, CA 91311 (213) 701-5161
Some Answers From Commodore:

A Conversation
With Myrddin Jones
Selby Bateman, Assistant Editor, Features
Tom Halfhill, Editor, COMPUTED PC & PCjr Magazine

Myrddin L. Jones is vice president of marketing for the word processor and, say, a Simon's BASIC? It
Computer Systems Division of Commodore Business would be the equivalent of the 264 for less money.
Machines, Inc. At the winter CES he spoke to COM- Jones: The difference is that the market is changing
PUTEI's GAZETTE about the new 264 line of computers, because the consumer is far more knowledgeable.
Commodore's continued support for the VIC-20 and So from a practical viewpoint, they look for
64, and his perception of the changing needs of computer more and more built-in support and material.
That's what we're aiming to do with the 264
series—give them some choices of basic machines.
If they want a word processing-based machine
GAZETTE: Now that the Commodore 264 line of without compromising, we have a machine to
computers has been introduced, how do you re suit them. If they're interested in financial analysis
spond to 64 and VIC-20 users who may fear their applications or want a basic machine with that
computers will be given less attention? built in to suit them, I'm sure as we move along
Jones: First of all, the 64 is one of the largest bases you'll see more and more complexity in what we're
for third-party and Commodore software which able to integrate into the equipment.
has only just started. Most of our resources are GAZETTE: Will the built-in software on ROM chips
currently dedicated to 64 software. And the trans be installed at the factory or done by the dealer?
ition, as I understand it, from 64 to 264 software
isn't that great. So I don't really see it being any Jones: It will be done at the factory.
threat to the availability for the 64. GAZETTE: You have changed the keyboard on the
I think the Commodore 64 is such a well- 264 from the keyboard used on the 64. Why?
used machine in education today—and our thrust
Jones: The whole design concept for the machine
is more and more toward productivity and was different. I think we started out working with
educational-type software—that 1 don't think the SX64 (Commodore's portable 64) and found
there will be any diminution of support for the
out that the keyboard has a slightly different
64. We've already sold over a million of them in
characteristic than the 64. And we learned from
the U.S. We're way ahead of our schedule, so I
some of the things that we found with the 64,
don't think you'll see it being abandoned at all. which is a good bread-and-butter machine. I think
Frankly, the 264 is really not aimed at quite
we have a little more class with the keyboard on
the same target market as the Commodore 64,
the 264. It's styled better.
because the 64 is oriented toward music and I think the cursor controls are easier to use
sprites and gaming, and it's very good for that.
for the average person. And we shifted around
The 264 has strength in built-in programming the function buttons for the long haul to make
capability, and as we move forward, in built-in
sure we had a product that was compatible with
software to suit a specific need. It has more word
the 19-button numeric keyboard, so that there is a
processing, small business package applications continuity of style in the family like we had on
rather than gaming.
the Commodore 64 with the VIC-20.
I think they'll complement each other rather The other thing we've done is that we don't
than substitute for each other. And of course the have that bulky control console with a lot of stuff
264 is going to be higher-priced.
on it. We have more of our works inside the
GAZETTE: Why buy a 264 instead of a 64 that has a keyboard itself than most other people do.
58 COMPUTEIS Gaiettg April 1964
GAZETTE: Will the new family of computers—the Jones: It's been kicked around, but I don't think
264, 364, and SX64—be sold through all of the any decision's been made. It's a good seller.
same outlets as the VIC-20 and the Commodore 64?
GAZETTE: When do you think we'll see the 364
Jones: Absolutely. I really don't think there's any available?
difference anymore. The old difference between a Jones: After the 264. [Laughs.] It depends on their
personal computer and a home computer and a priorities. We'll have to go back and gauge the
high-end videogame has vanished. There's a desk reactions. But I think you'll see the 364 getting the
top computer now with varying degrees of capa voice built in and getting the numeric system or
bility and varying orientations. That's because ganized, but it will take a little longer than the 264.
everybody's going after the same space. I would perceive it to be before the fall. I think
I think what happened with Coleco and the you'll see the whole series out before the end of
Adam is that they built in something that they the summer.
compromised. As a result, they have the worst of
GAZETTE: Are there any other members of the 264
two worlds instead of the best of two worlds.
family planned?
What we try to do with our planning is to put
something in that's fully featured and that is Jones; I'm not aware of any. Essentially it's a
exactly the same thing that you could buy off the productivity-oriented machine and I'm sure there
shelf. So that, in effect, when you get it, you're are a lot of other things we're going to end up
getting something that's easy to use. You set it up doing. It has unlimited flexibility, since you can
and you roll. That's a smart philosophy and I build in a variety of software. We'll have to see
applaud that. what happens in the market.
Our designers did that, and it was in process Our perception of computers may be a little
long before I joined the organization. You've seen different than others. The easiest analogy is that
our 3-Pius-l [integrated personal productivity the keyboard is the library card, and to survive
package]. It brings the technology down to the long-term, you have to offer the people who use
it a variety of books that suit almost everybody's
right level. It's got enough variety for the average
individual taste. And that's a difficult thing to do
small business. We've converted it, with the
when you have to reinvent the wheel.
graphics, into something they can visualize very
Look at education [software]. You could have
easily with very little instruction. It's nowhere
six hundred or seven hundred titles in education
near a Lotus 1-2-3, but it gives you enough of the
alone. Our aim is to have a matrix of opportunities
kind of capability that the average user can get
in a library. You could almost take the library card
mileage out of.
system and categorize it and say, well, we must
That's what we're trying to achieve in almost
every category of software we've got. Except have representative samples here because the
gaming, where we're going after quality at a good average home requires this and this and this and
price. That soccer game [International Soccer] is an this.
example of the things you're going to see from us. That's the way we're approaching our whole
Some of the payabilities we've got are outstanding. software strategy now, which says that we have
to provide a library that's equivalent to the public
GAZETTE: You've said that the 264 will be available
library and a pricing that makes it comfortable for
in the spring, essentially in the second quarter of
the average person at home to buy. It's a new
1984. How realistic is that date?
concept we developed, and we're just beginning
Jones: I think we're pretty far along. We have the to implement it now. d
operations manual already available. We also
have 40 pieces of software for it that are ready to
produce. They're the best of the Commodore 64
series. So, we're trying to have some continuity.
GAZETTE: Have VIC-20 sales begun to taper off? MimXm
Jones: Well, naturally they would. We started An income tax program for everyone to use.
emphasizing the 64 last April because we felt there TAX COMPUTATION has been approved (or
was need for a 64K machine. However, the VIC-20 COMMODORE'S ENCYCLOPEDIA OF
has been very steady, and we're still getting good SOFTWARE as well as many other directories.
orders from everybody. We'll continue to sell it as Your taxes will be completed quickly, easily, and
long as the customer buys it. We think there's a to your benefit.

place for a starter computer at under a hundred TAX COMPUTATION Commodore 64 $39.95
dollars. t£ D D..llm.n VIC 20, TI99/4A $19.90
GAZETTE: We've heard rumors that Commodore ^*Co \P » oY Th» c«t or tM p.ogf.m ll l»
45t)U Murray 8 HI d«ductit>» tlong wiin p«rt of th«
itself might upgrade the hardware on the VIC-20— Beaverton, OR 97005 cent of your computer.
give it 16K. Is anything like that planned?
COMPUTEVs Goiclle April 1984 59

Albert Zap,
Won't You
Please Come
Fred D'lgnazio, Associate Editor

Albert Zap woke up from a long nap and looked

out the window of his house. It was a sunny day.
The sky was blue. The grass was so green it
glowed. Albert Zap decided it was a perfect day
for a walk.
Albert walked out the front door of his house.
"Tra-la-la!" he sang. He skipped through the gate
of the white picket fence. "Such a perfect day for
a walk," he said to himself.
Then something terrible happened. Albert
had wandered only twenty yards from the front
door of his house when the sky grew dark. A
shadow fell on him and on the grass at his feet.
Albert looked up, expecting to see a gloomy
storm cloud passing overhead. He gasped. Some
thing was falling out of the sky. It was a giant
purple letter, and it was falling right toward him.
If he didn't move quickly, he, Albert Zap, was
sure to get zapped!
Albert tried to run, but he couldn't lift his feet.
He was frozen in one spot. He looked up again.
The elephant-sized letter was coming closer and
closer, but he couldn't move. What was he to do?

Coming To Albert's Rescue

Computing families to the rescue!
Albert needs a hero or heroine to save him.
But not just any hero or heroine will do. It must
be one with steady hands, nerves of crystalline
graphite, and a heart that's true.
An educational ad
abouteducational software.
Loiikfi/rtntt allows parents to enter material into
Yf ou studied all the computers
display in
and finally chose the one your yt'urftmiritr a lively, interactive format. And be
family found most useful. One SD/Iuun' starr. cause AEC's programs are grade-
mill pick up
of the main reasons you wanted level oriented, you can help your
your fire
a computer in the first place is to help cdiicatw/vtl child all the way through school.
your children in school.Not justto
teach them how to use a computer, AEC doesn't play games
but also to help them get good grades with education.
in basic school subjects like reading
or geography. AEC programs do contain games, but
That's why you shoulti know only as rewards for learning achieve
about AEC, American Educational ment. For example, once your child
Computer - one of the country's AEC knows that successfully completes the objective
most important developers and good grades are important. in die Matchmaker Geography pro
publishers of educational software. gram, he or she can play an exciting,
Any educational software could help act ion-packed
Ytntmnhtlpyntrth ild all school performance in some way. game.

Ihi nay thrvugh schmt That's because the computer is such

a patient teacher, giving instant feed
back to questions and allowing chil
dren to learn at their own pace.
But AEC software has an impor
tant advantage. Our approach has
been student tested under actual
classroom conditions. So we know
it keeps the child's interest while it
AEC grew up on education. teaches.

The management of AEC started in AEC gets parents involved in

educational publishing, widi collec the learning process.
tively over 100 years of experience Sure, the games are fun. But
in the field. AEC knows curriculum With cidier AEC's they're not the basis, and certainly
and how American education is MATCH MAKER" or not the primary focus, of any AEC
practiced in the classroom. EASYREADER1" Series, software.Our focus is strictly on
That's important because you can take your learning. And isn't that what you
children should learn at child through die grades buy educational software for?
home tile same way they in subjects such as If you have more questions about
learn at school. Other Phonics, Word Attack educational software,
wise, you'll have a very Skills, Reading Com contact your nearest
confused cliild,and con prehension, Spanish, AEC educational soft
fusion is not the way World or US Geogra ware center. And
to better grades or phy, and Grammar. Our thanks for being a
better learning. teacher tested system concerned parent;.

AmericanEducational Computers 2450 Embarcadero Way, Palo Alto, CA 94303

And one more thing: Albert's hero or heroine Safe At Last!
must be able to hunt across the computer keyboard Don't give up hope. Albert isn't lost yet. A true
and peck the letter that is about to zap him. champion will keep typing. She may hit some
Do you qualify? Does your mom or dad? Or wrong letters, but most of the letters will be right.
your kid sister? Then pitch in, find the letter on Each time she types the wrong letter, Albert scur
the keyboard that is threatening Albert Zap, and ries away from his home. But each time she taps
give it a quick tap. the right letter, Albert turns around and runs in
If you find the letter before it finds Albert, the right direction.
the letter will crumble like a peanut butter cookie And eventually Albert makes it home.
you've just sat on.

You're Not Home Yet,

Albert Zap
When the letter vanishes, Albert breathes a sigh
of relief. He has decided that he has had enough
walking for today. All he wants to do is go home.
He takes a giant step in the direction of his house.
But what is this? Another letter, this time a
giant green P, is heading right for him. And, as
Albert stares at the sky, other letters follow the P:
a plump yellow W, a pair of brown Q's, and a
hefty green Z.
Albert feels like Chicken Little. The sky is
falling. All he wants is to go home. But he can't
move on his own.
Albert looks your way. You are his only hope.
Can you find the letters on the keyboard and tap Albert Zap won't make it back this time in AtphaZap.
them, one at a time, before they reach Albert?
But if he doesn't, that's all right, too. Albert
Finding A Champion isn't hurt—except for a mild headache from being
Albert is not picky about his hero or heroine. He beaned with a blimp-sized letter. And, with just
might be a four-year-old with a quick little finger. the touch of a button, you can start the game over
Or a 68-year-old who won't desert Albert in his again and give him another chance. Once again,
hour of need. He'll stay by the keyboard hunting Albert is back outside his house going for a walk,
and pecking until he gets Albert home. and a new group of overweight letters is falling
But one thing is certain: Albert needs a true out of the sky. You can keep coming to Albert's
champion, someone who will stick with him even rescue until you finally bring him home.
when the going gets tough. Unfortunately, Albert Zap does not have a
And it does get tough. lot of sense. As soon as you bring him home, in
Getting Albert home looks deceptively easy. stead of thanking you he heads back out his front
After all, the letters are floating down so slowly, door for another walk. Seconds later, more letters
lazily dropping from the sky. This game is a snap. are raining down out of the sky.
You merrily tap the keys, and Albert jogs along It seems Albert Zap likes to live dangerously.
toward the safety of his house.
Then disaster strikes. A giant Y falls toward CiuickFinger
Albert. You see the Y and try to type it, but you Albert Zap is the hero of a typing game called
miss and strike a T instead, AlphaZap, put out by Quick Brown Fox, Inc.—the
Albert notices your keyboarding blooper and people who make the Quick Brown Fox word
despairs. He loses all hope. And he loses his mind. processor for the VIC-20 and the Commodore 64.
He does the opposite of what he is supposed to AlphaZap runs on the Commodore 64. It is
do. He turns around and takes a giant step away part of a trio of typing games, collectively known as
from his home. QuickFinger. The QuickFinger package comes on
Albert's foolish behavior rattles you. Hastily disk and costs under $40. It should already be in
you type another letter. You aim fora B but instead the stores, but if you can't find it, you should
type a V. Albert takes another giant step away contact Quick Brown Fox directly:
from home. You see more letters and make more Quick Brown Fox
mistakes. Now Albert is jogging in the wrong 536 Broadway
direction. The distance between him and his home New York, NY 10012
is steadily widening. (212) 925-8290
62 COMPUTEfs Gazelle April 198-1
Kids climb to the top in ^>^*
our playground...
Because we offer more than just educational games. Our unique software brings the magic touch of the
Edumale Light Petl™ together wilh Ihe amazing computer voice of S.A.M.™, the Software Automata Mouth, so children can interact
directly with our leaching programs. Playground Software™ makes learning and learning to use the computer child's play!

Ant Ou' playground of active, colorful animals will have your

ckers' child spelling new words in no lime at .ill. Animal Crackro'"
Cra combines ihe use of the Edumate Lishl Pen™ and children's
fascination with animals and computers to teach your
P:e$c iio°' children the alphabet as they (earn to spell. By simply
touching a letter on the screen with [he Edumate Light Pen ,
,o your children will creale a screen full of animals and other
playful objects. Not only is il fun, il's educational!

Unleash thy creative lalenls of the big kids and the little kids
in your family wilh the first electronic coloring book Com
puter Crayons™ comes complete with ready-to-painl scenes
and an artist's paleile of vibrant color. Additional options per
mit you to save and restore pictures easily, draw circles, lines,
boxes, and erase in a single stroke.
Lei your imagination run wild with the Sketch Kid lhal
allows you to create your own video paintings from scratch.
Now anyone cm transform our Edumate Light Pen™ into
,m electronic paint brush with Computer Crayons'"!

The most fundamental lesson every child must learn is how
to draw the letters of the alphabet. The Alphabet Arcade'"
Arcade- Utilizes the Edumate Liftht Pen ** and an exciting arcade en
vironment to provide the children with an innovative way lo
Preschool acquire basic lettering skills. Mistakes are noted Immediately
and correct entries rewarded in a series oi action-packed sel
ro Grade i lings will delight and inipin1 your children. Discovering
the alphabet has never been this much fun!

Playground Software™ presents a series of engrossing tales

lhal use our Edumalr Lighl Pen™ and your child's imagina-
lion to tell a Story.
Our first Bedtime Slory enlists the aid of your child to help
Little Wed Riding Hood escape from the Mejn Old Wolf, and
has all the colorful animation and full-scale sound that p t
children love. rres&)0o/ kt
Your child will be taught letter and word recognition while fO Grari - $£& :^
having all Ihe fun that goes along with helping to tell a story. e3 fit
So let your child play a part in ihe first of our interactive and
M I "Ijfcrjrrjur'd _jG'1*tjrp \ hnr 'nt'r\ ji"1^ tOviliC* CDinpjlib't
educational bedtime slories ..Little Red Riding Hood1

Playground Software...Kids are all over us!

Each package $29.95 on disk or cassette. Prices subject to change without notice. See your local dealer or order direct Irom p o. box 3470,
department eg. chapel hill, north Carolina 37514 Add S3.00 for postage and handling, Credit card orders call 1-600-334-SOFT.

During December and January you can take advantage ot our Special Christmas Oner ond receive an Edumate Light

discount toward the purchase ol th« Edumate light Pan"1 when you buy any Playground Software program.
*l»n 40frVOOTU ind CMnmodOFt tl*Clrrjnl». IfW. r ik DP : i ' ■■■' ■ j'lwJir
Level keyboard will. How might a fearful adult feel about
the keys with names like BREAK, STOP, CON
anxious adult, even a "friendly" computer key like
803 HELP can take on an ominous, sinister meaning.
■ ords Taking The First Step
• orth
i ea. Yet what would computers be without their
keyboards? There are more and more alternatives
to the keyboard. New devices for interacting with
the computer are now appearing on the market,
including mice, touch pads, and light pens. But
the computer keyboard is still the primary way
most people tell the computer what they want it
to do.
We have to find ways to help people cope
Link the Letters with the computer keyboard. One way is the
typing program.
Typing programs, like Typing Tutor by IBM,
Type Attack by Sirius, and MastcrTypc by Scar
borough, are a godsend to the average family
member who is interested in learning how to use
a computer but who is put off by the computer
QuickFinger, from Quick Brown Fox, is, in my
opinion, one of the best of these typing programs.
It is for a very popular machine {the Commodore
64). It makes learning the computer keys easy
and fun rather than boring and tedious. It has a
trio of games, so you can switch back and forth.
When you get tired of playing one game, you can
switch to another game and still be practicing and
improving your keyboarding skills. And the
games are deep.
Keyboard Pacer
Deep Typing
Tackling The Terrible Keyboard Tripp Hawkins of Electronic Arts has called for a
Which part of a computer terrifies people the new generation of microcomputer programs for
most? Is it the alien-looking floppy disk drive? the average person. To be for everyone, a program
The blank, empty-looking display screen? The must be hot {appeal to the senses), simple, and
snakelike cables? deep.
Nope, it's the keyboard. The keyboard is like What Hawkins means by deep is that a pro
a wall that most adults and kids have to climb gram must be suitable for users at a variety of
over. And most of them don't. skill levels or for a single user who is acquiring
For little kids the keyboard is a jungle, stuffed new skills and becoming more sophisticated. The
with too many keys in too small a space. Kids' program must be able to teach a person at one
eye-scanning and finger-tapping motor skills often level, then it must be prepared to continue teach
aren't up to tracking down and pressing that ing the same person at ever higher levels.
unique key that will make a program run or a The QuickFinger programs are deep. They are
game reward them. Computer keys often leave suitable for little children with tiny fingers or high-
small children with tears, anger, and frustration. level executives with meaty paws or long painted
The situation isn't much better for adults. fingernails. They are for hunt-and-peck or swift
Most adults don't know how to touch-type. Most touch typists. They can be your first introduction
adults have never heard of QWERTY. They have to the computer keyboard or your refresher
learned their alphabet from A through Z, then course, even if you already type 50 words a minute
they look at a computer keyboard and find the or more.

letters all mixed up. All the QuickFinger programs operate at mul
And if the jumbled letters weren't enough to tiple skill levels, You can enter a program at level
stop them, all those extra keys on a computer one or level sixteen. Or you can let the program
64 COMPUTEIS Gazette April 1984
Get more out of your Commodore with #

For Owners And Users Of Commodore VIC-20 "And 64 Personal Computers

More fun More programs

I r ,. -

..lit _
Programs to help you balance your 1.1 - i .

checkbook, store your addresses, keep wdi-cI

- 'c-
*--' ■ ■
i . * .
i -

<rf O ■_! (T ]"..'. i ■

tax records, manage your persona ■ *■ . T- T- . ■ t - - .

m.xn i?:.._i I -.1 .. ■ . - ■ . ■

business. You can create your own pro . T

grams and gomes, improve your word-

processing, spreadsheets and data
base management, load and run faster
with 64 Searcher, VIC/64 Program Life-
saver, Ouickfind, Word Hunt, Disk Menu,
VIC Timepiece, Automatic Proofreader More savings
and more. You can save up to 40% off the news
stand price of COMPUTEi's Gazelle by
subscribing now. All you do is mail ihe
coupon below or the poslpaid card
Martion Prisoner, The Viper, Skydiver, bound into this issue. But don't delay!
Snake Escape, Demon Star, Cyclon Zap Subscribe now lo storl receiving every
and Oil Tycoon are just a few of the issue of COMPUTEVs Gazette.
ready-lo-run games you'll find exclusive
ly in COMPUTE'S Gazetteeacbmonth.
Just type in the programs and watch
your screen explode with colorful new
computer game excitement.
SAVE V£ 40'

Yes! Start my subscription to

COMPUTEI's Gazette at big
savings off the newsstand price:
More challenge D 1 year $20—Save $10
□ 2 years $36—Save $24
Ready to tackle more advanced projects?
□ 3 years $54—Save $36
In COMPUTEI's Gazette you'il team How
to Use Tape and Disk Files. How to Pro Name
gram the function Keys. Writing Trans
portable Basic. How to Make Custom Address.

Graphics Characters. New Ways to More buying City. .

Enliven Programs with Sound. One Touch
Commands for the 64. How to use
Machine Language. Speeding up the
guidance State . Zip.

□ Payment enclosed □ Bill me

VIC 20—and much more! You'll profit from comprehensive reviews
Children will leorn and develop of everything from data-quality cassette Charge my
new skills with States & Capitals Tutor, tapes to software to graphics plotters and □ Visa □ MasterCard D Am. Ex.
Wordmatch, Munchmath, Wordspell, modems. Virtually anything that's compat
ible with your Commodore is reported Account No. Exp. Dale
Connect the Dots, Aardvark Attack and
Allabug. Computing for Kids, a regular on in COMPUTEI's Gazette. With this CALL TOLL FREE
monthly feature, will uncover new ways kind of expert help, every computer pur
[_RO._Box961,l=armingdale,N.Y. 11737
to involve your children in computing. chase you make can be the right one!
lead you automatically through the levels as your

Which skill increases. Your progress is slow but steady.

If you are having trouble mastering a certain level
Software Is you can hang around until you feel comfortable
and ready to try something more challenging.

Worth The As you progress the computer keeps score.

You can save your scorecard on disk and recall it

easily for later sessions on any of the three programs.

An Extra Bonus
Find out in: I have focused only on the AlphaZap program,
but the other two programs arc1 lots of fun, too.
Keyboard Pacer shows a picture of the computer
BUYER'S REPORT " keyboard on the picture screen. One at a time, the
letters on the buttons turn black. When you find
The newsletter that gives you
that letter and press it, a new letter turns black.
the real story behind the software hype.
This is a good program for even the tiniest
■ No advertising means honest, unbiased evaluations child or the most fearful adult. You might be able
• Topnotch reviewers offer opinions you can trust to find only one key in two minutes, but if you
• Get m-depth reviews of software for: get it right, you are rewarded.
Games and Entertainment ■ Graphics and Music • Home The last program is called Link the Letters.
Applications • Education - Business ■ Programming Aids This time you see a grid of fenced-in giant letters,
• Telecommunications 'And morel like a screen-sized crossword puzzle. You have to
link the letters into words. When you make up a
NEW!! COMMODORE real word, you get points and are rewarded with
64/VIC 20 EDITION a charming sound like two crystal champagne
Devoted only to software la: Commodore's home computers. glasses clinking together in a toast.
BY SUBSCRIPTION ONLY- NOT As a parent, I especially like the Link the
AVAILABLE ON NEWSSTANDS Letters program. It is a good spelling game for my
children. It helps develop their eye-tracking skills
Published len times a year. S/^sia1 cfc«rter r«t<
(up, down, to the left, and to the right). And it
Subscription rate S35.00 a year U.S. *^£b*? teaches them some of the structure of the English
| Addition,-i) ££?. <fS~
language, including common word beginnings,
two-consonant blends, and word endings. It
Start Getting The makes our language playful. And it helps a child
learn how to organize words and recognize
Most Out Of Your patterns.

Software Dollar! And Now Back To Albert

FILL OUT AMD MAIL TODAY OR CALL The best thing about QuickFhtger is that when you
800-336-3535TO ORDER (In Penna. 215-691-1912) get tired of linking letters and pacing yourself on
the keyboard, you can go back and rescue Albert
Zap again. He's a nice guy, really. But he doesn't
] VESI I waniioiubsaibei [Veenc'osed my check or money

order for S29.95 have enough sense to come in out of the rain.
[Payable to The Softwre Buyers Report |
□ Send me more intoimaiion right away. DATAFILE MANAGER
1 .■.'..liy used In computer classes lo leach the concepts of random files
and ISAM lo beginning users. .. but sophisticated enough for home and small
Na me. Business use. Consists of 5 disk programs and comprehensive loose-leaf manual
with step-by-slep Instructions Includes bulld-flle program for ready-to-use 1000
record mailing list, ilp-code sorted label printing and alptia phone list printouts.
Phone |area codel SPECIFICATIONS: Menu dtl.en . 80 charitlsri oer field • 15 f.eldl Mr mcorc ■ 2M clunclin
per record -Up to 1200 ratorda per dlak <ISAH random acceia Maa "Son oninyllBIO "Uaar-
daHned alpha and numeric 11 eld I ■ Nealad aorta ■ Hflaiid loisli .i--: avDIOIHa ■ Cornel lad for
Address ipnd ■ U«r acr.neii print lormala wllh lop and bottom ivaoan oaaa langih and ikip ovar «rf
• vlfw or print Mleclfld information I ram your fill
SYSTEM HEQUIHEMENTS:C«iComputer. 1 or 11M1 0"t«OI1«> ■ TV Of moniloi (color or&Vfl
• Ptop*nT iril«rtK«tl prlniar (program runa wit" urniloc ■ppiicaiiona Aiinout prlnrtr)
City . Slate -Zip
S4D postnaia
Computer Model: □ VIC 20 C f.riN-tiTiiiH) Eitremeir easy to use menu driven word processor that works with
any properli interlaced printer. Both youngsters and adults love inis one!
SPECIFICATIChS-CompilMlara»*d> Wool wrap • Pruflr*nm«l* Mellon kfyi • ln»fl oiuoti
• Move hncJbloc* • uvlele -?£■-_.-_. ■ s?a-:" ■ Search via replace ■ UU'-danncd onnl com-
manda • Automalic page heMers and nurr»MD - Henjatiisa • thai" "In •-V*do*" Dlak com-
The SOFTWARE BUYER'S REPORT nnjidi amylaiao • Siap-Df'Slap franjal • Syilnm iBquliemffnts aa aDova

S30 postpaid
824 Eighth Avenue 0HKR SIJTX mOGRXMS-JUSI S55 poslpaifl
?508 Vjtlry font * W»i!Or> Wl 53719 • 60S !71 H17
CHOI 'coprnl ' htlc hquim M.irM
Making Calendars
Paul C. Liu

Put your printer to good use by making a full twenty-first centuries, up to the year 2100. If you
set of calendars. These four programs will give really want to be meticulous beyond that, you can
you a screen calendar, a wall calendar, an ap- make further modifications by reducing Dl by 1
pointment calendar, and one for the year at a after March 2100, and repeating that every 100
glance. For the VIC-20 and Commodore 64. years. You must do this because the century years
like 2100 and 2200 which are not divisible by 400
are not leap years, but the algorithm treats them
A practical use for a computer with a printer is as if they were.
making your own calendars. Here are four The programs contain modifications like the
calendar-making programs written for the VIC-20, above to make them accurate for the next five
three of which require the use of a printer. Since centuries, provided, of course, that the current
the programs are written entirely in BASIC with calendar system is not reformed. (The last calendar
out PEEKs or POKEs, they will also run on the 64 reform was in 1752.)
and can be easily adapted for Once we know the day of the week for the
other computers or non-
Commodore printers. The Wall Calendar (Program 2).
In calendar making, it is I ■ ■
■ ■

essential to know the correct day

of the week for any given date. If
we let Dl be the day of the week
(for Sunday Dl = 1, for Monday ■ ■
Dl = 2, and so on), and let M,
D, and Y be the month, day, and SUM MQN TUE UEL THU FRI SRT
year respectively, Dl can be
calculated by:
■ ■
Dl = INT{2.6-(M-2)-0.2) + D + i
a ■
Y -1900 + INTHY -1900)/4)

Dl = Dl + INT(19/4)- 2*19
Dl = Dl - INT(Dl/7)*7 +1

■ ■ ■ I ■
Two modifications have to ■
■ ■ ■
be used with the above formula ■
tion. For M equal to 1 or 2 we
have to add 12 and subtract Y
by 1. In other words, we consid x ■ ■ ■ R
er the months January and Feb ■ ■ I
ruary as the thirteenth and four
teenth month of the previous mi m
■ ■ m m
year. In addition, for M equal to ■ mi ■ * ■ 1 MM
4 or 9 the calculated Dl has to be
increased by 1.

It's Good For Over

■ ■ ■
100 Years ■ ■ •

This algorithm performs flaw

lessly for the twentieth and
COMPUTEI's Gazette April 1984 67
The Appointment Calendar (Program 3). serve as an appointment calendar for your desk,
rrril i9S4 with room for short notes each day. Along with
hw m j ' ' the regular date, you are told what day of the
a '( h i year it is. This program RUNs on the VIC without
3 't M j ' memory expansion.
WEDNESDAY *» ' < 93 j ' _ __ -_ _. __ -
B-t«i A Year On One Sheet
e ' ( 37 i ' Program 4 will give you all 12 months of the year
v ! w i ' printed on one sheet. The message "Happy New
( 99 j ' Year" is at the top of the calendar, but you can
e iea > put a different short message there by modifying
tuebmv is ! in*) the text in line 7. This program also needs no ad-
11 "< i«'j - ditional memory for the VIC.
iajt!»>] ; InPrograms2, 3, and 4, after you input the
ia i 104 ) ... month and year as requested, the computer
i« .85) prompts you to turn on the printer. Before you do
1—1 J86.' this, you should set the perforation of the printing
.... paper over the starting position of the print head
so that the calendar will appear entirely on one
UEDNE3DFM 1 S I IBS ! l__^i. _£_ TL |.l t IX.
sheet or paper. 1 he programs are written tor the
Commodore 1515 and 1525 pnnters. Other pnnters
FS1DHV ZB t 111 ) . ,.-, f , r
• may require modifications to the proeram.

, I, I, n T See program listings on page 150. <&

HONDHV Z3 '( II*') HflPPV 1 4E 4 VERR 1984
TUESDAY Z-* '< hs'j
UEDNE9DHY SJ3 '( iis") 8 K T H T F S 8 n T N T f s
1 3 ,
3 s 7 1 2 3 *
B 9 IB 11 12 13 14 9 £ 7 8 9 18 11
'( ha'> 13 16 17 IS 19 a 13
21 12 14 13 IE 17 IB
SflTURDf)v 2S '< 113') 22 23 24 25 25 27 20 19 at 21 22 23 24 23
29 X 31 26 27 28 29

MONDfl* 3a 'f ISl")

■ ■

S K 1 u T F S E n 1 H r F S

given date, especially the fiTSt day of the month, 4 3 i 7

13 14

the rest of the calendar-making task is just a matter 11 it 13 14 19 16 17 13 IE 17 IB 19 28 21

IS 19 21 21 22 23 2* 22 23 24 23 26 27 29
of setting up and getting the proper format and 29 26 2? 28 29 38 31 29 39

S PI H T F S S fi T w T F
A Monthly Calendar
1 2 3 1 s 1 2
Program 1 will display a monthly calendar on the G 7 t 5 IB 11 12 3 4 5 t 7 S 9
13 14 15 IS 17 ie 19 IB 11 12 13 14 IS IE
screen. In this and the other programs, after you 28 21 22 23 24 23 26 17 18 19 29 21 22 23
27 29 2S SB 31 24 23 26 27 28 29 38
load the program, type RUN and press RETURN,
the computer will briefly explain what the program JUL.V RUOUST
1 T F S S PI T H T F
is for and ask you to input the month and year of S PI u
the calendar you wish to see. The numbers should 1
14 3 i 7
IB 11

be separated by a comma, and the year should be 19 16 17 IS 19 28 21 12 13 14 13 1G 17 IB

22 23 W 26 27 28 19 2B 2! 22 23 24 23
the full four digits (1984, not 84). Then the monthly 29 30 31 a 27 28 29 38 31

calendar of your choice will be displayed on the

screen. S PI T H T F S s PI T M r F S

Program 2 will give you a copy of what you 1 1 2 3 4 3 6

see on the screen in the first program by printing 2 3 4 3 6 7 e 7 8 9 18

11 12
9 IB 11 12 13 14 i) 14 13 IE IB
it on your printer in enlarged form. This is a long IE 17 ie 19 28 21 22 21 22 23 24 23 K 27
23 24 23 27 28 29 Sfl 29 » 31
program (it requires 8K memory expansion on 38

the VIC) because it contains a set of enlarged num NOVEMBER DECEMBER

S n T U T F S I PI T u T f B
bers and characters, together with a bank of sub
routines to use them. The result is a calendar you 4 9 £ 7
9 18 2 3 4 3 7 e

can hang on the wall. 11 12 13 14 13 1G 17 9

18 19 29 21 22 23 24
Program 3 also gives you a printed monthly 29 2? 28 29 38 23 24 23 26 2? 29 29
38 31
calendar, but in a different format. The program
The Yearly Calendar (Program 4)
tabulates the days of the month as a list. It can
fi8 COMPUTEIS Gazette April 1984


You deserve the best. You've earned It. Now reward yourself with a session of Night Mission PINBALL,
the most realistic and challenging arcade simulation ever conceived! ■ Stunning graphics and dazzling
■-. sound effects put Night Mission PINBALL in a class by Itself. Game features: multl-
i uTiiil - ball and mulli-player capabilities, ten different professionally designed levels of play,
^O1* ■ *l\-r*'j and an editor that lets you create your own custom modes. ■ So take a break with
Night Mission PINBALL from SubLOGIC. Winner of Electronic Games magazine's
Hik"-;&1J ' ' 1983 Arcade Award for Best Computer Audio/Visual Effects.

See your dealer...

or write or call for mofe information. For direct orders please add $1.50 for
shipping and specify UPS or tirst class mall delivery. Illinois residents add 5% Corporation
sales lax. American Express, Diner's Club, MasterCard, and Visa accepted. 713 Edgebrook Drive
Champaign IL 61820
Order Line: 800/637-4983 (217) 359-8482 Telex: 206995
Tutor Michael Quigley

"French Tutor" is a helpful study aid designed
for those learning or strengthening French
vocabulary and translation skills—English to TO GO TO MENU
French, or French to English. Written for the
VIC-20, we've added a version for the Com F IER-
modore 64.

With two children studying French in elementary

school, one of my reasons for buying the VIC-20
was to create some French instructional programs.
"French Tutor" was suggested by Steve
Steinberg's "Language Lab" (COMPUTE!, July
1982), which provided for both drill and transla
tion. It was relatively easy to adapt to the VIC,
with a few minor modifications. For example, a
dummy word (XX) is needed as the last item in A correct translation is entered in "French Tutor (VIC
the DATA statements to prevent the program version).
from running out of DATA if a particular word
is not in the list. included are the combined ce for words like
ceuvre and a? as in Caesar.
Custom Accented Characters Program 1 also has a musical signature
Another modification involved the use of ac (which could be eliminated if it begins to pall).
cents, which Language Lab did not include.
The solution was to create the accents with Language Drills
programmable characters, as described in "Cus Program 2, which is loaded by Program 1, is
tom Characters for the VIC" by David Malmberg made up of four sections: French to English vo
(COMPUTEIS First Book of VIC). Program 1 de cabulary drill, English to French vocabulary drill,
scribes which keys have to be pushed to obtain French to English translator, and English to
accented characters. French translator. Because of severe restraints
In addition to the familiar accented vowels, on the VIC's memory in Program 2, there are
this program includes some which are used less only 101 words, most of which employ accents
frequently—the umlauted e as in Noel, u as in and are no longer than five letters. With more
Saul, and 6 for words of German origin. Also memory, this total could be increased. If you do
70 COMPUTED Gazette April 1984


STATIONS! As chief commander of land and sea
forces in the Pacific, your mission is to obtain a
quick naval victory, and invade enemy territory with
land forces. BEACHHEADS a 100% machine
language game and offers multi-screen action with
high resolution, three dimensional graphics.
(Suggested retail price...$34.95)

NEUTRAL ZONE,,, takes you to the outer

edges of the galaxy, to ALPHA IV, a long range
early warning station whose mission is to detect
alien intruders from other galaxies.

NEUTRAL /.ONE,., is the ultimate in high

resolution, fast action, arcade quality games. It is
written in 100% machine language and features
smooth scrolling of the 360 degree panorama. The
realism is unbelievable. (Suggested retail

MASTER COMPOSER,,, is the perfect utility

for programming music on the Commodore 64. It
is fun, easy to use and very powerful. Master
Composer takes Full advantage of the sound
synthesizer to produce all types of music from
simple melodies to intricate compositions. You
can compose your own musical scores, experiment
with different arrangements and instruments,
program your own accompanyment, or just type
in your favorite sheet music. (Suggested retail

SPR1TEMASTER,,, is not just another sprite SPRITEMASTER

editor. It's the finest utility available for multicolor

sprite animation and game programming. It will
have you making full color animated objects in just
minutes. People running.birtls flying or tanks rolling
are a snap with Spritemaster. It will automatically
append your sprites to other programs. It's easy
to use and understand and comes with a full 21 page
instruction manual and samples of animated sprites
to get your started. (Suggested retail price..,$34,95>


( linn (i [ is .i ii ^j-u i. il ii .uli'iii.ii I. [if ( innliiit liii.iiii'.-. M.n-hiins, Inc.
repeated, which is not possible as the program is
FRENCH CHARACTERS presently written.
Using the program with a disk drive opens
up even more interesting possibilities. The four
sections of Program 2 could be transformed into
four individual programs, which could then be
accessed by the menu. The disk drive's speed is
an asset in jumping from one program to another,
or to the menu itself.

Use The Keyword

Memory in Program 2 is at a premium, and no
extra spaces should be inserted. In order to make
some lines fit in the maximum 88-character length,
BASIC keywords should be abbreviated—PRINT
"French Tutor" also includes French accents and symbols becomes ?, GOSUB becomes GO followed by
(64 version). SHIFTed S, DATA becomes D SHIFT-A, and so
on. (See Personal Computing an the VIC-20, pp.
have more memory, make the corresponding
133-34, or pp. 263-64 of the VIC-20 Programmer's
change to the number in line 43 {line 1610 In Reference Guide.) In particular, lines 1-5 and several
Program 3 for the 64) which randomly selects
of the DATA lines require abbreviations.
the words. Don't attempt to RUN the finished Program
Additional memory can also be used to add
I more than twice to see if it works, or you will
more sound, but that will necessitate relocating
get an OUT OF MEMORY message. SAVE it on
the programmable characters. Also, the random
tape often when creating it, so you can always go
selection of words can be changed so that, for
back to your previous version if this should
example, if eight words are chosen, none will be

Adding Words
The maximum number of words allowed for each
Vocabulary Drill section in Program 2 is nine.

VIC 20
This is because the VIC recognizes only the first
integer with the GET A$ statement in line 10,
which doesn't require the user to hit the RETURN
key; that is, 20 words would become 2 words. In
order to increase this number to 10 or above, elimi
nate the question mark from line 9, and make the
following substitution for lines 10 and 11:

10 INPUTN:IFN<1THEN10 irem 83
11 IPCO=NTHEN14 :rem 162
Now you can have the memory power of
This now requires use of the RETURN key after
the 64, flexible memory control, e*pons/on
port and more. the number is input.
For the 64 version, change lines 1280-1290 to:

1280 INPUTN:IFN<1THEN1280 irem 39
1290 IFCO=NTHEN1320 :rem 109

To make the program work with a disk drive,

give Program 2 the name "¥". Then, in Program
1, delete line 555 and make the following

390 IFA$="N"THENPOKE36869,255:GOTO560
mosaic :rem 163
ElfCTRONICS, INC. 580 POKE7993,34:POKE7994,6iPOKE7995,34:PO
Call tat vournBarest Mosaic Dealer KE7996,44:POKE7997,56 :rem 121
1-800S47-2B07, In Oregon <S53-7885 590 POKE198,liPOKE631,131:END !rem 161
HC 201 o leg&terBd trademark ofCommotJoro Bu&taa MacWwi Inc

See program listings on page 146. (0

72 COMPUTE'S Coietie April 1984
Look at these
Fully screen-oriented

Horizontal and vertical scrolling

• Terminal mode — never seen before on a wordprocessor

• Supports Commodore disk and cassette handling BLIZTEXT is.

trademirk o( ELCOMP

• Imbedded commands



Com mod ore-64 and

VIC '2 J are ■■ ■: !■-■:: :l'.!
of Commodore
Business Mich i mi.



for the Commodore-64 by Fram En do Parallel winter imerface KIT Order #4990 8 19.9S
- ON SALE NOWI - 36 programs for The Commodore 64 Universal Exncrimenler Board Order #4970 S 9.9S
• Fully icreen-orisnied. up/down, laft artd right Introduction TO graphics and found. How lo program Expansion QoO'd, space for four ex-
tcrolNng - Upper and fowar con, your own garnet. Walking pictures, animation, high perfmenter boardslboard only) Ordar#4992 E 29.95
• More than 70 command* resolution graphlu. programming tips and tricks, hlnti
Tricks (or VICs, No. 176 89.95
• Fuji I/O compatibility with Commodore peripheral* and useful subroutine* for The beginner and advanced
Universal Experimenter board far VIC 89.95
Upper anil lower case programmor. Thii book is a MUST for every C-64 owner.
• Work! with practically every primer on the market, Corns and get it - It's yours for only G 9.95
user definable printer control command?
Order . 1E2 12B pages £!) B'j
• INCLUDE command allows handling large filet
Progrsmi from the booV on disk.
on up To 4 diskettes or on caueti*.
Order ^IBBB S19.95
• Build in terminal software for electronic mnll and
networking. TelecommunicatJam mode, upload and MORE ON THE SIXTYFOUR, by H.-C. W^ne.
download, uve on diik or caiiaitt, How to get the most out of your powerful Commodore
• Dynamic formatting, Imbedded com mandi 64, Vary Important subroutine!, tricks and hinti in
• :iiinili- i rv.:i "I i' for disk directory and error channel machine language for your C*64r How to modify DOS.
• Program comes on diik or cassotta
How to conned a parallel and serial printer. How to
• Double line spacing, left and right margin justifFcation.
design your own terminal program for communication
centering, page numbering, and practically everything
and networking. Oig into I/O for cassette and disk.
one expects from a good wordprocessor.
Order =1B3 89.95
Order #4965 E89.G0 Programs from tha book on diik
Manual only (€2 pagei) S29.9B Order #4989 S1S.95
Book No. 194 E12.95 Book No.182 B9.95
Editor/Atwmblar for xUe Commodore-64 Witch out for our new books, software nnd idd-om lo NEW Product! foMhe
How lo program in 6502 Machine Language on
One outstanding tool, consisting of 3 powerful elements OrdtrNo.4962 M<1.
your C-64 , by S. Robans I Introduction)
combined fnto one efficient program! Supjrlnuantory (D)
Order-#184 S12.95 Order No. 4961 S 49,-
1J Fully screen-oriented Editor (more than 70
CommodorB-64 Tune-up, Vol. 1, by S, Roberts BUSIPACK 1 (13)
Order-No. 4963 S99,-
2.) Very fast assembler with micro capability How to enpand and customize your C-64.
3.) Machine Language Monitor Order#185 S12.9B
Assembly cin be started from (he editor. Translates En Small Buiinass Programs (or I ha CommodorB-64 Order-No. 4960 S39,-
3 passes. More than 1,000 lableiH scmn orjenitd/no Una
by S. Roberts
l.r1 : ■■,, i.ii ..:. includas disk filai.
How to mike money using your C-64, Mailing list. For yourVIC-20
Practically everything the wrlous machine language TrickiforVICt
programmer needs everyday I
invoice writing. Inventory, simpln wordoroceiilng and
Order-No. 176 ES.9S
much more.
Manual only S19>95 Expariman-
Order#49G3 £89.00 Order # 1 of. £12.95 tar board
Dealer and Distributorinnuiries are invited. Book No.183 E9.95 Order-No. 4S44E9.95


CARD, Eurucheck, ACCESS, Interbank
53 Redrock Lane
Prepaid orders add £3.50 for shipping (USA)
EG.00 handling for C.O.D. Pomona, CA 91766
All orders outside USA: add 15 % ihippinu, Califor Phona: I714| 623 8314
nia residents add 6.5 % sales tan.

Light Pen
Dan Carmichael,
Assistant Editor

In a recent poll conducted by

our sister publication, COMPUTE!,
only 6 percent of the readers
indicated they own a light pen. Our artists enjoyed drawing with the Edumate Light Pen. Here are two samples
of their work.
In this age of the computer, the
light pen has yet to catch on. It's 3D Tic Tac Toe is played on selecting the waveform and the
unfortunate, too, because the four grids measuring four decay setting, you cannot choose
light pen can make programs squares by four squares each. the filter, volume, attack, or sus
both easier to use and fun for You select the grids and squares tain settings.
the noncomputerist. with the light pen. You win by One of the more serious
One such product is the placing an x in four squares hori restrictions is found in the Draw
Edumate Light Pen offered by zontally, vertically, or diagon Routine program. After creating
Futurehouse. It comes com ally, on one grid or all four. your drawing, you are unable to
pletely wired and ready to plug Pen Music lets you play SAVE it to tape or disk.
into the joystick port of your music by touching the light pen
Commodore 64 or VIC-20. Also to various dots on the screen. A Good Teaching Aid
included are an instruction book You're given an array of 12 One important point about the
let and a software package con notes—a full musical scale—in light pen is its natural ability to
taining various programs for the any one of eight octaves. You attract and hold a child's atten
light pen. can also use the light pen to select tion. The light pen can be the
changes in decay, and the type added bonus that keeps a child
A Full Demonstration of waveform you wish to use. interested in a math or spelling
The software includes a hi- program.
resolution drawing program, a A Few Restrictions Also, if you're a parent with
disk utility, a music program, While all of the programs are even beginning or intermediate
and a game of 3D Tic Tac Toe. usable, they do contain a few programming abilities, you can
Draw Routine lets you draw serious restrictions. write your own tutoring pro
in the hi-resolution graphics Only BASIC programs can grams.
mode using the light pen. You be loaded using the disk utility. In addition, Futurehouse is
are offered a choice of 16 colors Because the format LOAD developing several educational
(64 version), with options to "filename",8 is used instead of and graphics software packages
clear the whole screen or erase LOAD "filename",8,1, machine designed for use with the pen.
individual lines. language programs that do not The price of the Edumate
Disk Utility is a general- load beginning at location 2049 Light Pen is also a plus. While
purpose DOS (disk operating (the start of BASIC in the 64) will some software games can cost
system) program which offers neither LOAD nor RUN. $29-$39 or more each, the price
you a display directory option, The disk formatting option of the Edumate includes both
and the ability to use the light does not give you the choice of the light pen and the software.
pen to select a program, load, selecting a name for the diskette.
Edumate Light Pen
and run it. You can also initialize, All disks are formatted with the Futurehouse
validate, or format a diskette, same header: "LPcreate "1. Box 3470
display the directory, and scratch While the music program Chapel Hill, NC
any files or programs. does offer you the option of $29.95 •
7A COMPUTED Gazette April 1984


PAL 64


The fastest and easiest to use 's an oas'' to use ^"'"8 checker This brand new offering from the
assembler for the Commodore 64.4 with a standard dictionary expandable originators of the WordPro Series
Pal 64 enables the user to perform to 80.000 words. SpeliPro 64 quickly brings professional wordprocessing to the
assembly language programming using the adapts itself to your persona! vocabulary Commodore 64 for the first time. Two
standard MQS mnemonics. $49.95* and business jargon allowing you to add and years under development. WordPro M
POWER 64 delete words to)from the dictionary, edit features 100% proportional printing
Is an absolutely indispensible aid to documents to correct unrecognized words capability as well as 40)80 column display,
the programmer using Commodore and output lists of unrecognized words to automatic word wrap, columnization.
printer or screen. SpeliPro 64 was designed alternate paging for headers & footers, lour
64 BASIC. Power 64 turbo-charges
to work with the WordPro Series and way scrolling, extra text area and a brand
resident BASIC with doiens of new super
other wordprocessing programs using the new 'OOPS' buffer that magically brings
useful commands like MERGE. UNDO.
WordPro file format. S49.95- back text deleted in error. All you ever
TEST and DISK as well as ail the old
dreamed of in a wordprocessor program,
standb/s such as RENUM and SEARCH & MAILPRO, SPELLPRO and PAL are
WordPro 64 sets a new high standard for
REPLACE. Includes MorePower 64. available for Commodore 8032 computers
the software industry to meet. S49.95 *
$49.95* equipped with either Commodore 4040 or
8050 Disk Drives. Further information on MAILPRO 64
request. y A new generation of data
Is the ultimate proijrammer's utility
L \» organizer and list manager. MailPro
package. Includes Pal 64 assembler Distributed in Canada by:
64 is the easiest of all to learn and use.
and Power 64 BASIC soup-up kit all PACO ELECTRONICS LTD.
Handles up to 2,000 records on one disk,
together in one fully integrated and 20 Steelcase Rd., West, Unit 10
prints multiple labels across, does minor
economical package. SB9.9S* Markham, Ont.. L3R IB2
text editing ie: setting up invoices. Best of
416-475-0740 Telex 06-966655
all, MailPro 64 resides entirely within
U.S. Dealer. Distributor inquiries invited. memory so you don't have to constantly
'Prices shown are in U.S. Dollars, slightly juggle disks like you must with other data
higher in Canada base managers for the Commodore 64.
»Commodore 6* and Commodore are S49.9S*
trademarks of Commodore Business
Machine! Inc.


In The Chips:
Playing To Win In Business
Tony Roberts, Assistant Managing Editor

An understanding of basic busi competitor each make decisions

ness concepts is a by-product of for the following business quar
the competition in In the Chips, a ter. After your plan has been
"In The Chips" requires the player to
program from Creative Software. entered, the computer lets each
make decisions involving research ami
The game is available on cartridge of you know how you fared.
development, manufacturing and
for the V1C-20, with a Commo Then you go on to the next quar marketing.
dore 64 version forthcoming. ter, modifying your decisions
develop up to five products—
Playing against either the based on the results of the first
Zurn, Chips, Pipes, Astro, or
computer or another person, quarter.
Xatar—at a cost of $5000 each.
you attempt to make the most
money by developing, manufac Building A Business Then you move to your produc
tion plant and decide how much
turing, advertising, and mar You begin the game with a
$100,000 investment in your
of each product to manufacture
keting a group of products.
at a unit cost of $10. Next, you
The game involves a series company. Your first move is
move over to'the accounting
of turns in which you and your product development. You may
division and set up your pricing
policies. Last on the list is adver
HUNDREDS OF PROGRAMS AVAILARLE tising. If you have any cash left
FOR THE COMMODORE 64 & VIC 20 over, spend it here, for unadver-
tised products don't fare too
Commodore 64 VIC 20
All Prices up to well in this market.
The resultsof your first quar
ter depend on the relationship
between your product line, pro
Pracllcalc (D) 41.50 ChopllltBr (CT) 2B.BS duction, and advertising and
Multiplan (D) 72,95 Lode Runner (D) 25.95
Bank SI. Writer (D) 43.95 Enchanter (D) 37.00 those of your competitor. If
Smart 54 Terminal 31.95 Jumpman (D/CASS) 27.95 you're each selling Chips at the
Quick Brown Fo« (CT) 42.95 Beach Head (D/CASS) 26 95
Paper Clip (D) 66.50 Neutral Zone (D/CASS) 26.95 same price, the company doing
Word Pro/SpellRight (D) 72.95 Planetfall (D) 37 00
Star Trek (CT) 29 00
more advertising will sell more.
CalcResult Advanced ID) 109.95
Data Manager (D/CASS) 18.75 After examining the ledger
Home Accl (Continental] (D) 49.95 HARDWARE AND ACCESSORIES
Delphi's Oracle <D) 99.95 Cardprint G 71.95
sheets, you go to work on the
CompuServe Starter Kit 29.95 The Connection Parallel Int. 89.95 next quarter. Although you'll be
EDUCATIONAL Cardcc-3 Slot Exp. Board 31 95
Facemaker(D/CT) 22.95 CardcoSSIot Eip (C-64] 55.93' in the red after the first quarter,
Kindercomp (D/CT) 19.95 Data 20 Video Patt 80 (C-64) 139 00
you'll be able to use the income
Delta Drawing (CT) 26.95 Dala20 8K Display Mgr. (VIC 20] 119 95
Type Attack (D) 28.95 OK Display Mgr (40/60) (VIC20) 79.95 from first-quarter sales for
Early Games (D/CASS) ZZ.5O Zenith 12" Green Monitor 102 00
Barron's SAT (D) 59.00 Zenith 12" Amber Monitor 125 00
further product development,
Snooper Troops »1 (D) 26.95 Brother/Dynax DX-15 production, and advertising. As
Alphabet Zoo <CT| £295 (Leller Quality) 4B5 00
Koala Touch Tablet 72.95 C Itoh Prowriler B510AP Call you make your production deci
Mastertype 28.95 Gemini 10X Call sions during the second and
Write or call (or FREE CATALOG. TO ORDER: CALL 1 -714-643-1056 succeeding quarters, the display
8.00 A M -6 00 P.M. PST Mon -Sat. or senO check or
will show you how many units
credit card number, signature and eipiraiion date Please include phone number
of each product you sold and
RO. Box 2520, Mission Viejo, CA 92690 at what price you sold them
Visa'Mastercard add 3% Personal checks allow 2 weeks to clear. CA residents add salea tan during the preceding quarter.
Shipping ana hanOlmg add S3.00 (hardware extra]. Prices 8uB|ect lo change
Understanding and acting on

76 COMPUTEIS Gazette April 1984

this information is essential if
you hope to avoid bankruptcy.

Standard Game
Lasts Two Years
The length of play in In the Chips
can be set by the players. A stand
You deserve it. . .so does your Commodore 64!
ard game is eight quarters (two
COMM-FILE is a powerful data Data Capacity. . . Flexible User-
years), though the program per
base program that eliminates Designed Files and Fields. . .
mits games of up to twenty quar multiple data files and turns Complete Mathematical Cal
ters. An eight-quarter game takes them into one organized and culation Abilities . . Powerful
about thirty minutes to play. concise information manage Search and Sort Control.. . File
The best strategy seems to ment system, Offering extreme Merge Capability. . . Advance
ease of use and tremendous Text Editing Features. . .and
be to spend all of your available
versatility, COMM-FILE can Custom-Designed Printer For
cash on production and adver maintain reports, records, form mats. . all to bring maximum
tising, and hope that your prices letters, invoices, listings, mailing efficiency and effectiveness to
are better than those of your addresses and any other infor any business!
opponent. Keep in mind that mation vital to your business'
proficient operation.
the other player is pushing the
COMM-FILE combines Extensive
same four products you are. SOFTWARE

This is head-to-head competition I1 O Box 946. Waterbury. CT 06720

'Commodore is a teuuiwcd trademark or
on the store shelves.
If things don't go well for
you, the game may come to an
early end when you fall into debt
and can't raise enough capital to
The Commodore 64 is your first "real"
continue production. You'll be computer. So, it stands to reason that
forced to sell off your inventory the software you use be real too. And.
at a loss and the game will be useful.
awarded to your opponent. The INSTA series productivity
Under normal conditions, software is just that — real and useful,
you can't set prices at below With our tutorial manuals and HELP
production cost. However, one SCREENS we actually teach you wha1
option permits you to cut prices word processing, spreadsheets and
as much as you like in an attempt graphs are all about.

to comer the market and force Games are fun....for foolin

your competition out of business INSTAisforreal.

through lack of sales.

Getting Around The

The game is played with a joy
stick. You are represented on
the screen by a construction
worker-type fellow in blue over
alls and a red hardhat. Using the
joystick, you move him from
building to building on your
business site. Once in a building,
you use the joystick to change
the numbers on the production

and price ledgers in much the easy to beat it. Though I haven't have in each of these areas is
same way that you add your had much chance to play against whether or not to spend money,
initials to the vanity board of an live competition, I find that con but the game makes no attempt_
arcade game. It takes a little time siderably more unpredictable to cover the nuances and subtle
to understand exactly how to and challenging. ties that exist within each of these
move around the board and what Playing the game fairly re areas.

to do in each building. But once quires a bit of self-control on the However, In the Chips does
you catch on to the rules, things part of both players. You should illustrate the relationships
go quite smoothly. In the Chips agree not to watch the other among pricing, advertising, and
features a demo mode in which player set his price and produc sales, and can be used to dem
the computer plays a game with tion levels, and you should re onstrate these concepts. But it
itself. Though the demo moves frain from studying each other's must be understood that there's
rather quickly, studying the com balance sheets. more to business than is por
puter's moves can help you un trayed here.
derstand the game.
Learning About The financial summary pro
As an opponent, the com Business vided at the end of each quarter
puter seems fairly static, After In a very general sense, In the contains plenty of grist for a dis
you've played a few times, the Chips simulates the business cussion about the ways of busi
computer's business plan be world. All activity is directed ness. The summary includes two
comes fairly obvious. Once you toward research and develop parts: the balance sheet and an
understand how the computer ment, production, advertising, income and operating statement.
behaves, it becomes relatively and marketing. The control you The balance sheet shows
how much cash you have, how
much capital is tied up in inven
tory, your investment, and fi
nally, the bottom line.
The income and operating
statement details the activities of
ORDERS ONLY! 30-638-2617 M.-F. 10 jm ■ 10pm
Sit. . 10 Im - 5 pm the preceding quarter. This state
Information and in Ohio 1-216-758-0009
ment displays the amounts spent
1541 Disk Drive $219 1702 Color Monitor $226 on advertising, production and
530 DaUtttte J 59 ifiOOModem J 59 1525 Printer 30 cps $199 development, and the amount
S26 Printer 100 cps (289 1520Printer/Ploticr J1S9 1650 Auto Modem $ 89
earned in sales. Expenses are
COMMODORE 64 $219 displayed in red and earnings in
Asi~ml kr,'Monitor f 15 Euy Script 4 35 HOME FINANCES
Super Expander .....$ 15 Easy Spell i 17 Home Accountant ...4 49 blue, graphically demonstrating
LOGO I 39 SPREADSHEETS FCM _.J 39 income and outflow.
PILOT ( 39 Cilc Result (109 Tax Advantage S 45
CP/M 2.2 4 59 Calc Result Easy I 65 In the Chips is an entertaining
Intro to BASIC t 17 Multiplan i 75
BMC green screen J 79 game, and it's designed to be
Visible Solar Syitem i 16 Omni Calc i 39
I i:. i r i .1 • i t 18
BMC amber screen 1 89 educational. It cannot be played
WORD PROCESSING BMC composite color...4219
Plnball Spccuculif .( 16
Word Pro 3+ with speller successfully without first under
Suspended ■■ 25
I 69
Gemini 10X with Cardco standing the concepts involved,
Paper Clip i 85
Eajy Calc J 55 interface J329
Script6i t 72 then thoughtfully applying
Easy Finance 1,11,III,IV,V Gemini 15X $389
Mirage Concepts % 79
them. But for anyone old enough
Koala Pad Touch Tablet and interested enough to learn a
General Ledger 35 Delphi'! Oracle ,i 109
Account] Receivable 35 Mirage Concepts i 79
Smart 64 Terminal 1
bit about business, In the Chips is
Accounti Payable 35 PROGRAM GENERATORS
Payroll i 35 The Last One J 72
Micro Pak Paper 1 a painless way to do it.
Dli* File 70 1
Inventory.. $ Cade writer i 65
In the Chips
Creative Software
cwry * nmptau lni< of Quality CommodoK ralitad paoducn including tho* by: TMnawwki. Spinnaker. Epyx. SiarT
IES and Cardco. L..n H not ii.i.,1 .„ probably h.i.i II. It n.i lowait plica pcuibU. SEND FOR OUR CATALOQ 230 East Caribbean Drive
MOST ORDERS SHIH>ED WITHIN 4S noun'.' All pncai inckidi caili tfixouni. VISJWMC ordan »cc*p1ad ■ add HEX
C.O.D. Btdwi add $3.00. r ... qubckaii dalhary land bull check or monty or*F. All t»i»i ara final - dalcclnra matcliin
Sunnyvale, CA 94089
dial axthanttd tot uma prodoci only. Shipping *■'■ > "!'■. :S? ^; -i >-.■-;■ i Ofiha cuiiomwi add SGX ulti 1u. I'r...:, (408) 745-1655
y nLi»_l ID lIi.Ii,.
1309 Boardman-Poland Rd., Poland, OH 44514J $29.95 m
7B COMPUTEI's Gazette April 1984
Tired of playing games?
Learn to program with. . .

For The 64 On your Commodore 64*

Shay Addams BASIC, A TUTORIAL introduces both at and away from the
you to the essential elements of computer. And, each BASIC pro
Most computer war games in programming your Commodore gramming technique is followed
volve moving little units of your 64 in the BASIC language. Every by interactive, short examples
thing from keywords and state for further understanding of the
army around a grid super
ments to data handling and BASIC language in use,
imposed on an onscreen map— printing.. .and so much more!
not the most action-packed way Although a serious program for truly understand and use your
to fight a war. Beach-Head, how those serious about computers, computer to its fullest. Isn't that
ever, puts you right in the thick BASIC, A TUTORIAL makes more challenging than 'just
of things, facing enemy ships learning fun for even the young playing games'!
est computer "whiz" through
and planes head-on. It's a one or For more detailed information
imaginative graphics and hands-
two-player game whose object is and the dealer nearest you,
on programming experience.
write or give us a call.
to win a naval victory, then move Each BASIC lesson is presented
inland to knock out the enemy on the monitor screen and in the
fortress of Kuhn-Lin. There manual for self-paced learning
are six different phases in the 'Commodore. i»d registered trademark ot
PO BOK94B, WalerburyCT 06720
campaign, each presented with Com mod cue Business Mj chine* 203-621-9361

finely detailed and colorful high-

resolution graphics.
As the game begins, you get
an overhead view of your ten-
No Lookin' Around
We know. You've been looking
ship fleet, represented by four
everywhere (or 64 software, INSTA's
white dots floating in the ocean. interactive line of software is just a
On the left, a long stretch of phone call away.
beach reveals a narrow entrance Imagine, specially designed software
to the bay. The fortress can be that "talks" to one another. Your home
budget created with CALC instantly
seen blinking in the lower-left becomes a GRAPH. And your club
corner, and the enemy fleet lies membership list with addresses and
at anchor in the harbor. monthly dues quickly becomes a form
letter, printed over and over again,
Your first decision is strate automatically, for each member.
gic: Steam straight into the har
So. no more lookin' around. INSTA is
bor, or try to sneak up on the here now!
enemy by approaching through
a secret passageway into the
bay, located further up the

Guide The Fleet

Through Mines And INS
Torpedoes INSTA INSTA-VESli By Cimaiion a division
If you steer your fleet into the ISSIA-GOAPH INSTA MUSIC 2156 Hattraway Sliaor
Santa Ana. CA 92705
hidden entrance, another screen
appears to show a wide, round
underground lake strewn with
mines. You must maneuver your
CommodOfu bA is a
ships one by one across the lake Trademark of Commodora

COMPUTE!1* Gazette April 1984 79


and out the exit at the upper-left Attacking The Beach

side of the screen. This isn't as
Sink all the ships, and the over
easy as it sounds, because enemy
head view reappears so you can
torpedoes zip across the lake
steer your fleet to the beach.
erratically. But you'll face fewer
This scene puts you in the
enemy planes in the next phase
driver's seat of a small tank that
by taking this tack.
must weave through a series of
Either way, your ships enter
closely placed walls and mines
the harbor, where the display
while you blast away at gun
changes to a first-person "you-
emplacements. The higher your
are-there" scene: A huge aircraft An enemy fighter is shot down in the
score when you reach this scene,
carrier and four other enemy opening scenes o/Beach-Head.
the more tanks will be lined up
ships are seen at fairly close your ships will be destroyed. A as reserves.
red surveillance plane flies over Once in motion, you can't
Propeller-driven fighters occasionally; if s worth 1000 turn back. The scenery scrolls by
take off from the distant carrier, points. Shoot down enough and there's no way to change
and the droning of their engines enemy planes, and the carrier
your speed. It's a do-or-die situ
gets louder as they approach. tries to escape by sailing off the ation. Make it across the beach
Appearing first as tiny dots on left side of the screen. and you'll face the Kuhn-Lin
the horizon, they quickly grow
into finely detailed planes that Calculating Your fortress and its unerringly accu
rate cannon.
spit machine-gun fire from their Broadsides
It sits atop a big brown hill,
wing tips, then veer off authen This brings up the ship-to-ship where you immediately see a
tically instead of passing over battle. The shrill whistling of small white window. You have
head. The only evidence of your incoming shells alerts you before to put a shot through it. It turns
own weaponry are the tips of a they hit, sending up tall white
black when you hit it, then
pair of barrels whose elevation plumes when they splash in the
and horizontal positioning can
another appears. Ten windows
water. After you fire a shot, sev
be controlled with the joystick.
must be hit in order to demolish
eral seconds elapse before it
the cannon, which slowly aims
smashes into a ship or lands in
Unparalleled down at you while you're
the water. You can't fire another
popping shots at the windows.
Animation shot until the first one lands. At
It never misses; the only way to
The three-dimensional sensation the bottom, a read-out displays
nail it is to rely on a force of sev
achieved in this sea-to-air battle your guns' current elevation.
eral tanks, each of which must
is unparalleled. It's almost like When one of your shells hits, a hit several windows.
being in the middle of a John little range finder tells you how
The sight of the cannon
Wayne movie. Another unusual close you were to hitting the
exploding and a little white flag
effect involves the trajectory of other ship.
waving from the remains of the
your gunfire. The shells don't It might say "10.5 degrees
fort is another visual plus that
blast a straight line to the on long" for instance. Each time the
makes this shoot-em-up one of
coming target, but describe a joystick is pushed forward, the
the best of its kind for the Com
true arc, rising and falling in a guns are elevated half a degree.
modore 64. You can choose from
smooth motion. When an enemy This means you have to do some
four skill levels and save high
plane is hit, the explosion looks quick mental calculations to de
scores to the disk, and the pause
like comic book art rather than termine how much to change
feature is convenient when you
the flashing bursts typical of the guns' elevation on the next
want to call a temporary truce.
most games. shot. Pressure builds while
Each plane that manages to you're trying to subtract 10.5
get past you does a little damage from a current elevation of 77, Access Software
to one of your ships. The current but if s worth it when you see 925 East 900 South
damage is displayed at the bot the enemy ship sink slowly be Salt Lake City, UT 84105
tom of the screen, and when it neath the waves after you score (801)532-1134
reaches a certain level, one of a direct hit. $34.95 V
80 COMPUTE!'* Gazette April! 984
If you want to stay ahead of the personal computing to trade-offs to ultimate success.
Telecomputing with Your IBM. How to link up with dis
...welcometo COMPUTED PC & PCjr! tant computers over ordinary phone lines, access infor
This exciting new magazine from COMPUTE! takes mation services, even do office work at home with your
you inside the PC and the incredible new PCjr to bring own machine!
you inside information you'll find nowhere else. Music and Graphics. How to play songs and create
You'll discover how to get the most computer power sound effects with your PC or PCjr. Programs to gener
for your money Al home. At school. Al work. With easy- ate impressive hi-res graphics and computer animation.
to-run programs. Challenging Your First Hour with an IBM.
projects for advanced users. How to avoid those opening
Brand now sound and graphics From the publishers of COMPUTE! night jitters and get your com
applications. Plus some of the puter up and running fast!
most exciting computer

Financial Analysis. Ready-to-
functions outside of the top-
run programs to help you
secret research labs!
make intelligent investments.
We'll help you decide what
PC vs. PCjr. Which one is right

the magazine
to buy. With independent
for you? COMPUTED PC &
evaluations of hardware,
PCjr helps you decide!
software and peripherals.
PLUS: Programming the func

that takes you

Comprehensive reviews of
tion keys to suit you. Speeding
new products as they're intro
up BASIC without resorting to
duced. Hard-nosed evalua
machine language. Tape, disk,
tions of each machine's

inside the IBM

or hard disk? Buyer's guides.
strengths and weaknesses.
How to take advantage of
free public-domain software.
will keep you on the leading

PC and the PCjr.

Computing activities for the
edge of personal computing
whole family. Reviews. Games.
like no other publication can.
Educational programs for
Here are some of the features
children. And much, much
you can look forward to:
Welcome to the PCjr! A com
Subscribe right now and you
plete introduction to IBM's
newest personal
and a fascinating peek al the
computer, COMPUTED can enjoy special Charter Sub
scriber Savings
PUTERS PC & PCjr-just $24
on COM

8088 microprocessor — the

for the first 12 big issues. That's
tiny-but-talented brain of Jhe
03% off the cover price!
PCjr. I qgqzine

To'start receiving COM

Designing PCjr — The Inside DESIGNING T PUTED PC & PCjr, just mail
Story. PCjr's creators tell how The Insibe Slo the postpaid card in this issue
they designed the new''com
or the coupon below today
puter-from original planning



IJ KNTKMl 1 Payment
mj Chiiritr Subscript
] Bill me
tianluCOVPl'TErs \w\\\\\\uu\m
PC&l'Cjr. Ipayjusl Chart: e
S2I for (he first 12 III! I

issues—ii 33** saving ' 1J BKA I J MasterCard

i)ff the enver priec.
W hilt's more. 1 resent I J American Express
the right (<> mnt'ul ill
any lime for ;i full
pro-rata refund.


P.O. Box 971. r'arminndale, XY117;!7
Lunar Leeper And
Ccmnonball Blitz
Harvey B. Herman, Associate Editor
I trust that I'm not repeating literally sucked into their heads
myself too much when I say that to the accompaniment of appro
the real advantage of owning a priate sound effects.
VIC-20 is that you get a real com What makes the game diffi
The ship has rescued a crew member,
puter which can also play super cult to master is that the speed
but cannot reach the fuel pod.
games. I thought it was a bargain and direction of your ship are
at $300 when it first came out; controlled by the joystick, with fatally large headache."
now at about $70, it is a steal. out benefit of brakes. You must The above blurb (from the
Any disadvantages—a limited keep your eye on an inertia meter package) is descriptive of the
memory and a 22-column screen, or you might be moving too fast game. You want to get up to the
for example—are outweighed by to pick up a man. Furthermore, top, but the Redcoat, kicking
its capabilities. you must keep an eye on your rolling cannonballs at you, has
Recently, I received two fuel gauge so you can refuel be other ideas.
more cartridge games to add to fore your fuel runs out and you The game commences in
our growing collection. My kids, crash. nocuously enough with a
and to a lesser extent the adult This game has features that serenade of "When Johnny
kids (my wife and I), have had we like to see in all games. It Comes Marching Home." Then
a lot of fun with what I have offers a choice of starting levels the balls come rolling down at
dubbed the second generation of and a pause control. You keep you and you don't have much
VIC games. (The first generation moving up in difficulty when time to think. You can jump
was largely pedestrian.) you have rescued all your men over them if you're quick, or you
or shot all the leepers. There is can use falling cannonballs and
Lunar Leeper variety. For example, level two a seesaw to propel up one vertical
"Leepers are cute, is completely different from level level. A balloon helps you ascend
Leepers are sly, one. In level two you find your the final step to the Redcoat'sflag.
It's a game full of dodging self in a cave containing a giant Like other good games, it
to shoot up an eye. eyeball which must be destroyed has a choice of levels. If you man
while you dodge the eyeball age to reach the top and capture
Fly up and fly down
protectors. There is little room the flag, you listen to a victory
Forward and back,
for error in this convoluted maze. song ("This Old Man," for ex
Rescue your men
A good score requires lightning- ample) and move up a level of
before Leepers attack."
fast reflexes and little time for difficulty. Points are scored by
The first two stanzas of the jumping over cannonballs, and
poem on the cartridge box cover Lunar Leeper, which is also at higher levels, by striking can
neatly summarize this fast game. nonballs with a hammer.
available on cartridge or disk for
Your joystick controls a space I found the game very diffi
the Commodore 64, is an excel
ship. Your mission: to score cult and never passed level one.
lent game.
points by bringing men to safety So did my kids at first, but now
on a cliff and destroying an evil Cannonball Blitz one of them claims he has mas
eyeball. "Cannonball Castle, fortress of tered it and can win almost every
Sounds easy, but of course the enemy redcoats, sits high time. Keep that in mind if you
it's not. In level one, you must atop Nutcracker Hill. It is your have expert players who bore
evade one-eyed, froglike crea mission, as a rebel soldier, to easily once they get the knack.
tures (lunar leepers) which are climb Nutcracker Hill and de
Lunar Leeper
jumping at your ship and shoot stroy the castle. Not so fast, Cannonball Blitz
ing at you. They will eat you and though—there are many traps Sierra On-Line Building
your men if you are not careful. and obstacles ... a constant rain Coarsegald, CA 93614
When this happens, you are of cannonballs could cause a (209) 683-6858 $29.95 each 9
B2 COMPUTE!'* Gazette April 1984
"Atari is a trademark ol Atari, Inc. 1 Copyright 1983 BRUIT) ir>c
"Commodore 64 iso trademark of Commodore Business Machines, Inc.

Scrolling 3D graphics, on-line instructions, one or two player cooperative, seven different dungeons, 74
different screens, high score save to disk, full sound and color, zombies, poisonous snakes, giant
spiders, evil orbs, scrolls, talismans, magic spelts, lost crowns and spectacular underground scenery.

A fast action arcade fantasy for

Commodore 64** and Atari* computers Disk and Tape
18779 Kenlake Place N.E. S34.95
Seattle, Washington 98155
By Mike Edwards from BRnm me
(206) 4S6-842S Commodore version by Henry Bolley

Each month, COMPUTEI'b GAZETTE will tackle some PET (Personal Electronic Transactor); came out in
questions commonly asked by new VIC-20/Commodore 1977 and had a version of BASIC known today as
64 users and by people shopping for their first home Original ROM BASIC (so named because the
computer. BASIC was stored in ROM—Read Only Memory).
Later, this BASIC was revised and became known
as Upgrade ROM or BASIC 2.0. The BASIC lan
guage built into the VIC-20 and Commodore 64 is
What is the meaning of the decimal num
essentially BASIC 2.0.
bers in BASIC 2.0, BASIC S.I, etc. ? Do the terms
Improved models of the PET, known as the
"extended BASIC" or "enhanced BASIC" have a
4032, 8032, and SuperPET, have an even better
real, definable meaning? Or are they mostly ad
version called BASIC 4.0. Among other things,
vertising puffery?
this BASIC has more efficient garbage collection
and built-in disk commands. Compare these two
*» ■ In computerese, decimal numbers tacked
procedures for deleting a file off a diskette in disk
onto names of products—usually programs—in
drive 0.
dicate the current version of the product. In other
words, they denote the product's current state of In BASIC 2.0:
revision. A word-processing program named CLOSE 15:OPEN 15,8,15,"SCRATCH0:filename":
WordMangler 2.2 is a more current version than CLOSE 15
WordMangler 1.5. The higher the number, the In BASIC 4.0:
later the revision.
SCRATCH "filename"
As far as I've been able to determine, there
aren't any formal rules governing the use of these What's more, BASIC 4.0 even asks, "Are you
numbers. Logically, you would think that the sure?" before going ahead and scratching the file.
first version of a program would always be labeled That's where the terms "extended BASIC" or
1.0, right? But often new programs appear on the "enhanced BASIC" are applied. In effect, BASIC
market with a postscripted 2.0 or even 3.5. Ap 4.0 is an extended or enhanced version of BASIC
parently the earlier-numbered versions were not 2.0. It's easy to see how extended commands can
fit for public consumption and never made it out make a computer easier to use.
of the programmer's workshop. Unfortunately, there are no absolute, defin
In lieu of formal rules, a few general conven able meanings to the terms "extended" or "en
tions seem to be followed. If a revision is more or hanced" when applied to various BASICs. Pre
less minor—to fix a small bug, for example—the sumably, these terms indicate that the BASIC
number is incremented by only a fraction, such as does indeed have more advanced commands, but
2.0 to 2.1. But if major changes are made—perhaps remember that one computer's extended BASIC
to incorporate significant new features, or adapt may be no better than another computer's stand
the program to another computer—the number is ard BASIC. For example, the extra sound and
moved up a whole notch, such as 2.0 to 3.0. graphics commands found in many extended
The same conventions are followed when BASICs sold for the VIC and 64 are built into the
numbering programming languages such as regular BASICs in some other home computers.
BASIC. (BASIC itself, of course, is just a large To avoid being misled by advertising puffery, ask
program written in machine language.) You've to see a list of the extra commands so you can
probably seen these revision numbers when judge for yourself. If possible, try out the com
writers refer to various versions of Commodore mands before buying the BASIC to see how useful
BASIC. The very first Commodore computer, the they really are. <ffi
84 COMPUTEt's Gazelle April 19B4
From The Creators of
real flight simulator allows you the pilot to accomplish Takeoffs,
Landings, Cross-Country Navigation, and Emergency Procedure prat
under Clear (VFR), Cloudy (IFR), and Cross-Wind conditions. SOLO
FLIGHT is such an advanced simulation that uses realistic three
dimensional terrain graphics, actual configuration instrument panel,
multiple air navigation maps, and accurate aircraft performance
characteristics to provide the challenge, thrill, excitement, and joy of the
^experience/" '^^^^^fc
Three-Dimensional Takeoffs

Terrain Graphics

f Cross-Country
Multiple Airports Navigation — Day,
and Runways

Dual Radio Naviga

tion Instruments
■ ■ Emergency

• Air Mail Delivery

Game for 1-4 Players
• Full Feature, Actual
• Smooth Landing &
Instrument Panel
Good Navigation

Multiple Air For All Atari and

Navigation Charts Commodore 64
computers, disk or
cassette . . . $34.95

Instrument Coming Soon for

Approaches IBM-PC


Look for MicroProse's two new exciting real time combat simulations — MIG ALLEV ACE & NATO COMMANDER.
Write or call for our Free Catalog.

If you cannol find our games at your local store, you can order by MasterCard or VISA, Money Order,
COD or Check. Add $2.50 lor Postage and Handling. Maryland Residents add 5% Sales Tax.

A7;*ra 10616 Beaver Dam Road' Hunt


A question I am often asked is how to convert pro
grams for one computer to versions for another.
Although published program listings for the VIC
and 64 were at first sparse, they aren't anymore.
The need for conversion is less important. However,
you sometimes find a program written for another
computer that you wish you had for yours.
Conversion isn't that difficult. The main BASIC
commands are the same for most all microcom
puters, and the logic is the same. The major differ
ences in the programming commands for micro
computers are the sound and graphics commands.
Each brand of computer requires a special method
of programming sound and graphics. I have found
it easier not to strictly convert these commands, but
to rewrite sound and graphics for each particular
computer. The goal is to find the matching pairs in "Match-Em," for
I have had quite a few requests to convert the VIC and H.
"Match-Em," originally published for the TI-99/4A
in the April 1983 issue of COMPUTE!. Here it is for
the VIC and the 64. will be shown. After each game you have the op
tion of trying again. If you press Y for yes, the
How To Play Match-Em shapes are scrambled in a different order, and the
Match-Em is a simple matching game designed score is reset to zero. If you press N for no, the
for young children. The screen displays 16 program ends.
squares, each with a different letter. Press the Feel free to change the graphics. I used some
letters on two of the squares to try to match the shapes made up from the graphic shapes on the
shapes hidden behind those letters. If you suc fronts of the keys. You can get fancy and create
cessfully "match-'em," the shape will be drawn sprites on the 64 if you wish. And you can make
at the bottom of the screen, and you will not be up different designs or even animals to match.
able to use those squares again. If you choose a The principles of a matching game are the
square which has previously been matched, in basis for many educational games. You can use
stead of a shape you will see rows of X marks. the same general logic to develop matching games
There are eight pairs of shapes to try to match. for a variety of subjects. For example, instead of
The game is over when all eight pairs have been shapes you could match a capital letter with a
discovered. The object is to score as low as pos lowercase letter. Try matching a picture with its
sible—you get one point for each guess. beginning letter. Match parts of compound words,
If you wish to stop the game at any time, or perhaps homonyms, antonyms, or synonyms.
press Q to quit. The placement of all the shapes In geography, match states and capitals or,
86 COMPUTE!'! Gazelle April 1984
Food for Thought
Real computing at appetizing prices.
64 PAK" A sell-leaching sampler
packageof 10 menu-driven programs
Inventory 64.'" An easy-to-use Ideal as an introduction tocompuiing.
menu-driven program that lets you Or compute your life expectancy,
track complete and complex invento your mortgage payments, even learn
ries. Pinpoint locations, vendors, the language oi the deaf, plus a lot
units ot measure. Update prices, re more. Only $19.95*. on tape;
orders, sales, entire stocks. A power $24.95: on disk.
ful tool lor your home computer at
only $29.95' on disk.

PractiFile," A fully professional file

manager for your Commodore.
PractiFile can handle mailing lisl
enlries by the thousands. You can Total Health.'" The fun way to keep
change records, numbers, methods PraetlCalc" 64. The most powerful lit. Stay on top of your daily intake
ol filing, and a greal deal more. Plus, spreadsheet available tor a home and outgo of calories, Balance your
it's easy to use. Only $54 95", on disk computer-at the least cost. Track daily diet and graph your progress-
investments, inventories, expenses. all tailor-made to your body, past,
Project profits. Make charls. Keep present, and future. It's like having a
mailing lists. Sort alphabetically or health spa in your home for only
numerically, instantly. An incredible $24.95: on tape; $29.95*on disk.
value at $49.95'. tape; $54 95: disk.

Now you can do real, honest-to-goodness computing at computer-game prices. Computer Software
Associates brings you hard-working software that makes your work easy. (While it's easy on your budget.)
All programs are easy to work with right on the screen, from self-teaching instant software that tracks your
vital statistics to potent programs to track inventories and profits. ^^ CTYMPTITFl?
Of course, if it's games you want, we've got them too. But if you're look- wS eAwM*«r» typ
ing for home computer power with real brainpower, look no more. Now ^E» SOFTWARE
you can play for keeps. ^^ ASSOCIATES, INC.
Exclusively distributed by Micro Software International. Inc. • The Silk Mill, 44 Oak St., Newton Upper Falls. MA 02164 • (617) 527-7510
Trices are suggested retail; aclual retail prices may vary. ©19B4CompuleiSollware Associates, Inc CommodoiG W, trademark ol Commodore Business Machines. Inc.
perhaps, rivers with countries or countries with torn of the screen when it is correctly matched.
continents. In history, match a date with a histor Line 340 POKEs color onto the screen where the
ical event. In mathematics, match a problem with score will be printed.
its answer. Line 350 prints the message to press two let
ters. Lines 360-370 increment and print the score
at the bottom right corner of the screen. Lines
How The VIC And 64 Versions 380-390 create a beep to indicate to the player that
Work it is time to press two letters.
I first wrote the 64 version of this game, then com Line 400 scans the keyboard to see which
bined lines and changed the graphics and sound letter the player presses. If no key is pressed, the
commands for the VIC version. To aid my program POKE statements blink the dash for the letter on
explanation, I kept the VIC line numbers consist the screen. Lines 410-420 make sure that the letter
ent with the 64 version. pressed is between A and Q and that all other
Line 1 defines the border and screen color keys pressed are ignored. The letter pressed is
combination, clears the screen, and defines the printed on the screen, replacing the dash. Rl is
printing color. the first letter pressed, and R2 is the second letter.
Line 10, a DIMension statement, is used to Line 430 has the computer branch if the letter Q
reserve array space for 16 elements each in A, B, has been pressed.
C, and P. A and B keep track of the eight shape Lines 440—470 print the shape corresponding
numbers. C is the color number for a particular to the square chosen. If the square has previously
square on the screen. P is a position number used been matched, A will be zero and X marks will be
in drawing the graphics for a particular square. printed instead of a shape. In line 470 the ON-
Lines 20-80 print the title screen and instruc GOSUB branches to the appropriate subroutine
tions. Line 90 reads the values for the position to draw the particular shape. GOSUB 780 colors
and color of each square from the data in lines the shape.
100-130. In line 140, CC is defined as a number Line 480 sets the position for the second dash,
that relates the screen memory map with the color then line 490 blinks the dash while waiting for the
memory map. A$ and B$ are used to print the 16 second letter to be pressed. Lines 500-570 are
red and blue squares. similar to lines 410-170, which print the shape of
Lines 150-160 turn on the sound and define the second letter chosen.
variables used to play sounds—a beep to signal Lines 580-640 play the "uh-oh" sound if a
the player's turn to press two letters, an "uh-oh" match is not made. Lines 650-680 play an arpeggio
sound for no match, and an arpeggio for a correct if a match is made. Lines 690-700 print the shape
match. at the bottom of the screen, then line 710 sets the
Lines 170-180 wait for the player to press the A elements to zero so they cannot be matched
fl key to start the game. To type this line, press the again. Line 720 branches if all eight shapes have
fl key between the quotes in line 180. You may been matched and the game is over.
choose a different key to be pressed if you prefer. If the game is not over, line 730 waits until
Line 190 clears the screen, and in the 64 ver the player presses the space bar to continue
sion line 200 changes the screen to white. Lines playing. Then lines 740-760 "cover" the squares
210-230 print the red and blue squares on the and replace the previous letters with dashes so
screen. Line 240 prints the letters on the squares, line 770 can branch back to the beginning of the
then line 250 prints the Q option. choosing procedure.
Lines 260-300 are my way of arranging the Lines 780-800 contain a subroutine to color
shapes. Each of the shapes is numbered from 1 to the shape after it has been drawn. A subroutine
8. The B array can be considered a screen with the in lines 810-840 replaces the shape on the screen
shapes in order (1-2-3-4-5-6-7-8-1-2-3-4-5-6-7-8). with its original red or blue square and cor
The A array is formed by choosing one of the B responding letter. Lines 850-1070 contain the
elements randomly. After a B element has been subroutines to draw the eight shapes.
chosen, it isjj^to zero so it cannot be chosen Lines 1080-1100 contain the procedure if a
again. Line MMhen redefines (he B array to be player has correctly matched all eight shapes. The
the same as trry A array. If the player presses Q or message to press two letters is cleared, then some
ends the game, the B array is used to see the orig random tones sound to signal the end of the game.
inal position of all the shapes. If a player presses Q or if the player has
Lines 310-330 define random colors for the matched all eight shapes, lines 1110-1130 show
shapes, making sure the shape color is not white, all the shapes for the 16 positions on the screen.
red, or blue. The score (SC) and number of correct Lines 1140-1170 print the option to try again, and
shapes (S) are initialized to zero. S is used to de the program branches appropriately.
termine the position to print the shape at the bot- See program listings on page 140. 9
88 COMPUm's Gazette April 1984
± i
RS232 Adapter
for Commodore 64
Jameco's 10th Anniversary 1984 Catalog is Now Available

Tha JE232CM allows connection ol JE520 Series

standard RS232 printers, moderns,
etc to your C-64 A 4-pole swilch
allows the inversion of the 4 control
lines Complete Installation and oper-
njlon Instructions included
■ Plugs into Uur Rjrt - Provides Stan
dard nS232 Signal levels -Uses G
aignalj (Trenamil. Receive, Clear to Add speech capability to your Apple II, II+,
Send. Requeal to Send, Data Terminal Commodore 64 or V1C-20 computer with JAMECO's CMJ5P-10-P J 101 1549
Ready, Data Set Ready).
JE520 Series Voice Synthesizer. Speech — the most C06!5fa-S L * 1119

JE232CM S39.95 effective means of communication available to man

C0G2SMK L 101 1549

for Commodore 64
— is now immediately available for your computer.

GAME PADDLES Application!

■ Education ■ Enterialnmeni - Instrumentality
■Games ■ Telecomrruimcatlcns -Handicap Aids

JE520 Features
1 More Ifian 260 basic words, prefixes and suffixes, which allow "Centronics" Type
I he larmatirjn of well Over 500 lolal words.
- Allows music graphics and speech simultaneously Pm Hi Writ im# Price
- Programs in BASIC and/or assembler
- Wiry understandable and realistic mate voice CEN36W5W J 6' J1935
■ BuiJT-iii amplifier, speaker, volume control and j is
audio jack HN36U-5-F L S' 7l1h
■Pug-In user-roady waft complete documentation IIIBW-IW L 1i' M95
and samplH software

The JE 520 will plug right into your cam outer anct be
talking in minutes Ll produces a very clear. ' IBM PC Parallel Printer
natural male voice. Trig aufstand ing speech
quality ia produced using National Semi
Adapter Type
conductor's Dig ltelkerTrFI smech processor PBZ5 Mill u Cnmnia Haht|
\C with A custom momorv chips
JSD Atari
Driver (Single) $2.95
Coming soon:
JSP Atari
taCobulBn E>punslon to
Paddle (Double).... £2.95 over 1000 words.
Slyli J Male
CSP Commodore Style L Male lo Fcimls
Paddles S4.95
JE520CM For Commodore
slock ovs 2X Meieni cablss II iuu don'l
*> VIC23 £ C-C4) JE520AP For Apple see nrfiar vow need, place call

5Va" Diskettes 80-Column plus 64K RAM f Numeric/Auxiliary
SSDD ■ Singji S.|]«I Doub'g Ow l.ily
DSDD I D „!-, ■ SHJ*d Ooublo De lor your APPLE We* Keypad for your
tan No. fln.,..|

UMSMOi SSOD wllh Hul> Aing 10 S24 95

UMS2401 DSDO with HuD Ring 10 32.35


SK1D SSDD with Hub nino 10

EKJD DSDD wllh Hull Ulna 10 26 05
AN <)iskel»? oro aofr-ioclorad and naun hub rings Bull-
tlrlcOB avDLlabie en riftiucBI.

Rv: Apple II. 114 and III}'

The JESid ib a newly Introduced
Commodore IK VIC-20 numeric/auxiliary keypad lor the
IBM PC. PC Jr . APPLE tie' It oflors Iho flexibility of a
Now you can noun la me memory capacity and set
10-kay pad and the convenience of
an 80-colurnn display format lor your APPLE Jfe"
23 directly accessible lunotions
computer at an arToidaOle price Just plug Ifte
Screen rnampulaling, functions make
JEBG4 card inlo your APPLE" and expand your dis
nfer - US. Funds Only Send SI. 00 Postage for your word processing a snap and cursor
Cliff. RtsidmU Alld 6";". Sales Ta. FREE f 9S< JAMBCO CAOHOG play Ifl BO characters pe* line F^flect for Atjrd
controls make Ihe keypad Jdaal fur
Shipping -Add ii--. plus SI.50 Ins. Prices SuOJecl to Change Drocessmg Tha JE&64 also features 6iK tiylosof
VisiCalc" users The JE6U Keypad
S»nriS .1 .'■ 1. (-.■' '.(...-( :-/L- i',■! ;-■',■' Will Call Service 9AM la 5PM additional mornory to iiMaw progrjimming rot poa-
is housed m a durable moral enclo
sure and ha calm-coordinated wilh
ilocumoritfllion In eluded1
f A >
your APPLE Hq computer Operation
MdliwCrjirJ VISA Board: High density board: duslgn aqucores 64K
□I tho kuy[>iid can begin within
mmuEDS ironi unpacking Special
ELECTRONICS byieaol RAM onto a 2V k 4'an Hourd ■ Fully levied
functions Include. Homo, Clear,
ro assure proper o porn don
Dear to End ol Screen, Scroll-Up,
1355 SHOREWAY ROAD Scroll-Down, Tab, DaFoto, Lett, Right,
Uses: Word nrocusslng - jJIspfays 1000 more
BELMONT, CALIFORNIA 94002 Up and Down. Each key has auto-
characters pur acroen ■ Ex\<tt mymory allows run-
rajwa! Srzo1 SH'Lx J-3/16"V
Phone Orders Welcome (415) 592-8097 ning of extremely largo programs- Ultra
to 2VS1cpu
lullon Graphios cnpnluJJiy
3/84 Telex No. 176043
JE864 JE614 .. $89.95,
Dealer InqulrlM Invited. For Technical InrOtmollon.cill |415) 595-399^

"APPLE and APPLE lie are reflisleretl IradBrriarks of APPLE Ccmpuieis

'WilCalc Is a registered trademark alVisi Cora Inc.
Little Known
BASIC Commands
Todd Heimarck, Assistant Editor

You probably know how to use BASIC com THEN. To put the results on the screen, PRINT.
mands like PRINT and INPUT. But how many Now let's expand our vocabulary a bit with
of yourprograms contain WAIT, ATN, or some of the little known commands.
LOG? These and other seldom used Commo
dore BASIC commands can help you do more ABS (ABSolute value)
with the programs you write. ABS determines the absolute value of a number.
It leaves positive numbers alone and changes
negative numbers to positive. It may sound rather
When you're speaking or writing, you can choose useless, chopping off minus signs, but there are
from a smorgasbord of about 175,000 English some interesting things you can do with it.
words, not counting proper names. Some have The most obvious application of ABS is in
been around hundreds of years and are rarely financial calculations. When you want to make
used anymore; when was the last time you said sure that no negative numbers appear in a pro
"yclept" or "soothly"? Others are narrowly de gram, you simply ABS them. Another application
fined technical terms, used primarily within a would be a checkbook register which lists all de
trade or profession. posits and checks. Perhaps your program auto
As diverse as our language is, there are a few matically uses negative numbers for checks, but
words that do most of the work. Linguists estimate you want to print the list without minuses all over
that if you know just 3,000 English words, you the screen.
are able to understand over 80 percent of what ABS can be used to avoid crashes in programs
you read or hear. using SQR (square root) or LOG (logarithm).
These mathematical functions and others will
Expanding Your BASIC accept only positive numbers; numbers less than
Vocabulary zero will cause an error message.
Commodore BASIC is much more limited than ABS can also be used in a toggle routine. Let's
English or any other natural language. For one say you want a variable to switch back and forth
thing, it contains only about 70 words. And there between two different values. You could use the
are strict rules of syntax about how you can use following subroutine:
them. BASIC is not a language for poets. 1 T=3
But BASIC is similar to English in that there 499 REM TOGGLE SUBROUTINE
are a few workhorse words, common commands 500 IF T=3 THEN T=16i RETURN
510 IF T=16 THEN T=3: RETURN
that are used time and again.
To get information into the computer, you Each time you want to toggle, you GOSUB
need INPUT, GET, and READ-DATA. To perform 500. As you can see, T switches back and forth
loops and make decisions, FOR-NEXT and IF- between 3 and 16. But the following routine will
90 COMPUTED Gazelle April 1984
Five Easy Ways
To Clean Up Your Finances.

aciual jcresn display 'JnOlciles function r»lng

Chart of Accounts 'Detail Sudgel Analysis Appointments Calendar 'Spreadsheet 'Income Tax
'Checkbook Maintenance Summary Budget Payments Calendar Compatible with Prints forms.
Chech Search Analysis 'Color Chart Package Finance 1, 2 and S Most schedules
Prints Checks Income/Expense Mailing List Uses Finance 1, 2 and 4
Net Worth Statement

^Complete Personal Accountant

Whether you're cleaning up at home or around the of polntmenls and Payments Calendars lor scheduling your time and money.
fice, there's NOW a COMPLETE line of money manage Few packages ofler Ihe ability to chart each account In color. And only the
CPA includes a mailing list with a 1200 name capacity*. All reporia are print'
ment software that will attend to all the details, while able with an BO column printer.
letting you see the whole financial picture. The Com FINANCE 4 lets you determine the "what ll's" of your financial future. With
plete Personal Accountant's exclusive combination of this easy to learn spreadsheet you'll Bpend more time making decisions and
less time crunching numbers.
easy to use programs give the wise Investor a quick and
dependable way to control finances and plan for the FINANCE 5, The Tax Handler™, uses your liles Irom Finance 1, Z and 4 lo com
plete your taxes In a fraction of the normal time.
The Complete Personal Accountant" Una of money manage
ment soltware is simply Ihe most comprehensive, easy to
FINANCE 1 gels you organized wilh a standard chart of use financial software available anywhere.
accounts adaptable lo any situation. The Checkbook
Maintenance program wilh full screen editing and special
'Help' commands let you find any check by any Held.
Dlik Caiaaiia
You can flag tax deductlbles, reconcile your bank
Fin me* 1 36.95 34.9S
statement, print checks and more. Finance 2 29.95 24.95
Flnanca 3 29.55 24.95
FINANCE 2 tells you where your money is, Flnanca 4 29.95 24.95
where it's going and where It's coming Flnanc* 5 59.95 54.95
from. The Detail and Summary Budget pro SAVE when you
iiun;M.i'.r> Flnanca 1. 2
grams show exactly where you're spending
and 3 ■■ • id 79.95 74.95
your money. The IncomefExpanse and Net
Available for AUrl 400/800/1200". Commodore ft*1",
Worth programs provide professional- IBM PC'l TRS BO Color- and Vic 20"
looking statements that can be printed
PHch ikibjsct lo changa wilhoul no!Ice, Add ¥3.00
with any BO column printer. tor pottige And handling.

FINANCE 3 separates Ihe CPA from (ha Aih your local dealer to aee ,: running domo or call
i .,.iu,hi.^i tu order c
competition. No other llnance package lor
"Vet lea according to computer.
the home or small business gives you Ap
> -
a division of
p.o. box 3470, department eg, chapel hill, north Carolina 27514
Commodore 64
(mars power than Appl.) II it hall 1M prica)
(a real computer at the price of a toy)

$99 50*
S69. 50


You pay only 1199.50 when you ordar the power This 25K vtC-M computer includes a full sizs 60
ful 84K COMMODORE 64 COMPUTERI LESS m- key typewriter keyboard color ana grapnlcs ksys.
upper/lower case, full screen editor. 16K level II
pack with your computsr mat allows you lo wllh eveiy COMMODORE 64 COMPUTER- microsoft basich sound and music, real time
SAVE OVER S100 off software sale prices!! Wltn DISK DRIVE-PRINTER-MONITOR w» sail! floating point decimal, self teaching book, con
only StOO of savings applied, your net computer
coslli 199.50!!
This coupon allows you lo SAVE OVEfll nects toanyTV ormonitor!

S100 OFF SALE PRICES! S200-J300 sav-

SOFTWARE BONUS PACK J29.95 | Ingta.o possible!! (exarnp|B) 40-BO COLUMN BOARD S59.00
When you buy the Commodore 64 Computer Now you can gel 40 OR 80 COLUMNS on your
from Protacto Enterprises ,oi. quality lo pur T.V. or monitor at one time! No more running
chase ONE SOFTWARE BONUS PACK lor a out of line space for programming and making
special price ol J29.95II Normal price Is S49.95 columns! Just pluQ in this Expansion Board and
(40 programs on disk or24 programs on 5 lapes). COMMODORE 64 you immediately convert your VIC ?u computer
Name Lltl Sal< Cpupw to 40 OR SO COLUMNS!! Lisl 1129. SALE 159.00.
*170K DISK DRIVE J 159.00 Executive Word Vou can also get an 60 COLUMN BOARD WORD
Processor 19900 J69 00 159 00
You pay only 1259.00 when you order Ihe 17OK Executive Data Base M900 '.',■! MS 00
PROCESSOR with mail merge, terminal emulat
Disk Drivel LESS the value of the SPECIAL 20.000 Wo'd Dictionary J19B5 11195 or. ELECTRONIC SPREAD SHEET!! List S59.00.
SOFTWARE COUPON we pack with your disk Electronic Spreadsheet IS9 00 S1 '■■' K6O0 SALE 124.15 If purcriassd with 80 COLUMN
Accounting Picli »900 SON 132 00
drive thai allows you to SAVE OVER *100 Off BOARD! (Tape or Disk).
software sals prices!! Wlih only SiCO of savings Word Processor
applied, your net disk drive cost Is Si 59.00. Tip. JB9 0O JWOO 137 00
Disk $7994 (63 00 142 00
* TRACTION FRICTION PRINTERS1W.00 TolaTTmlU This cartridge increases programming power
You pay only 1209.00 when you Order the Corn-
Word Processor over S ilmei1! Expands total memory to 57K
Tap* JM95 139 00 ITS 00
Star T/F deluxe line printer that prints B 1/2 i 11 157.000 bytes) Block switches are on outside of
Disk M900 U2 00 129 00
cover! Has eipanslon port!! Lists for S199 (OUR
full size, single sheet, roll or fan fold paper, Total Labil2J
labels ale. 40, 66. B0, 132 columns. Impact dot Tap* Si 195 tiara 11200 BEST BUY!)
matrix, bi-directional, SO CPS. LESS the value of DIM 12995 123 00 115 00
the SPECIAL SOFTWARE COUPON we pack Helper (OuK) IMW 139 00 129 95 f.OK MEMORY EXPANDER$49.00
with your printer that allows you to SAVE OVER Bisic Tutor (Tarja/Diafcl t?9 95 124 95 11500 Sixslot — Switch aelectabis — Roset button —
$100 ott software Sale prices!! With only S100 of Taping TH0hH
Ribbon cable — CARDCO. A must to got the
savings applied your net printer cost Is only fTapv/Dlihl 179 95 12193 11500
Sprite Designer [DisKf 116 95 11195 (10 00
most ogt ol your VIC-20 Computorl
J109.00. Medicinemen (Tape) 119 95 (1795 112 00
■.■•<■ j: ■•>*.'.ir ii i I 1(,,.i J19 95 117 9S 112.00
80 COLUMN BOARD S99.00 Professional Joy Slick S.155 115 95 JltOO 8K RAM CARTRIDGE (39.00 Pan »9.95 119 95 HE 95
Now you program B0 COLUMNS On the screen Increases programming power 2 1/2 times. Ex
DuscCorer I 8.95 S 695 1 * 60
at one time! Converts your Commodore SA to B0 pands total memory to 33K |33,000 bytsa).
ISeeoine' i terns mow cawog'l
COLUMNS when you plug In the BO COLUMN Memory block switches are on ouislde ol cover!
EXPANSION BOARD!! List S1995ALE SBB Includes FREE S16 95 gam«,
WORD PROCESSOR with mail merge, lerminal
Increases programming power * times. Expands
S59.00 SALE SI4.B5 II purchased with 80
lotal memory to *1K (41.000 bytes). Memory
COLUMN BOARD!! (Tapeor Disk)
Block switcfies are an outside cover! CARDCO
80 COLUMNS IN COLOR EXECUTIVE QUALITY Includes FREE S29.95 adventure game!!
lineal available for the COMMODORE 6* com 12' GREEN SCREEN MONITORSW.00
The Cadillac ol business programs
puter! The ULTIMATE for PROFESSIONAL Word- Excellent quality GREEN PHOSPHOROUS
processing application! DISPLAYS 40 OR B0
(or Commodore 64 Computers VIDEO MONITOR with antiglare. 1920 characters
COLUMNS IN COLOR or Slack and White! Sim Men Llil 'SALE (B0 characters I 2* rows), Save your TV! a must
Inventory Management 199 00 159 00 lor 80 column worfl processors. PLUS J9.95 for
ple to operate, powerful text editing with a 250
AccqunlsP.ecei.ablo J99.00 15900
WOflD DICTIONARY, complete cursor and In VIC 20 or Commodore 6* Cable.
Ace ou n I s Paya Die 19900 (5900
sert/delete key controls line and paragraph inser
Payroll (99.00 S59 00
tion, automatic deletion, centering, margin set ii .i Lfiljtsr S99D0 (5900
tings and output to all printers! Includes a I'COUPON PRICE 149.00) 12' AMBER SCREEN MONITOR J119.00
powerful mall merge. List $99.00 SALE 169.00. Premium quality AMBER VIDEO MONITOR With
20.000 WORD DICTIONARY List 124.95 SALE antiglare, (80 characters < 24 rows), exceptional
S19B5 EXECUTIVE DATA BASE - List S89.00 ly clear screen, taster scanning. PLUS 19.95 lor
SALE JS9.00. (Dlak only). VIC 20 or Commodore 6* Cable



| Add 110.00 for shipping, handling and Insurance. Illinois residents

j please add 6% tan. Add 120.00 for CANADA, PUERTO RIOO. HAWAII
| Enclose Cashiers Chech, Money Order or Personal Chock. Allow 14 days
> for delivery, 2 to 7 daya lor phone orders, 1 day nioroar nail! Canada

j orders must bain U.S. dollars, visa — MASTERCARD ~UD BOX 550, HARRINGTON, ILLINOIS 60010
Phone 312/382-5244 to ord«r
149 00


75 Day Free Trial - 180 Day Immediate Repiacement Warranty

Bi-directional, dot matrix, prints 87i" letter size paper, full 80 columns, high
resolution graphics, dot bit addressable, special symbols and true decenders!
(Centronics parallel interface)


Bi-directional, dot matrix, impact, prints single sheets, continuous feed paper,
adjustable columns, 40 to 132 characters! Roll paper adapter $32.95.
Centronics paratlel interface)

Bi-directional, impact, 9x9 dot matrix with double strike for 18 x 18 dot matrix.
High resolution bit Image (120 x 144 dot matrix) underlining back spacing, left and
right margin settings, true lower decenders, with super and sub scripts. Prints
standard, italic, block graphics, special characters, plus 24 of user definable
characters and much more!! Prints single sheets, continuous feed and roll paper!
(Centronics parallel interface)


Has all the features of the Premium Quality 10" Carriage T/F Printer above plus a
15'A" carriage and more powerful electronic components to handle large business
forms! (Centronics parallel interface)


10" PRINTER — 160 CPS $699 $499
Save printing time with these plus features: 160 CPS speed, 100% duty cycle, 8K
buffer diverse character fonts special symbols and true decenders, vertical and
horizontal tabs. This is Red Hot Efficiency!!! (Serial or Centronics parallel interface)
T/F 15V PRINTER — 160 CPS $799 $599
Has all the features of the 10" Carriage high speed printer plus a 15Vi" carriage and
more powerful electronics to handle larger business forms! (Serial or Centronics
parallel interface)


• For VIC-20 and COMMODORE 64 $49.00
• For all APPLE COMPUTERS $69.00
- For ATARI 400 and 800 COMPUTERS $79.00
NOTE: Other printer interlaces are available at computer stores!


Enclose Cashiers Check, Money Order or Personal Check. Allow
14 days lor delivery. 2 io 7 days for phone orders. 1 day express
mail! Canada orders must be in U.S. dollars We accept Visa

and MasterCard We ship COD BOX 550, BARRINGTON, ILLINOIS 60010

Phone 312/382-5244 to ordnr
80 Columns x 24 lines
Green text display
East to read - no eye strain

$7900 Up front brightness control

High resolution graphics
Quick start - no preheating
Regulated power supply
Attractive metal cabinet
UL and FCC approved
9" Data Monitor

• 75 Day Free Trial • 90 Day Immediate Replacement Warranty

9" Screen - Green Text Display $ 79.00

12" Screen-Green Text Display (anti-reflective screen) $ 99.00
12" Screen - Amber Text Display (anti-reflective screen) $119.00
14" Screen - Color Monitor (national brand) $249.00

Display Monitors From Sanyo

With the need for computing power growing every day, Sanyo has
stepped in to meet the demand with a whole new line of low cost, high
quality data monitors. Designed for commercial and personal com Official Video Products
puter use. All models come with an array of features, including up- of the Los Angetes 1934 Olympics
front brightness and contrast controls. The capacity 5x7 dot
characters as the input is 24 lines of characters with up to
80 characters per line.
Equally important, all are built with Sanyo's commitment
to technological excellence. In the world of Audio/Video, Sanyo Is
synonymous with reliability and performance. And Sanyo quality Is
reflected In our reputation. Unlike some suppliers, Sanyo designs,
manufactures and tests virtually all the parts that go into our products,
from cameras to stereos. That's an assurance not everybody can
give you!


Add 31000 tor shipping, handling md Illinois

plots* add 6% tax. Add 120.00 lor CANADA, PUERTO RICO, HAWAII

Enclose Cashiers Check, Money Order or Personal Check. Allow 14 ENTERPRIZES (we ioveoun cusroMiflSi

days lor delivery, 2 to 7 days lor phone orders. 1 day express malll
Canada orders mutt be In U.S. dollars. Visa - MasterCard - C.O.D.
Phono 312/382-5244 to ord.r
VIC 20


Now you can get 40 or 80 Columns on your T.V. or monitor at one time! No
more running out of line space for programming and making columns. Just
plug in this board and you immediately convert yur VIC-20 computer to 40 or
80 columns! Comes in an attractive molded case with instructions! List
$129.00. Sale $59.00.

FOR ONLY $24.95 you can get a 40-80 Column Board "WORD PROCESSOR" with mail merge
and terminal emulator PLUS! AN ELECTRONIC SPREAD SHEET (like Visicalc) the word
processor requires 8K—mail merge 16K! List $59.00. Sale $39.90. *lf purchased with board
only $24.95. (Tape or Disk.)




Now you can program 80 columns on the screen
at one time! Converts your Commodore 64 to 80
coilumns when you plug in the PROTECTO 80
Expansion Board List S199. Sale $99.00

FOR ONLY $24.95 you can get an 80 Column Board "WORD PROCESSOR" with mail merge and
terminal emulator PLUS! AN ELECTRONIC SPREAD SHEET (like Visicalc) List $59.00. Sale $39.90.
•If purchased with board only $24.95. {Tape or Disk.)

AdO S3,00tor postage. Add (6.00 lor CANADA. PUERTO RICO. HAWAII
Enclose Cashiers Check. Money Order o( Personal Cneck Allow ;*
days for delivery. 2 To 7 days lor phone orders. 1 flay express mail1 ENTERPRIZES (WE LOVE OURCUStOMjnS)

Canada orders must Be in U S .dollars We accepi Visa and

Card WeshipC.O.D.
Phona 312/382-5244 to ordar
do the same thing with just one line: WAIT
1 T=3 Like POS, WAIT is seldom needed in BASIC pro
grams. To understand how it works, think of it as
500 T=ABS{T-19)s RETURN
WAIT-UNTIL. For example, you WAIT to cross
Line 500 does it all. If T is 3, 3 minus 19 is the street UNTIL the light is green. WAIT stops
-16, and the ABS chops off the minus sign. But if program execution UNTIL a memory location
T is 16, subtracting 19 yields -3, and the minus contains a certain number. When the location
sign is chopped off.
contains the proper value, program execution
POS (Position of cursor)
WAIT statements use the form WAIT /, ml,
To understand how the POS(X) command works,
ml. L is the memory location to be checked. Ml is
you should recall that you are limited to 88 char
mask one; m2 is mask two (which is optional).
acters per program line on the VIC-20 (80 charac The computer PEEKs memory location /, exclusive-
ters on the 64). However, a full program line won't
ORs the value with ml and ANDs it with Mil.(For
fit on one line of the screen. A line on the VIC's
further information on masks and the logical op
screen is only 22 characters wide, and a screen
erations AND and exclusive-OR, see "The Inner
line on the 64 takes only 40 characters. So, a full
World Of Computers, Part 2: Why Computers
program line can fill up to four screen lines on the
Are Logical" in the December 1983 GAZETTE, or
VIC and two screen lines on the 64.
Machine Language for Beginners, COMPUTE!
A program line stored in memory is called a
logical screen line. This logical line is displayed on
WAIT is rarely used because memory loca
your TV or monitor in one or more physical screen
tions don't change arbitrarily. Since memory is
lines. The POS(X) command tells you the position
used for storage, you expect memory to hold onto
of the cursor within the logical screen line. On the
its contents. If a number in RAM changes, there
VIC, the position number ranges from 0 to 87,
has to be a good reason.
and on a 64, it ranges from 0 to 79.
Certain peripherals use memory locations as
Whenever you press RETURN, the cursor
buffers and registers. Thus, WAIT is usually used
position pointer is set to position 0 (the first posi
in input/output operations. You might want your
tion), and the cursor moves to the beginning of a
program to pause until a signal comes over the
new physical screen line. Every time you type a
phone line to your modem, for example. You
character, the position pointer increases by one
would use WAIT to check a buffer or input register
and the cursor moves one position to the right on
when the signal comes in, the register changes,
the screen. On the VIC, when you type in the
and the program continues.
twenty-third character, the cursor moves to the
Datassette users can protect graphics displays
beginning of the next physical screen line, but the
with a WAIT statement.
pointer increments to position 22, in the logical
Let's say you write a program which uses
screen line. (This occurs with the forty-first char
data stored on a tape, but it does not read the
acter on the 64; the pointer would contain a 40.)
data until halfway through the program. You
The pointer continues to increase until you type
know that when the program sees OPEN it will
the maximum allowable number of characters, or
print PRESS PLAY ON TAPE in the middle of the
you type a RETURN.
screen. You may have a nice graphic display (or a
The POS function is little used, for good
high-resolution screen) that you don't want ruined
reason. When was the last time you asked your
by the prompt.
self, "I wonder where the cursor is?"
A WAIT can test to see if a button has been
But there is a way you can use POS. When
pressed on the tape player:
the 64 PRINTS a line longer than 40 characters (22
characters on the VIC), it wraps around to the WAIT 1,16,16 (64 version)
next line. Words are often split haphazardly, WAIT 37151,64,64 (VIC version)

making text hard to read. If you put this line in just before you OPEN
To avoid splitting words, you can use POS(X) the data file, the program will wait until a button
to check the cursor position and LEN(N$) to check is pressed on the tape drive. It will not print PRESS
the length of the next word to be printed. If posi PLAY ON TAPE. When the play button is pressed,
tion + length exceeds the character limit of the a bit is switched in memory. Your computer stops
physical screen line, PRINT CHR$(13) to reset the waiting and opens the file for input. But, alas,
position pointer to 0, then continue printing your solving one problem may create another. If the
text. user does not know what is happening, he or she
The variable X in the parentheses of POS(X) may end up waiting for the computer to do some
is a dummy argument; it doesn't matter what thing, as it waits for the user to do something. To
value you use. help other people use your programs, you should
96 COMPUTEfs Garette April 19B4



ot \o^



Cfr* ■\0



i at'


of Available at your favorite

rint ,our
computer store or send "check or

"€^ . ■ money order txx MMG Micro Software



>r<zP P.O. Box 131

<?L ^Marlboro, HJ 07746
finaf onW;
. Please a«ctl[S^O0 for postage and handling.*"* or C3H: ■ ;;:::;V:;--. ■:■
-orne 'use your Visa, MasterCard or-order COD.. ^ ? ;;f:(20i) 431-3472'
NJ. residents please add 6% sates tax. . . ' <- ^_
put a prompt on the screen just before the WAIT mand discussed above. ABS throws away the
statement is executed, telling the user what to do. sign so you can look at the number. SGN throws
You can do it the other way, too. If you want away the number but keeps the sign.
the computer to wait for the user to press the stop Some programmers use SGN to make deci
button on the tape player, use: sions about branching.
WAIT 1,16 (64 version) 10 FOR J = 1 TO 5: READ K: PRINT K;
WAIT 37151,64 (VIC version) :rem 198
20 ON (SGN(K)+2) GOTO 30, 40, 50 :rem 238
There are times when a joystick does not 30 PRINT "IS NEGATIVE.": GOTO 60 :rem 42
work with the VIC because the play button on the 40 PRINT "IS ZERO.": GOTO 60 :rem 24
cassette drive is still on. Using the above WAIT 50 PRINT "IS POSITIVE." :rem 115
60 NEXT J :rem 239
statement can test for this problem.
500 DATA 15, 300, -4, 0, -654.32 :rem 72
CONT (CONTinue) In the program above, line 20 checks the sign
CONT is a valuable debugging tool. It allows you of the number. SGN(K) yields -1, 0, or 1. Add
to restart a program which lias stopped because two to get 1, 2, or 3. The ON-GOTO then makes
you pressed the RUN/STOP key, or because the the program branch to line 30, 40, or 50. It's a
program hit a STOP or END. quick way to check for positive or negative num
Let's write a simple program with a bug: bers and branch accordingly.
10 M=2 item 29 SGN is also good for comparisons. To com
20 INPUT "NUMBER"; N t rem 136 pare two numbers (the scores of player one and
30 PRINT Nr "TIMES TWO IS"; N*M irem 213
player two, for example), subtract one from the
P :rem 152
other, and use SGN to evaluate which one is
50 GOTO 20 irem 0 higher, perhaps with the ON-GOTO syntax of
Now RUN the program. The screen says line 20 above.
NUMBER? Type in 15, press RETURN, and it ATN (ArcTaNgent)
gives the result of 30. So far, so good. Now try Few people have neutral feelings aboul
zero. Zero times two is zero. It seems to be
trigonometry; you either love it or hate it.
working. Type 4 and the computer says four times If you can't remember anything you learned
two is eighty-four. Something is wrong. in trig, don't worry, this won't be too technical.
It's debugging time. Insert this line: 35 First, look at the triangle below.
RUN it again and the computer multiplies
correctly. Then it stops and says BREAK IN LINE spaceship
35. Type CONT and it continues. Try another
number (except zero). The answer is incorrect;
the program stops again. Type PRINT N, M and y value

you will discover that M is now equal to 21. If you

want to try another number, type CONT. Each
x value
time you will discover that M equals 21. That's a
clue that something is not working right.
If you're wondering what the bug is, you Imagine that you are looking at a spaceship
may notice that M starts out as 2 (line 10), but that flying toward you out of the sky. Your computer
can figure out the values for x and y, but you have
it is also used in the delay loop. To correct it, you
have to use a different variable in line 40. to aim the laser, which is your only defense. And
you don't have a joystick; you have to figure out
Some bugs do not occur right away. The first
time through, everything works. Then the bug the angle at which to shoot.
You're in luck because your computer knows
pops up. The best way to step through a program
how to use ATN. ATN(Y/X) gives you the angle
is to use the STOP-PRINT-CONT combination.
in radians. Divide by it (pi) and multiply by 180 to
There are a few BASIC commands that can
be used only in a program; they don't work in
get the answer in degrees. (To type the tt symbol,
hold down SHIFT and press the up-arrow key.)
immediate mode. CONT is unique: It is the only
This simple program calculates an angle from X
command used exclusively in immediate mode.
and Y coordinates.
SGN is used to evaluate numbers. If the number 20 INPUTX.Y :rem 207
30 IF X=0 THEN S=SGN{Y)!D=90*S:R=S*]72:GO
is positive, the result is 1. If the number is negative,
TO50 :rem 39
SGN gives you a -1. If the number is zero, you 40 R=ATN(Y/N): D=R*180/X = rem 251
get a zero. 50 PRINT "ANGLE IS";R;"RADIANS": PRINT D;
This function complements the ABS com- "DEGREES"! GOTO 10 :rem 164
98 COMPUTE!'* Gazalle April 19B4
Commodore 64
P.O. Box 3354 Cherry Hill, N.J. 08034 V.C-20
Toll FREE (800) 992-3300
For Information Call (609) 596-1 234
Cell us for reliable service, experience and affordable prices'

Elepham SS/DD [10| '24
El9ph«nt SS SO (101 . . '17 SO
Vnrfiatim SS/DD |10| 'Call
Quick Qiotvn Fo> '43
$CALL E«r Scnpl
Word Via o* ....
, '34
EZ Spell '17

PROGRAMMING SERIES with a difference!

Assembler €4 '16
Unexcelled communications power and
Logo "3B
Pilot.- '38 compatibility, especially for professionals and
Simon Basic '19
Screen Editor '19
serious computer users. Look us over; SuperTerm
CPM ? 2 *S6 isn't just "another" terminal program. Like our
EDUCATION famous Terminal-40, It's the one others will be
English IVII '9
Judged by.
1541 Maihl VIII
Computer Sciimefl
ScuncillV '9 • EMULATION -Most popular terminal protocols:
Disk Drive Technology
cursor addressing, clear, home, etc.
Busma^i *9 • EDITING—Full-screen editing of Receive Buffer
1520 Color Plolter '165 Geography "fl
NIPS 801 Printer '235 ■ UP/DOWNLOAD FORMATS-CBM. Xon-Xoff.
1526 Printer '319 ACK-NAK. CompuServe, etc.
1530 Datatolte '64 WunrdWor l19 ■ FLEXIBILITY -Select baud, duplex, parity, stopbits,
1650 Aulo Modem n! Jupitrr Liindar »14 etc. Even work off-line, then upload to system!
1110 8K Memory Enp '40 Pinbull ScflCi MS
Lnmjjiii „..„„.■ *14 • DISPLAY MODES-40 column; 80/132 with
1111 16K Mamory Eip '65
1011 RS232
Radar Hal Rica ki4 side-scrolling
Clown?. .. -,,,,-,„- "IS
Terminal Interlace '42 • FUNCTION KEYS-8 standard, 52 user-defined
Gorf MS
1211 Super Expandar *53 Omega Rbc* - '19 • BUFFERS—Receive, Transmit, Program, and Screen
1212 Prog. Aid Cartridge.., '39 Sna WoM „. »19 ■ PRINTING-Continuous printing with Smart ASCII
1213 Mflch. Long Monitor '39 IMFOCOM
interface and parallel printer; buffered printing
1312 Puddles '11.95 ZorM, IMH l3Bm
1311 Joystick -4.95
Siarcroii '26 ■ DISK SUPPORT-Directory, Copy, Rename, Scratch
.Color Monitor
COMPUTER COVERS Options are selected by menus and EXEC file. Software
on disk with special cartridge module. Compatible with
CBM and HES Automodems; select ORIG/ANS mode,

5 WILL manual or autodial.

PRINTERS Write for the full story on SuperTerm; or. If you

EPSON .ih ■Mily want that difference, order today!
,.,,. cram is 99 I
RX-80, RX-BO FT. SCALL ReR, "IS" VIC 20 Ifl 99 I Requires: Commodore 64 or VIC-20, disk drive or Dalaselte, and
FX-HO. FX 100 9 CALL Dull Dnvn tb.l compatible modem VIC version jequires I6K memory expansion Please

I.HXJI1 MX 60. ..87.39 I
specify VIC or 64 when ordering.
OKI DATA C.pnn MX BO HT17 99
Oki.l tl,i <J.' 97.99

Gemini 10X '299
Centipede '35
Smart ASCII Plus .. . $599S
Gemini 15X '449
Defender '35
The only Interface which lupports streaming — sending
SMITH CORONA Dig Dug '35 j
characters simultaneously la the screen and printer — with
TP-2 '469 Donkey Kong '35 ,
CARDCO Pac Man '351
Cardco G* Robotton '35' Also great for use with your own programs or most
Printer Inleiface '89 application programs, i.e, word processors Print modes:
Cardco Printer Interface B* '49 SpMt&t of Iht! Month CBM Graphics |w/many dot-addr printers), TRANSLATE,
Tymac the Connection '99
6 Slot Expands! [nterfaca... '72 DELPHI ORACLE
3 Slot Expander Interlace.., '31 Complete with printer cable and manual On disk or cassette.
Code Writer "74 $89
VIC 20 ana Commoaore 64 a'o trademarks of Commodore Eleclronhcs. LIO.
Ordering & Payment Policy
Prices reflecl a cash discount. For CO D., Visa, and Master
(816) Sond (or a lree brochl"<l
card add 3% ImmedialedehveryiArilhcerlifiettcheck or wired 0RDER.

funds. N.J. resident add 6%. Prices subject to change. MniUCCT ':.'■■: (&£0 for C.O.D.J, V3SAiMas1e?card
niL/W ti I acceoted (canW and exp. dale). MO residents
sfld 5 625% sales ta«. Foretgn ontets payable
Shipping Catalog int. U8 U Bm* ONLY; a i
For shipping and handling We sell a large selection ol 311 WEST 72rul ST. • KANSAS CITY • MO • 64114
add 3%. (S3 minimum) hardware and software
Larger shipments require Send SI for catalog, refun
additional charge. dable with order.
When you run the above program, you will notice string variable, LEN to find out the length, and
that the angle will always range from +7T/2 to-ir/2 finally a calculated TAB to print the number in its
{ + 90 to-90 in degrees). If you want the full range place.
of 0 to 360 degrees, you have to figure out which Using LOG can make things simpler. The
quadrant you're in and adjust the results. You following program aligns numbers of all sizes.
would most likely use SGN to find out if x and y
10 T=LOG(10): D=14 :rem 166
are positive or negative. 20 INPUT N :rem 64
ATN may seem to be an esoteric, obscure 30 S=INT(LOG(H)/T) :rem 51
function of interest only to mathematicians, but 40 PRINT TAB(D-S);N :rem 102
there are times you may need it. 50 GOTO 20 irem 0

If you want to do a three-dimensional display, Line 30 figures the base ten logarithm of the
for example, you will probably need ATN to figure number from line 20. in effect, you find the length
the angles. It may also be useful in a Star Trek of the number by using its (base ten) logarithm.
simulation when you need to figure out where Numbers 1 through 9 have a log of zero, 10
the ship is and which shields the Klingons are through 99 have a log of one, and so on.
battering. But, unfortunately, we have once again
Anytime you are working with angles, re solved one problem and created another. We can
member ATN. not find the logarithm of a negative number or
zero. This can be remedied with two of the BASIC
LOG (natural LOGarithm)
commands described earlier. Add the following
This is another function which may intimidate line to trap zero:
those who aren't mathematicians. The idea behind
it is actually fairly simple and can be helpful in 25 IF(ABS(SGN{N))-1) THEN S=0: GOTO 40
:rem 25
some programs.

If you type PRINT1014, the result is 10000, It would actually be simpler to say IF N = 0
because it's ten to the fourth power. Reversing THEN S = 0, but let's go with ABS and SGN. To
this function, the logarithm (base ten) of 10000 is deal with negative numbers, change line 30 from
4. Simply put, (he logarithm of a number is the LOG(N) to LOG(ABS(N)).
exponent you use on the base. And now we have it, a routine for aligning
AM radio dials use a logarithmic scale, which decimal points, without having to resort to integer/
is why the distance between 600 and 800 appears string conversion.
to be bigger than the distance between 1400 and
1600. You can also find a logarithmic scale on a
Using Little Known Commands
slide rule. The most useful BASIC keywords are still the
The LOG built into your computer does not most common ones, such as PRINT and FOR-
use base ten. It is a natural logarithm, which has NEXT. But if you take the time to learn these sel
certain special properties. Try the following short dom used commands, you maybe rewarded
someday when you are struggling to solve an
unusual programming problem. Of
10 INPUT"NUMBER";N :rem 135
20 PRINT! PRINTLOG(N)/LOG(2), :rem 247
30 PRINT LOG(N)/LOG{10) :rem 52
40 GOTO 10 :rem 254

This program figures out the log (base two)

and the log (base ten) of a number. Try inputting COMMODORE 64 v & VIC 20' OWNERS
the numbers 10, 100, 1000, and so on. The right- END THE CLUTTER & MAKE IT PORTABLE
hand column should contain whole numbers. PORTA-COMPUTE
Now try 2, 4, 8, 16, and 32. You should see integers Makes a neat package
holding your C64 or VIC 20.
on the left. disk drive & your monitor
So far it's just math. Now let's use LOG to or TV (up to 9"! in a sturdy
solve a common problem. Computers are good at metal case making your
system portable. Just plug
moving numbers around. And it is sometimes
in and start computing
necessary to print a column of numbers with all A carrying handle & master
the decimal points lined up, nice and neat, switch make it even easier
to use Use a printer or
Unfortunately, Commodore BASIC has Some assembly required
external monitor, too.
neither a PRINT USING nor a PRINT AT com To order your PQRTA-CQMPUTE send check or money
mand. Beginning programmers sometimes align order (or $129.95 (includes shipping) to: j q Enterprises
numbers with a complicated string-conversion 427 Scandia Ave. Des Moirtes, Iowa 50315
procedure. For example, they might use INT to
make the number an integer, STR$ to make it a
100 COMPUWs Gazette April 1984
80 Column Smart Terminal
For Your C64 Without Any Hardware Change!
They're right! To start with the best
ycv'r* rtfit. tiis WF1 Ttoitr^l B tie jih Untinil for th? C H *rtt you've got 10 have the VIP Terminal!
iwinj. Tat freebte sifW? that caw wtti m tot* .trt didn't tarfc. ■ Built-in 40, 64, 80 and 106 columns
kwulh with m r* 9«rtn>fe(. te 88 cok-m dislsj slra wse *11 *rth
th? SftSS - (ueh Jess U1*? *. M nJ 1*6 *r*kr disjky: ■ id it tastft ■ Word wrap for a formatted display
nsd =ry hnltr* thai**. Inyv? lft thy rttre <n 3 Ores, Uric, iftsw's ■ Talk to any computer
«r* tot oi *j so-wn thrcn kj uet'i itpfe cr iwMs! Bfi-PC! ■ Use any modem and printer
I pX aXc-dul to \ak riirt My- I Aito-dukd top£aM?, bA
wjiti't ¥t ttrounh, so I [tad UP toxral r*dui 'til it 9* ttrcu* - it
■ Written in fast machine code
duk! fwHttiastotfrt! 1m I auto-k^on Kitten? of ly & ww»- ■ 15 entry phone directory
*i lp£, anJ iwiloaded sae <T$hics soisre, 3rd stock aefes ftr ii I ■ 20 programmable keys
prrfcwit «J s*«J rt to di* £ it cm; ort lh? scr«fv IW fM n* I can ■ Automatically dial, redial, upload,
srd icu r« prcj-« autrwtnally. I «<t SWS a>J tfiey wrted ri^it off.
tree icons, - <pj In*; lil* v# felf Lisa - ar* a lot of fin. I abo download and log-on
1*p tt¥ icnjE, finctkn teys, njjfilnte, wb UoIk - r«t for d rewoer ■ Professional 96 character ASCII display
lie *. frd with the wu cpikris tr«« Isn't i cwAer I can't tak to. ■ 128 character ASCII keyboard
tfat's realb neat is that fcftl* Us a tfcle WP Litrsrv of
nttrstiw ftoj-»6, irekriira i wxij frasssor, gr^dstwt aril dstabs?, ■ Simultaneous on line printing and
rfiirfi will te out socn. Sis frcnis-J n? the rfiole set fcr m birthfe. saving of files to tape and disk
I see by t}-* biilt-ifi "bid cki*" en 'he scr«n thut lonj-dip-^w? rate ■ Use and save files as big as your disk!
aredwi. W. to call th* L.fl, BBS. *p, thm gees th? a&H. Laiir. ■ E Mail & E-COM Compatible

Get yours NOW! $49,95

Introducing The VIP Library

The Library Concept Icons Make Learning Easy Professional Displays
The VIP Terminal is only ihe first in a Hi-res technology and sprites allow The 40-characlers-per-line display of
whole series of eleganl software for VIP Library programs to bring you task the Commodore 64 is inadequate for
your Commodore 64 called the VIP Icons, made famous by the Apple Lisa1" serious computing. An BO-column
Library. This complete collection of and the Xerox Star™. With these display is the industry standard. VIP
easy-to-use, serious, high quality, advanced sprite representations of the Library programs bring this standard to
totally interactive productivity software task options open to the user, even the your Commodore 64 wilh state-of-the-
includes VIP Writer, VIP Speller, VIP total novice can, at a glance, perform 'art graphics, without need for costly
Calc, VIP Database, VIP Disl-ZAP, VIP every task with ease. Just look at the hardware modifications. With VIP
Accountant and VIP Tax. All are equal icon and press a key! No programs are Library programs you can freely choose
in quality to much more expensive easier or more fun to learn and use! from four displays: the standard 40
software (or the IBM \'C~, and all are column display, plus a 64, 80 and even
very affordable! Total Compatibility a 106 column by 25 line display. With
these programs you can have more text
All VIP Library programs are
on your screen than on an IBM PC or
compatible with each other and other
n ffl fflj ra ^ rw an Apple He with an 60-column board!
computers for easy file transfer. Each
Welcome to the professional world!
uses ASCII, the universal language of
computer communications so that files
can be sent to and received from other Who Is Softlaw?
computers without modification! The
Softlaw Corporation has years of soft
Library also gives you the benefit of a
ware experience in micros. We currently
consistent icon and command
offer the full-line VIP Library for other
program, the others will come easily.
are bringing this experience to the Com
modore 64 so you get ultra-high quality
— For Orders ONLY software at very affordable prices.
■**■ — Call Toll Free — L
Virtual Memory
VIP Library programs are not limited
'# by the size of your computer's Order Status and Software Support avj
memory. All programs use virtual call (612) 881-2777
memory techniques to allow creation Available at Dealers everywhere. If your
and use of files larger than your Dealer is out of stock ORDER DIRECT! 9072 Lyndale Avc. So., Mpls., MN 55420
computer's available work area. You're
MAIL ORDERS: $3.00 U.S. Shipping (S5.00
only limited by the space on your diskl AUTHOR'S SUBMISSIONS
CANADA; $10.00 OVERSEAS. Personal
I TO J by Softlaw Ciiipi ii.nii ii 11 checks allow 3 weeks. ARE ENCOURAGED.
Tank Mania:
Adding A Second Joystick
To The VIC
Ken Gibbons and Curtis Rich
Not only do the authors show how to connect a
second joystick to your VIC-20, they also pro
vide a two-player game to put the extra joystick
to work. The project is simple and does not
require you to open your VIC or modify it.

All of us have had many enjoyable hours playing

games against the VIC. But there's nothing like
the thrill of beating a human opponent who is
canny and unpredictable. Here is where a problem
arises—.ill of the destructive energy you unleash
at computer bad buys usually ends up being
absorbed by the keyboard. In an exciting action
game it can take a real beating, especially in a
two-player game.
Also, perhaps you have noticed how easy it The red tank attach, while the blue player maneuvers to get
is to press the wrong key, or that the computer out of lite corner in "Tank Mania."
recognizes only the first key pressed and ignores
all others until the first key is released (an espe various cassette and disk operations. The fourth
cially effective tactic when you are trying to pre port (called the user port) is left free. Unless you
vent your opponent from moving). For this reason are using a modem or some other RS-232 device,
most home computers provide us with game ports. the User Port on your VIC is idle and is available
for a second joystick.
Only One Game Port
Simple Construction
You can use joysticks, paddles, and light pens,
with these game ports. The joysticks and paddles The construction is simple and requires no mod
are perhaps the most popular, because they are
ification to the VIC. Get an edge connector (l2/z4
inexpensive, easy to use, and can take the punish with .156 spacing), which should fit the User Port
on the back of your VIC. Then get a joystick con
ment of arcade-type action games.
The VIC is no exception. It comes equipped nector (subminiature D type, nine-pin). It looks
like the original game port on the side of your
to handle paddles or a joystick. But this is where
we find a shortcoming in the otherwise well- VIC and a joystick should plug into it. When you
have the connectors, make the following connec
equipped VIC. Most home computers have at
least two game ports, but the VIC has only one. tions between them. Most connectors have the
pins lettered right on them. If yours don't, the
A Joystick In The User Port VIC manual and the VIC-20 Programmer's Reference
The VIC will handle two joysticks, though. For Guide contain complete pin diagrams. (See the
about five dollars in parts you can add the second figure.)
game port, allowing you to operate two joysticks, VIC Joystick Plug
the paddles with a joystick, or whatever.
The VIC joystick is connected through a Ver
satile Interface Adapter (VIA) port. The VIC has
four of these VIA ports for input and output pur
poses. Three of the VIA ports are used to read the
keyboard, read the original game port, and for
102 COMPUTEIS Gazelle April
The filled-in holes represent pins which are used. A Game For Two Joysticks
You will notice that this is a mirror image to the "Tank Mania" is a fast, action-packed game for
diagram which is in your VIC book.
two players, in which each player commands a
Here's what each pin does:
tank maneuvered by a joystick. The object is to
destroy your opponent's tank. Blockades and
I'in number Description
mines provide natural hazards. You can remove
1 Up -JoyO
these hazards by shooting them. If you shoot
2 Down -Joyl
3 Left -Joy 2 a mine on the border, you can wrap around
4 High! -Joy 3 the screen—try it and you will find the results
t> Fire Button interesting.
6 Ground
The skill level is set in the first line of (he sec
ond program. By changing the value of SL, you
Simply connect these pins to a 24-pin edge con
can control the number of blocks and mines. Fi
nector as follows:
nally, the tanks will go between blocks diagonally
[oystick Edge Connector despite the tight fit.
1 to E The first program creates the special charac
2 in F ters, prints instructions, and loads Program 2.
3 to H Before loading the second program, the first pro
4 to D
gram deletes itself, so if you RUN the first program
6 to J before saving it you will lose it.
8 to A
Since Tank Mania is such a long game, you
can get a tape copy by sending a cassette, $3, and
The 24-pin edge connector then plugs into
a SASE to:
the user I/O port on the back of the VIC, which
has this configuration. Ken Gibbons
356 East 900 North
Logan, LIT 84321
VIC User Port
12 3 4 5 6 7 9 10 11 12 Seeprograw listings on page 160. Qf


Pins to which connections are made are marked with an

Are you tired o! paying high prices lor your software?
When you have finished, plug the connector Let John Henry Software save you money!
into the user port, plug in your second joystick, We distribute public domain software tor your VIC 20'"
turn on the VIC, and enter this short program: or Commodore 64'". We've tested and documented each
program to guarantee you hours of fun and useful
1 DA=37136:POKEDA,0 :rem 65 learning experiences. We specialize in prompt delivery
2 GOSUB 10 i rein 19 of your software, even if you order tapes, and we
3 PRINT"{CLR}J0 Jl J2 J3 FB" ;rem 13 guarantee our product.
4 PRINT J0;J1;J2;J3;FB :rem 35 You'll also receive our free program reference book
5 GOTO 2 trem 160 when you place your order.
10 P=PEEK(DA):J0=-((PAND4)=0) Jl=-((PAND8
)=0}:J2=-((PAND16)=0):J3=- (PAND2)=0)
VIC 20
Group VG 62 Games for Everyone S7 95
:rem 52 Group VP 54 Programming, Oemo. Business
11 FB=-{(PAND32)=0)tRETURN irem 5 and Home ' $7 95
Group VE 35 Educational Programs .. S7 95
This program demonstrates the use of the
second joystick. When the joystick is pushed in COMMODORE 64
Group CG 26 Games (or Everyone $7.95
any direction, the corresponding variables are set Group CP 30 Programming, Demo. Business
to one. The fire button, when pushed, sets FB to and Home S7 95
Group CE 16 Educational Programs $7.95
one regardless of the joystick's direction. Use the Group CA 5 Adventure Games (disk omyi S7.95
routine in lines 10 and 11 whenever you want to
When ordering, specify group and tape or disk.
read the new joystick. The new joystick works Send check or money order payable to:
just like the original. In fact, the only difference is John Henry Software
the address of the VIA ports used. P.O. Box 39021
Cincinnati. Oh Id 45239
Use the second joystick any way you like.
Don't wait! Order your software today! Or write for your
You can leave the original game port free for free program reference book You'll be glad you did!
paddles or a light pen. However, the light pen
To kiep oui sollware prices lo*. our ait will only appear in(he June, flugusi
and paddles will not work if plugged into the OclDber and December issues of this magazine

new game port.

COMPUTE!'! Gazette April?984 103


Finding Incorrect
DATA Statements Bruno Degazio

If you've discovered a clever time-saving tech mat. To find the offending DATA line, type this
nique, or a brief but effective programming in immediate mode (without a line number):
shortcut, send it in to "Hints & Tips," c/o com- PRINT PEEK(63) + PEEK(64)'256
putei's gazette. If we use it, we'll pay you $35.
You can then LIST that line to find the item
that caused the problem. An incorrect DATA state
ment is usually the result of a missing comma or a
Here is an easy-to-use technique for finding mis number that was accidentally typed twice. No
typed DATA statements. matter how careful you are, mistakes will some
DATA statements are great for rapidly POKE- times creep into your typing. But this pro
ing numbers into memory, whether it's for a gramming tip should reduce your debugging time. <
machine language program, a musical composi
tion, custom characters, or some other purpose.
You simply program a FOR-NEXT loop, READ GET THE MOST FROM
the data, and POKE.
Consider the following program: YOUR VIC-20/C64


20 PRINT"{CLR}********" :rem 22
30 FOR J = SC TO SC+5 :rem 0
500 DATA 20,5,19,20 :rem 150 ANTEED

510 DATA 999 srem 91 ONLYS34 95PLUSS1 60 FOR

If you RUN the above program, you will get FULL KS232 INTERFACE
there's nothing wrong with line 40. It simply reads
a number and tries to POKE screen memory. The MODEM OR SERIAL PRINTER
real problem is line 510 and the number 999. You COMES WITH TYPE IN BASIC
can POKE memory locations only with numbers SATISFACTION GUARWJTEED
from 0 to 255. The number 999 is out of range and ONLY $39 95 PLUS SI 60 FOR
stops the program in line 40. Even though the
error message tells you to look at line 40, you really SEND TODAY FOR OUR FREE CATALOG
have to correct line 510. SEE YOUR LOCAL DEALER OR CALL:
Searching through a list of DATA statements
can be annoying, especially if there are lots of (206) 236-BYTE
them. / Formeily BYTESIZE \
There is a simple way of finding the incorrect QMNTTRONIX ( MICRO TECHNOLOGY J
DATA statement. Memory locations 63 and 64
contain the line number of the last DATA state
ment used. It is stored in low byte/high byte for-
104 COMPUTE'S Gazetla ApriM9B4

For CBM-64
and VIC
owners onfy:
This is just 1 of
20 pages of the
newest and biggest
Skyles catalog, hot
off the press.

We know you'll
want this page, in From Skyles
its full 7 x 10 Electric Works, the
splendor, and sending you your oldest and largest
another 19 pages very own copy
of peripherals, within the last few specialists in the
software and books weeks, call us at business.
that will make your (800) 227-9998
CBM-64 or VIC (unless you live
computer even in California, in
Skyles Electric Works
nicer to live with. which case call 231-E S. Whisman Road
So, if we missed (415)965-1735. Mountain View, California 94041

Many people arc searching for an alternative to processors and the commands they use are not
BASIC. BASIC is easy to use, easy to learn, and compatible with the 6510, so you need to add a
almost carefree in style and coding. Yet BASIC is microprocessor to the computer. The Commodore
not as fast as a high-level language can be. It does CP/M cartridge contains a Z80 microprocessor and
not encourage or support modular or even struc plugs into 64's expansion port. It also contains cir
tured programming. It is a very general language, cuitry that permits the 64 to switch between the
so it lacks commands specific to certain situations, 6510 and the Z80. But you don't have CP/M yet.
such as graphics, games, business/professional CP/M is supplied on a disk that you load into your
applications, and mathematical work. It's also 64 before you begin working with CP/M.
hard to teach and grade (compared to a language
like Pascal). The Disk Problem
The microcomputer world knows several It takes a long time to load. The Commodore 1541
languages which have come down to earth from disk drive is not fast. To be frank, it is one of the
the mainframe computers: COBOL, FORTRAN, slowest disk drives on the market. Don't feel bad,
Pascal, PL/1, LISP, APL, even ALGOL. Languages though, it is also about the least expensive. CP/M,
which work out particularly well on micros include however, was written for machines with fast, ex
BASIC, of course, PILOT, Logo, C, and Forth. pensive disk drives. It is highly disk-intensive. It
These languages work well within the speed and accesses the disk frequently for the various utilities
memory limitations of many personal computers. it performs. The 1541 is the weak link in 64 CP/M.
The business community has been trans Programs behave sluggishly.
forming its software choices by adapting the larger But that is not what makes CP/M unusable on
languages (COBOL, FORTRA'N) to 64K Z80 CP/M the 64. CP/M adds great capability and potential, a
(Control Program for Microprocessors) com whole new world. But as you found out when you
puters. These languages are often subnets of the brought your 64 home, it takes software to make
minicomputer versions of the languages. They your computer do anything. And that's whafs
are smaller versions of the languages, but are still missing from Commodore CP/M.
quite powerful and flexible. Sure, there are probably 10,000 CP/M programs
out there, maybe more. But there's one big point of
CP/M And The 64 incompatibility in the world of CP/M: disk formats.
Many Commodore 64 owners, especially educators Just as you can't even read an Apple or Atari disk
and businessmen, are intrigued with the Commo on your 64, many CP/M computers cannot inter
dore CP/M cartridge. It appears to be a gateway to change disks. The BIOS is general, but other things
the many thousands of programs that will run only like screen formatting and cursor control are not.
on a CP/M system. CP/M often requires 80 columns, which isn't easily
CP/M offers the 8080 or Z80 programmer a set workable with 64 CP/M.
of general, trans portable microprograms. These So COBOL, FORTRAN, and WordStar are avail
microprograms are customized to each computer, able with CP/M, but there are no disks you can buy
yet act the same from a program's point of view. which your 1541 can read. Commodore has some
These microprograms make up the Basic Input/ plans to release some 1541-readable CP/M software,
Output System, or BIOS. The BIOS is much like the but we've yet to see it.
64's set of Kernal routines, which enable a 6510 Dedicated "hackers" or machine language
machine language programmer to work with input programmers may be interested in CP/M. They
and output. The Kernal's strongest point is that its can write programs which switch between the
routines have the same addresses (entry points) on 6510 and Z80, getting a chance to learn about
many Commodore machines. For example, there's another microprocessor, and enjoying the best of
a machine language program at SFFD2 (hexadeci both worlds.
mal) that lets you output a single character to the Some third-party companies are charging
screen or current output device (perhaps the printer upwards of $300 for CP/M (although many do
after a CMD). You can try out this routine from have some CP/M software that can be used with
BASIC with POKE 780,ASC("x"):SYS 65490. x is the 64). Commodore should be applauded for
the character you want to print, so put it inside making CP/M available for about S60. No other
double quotation marks. company has sold CP/M, including the necessary
Al! eight-bit CP/M programs arc written in hardware, for so little. Butrightnow we're waiting
either8t)80 or Z80 machine language. These micro- for an encore. <Q)
106 COMPUTE!'; Gazelle April 1984
77?af's w/?af we said when our new
"invention" solved all our VIC-20™ and
Commodore-64™programming problems

We had a problem. So we invented For the Commodore 64 we came up wilh SOLVE YOUR PROGRAMMING
PC-DocuMate'" to solve it. The problem was a really clever summary table for showing PROBLEMS WITH PC-DocuMate'"
how to quickly master the VIC-20 and almosl everything you ever nood to know for Order your PC-DocuMale today (by
CBM-64 keyboards and easily start pro sprite graphics. phone or mail) and solve your VIC-20 or
gramming in BASIC on our new personal CBM-64 programming problems. Send only
computers. First we went through the GETTING EASIER S12.95 and specify which compuier you
manuals. Now we had organized the most essenlial have. We pay lor shipping and handling
information lor our VIC and 64 in the most Use the coupon below or call 919-787-7703
logical way. BASIC, music, color graphics, for faster service
The user's guide was a nuisance and the
and sprites all seemed a lot easier, Our
programmer's reference manual was just
milial problem was solved by PC-Docu-
plain inconvenienl to use We found the
com rot key combinations confusing and the
introduction to BASIC to be too "basic" for
Bui we have a confession to make. I YES' Please RUSH me VIC-20

our needs. We needed a simple solution to WE CHEATED I templates and/or CBM-64 tem
our documentation problems. We had solved this kind ol problem plates at $12.95 each. I have enclosed
So we decided to surround ihe keyboard belore In fact, many times belore You see,
S by:
of each PC wilh ihe fnformalion we wanled we at SWA developed Ihe original PC-Docu
Check.— Money order MC/VISA
We decided to prini whatever we needed on Mate for Ihe IBM PC We've made templates
sturdy plastic templates which would fit Ihe for IBM BASIC and DOS, for WORDSTAR",
keyboard ol either Ihe VIC-20 or Commo VISICALC™ and other best-selling software
dore 64. packages for the IBM PC
So we knew we could invent another Name
PC-DocuMate'" lo solve our problems with
This was the simple solution to our prob
the VIC-20 and Commodore 64. Now our
lem. Now we could have Ihe essential
solulion can be yours and you can |om the Afldress
information right at our fingertips.
thousands of satisfied users of our lemplate
On the left side and top ol the templates
prod u els.
we put BASIC functions, commands, and
Take advantage of our experience and
statement. On Ihe lower left wo used key Cily Stale Zip
success with PC-DocuMate templates. Get
symbols to remind us ol how to use SHIFT.
one (or your personal compuier.
RUN/STOP. CTRL and the "Commodore11
key. Over on the bottom righl side we put SOME SPECIFICS
some additional keys to help remember CaiOII Exp.
Our templates for the VIC and 64 are
aboul CLR/HOME and RESTORE But we made from the same high quality non-glare
were still a liitle contused. plaslic as the more expensive IBM PC
versions. Signature
The templates are an attractive gray
We found we were confused about music
color and are imprinted with a special black Foreign orders (except Canada) add $5.00 US
programming, color graphics, and sprites.
ink which bonds permanently to the plaslic
On both the VIC-20 and the CBM-64 tem
They are precision die-cut lo fit your
plates we carefully organized and summar Mail to: Systems Management Associates
ized the essential reference data for music 3700 Computer Drive. Dept. j-l
Unlike some olher products we've seen
programming and put it across the lop- P.O. Box 20025
in this category, PC-DocuMate templates
showing notes and Ihe scale. All those Raleigh. North Carolina 27619
are professionally and expertly designed
values you must POKE and where lo POKE
And they are fully guaranteed.
them are listed.
Then lo clarify color graphics we laid out
screen memory maps showing character
and color addresses in a screen matrix. (We
We guarantee your satisfaction You musl
got this idea from the manuals.) he satisfied with your PC-DocuMate for your
For the VIC-20 we added a complete VIC-20 0< CBM-64 Try it lor 10 days arid It VIC-;>Onnd Commodorfl &d ore Trademarks 0' Commodore Dusl-
memory address map (or documenling lor any reason you are not satisfied return it n<?5s Miclnnes. Ire

where everything is in an expanded or lo us (unoamagod) lor a lull reiuno No risk. Ad no 731 CopyriphH9BlSMA

unexpanded VIC. □f>*l*r Inqutrtai tnvittd.

Variable Storage:
A Beginner's Tour Of BASIC
RAM For VIC And 64
Pete Marikle

You can simplify the search for program bugs First, type in this short BASIC program that
if you take a short tour through BASIC RAM allows you to peek into the computer's memory:
and use this subroutine that displays variable 10 S=256:PRINT"(CLR]START ADDRESS":INPUTZ
values. :rem 228
20 sS="*************•********": TS="
.rem 7

Normally, you don't need to know what happens
5(144)X,PEEK(X)S PC(2)CHR$(PEEK(X)}
to your program when you type RUN. The BASIC :rem 35
interpreter takes over, leaving you free to use the 35 Y=X+ltU=PEEK(45)+S*PEEK{46):V=PEEK(47)
computer to figure your income tax, write a letter, +S*PEEK(48):W=PEEK(49)+S*PEEK(50)
:rem 81
or save the galaxy.
When your program crashes, though, or gives
45 IFX>=UANDY<VTHENT=T+1:GOTO47 :rem 44
you an incorrect result, you have to switch from 46 T=0 :rem 43
computer user back to programmer, locate the 47 IFT THEN IFT/7-INT(T/7)<.01THENPRINTTS
bug, and fix it. Debugging is easier if you can :rem 2 32
50 WAIT 197,32:NEXT irem 69
look at the values of your variables and arrays
while the program is running, to be sure that loops
are being completed and data are being put in the If you want to use this program again, you should
right place at the right time. SAVE it to tape or disk.
Programs 1 and 2 are different versions of a Now enter these samples in direct mode:
subroutine that displays the current values of all AB = 12.34:CD = -12.34:AB$ = "HELLO":AB% =
program variables. By inserting STOP statements AB(l> = ni:CD(l)= -lll:AB%n) = 1024:AB$(l) =
in any line where you suspect a problem, you can "BYE"
"freeze" the action and GOTO the subroutine to
Hit RETURN, and enter some more:
check your logic, statement by statement.
DIMCDS(3,5,5):CDS(1,0,0) = "SEE":CD$<2,0,0) =

A Quick Tour Of RAM "YOU";CD$(1,1,D = "LATER"

Before we examine the subroutine, let's take a Hit RETURN again, and your computer will have
sightseeing tour through BASIC RAM for a quick at least one of every type of variable stored in
look at where your VIC-20 or 64 stores your pro RAM. Now type GOTO 10 and RETURN. Do not
grams and variables, how it tells a string from an type RUN (RUN resets all variables). Respond
integer variable, and how you might use less mem to the prompt with 4300 as a start address for the
ory by doing a few things differently. You don't unexpanded VIC, 1230 if you're working on a
have lo take the tour in order to use the subroutine, VIC with 3K expansion or Super Expander and
but it will give you a better idea of how the sub 4800 if your VIC has 8K or more expansion mem
routine works. ory. For the 64, respond with 2250.
108 COMPUTEI's Gazelle April 1984

D of D for up to 8 players. BAG-IT-MAN ■ The ultimate
Features full 3d GRAPHICS! arcade game for TRS80C or
You get a choice ol several MCD64. This one has three
characters that grow from screens full of BAGS OF
game to game and are GOLD. CARTS & ELE
Interchangeable with char VATORS TO RIDE IN. MINE
acters from our famous SHAFTS, and TWO NASTY
Dungeons of Death game. A GUARDS. Great sound and
real dungeon with level after color and continuous
level of monsters to conquer excitement.
and treasures to find - all in
hi-res 3d graphics. Available On: TFSBOC 32K, CMD64
Available On TRS80C. IBM PC. CM0&4 TAPE $19.95 QISK S24.95
TAPE 11995 Ol

QUEST - A different kind of STARFIRE

- If you
Graphic Adventure, it is
you will love Starfire. It is not

played on a computer
" "- , "^ a copy, but the best shoot-
E generated mape of Alesia.
You'll have to build an army em-up, see them in the
and feed them through window space game on the
combat, bargaining, explo CMD64 or TRSaOC. The
fantastic graphics will put
ration of ruins and temples,
and outright banditry! Takes you right in the control room
2-5 hours to play and is as you hyperspace from
different each time. quadrant to quadrant
fighting the aliens and
Available On: TFIS80C lev CM064. VIC20 13K. MC10 protecting your bases.
Available On TRSflOC IBK, CMOM
TAPE 114.95 DISK 119.95
TAPE 119.95 DISK I?4 !)5

MARS ■ Your ship crashed on

the Red Plane and you haye
to get home You will have to
explore a Martian City, PYRAMID ■ ONE OF THE TOUGHEST
repair your ship, and deal ADVENTURES. Average time
with possibly hostile aliens to through the pyramid is 50 -
get home again. This is 70 hours. Clues are
recommended as a first everywhere and some
Adventure. It is in no way ingenious problems make
simple - playing time this popular around the
normally runs from 30 to 50 world- FULL GRAPHIC
hours, but it lets you try out ADVENTURE.
Adventuring before you
Available On IRSflOC 1EK. CMD5J. MC10I6K, IBM PC
battle the really tough ones.
Full Graphics Adventure. TAPE S1995 0ISKJ2495

Availabl: On TRSflOC CMD &l. I3M PC



AAHDVAHK offers over 120 original high quality programs. Authors - AARDVARK pays top dollar for high quality
Send one dollar for a current catalog and receive a $1.00 programs. Send a copy today for a personal review and
gift certificate good towards your next purchase. editorial help.

TO ORDER: Send amount Indicated plus SZ.OD shipping, per order. Include quantity desired and your preference ol tape or disk.
Be sure to Indicate type dI system and amount ol memory. When using charge card lo order by mall, be sure in Include expiration date.

B:00 a.m. to B:OO p.m. E.S.T.. MON-FHI

AARDVARK 2352 S. COMMERCE • WALLED LAKE. Ml 48088 • 1313] 669-3110


The Program Looks At Itself representing the string variable AB$. The A is
The space bar is your one-touch control. Hold it clear enough, but where did the B go? Here's the
down until the screen is nearly full, then sit back secret: The second character of a string variable
and take a look. You are looking at the middle of name is stored after adding 128 to the normal
the tour program, with the memory addresses on CHR$ value for that character. It's that high-order
the left, memory contents in the middle, and some bit trick again.
interesting characters on the right. By checking to see if this high-order bit is 1 or
Some of those characters are meaningless, 0, your computer can tell whether this is a string
because a CHR$ interpretation of the contents of variable or floating-point variable. Note that 194
a memory location is invalid and out of context if minus 128 is 66, the CHR$ value for the B in AB$.
the location contains a keyword, line link, line Your computer now knows that the next byte (a 5
in our case) is the length of AB$ and the next two
number, etc. But many of the characters are valid,
bytes will give it the address where it can find the
recognizable translations of what you put into the
program, and these are the ones we care about. actual characters you designated for AB$. The
address is in standard low byte-high byte order
Use the space bar to scroll another hundred
(LB + 256*HB = decimal address). The computer
or so bytes onto the screen. We're looking for the
end of the BASIC program, represented by three will start at that address, to select a number of
characters equal to the value (5) in that length
consecutive zeros in the center column. It's not
byte, and then go on to do whatever you asked it
hard to find with our REM billboard (line 60) and
to do with the string. The final two bytes of the
neat borders in place. Now look at the first address
cluster are zeros put in to fill the seven-byte
after the three zeros. That's the PEEK 45/46 ad
dress (the address produced by PEEK(45) + 256*
That address for the string character can point
PEEK{46) in line 35). Hold the space bar down
to one of two very different areas of memory. If
until that address is near the top of the screen.
the string is assigned in the direct mode, the string
characters themselves are stored at the lop of free
Looking At Variable Storage BASIC RAM. If the string is assigned by the pro
We're now in the area where strings and variables gram, the address points to the place in the pro
are stored. Everything in this area is in seven-byte gram itself where the string values are assigned
clusters, and the program neatly separates those to the variable name. Since the characters must be
clusters for easy viewing. Find the characters A stored as part of the program anyway, your com
and B, followed by five more bytes (the cluster is puter doesn't waste RAM by repeating the char
followed by the character C). This first seven-byte acters in the variable storage area.
cluster is the variable AB. The first two bytes are
the variable name. The next five bytes contain the An Unreadable Name
value we gave to AB, in floating-point arithmetic Continuing our tour with the seven bytes im
notation. Don't worry about how the math works mediately following the AB$ cluster, note that the
for now. Suffice it to say that your decimal value variable name is unreadable. The symbols are a
is neatly tucked away in those five bytes. spade and a vertical bar, next to the 193 and 194.
Note that the next variable, CD, has a similar Subtract 128 from each and you'll find the CHR$
structure. Remember that we gave CD the same values for the A and B in the integer variable AB%.
value as AB, but negative. Take a close look at the When both characters in the name are greater
five bytes following CD, and you'll see that values than 127, your computer knows this is an integer
there are almost identical to the values in the bytes variable, that only the next two bytes need be
following AB, except that the second byte contains looked at to obtain the value of this integer vari
a value which is 128 greater than the correspond able, and that the last three bytes of the cluster
ing byte in AB. {If you subtract 128 from the byte will be filled with zeros.
in CD, you should get the value in the corre Those two value bytes contain a signed binary
sponding byte in AB.) The high-order bit (Bit 7) in number, a different form than we saw with the
that particular byte is used as a sign indicator: 0 floating-point variables. Again, don't worry about
for positive numbers and 1 for negative. Since the details of the math. The more compact method
that bit is on (1) for variable CD, the decimal value of storing integer variables doesn't do much for
of the byte is 128 (27) higher. Your computer ig you until you start using them in arrays. Integer
nores that bit in reconstructing the value of CD, arrays can cut your memory consumption
but uses the bit when the time comes to determine considerably (two bytes vs. five per entry).
the sign of the number. Let's move on to look at arrays in more detail.
Hold down the space bar to pass by some other
String Variables clusters where the variables in this tour program
Press the space bar and look at the next cluster, are stored. We're approaching the special address
110 COMPUTE!S Gazette April 1984
held in PEEK 47/48, which is the beginning of array and its 11 three-byte clusters, each con
array storage. You'll know you're there when you taining the string length byte and the address of
see the borderline and the clearly visible A and B the string characters.
characters in the right column.
The Three-Dimensional Array
How Arrays Are Stored Finally, we reach our sample multidimensional
There are three kinds of arrays, paralleling the array. Things get a bit tricky here, so follow
three normal variable types: floating-point arrays, closely. The definition cluster will now be more
integer arrays, and string arrays. Each can be than seven bytes long. Add two bytes for each
multidimensional, but we'll cover that situation extra dimension. Remember, you can setup two,
last. Your VIC or 64 allows you to use arrays with three, four, or more dimensions of any size if you
up to 11 elements (numbers 0-10) without a have the total memory capacity to handle them.
DIMension statement, but it does not reserve space The number of dimensions for each array set will
for the array until you assign a value to one of the be held in the fifth byte of the definition cluster.
array elements. As soon as you do, it will set up The very next two bytes will hold the number of
an entire 11-element array, even if you only used elements in the Nth dimension (N = number of
one or two elements. Of course, you can DIM for dimensions); the next two will hold the number
more or fewer elements if you wish. (For more of elements in the (N -1 )th dimension, and so on
information on arrays, see "How To Use Arrays" until finally the first dimension is structured.
in the February issue.) Immediately following the definition cluster,
Each one-dimensional array begins with a the array elements will troop by in orderly forma
seven-byte definition cluster followed by the 11 tion. For our sample, which we DIMed as
element clusters (or more or less according to the CDS(3,5,5), the order of the three-byte clusters
DIMension statement). will be: CDS(0,0,0), CD$(l,u,0)....CD$(3,(),()),
The seven-byte cluster will hold the array CD$(0,l,0),CD$(l,l,0)....CD$(3,l,0) etc
name in the first two bytes, following the same until finally reaching CD${3,5,5).
general rules we saw for the simple variables, As you pass through this area, you will see
depending on the type of array. The next two that the clusters for CD${l,0,0) and CD$(2,0,0) are
bytes will contain a link address to the next array occupied. If you count, you'll find that the posiHon
set. The fifth byte tells you (and your computer) for CD$(1,1,1) is also occupied, as we directed.
the number of dimensions in this array. The sixth As with any string, the characters themselves are
and seventh bytes will show the total number of stored elsewhere.
elements in the array set (11 for our un-DIMed If you race on now through the rest of this
examples). These two bytes store the total in re array, you'll cross the PEEK 49/50 border into the
verse high byte-low byte order. area of unused RAM. Don't be surprised if you
The element clusters that follow the definition recognize some of it. You may find remnants here
cluster will each be five bytes long for floating from other programs which have been NEWed,
point arrays, two bytes long for integer arrays, or orCLRed variables.
three bytes each for string arrays. These clusters To end the lour, just hold down the RUN/
contain the same kind of information held in the STOP key and hit the space bar.
corresponding normal variables, but without the
need for trailing zeros or repeated label bytes that The Variable Dump Utility
are needed in variable storage. Now let's try out the promised subroutine. Be
cause it takes all the values stored in a section of
Unused Elements Contain Zeros memory and sends them to an output device, our
Hold down the space bar until the first array, AB, subroutine is called a iluniji utility. Typ° NEW to
nearly fills the screen, See the seven-byte cluster? get rid of the tour program, type in Program 1,
It's followed by five zeros only because Ali(0), the and SAVE it to tape or disk.
first element of this array, has a zero value. The The dump utility has high line numbers be
next five bytes represent the value we gave to cause it is designed as an easy add-on to existing
AB(1). The following sets of zeros represent the programs using the VIC quick append method
remaining unused elements through AB(IO). Use (see COMPUTBI, March 1983). Commodore 64
the spacebar to look ai ihe CD array, then continue owners will find it necessary to abbreviate the
to the AB% integer array. PEEK statements in line 44580 with P SHIFT-E in
Again, a seven-byte definition cluster, fol order for the line to fit within the 64's 80-character
lowed this time by 11 element clusters that are limit.
each two bytes long. The lesson in saving memory Type in a few sample variables in direct mode.
with integer arrays is dramatic. You can reenter the previous sample set if you
Next, note the seven-byte cluster for the ABS like. Again, do not type RUN; enter GOTO 44444
COMPUTE!'* Gazette April 19B4 111
and RETURN. Your variables should be displayed; areas for the new variables. If you don't ever want
the program won't display the arrays until you to see the internal variables, just modify line 44543
press the space bar. Note that the dump utility to read:
doesn't list the contents of multidimensional ar IF PEEK(ZZ) = 90 THEN RETURN
rays. It's not hard to do, just time-consuming.
The routine will simply tell you which multi Tailor The Utility For Your Needs
dimensional arrays have been implemented and You can customize the routine to fit your needs.
what their dimensions and element sizes are. For example, if you don't need the array and in
teger variable features, just delete lines 44465,
Pointer Settings Affect The 44525, and everything from 44700 on. That'll leave
Utility you with a much trimmer 800-byte package that
Now CLR your variables, enter this new tempo will still dump all normal string and floating-point
rary program step, and RUN the program again: variables. If you delete one of the simple variable
subroutines, though, you should also delete the
10 A$= "HELLO": A = 1983: AB$(2> = "HELLO
AGAIN" corresponding array variable type. Crunch out
the REMs and spaces and you'll end up with a
Not much happens, because it ends at line 44443,
tidy utility of well under 600 bytes that'll still fill
the subroutine protector. Type GOTO 44444 to
most needs. Program 2 is this condensed version.
view your variables as before. Now for a surprise—■
To use your dump utility as a debugging tool,
when you type GOTO 44444 and hit RETURN
simply insert STOP statements at desired points
once again, you will see a display of the variables
in your program, type GOTO 44444, analyze vari
used in the dump utility.
able values, and then type CONT to continue to
This happens because, on the first pass
the next break. Add the appropriate printer com
through the routine, line 44444 reads the pointers
mands, and the program will dump to the printer.
before they are changed to make room for the
routine's own internal variables. On the second See program listings on page 161. Qf
pass, the new pointer values include the storage

We'll back you up!

If you own a disk drive then you'll need "The
Clone Machine". Take control of your 1541 with this 'My only
package that includes: copy

1.) Complete and thorough users manual
2.) Copy with one or two drives
3.) Investigate and back-up many
4.) Copy all file types including relative types
5.) Edit and view track/block in Hex or ASCII
6.) Display tull contents of directory and print
7.) Change program names, add, delete files
with single keystroke
8.) Easy disk initialization
9.) Supports up to four drives

Special intro S39.95

P.O. Box 113
Dealers & Distributors pAi i /*>rt1\
Pompton Plains, N.J.
Inquiries Invited LALL {*>»*■) umrE 07444

112 COMPUTE!'* Gaietle April 1984

Dan Carmichael, Assistant Editor

VIC Chip Utility

This month we'll look at a utility that will ad But if you choose the high-memory option, the
just your screen, change the screen and border program automatically relocates into the top page
colors, or reset the VIC chip at the touch of a (256 bytes) of BASIC memory, no matter which
finger. memory expansion cartridge you may be using.
The high-memory version automatically seals
itself off so it is protected from BASIC. And be
cause the program is interrupt-driven, you can
Allocating time on the family TV set can sometimes
leave it running while you're programming, or
be a problem. In many households, nightly TV
even while running your BASIC program. But
programs take precedence over computer use. In
remember, the program will be clobbered if you
fact, I do most of my programming on an old black-
choose the tape cassette buffer option and the
and-white set that sat, unused, in the garage for
cassette drive is used.
years, and use the family set only to check colors,
Type in the program, and SAVE it on tape or
etc. However, the picture on the black-and-white
disk. Heed the usual warning about machine lan
set is way out of adjustment. The screen is shifted
guage programs: One mistyped DATA statement
so far to the right that every line of print is
truncated. can freeze up the VIC, so SAVE the program before
you RUN it. The program will pause a few seconds
The VIC chip has the answer to this problem.
while the BASIC program POKEs the machine
The 6560 Video Interface Chip (for which your
language utility into memory.
VIC was named) is a versatile chip that controls
everything from horizontal and vertical screen The Starting Address Is
adjustments to color generation, sound, volume,
and more. The VIC chip registers are located at Displayed
addresses 36864 to 36879. The program initially displays a brief page of in
Some aberrations in your TV set can be cor structions. At the top of the screen you'll see the
rected by simply POKEing various locations on starting address. To start the program, SYSrtHfitt
the VIC chip. But this can be time-consuming where nnnn is the number displayed on the in
because every time the VIC is turned off or on, struction page. The program can be stopped by
reset, or RUN/STOP—RESTOREd, the VIC chip pressing the RUN/STOP—RESTORE combina
is reset, and the registers have to be rePOKEd. tion. Below is a chart showing the various keys,
and how they control the program:
One-Finger Adjustments
To solve this problem, 1 designed a "VIC Chip Function After Typing After Typing After Typing
Utility." With this machine language program Keys S C

and one finger, you can adjust the TV horizontally fl move screen inc. screen/
or vertically, or change the screen/border color up border by 1

combinations. You can also reset the VIC chip to (3 move screen dec. screen/
down border by 1
its original settings. chip
f5 inc. screen/
The program is also relocatable. This means move screen
right border by ] 0
that it can be placed in the cassette buffer or in
f7 move screen dec. screen/
high memory at the top of BASIC RAM. If you left border by 10
select the cassette buffer option, the program
inc. = increment
does not use any of your available BASIC RAM. dec. = decrement

COMPUTEI's Gazette April 1984 113

The speed of the screen and border color changes As you can see, the program displays a message
can be controlled by POKEing memory location on the screen and then scrolls down until it is out
251. POKEing a value of 1 causes the color combi of sight. While it is at the bottom, the screen is
nations to change the fastest. Values between 2 cleared, a new message is displayed, and the
and 255 will slow (hem down; the higher the screen is scrolled up again. You can use this tech
number, the slower the changes. The program nique to display any messages you wish to on the
automatically defaults to a 0, the slowest value. screen.
For you machine language programmers, memory
location 251 ($FB) is READ only once by the VTC VIC Chip Utility
Chip Utility, so this valuable zero page space is
still available to you. 59000 POKE251,0sPRINT"{cLR} (DOWNLOAD IN
After the program has been run and the
59010 PRINT"[RVS3b{OFF]UPFER?" irem 109
machine language program POKEd into memory, 59020 PRINT"{DOWN}LOAD IN {RVS}H{OPP1IGH
you may NEW the BASIC program—it's not {SPACEJMEMORY?" :rem 117
needed. The utility can be used as a programming 59030 PRINT"{2 DOWN}PRESS (RVS}B{OFF} OR
{SPACE}(RVS)HtOFF)" :rem 244
aid. To find the best visual display, experiment
59040 GETAS;IFA$=""THEN 59040 :rem 39
with the screen and border color combinations. 59050 IFA$="B"THEN NN=828:GOSUB60005:GOTO
When you see a color combination you like, type 60100 irem 131
PRINT PEEK(36879). This will display the current 59060 IFA$="H"THEN POKE56,(PEEK(56)-l)sCL
color combination"value. You may use these color R:GOSU862010!GOSUB60005:GOTO63000
:rem 53
combinations in your BASIC programs by POKE 59070 GOTO 59000 :rem 60
ing 36879 with the same number. 60005 FORA=NNTONN+192:READB:POKEA,B:NEXTt
RETURN j rem 69
Screen Adjustment Locations 60010 DATA120,169,73,141,20,3,169,3,141,2
The registers (memory locations) that control the
1,144 :rem 190
vertical and horizontal screen adjustments are
60015 DATA 201,47 irem 64
36865 (vertical) and 36864 (horizontal). The utility 60020 DATA208,3,238,1,144,201,55,208,10,1
simply POKEs various values from 0 to 255 here 74,0,144,224,17,240,3,238,0,144,201
to move the screen. You can use these same mem ,63,208,10 srem 145
60030 DATA174,0,144,224,0,240,3,206,0,144
ory locations to simulate a scrolling effect. Enter
and run this following short BASIC program 32,237,3,76 :rem 186
which will scroll the screen in all four directions: 60040 DATA191,234,120,169,147,141,20,3,16
10 FORA=25TO140:POKE36865,A:NEXTA irem 1 9,3,141,21,3,88,96,165,197,201,39,2
20 FORA=140TO25STEP-1:POKE36865,A:NEXTA 08,6,32,222 :rem 239
srem 156 60050 DATA3,238,15,144,201,47,208,6,32,22
30 F0RA=5TO55:POKE36864,A:NEXTA :rem 165 2,3,206,15,144,201,55,208,12,32,222

40 FORA=55TO5STEP-l!POKE36864,A:NEXTA ,3,24 :rem 161

:rem 64 60055 DATA 173,15 :rem 71
Notice that while the screen scrolls up and 60060 DATA144,105,10,141,15,144,165,197,2
01,63,208,12,32,22 2,3,56,173,15,144
down, the screen format remains normal. How ,233,10,141 :rem 207
ever, when the screen scrolls right and left, it be 60070 DATA15,144,165,197,201,41,208,3,32,
gins to distort. This is normal for the VIC chip; 60,3,201,8,208,3,32,237,3,76,191,23
it's not something wrong with your computer. 4,162,0,160 :rem 215
600S0 DATA0,232,224,25 5,208,251,200,196,2
To see how you can produce interesting ef
fects in your BASIC program by scrolling up and
5,141,1,144 :rem 235
down, enter the following short BASIC program: 60090 DATA169,27,141,15,144,96 irem 2
:rem 214 60110 PRINT"(DOWN]TO STOP PRESS" :rem 80
10 FORA=25TO140:POKE36865,A:NEXTA : rein 1 60120 PRINT"RUN/STOP-RESTORE" :rem 133
:rem 247
25 PRINT"{DOWN}HELLO1" :rem 222
30 FORA=140TO25STEP-1:POKE36865,A:NEXTA:G 60140 PRINT"PRESS ";CHR${34);"C";CHR$(34)
OSUB 100 srem 232 srem 3
trera 12
50 PRINT"(DOWN}BYE NOW I":GOSUB100!rem 135
60 FORA=5TO55:POKE 36864,A:NEXT :rem 103 60160 PRINT"PRESS ";CHR3(34);"S";CHRS(34)
70 PRIHT"{CLR}SCROLLING LEFT" :rem 163 :rem 21
90 FORA=55TO5STEP-1:POKE36864,A:NEXT:GOSU :rem 191
B 100:END trem 96
;rem 13
100 FORT=1TO1000:NEXTT:RETURN :rem 133
114 COMPUTE'S Gazette Apnl!984
60190 PRINT-PRESS "; CHR$ ( 34 );"■♦"; CHR$ ( 34
) :rem 36
60200 END :rem 207
62010 NN=(PEEK(51)+256*PEEK(52)):RETURN
:rem 232
63000 N0=NN:GOSUB 6 3510:POKENN+150,PI:POK
ENN+151.P2 :rem 16


POKENN+95.P2 rem 134
114,P1:POKENN-I-115,P2 rem 147 COMPUTER GRADE
63008 POKENN+132,PI:POKENN+133,P2 rem 175
63010 NO=NN+177:GOSUB 63510:POKENN+157,PI
rem 233
C-05, C-D6, C-10, C-12, C-2D, C-24, C-32
63020 NO=NN+13:GOSUB 63510:POKENN+2,PIiPO
KENN+7.P2 rem 221
63030 NO=NN+87:GOSUB 63510:POKENN+76,PI: P
From the leading supplier of Computer Cassettes,
OKENN+81.P2 :rem 86 new, longer length C-12's (6 minutes pet side) provide
63500 GOTO 60100 :rem 46 the extra few leet needed for some 16K programs.
63510 P2=INT(NO/256)sPl=NO-(P2*256)!RETUR
BASF-LHD (DPS) world standard tape.
N :rem 217 <B
Premium 5 screw shell with leader.
Internationally acclaimed.

COMPUTE!'s Gazette Thousands of repeat users.

Error Free • Money back guarantee.

Toll Free Subscription Order Line
500 C-12's or C-10'i — jilt Bach
(w/ratals, add il • Shipping $17 .'500 Holds 12 cass«nes
1 500 Boies 131 aa • Shipping S10 i'5O0 */obo.«s
In NC 919-275-9809 (Free Candy oiler does nw applyl Includes edge labels
arid index card
WHITE. J3 OO.'IOO J?o 00/1000
Red. Blue. Green. Ytllow. Lavindti

VIC@ 20 OWNERS 14 0CV1DO S30 DO'lODO (Goes not apply id S00 quantity o'le'j

Call: 213/700-0330 ior immediate shipment

Fulfill the on Credit Card Orders

expansion needs ORDER MAIL a, 9SZ5 Vassar Ave. #G

of your computer NOW.. TO . . VORK1O Chaisworth, CA 91311
with the • ORDER FORM ■
ITEM 1 0O£EN 7 0OZEH ■• I1 '1
Eacri cassette u

CDS D IJO i mi
incluo« Mo 'OflK 10
'. 0*". 100 D uoo labels only Boies are
C-10 . ■ 1-6

sold separately We
prefer lo ship by UPS
as being tie rasiest and
C21 D 900 || 17 DO
safest Hyou need shijj-
CM2 h Jioo
This versatile memory and slot expansion peripheral HaiQBOi □ 2M n *oo
meni by Parcel Post,
cneck here Q.
for the Commodore Vic-20 Computer consists of a WTiira Labels G aco'ioo D iOCOilOOO
Colored Lamis
piug-in cartridge with up to 24KBvtes ot low power D tooiioo G 30OO.I0OO NOTE Additional

CMOS RAM and 3 additional expansion slots for criaiges outside ^

. - .-,- ,, ... 1 aoj-iiK
Corn in trail States
ROM, BAM and I/O. The cartridge also includes a re 5iDra?f CjM. in
Slupmtril! lo AK. HI.
set button (eliminaies using the power-on switch) Mill TOI*L
2nd USA possessions
rjo by Priority Mill
and an aulo start ROM selection switch. CVlf l«tHjBn» *U SJ#i 111 Canarja & Mei:co—
O..KMI IK Airmail
All otriers- Sea Mail
BRSM-8K. 8K RAM + 3 slots... S 84.50 OkfVOt 48 Ctwwr*** SUMS — «*ffa

SRSM-16K. 16K RAM + 3 slots . . . S 99.S0 TOIAl Ask about our

0RSM-24K. 2dK RAM ■*■ 3 slots . . . S119.50 CHECK OH UO- Ctiargera DUPLICATING
We accept checks, money order. VisaJMasteteard. Add
S2.50 lor shipping, an additional %2.50 tor COD. Mich Card No. Exp
igan residents add 4% sales tax. Personal checks-
allow 10 days to clear. " T.iHiDmarkolCommono'fl Name



3990 Varsity Drive ■ Ann Arbor. Ml 48104 • (313) 973-6266
Signature _ Phone
Compuier make 8. model _ . Disk' (y/n)

Talking To A Disk
Because several people have asked for information identified from REM statements, internal text,
on disk communication, we'll interrupt our con and the like.
struction of an all machine language game and Program 1 is a disassembly of the 64 version.
create a useful utility program this month. It will The VIC version is identical except that the pro
illustrate how to get information directly from a gram resides in the VIC from address 12288 (in
disk to a machine language program. stead of 49152) on up. Let's look at it step by step.
After you've had a disk drive for a few First we load the X register with the number
months, some of your disks are bound to get 1 to signify the file number. Then JSR (Jump to
crowded. You'll have backup disks, old disks SubRoutine) within the computer's ROM memory
you've retired for one reason or another, and disks at address 65478 which performs all the steps
you haven't used for a while. Housekeeping is necessary to prepare a file to be read by the
called for. computer.
From time to time you'll want to go through Next, we throw away the first six bytes in the
your entire disk collection, eliminating duplicated file. We don't want them. This could be called a
programs (unless they're deliberate backups) and "suction" routine because, like a vacuum cleaner,
scratching unwanted, revised, or unfinished pro it pulls bytes out and then discards them. The
grams. This cleans up your collection and makes first two bytes it gets from the disk point to the
it less likely that you'll need to waste time later disk location of the next data block in the opened
when looking for a particular program. You put file. The disk drive needs this information, but we
all your utility programs on one disk, all the games don't. Moving from block to block will be handled
on another, and generally organize things. What's automatically for us by the intelligence within the
left after this housekeeping is the best version of drive. The next two bytes are a pointer to the next
everything, logically arranged. line number in a BASIC program on disk. The
following two bytes are the current line number.
A Disturbance In Light We're not going to be listing line numbers—that
But this cleanup can be a tedious process if you would make the program more complicated—so
have to LOAD and LIST each program in a large we can ignore all of this information.
collection. Tedious and treacherous: You might We step down through six DEX instructions,
get so distracted that you scratch something valu JSRing each time to 65487, the routine which
able. The "Slist" program we'll write this month fetches a byte. It's essentially the same thing as
can make this job easier. It will quickly show a GET#. Each time we JSR to 65487, the accumulator
partial listing of programs from a disk, but, unlike register holds the value of the next byte on the
an ordinary list, the program won't be loading. disk. But we just ignore each byte and fetch the
No memory is affected. The program doesn't enter next one.
the computer except to slide across the screen At address 49165 we start our main loop by
and then evaporate as the photons scatter off the once again jumping to the get-a-byte subroutine.
top of the TV. It's information in its purest form— Before working with the byte in the accumulator,
just a disturbance in light. we first test for the end of a program. We load the
To keep the ML simple, no BASIC keywords number from address 144 into the Y register. ST,
will be listed on screen, but programs are easily the current input-output status variable, is always
116 COMPUTEfs Gazette 1984
Get Supertax by Rockware Data
and relax on April 15th...


Use SUPERTAX personal income lax programs to calculate your tax liability now and have plenty of
time to make year-end investment decisions to improve your position. SUPERTAX was specifically
created lor Commodore 64 users by a practicing CPA with a Master's degree in tax accounting.
Highly acclaimed by tax pros, SUPERTAX is easy to understand and a pleasure to work with.

■ SUPERTAX PROGRAMS are fully screen- SUPERTAX DATA can be stored on cassette
prompted and include a manual loaded with and diskette.
valuable lax information and guidance. SUPERTAX is available at 50% off to prior
■ SUPERTAX instantly recalculates your entire purchasers for all subsequent year's programs.
return when you change any item. SUPERTAX is an essential addition to your per
■ SUPERTAX is available on cassette and diskette. sonal software library—best of all it's lax deductible


Using either screen or printer output, SUPERTAX Includes Ihe efficient SUPERTAX I program This package
I generates clear and concise summaries of Page as well as the more detailed SUPERTAX II includes both Ihe
1 and 3 and Schedule A of FORM 1040 allowing program which makes all of the SUPERTAX I SUPERTAX I and SUPER
you to see at a glance and to quickly comprehend calculatons. but which also PRINTS THE TAX M programs PUJS a
your tax situation. This program also prints an INCOME TAX RETURN. This program prints program to calculate and print
OVERALL SUMMARY Ot the return snowing page 1, page 2, Schedules A, B, W, and G Schedule C of Iho FORM 1040.
Adjusted Gross Income, Itemized Deductions. (income averaging) ol the FORM 1040 as well Also included is a stand alone
Taxable Income. Regular Tax, Income Awraging as FOHM 3468 (investment lax Credit) on depreciation program which calculates
Tax, Minimum Tax and Payment Due or Refund— standard gowamment forms or on blank com and pnnls your depreciation schedule
all of which are calculated by the program. puter paper for use with transparencies. Any using bolh the old rules and the new ACRS
SUPERTAX I also calculates the moving expense input item can be changed in seconds and the rules. Output from the depreciation program
deduction, investment credil, taxable capital gains, entire return is recalculated almost instantly. is designed to serve as a supplement to IRS
political and child care credits, medical limitations, Diskette only $89 form 4562. Diskette only S99
and much more. Inpul is fast and easy and
changes can be made in seconds. This program Products shipped FOB Dallas, TX
NOTE: Pnnling on government loms
Commodore 64 is a trademark ol
actually makes tax planning a breeze requires friction Iced printer
Commodore Business Machines
Cassette or Diskette S79
For Brochure WRITE
TO ORDER Call Toll Free 1-800-527-4171 In Texas Call 214-739-1100 Financial Services Marketing Corp.
MasterCard, VISA, Money Orders, Bank Checks and COD Orders Accepted 10525 Barrywood Drive
(add 3% surcharge for credit card processing) (add $5.00 for COD) Dallas, Texas 75230

TELSTAR 64 8K in 30 Seconds
Sophisticated Terminal Communications Cartridge for the 64. for your VIC 20 or CBM 64
II you own o V:C 2Q or a CBM M ami nave been concerned
'PFO* 10D ODD CP 01 02 BELL 12:30:00 10:14:36 about the hjgh cotf of odi&k to ifcxe your pfog/arrs on
(TElSTAR's Status Lire) *cry your$&t no .ense* No- rnere'sthe RA6B.Tr Tne GA£3 t
comes \t-. a cartridge and at a n-,ucn. mucft lowe- p^ice
Don't settle for less than the best! thc^ tne outage ciU Andsoeed rhmsoneiosiRABEL'T
With the RABSfTvou can load ana1 rtore on >t>jr CBM
datasette an flKoogram in alntaJ 20 seconds compa'ed
• Upload/Down load to/from disk or tape.
to the curreni 3$ ol a VIC 20 c* CBM M, almost a*
• Automatic File Translation. tori as ite t5J1 disk drrve
• Communicates in Industry Standard ASCII. The JIABBiT <$ eaiy io msioiL allows one io Acoond
fiouc ProgrtsmL worii wifh or • iihoul hponnon
• Real-Time Clock plus Alarm Clock. Memory ana provide* two doin Me mooes The
• Line editing capability allows correcting and resendmg longcommand lines. UABfliT iinaroniyiosi bui reliable
• 9 Quick Read functions. Piwtab&l lor the VlC 20 contains an eitpaniion con

• Menu-driven.
nect H>you can simulioft&ojsly uwy&jr memory boa'd. elc]
$39 95
• Similar to our famous STCP Terminal package.

• Works with Commodore Modems and supports auto-dialing. NOW $59.95
The best feature is (he price — only $49.95 (Cartridge and Manual) THE BEST
Machine Language Monitor Cartridge Now, you can hove fhg mme professionally design
f ,'Eaiiof Q^ uiM on Space Sfiuttle pfoj

for the CBM 64 5*rri'lar svnlaianacorrimaftdi- Ho need to retearn peculiar

More than 20 commands allow you in access the CBM 64's Microprocessors
synioies and cemmanai *T>en you qo from PET Io APPLE io \
Registers and Memory Contents. Commands include assemble, disassemble,
ma rAi&emDte'. then the Editor
registers, memory, transfer, compare, plus many more. m Atjo includes Wc*d ^oces

Someday every CBM 54 owner will need a monitor such as Ihis. • fovert-J Ediiff Macros. Conoittonoi and mTeracir^
AssoT.bly. ana Auto - jero poge aOdressjng
Can ridge and Manual — $24.95 Shii not convnced leoo to* our free spec iNeei1

3239 Linda Dr.

Winslon-Salem.N.C. 27106
(919)924-2889 (919)748-8446 lMcntMCadi
Send for free catalog!

COMPUTE!'! Gazette April 1984 117

being updated in address 144. If it isn't zero (BNE, OPEN 1,8,3/'NAME"
Branch Not Equal to zero), the program is forced
And then SYS 49152 (64) or SYS 12288 (VIC).
down to 49200 which JSR's to the routine in BASIC
You'll see whatever program you gave as NAME
that stops communication. And we then RTS back
come rapidly slisting down your screen. To see
to BASIC. A reading error or an end-of-program
another, just replace NAME and SYS again.
signal from the disk will flip ST out of its zero
If we don't get sent down to this RTS back to
Program 1: vie And 64 sust
BASIC, however, we've found a byte that's part
49152 LPX * 1
of the program or file we want to see on screen.
49154 JSP 65478

An Undisturbed Accumulator
Remove Disk Data
Up in line 49165, we handed a byte to the ac
49157 LDX # 6
cumulator from the disk. It's still in there. Nothing 49159 JSR 65487
we've done has disturbed the accumulator. In 49162 DEX
line 49172, we CoMPare the accumulator to 0. 49163 BNF 49159
Since each BASIC line ends with a true 0 (the
Main Loop
number zero is stored as a 48 in memory and on
49165 JSR 65487
disk), we can signify this Lvnd-of-line on the screen
49168 LnY 144
by printing a carriage return when a zero comes 49170 BNE 49200
in from the disk. 49172 CMP # 0
If it is a 0, we BEQ (Branch if EQual) to the 49174 BEO 49190

little subroutine at 49190 which does two things. 49176 CMP # 32

4917R BCC 49165
First, it prints a 13 to the screen, which has the
49180 CMP # 128
effect of causing the cursor to move down one
49182 BCS 49165
line (carriage return). The BASIC routine at 65490 49184 JSR 65490
will put whatever is in the accumulator on the 49187 JMP > 49165
screen, even nonprinting characters like 13. Sec
Remove Line # And Lin
ond, we load the X register with 3 and jump up to
49190 LDA # 13
the suction routine to get rid of the two-byte line
49192 JSR 65490
link and the two-byte line number.
49195 LDX # 3
It's a two-edged sword that the BASIC PRINT 49197 JMP — > 49159
routine will send whatever il gets to the screen.
Close Channels
There are some nonprinting characters (delete,
cursor movements, colors, uppercase shift) that 49200 JSR 65484
49203 RTS
would play havoc with our listing. To eliminate
them, we've got to perform two more compares—
throwing out any character coming in from the See program listings on page 142.
disk which is below 32 or above 128. Lines 49176-
49182 do just that. If below 32, BCC (Branch Carry
Clear) up to the fetch-the-next-byte routine at
49165. Likewise, BCS (Branch Carry Set), if above
128. BCC takes effect if something is less than
something else. BCS takes effect if something is INCOME TAX BY SOFTAX
more than something else. DO YOUR 1983 INCOME TAX RETURN ON THE

Finally, if the byte in the accumulator passes COMMODORE 64

all these tests, we come to line 49184 which JSR's PREPARE VOUR OWN HE1UHN QUICKLY AND EASILY. DO RETURNS
to BASIC'S PRINT subroutine in ROM memory. TAX USER
Then we JMP (JuMP) back up to the fetch-a-byte
YOJ OET: FonB 1040. Schedules A. B, C. 0. E. G. 5E. W ana Form
routine and look for the next character. 2441 Menu Driven Print File and InpuL Storage Capability
BONUS: Form 1040 with 1MB 1064 Tax Rales {See *na( thai la-
You can either enter this machine language shelter may be worth on neil year's relurn)

program into your assembler or use one of the DISCOUNT: Couoon incliifjad far a discount on trie 1GB* version ot
BASIC loaders, Programs 2 and 3, to POKE it in OPTION: For 15 M more (J7« 501" you also got IPie Minnsiola
Individual Income Tai Return (A bargain (or Ihe louQhoil
for you. Don't forget, VIC owners will need at return in Ihe land )

least 8K of expansion memory and will need to SOFTAX, INC. P.O. BOX 332 ST. PAUL, MN 55102
POKE 56,48 to keep the machine language routine
safe up in high RAM. of Cpnmoaor* Electronics. LTD RESIDENTS ADD I1.. SALES TAX

To use Slist, first OPEN a file on the disk from

118 COMPUTE!'; Gazette April 19&M
The Professional Systems People And

Present Products From

The Software That Makes Them Work!
These are sample unit prices. We carry
SOFTWARE support items, cables, games...WE HAVE IT!

VIC 20, C-64, 8032, 8096 & B-Scrics
Personal Financial System 8032 Computer $ 619.00
A complete financial package for home 8050 Disk Drive 979.00
and small business, beginning at $69.00 8250 Disk Drive 1279.00
on tape. 9060 Hard Disk 1979.00
8023 Printer 529.00
SbSys 6400 Printer 1399.00

8032, 8096 & B-Series ^

The Small Business System
Available for 8050, 8250 and hard disk C-64 STUFF
drives. GL, AP, AR, 1NV. and payroll C-64 Computer $219.00
modules beginning al $299.00! Call for 1541 Disk Drive 249.00
specific pricing. 1702 Monitor 249.00
1526 Printer 339.00
vertical packages: 1600 Modem 69.00
80 Col. Card 59.00
LegiSys MSD Dual & Single Drives CALL
8032, 8096 & B-Series.
The total legal office information,
accounting and tickler system. Send $1 for catalog, refundable on first order.

Call Toll-Free by dialing:

LoadSys Outside Texas:
8032, 8096 & B-Series.
The total truck brokerage accounting 1-800-221-WORX
Inside Texas:
system. Call for free intro consulting.
Custom Programming wait for beep, then dial 008-3378,
& Repair Service wait for tone and dial 993,
Call for rates. or Lutfbock 806/797-2623,
Dallas/Ft. Worth 817/589-2622.

VISA & MasterCard. Add 3% Surcharge. M 1 C R 0 W 0 R X

Prices Tor mail order only, subject to change without notice. 4210 D 50th St. Lubbock, TX 79413

Numeric Keypad
Charles Kluepfel

Turn your keyboard into a "Numeric You could type in numbers much faster and with
Keypad" for more efficient numeric input. fewer errors if the VIC-20 and Commodore 64
The program lets you toggle to standard had a numeric keypad. This program offers this
keyboard or numeric keypad. Written for the handy feature by redefining a set of keys to repre
64, we've added a version for the VIC. sent numbers instead of letters.

VIC Notes On Numeric Keypad

Kevin Martin, Editorial Programmer

The VIC version of "Numeric Keypad" oper storing them in memory, and pushing them
ates the same way as the 64 version, but uses back.
an entirely different technique. Then, it pushes the high and low bytes
Program 2 is a BASIC loader which of the new return from the interrupt address,
POKEs machine language to the top of BASIC the processor status byte, and the A, X, and
and then executes a SYS to start the interrupt. Y registers to the stack. It then jumps to the
There is one major operating difference from normal interrupt routine. We push those
the 64 version: Instead of using CTRL-N to bytes so that after it executes the RTI in the
start, it uses CTRL" . interrupt routine it will return to the interrupt
The 64 version POKEs BASIC and the instead of the main routine.
Kernal ROM into RAM and then modifies It then loads the keypress value in 197 to
the Kemal. This luxury isn't available on the determine if the back arrow is being pressed.
VIC, but there is a way around it. The If it is, bit 2 of address 653 is checked to see if
hardware interrupt can be used to change the CTRL key is being pressed. If it is, we
the characters stored in the keyboard buffer jump lo the routine to see if there is a value
to different values. for any of the U, I, O, J, K, L, or M keys in
To use this program with another, first the keyboard queue. If there is a value for
LOAD and RUN. Since it resets the top of any of these, they are changed to either a 4,
BASIC pointers, be sure your program 5, 6,1, 2, 3, orO, respectively. We then jump
doesn't reset them. If it docs. Numeric to the ending routine.
Keypad will not function correctly. If either the back arrow or the CTRL key
is not pressed, we jump to a routine to deter
mine if the flag at 251 is set. If that flag is set,
Technical Modifications we go to the routine to change the characters
The more technically inclined might be inter in the keyboard queue. If the flag is not set,
ested in a few tricks used in the VIC version. we jump to the ending routine, which pulls
The program uses the interrupt by pulling the A, X, and Y registers off the stack and
the A, X, and Y registers from the stack. executes an RTI to get back into the program.

120 COMPUTE'S Gazette April 1984

there is no need to spend thousands
of dollars for a new business computer!
Nor is there need to go through the hassle and
expense of learning a complicated new system.
'An easy expansion will convert your Commodore* into a powerful business computer that will
have you running productive business programs as quickly as 1, 2 ... plug It in and grow!
Begin with the reliable new MSD" Super Disk... the only disk drive readily available for
Commodore computers. Gain instantaneous random access to programs and information, and
save valuable time in executing your programs.
Next... interface the new, state-of-the-art dot matrix printer... the Panasonic' KX-P1060 for
hard copy that will support and document your task.
Add expansion modules for greater power and up to 64K memory. Our terminal emulators allow
you to communicate with other computers, such as the SOURCE, DOW JONES or COMPUSERVE.
Complete the expansion process with software applications to address accounting, word
processing, and other business requirements.
Don't spend thousands of dollars on a complicated PC ... expand your Commodore and get down
to business. The expansion is so easy you will be up and running the same day.
Call or come by today to learn more about Your Business Softwares "Expand Your Business Plan."

Panasonic KX-P1O60 $399.00

Super Disk
Dual Super Disk
VTE 40 Terminal Emulator 49.95 Single Disc Drive Dual Disk Drive
CTE Terminal Emulator Cassette 9.95 plus the faster plus the faster
CTE Terminal Emulator Diskette 17.95
Expansion BAM 3K 35.95 IEEE Interface IEEE Interface
8K 49.95 $429.00 $749.00
16K 79.95
24K 129.95
Ace ou nts Recei vab le/ B i 11 i ng
Accounts Payable/Checkwnting
General Ledger 69.00 Texas and Canada 214/526-3348
Inventory Management 69.00
Any 3 of the above programs 199.00
Calc Result 139.00
Home Accounting Plus 69.00 UPS Blue Label add $3.00
Bank Street Writer 54.00
Typing Tutor 22.00
Speed Reader II 64.00
First Class Mail 44.00
Oracle (data base) 139.00
Tax Advantage 54.00
Multi Plan 89.00
Quick Brown Fox 64.00

Prices are for prepaid orders only and reflect a

cash savings; send a cashier's check or money
order. Charge card orders are slightly higher.
All items subject to availability and prices
subject to change without notice. Overseas
orders do not include shipping and handling.

® signifies manufacturers' trade marks

and copyrighted products.
Here comes the new generation of SM's
When you run "Numeric Keypad," your
computer will behave normally until CTRL-N is
pressed. The cursor will disappear until you press
another key. Then the M, J, K, L, U, 1, and O keys
will be 0, 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, and 6. By using these along
with the numeric keys 7, 8, and 9, you have a program series for the 64.

^11 TEXT64
numeric keypad. Pressing CTRL-N again toggles
the keyboard back into its normal mode (again
causing the cursor to disappear until you press The professional wordpmcessor with more than 30 functions
like multi-calor selection, up to 120 columnsVlino without
a key). additional hardware, dnd h replace, enhanced blockhsndling,

You can put press-apply transfer numbers on direct-access to SM ADREVA-files. and all
the other usual fflaturei.
the affected keys to help you remember which
number each key represents. You should use PLACE YOUR CHECK OB MONEY ORDER NOWI

very small ones, so they won't interfere with the

normal identification of the keys. (Transfer letters
and numbers are available at art supply stores.)

Use Numeric Keypad In A

You also can activate and deactivate the numeric
keypad from a program, in anticipation of numeric
or nonnumeric input, by POKEing location 50216
with 255 or 0 respectively. The user can always
override this with CTRL-N. (CTRL-N is never
passed to the program, but serves only the toggle
function.) Just don't POKE any value other than 0
or 255, as that would prevent you from toggling
with CTRL-N.
SM SOFTWARE INC. 252 Bethlehem Pike Colmar. PA18915

Here comes the new generation of SM's

If you prefer that the keypad start out activated,
change the next-to-last DATA item in line 520 from
0 to 255.

Redefining The Keys

program series for the 64.
To redefine the 64 keys, we transfer the Kernal

SillADREVA 64 from ROM into RAM, change it to intercept the

M, J, K, L, U, I, and O keys, and convert the data
Your personal professional Dddross-flla-systom. Up to 620
addresses per disc in direct nccoss. Including 6 extra lines tor to the appropriate numbers.
Individual text/record. Totally menue-driven Lines 3 and 4 POKE the machine language
Powerful editing and backup facilities.
Several hardcopy features.
into an unused area of memory from the DATA
statements in lines 500-560.
Lines 10 and 20 transfer the BASIC interpreter
and the Kernal from ROM to RAM with the same
addresses, so we can modify them. The Commodore
64 Programmer's Reference Guide, page 261, states
that turning off bit 1 in location 1 switches only
the Kernal addresses to RAM; actually it affects
both the Kernal and BASIC address ranges.
Line 25 merely signals that the transfer is
complete (it takes about a minute).

The Intercept Routine

Line 30 sets up the routine which intercepts
keyboard characters. It is put at the end of the
routine that pulls a character from the keyboard
Finally, line 40 activates the modified Kernal
SM SOFTWARE INC. 252 Bcthlebem Pike Colmar. PA 18915
by turning off bit 1 of location 1 (changing the Here comes the new generation of SM's
value in location 1 from 55 to 53). Once this is
done, the change has been made, and pressing
CTRL-N toggles between a numeric keypad and
the normal usage of the M, J, K, L, U, I, and O
keys. program series for the 64.

A Color Memory Bonus

A couple of bonuses have been included in lines This index -sequential file manager gives you a new dimension
31 and 32. Line 31 changes the portion of the on direct access files. Up 10 40 keys, various length lor each
record and up to 10 files can be handled al the
Kernal on newer 64s that puts the background some time by this sophisticated module. How could your
color into the color memory for screen locations programs stir vivo without SM-ISM*

being cleared. Instead of putting the background PLACE YOUR CHECK OH MONEY ORDER NOW!
color there, it will now put 1 (for white), so that if
addresses 1024 to 2023 (decimal) are POKEd, a
character will appear. (See "Commodore 64 Video
Update," COMPUTErs GAZETTE, July 1983, page 44.)
POKEing 1000 locations as suggested there
takes a few seconds—not something to do for
every PRINT of a screen clear.

Choose A Color
In the normal mode, printed characters will be
light blue on a dark blue background, while
POKEd characters wili be white. Change the
POKE to location 58587 in line 31 to some other
number if you would like a color different from
white for POKEd screen characters. Of course, if
you have an older 64 which does not clear color
SM SOFTWARE INC. 25Z Bethlehem Pike Colmor. PA 18915

Here comes the new generation of SM's

memory to the background color, leave out this
patch (line 31).
Line 32 eliminates the printing of a question
mark and space in an INPUT statement prompt.
program series for the 64.
This makes it possible to write:


and have the resulting screen look like

The famous programming tool with powerful bnsic exlentions
[ike merge, find, renumber, dump, truce, enhanced TiTLE:COMPUTE!'s GAZETTE
floppy-monltnr (disc doctor] and high efficient niachina-language-
moniror with buiil-in assembler, diassemblor. trace and lots In any place where you really want the ? and
of more helpful feattires-really : goldon Tool!
the space, you can put them inside (he quotes.
See program listings on page 143. <5f

Send for your FREE COPY of

[Your complete source for C-64 and Vic software!
You've never seen anything like id!

BOX 187, FRASER, Ml. 48026
SM SOFTWARE INC. 252 Belhlnhom Pifce Colmar. PA 1B915

COMPUTEI's Gazelle April 1984 133

Quick Fix
For Color RAM
A Fast And Easy Way
To Avoid Invisible Characters'
On The Commodore 64
David Gross

A previous article, "Commodore 64 Video Up

date" (July 1983), discussed an internal change
by Commodore to the 64's operating system.
Late-model 64s do not automatically fill color
memory with white, so characters POKEd di
rectly into screen memory merge with the back
ground color and are "invisible." This article
presents a quick, simple solution.

"Commodore 64 Video Update" in the premier

issue of COMPUTED GAZETTE mentions that, when
the screen is cleared, late-model Commodore 64s
fill color memory with the screen background
color. This renders all characters that are POKEd
(not PRINTed) onto the screen "invisible," be
cause they are the same color as the screen. Early-
This starfield, POKEd directly into screen memory, will
model 64s filled color memory with a contrasting appear on both older- and late-model 64s because of a quick-fill
color (white) when the screen was cleared. method for color memory.
The earlier article suggested an easy one-line
programming solution: a FOR-NEXT loop to
into memory address 53281. Next, print a CLR/
POKE the appropriate color code (such as 1 for
HOME character or CHR$(147). Last, reset the
white) into color memory. The line looks like this:
screen to the background color you want. Do not
FOR X = 1 TO 1000: POKE 55295 + X,li NEXT clear the screen a second time! Color memory will be
It works fine, but takes about ten seconds to exe set to give POKEd characters the first screen color
cute. Luckily, there is an even easier and much that you used. That's because whenever you
faster way. clear the screen, the new 64s automatically fill color
memory with the color code found at 53281.
Let The 64 Fill Color RAM For example, suppose that you want to create
First, simply set the screen to the color you want a random starfield, white on black. The answer is
the characters to be by POKEing the color code the program below. It places 100 white stars at
124 COMPUTED Gaielte Ap.111984
CodePro-64 Ic) 1BB3. SMA


A new concept
0 — Using CodePro-6*
1 — CBM-G4 Key board Review

in interactive visual
BASIC Tutorial
2 — Introduction to BASIC
3 — BASIC Command!
4 _ BASIC Statements
5 — BASIC Functions

Graphics & Music

S — Keyboard GRAPHICS
7 — Inirodudion lo SPHITES
S — SPRITE Generator
S — SPRITE Demonstrator

A — Introduction lo MUSIC
B — MUSIC Generator
C — MUSIC Demonstrator

Oth et Options
K — Keyword Inquiry
R — Run Sample Programs

Now you can learn to code in BASIC and more advanced concepts. You leam about pie program can be used alone or incorpo
develop advanced programming skills with sprite and music programming. rated into your own programs to read the
graphics, sprites and music—visually. You SPRITE GENERATOR saved music file andrepiay your songs.
learn by interacting with CodePn>64, a new & DEMONSTRATOR Our music demonstrator lets you experi-
concept in interactive visual learning. men^ with various combinations of music
CodePro-64's sprite generator lets you
SEE PROGRAM EXECUTION define your own sprites on the screen. You programming parameters and hear the
Imagine actually seeing BASIC state leam how to define sprites and what data results. All you do is enter rows of SID
ments execute. CodePro64 guides you values correspond to your sprite definitions. parameters on the screen to create a particu
through structured examples of BASIC pro (You can then save your sprite data to a lar sound. Then you hear each sound by
gram segments, You enter the requested data playingthe "keyboardorgan"ir\'KdiUme3s
diskette file for use in your own programs.)
orletCodePro-64 do the typing for you. (It You can easily experinientmth different you shift from row to row of SID parameters.
will not let you make a mistake.) definitions and make changes to imme By seeing your input and hearing the result
You step through and actually see the diately see the effects. you quickly leam how to create new musical
execution of sample program statements by We also help you leam to program with sounds and special sound effects.
simply pressing the space bar. CodePro-64 p y ggy Whether you're a beginning programmer
does the rest. You see statements with cor- you can see the effect of changing register or an experienced professional. Codefto-W
lesponding^ra/j/ircs and variable value values. You can experiment by movingyour will help you improve you Commodore 64
displays. sprite around in a screen segment, change its programming skills. We're sure because
color and see the effects of your changes. You CodePro-64 was developed by a team of two
leam by visual examples. professionals with over25years of software
CodePro-64's extensive tutorial guides
development experience.
you through each &\SIC command, pro MUSIC GENERATOR
gram statement, and function. You get clear CodePro-64 is a professional quality edu
explanations. Where appropriate, you invoke cational program for the serious student of
Our Music Generator and Music Demon-
BasicView to see examples execute and personal computing. And it's fully guaran
stratorvA]l provide hours of instruction and
watch their flow charts and variables change. teed. Order yours today.
creative enjoyment. From the beginning of
By seeing graphic displays of program seg your instruction you can compose simple HOW TO ORDER
ment execution you learn by visual example. tunes on the screen using the generator. OrderyourcopyofCodePro-64 today by
You leam faster andgrasp programming Once you've completed a composition you mail or phone. Send only $59.95 plus $3.00
concepts easierwfth CodePrt>64 because can save the tune and its associated SI D shipping and handling to:
you immediately see the results of your input. parameters to a diskette file. Our music sam- SYSTEMS MANAGEMENT ASSOCIATES
You control your learning. You can go 3700 Computer Drive, Dept. G-l
through the tutorial sequentially, or return to OUR GUARANTEE Raleigh, N.C. 27609
the main menu and select different topics, or We guaranteeyoursatisfaction. You Available on diskette only. MasterCard/-
use keywords to select language elements to must be satisfied with CodePro-64 for VISA accepted. For faster service on credit
study. You can page back and forth between the Commodore-64. Try it for 10 days card orders, call toll free 1-800 SMA-RUSH.
screens within a topic at the touch of a func and if for any reason you are not satisfied (1 -800-762-7874). Dealer inquiries invited.
tion key. return it to us (undamaged) fora lull
Once you have practiced and mastered the refund. No risk.
BASIC language elements you mow on to Machines, Inc.

■ wr >wh » c ■ ■ O

U *
1 JJrii B. fl t » II W i
W i
1 UIP) l.d O * M M I
i if*r.| o. n a » i» 1* ?

. ■ *H«-- - .Id Urll,-.

|Lh -~t«i™, —-■"--.■«

random locations on a black screen. The program
runs in half the time it would take if each star's
corresponding color memory location were set
This technique can be very useful when con
verting Commodore PET programs that POKE to
the screen. Simply change the screen memory
addresses to fit the 64. Then, before any CLR/
HOME is printed in the program, add a command
to set the screen to the desired character color.
Remember to set it back to the screen color im
mediately after the CLR/HOME is printed each

Quick Fix For Color RAM

by Eastern House
30 POKE 53281,0:REM SET SCREEN TO DESIRED A Communications Cartridge
BACKGROUND COLOR - BLACK :rem 71 for the Commodore 64.
40 FOR C = 1 TO 100:REM PLACE 100 WHITE S
Upload/Download. Status Line, etc. Works with
TARS ON THE SCREEN :rem 144 your Commodore 16OO or 1650 Modem.
50 P = INT(1000*RND(1))+1024;REM SELECT R Auto-dialing, eic. when used with the new

60 POKE P,42:REM PLACE ASTERISK AT LOCATI Cartridge and Manual - S49.95

ON P :rem L58
:rem 2ffl

Record Keeper1


"MJ is a winner..." "Learn MINI JINI Record Keeper in 20 minutes" Commander Magazine
Super duper database tor VIC-20 and COMMODORE 64" Software Infl
Anyone who keeps records can use MINI JINI" Record Keeper".
Adrmnrslralors Collectors Medical persons Schools
Sill payers Families Organisations Store owners
Hobbiests Parly planners Students
Bond clippers Card writers Post oil ices Teams
Checkwnic'S Libraries Salespersons Writers

Plug in a cartridge for 50 to 500 records on tape or disk.

Print labels and reports, alphabetize, do math and statistics.


Application Templates 514.95 each AVAILABLE IN SPANISH
5-f 5 Itins with easv to use instructions. MINI JINI' Archlvo Instant* ■
Organize the HamshacK" Classroom planning" Coming soon: FRENCH. GERMAN and ITALIAN
Parly plan

COMMODORE 64 arujYIC-20 are Ir,ioomarts ol CommoOorp Bui'"ess >,tacii'


BOX274 KINGSBRIDGESTN., RIVERDALE, NY 10463(212)796-6200

126 COMPUTED Gazette April 1964

Software Discounters VIC-20/C-64

Universal Input/Output
Board for VIC-20/64 America
S.D. of A.

P.O. Box 278-Wildwood, PA 15091

In PA (412) 361-5291
Commodore 64 Software Tiny 214x234x1 in.
Beach Head (T or D) J23 300 baud
Neutral Zone |T or D] S23
Direct Connect
Bank St. Writer (D) S43 Originate/Answer • Full
Chopliftor (CT| S24
Duplex • Carrier detect LED
Loderunner (D). S21
• 16 channel 8-bil A'D converts' with 100 World's lowest coit modem. High performance
Operation Whirlwind {0} J25
microsecond sampling lime. Conllnantal Teias Instrument single chip modem Design.
• 1 D/A oulpui. FCM (D) $33 Works (or both VIC-20 and Commodore (>;
Home Accountant (D) .$47 Plugs into user's port. Use with single or multi
• 16 high voltage.'high current discrete out-
Tax Advantage (D) S39 line phones. Plugs into telephone base.
Deslgnware 300 baud. Direct conned. Originate/answer.
■ 1 EFtOM socket. Creature Creator (D) S25 Full duplex. Carrier delect LED. Crystal controlled.
■ Use multiple boards lor additional channels Math Maze (D,