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The Electronic Castle: Managing Your Home With Your Computer

COMPUTE'S d.ia-_..1984 ©
fcsue9Vol.2, No.3
02250 £1.95UK $3.25 Canada

For Owners And Users Of Commodore VIC-20"'And 64 Personal Computers

CUT-OFF! Educational Games

A fast-action two- FOB* Tfa& 64
player game written ■>

in machine lan
guage. For the VIC
and 64.

Sea Route To Guess America.

India: A Historical Travel across the
Simulation^ country in a covered
A colorful and ex wagon by answering
citing recreation of questions about U.S.
the fifteenth-century history, geography,
The DataBase and current events.
Portuguese voyages
As A Home to India. A valuable learning
Infomiicilion tool.
Center Also In This Issue
A look at this power A Guide To MAKING
ful new software for Commodore User
personal computers. Groups—Part 1

Computing For
Families BASIC editing tech
Machine Language niques for unique
For Beginners listing formats. For the
VIC and 64.
. . . . Your mind is the ultimate weapon in this unique war game.
Strategy, not force, is the key to victory as you move your battalion through a
series of testing skirmishes and battle actions. Your ability to command, to give
orders, to move your troops skillfully determines the success of your assault
and combat operations. Operation Whirlwind requires the concentration of
chess—a typical game may take between one and three hours—and the
ability to master the
many tactics of wag
ing a full scale war.
How well you can
focus your strategic
energies will decide
whether your vic
tory is Question
able, Marginal,
Tactical, Strategic or
a Breakthrough. A
great game for the
thinking game player.
Available on disk.

Pit your concentration against

e computer. Here's a puzzle game that
will keep the whole family bemused, befuddled and play
ing happily for hours. A grid of 36 numbered boxes con
ceals an animated menagerie of colorful characters,
creatures and objects. The object of the game is to match
identical squares and then solve a hidden word puzzle.
There are many game variations with puzzles that are
frontward, backward, or scrambled. Matchboxes. It's the
most memorable memory game you've ever played!
Available on disk and cassette.*
HOME COMPUTERS. COMMODORE 64 and ATARI sis iradomariuotAtin. Inc., and
Commodore El selfon let. LIU., respociirely.

"Cassette on Atari computers only.

Discover the Difference

17 Paul Drive San Rafael, CA 94903
These are the hands ofa
master typist. (Jonathan Pandolfi, age 7.)

MasterType—the best-selling program that

turns learning into child's play.
Given the choice of learning a skill or playing a
game, most kids go for the game.
So how has MasterType" gotten so many
young kids to sit still long enough to learn to type? .tracts
By being fun. By bringing the fast action of typing "*
video games to each of MasterType's lesson
program segments.
f* ta the
Kids get so caught up in zapping spaceships,
ney hard ly-tealize they've-mastexed-theJceybciaJxl_
Warning: Parents like it, too. And may find
themselves unwittingly becoming expert typists
before they know it.
Disks: Apple; Atari; Commodore 64* $39.95
IBM-PC $49.95
Cartridges: Atari; Commodore 64 $39.95

Try the other programs in the Scarborough

System—Songwriter'" PictureWriter'," Phi Beta
Filer'," PatternMaker" and Run for the Money'.' All
Scarborough software utilizes your computer's
capabilities to the fullest. And perhaps more Apple, IBM and Alan are required trademarks of Apple Computer Inc, International
Business Machines Corp and Alan, Inc. respectively Commodore 64 is a trademark, of
importantly, all are easy to use. Commodore Electronics Limiiud

HBVfl ^P^ m m 4^ m You'll grow with ua

Scarborough Systems, Inc., 25 N.Broadway, Tarrytown, New York 10591^^ m

And not just because they're educational, but also because they happen
to be a lot of fun to play.
In fact, they're so much fun, parents have been known to sneak in a
few hours of play when the kids are asleep.
After all, if your kids are actually enjoying a learning game, there must
be something to it. And there is; Fun. excitement and real educational
value. That's what sets Spinnaker games apart from all the rest. And
what brings parents back for more.
We offer a wide range of learning games for a wide range of age groups;
3 to 14. One look at these two pages will show you how we carefully
designed our line of learning games to grow right along with your child.
So if you're looking for a line of learning games that are as much fun to
play as they are to buy, consider Spinnaker Games. They're compatible
with Apple, Atari, IBM PC, PCjr, Commodore 64, Coleco Adam and parents
who don't mind their kids having fun while they learn.

lt's new! KIDWRITER™ lets kids A trip through ALPHABET ZOO™

make their own storybook. Ages 3 to 8.
Ages 6 to 10. It's a race, it's a chase, it's
KIDWRITER gives children a Alphabet Zoo, a game that sends
unique new format for creating your kids zipping through the
theirown stories. With KIDWRITER. maze, after letters that fit the
kids make colorful scenes, then picture on the screen.
add theirown story lines. It's as Your kids will have fun learning
versatile and exciting as your the relationship of letters and
child's imagination! sounds, and sharpening their
Best of all, while it encourages spelling skills. They'll be laughing
children to create word and pic at every turn.
ture stories, it also introduces
them to the fundamentals of
word processing. KIDWRITER
will bring out the storyteller in
your children—and in you!

1 •»■

AWIriin(J*tB[i.rBr«Bimr»ritfsilfrrHtKir1rAii|il(!cemputtr.ln(snii*t.ri.lncrts|»( IBM PCind PCjr.Cflmmo<li™64WI1 Col«i>Aa«maf«i!M(m«hsoflnii!mnio™iBijs,™!isM«liin«Cef!> CummMorr

trfnwiKiLro •rMCol«olj*lujin«rnf«!i™r> • l9e4.5wnnKw-wn™.nCtBB ill 115111jrrtXvM

FRACTION FEVER™ brings DELTA DRAWING™ Have fun FACEMAKER™ makes faces fun.
fractions into play. creating pictures and computer Ages 3 to 8.
Ages 7 to Adult. programs. FACEMAKER lets children
FRACTION FEVER is a fast-paced Ages 4 to Adult. create their own funny faces on
arcade game that challenges a Kids love to draw. And DELTA the screen, then make them do
child's understanding of fractions. DRAWING Learning Program lets all kinds of neat things: wink,
As kids race across the screen in them enjoy creative drawing and smile, wiggle their ears, and more.
search of the assigned fraction, coloring while they learn com Plus. FACEMAKER helps famil
they're actually learning what a puter programming concepts. iarize children with such com
fraction is and about relationships With DELTA DRAWING, even puter fundamentals as menus,
between fractions. kids who have never used a com cursors, simple programs, and
All in all. FRACTION FEVER puter before can learn to write graphics.FACEMAKER won't
encourages kids to learn as much programs and build an under; make parents frown because their
as they can about fractions—j standing of procedural thinking. children will have fun making
for the fun of it! It's easy, clear, and lots of fun! friends with the computer.

Diikjfor: Applu. Atari. IBM PC and PCjr, Commodore 6-1,

Cartridges for: Atari, IBM PCjr. Commodore 64. Coteco Adam.

Wft make learning fun.


/f was as peaceful a day as A/ew Vorir ever fftfs. w/ien suddenly the sky wenl dark and
a monstrous droning noise filled the air. Hordes of grotesque aliens were swooping down from
all sides, biting into the Big Apple as if they hadn't eaten for days. They were laying eggs, too.
Horrible slimy things that got down into the subway tunnels and began clawing their way up.

began blasting away. I thought I stood a fighting chance, bul fuel's running low... another wave
ol invaders on the horizon,., signing off...
SAVE NEW YORK? For the Commodore 64.

March 1984 Vol. a. No. 3

The Electronic Castle: Managing Your Home With Your Computer Selby Boteman . 26
The Data Base As A Home Information Center Kalhy Yakal 32
Inside View: Dieter Demmer, The Programmer Behind Delphi's Oracle Kalhy Yakal 40
Getting Started With A Disk Drive, Part 5: Questions And Answers Charles Brannon 106
The Inner World Of Computers, Part 5: Small Is Beautiful Tom Prendergasl 110
A Guide To Commodore Users Groups, Part I Koiby Yakal 134

Cut-Off!: All-Machine-Language Game For Commodore 64 And VIC-20 Tom R. Halfbill 46 V/64
Trenchfire Don Gibson 52 V/64
Poker August J. Kwitowski 56 V/64

Data Manager For The Commodore 64 Dole F. Brown 69 64

Purple Turtles Lance Eiko 70 64
COMvoice; Voice Synthesizer For The VIC-20 Todd Heimarck 72 V
Seafox For The VIC-20 Tony Roberts 76 V

Computing For Families: Computer Show And Tell Fred D'lgnazio 16
Tree Tutor For Tots Janet Arnold 60 V/64
Guess America! For 64 Ellen Barcei 64 64
Sea Route To India: A Historical Simulation For The 64 M.J. Winter 66 64

The Beginner's Corner C. Regena 84 V/64
Machine Language For Beginners: Double Decker Richard Mansfield 90 V/64
Making More Readable Listings Brent Dubach 96 V/64
PowerBASIC: ASCII/POKE Printer For VIC And 64 Todd Heimarck ... 117 V/64
Dynamic SAVE For VIC And 64 Stephen S. Leven 120 V/64
Hints And Tips; Printing Tables Pat Slater 126 V/64

The Editor's Notes Robert Lock .6

Gazette Feedback Editors & Readers 10
HOTWARE: A Look At This Month's Best Sellers And The Software Industry Kathy Yakal 78
VICreations Dan Carmicbael 124 V/64
Horizons: 64 Charles Brannon 128 64
Simple Answers To Common Questions Tom R, HaifhM 132
News And Products 138

A Beginner's Guide To Typing In Programs 143
How To Type In COMPUTED GAZETTE Programs 144
MLX: Machine Language Entry Program For Commodore 64 And VIC-20 Charles Brannon 145 V/64
The Automatic Proofreader 146 V/64
Bug Swatter: Modifications And Corrections
Program Listings 148 V/64

Product Mart . . . 181

Advertisers Index 184

' = General, V=VIC-20, 64 = Commodore 64.

COMPUTEI's GatfMcis published twelve limes each by COMPUTE! Publications, Inc., I'ost Of(ko Box 541)6. Greensboro. NC 27403 USA Phone (91<J}273-9S09.
Kditorial offices .ire located iit 505 Edw.irdia Drive, Greensboro, NC 27409. Domestic subscriptions: 12 issues, S2Q. Send uihsenptiun orders or dungc of address
(P.O. Form3579) loOrculaHcn Dept., COMPUTE!1* GoifIM, P.O. Bos 5406, Greensboro, NC 27401 Second dassuppbatton pendtngBl Greeni>buru, NC 2/403 and
additional mailing offices. Entire contorts copyrlRhl 0 him bf compuhi Publlcallnns, \ns AM rtghta rraerved isbN U7.17-3716. KGac
COMPUnl PubIicatkins. Inc.. One of Ihr AHC Publijhlng Compintts: ABC Publishing, Pitsidtnt, Robert C. Burtuni 133U Avenue oi Ihg AmiTicas; New York, New York lOUii).

GAZETTE On Disk! Price for a single issue ordered approach that allows us to de
Last issue, we announced that by phone from COMPUTED liver you a tremendous amount
we would be beginning a sub GAZETTE is $7.95 plus $1 shipping/ of first-rate software, including
scription service through which handling. disk and postage, for less than $6 a
you couid receive a monthly month on a twelve-month basis.
Price for a six-month subscrip
disk containing all significant By the way, you won't need to
tion is $39.95.
programs from each issue of specify whether you have a VIC
COMPUTED GAZETTE. We prom Price for a twelve-month sub or a 64... each issue will be de
ised full details in this issue, and scription is $69.95. signed to have the programs for
here they are. We've revised it a both.
Each issue of the GAZETTE
bit from the structure that we Enjoy your GAZETTE this
Disk will contain all of the pro
briefly outlined in our February month, and we'll look forward
grams in the corresponding issue
issue. to sending you the first issue of
of the magazine (with the excep
Rather than begin the pro the GAZETTE Disk.
tion of short program examples
gram by actually extending your or other programs that are only
GAZETTE subscription, we're a few lines in length).
going to treat the GAZETTE Disk You'll receive each subscrip
as a separate entity. Thus, you tion issue by first class mail at
may subscribe to COMPUTED approximately the same time
GAZETTE, for example, and later Editor In Chief
you receive your copy of the
subscribe to COMPUTED gazette magazine. If you order a single
Disk. You could even subscribe copy disk instead, you'll receive
to the Gazette Disk alone, but it approximately two weeks after To reserve your charter disk,
best make sure you can get your you place your order. write to COMPUTERS GAZETTE
hands on a copy of that month's Each issue's programs will Disk, P.O. Box 5406,
issue of the GAZETTF.. All of the arrive on a first quality disk, Greensboro, NC 27403. Indi
article text and explanations will duplicated and tested to our cate whether you wish to order
still appear only in the magazine. specifications. Charter sub (1) a twelve-month disk sub
The goal of GAZETTE Diak is to scribers (those who subscribe scription for $69.95, (2) a six-
free you from the time and prior to March 30), and those month disk subscription for
energy necessary to type all of who order the first issue of the $39.95, or (3) a single issue
these programs in every month. gazette Disk, will receive as a for $7.95 plus $1 shipping/
And the disk should save you bonus the excellent word proc handling. Outside the United
debugging time as well. essing program by Charles Bran- States and Canada, please
Here's the information non that appeared in our January add an additional $3 per in
you'll need to begin your charter 1984 issue. dividual disk ordered for
subscription to COMPUTED We're rather excited here shipping/handling. For a six-
GAZETTE Disk: about the launch of our first disk month subscription add an
The disk service will begin with service. You'll save time and additional $18. For a twelve
the May or June issue of the typing headaches, and we'll be month subscription, an addi
GAZETTE. The logistics of getting delivering the same excellent tional $36. All prices are in US
the service started require that quality in a format you won't funds.
these be the earliest possible have to debug. And best of all,
issues. we've taken an aggressive pricing

6 COMPUTEVs Gazette Marnh 1984

If you could live on half
your income, just think what
you could do with the other halfI
Use Lifestyle Budgeting on
your personal computer.
ifestyle Budgeting!?. Since Lifestyle Budgeting is some
thing everyone needs, versions are
available for IBM, Apple. Commodore,
Atari and Colecb personal computers.
rst budget planning
W Get control of your
>stem that considers all money today!
your needs. Lifestyle Budgeting will be available
through your local computer retailer
Others have done it... starting in February... but why wait?
so can you. You can order the complete package
Dr. Harper Roehm. the author of today.
Spending Less and Enjoying It More Order now!
(the McGraw-Hill booh that provides Call 1-800-547-1565,
the basis for this .system), designed In Ohio Call 1-513-435-2335.
Lifestyle Budgeting when his income !!.■■.!■■ inqulrit& .■•. ',..-• . . ■'
was cut in half due to a career change
from corporate auditor to university
professor. As a result, his family has
lived comfortably, fulfilling their
"wants' as well as their "needs" for
Y es! I'd like to know how to set up a
liveable budget.

over 20 years. Please send me

of LJfFsrylc Budge ling
We show you "why" (Including Ihe McGraw-Hill
as well as "how." booh Spending Less uml
Enjoying II More, and the
Lifestyle Budgeting Is the first com
accompanying software
plete budgeting package to Include and manual I at S49.95
an easy-to-understand book explaining each plus S3 for shlpplnfi
the behavioral aspects of successful and handling, tin Ohio ndd
G'li sales livx.J
budgeting as well as software to handle
the mechanics. It takes a practical
approach, showing you not only how Name
you're spending your money, but why you can identify your true priori Adtass
ties and plan for them.
Planning is the key. City Stale

lifestyle Budgeting's software is a

forecasting and modeling tool, not a
checkbook balancer. It will track your *SB&9 Type computer

check or money order endosed □


spending patterns, identifying where

you're wasting valuable funds. Using VISA or MaMerCard >'o
that information, and your family's
priorities, it will show you specifically Expiration Date Bank No. (MasterCard)
how to project and plan future costs.
Little time, and no accounting
Ai-ailaiMr on ItHkcnc only Altow W mtlei fm dtlMty
experience required.
Hliurn iinipcui &\il paynicnl Np
Unlike most budgeting systems.
Lifestyle Budgeting does not require
■ Corporation

detailed expense records. It will only
take a couple of nights to set up and
then only one or two hours a month to
monitor. And... a big plus... Lifestyle
Budgeting is written for you, not your
CulVL-lin ( .ii |!iM,.iion I Mi' .(i I.- !H• i.111'. 11n.i
accountant. I* 0. Etux no- Ccnttnillf, oil 4S459h
COMPUTE! PublicationsJnc®
Address all advertising materials to:
Patti Williams, COMPUTE!'* GAZETTE,
■ ir - i.' I' ^ MiC -■ AW/i ra Canon . -r, ^^^ 505 F.dwardi.1 Drive, Greensboro, NC 27409
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Editor in Chief Robert C Lock New England 617-720-1S88
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Production Editor; Ottis R, Cowper. To clinical Editor; Charles New Mexico 213-378-8361
Brannon, Program Editor; Tony Roberts, Assistaul Managing Colorado 303-595-9299
COMPUTE! Publications, Inc.. publishes
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Editorial Programmers Post Of/ice t)o\ 5406, Greensboro, NC 27403
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Office Hours: 8:311 AM to 4:30 I'M Monday-Friday
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Dale McBane
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Data Processing Authors of manuscripts warrant that all materials submitted to

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relumed if author provides a si'If-ad dressed, stamped envelope.
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JoAnn Sullivan 619-941-2.113 HBSmenlS. Opinions expressed bv .liithun are nut netessarilv those
of COMPUTE! Publications, Inc.
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Harry Blair 919-275-9809 PET, CBM, VIC-20, and Commodore 64 are trademarks of Commo
dore Business Machines, Inc., and/or Commodore Electronics Limited.
Jules E. Thompson, Inc. Other than as cii\ independent supplier of quality information and
National and Canadian Sales Representatives services to owners and users of Commodore products, COMPUTE!
1290 Howard Avenue, Suite 303 Publications, Inc., is in no way associated with Commodore Business
Burlingame, CA 94010 Machines, Inc., or any of its subsidiaries,
fl COMPUWt Gozetle March 1984
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* Math Functions for Column Totals of features can be put to use almost immediately — by even
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Commodore 64'" is a trademark of Commodore Electronics Ltd.

Do you have a question or a problem? Have Bad Disk Saves

you discovered something that could help other I have a Commodore 64 with a 1541 disk drive,
VIC-20 and Commodore 64 users? Do you have and have encountered a problem that perhaps
a comment about something you've read in you can help with. When saving and replacing
computed gazette? We want to hear from you. programs on disk, sometimes certain programs
Write to Gazette Feedback, computed gazette, will replace the wrong programs on disk. For in
P.O. Box 5406, Greensboro, NC 27403. stance, I SAVEd a program using the save with
replace command, following the procedures in the
Restoring DATA 1541 instruction manual. The program SAVEd
OK, but it messed up another unrelated program
I am writing an educational program for my 2Vi-
on the disk. Is there anything I can do to solve
year-old, but I've run into a small problem. 1 want
this problem other than always maintaining a
to play a short tune when a correct answer is given,
backup disk? What's to stop the same thing hap
but after running the program once, I get an OUT
pening to the backup disk?
OF DATA error message. My question is this:
How do I get the program to reread DATA state Davin Dahlgren
ments? We have covered this problem before, but because we
Jeff Nicholas still receive a large volume of mail about this bug, it's
worth covering again.
When miming a program, BASIC uses memory loca
Creating a backup disk is not the solution to your
tions 63-66 as "data painters." These pointers act as a
bad saves. The problem is with the save with replace
checklist. Whenever the program READs an item from
(SAVE "(u'0:filename") command itself; it is sometimes
a DATA statement, it also updates the pointers. The
prone to error. This problem has popped up in Commo
next READ looks at the next item, based on what is in
dore disk drives throughout the years. Although the
the pointers. If there are more READs than DATA
1540s and 1541s were supposed to have an updated
items, the computer prints the error message and stops
DOS that solved this problem, it apparently still exists.
the program.
The answer to your question is simple: Don't use
In answer to your question, the pointers can easily
the save with replace command. We recommend you
be reset with the RESTORE command. This command
either scratch (PRINT#15, "S0:fi!ename") the old
can be placed anywhere within a BASIC program, and
program before SAVEing, or SAVE the program using
will reset the pointers to the beginning of the DATA
a different filename.
items. For example, the following BASIC program
would continuously READ the first DATA number
and never get to the second. Colorful Sprites
I recently purchased a Commodore 64. 1 have
20 DATA 1, 2, 3 read the book which comes with the computer. In
the chapter that deals with sprites, it doesn't men
Another command, more drastic than RESTORE,
tion how to change the colors of the sprites. Can
is CLR. When a BASIC program sees CLR, it resets the
you tell me how?
data pointers (so you can READ the DATA statements
I would also like to know how to tell if two
again) and all variables are CLeaRed. Numeric variables
sprites collide.
are set to zero and string variables are erased. It also
clears the variables and pointers for FORINEXT loops Glenn Yellico
and GOSUB/RETURNs. The memory locations you POKE to change the colors
In addition, anytime you LOAD, RUN, or NEW of sprites 0 through 7 are addresses 53287 to 53294.
a program, the data painters are automatically reset. The POKE values to change colors are 0 through 15,
10 COMPUTE'S Gazette March 1984
What do voice hardware speech characters that converse or
synthesizers have devices. Without opponents that crack jokes.
in common with the hardware. And you can do it all with
movies? And without the ease, With phonetic or plain
They don't make high price. English input.
them like they S.A.M. is the S.A.M. can say anything you
used to. program that like, any way you like—you
Because now makes other pro choose the pitch, tone, speed
there is SAM. The grams talk. Busi and inflection.
Software Automatic Mouth'" ness programs. Educational If you want, you can even
The first software-only speech programs. Recreational pro choose the voice.
synthesizer for Commodore 64, grams, too. Here's talking to you, kid.
Atari and Apple computers. You can use it in any num (The Apple version includes an
Developed by Mark Barton ber of useful ways. 8-bit digital-to-anaiog converter
of Don't Ask Software. S.A.M. To write instructions that talk. and audio amplifier on a card.
is designed to give you all Stories that tell themselves. It requires 48K and a speaker.
the power of conventional And creative new games with The Atari version requires 32K.)

Say it again, S.A,

'■ '■-.'. -'■;•:■:

/ I I
"~~ Deu(>li)|)i;d by Don't Ask Computof Software, In
i 1 i ■*■

8295 SouttVLa CienegS Blvdy

/"Inglewpod, CA 90 30"f/"{213^. 215-d 5 2 9 /
(Apple is a tegi^ereci t'^njsrna^< of Apple Corr/piJleV."t]1c--jygti is a trademark orSlafiHnG,
~ ~i-—^. /' I Cotiimodoie.64 isfa Itadanark oVCammcgote E^ctronids. Lid."
corresponding to the 16 colors available on the 64. Below MLX program, entering the correct starting and ending
you'H find a chart of some of the more useful sprite addresses. You can then use SHIFT-L to load what
control memory locations. you've already typed. To continue with the listing, use
Sprite collision is defined by the Programmer's SHIFT-N to skip ahead to the line number where you
Reference Guide as occurring "... when a non-zero need to start. Be sure !o read the MLX article in this
part of a sprite overlaps a non-zero portion of another issue for more details.
sprite or characters on the screen." The byte you PEEK
to detect a sprite-to-sprite collision is 53278. foraspritc- Musical Power Supplies
to-"background collision, PEEK 53279.
I own a Commodore 64, and I have a question
These bytes normally have a value of zero. The
about the power supply. When I plug it in, it starts
eight bits in these memory locations correspond to the
to hum. The humming noise seems to get lower
eight sprites. When a collision is detected, the corre
the longer (he machine is on. Is this something I
sponding bit is set to 1. The bits will remain set until the
should be worried about? Could you please ex
bytes are PEEKed. Once PEEKed, the bytes are auto
plain the noise?
matically reset to zero. It should also be noted that sprite
Todd Blecher
collisions can occur even if the sprite is off the screen.
According to a representative at Commodore, this is
nothing to be concerned about with either the VIC-20 or
turn on sprite 53268
the 64. It is quite common for small transformers such
sprite data pointers 2040-2047
sprite color 53287-53294 as the one inside your power supply to hum. This is
expand sprite X. 53277 caused by the metal plates in the transformer vibrating
expand Sprite Y 53271 as the 60 cycle per second electric current passes through
turn on multicolor 53276
it. You've probably heard the same hum from the trans
multicolor one 53285
formers in fluorescent lights.
sprite/sprite collision 53278 The thing to watch out for in all power supplies is
sprite/data collision 53279 heat. If your power supply is operating at an excessively
For more information on sprite programming and high temperature, take it back to your dealer and have it
what values to POKE into the above locations, consul! checked.
your Programmer's Reference Guide.
Heat, Humidity, And The
MLX Techniques Computer
I used MLX fo enter a machine language program 1 recently purchased a Commodore 64, and I have
from COMPUTED GAZETTE, but I entered the wrong two questions. First, I'd like to put the computer
ending address. When MLX reached that address, downstairs where 1 have room for it, but in the
it turned off and I could not add any more lines summer it gets very muggy and damp down there.
to the program. How can I finish my program? Is this atmosphere bad for a computer? Second,
Is there any way 1 can LIST an ML program from can I use my own tape recorder with my 64 or do
MLX? I have to buy the Commodore Datasselte?
Roger C. Fitch Robert Zarriello
When machine language programs are published in Environment can be an important factor for your com
COMPUTED GAZETTE, the MEX program can be found puter. The moist atmosphere you describe could be
in the listings section. The short explanatory article harmful. If the humidity is so high that water condenses
about MLX (usually found in the gray pages preceding in the computer casing, it could result in permanent
the program listings) is very helpful. damage.
In addition to its main function of entering machine Extremes of heat and humidity are also enemies of
language programs, MLX recognizes four commands: tapes and disks. A program saved an a hat day when
SHIFTS (Save) will save a copy of the machine the tape or disk is very flexible might not load properly
language program to tape or disk. on a cold day when the plastic material used in tapes
SHIFT-L (Load) will load a previously saved and disks is much stiffer.
program. Another thing to watch out for is ventilation. The
SHIFT-D (Display) will display the machine lan computer and its peripherals should be in a place where
guage program currently in memory. This is the equiv they are well ventilated and can be kept cool. Also,
alent of BASIC'S LIST. watch out for rooms that are heavily carpeted, especially
SHIFT-N (New Address) allows you to begin those with ivool carpets. The static electricity created as
typing at a different address. The addresses appear as you shuffle across the room could bring the computer
line numbers in the MLX listing. down (lock it up), or it might even permanently damage
If you entered the wrong ending address, use the chips in the computer, or erase data stored on mag
SHIFTS to save ivhat you've typed, then reRUN the netic media.
12 COMPUTEI's Gazelle Morel. 1984

.- ■*■ ■

Now that you hove it. put it to work. C64 Great for new users. C64 TUTOR cures
TUTOR put* you in charge with o Commodore computerphobia and promotes computer
64 tutoriol. screen display editor, sprite editor, literacy.
music synthesizer 6 programmers calculator. Take it from me. with o little power, the
Use the turorial to leorn what your possibilities ore endless.
Commodore 64 can do. And how ro do it. Available for $29.95 ot your computer
Create, edit 6 sove one page of letters deoler.
and/or pictures with the screen display editor.
Enter sprites from the Commodore Manual. Comprehensive Software Support,
Or make up your own. Then edit and save 2016 Afwsio Di. SuneD,
them using the sprite editor. Sprite creation is rtedondo Deoch CA P0278 /(
quick, ond eosy. Play music wirh the music 210 316-2561 V
synthesizer. Use the programmer's calculator
to add. subtract, multiply [> divide in decimal,
hexadecimal and binary. Includes AND. OR.
XOR. Shift ond 1'scomplemenr (unctions.
Yes, you can use a standard tape cassette recorder on, then enter the following BASIC line:
with the 64 and the VIC-20, but you will need a special 10 PRINT "ABC"
interface not made by Commodore. You can expect to
pay between $20 and $30. Contact your local computer No~w type PRINT FREW) (this is the command
equipment dealer for information on the available that tells you how much unused BASIC memory is
interfaces. left). Jot down this number, then turn your machine off
and on again.
I lozoevcr, we believe that the Datassette is a very
durable and reliable recorder. Now enter the same BASIC program in the fol
lowing crunched form:
Crunching To Save Memory 10 ?"ABC"
Occasionally, when I am writing a program, I Again, type and enter PRINT FREW). You'll HOW
abbreviate BASIC keywords. However, when I see that the amount of memory left is the same, even in
list the program on my VIC-20, all (he keywords the crunched form.
are displayed full length, and 1 can't remember For even more proof, LIST the program. The BASIC
which ones I've abbreviated and which ones 1 line is now uncrunched. Again enter PRINT FREW).
haven't. Is there some technique by which I may The amount of unused memory still has not changed.
disable (his and crunch my programs faster? If you're looking for ways to make your BASIC
Ted Targosz programs use less memory, there are many. The most
Your programs are crunched. BASIC command common and most useful is to simply get rid of unneeded
keywords are stored internally as one-byte tokens. spaces within the BASIC program lines. But don't
Whether you enter them in the "crunched" form (for worry about those BASIC command keywords; they use
example, ? for PRINT) or type in the full word version, up only one byte no matter which way you enter them
the machine still uses a one-byte token.
Wiwn you enter a line in the crunched form then
LIST the program, it wilt print the whole BASIC Using An 8-Pin Plug With The 64
keyword. This is simply a convenience of the screen I have a question concerning the Commodore 64.
editor, and docs not use any additional memory. In your article on improving the TV quality on (he
For example, turn off your VIC or 64, turn it back 64, all of (he information refers to the 5-pin plug
on the back. I have one of the new models with
the new 8-pin plugs, and have yet to see <i pinout
diagram for it. I would like to make the changes
indicated in the article, but 1 don't know which
pins do what. Can you help?
W A N T E D ! Mark Poole

SOFTWARE AUTHORS Here is a list of the eight pin connections on the new
Commodore 64s, and what they do:
Pin Purpose
1 LUMINANCE same as 5-pin
2 GROUND same as 5-j'in
3 AUDIO OUT same as 5-pin

Broderbund Software is looking (or

4 COMPOSITE VIDEO same us 5-piM
5 AUDIO IN same as 5-pin
new authors—bolh in-house and free
6 CHROMINANCE without luminance
lancers—to join its international team ol pro
gramming wizards. If you have an original,
S CHROMINANCE without luminance
machine language entertainment product lor
the home micro market, lei us show you the
Disk Drive Solution Update
advantages of working with our team ol de
sign, production and distribution specialists. In December's "Gazette Feedback," we printed a
letter from Sieg Deleu, president of Kubetek Sys
Call or write lor a free Author's Kit or send
tems Limited, stating that his firm had the ROM
us a machine readable copy of your work lor
kits for converting the 1540 disk drive to a 1541.
prompt review under strictest confidence.
You have nothing to lose and perhaps a great Several readers have written asking for Kobetek's
deal to gain, address. Here it is:
Kobetek Si/stems Limited
I /;.S Commercial St.
New Minas
Now Scotia
^Broderbund Software B4N3E6
Canada ©
17 Paul Drive, San Rafael. CA 94903, Tcl:(415) 479-1170
If you own
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Computer Show And Tell

Fred D'lgnazio, Associate Editor

In n recent issue of COMPUTE! (October 1983), 1 income members of the community. A library
wrote about educational computing at home and at could serve an especially valuable purpose
school as isolated "islands" of computer learning. by collecting information on the ways
I expressed the fear that unless bridges were built computers can help special children who are
between these islands, much of the computer's learning disabled, or physically or mentally
educational potential would never be realized. handicapped.
In the article, I suggested some home-school
bridges that Kenneth Komosky (Educational Starting Simple
Director of the Educational Products Information The program to link home and school computing
Exchange—EPIE) and I had come up with, is extremely ambitious. It is not something that
including: can be implemented overnight. It is a good idea
• Community-wide training of parents, to start simple with one or two bridge-building
teachers, and children. activities, then add new activities gradually. I
have found this out from personal experience.
• Community-wide computer cooperatives
In my hometown, Roanoke, Virginia, I am
in which computer vendors work with schools
trying to put some of these ideas into practice. In
and families to disseminate information about
the last few weeks I have learned that building
computers and offer discounts to families
computer bridges between home and school is a
(especially low-income families).
major undertaking. All we have set up, so far, is a
• Communication—A Parents and Teachers swaying, rickety footbridge made up of popsicle
Computer Association could be formed. It
sticks. But it's a start.
could hold monthly meetings and publish a
monthly newsletter that evaluates new com A Warm Reception
puter products and educational software, I have a five-year-old son (Eric) in a local kinder
and spreads the word about educational garten and an eight-year-old daughter (Catie) in
computing activities going on in homes, class
third grade.
rooms, and libraries in the community.
I began my bridge-building project by calling
• Opportunities for Action—The community Catie's teacher, Mrs. Albertson, and volunteering
could organize computer faires, computer to loan the school an extra computer we had sitting
flea markets, and "brag nights" to show what around the house.
the kids are doing with computers at home I was nervous about calling Mrs. Albertson
and at school. and offering her the computer. I was afraid that
•"Sharing—The community could begin col she might not want a computer in her class. I was
lecting old computers and software and set worried thai she would think I was an uppity
up a "computer library" (perhaps as a section parent bent on interfering with her teaching.
of the public or school library). The library I was wrong.
could keep review materials on the latest "What a terrific idea!" Mrs. Albertson said
hardware and software; it could help increase when she heard my proposal. "We'd love to have
the ratio of computers to kids in school; and a computer in the room. When can the computer
it could make computers available for low- come for a visit?"
id COMPUTE!'* Gazette March 1984
The day you bring your first CA1™ learning
game home and watch your child play,
you'll know the excitement of a winning
Active Family
■M|fl w I Your family and CAl's growing family of
animated, full-color programs have a lot lo
share —beginning with a willingness to
reach beyond the ordinary to achieve the
At Your Command
You may meet a princess, a juggler or a
dragon in Wizard of Words.™ You may
appear as a guest on TV in Master Match,™
The Game Show™ or Tic Tac Show™ Or,
you may extenci these programs still further
with our LearningWare™ diskettes, offering
hundreds of questions matched to the
teaching strategies in the games. In every
case, CAI puts a world of imagination and
learning at your fingertips. And puts you
and your child in control.
Unique Approach
Key features place CAI thinking tools in a
class by themselves: Each program comes
with its own library of subjects. But that's
just the start. Our unique authoring system
let's you or your child create your own
lessons on any topic, tailoring the program
to your family's needs —and no computer
knowledge is required. Add the fact that
weVe kept the vital ingredient -FUN- in
learning, and ourprouen success is no
surprise. Over 2,000 school districts now
use CAI programs to teach essential
vocabulary and logic skills in a variety ol
subject areas.
CAI supports its products —and you —with
an unconditional guarantee and a free
backup disk. And provides compatibility
with the most popular computers: Apple,®
IBM* (and soon Commodore™).
Wise Choice
CAI Is a group of experienced educators
and programmers who believe that success
begins with opportunities you create at
home. Ask to see a demonstration of CA!
programs at your local computer store, and
see for yourself just how rewarding a good
education can be.



Bringing Ideas M Home
1442A Walnut Street, Suite 341
Berkeley, CA 94709 (415) 526-9100
Applets a ragtstcrod trademark ofAppto Computers, Inc. IBM is e
r$Q<$tonid trademark of IBM Corp. Commodore ts a trademark of
Comtnoilore Business Machines, Inc
MusiCalc Jlie CreativeMusicSystem
MAKE MUSIC PLAY and style of music you want, and also In fact, it delivers the quality and
On Your Commodore 64" to play your favorite tune. The com capabilities professionals have spent
puter screen will show you what the thousands of dollars for—up until now.
Put the MusiCalc " diskette Into your
music's doing as you play and how to Once you have the Commodore 64
Commodore 64. Sit down. And brace
yourself. control it. computer and disk drive, you can get
Start by selecting one of MusiCaic's started for under S100 with the Musi
You're about to discover an entirely
new way to make music. With Musi-
preset scores. Try combining that with Calc 1 Synthesizer & Sequencer.
Calc, the creative music system thai a preset sound you like. Choose the This is a standalone software
scale you want to play in—anything program you'll never outgrow. And
makes music play. Almost instantly, the
from jazz to Japanese. with the variety of other MusiCalc
whole family will be able to create
Presto! You've got music. products currently available, plus the
and perform all kinds of music. From
Exercise your musical creativity by many more items Waveform will be
rock 'n roll to tedmopop, from classical
putting the three voices together any introducing in the months ahead, you
to country western.
way you want, and playing whichever can expand your music system along
MusiCalc makes music more fun,
more rewarding and easier than it's
parts you'd like. Make changes and with your interest and ability.
add special flourishes to create your
ever been before. THE MUSICALC SYSTEM
own compositions.
NOTEWORTHY SOFTWARE liven a musical novice will sound MusiCalc includes a full line of soft
MusiCalc software turns your good right away. And the greater your ware that brings great music as close
Commodore 64 computer with disk musical talent, the more challenging as the keypad of your Commodore 64.
drive into a sophisticated musical and exciting MusiCalc becomes. MUSICALC 1, Synthesizer &
instrument. And it rums you into a Sequencer Tunis the Commodore 64
composer, performer ami conductor. into a sophisticated musical instru
Although simple to learn, MusiCalc ment—a three-voice synthesizer and
MusiCalc I's Synthesizer & Sequen
was designed to meet the needs of pro fully-interactive step
cer is the heart of the system. With it
fessional musicians. sequencer. Play along with
you can use your

computer key a song or write your own.

board to program Develop your own instru
ment sounds. And record
the tempo, key
the music you create.
MUSICALC 2, ScoreWriter" Works MUSICALC TEMPLATE 2, New DEMO DISK An entertaining and infor
with the Synthesizer & Sequencer Wave and Rock Works likeTemplate 1 mative demonstration of the capabilities,
to change your musical improvisations and features the latest Technopop scores features and uses of the entire MusiCalc
into musical notation. With the addi nnd sounds. Requires MusiCalc 1 System. Also available in tape cassette.
tion of an optional ■ graphics printer to operate.
you can ^ . turn ■ MUSICALC MusiCalc will make music come
Jive for the entire family. It's a fun and
ji The MusiCalc Synthesizer & educational way to Introduce your
Sequencer, 5co reWriter, children to music and computers. And
and Keyboard Maker, plus no matter what your background, you'll
the two Templates, in one find yourself playing and understanding
cost-savirig package.
music in an exciting new way.
HIT DISKS Recordings to Ask your computer or music dealer
play on your computer. about MusiCalc. Or send in the attached
Original Technopop com coupon and $5 for the MusiCalc Demo
positions, current hits and Disk or cassette. Discover MusiCalc,
old standards performed by the creative music system.
the Waveform Band. Ask
your dealer about current
own original compositions into sheet
music. Requires MusiCalc 1 to operate.
MUSICALC 3, Keyboard Maker" MUSICALC 4 A totally new concept in
Enables you to create your own custom
musical keyboards. Comes with over
30 preset keyboard scales from around
keyboards, ideal for everyone from
novice to professional. A professional wavef
quality keyboard that's remarkably easy
the world—everything from classical
to leam how to use. The keyboard comes
to rock. Requires MusiCalc 1 to operate. with special software that allows it to
MUSICALC TEMPLATE 1, African work with MusiCalc 1 and 2, enabling CORPORAT ION
and Latin Khythms Add this to the you to play music on the keyboard MUSIC PRODUCTS DIVISION
MusiCalc I system and it provides and record it on disk to play back or
additional musical scores and patches print out later. Add MusiCalc 4 and play
you can play along with or use to 1912 Bonlta Way, Berkeley, CA 94704
any scale in any key, for even greater (415)841-9866
develop your own compositions. musical capability. Available soon.
Requires MusiCalc 1 to operate. All RrghtE Hfl5mv«0 ' 19B3 W
CHTunoWe Mil Iwfemork at
I lold Mrs. Alberlson that we didn'l have a discount on all computers purchased by parents
TV set or monitor for the computer. She would if the school handled the purchases.
have to scavenge one somewhere. Also, I told her I volunteered to act as educational software
that the class would need a table for the computer consultant to the store and to tell the store owners
and a .six-foot-square space in the room next to an about the most popular programs that we used
electrical outlet. Mrs. Alberlson said she'd talk over at the school. We would test the programs
to the lower-school principal and see what she in school, then let the store know which ones
could do, were best.

The Project Grows Where Should The

Two weeks later, Mrs. Albertson called and told Computers Go?
me that she had talked with the lower-school I spent the next few nights on the phone with
principal, the headmaster of the whole school, Mrs. Albertson and with Eric's two teachers, Mrs.
and the head of student government. Everyone
I'aitsell and Mrs. Carling.
had gone looking for funds and had put together I proposed that the second computer go into
enough money to enable Mrs. Albertson to buy a Eric's kindergarten class. That would make com
new 20-inch color TV for the computer. puters available in the kindergarten and third
After hearing about the TV, I didn't even ask grades. The first and second graders could try out
about the table, the space, and the electric outlet. the programs that would be running on the third-
I was sure that they, too, had been taken care of. grade computer. Their teachers could also take
When 1 visited the classroom a week later, 1 found them to the kindergarten and let them try the
they had. programs for younger children that would be
Mrs. Albertson said that everyone at the running on the kindergarten computer.
school was excited about the project because they I liked this approach because we could exper
hoped that the computer could become a resource iment with using the computer at two distinct
for the entire third grade, and, secondarily, for developmental levels. It would be interesting to
the whole lower school. It was to be the first com see what programs would work best with the
puter for kindergarten through grade three. different age groups.

Enlisting The Local Computer A Sneak Preview

Store Catie and Eric's teachers felt that I should bring a
I was so encouraged by the school's response that computer to the school for a visit before we per
I drove over to the local computer store and pro manently installed the computers in the class
posed that they get involved, loo. I showed them rooms. Mrs. Albertson had a table, a space, an
my "Islands Of Learning" article in COMPUTE!, electrical outlet, and a big color TV, so we used
and I asked them what they would like to contrib her classroom.
ute to our bridge-building project.
The computer store owners' response was
amazing. They said they would be happy to
donate two disk-based computers to the school
for a trial, two-month period. They also offered a
An educational ad
abouteducational software
Yr ou studied all the computers
Lookfor our allows parents to enter material into
display iti
and finally chose die one your yourfintortti a lively, interactive format. And be
family found most useful. One cause AEC's programs arc grade-
ami pith up
of the main reasons you wanted level oriented, you can help your
your free
a computer in the first place is to help tditctilitnml child all the way through school.
your children in school. Not just to leaflet.

teach diem how to use a computer, AEC doesn't play games

but also to help them get good grades with education.
in basic school subjects like reading
or geography. AEC programs do contain games, but
That's why you should know only as rewards for learning achieve
about AEC, American Educational ment. For example, once your child
Computer - one of the country's AEC knows that successfully completes the objective
most important developers and good grades are important. in die Matchmaker Geography pro
pubbshers of educational software. gramme or she can play an exciting,
Any educational software could help action-packed
You ran htlpyvurchild nil school performance in some way. game.
Ike nay tkrvugh xhool That's because the computer is such
a patient teacher, giving instant feed
back to questions and allowing chil
dren to learn at dieir own pace.
But AEC software has an impor
tant advantage. Our approach has
been student tested under actual
classroom conditions. So we know
it keeps the chilli's interest while it
AEC grew up on education. teaches.

The management of AEC started in AEC gets parents involved in

educational pubbshing, with collec the learning process.
tively over !00 years of experience Sure, the games are fun. But
in die field. AEC knows curriculum With cither AEC's diey're not die basis, and certainly
and how American education is MATCHMAKER'"or not the primary focus, of any AEC
practiced in the classroom. EASYREADER1" Series, software. Our focus is strictly on
That's important because m you can take your learning. And isn't diat what you
children should learn at child through die grades buy educational software for?
home the same way diey in subjects such as If you have more questions about
learn at school. Other Phonics, Word Attack educational software,
wise, you'll have a very Skills, Reading Com contact your nearest
confused child,and con-. prehension, Spanish, AEC educational soft
fusion is not the way World or US Geogra ware center. And
to better grades or phy, and Grammar. Our thanks for being a
better learning. teacher tested system concerned parent^

American Educational Computers 2450 Embarcfldero Way, Palo Alto, CA 94303

.-i'. n.*iin'n.-Jl»d<:Ruik.
I selected Catie and Eric's best educational
programs to show off at school. I drove to the
computer store and picked up a computer like the
two that would be donated to the school. Then I
drove to the school.

Foiled By Murphy's Law

Igot to the-school half an hoiirearly so that I would
have plenty of time to set up the computer. I
lugged the computer into the classroom and
started plugging in cables and cords. When I was
done 1 turned on the computer and the TV.
Nothing happened. The TV screen was filled
with static.
I fiddled with the channel selector. 1
checked all the connections. I
took everything apart and
plugged it back in.
Still nothing.
1 turned around to face the
class. I was going to tell the kids
about finicky computers and
Murphy's law. At the rear of the room
I spotted about eight adults. While in 5_ ./
my back had been turned, the school
principal and several teachers had
slipped into the room for the
demonstration. Instead of a demonstration all
they got to see was me fussing and fuming
at the dumb computer. and "aaahing" appreciatively. Everything was
1 was so embarrassed. There I was, a computer going smoothly.
expert, and I couldn't even get a picture on the Then I ran into a brick wall.
display screen. "Those programs are all very impressive," a
I was afraid to look at my two kids' faces. I teacher called from the back of the room (the very
knew what they must have been thinking: If back of the room). "But they are obviously in
daddy's going to humiliate us this way in front of tended for older children. Don't you have any
our teachers and friends, it looks like it's time to thing for the children in this room and for our
put him up for adoption. kindcrgartners?"
Whoops ....
Culture Shock I didn't know how to answer her. I wanted to
After a desperate phone call and a whirlwind trip be flip and say, "Dear lady, both of my children
back to the computer store for extra parts, 1 finally use these programs without any supervision. Eric
got the computer to work. Once it decided to work, has been using some of these programs since he
the computer didn't embarrass me any further. It was only two years old."
behaved itself the rest of the afternoon. I wanted to say that, but I didn't. It had begun
I finally relaxed. I popped disks into the to dawn on me that the computer programs I was
disk drive and started showing off some of Catie demonstrating may have looked like fun to me and
and Eric's favorite programs—Delta Drawing the kids, but to the teachers they looked like a cram
(from Spinnaker), KmlaPainler on the Koala Pad course in calculus or electrical engineering.
(from Koala Technologies), Rocky's Boots (from The teacher who had spoken walked up to
The Learning Company), Early Music (from the front of the room. She pointed to the display
Counterpoint Software), Mtttli Maze {from Design- screen. The menu to KtuilnPnuilcr was on the
Ware), and Bunk Street Writer (from Scholastic and screen. "There must be dozens of different options
Broderbund). on this screen," she said. "How can we teach our
1 put the disks into the computer, and Catie kindergartners to operate a program that is this
and Eric demonstrated the programs. complex?"
We whisked through the programs at high I explained to the teacher that little kids didn't
speed. 1 was hoping to show about 20 programs think the program was complex. Eric, for example,
in two hours. The kids in the class were "oohing" pretended that the menu boxes were "doors." He
22 COMPUTE'S Gazette MQrcli!984
"The Home Accountant
"Popular Computing says even (lags transact Ions for tax time.
The Home Accountant And that's a big time-saver
does just about everything because I can transfer information
you'd ask of a personal lo The Tax Advantage™ program
fioance and easily figure out what 1 owe.'"

"My company has

5 checking accounts,
6 business credit cards
and 3 money market
"You mean you can use funds to keep track of.
The Home Accountant
The Home Accountant The Home Accountant
Is the #1 best-selling
for business, makes it easy."
home finance package
tootl" In the world,"

Wouldn't wanlto run
my consulting firm
without it."

"Sofia! k Magazine
says It's the mosl
"It automatically prints
thorough and
powerful program my checks. And gives
of Its kind." t them a very
professional look."

"The Home Accountant

Is great for
realistic budgeting."

"I'm so glad you brought

It home. I never thought
"You can create trend analysis
that creating a budget
graphs for each budget
and managing money
category, so you can make
could be so easy."
-ovisual comparisons of where
you stand financially."
'It fcat up to 200 budget categories
"And you cao do it in
so I hate all the flexibility I need."
full-scale color graphics."

"The Home Accountant

.'■: will even print a
personal financial statement
and net worth statement.
Keeps me right on top of
" hipulur CinnpuunK. November, 1982
my finances."
(Apple Softnlk, April, 19B2

Everyone's talking about The Home Accountant.

Is it because it's the #1 bestselling The Home Accountant will even Instruments Professional, Zenith
home finance package in the world? Or print net worth and financial state Z-100/110, Compaq and KayPro compu
because it's extremely thorough and ments. Not to mention being a lifesaver ters. Actual budget capacities will vary
powerful and easy to use? Or because at tax time. Especially when you're able with each computer.
it's great for home and business use? to transfer information onto Continen
Or because it has up to 200 budget tal's The Tax Advantage1" program and For your free 48 page booklet,
categories and handles up to 5 figure out what you owe. Quickly. "Tips For Buying Software," please
checking accounts? In short, The Home Accountant is the write Continental Software, 11223
South Hindry Avenue, Los Angeles,
Yes. But ihere are a lot more reasons most effective software program there
why people buy The 1 bine Accountant. is for managing your money. And man CA 90045, 213/417-8031,
And why you will, too. aging it easily. 213/417-3003. __
Because The 1 lome Accountant can Stop by your Continental Software
literally save you hours of time. And dealer today and pick up The Home
take the headache out of handling your Accountant. You'll see what everyone's
finances. Whether it's selling up a budget, talking abouc.
cataloging your expenses, balancing The Home Accountant is available
your checkbooks or handling your for Apple II/IIe, IBM PC/XT, Atari Continental
credit cards and money market funds. 400/800/1200X1., Osborne* TRS-80 Software
For personal or business use. Models IiI/4, Commodore 64, Texas A DivWtin nf Arrays. [iK, new"1a nl
opened a door just by pointing to it on the weekends. We are conducting an informal teacher
KoalaPad. Then he went through the doors into training workshop, and we are screening the soft
different "drawing" worlds where he made multi ware that we plan to use in the classroom.
colored rubber bands, grew circles and squares, I'm learning a lot.
and drew shapes and pictures. My next goal is to create a newsletter thai the
"Show her, Eric," I said. I picked him up and kids can take home to their parents. 1 hope that
plopped him down in front of the computer. Eric there are a lot of parents out there who know
showed her. something about computers and who read the
The teacher was unimpressed. "He can do newsletter and get enthusiastic about my bridge-
all those things because you taught him," she building plans.
said. "You're a computer expert. But you won't I can use their help. They can work with the
be in my classroom with me and my kids. Who's teachers and help train them on the computers.
going to teach me? And how am I going to teach They can bring their computers to school lor show
the kids?" and tell. They can share their software with the
First Things First Once the teachers are trained and we have a
At that moment everything became clear to me, 1 nucleus of committed parents, we can think about
realized that, in my idealistic fervor, I was rushing organizing a Parents and Teachers Computer
in the wrong direction. I was trying to create new Association.
educational structures, but I was forgetting the For the moment, though, I've gut my hands
basics. The first item on my agenda wasn't bridge full training Eric's teacher on the Koiilni'itiul pro
building, it was teacher training. It would be point gram. Like the other teacher, she is boggled by
less to stick computers in Catie and Eric's class the screen menu with all its boxes.
rooms unless their teachers knew how to operate Eric is helping me train his teacher. He is
them and were comfortable with them. very understanding and very patient. Two nights
What the teacher had said was true. The kids ago, during a session, he pointed at the screen
couldn't learn on the computers unless she taught with the KoataPaitll menu. "These are doors into
them. And before she could teach them, some the computer," he told his teacher. "Which door
body had to teach her. do you want to open first?" Q&
That somebody was me.

The Prime Mover

A Star is Born.
Before 1 took the computer to my kids' school, I
had thought that I was going to act as liaison be
tween two ongoing computer learning centers. I
saw the home as one learning center and the
school as the other. The way I saw it, my job was
to get the two centers communicating, sharing,
and trading information and resources.
After my experience in the classroom with
the kids and the teachers, I realized that, for a
while, my job would be much more limited. Before
I could coordinate the activities of the two learning
centers, I would have to create them.
I realize now that I'll have to spend a consid
erable amount of time with the teachers to get
them started using computers in the classroom. WWeStar64"
V— ■— = by Eastern House
And I'll probably have to work with the parents
to get them started using computers to help their A Communications Cartridge
children learn at home. for the Commodore 64.
Before I begin building the bridge between Upload/Download, Slatus Line. elc. Works with
your Commodore 1600 or 1650 Modem.
the two islands of learning, I'm going to have to Auio-dialing. etc. when used with the new
build the foundations. CBM 1650 Modem.

Cartridge and Manual - $49.95

Show And Tell At Home And
At School
I've started inviting teachers from my children's
school over to our house on evenings and
24 COMPUTEIS Gazette Marebl984
Outrageous ofier? Not Timeworks exclusive X-Search,™ X-Scrt™ and
really. For your Commo X-Chart™ features allow you to easily cross-search
dore 64, we're pulling our any of the categories. Or arrange your stored items
money where our mouth in increasing or decreasing order, alphabetically,
is. because the Timeworks numerically or by date. Break down statistical infor
Word Writer and Time- mation by up to ten indexed categories of your
works Data Manager 2 choice — and graphically
are so complete - so ex review your results.
tremely easy to use, we Arithmetic calculation
think nothing beats them of your mathematical
at any price. (Oursuggest- data is possible, allowing
ed retail prices are: S49.95 you to perform Payroll cal
for Word Writer. S49.95 for culation, cost estimates
Data Manager 2.) and more. Data Man
ager 2 also produces the
Word Writer
Sum, Average and Stan
This menu-driven system includes: dard Deviation of statis
A program which can be used by itsell (stand tical data entered into the
alone), or interfaced with Timeworks' Data Manager system, along with Fre
or Data Manager 2, enabling you to maintain and quency Charts.
print out name and address lists, create individu
alized form letters automatically, and produce When interfaced together, these programs:
customized reports up to 20 columns wide, which Generate customized data reports, which can be
can be incorporated into any text produced by the incorporated into any written text produced.
Word Writer. Individually address and print form letters
Two plastic keyboard overlays which place automatically.
the word processing commands directly onto Print your name and address file onto standard
the keyboard. mailing labels.
A full screen format (up to 80 characters) which Transfer and print text information onto labels
simplifies your text entry and editing. and tags.
All the essential features — plus some exclusive Calculated numerical data from column to
Timeworks extras — making this system completely column, giving these programs spread-sheet
functional for most home & business requirements. capabilities.
Data Manager 2 So, if you can find anything better, simply send us
your Word Writer or your Data Manager 2, your
This system includes: paid receipt, and the name of the word writer or
A menu-driven program that easily lets you store data base system you want. If it's available, we'll
information on a wide variety of subjects — from buy it for you."
general name and address lists, to research data. Now at your favorite dealer. Or contact Time-
This program will also calculate and store any works. Inc.. PO. Box 321, Deeriield, IL 60015. Phone
corresponding numerical data. 312-291-9200.
Quick access to important information. Items can
be easily retrieved and printed by category, name,
index code, date range, amount range, or any
category of information stored in the system,


T¥neujcRj» Timrecsta TKieuovs


"Now lor [he small pnnl Oflarapplios \o Commodore only, wilh maximum suoossled reiail pnc« o! 5125 00 each lor any exchanged program
Ottor expires 45 days aner dale ol your purchase
■Reguierod Trademark ol Commodore Compulor System) EIUS3 TimeworJa. Inc All ngrils reserved
The Electronic Castle:
Managing Your Home
With Your Computer
Selby Bateman, Assistant Editor

When friends and relatives begin asking you family budget to home heating.
what practical uses your personal computer In order to belter understand the multitude
has, let your answers start right at home. Soft of home-oriented computer applications now on
ware producers, spurred by consumers, are the market, let's divide them into three basic
creating a wide array of home applications. categories.
And with the advent of such home transaction First, there are the home control programs
services as computer banking and shopping, which allow you to regulate the heating, cooling,
the future looks even brighter. and lighting of your house or apartment. Home
security packages let your computer become a
sentinel against intruders by monitoring doors
and windows, setting off alarms, and even auto
What do you see when you look at your
matically calling the police if necessary.
home computer? A game-playing
Second, there are household management
machine? An educational toy? A
programs for word processing, family budgeting,
learning tool? Sure, your computer is
checkbook balancing, and a host of other related
.ill of these, but it's much more.
As Elliot Dflhan says, "My basic premise is
The third broad category is home transaction
that if you don't look at your computer as a home
services. With a modem, two-way transactions—
appliance, then don't even buy one. It's as simple
at-home banking and shopping, for example—are
as that. When you see the computer as an
now possible. These transaction applications are
appliance, then you start looking at what it will
being tested in several major metropolitan markets.
do as an appliance."
If the experiments prove commercially feasible,
Dahan is vice president for marketing at
other transaction service developers are waiting
Creative Software, a company that has had great
in the wings with similar systems.
success with its line of educational, home man
agement, and computer game programs. His sen
timents are echoed by other software producers, ■Up people really buy home computers for these
many of whom are marketing home management kinds of home applications? Tricia Parks, a re
programs which address everything from the search director for Future Computing, a company
26 COMPUTE'S Garallc March 198J
that analyzes trends in the personal computing through its scheduling capabilities and through a
industry, says her company is in the midst of a timing control method called duty cycling. The
major psychographic and demographic analysis package includes a computer interface module
Of buying patterns among home and business (about the size of a paperback book) which plugs
computer users. into the computer, a wall-mounted unit (the size
"We have found that people generally have a of a thick phone book), and program software on
dual motivation when they purchase computers. disk or tape. (For more information, contact
The first reason is to play games. But that's not Savergy, Inc., 1404 Webster Ave., Fort Collins,
the only reason. Otherwise, they would buy a CO 80524.)
game system for the home, not a computer," notes One major drawback to this type of personal
Parks. computer use immediately becomes apparent
People with children usually buy computers when you realize that you can't use your computer
in order to further the education of the youngsters if it's tied up sprinkling the lawn, running the
and for home management, she adds. Those with thermostat, or monitoring your home's security.
out children generally cite self-education and John Helwig of Wescoville, Pennsylvania,
home management as reasons for their computer has developed a solution to that problem: Pur
purchases. chase a VIC-20 computer, now selling for well
"The home management reason has been under $100, and use it as a machine dedicated to
lesser in the past, but it is growing," says Parks. home control. This way, you have your original
"That's reflected in the kind of machines that are computer for personal use and a home control
coming out, such as the Commodore 64." machine costing far less than many of the security,
lighting, and temperature control systems.
Helwig became interested in a home security
t year, the increasing interest in home control
system when a neighbor's house was burglarized.
applications came to the attention of Savergy,
He shopped around at commercial firms and
Inc., a Colorado firm which creates and manufac
found that the costs usually amounted to several
tures equipment and software for energy man
thousand dollars. "People would like to have a
agement applications. In response to customer
system, but they just can't afford it. Three
interest, the company has developed and is now
thousand dollars is a lot of money."
marketing a home energy control device for use
He has since developed a home control pack
with Commodore computers.
age which he is marketing through his own com
pany, Jance Associates, Inc. It sells for tinder $200
and can be used with a VIC-20 or Commodore 64.
With instructions written for the home computer
user, the Jance system includes a computer inter
face card and all the alarms, switches, and wire
necessary to set up the product.
Helwig has added BSR switch modules to his
own system so that the security function is just
one component of home control. BSR modules
connect to the electrical plugs in a home and react
to commands from the computer. The system can
be used to control the temperature in the hot water
heater, to monitor heat pump activity, and to
keep tabs on the computer's realtime clock so that
1 lei wig's home thermostat can be raised or lowered
at certain times and on designated days. There
are dozens of related applications possible for the
innovative computer owner, Helwig adds.
"I'm in the process of negotiating with several
Savergy's CIM 112 home<ontroi package include* the com home construction companies that are interested
puter into face module (lower left), the wall-mounl unit in building the systems into houses. Every switch
(right), and software. would be BSR oriented," he notes. "According to
the builders I've talked to, there is a real demand
Called the Computer Interface Module 112 for this. The whole concept of using home com
(CIM 112), the unit will regulate lights and puters is expanding. There are all kinds of things
appliances—turning on and off everything from a that can be done." (For more information, con
sprinkler system to a water heater—when coupled tact Jance Associates, P.O. Box 234, East Texas,
with a computer. The $450 unit can save energy PA 18046.)
COMPUTE'S Gazette March 1984 27
related to the home control category of Timeworks, Creative Software, and other
computer applications is household management. software producers continue to improve house
Balance your checkbook. Chart your monthly hold management programs, looking for the magi
electric bills. Use a word processor to handle cal mix of low price and easy use.
Think of a household chore that needs to be
listed, written, graphed, or analyzed, and you Hiome transaction services, less common than
can find computer software that will attempt it. the types of applications we've seen so far, are on
(See "The Data Base As A Home Information Cen the threshold of a breakthrough. With your com
ter" elsewhere in this issue.) puter, you should soon be able to make shopping
Let's say that you have set up a thermostat purchases, buy stocks and bonds, deposit and
control package using your computer. To comple withdraw funds from your bank, conduct personal
ment that, there are programs which allow you to business, buy theater tickets, and much more.
plot energy usage from month to month and cal This two-way home computer market is an out
culate savings from use of insulation, storm doors, growth of the burgeoning news, information, and
weatherstripping, and other energy efficiency entertainment services you may now be using
improvements. (See COMPUTE! Books' Home with your modem. But with the interactions soon
Energy Applications On Your Personal Computer.) to be available, home management by computer
Energy programs are but one example of house enters a new realm.
hold management. This may be the year when home transaction
One computer executive who has looked services are established in selected large metro
carefully at these applications is Vic Schiller, vice politan markets. Major companies like the Knight-
president of development for Timeworks, an in Ridder newspaper chain, the Times Mirror Co.
dustry leader in the field of home management (owners of the Los Angeles Times), Field Enterprises
software. His company has produced several (owners of the Chicago Sun-Times), and Chemical
popular programs, such as Money Manager, Elec Bank are closely watching home transaction ex
tronic Checkbook, and Data Manager. periments in Miami, the Chicago area, and other
"The theory we promote here is that people cities, to see if they attract enough subscribers to
will not buy something they don't understand. make mass market systems feasible.
That's very important to us," he explains. The gamble here is not so much whether the
The success of the company's home manage concept will work; it appears to be an idea whose
ment line of software has occurred, he adds, be time is overdue. Rather, the anxiety among these
cause of adherence to that principle. companies stems from which mix of services will
"The whole key to this thing is that it is so catch on and at what price.
easy to use. Mom and Dad can use our Money One of the more interesting experiments is
Manager when they pick it up without even the Keyfax Interactive Information Service, sched
reading the instructions. I'm such a stickler for uled to go on-line this spring in Chicago.
user-prompted formats. If I can run software with Tom Ray, manager of advertising and public
out opening a manual, that's a good piece of soft relations for the system's owner, Keycom Elec
ware," says Schiller. tronic Publishing, hopes to have some 20,000
Early in 1984, Timeworks began marketing subscribers in the Chicago area by the end of
The Word Writer, a word processing program which the first year. Keyfax should be accessible by
interacts with the other home management pack virtually all home computers, says Ray, for a
ages produced by the company. "It's totally S10-S15 monthly base rate. Not included in that
user-prompted, with two keyboard overlays. And will be a one-time purchase of the necessary soft
there are no commands to memorize," Schiller ware at about $40 or a software-modem package
points out. at about$150.
Elliot Dahan at Creative Software agrees that Keyfax will offer a full range of general data
home management programs should be easy to base information, shopping services, banking
use. The company's household finance program functions, educational packages, and financial
has sold over 150,000 copies on cassette for the options. Ray notes that customers will have access
VIC. And this year Creative Software is selling an to Ticketron, the national ticket-buying service,
integrated series of household management pro and even to an electronic edition of the World Book
grams called The People's Choice. Included are Encyclopedia.
foe's Writer, Fred's Filer, and Jack's Calc, all targeted How will these initial mass market experi
for the home user who wants to combine easy use ments in computer transaction services be accepted?
with low cost. The programs each cost $49.95 and "It's hard to guess," says Ray. "We'll see what
allow you to integrate mailings with word proc happens those first couple of years. Quite hon
essing, for example, as a part of their format. estly, I think that everyone is taking guesses."
28 COMPUTE!'! Gazette Maich198d
We dorft care
which computer you own,
We'll help you
get the most out of it.

'ompuSene puts a world ol inl ormation, communications, and entertainment at your fingertips.
CompuServe is the easy In use videotex sophisticated data. Plus, a To learn more about CompuServe, call
service designed for the personal com mu mentions network fnr electronic toll-free. 8( 10-8-18-8199, for an illustrated
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munications professionals who provide ping, and personal notices and a multi Service. The videotex service for you, no
business information services to over one channel CB simulator. matter which computer you own.
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Subscribers ^*et a wealth of useful, Classic puzzlers, educational, sports and CompuServe
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If experiments like Key fax in Chicago,

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Gone arc the days when a personal computer CASSETTE INTERFACE

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The Data Base
As A Home
Information Center
Kathy Yakal, Editorial Assistant

Perhaps one of the reasons you bought a home had missed. She typed in and printed them out
computer was to help you "get organized." separately and began to cut and paste her original
You might have a spreadsheet for your finan list to fit them in.
cial calculations and a word processing pro About that time, a coworkerwho had heard
gram for correspondence and other writing. of her plight wandered in with a disk in his hand.
But there's another kind of software that can "This is a data base program that you can use for
be valuable for many types of home record your list," he said.
keeping: a data base program. "I'm already finished with it," she replied,
pointing to her rather unsightly stack of work.
"Oh, I see you used a word processing pro
1 have this friend who, in her early days of com gram for it," he said, trying unsuccessfully to
puting, was asked to alphabetize and type a list of hide a grin. "Well, why don't you take a look at
volunteer groups. It would be simpler, she this program. Maybe it will make your job easier
thought, to perform such a task using a personal next time."
computer. She did. And it did.
Having become familiar with word process
ing, knowing that she could just type in all the The Same Thing, But Smaller
names and addresses and phone numbers and A data base is exactly what its name implies. It is
print them out, she decided that a word processing a base, or storehouse, for your data. You create
program would work. Even if she needed to and maintain your data base by using software
change or add or delete records, she figured she specifically designed to let you enter, store, and
could go back to her file and use the built-in text- retrieve data in a format that you designate.
editing functions. Large systems, mini- and mainframe com
But first, she had to alphabetize the 200 pieces puters, have used data bases for years. Many
of paper containing the group information. Then businesses store data base files in their central
she remembered that they were supposed to be computers. Employees may then have access to
separated by state before being alphabetized, so that information through their own individual
she started over again. terminals.
After typing in all the information and printing Data base software for Commodore com
it out, she found a stack of a dozen or so that she puters, though perhaps not as sophisticated as
32 COMPUWs Coictle March 1984
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PiP<^a< *!■■■!■ hH
You'll never sec Infocom's graphics
on any computer screen. Because
TIMES saw fit to print that our
DEADLINE1" is "an amazing feat
there's never been a computer built of programming." Even a journal as
by man that could handle the images video-oriented as ELECTRONIC
we produce. And, there never will be. GAMES found Infocom prose to be
We draw our graphics from the such an eye-opener, they named one
limitless imagery of your imagi of our games their Best Adventure
nation—a technology so power of 19811
ful, it makes any picture Belter still, bring an Infocom game
that's ever come out of a home with you. Discover firsthand
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Through our mind arc beckoning, A whole new
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imagination (For more information on Infocom
makes you part games contact: Infocom, Inc., PO.
of our stories, Box 8:15, Garden City, NY 11530.)
in control of
what you do HAK

and where you

go—yet unable
to predict or con
trol the course of
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fronted with situa
tions and logical puz
zles the like of which you won't
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sonalities as real as any you'll meet

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catapult you into a whole new
Take some tough critics' words
about our words. SOFTALK, for
example, called ZORK® Ill's prose
"far more graphic than any depiction
yet achieved by an adventure with
graphics." And the NEW YORK
systems used by larger computers, consists of the thing when you use a data base on your home com
same basic components. A bank's computer may puter.
have millions of words and figures to keep Any data base software that you buy should
straight, while your VIC-20 has only to organize a include documentation, instructions explaining
75-name Christmas list, but they can both use how to use it. The documentation might be long
data base programs to do it. and complicated, but it's important lo read
through and understand it before you get
Getting The News By Data Base started.
Let's say it's 8:00 and your morning newspaper Though commands and capabilities vary from
hasn't yet arrived. If your local newspaper's cir one program to another, all data base programs
culation records are stored in a computerized consist of the same basic elements.
data base, and the computer happens to be The first step is to create a file. This file is not
working at the moment that you call, the conver to be confused with the data base itself. A data
sation might go like this: base can hold many files, and the software should
allow you to define your own files based on what
Phone Clerk; "Circulation department. This
you need.
is Dan Sullivan speaking."
You may be used to thinking of a file as a
You: "8:00. No pa per." little manila folder that goes in a drawer. It means
Clerk: "I'm sorry. May I have your phone the same thing in terms of a data base. Instead of
number, please?" typing a label lo put at the top of a file folder, you
You: "Why do you need my phone number? type the name of the file into the computer.
My paper is supposed to be delivered to my Let's say you bought a data base program to
front porch, not my telephone." catalog your books. We'll call the file "Book Col
Clerk: "We access your records through your
This file contains a number of records, one for
phone number, not your address. If you'll
each book. Though the actual content of each
give me your phone number, I'll get your
record differs, the type of information is the
record up on the screen and see what route
you're on. Then I can check to see if there's a
Each record consists of several fields. This is
problem with that route."
the real meat of your file, for these are the lines in
which the individual information for each record
The record that the phone clerk needs lo ac is stored. You are asked to give each field a name,
cess is a small part of a file, which is a small part and also decide on the maximum number of char
of a large data base, and probably contains a lot of acters and numbers each field can hold. Further,
information that can help him track down your you'll need to decide whether that field can hold
newspaper. It will list your name, address, and letters only (alpha), numbers only {numeric), or
telephone number. It will identify what route you both.
are on, and maybe even give the name and phone It is extremely important to define your fields
number of the newspaper carrier. It will, ol course, carefully. If you don't allow enough room for the
show the clerk whether or not you actually sub information you need to enter, you'll have to go
scribe to the morning newspaper. And, unless back and redefine your file. And if you allow for
billing records are kept on a separate data base more information than you'll ever need, you'll be
that the circulation department cannot access, it wasting memory.
may show when you paid your last bill. Using the example of a book collection, you
Of course, the phone clerk can't use the data might want to name your fields like this:
base lo deliver your newspaper. But it allows him
to get enough information quickly so he can solve 1. NAME OF BOOK (50 characters maximum;
the problem and get you your newspaper. both alpha and numeric allowed)
2. AUTHOR (35; alpha only}
Starting Out 3. COPYRIGHT DATE (4; numeric only)
When you first subscribed to the newspaper, you 4. PUBLISHER (35; alpha only)
gave information about yourself that had to be 5. PUBLIS! lER'S ADDRESS (30; both)
entered into the circulation department's data 6. CITY, STATE, ZIP (40; both)
base. Bui before that, when the department's 7. SUBJECT OF BOOK (25; both)
records were being transferred to a computer,
someone had to decide what information this Once you've defined and saved a format like
new filing system needed to contain. this, you can call up that format to add, change,
Just as businesses must define their needs for or delete records. Data base programs vary in
information storage, you will need to do the same procedures for saving an updated file. Some save
36 COMPUTE!'* Gazelle 19B4
I designed Tiixpnck so

you could do something
really practical with your
Commodore VIC 20.

Peaa Lumlieri, MBA
Product t

Powerful income fax computing
software specially designed for
the Commotion: VIC 20.

Satisfaction Guaranteed
Now you can iis^ your We guarantee that you will find
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computer.* changes In the government's Income Nova Scotia resident! only, add 10% Sales Tax +$.
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each record as it is entered, while others require two. This would seem to suffice for state ab
you to enter a SAVE command every few records. breviations. But take Maryland (MD) and Massa
chusetts (MA), for example. If it sorts by those
All Sorts Of Sorts abbreviations, they would be in the wrong order
when you spell out the state's name. In addition,
Beyond storing information in a user-defined
if you have records from places outside the United
format, a data base program can not only retrieve
States, Canada will come between California and
it, but retrieve it in a certain order. Or retrieve
Florida, and Mexico will show up in the middle of
only certain records and put them in order. Each
the M's. You need to think through the kinds of
program has its own variety of ways to sort and
sorts you'll want to do before defining files.
organize information.
If you plan to print specialized reports from
In order to do that, you must define the
your compiled and sorted data, you will find
criteria by which you want to sort. You need to
that many programs let you designate which sec
specify some of your fields as key fields. In our
tion of the file, even which fields in each record,
imaginary phone call to the newspaper, the phone
should be printed. However, some programs
clerk knew that the customer's phone number
print line and record numbers along with the data.
was a key field, that he could access the whole
Be sure to consult the documentation if you need
record by typing in the phone number and letting
to print a polished report with no extraneous
the program match it to your subscriber record.
In your book collection file, suppose you
define fields 2, 3, and 7 as key fields. You would
be able to find out how many books you have by Some Home Applications
a given author or publisher, and which books you Perhaps you can't think of any uses for a data
have on a certain subject. base in your home. Or maybe you bought a data
Or, if you are planning to visit a city and want base program for a specific purpose and are won
to look for a job with a book publisher, you could dering how else you could use it. Here are some
set up a separate field for CITY, do a sort, and suggestions.
come up with names and addresses of book pub • Cataloging personal belongings. You can
lishers in that city. Deciding which fields to desig use a data base to keep track of records, books,
nate as key fields will depend on how you will tapes, software, and other items you have a-
later want to sort them. massed. If you have a hobby like stamp collecting,
you may find that the program's sort capabilities
A Few Warnings enable you to catalog your collection more fully.
• Recording gifts and cards for special occa
Before you create a file, be sure to note the storage
capacity of your data base program. Most com
sions. Giving and receiving gifts and cards for
mercial programs available for Commodore com
weddings, birthdays, Christmas, and other holi
puters have adequate space for home data storage,
days can create some organizational problems. A
data base may bo helpful.
but it's a good idea to plan ahead for future file
• Keeping track of subscription expiration
dates. If you subscribe to several magazines,
Reading the documentation carefully may
newspapers, or other periodicals, you might want
save you a lot of headaches later on. Anyone who
defines a file and discovers a major flaw in its
to use a data base to remind you when each is
coming up for renewal.
design 30 records later learns that lesson in a
• Computerize your address book. If you
hurry. Some programs allow you to go back and
have to buy a new address book every other month
redefine a record's fields, but you can't count on
because you keep scratching out and adding
that unless you read the documentation.
names and addresses, a data base could provide a
Most programs are particular about punctua
simpler way to track down mobile friends and
tion, and will not allow you to use certain marks,
or any punctuation marks at all, in some fields. relatives.
• Making bibliographies for work- or school-
Be sure you are aware of any punctuation quirks
related projects. If you're preparing a major report,
your program may have.
a data base might be a better way of organizing
If you plan to alphabetize, beware of such
things as state abbreviations. Whenever you sources than a stack of file cards.
specify a key field, you will at some point be asked A data base will not organize your life for
for the depth of sort, how many characters into you. That still takes some time and effort on your
the line you want the program to sort. If you want part. But if you have a personal computer, and
to sort a file by state, then alphabetize, you could are looking for ways to make it a practical part of
run into a couple of problems. your home life, you might find a data base a very
You would probably set the depth of sort at useful tool. (Of
38 COMPUTERS Gazelle March 19B4
Your 3 Best Reasons
Commodore 64"
... nmnnu

The easy file manage

The best word processing ment system with The interface to end all
program of its kind awesome capabilities interfaces
PaperClip' is the program that Delphi's Oracle" is like a BusCard' is a magic box that
makes word processing so simple computerized filing cabinet lets you add disk drives, hard
you'll never use a typewriter with a brain. Organize your files disk, virtually any printer, and
again. Advanced features you any way you want. Then search, a whole range of other
might only expect on a much sort and analyse your peripherals without any costly
more expensive system, yet so information with effortless additional equipment. Gives
easy to use even a novice can speed. So versatile, its power you extended BASIC, and other
get professional results. will amaze you. impressive capabilities your 64
could never handle before!


'PaperClip, Delphi's Oracle and BusCard have been developed specifically for
Commodore computers by Batteries Included. For a full-color brochure on all 3 of these packages,
write to Batteries Included,
186 Queen St. W., Toronto, Ontario, Canada M5V 1Z1, or call (416) 596-1405.

Qimimajure 54 is a Traifcmaik ofCommodore Bujiiirsa Machines.

Dieter Demmer
The Programmer Behind
Delphi's Oracle
Kathy Yakal, Editorial Assistant

Your home computer with a disk files. Some data bases are designed
drive or cassette recorder can for specific purposes, like mailing
store a great deal of information. lists; others let you define your own
But if you want to use your files.
computer for record keeping, Delphi's Oracle is an example of
that information needs to be the latter. Published by a Canadian
easily entered and retrieved, software company, Batteries
and probably in some sort of Included, it's a powerful data base
logical order. Data bases meet with a storage capacity limited only
that need. Here's a look at one by hardware. "Using a Commodore
of the most popular data bases 64 and a 1541 disk drive, you could
for Commodore computers, fill an entire disk with records and
Delphi's Oracle, and the man who still have room," says program
designed it, Dieter Demmer. designer Dieter Demmer.

A Technical
In explaining what a data base is, people Background
often compare it to a box containing index Programming and modifying Delphi's Oracle took
cards. Let's say you use such a filing system almost a year, but Demmer's many years of tech
to keep track of addresses. The box itself is nical experience paid off. Born in Cologne,
the file. Each card is a record of information about Germany, he received a Bachelor of Science degree
one person. Every record consists of several en from the University of Cologne and began a
tries, or fields, like name, street address, city, state, 15-year stint with Litton Industries in research
and telephone number. To be useful, a file like and development. He spent another three years
this would need to be in some kind of order, prob with Control Data in Minneapolis as a program
ably alphabetical, and require periodic revision. analyst, then returned to Litton as a field service
A data base is set up the same way. Basically, representative.
it is a program that allows you to set up a filing "I pretty much taught myself how to use
system, enter data, then order and revise those computers," says Demmer. "I started learning
40 COMPUTED Gazelle March 1984
* * * * * *

ATARI 5200 TI99/4A ATARI 400/800/600XL



*>O til


If you've been wanting to play Q*bertf but haven't been able to find it available
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Get going to your nearest video store and get Q*bert u
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games, now in all the great home formats.
ColfiDViiimititn&iTJiinfCalKnintfuitNri.lK.BlM3PjrtcrSiotK;i? Bews|y.MAui91S Eatt1li«L»iofiMiaad«;nvfl«itfMallei.Inc.Cwnmoilan'VIC2u-a-odConflindan-CIarcirjd^mitkiiJlCiiiiipiLidiJh-ftinivuM+chiWi,
4ii i|> = "s^ IS
back in the late sixties on the big vacuum tube DCLPHI'S OlfltlE CS4 DBMS W3.I'
Delphi S'jstcw. Gr_o_ii£_ijttg_
Tired of all the travel involved in his job at elect froM Menu below:

Litton, Demmer started exploring other possibil U = Set data-file naw.

ities. He had purchased an 8K Commodore PET & = Create a new data file.
- Hew record format
several years before and started programming. It - Modify existing forwat
wasn't his first experience with home computers,
£ = Modify an existing file.
though. In 1%8, he built his own 16-bit micro - fldd new record
- Delete records
computer with 32K of memory. "It never did have - Change records
much of an operating system," says Demmer. 5J = Searching & Reporting.
"It's kind of a joke now, with all of the modern - Find records
- Print reports
languages available. 1 still use it as a terminal,
£ = Disk Utilities.
2 = Exit fro* this progran.

Saving Time And Space Enter Selection - ■

Demmer left Litton and joined Batteries Included
in 1982. Delphi's Oracle was his first project. It runs The main menu in Delphi's Oracle provides easy access to
on all Commodore equipment, though it was Hie main program section* which nlloiv you lo create and
designed on the SQOO series. update data base records and files.

"Information storage on the Oracle is limited

by the disk drive," says Demmer. "The 1541 disk "There are two ways to do (he sorting," says
system was never meant to handle relative files. Demmer. "Since it takes a considerable amount
You have to coax it into doing it." of time, I programmed the Oracle to sort after the
Once files are entered into a data base, the user has finished updating. So there are no more
computer must perform "housekeeping" func time delays after you've entered 6000 records
tions. Every bit of available space must be used, than there are after you've entered three."
so the data must be constantly sorted and re
sorted. And it can be very irritating if your record Not For The Novice
entry is interrupted by those functions. Good, clear documentation is essential to using a
data base successfully. Without it, even the most
experienced computer user may waste hours re
creating files or, worse yet, lose them.
The instructions accompanying Delphi'* Oracle

VIC 20
run more than 200 pages. Demmer was closely
involved in preparing this document, and says it
is easy to understand, but takes time. "The Oracle
is rather complex for the novice user," he says.
But, he continues, there are many home ap
plications for which his data base is well suited,
like personal properly inventory, keeping track of
investments, and correspondence lists.
The Oracle's output files are compatible with
PaperClip, a word processing package that is also
Now you can have the memory power of
published by Batteries Included. "In conjunction
toe 64, flexible memory control, expansion
port and more.
with a word processor, the Oracle becomes a very
powerful package," says Demmer. "It could be
used very well by someone with a small business."

More On The Way

Demmer believes that part of the reason for the
Oracle's initial success was its early arrival in the
$129.95 home applications software market. "There just
wasn't anything else available," he says. "We
don't expect it to stay that way, though."
r< mosaic Besides updating his first versions and trans
ElfCTRONICS, INC. lating them for use on other home computers,
Call for your nearest Mosaic Dealer Demmer has been working on "mini-databases":
1-800-547-2807, In Oregon 653-7885
programs designed for one specific kind of record
WC 201, a n j( iHU'taJ ttadomark o! Commodore BuUtou Machines, me
keeping. ®f
A4 COMPUWs Gaiotle March 1984
'Jump on
10 monsters,
64 screens and
with oe,
A Mutated Wonderwhisk whisks by.
The SpinningTop almost topples him!
Keep bouncing Joe to original
I music on realistic 3-dimensional
Close.But Pogo Joe cylinders. All the characters in
bounces back.Bouncing this rollicking,
from cylinder to cylin I game are
der, screen to screen, also 3-dimensional and
Pogo Joe racks up point fully animated.The
after point. graphics almost jump
You guide him from off the screen, leaving
cylinder to cylinder, changing the color on the arcades behind.
top of each. Change the top of each cylinder What's ahead with Pogojoe'""\s $10,000.
on a screen, then you're Simply tell us what magic word appears
on to the next. after PogoJoe's tenth
The more screens screen. If your name
you complete, the is drawn from
nastier the monsters among the correct
you face,and the faster answers you'll win
they attack. $10,000!
Press the fire No purchase is
button! Jump two cylin necessary. You'll
ders to safety. Hop into wiN$ioro( ' find entry forms at
a transport tube, and any store that sells Screenplay1 "games.
then whoosh! Pogo Joe But if you don't win you can't lose. Pogo
appears across the Joe"' is so much fun you'll jump
screen. Jump on an for joy no matter what
escaping monster. Blam! Ifs gone in a flash!
Only to reappear out of thin air. a screenplay
Box 3S58.ChapeUlit!. NC 2751-1 SW-334-5470

Pogojoe in 48-64K on the Atari and Commodore 64. See your local software dealer.
CUT-OFF!All-Machine-Language Game
For Commodore 64 And VIC-20

1 ooooooooooooooooooooooooc 0000
1 ao
0 1t ao
0 *i ao
0 'i ao
o oooooaoaooaoo ti ao
0 0' 0 11 10
0 0 ••••• 0 t M0
0 0 1» 1i ao
0 0000 11 t ao
0 0 11 i ao
0 0 <1 » ao
0000000000 1> i ao o
11 1 10 0
1I I ao o
1I 1 ID 0
«aa*aaa*«aaiaaaaaaaa*aao o

• 0 0
O«»Ml»f tt •*•*•* .OjJLl

lii the 64 version, some tricky maneuvering has the blue The red player is almost trapped at the bottom, but may be
player nearhf cut off. able to escape (VIC version).

Tom R. Halfhill, Editor players square off against each other by steering a
COMPUTED PC & PCjr Magazine moving line around the screen, trying to head off
the other player or force him to crash into a wall
"CUT-OFF!" is a fast-paced two-player game or his own trail. This concept dates back to the
for the Commodore 64 and unexpanded VIC- early days of videogames. In fact, the very first
20. Programmed entirely in machine language, videogame I ever played was a B/ocAm/e-style
it has ten levels of difficulty—ranging in speed game. It was during the mid-1970s, and a friend
from moderately slow to impossibly fast. The and I encountered the machine in a dimly lit cafe.
VIC version requires one joystick and the 64 By today's standards the game was downright
version requires two. Users of expanded VICs primitive. No color, crude sound effects, and slow
should unplug or switch off their memory ex action. Yet we had never played anything like it
panders before typing in or running the game. before. (We thought it would never catch on, be
cause it cost 25 cents per play at a time when a
quarter bought you three plays on most pinball
Some computer games over the years have become machines.)
classics. Usually they are simple in concept, yet Years later, the basic concept of Blockade was
universal in appeal, and general enough to be revived and updated in the 1982 film TRON. In
translated for almost any computer. Some examples this Walt Disney production, humans trapped
are Pong, the granddaddy of all videogames, inside a bizarre computer world were forced to
Breakout, Lunar Lander, and the venerable Space become gladiators on "light cycles"—space-age
Invaders. For legal reasons they may be disguised motorcycles which left walls in their wakes, coun
by different names, but there probably isn't a terparts of the lengthening trails in Blockade.
home computer or videogame machine anywhere Anyway, that's the story behind the latest
for which some version of these all-time favorites incarnation of this popular game, now dubbed
isn't available. "CUT-OFF!" It preserves all the traditional con
Another classic game is Blockade. Again, it cepts and includes color, sound, and the broad
goes by different names (sometimes Surround), range of speed levels possible only in a program
but the basic concept remains the same: Two written entirely in machine language.
46 COMPUT&'s Gazelle March 198J
" ■ :r ■

The world may be short of oil. And short of jobs, But there's no shortage of entertainment.
Arcades. Movies. Amusement parks. TV Concerts. Records. You've got your choice. And every day,
more of you are choosing HesWare™ computer games.
That's because only the best games earn the HesWare title. Tough, challenging, arcade quality
action games like Gridrunner,™ Predator/" Retro Ball,™and Robot Panic:" - -
Mind-bending strategy and role playing adventures
like Pharaoh's Curse1M and Oubliette:" Pleases the
Zany new titles that have to be seen to be believed.
Would you believe Attack of the Mutant Camels1"??
You d't
don't need
d an expensive
i computer to enjoy customer
HesWare action, either. HesWare programs are available
on cartridge, diskette or cassette for VIC 20™ Commodore 64;"
Atari013 and IBM* personal computers.
When you pick up a HesWare game, you know it's ready
for the toughest test of all: beating out the tough competition Human Engineered Software
for your attention. 150 North Hill Drive
Brisbane, CA 94005
HesWare games. Just one of the ways HesWare is 800-227-6703
expanding the computer experience. Look for them at your (in California
800 632-7979]
favorite software retailer. Depl. C20
VIC 20 and Commodore 64 are trademarks d Commodore Electronics lid. *tan is a rejisterad trademark ol Atari, Inc.
IBM PC is a registered trademark ol International Business Machines. Pharaoh's Curse is a trademark ol Synapse Software
-is a tiadernaik of "" ■

Gridrumer Retro Ball Synthesound Gridrumer Shanx

familiar with MLX, it's a utility designed by Pro
Notes On VIC Tiny MLX gram Editor Charles Brannon to make typing er
rors almost impossible. To learn how to use MLX,
Charles Brannon, Program Editor see the article describing it elsewhere in this issue.
Commodore 64 users who have previously typed
There's just enough room in n 5K. (unex- in MLX can use it again for CUT-OFF! VIC users,
panded) VIC to hold MLX. Unfortunately, however, must use a new version of MLX adapted
there isn't room for anything else, such as especially for CUT-OFF! This stripped-down ver
the machine language program you need to sion of MLX (dubbed "Tiny MLX") allows you to
type in. It might seem you need to use a mem enter the game on an unexpanded VIC, something
ory expander. This would be unfortunate, not possible with the full-length MLX. {See
though, because the machine language for accompanying article, "Notes On VIC Tiny
the VIC version of "CUT-OFF!" will fit in an .MLX.")
unexpanded VIC. Here's the information you'll need to enter
Rather than leaving out some readers, CUT-OFF!:
we decided to see if MLX could be shortened
Commodore 64 CUT-OFF!
enough to hold both the MLX machine lan
Starting .iddress^!9152
guage editor and the machine language for Ending address—-50663
CUT-OFF! The only way to do this is to re To run, enter SYS 49152
move parts of MLX. This means you have To slop, press RUN/STOP—ItESTORE
fewer commands at your disposal than in
the complete VIC MLX program.
(The starting and ending addresses are "built into"
Specifically, these things were cut out to
Tiny MLX.)
save memory:
Starting address—60t>3
Ending address—7658
• the MLX logo
To run, enter SYS 6063
• the INPUT statements for starting and To ship, press RUN/STOI'—RESTORE
ending address, and their appropriate error
Remember, to load a machine language pro
checks. Instead, the values you would nor
gram from disk or tape, you must use this special
mally use are just assumed in line 210.
form of the LOAD command:
• the New Address command. This means
that you have to type in CUT-OFF! all in one LOAD"filename",8,l (for disk)
LOAD"fik'n.ime",l,l (for tape)
sitting, since there is no way to change the
address your typing is POKEd into. Cor If you forget to append the, 1 to the command,
respondingly, you cannot SAVE your pro the program loads into the wrong area of memory
gram until you've finished typing, and there and will not work.
is no way to LOAD in a previously typed
version of CUT-OFF! Starting The Game
• the Display command After you enter the proper SYS command, the
• as mentioned, the Load command game screen appears instantly. (One of the best
things about machine language is that you don't
What does that leave you? Well, you can
have to wait around for programs to initialize.)
stil! flawlessly enter the program on an un
The opening screen allows you to select a
expanded VIC. All the error checking with
skill level ranging from 0 (the slowest speed, suit
checksums remains, as well as a tape or disk
able for youngsters) to 9 (recommended for
Save when you finish your typing. Although
superhumans only). The skill levels are spaced
this is a big trade-off, at least you don't need
equally apart, so you might want to start at 3 or 4.
an additional memory expander to type in
The level you select remains the same for the entire
and play CUT-OFF!
game. To change levels in the middle of a game,
press RUN/STOP—RESTORE and restart the pro
Typing CUT-OFF! gram with the SYS command. (Of course, this
Pure machine language programs are usually cancels the game in progress.)
more difficult to enter than BASIC programs be To choose a skill level, move the joystick up
cause they consist of seemingly endless streams or down (joystick 1 on the 64 version). You'll see
of numbers. To make typing CUT-OFF! easier, the number on the screen change and "wrap
we've listed the programs in MLX format. around" if you go below () or above 9. To lock in
You may already be familiar with MLX if your choice and begin the game, press the fire
you've typed in some of the machine language button (joystick 1 on the 64 version).
program's published in earlier issues. If you're not The game starts with the players aimed at
48 COMPUTE!'s Gozelie March 1964
■v" ■ : WM

:. ,- ; ■

-■■■'■ .-: ■'


Boy, have you taken Is it treasure you're after? Or glory? You'll

a wrong turn. One moment live longer if you're greedy, but slaying mon
you're gathering treasure sters racks up a higher score.
and the next you're being The Apshai series is the standard by
eyed like a side of beef. which all other adventure games are judged.
You're in the Gateway And novices will not survive.
to Apshai" The new cart They'll be eaten.
ridge version of the Computer Game of the Year* One player; Temple ofApshai, disk/cassette;
Temple of Apshai." Gateway to Apshai, cartridge, joystick control.
Gateway has eight levels. And over 400 dark,
nasty chambers to explore. And because it's joy
stick controlled, you'll nave to move faster than ever. ?7' ^* 'I- ■■

But first you'll have to consider your strategy. snuncr games for the action-gome
fi A^ucbtiun,
each other head-on. With the 64 version, joysticks
1 and 2 control the left and right players, respec

Still the Best! tively. To steer, move the joystick up, down, right,
or left. Diagonal motion is not allowed.
Since the VIC has only one joystick port, the
right-hand player must use the keyboard for con
Rated rHE BEST educational trol. Don't assume that this compromise neces
program for lha VIC 20™ by sarily puts the keyboard player at a disadvantage.
Creative Computing n .. :.:.v i

Commodore 64 version: "This With a little practice, some people seem to adapt
is the best typing tutor we have to the keyboard and gain more control than the
seen yet; It can gel your
children touch typing In short person with the joystick. This is due partly to the
order and bring an old hand up
to speed. Includes excellent arrangement of the control keys, an arrangement
training modules and an sometimes seen in Apple games:
arcade type mode to livon
things up and put some
pressure on; *#**+" INFO-64 (up)
Our customers continue to tell I
us of their success (left) J K L (right)
!'.. delighted with my son's (down)
progress ... he is the only
one in his second grade class
who touch types at the computer." Notice how this differs from the usual I-J-K-M
(53 year old man wrttesi.., "great, eicellent. To me a source diamond pattern. Although the diamond seems
of great learning ... I just can't express how much I have
enjoyed It!" the most logical way to go for four-way movement,
In daily use by schools across tfie USA. in practice it's clumsy compared to this i-]-K-L
"Computer aided instruction at its best" Commander magazine arrangement. Try it. Rest your right index finger
TYPING TUTOR + WORD INVADERS on the J key, your fourth finger on the L key, and
then move your middle finger up and down on
The proven way to learn touch typing.
the I and K keys to control vertical movement.
COMMODORE64 TapeS21.95
You may want to adopt this pattern for your next
COMMODORE 64 Disk S24.95
keyboard-controlled game.
VIC20(unexpanded) Tape $21.95
The joystick buttons toggle a pause feature.
To freeze the action, quickly press and release the
button (either joystick button works with the 64
version). This leaves you free to answer the phone
or do other things. To restart the action, press
and release the button again. (The keyboard player
in the VIC version cannot activate this feature.)
FOR THE VIC 20 Scoring And Winning
There are four ways you can crash: hitting a wall,
DISK OR TAPE running into the other player's trail, crossing your
own trail, or backing into yourself by trying to
reverse your direction,
After a crash, the surviving player is awarded
points equal to the number of segments in the
crashed player's trail. This means that the longer
the players last before crashing, the more points
Put yourself in the pilot's seat! A very challenging realistic are at stake. Thus, it's possible to catch up even if
simulation of instrument flying In a light plane. Take off,
you're way behind.
navigate over difficult terrain, and land at one of the 4 airports.
Artificial horizon, ILS, and other working Instruments on screen. Each time you crash, you lose one "life."
Full aircraft features. Realistic aircraft performance —
stalls/spins, etc. Transport yourself to a real-lime adventure In
Each player starts with ten lives, and the game
the sky. Flight tested by professional pilots and judged ends when one player runs out. After each crash,
the screen updates the score and reminds you
■■■ Shipping and handling $1.00 per MfH^ how many lives each player has left. To restart
mmmm order CA resident add 6% lax. <W
each round, press the joystick fire button.
When the game is over, you get a chance to
change the skill level for the next game. Just to get
a peek at how fast machine language can be, try a

P.O. Box 6277, San Rafael, CA 94903 (415) 499-0850
game at level 9. You'll be lucky if you can make
one turn before crashing into a wall. Yet even this
level had (o be slowed down with delay loops!
Programmers; Wrlto I" our Now Program Manager concerning
any exceptional VtC 2qTM or Commadora <■'''•' gema Set' program listings on page 165. &
or oiher prog rim you hove dflvalopBd.
: ■

You'll never make So what'Il it be, Mario? Think your tires

Grand Prix champion just will hold up for another lap? Or should you
driving in circles. play it safe and go get some new ones?
You've got to stop Think it over. Because Pitstop' is the
sometime. The question is one and only road race game where winning
when. Right now you're is more than just driving. It's the pits.
in the lead. But the faster Goggles not included.
you go, the more gas you consume. And the One or two players; 6 racecourses,
quicker your tires wear down. joystick control.
If you do pull into the pits, though, you lose
precious seconds. So it's up to you to make sure the
pit crew is quick with those tires. And careful with
that gas. Otherwise, poof! you're out of the race. 5o"yi>urrcUiiltrfnravijilablt:cunipult'i format i.

"Trenchfire" is a fast-action space game which plished by switching the colors of a predrawn
uses the speed of machine language (ML), the trench. The process uses custom characters in
power of sprite graphics, and a special trick to multicolor character mode and a short ML routine
simulate motion. Originally written for the 64, to switch background color registers. Another ML
we've added an all-ML version for the VIC. routine controls joystick reading and ship move
ment to provide fast response.

The VIC Version

As the game begins, you find yourself on a distant
The VIC version requires an 8K expander to enter
planet, speeding through a trench formed by an
and save Trenchfire. You must also use the ab
earthquake fault. You are in your trusty craft,
attempting to infiltrate evil King Krypos' lair, breviated version of MLX found elsewhere in this
where he holds your king captive. But first you issue (see "CUT-OFF!").
must face King Krypos' deadly kamikaze drone Follow these procedures carefully:
ships. The battle never seems to end—you blast 1. Insert the 8K expander, turn on your com
and dodge debris only to encounter another wave puter, and enter this line:
of enemy ships. Only total concentration and POKE 44,24:POKE 24*256,0:NEW
quick reflexes bring success in "Trenchfire."
2. Enter the short version of MLX.

The 64 Version 3. Delete line 100 from the MLX program,

and change the following line:
Written in BASIC, with several ML subroutines,
Program 1 (the 64 version) requires simply typing 210 S = 4352:E = 6079

RUN after entering and SAVEing the program. 4. Type RUN.

Using a joystick in port 1, you must shoot and
5. Type in the VIC version (Program 2) of
destroy the drone ships before they get too close.
You can also avoid them by dodging left or right.
You begin the game with three ships. How 6. SAVE what you typed into MLX to tape or
ever, a new ship is awarded for every 1000 points disk.
(a total of seven ships is possible). 7. Turn your computer off and remove the
Simulating motion in Trenchfire is accom- 8K expander. Turn it back on.
52 COMPUTEI's Gazelle Morclil984
designed by
C-64 conversion by Adam Bellin
From the creator of ASTHOCHASE™ (Sci-Fi/Fantasy COMPUTER
GAME OF THE YEAR, 1984)' and My First Alphabet™
(winner of the Atari* Star Award) comes BRISTLES.
G Reviews; A+ "Trie action is last and frenetic ... II you want a game
with definite patterns, strategies, great sounds and plenty of action—
this is the one "' #1 Best Selling computer software in New York.3
D Features: Real Time Animation1", Sex-Select", Slow motion, 1 to 4
player option, hidden messages. 3 game screens each with 6 skill
levels, hi-res graphics and "invisible paint,"

Actual Game Screens

Starring Flip the Kangaroo

and Mitch the Monkey

designed by
C-64 conversion by Paul Kanevsky
This number one Best Seller is Jim's first game for First Star.
Here's what the reviewers say about this award winning
designer's first computer game.
□ Reviews: "Tbe audio-visuals are excellent... A definite HOTLINE
picked hit."1 **++ (highest ratingl... "quite a dillereni game"5
"... super graphics, first class sound effects and challenging game play"6
□ Features: 7 different animated intermissions, game screen actually
Hips upside down, 36 levels. 13 dilferent scrolling screens, arcade
sounds and music, solo or 2 player option.


All computer software available in
Cat! 1 800-223-1545
designed by For your local dealer/distributor.
COMMODORE64 PC/PCfr." conversion by y
conversion by Mike Crick R5F


R 22Easl 41 si.
Now Ywh. NY 10017
m nflilieton win O iV.impr Software, ire
A Wnrrw Cafmnuruultans Company

BriUIH, Aslio Chaw. Real time Animauon. Sen-'

Soled Flic UfiO Flop. BouWW Dasfi. BOtNQi
jind Parvc Bunon arn trademarks ol First Slar
Soflwam, Inc Afan t& a rogisTcrod liadernorh ol
A(ap. Inc Alact hwrio ComiKJIO's. Atari VCS-
2600 ana My Frfsi ArpnaDeC ate traoemaiKs ol
ATWI. Inc. UommoOorc W is a TrdtlentarK 0|
ness Uacnmas. Inc PC and
PC Jr veiradcnEul-G □■ Intrrnn^wuil Bu^nss3
inc TRS-80 Color Compiitof I'i a
d' Tnfdy Corporjticn
All rigtiis reseivoa £i i ma Firrfl Sim Sotivruo. Ine
designed by desifjned by
1 Elocifrjiic Games Maoarino " EUxboruc Ganius Hotlino
TRS-BO COLOR COMPUTER 2 ComcutO' Qomm Magaime 5 Video Cinmo Ltodnio
3 East Sue fc-press 6 Dofllaitewio Magaiine

Have Complete Control

Over Your Commodore 64
• Writs Fast-action Arcade-style graphics
• Fully use the Music synthesizer
• Completely understand the Computer
• Develop your skills inventory
You must act quickly to defend yourself against the attacking
spaceship? (64 version).

Learn with the Tutorial that comes

complete with a Full set of professional 8. Now LOAD "TRENCHFIRE",1,1 for tape.
quality development tools. For disk, LOAD "TRENCHFIRE",8,1.
9. Enter SYS 4352 to run the program.
Add Machine Language to your bag
of tricks. The VIC version, which is all ML, plays almost
identically to the 64 version, but has added fea
DEVELOP"64/nc/uefes« Co-resident tures. You start with three ships, earn a bonus
Assembler / Editor / Decoder / Debugger / Loader ship for every 1000 points, and can achieve a
/Saver maximum of seven ships. Extra features include a
PLUS the Machine Language Programmer's pause function (press SHIFT/LOCK) for freezing
"Inside The Commodore 64"

$49 95

In the VIC version of'Trenclifire," the player has just

launched two missiles.

Call Toll-Free 1-800-328-0145 the game at any time, and four levels of play.
or in Minnesota call: (6121871-4505 Press one of the function keys to choose a level:
fl beginner I '> advanced
I i intermediate 17 expert

If you don't choose a level of play, the program

defaults to the intermediate level. The expert level
is only for the strong of heart. You also go up one
level for every 250 points scored.
P.O. Box 7426 Minneapolis, MINI 55407
See program listings on page 151. (Of
54 COMPUTE!'s Gazette March 1984

1EI \( II III \l»

STATIONS! As chief commander of land and sea
forces in the Pacific, your mission is to obtain a
quick naval victory, and invade enemy territory with
land forces. BEACH-HEAD^is a 100% machine
language game and offers multi-screen action with
high resolution, three dimensional graphics.
(Suggested retail price...$34.95)


NEUTRAL ZONE,., takes you to the outer 1

edges of Ihe galaxy, lo ALPHA IV, a long range
early warning station whose mission is io detect
alien intruders from mini galaxies. 1

NEUTRAL ZONE,., is the ultimate in high

resolution, fast action, arcade quality games. It is
written in 100% machine language and features
fllf il'+M 11 ' I''
smooth scrolling of the 360 degree panorama. The Tub '.ir-.- > "i"

realism is unbelievable. (Suggested retail


MASTER COMPOSER,,, is the perfect utility

jHnstcr (Computer for programming music on tin- Commodore 64. It
. < I ■ t HI* II 'MM I I |j« 1

is tun, easy to use and very powerful. Master

Composer takes full advantage of the sound
synthesizer to produce all types of music from
simple melodies to intricate compositions. You
can compose your own musical scores, experiment
with different arrangements and instruments,
program your own accompanymenl, or just type
in your favorite sheet music. (Suggested retail

SPRI1EMASITlRiu is not just another sprite SPRITEMASTER

editor. It's the finest utility available for multicolor

sprite animation and game programming. It will

have you making full color animated objects in just
minutes. People ruiining.hirds flying or tanks rolling
are a snap with Spritemaster. It will automatically
append your sprites lo other programs. It's easy
lo use and understand and conies with a lull 21 page
■ ^»^™ •

instruction manual and samples of animated sprites

to get your started. (Suggested retail price...S34.95>


Commndriri- 64 is a rcublered (radcnurls of ('innniodiiro Rusincis Machines, Int.
"Poker" is an original color and sound screen. The higher the hand, the more you
version of the classic card game of draw win. For example, you break even on a pair
poker. The format and style of play are of jacks or better, but a royal flush brings
similar to those of commercial poker you $250.
machines. Written for the VIC with at
least 3K memory expansion, we've Program Features
added a version for the 64. The program itself (VIC version) contains
several interesting features:
1. The short routine in lines 230 and
"Poker" opens with a dynamic intro
240 scrolls single lines of text hori
duction featuring color, sound, and
zontally across the screen.
horizontal text scrolling. The number
of each round is announced, and five 2. To conserve memory, lines of text
cards are dealt at random. You build used in the introduction are reused
your hand by choosing which cards in the routine that announces the
to keep or exchange (up to three cards rank and value of the hand.
can be drawn). The computer ranks 3. A machine language (ML) routine
your hand and announces the POKEd into the cassette buffer is
payoff, if any. Your cumulative used to create a colorful border.
winnings (or losses) are dis The routine is accessed by the
played at the top of the SYS 828 statement in line 350.
♦offer subject to availability

ij ■ I -1:


game with Loveable
GSTs, Regattas but Turtles. Cuddly Graphics
beware the Great White and more Cuteness than
Hungry!! you'll find in any other
AQUAPLANE is an Commodore 64 game! A
unbelievable original game for the young at
Arcade Game. heart and people who
have tired of alien

,000,150 SKYHAWK
2000 and VIC20 SOFTWARE
COMMODORE 64 end for Advanced Information
SOFTWARE on our new Timex-Sinclair and
The Colorful King has Electron Range.
lost his mind and along Attacking raiders scream
with it the Crown Jewels! out of the sky at you, you
Now whosoever can find check your radar as an
the Jewels shall be explosion blossoms at / attacking
proclaimed King. your side, you return their Colony Fighters leap at
Part Man. Part Superman fire sending one of the
Gen you? me, I dive into their midst
the QUWIC WARRIOR attackers pTummetting,
stands along against the RING OF POWER is a firing and still bombing
sophisticated adventure. the fuel gauge flashes a the ground installations
sinister Crabmen and a
withaGRAPHICSor: low fuel warning... below, the sound of
Domed City gone mad in
TEXT option. SKYHAWK runs in 3K or explosions rumbles away
the distant future.
BK with a Joystick. over the landscape...
Are you warrior enough
to stand by his side in this TORNADO runs on an
MEGA- Arcade Game. unexpended VIC2Q-*■

Please send me a free color catalog

I currently own or pfan to buy a computer
QUICKSILVA INC. I enclose a stamped, self-addressd envelops
426 West Nakoma NamB
San Antonio. TX 7B216 No/Street: .'.
TbI: [5123 340 Stata
Zip C3

1 1 23


♦ *

2 Pr=) I R— -*3

Like real poker, you can keep your hand or draw up to three Are three of a kind worth keeping? The decision is yours (64
new cards (VIC version). version).

4. Lines 30 and 40 (VIC version) check for a For those who would rather not type it in, I
3K memory expander. Line 50 then alters the will be glad to make a copy of the VIC version.
ML routine to conform to the screen and color Such requests should include a blank cassette or
memory configuration of a VIC-20 with less disk, a self-addressed, stamped envelope, and $3.
than 8K of expansion memory. Mail to:

5. A hand's rank and value is determined by A. j. Kwitowski

using ML and IF-THEN statements in lines 302 Euclid Avenue
2110-2210. The machine language performs a Glasspart, PA 15045
bubble sort (ranking) of the card values and Sec program listings on page 172. ©
determines which cards are duplicates (two
kings, three jacks, etc.).The ML routines are
POKEd into the cassette buffer and are ac
cessed in lines 2020 and 2130.
REM statements are omitted so the game will Are you tired of paying high prices for your software?
Let John Henry Software save you money!
fit in the 6655 bytes provided by a 3K memory
expander. Those of you with 3K memory expan We distribute public domain software for your VIC 20'"
or Comtnodora 64'". We've tested and documented each
sion must type Poker exactly as listed. There is no
program to guarantee you hours of fun and useful
extra memory available for spaces within and learning experiences. We specialize in prompt delivery
between commands. of your software, even if you order tapes, and we
guarantee our product.
You'll also receive our free program reference book
Program Description (VIC Version) when you place your order.

Line VIC 20
POKE machine language in buffer. Group VG 62 Games for Everyone S7.95
Group VP 54 Programming. Demo. Business
30-50 Detect memory configuration; alter machine
and Home S7.95
language if 3K expansion.
Group VE 35 Educational Programs S7.95
60-210 Read constants.
220-300 Scroll linos of text with sound. COMMODORE 64
310 Set text lines to null strings if they're not used Group CG 26 Games for Everyone $7.95
again. Group CP 30 Programming, Demo, Business
350-370 Hand number routines; create card screen. and Home S7.95
500-630 Select cards; determine display characters and Group CE 16 Educational Programs S7 95
Group CA 5 Adventure Games {disk only) S7.95
640-800 Deal cards. When ordering, specify group and tape or disk
810-1550 Keep or change each of the five cards. Send check or money order payable to:
John Henry Saltwara
2000-2170 Determine rank of hand.
P.O. Box 39021
2180-2220 Determine value and correct line of text.
Cincinnati. Ohio 45239
3030-3100 Display determination with sound.
Don't wait! Order your software today! Or write for your
4030-4050 Subroutine for hand number. free program reference book. You'll be glad you did!
5000 Subroutine to flash border, colors. VIC 2Z ind Com m odor I 64 Irs inOtntirki a! Co in mod art Elictronitt Urn Hid.
5050 Subroutine to display winnings.

58 COMPUTERS Gazelle March 198-1

Disk Dim excellence
WOW! Every now and then a new product design
seems intended to last forever**.
DON'T MISS OUT ON OUR GREAT Tito out i\-- ting la and dun I Super D( Ivai for Commodore computers. Th»if bat
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down aftoi onf? a tew month's

DEALS FOR THE VIC-20/C64. usa Thoflu drives recognli a

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Send in your name and address to fully compatible *Hh PET.
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receive our FREE catalogs on fantastic cojnoutera._nal juiF one of
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hardware and software for your VIC- £up«r drives are lotdatf

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OMNITRONIX By the way, nespoc'Afiz*In unltjiie and tiattl to find Items tot yourCommodoro com-
putor Wtilo ot call tor a tfUo copy ol out software ana penpriBfal brochure'

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PO BOX 12309 DEPT. FG E. Arthur Brown Company

SEATTLE, WA 98111 1702 - CG1 Oak Knoll Drive Ph.- 61 2/782-8847
Alexandria. MN 56308 812/762-1631

Commodore® owners: VISA

Will four prlnlor Interface pass the Commodore' printer lost? Wo don I think so.'.' Ours wilt.

The CONNECTION1" is Ifuly IHe uinmale parallel interlace for ihe VIC20!U;COMMODORE 64'". This lully intelligent
interlace plugs into the OiSK (serial) sockel |ust like the stanaard printer ana you can eaaly assign il any devce
number, it will provicle virtually TOTAL EMULATION ol Ihe Commodore' prnter including all siandard graphs
characters [normal or inverse), column tabbing, dot tabbing, graphic repeat dot addressable graphics, cursor
up/down mode, and more. It responds to all ol Ihe stardard commands (PRINT #, OPEN. CLOSE, etc) la
Dealer Ana insure software designed (or the Commodore* printer will opeiale with Ihe CONNECTION™. Use it m the
TOTAL TEXT MODE, or purchase Our Universal' CONNECTION thai works wilh virtually EVERY DAIS^
WHEEL OR MATRIX PRINTER wilh standard Cantronics Parallel conliggration. To take lull advantage ol
your prmier's special lealuraE. please specify lha primer l/pe. Available lor STAR MfCRONICS, BXao, ■i
ONLY 1119.00 Complete. (Additional ROMs are available il you should ever change printers]


1) A 2K Printer buffer.
2) Full LED Status Indicators.
3) Complete Built In self test.
4) Printer reset switch.
5) Adds Skip over pert, margin set, programmable line length, program
list format commands to your printer.
6) No need for extra cost, special tape loader for graphics.
7) All features easily accessed from software.
■Note: Only Ihe Universal CONNECTION will ml provide ICKm Commodore graphics.

micro 1342B RT 23
umrE BUTLER, NJ 07405 201-838-9027
Tree Tutor
For Tots
Janet Arnold

This educational program uses custom charac basket and flies off the screen. After ten right an
ters and lively graphics to teach addition to swers—and ten apples stacked in the basket—the
young children. Correct answers are rewarded; game ends.
there are no penalties for guessing wrong.
Originally written for the VlC-20, we've added Choosing Levels Of Play
a version for the Commodore 64. LOAD the program and RUN it. After a short
wait, the title appears and you are asked to
"Choose highest sum (2-9)." Hitting a 7, for in
Arithmetic is for the birds—if your youngster stance, generates problems with answers no
plays "Tree Tutor For Tots." This math program higher than seven. A beginner should choose 2,
is suitable for small children (preschool through proceeding to the harder problems as the easier
second grade) who are just learning to add. It is a ones are mastered.
tutor, not simply a drill, because it illustrates ad Next you are given an option for displaying
dition concepts using colorful, attention-getting the fruit. A beginner should hit 1; this tells the
graphics. computer to show the apples when the problem
The child adds the apples hanging in a tree to is first printed. A 2 causes the fruit to appear only
those scattered on the ground. A correct answer if the child gives a wrong answer.
brings .1 bird swooping from the sky to pluck an When the tree and the problem are displayed,
apple from the tree. The bird then drops it into a guide your child to discover the correct answer by

'WMMM 55

-+- 1


Four apples in the tree plus one on the ground. What does it In the 64 version, the child has answered correctly. The bird
add up to? (VIC version) is carrying an apple to the basket,
60 COMPUTE'S Gazette March 1984
Kids climb to the top in
our playground...
Because we offer more than just educational games. Our unique software brings the magic touch of the
Edumate Light Pen™ together with the amazing computer voice of S.A.M.™, the Software Automatic Mouth, 50 children can interact
directly with our teaching programs. Playground Software'" makes learning and learning 10 use the computer child's play!

Our playground ol active, colorful animals will have your
Crackers' child spelling new words in no lime .it all. Animal Cracken'"
combine* Ihe use ol Ihe Idumale Light Pen™ and children's
fascination with animals and computer to teach youi
Preschool children ihe alphabet as Ihey learn 10 spell. By simplv
touching a letter on the screen with Ihe Edumale Light Pen .
Grade 3
your children will create a screen lull of animals and olher
playful objects. Nol only is it fun, it's educational1

Unleash Ihe creative talents of the big kids and Ihe little kids
in your family with the first electronic coloring book. Com
puter Crayons'" comes complete with ready-to-paint scenes
and an artist's palette of vibrant color. Additional options per
mit you to save and restore pictures easily, draw circles, lines,
bo*es. and erase in a single stroke.
Let your imagination run wild wilh ihe Sketch Pad that
allow* you to create your own video (jointings from scratch,
Now anyone can transform uur Edumate Light Pen'** ilHO
an electronic (Mini brush wilh Computer Craynn»1M|

The most fundamental lesson every child must learn is how
to draw Ihe lellers of the alphabet, The Alphabet Arcade'"
Arcade'" utilizes the Edumale Light Pen'M and an entiling arcade en-
vironmenl lo provide the children with an innovative way lo
acquire basic fettering skills. Mistakes are noted immediately
and correct entries rewarded in a series o( action-|wcked set
tings ihat will (JL'hiihi and Inspire your children. Discovering
the alnhahei has never been this much fun!

Playground Software'" presents a series of engrossing tales

that UM our Edumate Light Pen'M and your child's imagina
tion to tell ,1 slory.
Our first Bedtime Story enlists the aid of your child to help
Liiile Red Hiding Hood escape from the Mean Old Wolf, and
has all Ihe colorful animation and full-scale sound that
children love.
Your child will be taught letter and word recognition while
having all the fun that goes along wilh helping to tell a story,
So let your child play a pal in the firsl of our interactive and
educational bedtime stories...little Hed Hiding Hood!

Playground Software...Kids are all over us!

Each package $29.95 on disk or cassetie. Prices subject lo change without notice. See your local dealer or order direct from p 0 box 3470,
department eg, chapel hill, north Carolina 27514 Add S3.00 lor posiage ana handling. Credit card orders call 1-B00-334-SOFT

During December and January you con lake advantage of our Special Christmas Offer and receive an Edumate Light

discount toward the purchase of ths Edumate Light Ponlu when you buy any Playground Software™ program.
AIITI UXXBW'" ■10 Commedo.. H ■'• HMtmntl ot MllMK ill! CommMiir. eiteUHMt. l«-' StM'"ln biotmtrl . ' ■.::,..
saying something like, "There are two apples in so the child nevd not hit RETURN after entering
the tree and one more on the ground. See this an answer. Line 76 resets the number of characters
problem? It says 2 plus 1. How much is two and in the keyboard buffer to zero, in case a key was
tine? Let's count the apples and find out." Point pushed between problems.
Out that the number of apples in the tree is the Here is a program description of Tree Tutor
same as the tup number of the combination, and (line numbers for the f>4 version are in parentheses);
that the number of apples on the ground matches
Lines Description
the bottom number. Your child will learn that the
apples are a picture of the addition problem. 2-6(100-130) Title, custom characters created, variables
When you think your youngster is ready,
8-14(190-240) GET highest number desired; GET fruit
suggest trying to answer without counting the option.
apples, using fruit option 2. If the answer is wrong, 1M250-26D) POKE basket,
the apples appear on (he screen; your child can 18(270) Main limp—count len correct answers.
count them to discover the correct sum. 20-22(280-290) Choose problem [see paragraph
An apple is dropped into the basket for every
24 (301)) Erase former tree, problem, and message.
right answer, even if it took several guesses, as an 26-38(310-410) PRINT tree and problem.
incentive to keep trying. After collecting ten ap 40-74(420-590) POKE fruit
ples, you receive a message stating the total tries, 7fi-8() (600-620) GET and judge answer.
82-84(630-650) Routine for wrong answer.
although a preschooler probably won't care. He
Sb-lOMMiO-WIll) Reward correct answer.
or she will, however, enjoy seeing the bird fly
108-122(810-920) Reward ten correct answers; "play
down to land on the message, which is a further again" option.
incentive to complete ten problems. 124-126 (930-940) Subroutine for falling apple.
128-138(950-1000) Data for custom characters.
Incorrect Keys Are Ignored When the computer chooses an addition prob
Because tots often hit the keyboard accidentally, I lem in lines 20-22 (280-290 in 64 version), it first
set up lines 10, 14, and 78 (VIC version) to accept generates n random top number anywhere from
only numerals in the stated range. Every other one to the highest number family (F) selected by
key will be unresponsive (except for the RUN/ the user. The bottom addend is never greater than
STOP key). The program uses a GET statement, F minus the top addend, so that the sum will never
be greater than F. Tl and Bl hold the values of T

NEWC-61 blockbusters
and B, the top and bottom addends, from the last
displayed problem. This is to insure ihat an iden
tical problem does not follow immediately.
One oddity you will notice-—my children
discovered it right away—is that the apples in the
IMF. sltti iij.T 11;. ■ tunnoi<ispui & only
serious choice! BANDIT tncludp* both duu-
tree are different than the apples elsewhere on
\Af progrPsslMt and standard 5 pdy-hnr typfl the screen. The program POKEs the tree apples
sJnl ma* him** (menu selectable), Both slol*
rt-iiJUHtaJly bfrnulHle tht action dud feel of
in multicolor mode, which causes some loss of
Ihq Ji-dl thing Wiih aepantB stdius icrttn. horizontal resolution. This results in a boxier-
100% machine tod*-.
looking apple, but it does fill in the empty spaces
< -64DIbK 117 25
C-G4CASS J15 9fl
around the apples with green, the border color,
rather than with white, the screen color.
My older son strongly dislikes seeing two
KILLER PILLER shapes of apples, so I devised the following pro
1 an v1*" UW V""' UK h.irij frurri thn%> iiWrlul gram change for those who share his idiosyncrasy:
ir*-»- i'diirn( i itrrplllin? BHICI ^"rr h tia| lor
kild-r and mulfni mnthti
128 {950 in M version) Change first eight numbers to
KILL! Kl'II.I IK Uiatlen lh« myth thai ■ 240,60,255,255,255,255,255,60
di Mr>n gam* !>*•* In h* Mpemtvc Trv ir i
IDD'i, roachlnti eikIp, I skill dnit 7
This program uses up most of the memory in
( -64 DISK
(.-64 CAM)
an unexpended VIC, so don't add any unneces
sary spaces.
Vi< 'i» wntons ivdlibb- Sn> you
1 will make a copy of Tree Tutor for Tots (VIC
version only) if you send a blank tape, a self-
addressed, stamped envelope, and check for S3 to:
jmicl Arnold
620 Alger
P.O. Box 350 Owosso, MI 48867
Newcastle. DE 19720 See program listings 0)1 page 148. <Bf
Call: (302) 429-8565 *" « Sh-ppmg * Handling
62 COMPUTEIS Gozclic Morch 1984
B.Wor Letttr A Writsr " Quick Touch Typing"
We write your letters. Invitations. We leach you typing Step by step.
Resumes. Announcements. Easy to follow lessons even kids
Applications. Greetings And many wilt love. And ihen, we make you
more. 100 letters |usi wailing for type FAST You actually watch
you to till in a fewsimpledetails, and your speed increase with every
. PRINT! Select a letter and load drill!
il into your tavonte word processor
if you don't have one. use our simple
to opetaie Better Writer'"
supplied wilh ihe package
ThanK You Letter Lesson I

Supports most word processors using your computer ASCJI lorrriBt. S34.95 on disk lor Commodoro $22.95casseita. $24.95 on Disk for CommoOors 64 and Atari (16K] computers Soon for Apple. IBM
64 and Atari [I6K) eorrputers. Soon (or Apple, IBM and Coleco comoulers. and Coleco computers

Ham* Dacoralor"
By Slepfianto Neuman. Ph.P.

We decorate your home. Or your office. We leach you about colors, furmlure
layout, and even ihetheory behind it Then, by following simple mstruclions you
select carpeting, paint walls, move heavy sofa beds - and you get 10 see i!
BEFORE you make costly mistakes Amazing!

Furniture Layout

$14.95 on Oil* lor Commodore 64. Soon tor Alan. Apple. ISM and Coleco computers

We turn your diskdrive inloa powerful, simple louse machine'No more lenglhy
Basic commands .. call the menu anytime, your program in memory remains
intact until you Load or Run another Indispensable tool for every ctrive owner.

Menu 2

£24.95 on disk tor Commodore 64 and VtC 20 computers.

Ii/Dltk Plus Keyboard Soft/Lay '"

We give you even more! All Ez/Disk We save you lime. All you need is
functions, PLUS" copy disks with immediaiely al your hngertips. No
one or two drives, print files directly more endless paging through
from disk, and more. manuals and books Basic
command, memory locations and
maps, sprites, sound and more.

Menu 3 Son/Lay S*

£34.95 on disk lor Commodore 84. Sa 85 for Commodore 04 nna VIC 20 computers.

150 Nassau Street ■ Suite 2024 ■ NewYork • NewYork10038 • Telephone: (212) 608-2922 • Orders Only: (800) 237-8400/Ext. 111
Dealer and Distributor Inquiries Invited


Send check or money order plus $2.00 to cover shipping costs. Add $3.00 for COD. New York residents add 8.25% sales tax.

Commodore 64 VIC 10, Apple, Atari. IBM and Coleco aiet'aaenwksolCommoraore Electronics. LTD., Apple Computer. Ine .Alan, Inc., IBM Cora, anfl Coleco respacllvelr. SOFTRON. Better LutteiWrller,
Belter Wnltr. Home Dtcoralor, Quick Tcucn Typing. EzlDtsi. EzlOisc Plus end KeyoonrO Son/Lay ara tteOemarks o! SOFTflOfV. Inc

D ISM Soiircn Inc All RiQhis ReservM

Ellen Barcel

"Guess America!" is a historical game, and

it's run. The goal is to travel across the U.S. in
a covered wagon by answering questions about
history, geography, and current events. Ques
tions can be added or modified, making it
possible to create a customized quiz or review
for children at any learning level.

"Guess America!" is an educational program that

uses the 64's sprite and graphics capabilities. After
randomly selecting a key word, the program
scrambles and displays it. You have 15 seconds to
type in your guess with the correct spelling. If
you cannot answer correctly- you are given a clue.
A second and then third clue (each a little easier
A series of dues is given if you can'! unscramble the ward the
than the one before} are given if you still don't
first time in Guess America.
have the correct answer.
After five words have been selected, the game
insert a REM after the line number if you wish to
is over. A covered wagon then travels westward
temporarily delete a DATA statement. Just remove
across a map of (he U.S., and the higher your
the REM if you wish to use the DATA statement
score, the farther the wagon travels. A high score
before running the program.
will get you all the way to California.
To add words and clues, use this format:
The game may be repeated as many times as
you wish. Each new game, the computer will Line number, DATA, key word (o be scrambled,
duel, clue 2, clue 3
randomly select five words from a list of 31. If a
key word happens to be selected more than once, Be sure to always include commas between words
the second scramble will usually be different than and clues. If clues are long, two line numbers and
the first.
DATA statements may be used. The key word
may also include a hyphen or space (as in New
Modifying The Program York), but not commas, colons, or double quota
The game can always remain fresh because you
tion marks. Make sure that the line DATA *,*,*,*
can very easily modify or add key words and clues. is the last DATA statement in the program.
Your only limit is the computer's memory. (As
If you'd rather not type in the program, I'll
make copies on tape. Send a blank cassette, $3,
written, the program uses about UK.)
and a self-addressed, stamped mailer to:
Terms can also be changed so that they rep
resent a single topic—U.S. presidents, or inven Ellen Barcel
tors, for example. To delete a key word and clues P.O. Box 39
East Setauket, NY U733
permanently, omit the entire DATA statement
when typing in the program. You can also simply See program Hating on page 155. Q)
6A COMPUTEI's Gazette Mordil984
What do you like best about
It teaches me more about my Commodore 64 than any other magazine.

The Gazette Feedback column

It's not too technical for the average person.

w^ Ue
programming tips atr«i reviews ^M
Your professional writing; you have very

knowledgeable authors ^) VJMju JLjljm\syJsvUL fcjtrvo C^YvvOoCtx^LXU

The above comments are from The Editor's Feedback Cards, a monthly part of our continuing dialogue with
the readers of COMPUTE!'s GAZETTE.
Every month, readers of COMPUTE!'* GAZETTE get rcady-to-type-in games and applications programs,
tips on programming in BASIC and machine language, reviews of new hardware and software, feature articles
that explain and entertain, and much more.
If you would like to become a GAZETTE subscriber, return one of the subscription cards in this issue or
call the number below. The basic subscription price of $20/year saves you $10 off the newsstand price. Why
not subscribe today? Call Toll Free in the US 800-334-0868, 919-275-9809 in NC

P.O. Box 961 Parmingdale, NY 1! 737
Sea Route To India:

A Historical
Simulation For
The 64
M. J. Winter

Here's your chance to Indian attacks by study

make history on the ing historical accounts.
"Sea Route to India." The result was a game
Following in the wake that was both interesting
of Portuguese explorers, fl and informative.
gold 28
you can find gold and crew spirit _ ,_ __
adventure, if you don't ROUHDED CftPE OF 600D "OPE Sail The
starve, or get sunk by PRi'SS C Bounding Main
pirates, or capsize in a
"Sea Route To India" uses
terrible storm.
Rounding the Cape of Good Hope in "Sen Route To India.' a similar technique,
drawing on the voyages
One of the earliest games for PET computers was made by Protuguese explorers in the fifteenth
Westward Ho, in which the player becomes a turn- century.
of-lhe-century pioneer, trying to cross the country The subroutine beginning at line 15000 intro
in a covered wagon. Decisions must be made about duces the game and gives you the rules.
purchasing food, supplies, and ammunition. Your goal is to sail from Lisbon around Africa
Various experiences—-hunting, Indian attacks, to India. During the voyage, you encounter the
settlements—occur on each leg of the journey. By same dangers faced by the real explorers: hunger,
repeatedly playing the game, the user learns thirst, pirates, natives, weather, mutiny, and at
where to spend money, how to hunt, and whether tack by Arab traders.
to trust strangers. Luck, however, is a major factor Your journey is charted in weeks on a map
in success. PET users of all ages played the game displayed on the screen. Lines 500-800 contain
over and over until they finally reached the West the loop for each week. The miles you sail depend
Coast. on the weather. Each week your store of water,
Westward Ho was an abbreviated version of food, and supplies decreases by one unit. If your
Oregon Trail, in which the game's designers took voyage lasts more than 30 weeks, the crew's hap-
pains to produce an accurate simulation. They piness also decreases by 1.
used prices from contemporary catalogs, and Each week you have a new experience; line
calculated frequencies and likely locations of 560 sends the program to the appropriate event.
46 COMPUTEfs Caielle March 1984


You deserve the best. You've earned it. Now reward yourself with a session of Night Mission PINBALL,
the most realistic and challenging arcade simulation ever conceived! ■ Stunning graphics and dazzling
. —•> sound effects put Night Mission PINBALL in a class by itself. Game features: multf-
' ■ ;■. ball and multi-player capabilities, ten different professionally designed levels of play,
> i —=H and an editor that lets you create your own custom modes. ■ So take a break with
Night Mission PINBALL from SubLOGIC. Winner of Electronic Games magazine's
f ' "■ 1983 Arcade Award for Best Computer Audio/Visual Effects.

See your dealer...

or write or call lor more information. Foi direct orders please add SI .50 lor
shipping and specify UPS or first class mail delivery. Illinois residents add 5%
sales lax. American Express, Diner's Club. MasterCard, and Visa accepted. 713 Edgobrook Drive
Champaign IL61820
Order Line: 800/637-4983 (217) 359-B482 Telex: 206995 «£* ■
In the early part of the voyage, you sight whales Readers who do not want to type in the pro
and other ships, and sail into terrible storms. But gram can obtain a copy by sending a blank tape
after you pass the Cape of Good Hope and pick or disk, a stamped, self-addressed mailer, and a
up your Indian pilot, you might be attacked at check for $3 to:
any time by Arab dhows. M. |. Winter
Math Department, Michigan Slate University
Check Your Progress Every Week East Ijwsinx, Ml 48824
At the end of each week, the program assesses See program listing on page 159.
your situation. If you sailed far enough to visit
the Canary or Cape Vcrdc Islands, then your
water, food, supplies, and crew happiness are
restored. The ship's log is updated, and the game
map shows your progress. Lines 91-93 define FREE OFFER!
DTS (dots); three characters are needed for each COMPUTER CASSETTES
dot. One dot on the map represents 200 miles 58$
(line 1002). Then, if there have been no fatal short FREE ''States and Capitals Game"

ages, the voyage continues for another week. with each order of 20 or more C-10 s
Specify VlC-20 or Commodore 6<J
Your ship "sails" across the screen in line C-10lengtn
5 Sere* SriolwFree Labels
15155. In the race (lines 3093, 3096), the ships are Lifetime money Hack guarantee
placed at the right of the screen and a string of Storage Bon aOd 12c each
S3 00 shipping charge — any quantity
DELETES is printed several times. (If you win the (Canadian orders £4 00 shipping)
NJ Residents afld 6% sales ta>
race, the crew is happier; they become disgruntled Senfl cneCK or money ordei in

by a loss.)
Lines 1000-1250 contain the whale hunting
routine. The whales are within a long string (F$)
of shifted spaces, which art1 cyclically rearranged 609-227-9634

(line 1210) and the leftmost 40 characters printed

each time. The program checks the keyboard,
then moves the whales until you press H, which For Commodore 64™
drops the harpoon. The program then alternately SPANISH VERB TUTOR
moves the whales and lowers the harpoon.
To check whether the harpoon hits a whale, II you can't find it here you probably shouldn't say it.
the screen is opened for INPUT (line 1100). The COMPLETE CONJUGATIONS OF THE
entire row of the screen to the right of the harpoon Including those tricky irregular verbs
is input. If the first character is not a shifted space, STUDY LEVELS
Beginner College
a whale has been hit.
Spanish English
Landfall To Gather Supplies English Spanish
S29.95 for Cassette
The subroutine beginning at line 4000 describes Write lor information or send check or money order to;
the sighting of a river mouth. Landing offers you
PO. Box 14815
a chance to get food and water, and to cheer up Hartford, CT 06114
Coinmodore 64 is a Trademark of Commodore Eleclronics Limiled
the crew. Sometimes (line 4060) natives appear.
As many early explorers discovered, they are
unpredictable. Sometimes they are friendly and
trade gold for trinkets (cheering up the crew);
sometimes they attack.
If they attack, you must type RUN and press
RETURN quickly. The clock is set to 0 in line 4320, COMMODORE 64

press RETURN, the program looks at the clock. If Jli DISKETTE ONLY: S69.50- ra»u
more than 200 jiffies have passed (line 4340), the YOU GET; Form IU40. Schoduifls A, D, C, D, E, G, SE. W and Form
2d4i Mimu Driven Pflni Flld and input Si Of ago CapalnJity
natives attack and kill you. BONUS Form 1040 with ilia 1UH4 Tin nmtMi (S«* what Jhai tax

The same timing technique is used when the sriflrtm may Do worm on nant yttt'i return )
DISCOUNT: Coupon inclydort for a discouni on lUe 19*14 version of
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The program as written will run on a Com COMMOOOHE 61 II • tNulirnark "Plus 11 SO POSTAGE MINNESOTA
□1 Currmioiiur. EMctronlu, LID RESIDENTS. ADO6D. SALES TAX
modore 64 or PET.
68 COMPUTEI's Gozeffe Murcr.1984
Data Manager recall and display the data. You
can search and recall by exact

For The Commodore 64 name, by data pointers, or by

index codes.
Data pointers are references
Dale F. Brown cally moves to the end of the to lines within the records—b>
data file. You enter information might be used to search for birth-
Simplicity, versatility, and low for each line of the record, then dates, or tpso might be used to
cost are the attractions of Data you can correct your entry. If find top scores in your bowling
Manager, an information collec everything is correct, the-pro records. The index code might
tion and retrieval system from gram writes your record to disk. be (R) or (F) entered into your
Timeworks. It's not the most When you replace a record, address records to differentiate
sophisticated data base system each replacement line is written between relatives and friends.
around, but Data Manager is a to disk as you enter it, so this If, for example, you wish to
good solution for those seeking process can be a bit slow. find the names of everyone in
a simple, easy-to-run, com your records with a birthday in
puterized index card system for Retrieving Data June, you could use the b> data
home or personal applications. Once all your records are en pointer and specify a range of
The program, while not tered, you have several ways to 06/01/00 to 06/30/00.
endowed with blazing speed or
a lot of fancy options, can bring
some organization to your
Christmas lists, club member
No Foolin' Aroun
ship records, bowling team The Commodore 64 is your first "real"
computer. So, it stands to reason that
scores, addresses, or account
the software you use be real too. And,
numbers. useful.
If your goal is to crunch a lot
The INSTA series productivity
of information, process long
software is just that — real and useful.
columns of keywords, or do
With ourtutonal manuals and HELP
extensive cross referencing, Data
SCREENS we actually teach you what
Manager might fall short of your word processing, spreadsheets and
expectations. graphs are all about.
Games are fun....for foolin' around.
Have A Plan From INSTA is for real.
The Beginning
Data Manager initializes a disk
and formats it when you start up
the system. Before formatting,
however, you must decide how
many lines per record you want.
Once the data disk is formatted,
you cannot change it.
Records can have from one INSTA-

to eight lines, with up to 30 char -■■--:■ I INSTA-WTCITEI

acters per line. A normal data

disk will hold 1040 five-line
When new information is
entered, the program automati
COMPUTEVs Gazette March 19S4 69

numerical data within records.

The X-Search
Function For example, if you used tpso in Purple Turtles
each record to display the top
Data Manager includes an X- Lance Elko, Editor
bowling score of each member
Search feature that allows you to
of your bowling club, you could
perform secondary searches on Quicksilva, an established British
retrieve that data, add it, average
your data. In the example above, software house, has entered the
it, compute a standard deviation,
you asked for the names of U.S. market. One of its initial
and draw a bar chart of the in
everyone with a birthday in June. offerings is Purple Turtles—a
You could take it a step further unique and charming arcade-
Data Manager includes a 20-
and use X-Search to search that style game. Written by Mark
page manual that lakes a bit of
data subset for records that con and Richard Moore for the Com
study to fully understand. But
tained an (R) index code. The modore 64, Purple Turtles uses
once you learn the basics of rec
result would be a list of your the 64's sound, color, and
ord entry and retrieval, you'll
relatives who had birthdays in graphics to great advantage.
find the program a good tool for
June. At first, Purple Turtles might
organizing and maintaining per
After using X-Search, you strike you as one of the most
sonal and household records.
can print out the results and colorful and lively games you've
Data Manager
then use X-Search again and ever seen on the 64. But, you
Timeioorks, Inc.
again to search for different index might also jump to the conclu
405 Lake Cook Romt
codes or data pointers. Deerfiehi, !L 60015
sion (hat it's a game just for chil
The program also allows (312)291-9200 dren. After playing fora few .
vou to retrieve and analyze 524.95 ® minutes, though, you might

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nxicra Pompton Plains, N.J.
CALL (201) 838-9027 07444
How to make your computer
look as smart as it is.
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The game's instructions are
concise and clear. The opening Store it in a beautiful • Deskshelfswingsupto
scenario, complete with a game piece of furniture specifi close off unit when not
demonstration screen and a de cally designed for the in use.
proper operation and • Compact design: 32"w
lightful melody that's somehow
storage of your home x.W'hx24"d.
vaguely familiar, scrolls options computer equipment. • Indestructible natural
across the screen center—press • Upper unii slielf adjusts oak or walnut wood-
the space bar to start, I for in to most computers. grain finish.
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Selecting I gives you all the ONLY $149.00
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game. Or select one of ten levels THE FURNITURE BYTE
for game speed or skill level. P.O. Box 1757 9Judith Place tongrtew, M98632
And the ever-welcome pause
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More Than Meets We know. You've been looking

everywhere for 64 software, INSTA's
The Eye interactive line of software is just a
The object of the game is to cross phone call away.
a pond by hopping on the backs Imagine, specially designed software
that "taSks" to one another. Your home
of four very fickle turtles, gather
budget created with CALC instantly
fruit, and return. Sounds easy, becomes a GRAPH. And your club
but it's not, The harmless looking membership list with addresses and
turtles float on the water's sur monthly dues quickly becomes a form
letter, printed over and over again,
face and bob. But, one or more automatically, for each member.
of them will submerge unpre-
So, no more lookin1 around. INSTA is
dictably. If you're in the middle here now!
of a jump and the turtle you're
about to land on decides to take
a dive, you're in the drink. This
costs one life (you start with
three, and receive a bonus life
every time you advance a level). :--.■■.:=..
Assuming you start at the
default speed and level (Level 0
for both), the first couple of
rounds are not terribly difficult.
Only one turtle at a lime will
descend. But you're soon into
the next round and possibly a
little overconfident. You now
have to contend with two diving
COMPUTE!'! Goielte Maiclil984 71

pond are interesting, too. The each time, one piece drops to
tree on the left, your starting the ground. You collect it auto
position, is home to an owl that matically by crossing the pond.
blinks and twitches his ears Purple Turtles is quite well
throughout the game. When designed. It's innocent and en
you return successfully with chanting, yet you'll not quickly
your fruit, the owl goes into a master any of the higher levels.
frenzy, shrieking hysterically. If Quicksilva can produce more
This provides a not so gentle games of this quality, it is sure to
reminder that your score has in find a niche in the U.S. software
creased. market.
A turtle begins his descent in Purple
The tree on the other side of Purple Turtles
Turtles. The pause feature is oneoj
many extras in this lively game for the the pond bears a different fruit Quicksilva, Inc.

Commodore 64, for each new level achieved. 426 West Nakoma
Before you start across the pond San Antonio, TX 78216
$29.95 disk $24.95 tape <Bf
turtles. This pattern continues
until you're at a point where all

COMvoice: Voice
four are acting undependably.
After a few blunders, you'll soon
learn that there's more to the
game than meets the eye. You Synthesizer For The VIC-20
must develop a strategy.
Another tendency for first- Todd Heimarck, Assistant Editor method of figuring out the con
time players will be to play cau nection between spelling and
tiously and deliberately. This speech. For example, it correctly
COMvoice, a voice synthesizer pronounces tough, rough, though,
will get you nowhere, as there's
fur the VIC-20, gives your com although, bought, and brought.
another obstacle to overcome:
puter the ability to talk, and it's It does very well, considering
the timer. You must successfully
remarkably easy to use. the different sounds ough can
return five pieces of fruit within
The COMvoice package
a fixed amount of time to get to represent.
contains a cartridge, a speaker Occasionally a strange word
the next level. The timer, placed
with cord, and a 20-page in pops up. COMvoice has prob
somewhat inconspicuously at
struction manual. The cartridge
the top of the screen, moves lems pronouncing pizza (piz-ah),
plugs into your VIC, and the women (woh-men), integer (int-
along deceptively slowly. The
speaker plugs into the cartridge. eej-er), and certain other words.
more you concentrate on the
If you don't like reading This usually happens because a
treachery of the turtles, the more
instruction manuals, all you need word is spelled one way but
likely GAME'S OVER will flash
to know is that COMvoice adds pronounced another. If you run
on the screen.
one new BASIC command: into a problem word, you can
The Frenzied Owl SPEAK. This command works correct it by deliberately mis
almost like PRINT, but instead spelling it (so it looks like the
There are a lot of nice surprises
of putting words on the screen, way it is spoken).
and pleasant distractions in Pur
the computer talks to you. You COMvoice can also speak
ple Turtles. Besides very appeal
must enclose the words to be letters and numbers. The voice
ing color combinations, the au
spoken in double quotation is somewhat mechanical and
thors have provided an ex
marks. A dial on the cartridge monotonous; if you've heard
tremely active screen by taking
controls the volume. computers talk in movies (War-
full advantage of (he 64's sprite
capabilities. The blue sky is filled Cames) or on television {Wliiz
It Knows The Tough Kids), you can get a good idea of
with various colored clouds and
hot-air balloons which float hap Words the sound quality. But you can
pily across the screen, unaware COMvoice will pronounce 95 add four levels of inflection, to
of your plight below. percent of English words cor stress certain words or to make
The trees on each side of the rectly. It has a fairly sophisticated questions sound more natural.
72 COMPUTEfs Gazette March 1-)8A
f* #'

For CBM-64
and VIC
«x^' w &r
owners only: ^>
?&& «*
^^^^ .^KA^ A
This is just 1 of P^<0^ ^>
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newest and biggest ,^*>^V^V>B
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From Skyles
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oldest and largest
another 19 pages very own copy
of peripherals, within the last few
specialists in the
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that will make your (800) 227-9998
CBM-64 or VIC (unless you live
computer even in California, in
nicer to live with. which case call
Skyles Electric Works
231-ES. Whisman Road
So, if we missed (415) 965-1735. Mountain View, California 94041

String Variables PRINT statements (to save a bit program.

of memory) may find this feature And, finally, the RUN/STOP

Spoken Here somewhat annoying. key is disabled while the voice is
You can set up string variables If you are used to PRINTing on. That means you cannot
for pronunciation, for example, multiple variables separated by rudely interrupt the computer
A$= "WELCOME HOME": commas or semicolons, you will while it is talking; you have to
SPEAK A$. And there are several have to remember that you can wait for it to finish before you
options for controlling pauses, A not do this with the SPEAK com STOP the program.
single space will cause a slight mand. SPEAK accepts only Considering the overall ef
pause. Commas and periods will single string variables and it fectiveness and ease of use, these
result in longer pauses. does not recognize string arrays. flaws are merely quirks. Once
The SPEAK command You can gel around the single you get used to programming
works in immediate mode (with siring limitation by converting with COMvoice, you'll learn to
out a program line number) or arrays with a line such as ignore them.
within programs. The instruction AS = B$(1,6):SPEAKAS- COMvoice uses a VOTRAX
manual also includes a list of The four levels of intonation SC-01 chip and is sold with a
over 60 sounds you can access are based on (musical) tone one-year warranty. A Commo
with POKEs directly into mem rather than volume. The voice dore 64 version is also available.
ory. You can program speech would sound more realistic if COM i'i»'a'
either in BASIC or in machine you could stress some words by Genesis Cumputcr Corporation
language. making them louder than others. P.O. Box 1143
The most impressive thing The only way to control volume Bethlehem, PA 18018
about COMvoice is how easy it is to turn the dial on the cartridge; (215)861-0850
is to use. You don't have to learn you cannot do it from within a $149.95 (Of
a phonetic code that translates
words into special numbers and
symbols which only the com
puter recognizes, as with some FOR THE COMMODORE 64 & VIC 20
other speech devices. VIC 20
Commodore 64 prjces
There are a variety of inter :a_-4 - ■ ■ ■ ■ ■ ■ w ^ wi —■■ H — —

esting applications you could S|\ 40% OFF RETAIL

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Practical (D) 11.50 Cnoplilter (CT) 28 95
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3195 Jumpman (D/CASS) 27 95
Smart 64 Terminal
tional software for preschoolers Quick Brown Fox (CT) 42.95 Beach Head (D) 26 95
Paper Clip (D) 93 95 Neutral Zone (D/CASS) 26 95
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phabet. The computer could CatcResuli Advanced |D] 112.50
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the letter Band say it to the child. Trie Connection Parallel Int. 89 95
COMvoice might also be useful Facemaker(D/CT) 22.95 Cardco 3 Slol Eip Board 31.95
Kindercomp (D/CT) 19.95 Car0co5SlolExp. (C-64) 55 95
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Early Games (D/CASS) 22.50 (40/80 col plus Word Proc.) 119.95
Electronic Party (VIC 20/CASS) 22 50 OK Display Mgr (*0/80) 79-95
Some Minor Faults Square Pairs (VIC 20/CASS) 22 50
Zenith 12" Green Monitor
Brullier/Dynax DX-15
105 00
Turtle Trax (CIC 20/CASS)
There are a few minor faults in Alphabet Zoo (CT) 22 95 (Leller Quality) 485 00
Koala Touch Tablel 72.95 Cltoh Prowriter8510AP 375.00
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- • •■•-:• .
Seatox For The VIC-20
Tony Roberts, Assistant Manoging Editor

Far beneath the surface of some above. To complete your first

distant ocean is a submarine mission, you must sink ten of
awaiting your command. Your the blue freighters while fending
mission is to prevent the off attacks by a fleet of enemy
freighters from passing while subs.
allowing hospital ships to sail To fire at a freighter, give A dolphin carrying an unclaimed supply
through. the joystick button a quick tap pack swims off in 5ea Fox.
The game is Seafox, an under and a torpedo is launched toward
water action game adapted for the surface. If you hold down you simply have to wait for the
the VIC-20 from the Apple and the joystick button, you launch a next supply ship, but if any other
Atari versions. It is available on torpedo from your forward woe befalls your friendly dol
cartridge from Brdderbund Soft tubes. This weapon is used phin, you pay dearly. Should a
ware. At its simplest levels, Seafox against your underwater foes, torpedo, mine, or depth charge
is challenging. At its most diffi and also can be used to detonate destroy the undersea mammal,
cult, it's an undersea nightmare. depth charges and magnetic you have only sedconds before
Seafox is a shoot-em-up mines. Only one torpedo of each your entire ship is swallowed by
game. There's plenty of action, type can be active at a time. a giant whale.
but the pace is slower than you Your mission is further While your main mission is
might be used to in a space game. hampered by your limited sup to sink freighters, you do receive
This accurately reflects the ply of fuel and torpedoes. You points for blowing up enemy
medium in which the game is have 30 torpedoes and 1200 units subs, mines, and depth
set—-water. Your.submarine, the of fuel when you begin. You charges—something which must
enemy subs, the torpedoes, and burn fuel at an alarming rate and be done anyway, just to survive.
mines all move through the must always keep an eye out for Should one of your tor
water in a deliberate, Hquidlike your supply ship. pedoes hit a hospital ship, you'll
fashion. do no damage. However, the
You usually have time to Supply Ships And weapon will bounce off the
see the dangers around you, but Undersea Creatures heavily armed ship and head
you don't always have time to
The supply ship appears at in
back your way. Besides present
react. The game realistically re ing you with an added peril, this
tervals at the bottom of the
flects the differences between also deprives you of your ability
screen. It releases a trained dol
maneuvering a bulky submarine
phin which carries fuel and tor
to fire another surface torpedo
in the dense undersea world until the first one explodes on
pedoes. You must make contact
and piloting a sleek spaceship in the sea bottom.
with the dolphin's pack in order
the vacuum of outer space.
to take on new supplies. If you
On To Advanced
miss connections with the dol
Three Subs And A Assignments
phin, you have barely enough
Chantey fuel to hold you until the next As you begin play, your only
As Seafox begins, you are sup supply ship arrives. If you fail to danger is a fleet of enemy sub
plied with three submarines, resuppiy your sub a second time, marines. As you advance to
and you are treated to the open you inevitably sink to the bottom higher levels, the complications
ing bars of "Sailor's Hornpipe." of the sea. increase. On level two, a fleet
This melody, though a bit out of The sea abounds with giant of destroyers is added to the
tune, serves to warn you that clams that seem to enjoy feasting shipping lane. These ships drop
the action is about to begin. on dolphins. They gobble up depth charges to make your life
Your sub roams the depths your supplies as well, so it's best miserable. In the third level, the
while the freighters and hospital to refuel as quickly as possible. enemy subs begin firing tor
ships use the shipping lanes If you lose a dolphin to a clam, pedoes at you, and what happens
76 COMPUTEIS Go!olte March 1934

after that I've never been able to
discover. The game includes five
and VIC 20™

use TAXAlD1 to prepare

levels, and the instructions make
reference to magnetic mines, so
I assume they're part of the
A nice feature of Seafox is Devetoped by an experienced accounting linn. TaxAid is
accurate, easy to use, and comes with a detailed manual. Your tax
that the depth charges, mines, data is permanently stored on tape or disk. The cost is tax
enemy subs, torpedoes, etc., deductible and yearly updates are available.
have the ability to home in on
you. When you take evasive TaxAid I TaxAid II TaxAid III
For For
action, you must be evasive. It For
Unexpanded VIC 20 VIC 20 with 16K Commodore 64
doesn't do to simply move aside
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Seafox requires that you
develop strategies, and it re
quires that you keep your sub
marine in constant motion. Take 606-A Second Ave.
it up to get a clean shot at a Two Harbors, MN 55616
freighter, descend for refueling, (218) 834-5012
reverse engines to avoid an ex
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COMPUTE''! Gaielle March 1984 77

A Look At This Month's Best Sellers
And The Software Industry

Kathy Yakal, Editorial Assistant

This Last This Last

Month Month Month Month

Commodore 64 Entertainment VIC-20 Entertainment

1 Temple OfApshnl (Epyx) 2
1 Shamus (HesWare) 2
2 jitmpman (Epyx) 1
2 ChopHfter (Creative) 4
3 Frogger (Sierra On-Line)
3 Gridrunner (HesWare) 1
4 ChopHfter (Brride-rbund) 5
4 Temple ofApshai (Epyx) 3
5 Beach-Head (Access)
5 Crush, Crumble and Chomp (Epyx) 5
6 Neutral Zone {Accusa)
6 Protector (HesWare)
7 Fort Apocalypse (Synapse) 4 7 Attack of the Mutant Camels
8 Gridnniner (HesWare) 6
(HesWare) 7
9 Enchanter (Infocom)
10 rfiIengflrd(AvaIonHill) 9
VIC-20 Home/Business/Utility
Commodore 64
1 Quid: Brawn Far (Quick Brown Fox) 1
Ho me/BusinessAJtility
2 HES Writer (HesWare)
1 WordPro 3 PlusftiVJlihSpellRight 3 Household Finance
(Professional)* I
(Creative Software) 3
2 Quick Brown Fox (Quick Brown Fox) 2
4 TOTL Time Manager (TOTL) 5
3 PaperCiip (Batteries Included) 6
5 TOTL Text (TOTL) 6
4 Management Systems 64 (Entech) 8
6 HESMon (HesWare) 4
5 Electronic Checkbook {Timeworks)
6 Money Manager (Timeworks)
7 Data Base 64 (Entech) 9 VIC-20 Educational
8 Delphi'sOracle (Batteries Included) 4 1 Touch Typing Tutor (Tnylormade) 1
9 Data Manager (Timeworks)
2 Primary Math Tutor (Cnmm'Dnia)
10 HESMon (HesWare) 10
3 Square Pairs (Scholastic)
4 Word Search (T&F) 3
Commodore 64 Educational
Dungeons of the Algebra Dragons
(Timeworks) 5
2 Vacemaker (Spinnaker) 1
3 Spellbound (Timeworks)
4 Delia Drawing (Spinnaker)
5 Studio 64 (Entech) 3 *Word Pro 3 Plus/64 was written by Steve
6 Frimary Math Tutor (Comm*Data) 6 Punter. SpellRight was written by Joe Spatfora and
7 Pipes (Creative Software) 7 Dwight Huff. The two programs can be purchased
8 separately or as a package.

78 COMPUTE'S Gazelle March 198-1

Here comes
the new generation of S

program series for the 64.

The professional wordpracassor with
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JillADREVA 64 <>— ■*
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trace and lots of more helpful fentures. Really n golden tooll
This indei sequential file monagnr gives you D new dimension on direct access
filas. Up to 40 keys, various length for sach record and up lo to fllas can be handled
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Commodore 64 owners are buying more home Three word processing programs appeared
applications software than games, and VIC-20 here: HES Writer, Word Pro 3 Plus/64, and TOTL
owners are moving in that direction, too. This Text. Many more word processing packages have
month we'll look at some home applications been introduced since that time, and word proc
products which are doing well, some which essing continues to be one of the most popular
are not, and a few you can expect to see in the home applications for personal computers.
near future. Electronic spreadsheets do not seem to be as
popular as other types of business software, at
least among Commodore owners. Calc Result leads
As the home computer movement gathers the field of the few available.
momentum, it's important for people in the in HES Man, a machine language monitor, and
dustry to know why consumers arc buying com TOTL Label, a mailing list program, also appeared
puters. Hundreds of surveys have been conducted on the first HOTWARE list.
by market research firms, hardware and software
manufacturers, and computer publications. New Products Join The List
Though the results vary, some general trends Since we first published that list, several new
have emerged. products have entered the home applications
• Before purchasing a computer, many people market.
claim that they want or need a home computer Data bases. Those electronic filing systems
for educational purposes, and to simplify record allow you to enter records, sort them, and print
keeping. Playing videogames is often low on their out specialized reports. (See "The Data Base As A
list of priorities. Home Information Center" elsewhere in this
• After buying a computer, the first type of issue.) Data Manager, byTimeworks, and Delphi's
software actually purchased is, in many cases, Oracle, by Batteries Included, are examples. Data
games. base software is beginning to appear almost as
• A few weeks or months down the road, the often as word processors on our HOTWARE list.
computer owner starts searching for practical Home finance software. Though some of the
applications other than entertainment. personal financial records that you have to keep
Though this is not true for everyone, this may be more easily done with pencil and paper,
kind of pattern emerges in the software sales we many can be simplified with your computer.
have tracked in HOTWARE. Last spring, when Personal Finance Assistant, by Rainbow, and House
the Commodore 64 was fairly new to the market, hold Finance, by Creative Software, have been best
and the VIC-20'9 price was dropping rapidly, the sellers,
type of software that sold best was games. As Other home applications exist, but don't yet
demand increased and more home business soft have as much software support as word proc
ware became available, it began to outdistance essing, data management, and personal finance
games both in unit sales and in numbers of pro record keeping. They include time management,
grams being published. inventory control, and checkbook balancing. Soft
Granted, the Commodore 64 is seen as more ware is also available to help figure out income
suitable than the VIC-20 as a business computer, taxes and keep track of stock portfolios. You may
due to its greater amount of memory. But the see more of these kinds of specialized applications
increase in availability of home and business ap as the software market continues to mature.
plications cannot be traced solely to the 64. Equi
valent software for the VIC-20 is also starting to A Question Of Suitability
catch up, although VIC-20 games are still selling Are there home applications that do not translate
in greater volume. well to computers? Yes, says Douglas Adams,
president of Orbyte Software. "There are some
Identifying The Leaders things that you can do just as quickly and easily
If we go back to the first HOTWARE list in the by hand," he says. "Take a recipe file, for ex
August 1983 issue of COMPUTED GAZETTE, we see ample.... I don't know how useful a computer
several types of home/business software repre can be in the kitchen at this time."
sented. For the Commodore 64, it looked like Adams believes the Commodore 64 is capable
this: of handling more useful home financial applica
1. HES Writer (HesWare) tions, including home budgeting, data manage
2. Cak Result (Handic) ment, and word processing.
3. Word Pro 3 Plusi64 (Professional) Orbyte's data base filing system, Comfile,
4. HES Man (HesWare) allows you to access files you have created using
5. TOTL Text (TOTL Software) another program (a word processor for example),
6. TOTL Label (TOTL Software) even if that software was not published by Orbyte.
80 COMPUTEI's Gazcna March 198-1
"People are looking for versatility in home busi
ness software," says Adams. "If I can enhance
another company's software with my own, that's VIC® 20 OWNERS
great." Fulfill the
expansion needs
Know Your Needs Before of your computer
with the
You Buy
"The Commodore 64 owner has a lot of variety at RAM-SLOT
this point in terms of software1 for home applica
tions," Adams says. "But many people that are
buying that kind of software don't know what the
This versaiile memory and slol expansion peripheral
programs are about. Also, this software tends to for ihe Commodore Vic-20 Computer consists of a
be more expensive than games. It's very important plug-in cartridge with up lo UdKByies of low power
CMOS RAM and 3 additional expansion slots tor
to make sure the software you're buying will truly
ROM. RAM and I/O. The cartridge also includes a re
meet your needs." set button (eliminates using the power-on switchl
and an auto start ROM selection switch,
Two software manufacturers were incorrectly #RSM-8K. SK RAM + 3 slots S 84.50
#RSM-16K, 16K RAM + 3 slots ..., S 99.50
identified in January HOTWARE. Temple of Apshai HRSM-24K.24KRAM + 3slots . $119.50
and Crush, Crumble and Chomp are products of
Epyx Software, not HesWare, The Commodore We accept checks, money order, Visa/Mastercard. Add
64 version of Choplifter is published by Brriderbund S2.50 tor shipping, an additional $2 50 for COD Mich
igan residents add 4% sales tax. Personal checks-
Software. The Commodore 64 version of Shamus
allow 10daystoclear. * TrademarkoiCommodore?
is published by Synapse Software. Of


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82 COMPUTE'S Gozctlc Mortli I98J

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• Build in Terminal software for electronic mail and
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download, save an disk or cassette, How to get the most out of your powerful Commodore
• Dynamic formatting, Imbedded commands
64. Very important subroutines, tricks and hints in
• Single keystroke for disk directory and error channel
machine language for your C-64. How to modify DOS.
• Program comes on disk Or castfltle
How to connect a parallel and serial punter How to
• Double line spacing, lef! and righl margin justification,
design your own terminal program for communication
centering, page numbering, and practically everything
and networking. Dig inio 170 for cajwiip and diikr
one expects from a good wordprocessor,
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Preventing An Input Crash

This month we'll look at a few ways to "dummy- 100 PRINT "[2 DOWN}CHOOSEt" !rem 127
proof" (maybe a better term is "user-proof") your 110 PRINT "1 FIRST GAME" :rem 54
120 PRINT "2 SECOND GAME" :rem 108
programs. In other words, how do you write your
130 PRINT "3 THIRD GAME" :rem 45
programs so that other people can use them and 140 PRINT "4 END PROGRAM{DOWN}" :rem 154
not get error messages? How do you prevent your 150 GET ASsIF A?="" THEN 150 :rem 79
program from "crashing" with a fatal error? 160 IF AS<"1" THEN 150 :rem 1
Any program that another person will use 170 IF AS>"4" THEN 150 !rem 7
180 ON VAL(AS) GOTO 1000,2000,3000,4000
should have "user-friendliness" built in. When
:rem 150
you work on a program you have written yourself, 1000 PRINT "FIRST GAME" :rem 52
you know what constraints the program has and 1010 GOTO 100 :rem 140
what types of input are necessary. If you want 2000 PRINT "SECOND GAME" :rem 105
2010 GOTO 100 :rem 141
other people to use your program, they need to
3000 PRINT "THIRD GAME" :rem 41
be able to do so without your constant help. 3010 GOTO 100 :ren 142
4000 PRINT "END PROGRAM[2 DOWN)" :rem 166
The GET Statement 4010 END :rem 156
The most likely place for errors is when the user
must enter something—when the program re Lines 100-140 print the menu screen. You
quires a response. You may use either the GET or could use an INPUT statement to require the user
INPUT statement to put information into the com to choose a number and then press RETURN, but
puter. If you allow for yes and no or multipJe- the user would need two keystrokes and could
choice answers requiring one keystroke instead of enter many characters other than the four numbers
a typed answer as the user input, there is less and cause all kinds of errors. A better approach is
chance for error. To detect which key is pressed, to use GET (line 150). Here we're scanning the
use GET. keyboard for a key A$. If A$= "" (that's two
Here is a sample: double quote marks with nothing between), no
100 PRINT "START" : rem 240
key has been pressed. Lines 160 and 170 indicate
200 PRINT "TRY AGAIN? (Y/N)" :rem 40 thai the key pressed must be from 1 to 4.
210 GET AS :rem 216 Line 180 is an example of an ON-GOTO state
220 IF AS="Y" THEN 100 :rem 34
ment, which causes the program to branch de
230 IF A?o"N" THEN 210 : rem 87
pending on the value of AS. Lines 160-170 check
Line 200 prints the question asking for a re to make sure the key pressed will be a number
sponse. Line 210 scans the keyboard and gets a from 1 to 4, so the ON-GOTO statement needs
key when it is pressed. Line 220 says if the key four line numbers. If the value of A$ is 1, the pro
pressed was Y, then transfer to line 100. Line 230 gram goes to line 1000; 2 goes to 2000; 3 goes to
says if the key pressed is not N (or if no key is 3000; and 4 goes to 4000. An ON-GOTO statement
pressed), then go back to the GET statement, is often the most efficient way to transfer control
otherwise continue. You can see that only the Y without using several IF-THEN statements. The
or N keys are accepted. rest of this sample program illustrates the program
Here is another example offering a choice of flow—of course, you would write actual program
several items. segments for the options.
B4 COMPUTEIS Gazette March 1984
Mirage Concepts stands apart
because our customers
don't stand alone!
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Freezing The Program is a possible division by zero).
The following program for parallel resistance
Another use for GET is to "freeze" the program
illustrates how input values can be tested. First
as long as the user wishes. For example, perhaps
the user is asked how many resistors there are in
you have an instruction screen. If the user has
the calculation (only three arc shown, but a num
seen the program before, he or she may wish to
ber up to nine may be chosen). The GET function
skip over the instruction screen quickly and not
is used since the answer is one digit. Line 150
have to wait a certain amount oi lime. A first-time
also makes sure the key pressed is a number
user may need plenty of time to read the screen.
from 2 to 9.
A GET loop can freeze the screen until the user
The formula for total resistance of several
presses a certain key. Another use may be to hold
resistors in parallel is
a graphics screen until the user is ready to go on.
Mere is a sample: 1 = J_ + 1 + _L...
R, Rt Ra R,
:rem 246 Since the equation involves fractions, we need
to be careful of a division by zero. Line 200 makes
:rem 174
120 GET A$ :rem 216
sure that each resistance entered is greater than
130 IF A?o"{Fl3" THEN 120 : rem 141 zero.
140 PRINT "(DOWN}PROGRAM WOULD CONTINUE." At the end of the program the user is given
:rem 173 the Option to try another problem or end the pro
150 END rem 109
gram. Again, the GET function is used to see
To type line 130, press the f 1 key (the top whether the user presses 1 or 2, and all other keys
function key) between the quote marks. You will pressed are ignored.
see a printed symbol. Line 120 detects the key 10 REM FOR VIC DELETE LINE 20 :rem 75
pressed. Line 130 determines that if the key 20 POKE 53281,1 :rem 241
pressed is not the fl key, the program loops back 30 PRINT "{CLR)[BLK} PARALLEL RESISTANCE
to line 120. The program will not continue until fl {DOWN}" :rem 166
40 PRINT "[2 SPACES]i2 Y3O&6 Y|O
is pressed,
§6 Y1OJ2 Y3" =rem 18
If you are writing a game program, you can 50 PRINT "(4 SPACES}gGi[6 SPACESHG^
use GET to detect the function keys or arrow keys, (6 SPACESJEGI" :rem 37
then branch appropriately. 60 FOR I=1TO3 :rem 218
The INPUT Statement (6 SHIFT-SPACEJM" :rem 31
INPUT is unavoidable in many cases. The INPUT 80 PRINT "(4 SPACES)N[6 SHIFT-SPACE]N
(6 SHIFT-SPACE)N" :rem 35
statement may ask for either a number or a string.
You can use a "prompt" with INPUT so the user [6 SHIFT-SPACE}N" :rem 36
knows exactly what to enter. PRINT a message 100 PRINT"[3 SPACES}M{6 SHIFT-SPACEjM
before the INPUT value. It is also wise to ask for [6 SHIFT-SPACE)m" :rem 73
110 NEXT I :rem 26
only one item at a time.
may be more difficult to use than the following g6 P3liE2 Pi" " trem 185
series of questions; 140 PRINT "(D0WN]H0W MANY RESISTORS? ";
:rem 226
200 INPUT "LAST NAME";L$ :rem 102
150 GETAS:IF(A$<"2")+(A$>"9")THEN150
210 INPUT "FIRST NAME";F$ :rem 181
:rem 109
220 INPUT "STREET ADDRESS";A$ :rem 229
160 PRINTA$:N=VAL(A$):T=0 :rem 226
230 INPUT "CITY";CS :rem 68
170 FOR I=1TON :rem 39
240 INPUT "STATE";SS :rem 157
180 PRINT"R"+RIGHT$(STR${I),1)+" =";
250 INPUT "ZIP CODE";Z :rem 14
:rem 213
190 INPUT R :rem 124
This program asks for exactly what is needed, 200 IF R>0 THEN 220 :rem 164
one entry at a time. The first example may be un 210 PRINT"{2 SPACESjR MUST BE GREATER":PR
clear as to how data should be entered. INT" {2 SPACES 3THAN ZERO.{DOWN]":GOTO1
In more technical programs, you may assume 80 :rem 81
220 T=T+1/R :rem 86
some knowledge on the part of the user in in
230 NEXT :rem 212
putting values for calculations. However, to avoid 240 PRINT "TOTAL RESISTANCE a" :rem 25
a fatal program crash, you may wish to check 250 PRINT 1/T irem 216
limits uf numbers entered. Problems could arise 260 PRINT "{2 DOWN)(GRN)PRESS:" :rem 112
with very large numbers, negative numbers, and 270 PRINT " 1 ANOTHER PROBLEM" :rem 189
zero (especially if fractions arc involved or if there 280 PRINT " 2 END PROGRAM" :rem 140

BS COMPUTE!'! Gozette March 198*1

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290 GETA$:IF AS="1"THEN30 :rem 82
300 IF A$o"2"THEN 290 :rem 65
310 PRINT"[BLU}[CLR}":END :rem 40

Your "ONE STOP" Source One more program is presented here to illus-
for Computer Books trate the uses or CET and INPUT. "Averages" is
You cin ralY on PACE for ONE STOP > ho pome lor an educational program that instructs the user on
nil your Micro Computer nwOi. Wa Hav* i-.uimnOt
of book*, progremt and accsttod«a—covering all how to calculate the average of several numbers,
tfi & major branda of computart—a van 60 dlfivrenr
msgumai1 Tha ONE STOP frlandly ilora. then random problems are given with multiple-
choice answers.
This program uses DEF FNF(X) to define a
function that will choose a random integer from 1
4105-000020 2fi4Piis 112.95
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to X. This saves typing the function and saves
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0 VIC BASIC - User FnsndJy Guide
go Graphics, Colors Sound
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D USING C-64 IN THE HOME 4690-008377 J60Pqs S14.95
gram. INPUT is used in the sample problems to
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I] PROGRAMMER'S It! F GUIDE 4795000129 U)?Pqs $ 9.B5 receive a numeric answer. GET is used to receive
4760022056 4HiiP<|r. $19.95 (1 VIC GAMES
4410-OOIOf30 L87Pj(a $13.05 the answer for multiple-choice questions. Random
4250-000133 UMPlJi S 3.95 11 PROGRAMMER'S NOTEBOOK
476O-022O8B ^5if.|^, $14.95
numbers are used in the problems and also in
M J Winter Workbook lor children 0 50 EASY-TO RUN GAMES determining which of three problems will be
4560-000108 12HPgS * 9 95 4760-022168 I3SPBB $ 5.95
□ ELEMENTARYC*4Wm B Sanders. "COMPUTERS FOR KIOS printed. Lines 78-86 in the VIC version and 900-
Considered among best "Hoa-Tq^ 419B0OOO42 ^2Pgs $ 5.95
4560-000034 131 Pgl J14.95
1050 in the 64 version determine the multiple-
Kascmer Jargori.lfeu ichI on practical
4560-000108 128Pgs $ 9.95
choice answers.
::games vic-2o. play
ijprratior)—*txij Eiruci-ss 1u math calfi 456o0oo11b ?7opue. $14.95 The VIC and 64 versions are essentially the
4795-000126 KSOF'Ui S 7.95
h quick reference guide
11 C-64 BASIC HANOBOOK Dpfilas 4925080248 $ 2.35 same, but have different line numbers (and com
HO'QflM Diclionary'Slyf^ liai»lt>ook.
4795000116 l/0Pcj3 $ 9.95
4925-088233 KiOPgs 110.95
bined lines in the VIC version). In the 64 version,
Practical, educahouul ami games
D MASTERING THE VIC-20: BASIC the first line (POKE 53281,1) changes to blue
4925-O88B92 SOOPgs S14.95 printing on a white screen. The VIC version com
4105000021 nueSonn S12.95 4105-000033 DueSoon S12.95 bines lines to save memory, but if you have ques
ZCOMPUTE'l ls< BOOK OF C-64 ri GAMES FOR KIOS HtW tions about program flow, the 64 version may be
4105000035 Dee Soon si2.95
4105-OO0O34 OutSOOO 112.95 □ THINGS TO0DIN4K0R LESS easier to read.
1 I COMPUTE!! REFERENCE GUIDE 410500003a llui'SnO" S12.95
When you are typing the VIC version, leave
4105000029 OutBOOfl J12.B5 4760-021188 $10.95
out all unnecessary spaces. If you prefer to save
4105-000036 One Soon S12.95 4410-001057 107Pgs $13.95 typing time, you may have a copy of the program
4105-000037 DueSoun $12 95 age programming & inside V3C ngrOwaie by sending me $3, a blank cassette, and a self-
4410-001058 267 Pqs $14.95
addressed, stamped envelope. Please be sure to
4690-OO03S0 303PQS S14.95
4410-001060 1B7Pgs S13.95
specify the name of the program and which com
4690-729723 * 9.95 O MOSS THE VIC
4560-000056 Hir.Pgs $19.95 puter version. Mail to:
4560-000116 25GPgs $14.95 C. Regena
1:4108-005600 .: '■! S10.98 D UNDERSTANDING THE VIC-20
D41O8-0O57OO OldUdlii S 4.SB 4840-000003 I3BP0B $11.95 P.O. Box 1502
[J41OB-O0571O NewDillfl % 4.98 D ZAP! POWI BCOM! Arcade Games Cedar City, UT 84720
[14108-005720 1/01 Mon SI 5.98 469000953B 156Pgs $12.95
D41O8-O058OO 15HiPrnl
[14108-005830 1625 P'll S10.9B
S10 98
See program listings on page 170. <gl
04108-005860 1540/41 t 9 98 4250-000134 * 3.95


NOW. . .PACE has I wo stores* Our mam slore. ill 345 East UVfng Park Road in
Wood Dale iusl Was! ol O'Hare Airport, (onone 312.595-3B60I. and our new
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Send tnisad. along witri your NAME STREET AODRESS CITY STATE .ind ZIP
CODE andyourCyititii'iiCnecK MoneyOrder P(!rsonarCneck(-!llo«<2iveeks
Just LOAD and RUN. The program will prompt you (or all INPUTS,
INTERBANK MUM EC R IMmimum Charge ISS25 OOl 10 then compute your taxes or refund. It will optionally print out directly
on the proper form or LIST on the screen by form numbers. The pro
DEPARTMENT: C-C gram is thoroughly tested and documented. Instruction book forms
LOCK BOX 328. BENSENVILLE. IL 60106 are included.
1040A wiin Schedule 1 (or V-20 |8K)or C-64 S20
Please aOOS? fjOPoslautanoHanOlmgon ALLOriics linois Ru5i<1en(s Add 1040 wilh Schedules A 8 B (Or V-20(16K)or C-64 S30
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The action begins. We've filled color RAM, drawn in our pointer at 251). We load Y with 5, load A
the screen borders, and set up some random with 120 (the screen POKE value of our paddle
enemies. Now we're ready to add some arcade symbol), store A using the Indirect Y addressing
action to our all-machine-language game. (The mode, DEY (reduce Y by one), test to see if Y is
entire game we've built so far is contained in the equal to zero yet (BNE), and, if not, branch back
BASIC loader, Programs 2 and 3.) to 49349, the start of our print paddle subroutine's
The section to be constructed this month will loop. When we've POKHd all five paddle char
control the player, accepting input from the acters into the right position on screen, we RTS
keyboard and moving a paddle back and forth on (ReTurn from Subroutine).
the screen. It's so fast in machine language (ML) Following that RTS, we fly back to 49260,
that a delay loop has to be added so we can see only to bounce away again to another subroutine,
the paddle move. Without this delay, the paddle our delay. This is a do-nothing subroutine; it just
simply reappears on the other side of the screen takes up time by LoaDing the Y register with zero
when you press a key. (line 49355), counting down with DEY, until it
Let's look at the program flow of the 64 ver goes from 255 down to zero again and then we
sion disassembly (Program 1); it's functionally RTS. If something starts with zero and is dec
identical to the VIC version. As always, the first remented (lowered by one, like the DEY, DEX,
thing to do is to set up some preliminary informa or DEC instructions), it clicks down to a 255, then
tion—the equivalent of assigning values to vari 254, and so on down. Remember that zero clicks
ables in BASIC. At 49249, the first address in the down into 255 in these situations; it doesn't freeze
program (or first line, if you prefer), we LoaD the at zero. We can find out when it hits zero by using
Accumulator with 169 and store it at 251, a zero BNE. BNE always branches unless the most recent
page location. Then, we do it again, putting 7 into action caused a zero. (Many instructions will alert
252. Recall that the 6502 chip looks at two-byte BNE to zero: LDA 155 would set off a branch, a
addresses in a peculiar way: the higher one in BNE, if address 155 contained anything other
memory (at 252) is going to be multiplied by 256. than zero.)
Then the other one (at 251) is added to that, to
give us the address we're after. So, by adding 169 Which Key Pressed?
to (7x256), we get 1961, an address within the Once finished with the delay, we return to 49263
screen RAM where we want our paddle to start off. and load the accumulator with whatever number
is currently in address 197. That's a special address
Printing The Paddle in our computers: It always holds the value of the
Notice that we will be referring to this two-byte key currently being pressed. Try this in BASIC:
address pointer several times in the program:
FOR 1 = 1 TO 5000 : ? PEEK (197);: NEXT
lines 49279, 49283, 49296 and so on. It will always
hold the current position of the paddle on the Then press some keys. You'll notice that each
screen. Anyway, we've set up our paddle position key has its own value. This is an easy way to get
pointer, so now we JSR (Jump to SubRoutine) at input from the user. For our game, we're just
49345, which prints the paddle on the screen going to have the user move a paddle back and
(wherever it's supposed to be, governed by what's forth so we need to test for only two direction
90 COMPUTEIS Gazelle March 19B4
CodePro-64 (e) 19B3. SMA


A new concept
0 — Using CodePin-64
1 — CBM-64 Keyboard Review

BASIC Tutorial

in interactive visual
2 — Introduction to BASIC
3 — BASIC Commands
4 — BASIC Statement
5 — BASIC f unctions

Graphics & Music

6 — Keyboard GRAPHICS
7 — Introduction to SPRITES
8 — SPRITE Geneiator
9 — SPRITE Demonsiiator
A — Introduction Id MUSIC

B — MUSIC Generate!
C — MUSIC Demonilrator

Other Option-.
K — Keyword Inquiry
R — Run Sample Proqrams
Select Ctioict or hit 17 lor Default

Now you can leam to code in BASIC and more advanced concepts. You leam about pie program can be used alone or incorpo
develop advanced programming skills with sprite and music programming. rated i n to your own programs to read the
graphics, sprites and music—visually. You SPRITE GENERATOR saved music file and replay your songs.
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SEE PROGRAM EXECUTION define your own sprites an the screen. You programming parameters and hear the
Imagine actually seeing BASIC state leam how to define sprites and what data results. All you do is enter rows of SI D
ments execute. CodePro-64 guides you values correspond to your sprite definitions. parameters on the screen to create a particu
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or let CodePro-64 do the typing for you. (It You can easily experiment with different you shift from row to row of SID parameters.
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execution of sample program statements by We also help you leam to program with sounds and special sound effects.
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You control your learning. You can go 3700 Computer Drive, Dept. C-l
through the tutorial sequentially, or return to OUR GUARANTEE Raleigh, N.C. 27609
the main menu and select different topics, or
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use keywords to se\ect language elements to must be satisfied with CodePro-64 for
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Once you have practiced and mastered the refund. No risk.
BASIC language elements you move on to Machines, Int.

Program 1 : Paddle Routine MOVE LEFT
49305 INC 251
49249 LDA # 169 49309 LDA # 32
49251 STA 251 49311 STA ( 251 )Y
49253 LDA # 7 49313 LDA 251
49255 STA 252 49315 BME 49319
49257 JSR 49345 49317 DEC 252
49319 DEC 251
MAIN LOOP 49321 JSR 49345
49260 JSR 49355 49324 JMP —-> 49260
49263 LDA 197
49265 CMP # 56
49327 LDY # 0
49267 BEO 49279
49329 LDA # 32
49269 CMP # 8
49331 STA { 251 )Y
49271 BEQ 49294
49333 INC 251
49273 CMP # 35
49335 BNE 49339
49275 BEQ 49361
49337 INC 252
49277 BNE 49260
49339 JSR 49345
49342 JMP > 49260
49281 LDY # 0 49345 LDY # 5
49283 LDA ( 251 )Y 49347 LDA # 120
49285 CMP # 32 49349 STA { 251 )Y
49207 BEQ 49305 49351 DEY
49289 INC 251 49352 BNE 49349
49291 JMP > 49260 49354 FTS



49294 LDY # 7 49355 LDY # 0

49296 LDA ( 251 }Y 49357 DEY
49298 CMP # 32 49358 BWE 49357
49300 BEO 49327 49360 RTS
49302 JMP > 49260 49361 RTS

keys. Let's use the 1 and 3 keys, for left and right the left of our paddle is a blank (character #32). If
movement. Try pressing 1. You'll see 56's on not, it must be a wall, so we're sent back to our
screen. (VfC gives 0.) Press 3 and you'll get 8's. get-a-kc-ystroke routine at 49260.
(VIC gives 1.) However, if we find a blank, we can go ahead
Since this is an all-ML game, we'll need a and redraw the paddle one space to the left of its
way to get out of it, to return to BASIC. For that, current position. So, at 49305, we INC the pointer
we'll use the 0 key as an escape. When you press to restore it to its correct value. (Recall that we
it, you'll get 35 as your value. So, lines 49265 DECed it to check for a blank.) Then we want to
through 49275 simply compare what we found in blank out the paddle character six over from the
address 197 against 56, 8, and 35 and branch to current address (to get rid of the rightmost paddle
the appropriate subroutines further down in the character). Load Y with #6, load A with the blank
program. If we got some other value, line 49277 character, #32, and store A.
sends us up to another delay and then another These next four lines arc an important ML
try for a pressed key. technique: double DEC. We need to lower our
All of this multiple comparing should remind pointer address by 1 because we're sliding the
you of the ON-GOTO command in BASIC. This whole paddle over 1 to the left on screen. We
is ML's version of that common computer tech can't just DEC 151 because we might be crossing
nique for branching to several alternative actions. a page boundary (256) and need to also lower 152,
To move the paddle left (the routine starting the more significant byte of the two-byte pointer.
at 49279), we've got to first check to see if we am Remember thai we said LDA would affect a BNE
move any further left. Obviously, we don't want instruction? We LDA the lower, less significant
to move the paddle into the border of our screen byte. If it's a zero, we "fall through" the BNE to
and come popping out the other side. So we DEC address 49317 and also lower 252. if not zero, we
251 temporarily, to check if the next character to branch to 49319 and just lower 151. Notice that
92 COMPUTE!'* Gazelle March 198d

77ia/!s w/?af we sa/rf w/?e/? our
"invention"solved all our VIC-20™ and
Commodore-64 ™ programming problems

We had a problem. So we invented For the Commodore 64 we came up wilh SOLVE YOUR PROGRAMMING
PC-DocuMate'" lo solve It The problem was a really clever summary table lor showing PROBLEMS WITH PC-DocuMateT"
how lo quickly master the VIC-20 and almost everything you ever need to know lor Order your PC-DocuMale today (by
CBM-64 keyboards and easily siart pro sprite graphics. phone or mail) and solve your VIC-20 or
gramming m BASIC on our new personal
CBM-64 programming problems. Send only
computers First we went through the GETTING EASIER S12.95 and specily which computer you
manuals. Now we had organized Ihe most essential nave. We pay for shipping and handling.
information for our VIC and 64 in Ihe most Use the coupon below or call 919-787-7703
logical way. BASIC, music, color graphics, for faster service.
The user's guide was a nuisance and the
and sprites all seemed a lot easier. Our
programmer's reference manual was just
initial problem was solved by PC-Docu
plain inconvenient lo use. We lound the
control key combinations conlusmg and Ihe
introduction to BASIC to be too "basic" lor
But we have a confession to make. IyES! Please RUSH me VIC-20
our needs. We needed a simple solulion to WE CHEATED | templates and/or CBM-64 tem
our documentation problems We had solved this kind of problem plates at $12.95 each. I have enclosed
So we decided to surround the keyboard before. In fact, many times before. You see.
$ by:
of each PC with the inlormalion we wanted. we at SMA developed the original PC-Docu
We decided lo print whalever we needed on Check Money order MC/VISA
Male lor the IBM PC We've made lemplates
slurdy plastic templates which would fil the lor IBM BASIC and DOS. for WORDSTAR",
keyboard ol either the VIC-20 or Commo VISICALC" and other best-selling software
dore 64 packages lor the IBM PC.
So we knew we could invent another Name
PC-DocuMate'" to solve our problems with
This was ihe simple solution to our prob
the VIC-20 and Commodore 64. Now our
lem, Now we could have the essential
solution can be yours and you can join Ihe Address
information righl at our fingertips.
thousands of satisfied users ol our template
On the left side and top ol the templates
we put BASIC (unctions, commands, and
Take advantage of our experience and
statements. On the lower lelt we used key
success with PC-DocuMate templates. Get City State Zip
symbols lo remind us ot how to use SHIFT,
one for your personal computer.
RUN/STOP. CTRL and the "Commodore"
key. Over on the bottom right side we put SOME SPECIFICS
Card* Exp
some additional keys to help remember Our templates for the VIC and 64 are
about CLR/HOME and RESTORE But we made from the same high quality non-glare
were still a little contused. plaslic as the more expensive IBM PC
versions, Signature i
The templates are an attractive gray
We lound we were conlused aboul music
color and are imprinted wilh a special black Foreign orders (encepi Canada) add $5.00 US I
programming, color graphics, and sprites.
ink which bonds permanenily to Ihe plastic.
On both the VIC-20 and the CBM-64 tem
They are precision die-cut to lit your
plates we carefully organized and summar Mail to: Systems Management Associates i
ized the essential reference data for music 3700 Computer Drive, Dept. J-1 \
Unlike some other products we've seen
programming and put it across the top- P.O. Box 20025
in this category, PC-DocuMate templales
showing notes and the scale. All Ihose Raleigh, North Carolina 27619 !
are professionally and expertly designed.
values you must POKE and where lo POKE
And Ihey are fully guaranteed.
them are listed.
Then lo clarify color graphics we laid out
screen memory maps showing character
and color addresses in a screen matrix. (We
We guarantee your salisfaclion You musl
got this idea from the manuals) be satisfied wilti your PC-DocuMale for your
For the VIC-20 we added a complete VIC-20 or CBM-64 Try il tor 10 days and It
nretffltfemnrKa of Commodore Busj-
memory address map for documenting 'or any reason you are no! saiislied reiutn it ness Machines, Inc
'o us (undamaged) lot a lull rotund No rlik.
where everything is in an expanded or Ad no 731 Copyright 1963, SMA

unexpanded VIC. Dealer inquirlti imrllid.

falling through the BNE has the effect of lowering the cassette drive at the time. However, the ML
both bytes. Finally, we JSR to the paddle drawing game has outgrown the space available in this
routine and then JMP (jump) back up to our main buffer with the addition of this month's paddle
loop of the program. routines.
The method for redrawing the paddle to the To summarize, both VIC and 64 have a few
right is quite similar, the primary distinction being safe zones in zero page: address 2 is unused by
a double increment instead of double DEC (see the computer, addresses 163-177 are largely used
lines 49333 through 49337). by the cassette operating system and can be
If you have any comments or questions, employed when you're not using cassette, and
please send them to: Machine Language For Be 251-252 are free (we're using them this month to
ginners, P.O. Box 5406, Greensboro, NC 27403. hold our paddle pointer).
Above zero page, you can use 679-767 and
ML Mailbag 828-1019 (the cassette buffer). On the 64 only,
Here's a letter we recently received: there is a nice zone from 49152-53247. To make
enough space for the game on the VIC, we first
In your article "Safe Places" (December
1983), you mere starting an ML game. And POKE 56,48 (to keep BASIC below this area) and
you started at address 12288 with the8K
then can use addresses 12288 and above.
See program listings on page 172. ffl
expansion. I have VICMON which is on
tape and so I need the 8K for it. Is there
another place to put this game? I was thinking
of putting it in the cassette buffer starling
at 828.
]eff ditcher COMPUTETs Gazette
VIC memory can be a problem. You might Toll Free Subscription Order Line
want to use the Simple Assembler (November
1983) in a VIC with 8K expansion memory to create 800-334-0868
this ML game. Shorter ML routines can be stashed In NC 919-275-9809
away into the cassette buffer if you aren't using

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For CBM 64, PET, APPLE, and ATARI i-\

Machine Language Monitor Cartridge No* you con havei^ftsameprtfou.onallv

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94 COMPUT&'sGozcltc Morch 1984

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Aid Cartridge '39 Zr»k I, II. Ill
1213 Machine Suip«nd>4 •29
tW-G PRACTICALC VIC-20 1 HR 15 MIN 129 95
Language Monitor '39 Slarcron ..... '29
WP-5 SCRIPr-64 1 HR30MIN 139 95

.Color Monitor COMPUTER COVERS UT-2 THE LAST ONE 1 HR 30 MIN 139 95

Electronic worksheets: EW-3-6. Detailed step by slep irv

slurction in the use of electronic spread/sheet software.
Work along and set up a complele example worksheet.

Basic programming BP-3 & 4 Teaches BASIC Language

PRINTERS CMC (.4 IB 99 commands and programming techniques Builds your know
Reg, »15« VIC 20 66.33
EPSON nuta Orlvo SB 99
ledge Irom beginning in advanced levels

RX-80. HX-BOFT S CALL Cjpon MX BO... (7 93
Eipon MX flOFTS7 93
FX-BO. FX-100 SCALL Data File Programming: DIO-i & 2 teacnes BASIC Language
Okldata 92 )7 99
OKIDATA data lile programming using random, sequential, and relative
92 -445 access data files
Kids entfihe VIC '18
Prog rummer'a Refarence
STAR Guids VIC '14
Gemini 10 '299 Programmer'* Reference
Gomini IB "449 Guido-64 -18
Gorrllla "209 lit Soak of CMD 64 '12
1 bi Goak of Sound & Graphics ... '12
Add S3.00 per order for shipping and handling.
Pro writer "360
111 Book ot64 Game! '12 Add $3.00 for C.O.D.
SMITH CORONA Reference Guide la 64
TP-2 -468 Graphics '12
Cardco Printer Interface '67 Arcade Games on the 64 '12
lit Book oi VIC '12 master i ii.injr
Tymac Ihs Connection '99 To Order
2nd Book of VIC "12
CARDCO VICGamoj .... -12 Phone or Write
6 Slor Expander IntartaCB... '72 Machine Language for
3 Slol Expander IntarfacB... '31 III IJIIIPUT' »14

Ordering & Payment Policy LYNN COMPUTER SERVICE

Prices reflect a cash discount. For COD., Visa, and Masier-
cardacfd 3% Immediate delivery with certified check or wired 6831 West 157th Street Tinley Park. Illinois 60477
funds. N.J. resident add 6%. Prices subject to change. (312)429-1915
For shipping and handling We sell a large selection of SOFTWARE PflACTICALC IE A TH*DEMARK Of COMPUTER SOTTWARt
add 3%. (S3 minimum! ASSOCIATES
hardware and sofiware.
Larger shipments require Send SI for catalog, refun
additional charge. dable with order.
Making More
Readable Listings
Brent Duboch

Have you ever tried to find a key subroutine SHIFTed E combine to form the keyword NEXT.)
or loop in a long BASIC listing? If you have, Now LIST the program
you know how tedious it can be. This tutorial 10 LET NUMBER = 50
demonstrates some very sneaky BASIC editing 20 PRINT NUMBER
techniques that you can use for more readable
and RUN it.
listings. For the VIC and 64.

Nothing too impressive here. All we have is

A few carefully chosen variable names can help
make the difference between a readable program a program that LISTs and RUNs exactly as it would
and an unintelligible mess. But BASIC does not if we left out the graphics characters. Now let's
make these choices easy. Did you ever want to do something that is downright illegal.
use a BASIC keyword like TO or FN within a vari 10 LET TOP " 65
able name, such as LET TOP = 10 or PRINT FNS? 20 LET BOTTOM = 90
Commodore BASIC won't allow it. But by
fooling a couple of BASIC routines, you can use If you enter and RUN this program, you'll get a
these illegal variable names and do even more to syntax error. The sequence TO may not appear
improve the appearance of your listings. Let's see anywhere within a variable name as it does here
how to use this technique and then consider what in TOP and in BOTTOM. It is reserved for use as
makes it work. a BASIC keyword only (as in FOR J = I TO 5).
Let's try to fool BASIC. We'll place a graphics
character (the SHIFTed J) just before the offending
Illegal Variable Names last character thai completes the BASIC
The key is to use graphics characters where they keyword—that is, before the O in each TO.
normally don't belong. You're probably used to
10 LET TJOP = 65
using a graphics character as the last character in
the abbreviation of a BASIC keyword. For ex 30 PRINT BOTTJOM - TJOP + 1
ample, if you type a P followed by a SHIFTed O,
BASIC understands that you intend an ordinary Here's what you see when you LIST it:
POKE command. But let's see how BASIC will 10 LET TOP = 65
handle a graphics character in the middle of a 20 LET BOTTOM = 90
variable name.

10 LET NJUMBER = 50 These lines appear identical to the illegal program

20 PRINT NJUMBER you entered a moment ago. Now RUN the
To get the graphics character between N and U,
type a SHIFTed J, You can use any graphics char
acter that will not result in an abbreviation of a
BASIC keyword. (For example, an N and a It works, with an illegal variable name in every
96 COMPUTE'S Gazelle March 1984
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HO programs on disk or 24 programs on 5 I a pea)
COMMODORE 64 you immediately convert your VIC-20 computer
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You pay only S259.00 when you order the 170K PROCESSOR with mail merge, terminal emulat
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software sale pricosll With only $100 of savings Wed Piociisaoi
applied, your nol disk drive cosi is 1159.00. Tflnu 16900 156 00 I37OO
Disk 163 00 1*3 00
* TRACTION FRICTION PRINTER S109.00 rs1ilTail2.B Triis cartridge increases programming power
Word Piocessoi over 8 limes!! Enoands tolal memory to 57K
You pay only $209.00 when you order ihe Com-
Tape (39 00 Sit 00 157.000 byles) Block switches are on outside ol
siar T7F deluie line printer that prints 8 112 r 11 Disk S1900 \*7 00 IMDrj
cover! Has expansion port1! Lists for 1199 (OUR
full size, single sheet, roll or fan fold paper. Total lat»1 2 6
labels etc. 40. 66. 80. 13Z columns Impacl dot Tapo 118 00 11200 BEST BUY!)
matrix. Bi-dlrecllonal, BO CPS. LESS the value of Disk l?99S 123 00 11500
H«lpW(OllK) 1&9 00 139 00 129 95
wllh your printer Itial allows you lo SAVE OVER iasic Tutor (TapiVDisKf i;'J9b 12195 11500 SiksIoi — Switch selectable — Reset button —
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Ribbon cable — CARDCO. A must lo gel Ihe
savings applied your net printer cost is only [TiPHfDilk) Mi 95 Hi 00
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ipTlta Dui»oner(Diskl 116 91 114 95 110 00
$109 00. Medici ntmonjTapei 119 95 H795 11200
fVealntr War II (Tape] (19 95 H7 95 11200
80 COLUMN BOARDS99.00 'ro'CMional Joy Slick l!<95 11595 11100 8K RAM CARTRIDGE 539 00
LirjnlPen 139 95 119 95 116 9i
Now you program 80 COLUMNS on the screen increases B' power 2 1(2 limes. Ex
Dus[ Civet I 835 I 6 95 1 160
at one time1 Converts your Commodore 64 to BO- pands tolal memory lo 33K 133,000 bytesl-
tSeeornei ferns "1 au caratoq'l Memory block switches are on outside ol cover!
COLUMNS when you plug in the SO COLUMN
Write or call lor
EXPANSION BOARD" List I199SALE $99 Includes FREE 116.95 game.
WORD PROCESSOR wllh mail merge, terminal
Increases programming power 4 limes Expands
$59.00 SALE 124.95 if purchased wllh 80
tolal memory to 41K (41.000 bytes) Memory
COLUMN BOARD1' (Tape or Disk|
block swilches are an oulside cover! CARDCO
80 COLUMNS IN COLOR EXECUTIVE QUALITY includes FREE S29 95 adveniure game!!
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puler! Tne ULTIMATE for PROFESSIONAL Word- Eicellent quality GREEN PHOSPHOROUS
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tor Commodore G4 Computers VIDEO MONITOR with anliglare, 1920 characters
COLUMNS IN COLOR or Black and While! Sim IHm Utl -sale 180 characters • 2* rows) Save your TV1 a must
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Accounts Receivable 199 00 (69 00
WORD DICTIONARY, complete cursor and in VIC20orCommodore64Cable.
AgcounTiPajiOle 19900 16900
sert/delete key controls line and paragraph inser
Pil'OII (99 00 (59 00
tion, automaiic deletion, centering, margin sel General LeOfler 199 00 (69 00
lings and output lo all printers1 Includes a i price us 00) 12-AMBER SCREEN MONITOR S119.00
powerful mail merge. List $99.00 SALE 169.00. Premium quality AMBER VIDEO MONITOR With
20,000 WORD DICTIONARY ■ List $24.95 SALE antiglare, (80 characters 1 24 rows), exceptional
$19.95. EXECUTIVE UATA BASE ■ Lisl $89.00 ly clear screen, laster scanning. PLUS S9.9S lor
SALE $59.00. (Disk only). VIC20orCommodoro64Cable



| Add $10.00 for shipping, handling and Insurance. Illinois residents
j please add 6% tax. Add $20.00 for CANADA. PUERTO RICO, HAWAII
■ Enclose Cashiora Chock. Money Order or Personal Check. Allow 14 days
. lor delivery. 2 lo 7 days lor phone orders. 1 day eiDiess mail1 Canada

orders must Co in U.S. dollars. VISA - MASTERCARD - COD BOX 550, HARRINGTON, ILLINOIS 60010
Phone 312/382-52^4 to orttor
149 oo

kllllllllllllllNIIJIIIIIIIIIIIIlillllllllllllilJIININIIIIII as

15 Day Free Trial - 180 Day Immediate Replacement Warranty

Bi-directional, dot matrix, prints 8V letter size paper, lull 80 columns, high
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(Centronics parallel interface)


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adjustable columns, 40 to 132 characters! Roll paper adapter $32.95.
Centronics parallel interlace)

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High resolution bit image (120 x 144 dot matrix) underlining back spacing, left and
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(Centronics parallel interlace)


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10" PRINTER — 160 CPS $699 $499
Save printing time with these plus features: 160 CPS speed, 100% duty cycle, 8K
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Has all the features of the 10" Carriage high speed printer plus a 15%" carriage and
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• For VIC-20 and COMMODORE 64 $49.00
• For all APPLE COMPUTERS $69.00
• For ATARI 400 and 800 COMPUTERS S79.00 SALE SALE
NOTE: Other printer interlaces are available at computer stores!



Enclose Cashiers Chock. Money Order or Personal Check Allow

14 days lor delivery. 2 lo 7 days for phone orders. 1 day express
mail! Canada orders musl he in U S dollars We acce[)i Visa ENTERPRIZES (WE lUVt- OUH i:iJhtOWEHS>

and MasterCard We ship COO BOX 550, BARRINGTON, ILLINOIS 60010

Phona 312/382-5244 lo order
• 80 Columns x 24 lines
• Green text display
• East to read - no eye strain

$7900 • Up front brightness control

• High resolution graphics
• Quick start - no preheating
• Regulated power supply
• Attractive metal cabinet
• UL and FCC approved
9" Data Monitor

• 15 Day Free Trial - 90 Day Immediate Replacement Warranty

9" Screen-Green Text Display $ 79.00

12" Screen-Green Text Display (anti-reflective screen) $ 99.00
12" Screen - Amber Text Display (anti-reflective screen) $119.00
14" Screen-Color Monitor (national brand) $249.00

Display Monitors From Sanyo

With the need for computing power growing every day, Sanyo has
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quality data monitors. Designed for commercial and personal com Official Video Products
puter use. All models come with an array of features, including up- of the Los Angeles 1984 Qtympks
front brightness and contrast controls. The capacity 5 x 7 dot
characters as the input is 24 lines of characters with up to
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Equally important, all are built with Sanyo's commitment
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Add 510 X lor shipping, handling and Insurance. Illinois rssldents

sioaso add B% lax. Add 120.00 lor CANADA, PUERTO RICO, HAWAII

Encloss Cashiers Check, Money Order or Personal Check. Allow 1* ENTERPRIZES rwE love oun custom6

days lor delivery. 2 to 7 days lor phone orders, 1 day eipress mail' BOX 550, BARRINGTON, ILLINOIS 60010
Canada orders must be in US dollars Visa ■ MasterCard - C.D.O.
Phono 312J3B2-5244 Id order
VIC 20


only $5900
Now you can get 40 or 80 Columns on your T.V. or monitor at one time! No
more running out of line space for programming and making columns. Just
plug in this board and you immediately convert yur VIC-20 computer to 40 or
80 columns! Comes in an attractive molded case with instructions! List
$129.00. Sale $59.00.

FOR ONLY $24.95 you can get a 40-80 Column Board "WORD PROCESSOR" with mail merge
and terminal emulator PLUS! AN ELECTRONIC SPREAD SHEET (like Visicalc) the word
processor requires 8K—mail merge 16K! List $59.00. Sale $39.90. "If purchased with board
only $24.95. (Tape or Disk.)




Now you can program 80 columns on the screen
at one time! Converts your Commodore 64 to 80
coilumns when you plug in the PROTECTO 80
Expansion Board List $199. Sale $99.00

FOR ONLY $24.95 you can get an 80 Column Board "WORD PROCESSOR" with mail merge and
terminal emulator PLUS! AN ELECTRONIC SPREAD SHEET (like Visicalc) List $59.00. Sale $39.90.
'If purchased with board only $24.95. (Tape or Disk.)

A0d S3 00 loi posiage Ada S6 00 tor CANADA. PUERTO RICO HAWAII

Enclose Cashiers Check. Money Order or Personal CdecK Allow 14
days lor delivery, 2 to 7 flays lor phone orders, i day e»cress mail1
Canada orders musl be in U S dollars We accept Visa ana Masler

Card We ship CO D. BOX 550, BARRINGTON, ILLINOIS 6O010

Phon* 312/382 5244 to ord»r
line. Try it with LETTER, FNS, EFFORT, SEND, Now when you LIST, you see an indented format
or your own favorite forbidden variable name. identical to the one you first tried to enter.
A word of caution, though. ST, TI, and Tl$ Fooling BASIC into giving you a blank line is
are reserved variable names, not keywords like LET, a little trickier. A single SHIFTed J will not do the
PRINT, and other BASIC commands or functions. job. If you add a line 99, say, to your program
You will not be able to use variable names whose and put only the graphics character on that line,
first two letters match these (like START or TIME) line 99 will not show up in the LISTing. But try
even with the technique described in this article. entering this (note the space in between the two
Since they are just variable names, however, you SHIFTed Js):
may embed them elsewhere within longer names 99 v- v
of your own (FIRST and ATTIC, for example)
Now LIST the program and you'll see a blank
without any special editing tricks.
line 99.
Indented Listings And
Paying The Price
Blank Lines
There is a price to pay for all this. The most obvious
Besides preventing the selection ot certain variable
(and painful for those with unexpanded VICs) is
names, BASIC also seems to prevent the entry of
memory consumption. Long variable names and
blank lines as well as spaces at the beginning of a
indentation gobble up a lot of bytes. A final version
line. Tluis we cannot neatly frame the blocks of
of a routine, though, can be condensed by a good
code—loops, or IF/THEN options, or sub
list-crunching program, while the original remains
routines—that occur in a program. If you have
a very readable version for later examination or
programmed only in BASIC, you may not be con
cerned about such things. But anyone who has
Another penalty is simply the bother of re
used a structured language like Pascal appreciates
membering to type extra characters. Be careful
being able to see a listing like this:
whenever you try to edit a line. To preserve any
10 FOR I = 1 TO 10 indentation, you must enter a SI IIFTed J in place
of the space following the line number each time
you change the line. And it's easy to forget to
50 NEXT I "legalize" a variable name by inserting a graphics
60 character within an embedded BASIC keyword. If
70 PRINT "AND LEAVE A BLANK LINE BETWEEN you do forget, you will be reminded when you
gel a syntax error in the program. So watch your
editing steps carefully.
Try entering and LISTing the program above. The hunt-and-peck typist (with a large hunt-
I lere's what you should see: to-peck ratio) might find that all these extra char
10 FOR I = 1 TO 10 acters arc a nuisance. But a little irritation can
20 PRINT "WE INDENT EVERY STATEMENT" lead to a lot of satisfaction when you get a more
30 PRINT "THAT LIES WITHIN" readable program listing.
How Does It Work?
There are BASIC routines that RUN and LIST a
The blank line and all the indentations have dis program. If you've experimented with the short
appeared. Of course, Commodore BASIC lets you listings here, or with your own, you have proved
place a single colon at the start oi each line and to yourself that RUN apparently doesn't mind
then indent as much as you wish. But that's not using keywords in variable names, and LIST
the same as a nice, clean blank line. seems to accept leading spaces in indented lines.
Once again, we can type an extra graphics If these key routines are so tolerant, what is it
character and fool BASIC. When typing in a pro that requires us to be so sneaky in achieving them?
gram, many people type a space after the line The answers lie in the behavior of several other
number for readability. But instead of the space, parts of BASIC.
you can type the SI IIFTed J. Reenter the preceding
program this way:
Are They Really Illegal?
10JFOR 1= 1 TO 10 First, let's consider illegal variables and a BASIC
routine we'll call TOKENIZE.
40J PRINT "THE FOR-NEXT 'BLOCK'" We usually think of BASIC commands as
50JNEXT I words like INPUT or LET or GOTO. But the RUN
10! COMPUTElSGaietle March 198-1
Qcommodore LANGUAGES 64 £ 6 Slot Expander 70
Instaspeed Basic Compiler (D) S 99 Joystick Blaster (ADR Rapid ■ Rre),.. 10
Pilot (D) 45 Data 20 80-Col. Exp S 159
NEW COMMODORE PRODUCTS Logo (D) 45 Mr. Computer 80-Col. Exp 60
ExecutivB 64 S Coll Assembler Development (D) 25 5-Slot Exp. (64) 65
1526 Printer 259 64 Forth (R) 40 Vic Switch (connect 8 64's or Vic's
NEW - Mirage 30 col S 95 Epson RX80 (80 cps) ■ S 299 Cables 3M, 6M, 12M lor above Call
WordPro 3t/Spellright 79 MXBO w/FT (80 cps) 399 Verex (8ox of 10) 5W Diskettes 26
FX80(160cps) Call Connefllon(Pet/64 grophlcs,2K Butter) 99
Spelirighl (Dictionary) 39
FX100(160cps) 14" width Call Cardco Print • Graphics 85
Paper Clip 95
Cardco Cardprint 70
Okidata 82A 429
Script 64 79 MW 302 Parallel 65
SPECIAL - Busiwriter (C,D) 39 Okldota 92 549
PET/IEEE Cable (1m) 33
Quick Brown Fox (R) 49 NEC8023A 429
IEEE/IEEE Cable (lm) 49
SPREADSHEETS M £ Star Delta (160 cps)-NEW! 549 Interpod (Intelligent IEEE,
Calc Result - Advanced (R.D) S 79 Star Gemini 10X (120 cps) 309 RS23Z serial) 149
Susicalc II - More Power! (R,D) 89 Star Gemini 10/15 Call ADA 1800(1EEE/Porollel) 129
Multiplan 64 (D) 75 Transtar 315 (HI Res., Color) 575 ADA 1450 (IEEE/RS232 (M/F)) 129

Calc Result - Easy (R) 49 Micro Edge Printer Paper (540 Sheets). 10 VISA/MASTERCARD
Commodore 64 S Call
1541 Disk Drive 249
Mirage Dalo Base (D) S 95 C.O.D.'s Accepted, 3% at order/mln, S5)
1525Prlnier(8Ocol/DM) 225
MTile (merges witti WordPro) (D)... 89 In stock items shipped within 48 hours.
1530Datasette 65
Micro Spec Data Manager (D) 60
1520 Plotter/Printer (4 Color) 169 F.O.B. Dallas. Texas (Texas Res., Add 5% Tax).
Codewriter(developsprogiams)(D),.. 95
1526 Printer Coll Products shipped with manufacturer's warranty,
1702 Monitor 249 Prices subject to change without notice.
TCS 64/80 - NEW! (D) S 139
CBM S10 Handling tee on orders below S50.
(WP/Data Base/Spread)
Koolo Pod - NEW! 89 8032 (80 column Pet) S 625 Continental U.S orders onfy, please.
Delta 10 (160 cps)-NEW! 549 SuperPet (5 languages!) 1049 APD & FPO: Add 3VMIn S5.
UTILITIES 64 £ 8050 Dual Drive (1 mo.) 995
'Detective units must have return
Vic Tree (4.0 Basic) (R) S 75 8250 Duol Drive (2 mg.) 1295
64 Super Expander (R) 25 authorization number and Include
3031, 170K Single Drive 2B5
Simon's Basic (R) 25 copy of invoice.
64K Upgrade lor 8032 259
Cardco Printer Utility (C) 15
SuperPet upgrade tor 8032 599
MS-Backup (Bock Up Data!)(D).... 15
4023 Printer (80 cps, 80 col) 395
8023 Printer (150 cps, graphics).... 545
Home Accounlont (Continental) S 75
lax Advontage (merge w/rwme 6400 Printer (40 cps, LQ) 1425
General Ledger, A/R, A/P, P/R, Inv. Diablo 620, 25 Cps S 949
(Info Design's Original) (D) eo.79 Transtar 130, 16 cps ■ 132 col 769
Numeric Keypad (Hardware) 65 Transtar 120, 14 cps ■ 80 col 500 SJB DISTRIBUTORS INC.
Numeric Keypad (Cordco) 35 MONITORS 10520 Piano Rood, Suite 206
TELECOMPUTING 64 E Panasonic CT 160 (color) S 279 Dallas, Texas 75238
Vic 1650 (Auto Ans/Dial) Modem ... S 95 Panasonic TR120 (w/spkr,green) 155
Vic I6O0 Modem 59 Sonyo/Amdek-Green, No Audio, 12"... 125
Hes Modem (Downloading Software) 65 BMC/Sonyo-Green, No Audio, 9" 95
Super Term (Download/B0-128Form). 95 Coble (For Above) A/V 15 CALL TOLL FREE
Micro Term 64 (Download P/D) 39 800-527-4893
EDUCATION 04 E 800-422-1048
8K RAM Expand. Cori S 40
Spelling I (Koala) (D) S 29 (Within Texos)
Geometric (Koala) (D) 20 16K RAM Expond. Cart 70
I.Q. Baseball (D) 25 24K RAM Expand. Cort 105 CATALOG
Bible Baseball (D) 25 27KRAM{Expondsvlctotull32K).... 119 Sena Postcard with Name & Address to
Happy Tutor (Typing) (D) 15 3 Slot Expander 30 speed processing.

routine does not see it that way. By the time RUN Guarding The Blanks
sees a program, BASIC keywords have been re
Finally, you may recall that in order to create a
placed by single-byte numeric codes, or tokens.
line completely blank except for its number, we
TOKENIZE is the part of BASIC that translates the
needed first a graphics character, then a space,
keywords we type into these codes. For example,
then a second graphics character. The reason for
when we type the word INPUT, TOKENIZE will
the first was just discussed. We need the space so
collect the characters in that word from the five
there will be something on the line forTOKENIZE
bytes of memory they occupy, match them with a
to accept. Remember that entering a completely
word in the computer's list of BASIC keywords,
blank line just results in its elimination from the
and then replace them with the token for INPUT
program. But what of the second graphics charac
{the number 133), which takes up only one byte.
ter? If TOKEN1ZP, doesn't mind spaces, why
This saves some space in BASIC memory.
shouldn't it accept a whole line full of them fol
But TOKENIZE also discards any out-oi-place
lowing the initial graphics character?
graphics characters as it crunches a BASIC com
In the first place, we probably want only one
mand into the computer's memory. This is what
space—-just enough to create a blank line. And
allows us to enter forbidden variable names. When
second, TOKENIZE never gets to look at those
we insert a graphics character (like the SHIFTed J)
trailing spaces anyway. The very first part of
in the middle of what would otherwise be a
BASIC involved in handling a new line, the part
keyword, imagine how TOKENIZE must react.
that collects characters off the screen, discards
Does it ever find the word INPUT? Not quite. As
these spaces. Both graphics characters are needed
it is collecting characters, it is interrupted before
to protect lone blanks from the space-killing habits
finding a perfect match with the BASIC word
of a couple of parts of BASIC. If you want blank
INPUT. The match is a failure, but the character
lines with a lot of spaces, though, there is no
which foiled it is eventually discarded. When
reason why you couldn't enter one with, say, 70
RUN gets at the program, it now finds a plain
of them. Just be sure they have graphics "body
INPUT (five bytes worth) instead oi the single-byte
guards" on either end.
token that represents the INPUT command. Any
such character string is treated as a variable name. A Do-Nothing Program
Our illegal variable names, then, are nut il
It has been said that no programming language
legal at all. We just have to be sneaky enough in
can prevent the writing of bad programs. To prove
entering and editing them to prevent TOKENIZE
that this is also true of editing tricks designed to
from doing its job.
promote readable listings, type in the following
program. It's not good for much except sneaky-
Finding The Right Routine editing practice—and perhaps confounding a few
And what of the graphics character used at the BASIC programming friends with the fact it runs
beginning of an indented line? without error.
TOKENIZE is involved again, this time be 100 LET BEGINNING = 1
cause it does just what we want done: It keeps 110 LET END = 10
spaces right where we put them. Some other parts 120
of BASIC use a routine that discards spaces. One
of these is the part that translates the characters
in a line number we type into the numeric form in 160 GET NOTHING
which it is stored. Try leaving a space between 170 NEXT POSITION
two digits in a line number. No problem—the 180
199 END m
spaces are discarded and the line number appears
in a listing just as if you had not inserted them.
BASIC continues to throw away spaces until
a nondigit character which eliminates all indented
lines is found. The rest of the line is turned over
to the TOKENIZE routine. But by then it is too
An income tax program for everyone to use.
late: All indentations have already been stripped.
TAX COMPUTATION has been approved lor
Our strategy must be to place a character
immediately after the line number so that the SOFTWARE as well as many other directories.
following spaces will be handled by the right Your (axes will be completed quickly, easily, and
routine for our purposes—by TOKENIZE. A to your benefit.
graphics character, first recognized as a nondigit TAX COMPUTATION Commodore 64 $39.95
character in the collection of a line number and
K.R.Rullman VIC20, T.99/4A S19.90
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Continental Home Accountanl |D) $47 Hcsware 6502 Pro Devel Sjs (D) $19 Creative ChopWler (CT) $19
Continental Ta< Advantage (D) $33 Heswore Hesmon M (CT) $26 Epyx Temple of Apahai (CI $24
ConHmnlel FCM Fits' Class Mail .. .. 129 Hesware 64 Forth (CT) M5 Sena Congo Bongo (CTl K5
Soilsync Personal Accountant (D&O $23 Atess Sprilerruster (D&CJ $23 Sega Star Trek (CTI $25
CheckEase ICfiDI $24 TimewiHks Programmer Kit* 1. EL tit
Trmeworks Electronic Checkbook
ID&C) S19 Bluv Skv Lhi Orut (D> $79 Rock Bottom
Timeworks Milrwy Manager (D&C) 119 Blue Sky 80 Column (D) $29
MS I Inventory (D) ,. ..516 Blue Sky Graph*. Designer (D) . . . $29
Prices on
Creative Household Finance |D) $23 Blue Sky 64 Statistics (D) $29 Peripherals!
Crealrve Household Finance |CI $19 illuc Skv Super Basic (D) $29
Creative Homelnvenrorv(D) S13 Blue Sky Add On BatiS (D) $Z9
Creative Home Inventory IO $10 Blue Sky Super Copy (Dl $29
Creative Loan Analyzer \D) $13 Vic 40 B0 Display Manager M9
Creative Loan Analyzer IC) ..... .. 510 BUSINESS SOFTWARE
Irnludri Won! M.irwjer FREE
Tolal Business 3 h ID) $65 Parallel Pimli-i Inltrf.iL. -4S Home Software lor [he Co
Tulal Time Mgmt IDI jas
Broderbund [fan. St. Writsr [D) $45 Total Lible Mail (D) ,.$IS
Hesu/are Qmniwrner ID| ...... . . $49 Total RtMnh Asst (D&C) $25
Rainbow IVriters Asst |DI $49 Cymbal General Lvd^er IDl $45
BlueSkvScnpiMID) $69 Cymbal Acer. Receivable (Dl W5 HcsMc<lem Vic & C64 M7
Cardco Wnle N cnu! ID) $39 Cymbal Acer. Payable (D) $45
Muse Super!e«t ID) $8S Cymbal Inven'ory Control (D) $45 i:<»M*lrf,Ul FREE DISKETTE
On Line HomeWord IDI $39 Cymbal Invoice Writer (D) $45
CM.W.Aian .. $67 wilheachP»""chaseofelectronic
ELECTRONIC . $«9 arts software
SPREADSHEETS Epv> Draaim Rnders ol Pern (D&C) $25
EpyVSitionWarrwrlCT) ..$25
Heuiurr Multiplan IDI $75
Svga Congo Bongo (CTI $25 RMCBXM0 $2M COMMODORE 64
Hesware Omnicafc ID| J37
Infitfom Enchanrer (D) $33 GEMINI I0X . . . $J(,9
MSI Practical (D&C) $35
Inlocom MnleHD) $33 AliitwCom 10 Column $99
MS! Programmable Spreadsheel ID) ... $55
Synapse B!ueMj*ID&C> $22 AlphaComSO Column 51M Pmball Construction Sei (Dl $40
B SKY CALCResull Easy (D) $49
Sublogic P.nballID&CI .. $20 V«. CM, Atari MULE ID) $40
Home Cat (D) $26
Hemare Maze Masler (CT) $26 Cable Hiih AlptuCum FREE Worms'(D| $J5
Home Calc IC) $22 BrndciriundChopldterlCT) J27 CotdcuLellerQujlilyLQI $499 ArchonfDI . $40
EpyxPilstoplCTI $27 Cartiro Two Ctlhfl impACI $119 riaid Hat Mack (D) ,,,, .. $35
Murder on the Ziriderneul (D) -, 540
Spifinakw Avrob*:* (D) .,.,. $33 The Temvacl SlrileaylD). $40
WordFl«>, |DI ..$35
Softsync Compuicr SWtaruc It), SI9 Hr^MiKlvniVvCM .. ... $49
Solisync Compuirr Muchdme (C, $16 Tb,' Cut & P.nw Word Proccmor ID) .. $50
rln Auio Am Vt CM .. $M D BuglD) . $J5
CnMitte Car Co«s ID) ........... $13
LJSI rtulodut Ans*rr RS!32t . . . . $79 A*it Asviisin IDI $35
Creative On Cosis (Q ,..., $10 COMMODORE VIC 20 USIAulodial $69 Musk- Con&lruclion S#l (Dl .. $40
Creative Deciwm Maker JD) (13
USI CM Plain Mooem $39 Financut Cookbook (D) $50
CfeaiiueDeci5ionMaker(C| .,. 10 PERSONAL PRODUCTIVITY Dr J & Larry Bird One on One IDI $40
Hesware Tin* &i Money Manager (D, S39
Timeuoiks Dala Manage* ID&CI $1S Creative Home Offni; ID) .. $22
Conrpuwiw Sr.iiier Kit (5 hia) $J9 Cream/e Home Olfide (CI $19
Crealiw Household Finance ID) |17 BMC 12" Cr«n $85
HnuvboW Finance (C) $13
HMC 1i" HiHciGf«n ...$119
W UMC \T Amber . .. $M
Epv. Fun wilh Arl (CT) $27 Crealiw Home Invrnlory (C) $10
BMC 12" HiRfi Amber
Thorn Music Composer <CT>
Epy* Fun v,ith Musil: (CTI S27
MSI Pr.KhcalcPluslD)
BMC 13'ComuositeCoiot ".....,'.,.. $239
Hetwanj Synlheiound ICTJ S33 Momlor cable w/above .,.. , . $10
Hesware Pamthrush (CT) $19 M.S I Fiatlicak- Plus (T) $33
Spinnaker Delia Drawing{CT> $26 M S I Pracmalc (Dl $32
Koala SaideiEatci $21 MSI. Praclicakr (Tl $29
Koala GeometTtc Designs $23 Hesnare Synlhesound (CTI . 519 Concord Disk Drive . $279
Koala Floors t23
Hesuiirp Vic Fourth 1CTI $39 Ccminunton' I54E $269
Hesware HesMon (CTI $26
Koala Logo Designs ........ .. S29
Cirfii n Wnt*' Nnw $27
Delta Music (CT) $ar.
Me-w.ire &iO2 J'ru Dev Sys .. .$19 1-800-431-8697
Hpy< Fun wilh Art (CT) $2t
tpy. l"un luUh Music ICTI $26
3 Way Grin Stick $21
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Spmnakc-r Alplabel Zoo (CT) $23
Spinnaker Cosmic Lite (CT) $23 EDUCATIONAL SOFTWARE 903 S. Rural, #102
Spinnaker Facemaker fCTf S2J
SjKnakcr Fraction Feuer (CT) $23 noway? 5pinnake[
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Spnnaker Kids on Keys (CT) S23 KmderComp (CTI $23
Hi onomy Pnrn#r I $39
Stiiimaker Kindercomp <CT> S19 Slory Machine (CT) $23
Spinnaker Slory Machine (CTI $26 Fai e Maker (CTI $23 w» For Information, Customer
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Spinnaker Delia [>rj*mg tCT) $26 Alptutwi Zoo(CT) $23
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Creative I Am Your M I (Dl J19 Hwnn Turtle Graphics (CT) $26 SURGE PROTECTION
Creliue I Am Your 64 II ID| $19
Creatiue Pipes (C) $19
Hesware Turlle Graffcfcl II {CTI J39
HesiuarRTyneN'WnlerlCI) $26
Creative Spills& Fills (C) $19 OrttSuckel $19
Creative Hnnuman 8t Hangmath (C) ... $10 TwoSockel $39
Delta Music (CT) S26 Creatii/e Math Hurdle & M MaielC) ... $10 10 Socket $79 (C) - Tape (D) Dilk (CT) ' Canridge

■TERMS OH OFFEH II you fun! a price (or any software or peripheral in Ihis issue Ihji 15 lower lhan i.ur advertised Price, weII guaramtelo beat it! Valid only on piodui. !m similar m slotk conditions
Valid only on prices appearing in pnnl in this issue
ORDERING & TERMS Send cashier check, money order, personal/company checks allow 3 weeks bankckMrnnc,.. VISA/Maslerdrn accented Provide phone number with order. SHIPPING
SoltwareaddloOOfor Dell niece, add 11.00each additional p«™ M.ii<!uwi> add III) (U jjhichcucr n yrv.Mi'i Krtums mum hjue authotiwlion number (call 60? %81JI2B) for aulhon;alion
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odd 3'!. i'tices sulijei-l to change unthoul notice All products sublet! la availability Irani manulatlurri\ and/or nuiipticrs All prices in U S dollars.
Getting Started
With A Disk Drive
Part 5:
Questions And Answers
Charles Brannon, Program Editor

In the conclusion of this series, we answer What do I do if a program crashes and the
several common questions about disk drives red "busy" light is still on?
and disk Hies.

£%m I3e careful. The program may have OPENed

a file for writing. You need to properly CLOSE
* Can you use CMD with disk files? the file to prevent a bad directory entry. Use this
one line to make sure all files are closed:
J\."» Yes. CMD is used to divert output from the CLOSE 15:OPEN 15,8,15:CLOSE 15
screen to another device. It is usually used with a
Be aware that OPENing or CLOSEing the
printer to moke listings (OPEN 4,4:CMD4:LIST).
command channel will disrupt any OPEN files,
After a CMD, everything that would go to the
forcing [hem CLOSEd.
screen ends up going to the device you OPENed.
If a file isn't closed properly, it appears on
For example, a series of PRINTs can be sent either
the directory with an asterisk next to the filename.
to the screen or to the printer with CMD.
To clear it up, enter:
Many people don't know that CMD has the
same syntax as PRINT#. For example, you can OPEN 15,8,15,"V":CLOSE 15

use: Do not attempt to scratch such a file.


CMD 4 by itself will, therefore, send a blank line,

^SSJUm Why can't I read my friend's disk on
as well as direct output away from the screen. If
my 1541?
you have a disk file opened for writing, you can
use CMD to have oil PRINT statements write to
this file. Just remember that the blank line put out XX ■ Even though Commodore drives 4040, 1540,
by CMD will give you problems if you try to read and 1541 are supposed to be read/write compati
the file with INPUT#. ble, differences exist. First, most drives deviate
To cancel a CMD (highly recommended be from the ideal speed of 300 RPM (revolutions per
fore you CLOSE a file), use PRINT*, as in minute). Depending on the extent of the deviation,
PRINT#4:CLOSE 4. This also insures that every this can cause either trivial problems, such as a
last drop of your file is written out. retry (the head attempts to reread a sector that it
106 COMPUTE'S Gaielle March 1984
there is no need to spend thousands
of dollars for a new business computer!
Nor is there need to go through the hassle and
expense of learning a complicated new system.
An easy expansion will convert your Commodore" into a powerful business computer that will
have you running productive business programs as quickly as 1, 2 ... plug it in and grow!
Begin with the reliable new MSD" Super Disk... the only disk drive readily available for
Commodore computers. Gain Instantaneous random access to programs and information, and
save valuable time In executing your programs.
Next... interface the new, state-of-the-art dot matrix printer... the Panasonic' KX-P1060 for
hard copy that will support and document your task.
Add expansion modules for greater power and up to 64K memory. Our terminal emulators allow
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Complete the expansion process with software applications to address accounting, word
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Call or come by today to learn more about Your Business Software's "Expand Your Business Plan"

Panasonic KX-P1060 S399.O0

Super Disk
Dual Super Disk
VTE 40 Terminal Emulator 49.95 Single Disc Drive Dual Disk Drive
CTE Terminal Emulator Cassette 9.95 plus the faster plus the faster
CTE Terminal Emulator Diskette 17-95
Expansion RAM 3K 35.95 IEEE Interface IEEE Interface
8K 49.95 $429.00 $749.00
16K 79.95
24K 129.95
Accounts Receivable/Billing 69.00 800/527-5341
Accounts Payable/Checkwrltlng 69.00
General Ledger 69.00 Texas and Canada 214/526-3348
Inventory Management 69.00
Payroll kq nn
Any 3 of the above programs 199.00
Home Accounting Plus 69.00 UPS Blue Label add $3.00
Bank Street Writer 54.00
Typing Tutor 22.00
Speed Reader II 64.00
First Class Mail 44.00
Oracle (data base) i 39.00
Tax Advantage 54.00
Multi Plan 89.00
Quick Brown Fox 64.00

Prices are for prepaid orders only and reflect a

cash savings: send a cashier's check or money
order. Charge card orders are slightly higher.
All items subject to availability and prices
subject to change without notice, fi/erseas
orders do not include shipping and handling.
® signifies manufacturers' trade marks
and copyrighted products.
couldn't read on the first try), or it can make a most Commodore drives should be compatible,
disk totally unreadable. but beware of the variations. It's always safe to
A sector on a disk can hold 256 bytes, and try to read any disk on any drive, but beware of
has a finite area on the disk's surface. The head writing. If you're not sure, try to write with your
has to be synchronized with the speed of the disk friend's drive on a disk formatted on your drive.
in order to write to a selected sector. It is aided in Then try out the file on your drive again. This
this by timing information written to the disk way, you can confirm if disk-swapping is safe for
when it was formatted (NEWed). The physical both of you.
area of a sector is determined by the speed at which
the disk turns.
If the disk turns faster than it should, the VK». How many files can I have OPEN at once?
data overflows Hie sector, overwriting nearby
sectors and the timing data. If the disk turns too
JrX ■ The operating system (O5) permits you to
slowly, it does not fill up the sector. The data may
have up to ten files open simultaneously. How
also be written too compactly to be readable.
ever, each file must use a different disk buffer in
You may not notice if your drive is too fast or
the OPEN statement. The disk buffer is internal
too slow, since the speed at which it reads or writes
to the disk drive, and accumulates data until it
usually matches the speed at which the disk was
holds a block (256 bytes) of data. The buffer then
formatted. "Fast" and "slow" are relative to indi
transfers data to a disk sector (in a write operation)
vidual drives, not to 300 RPM.
or to the computer (for reading).
A last drive may miss the more compact in
The OPEN command specifies the disk buffer
formation written by a slower drive. It goes so
to be used as the secondary address:
fast the slower data is seen as a "blur." The faster
drive may also have trouble writing to the disk, OPEN filenum,devnum,buffer

since the liming {formatting) information is simi filniiiw-Fi\e number used in INPUT#, GET#,
larly compacted. If you do manage to write to the PRINT#, and CLOSE commands.
slow-formatted disk, the faster drive cannot devnum— Hardware device number (8 fora
squeeze its information into the sectors created single disk drive)
on the slower drives. In the worst case, the faster buffer - A secondary address from 2-14
drive overwrites the timing information, making specifying which buffer to use. Buffer number
one or more sectors totally unreadable on either 1 is reserved for program saves and loads.
drive. Secondary address 15 is reserved for the com
Now, if you bring a disk formatted on a fast mand channel.
drive to a slower drive, things aren't as bad. The
If you have more than one disk file open
slower drive can easily read the longer sectors
simultaneously, each file must use a unique buffer,
created by the fast drive. When it writes to the
or data will become garbled.
disk, it just doesn't use all the physical space allo
cated by the fast drive. But when you bring the
disk back to the fast drive, it may not be able to
How do I make a backup copy of a disk?
read the sectors written by the slower drive.
There are other potential variations, such as
head alignment and DOS versions. In theory. It's important to make a backup copy of
commercial software. That wav,J
you can use the

copy, and store the original in a safe place. If any

thing goes wrong, you can just make another
working copy. Unfortunately, most software is
copy-protected, to prevent illegitimate copies
Free Disk Program from being made.
Sunsoil's 1541 Disk Backup program copies almost Even if the software isn't protected, there are
any disk. Us FREE when you buy any disk program Irom
no built-in commands to copy an entire disk. It's
can liee caialog, now featuring GETCHA! and CIPHER
GETCHA' gives you live levels o! play on a random easy enough to LOAD, then reSAVE BASIC pro
play!ield Get the dollars beiore the taxman gels them- grams, but machine language programs, sequen
oi you1 Music and graphics, for Com. 64, tape or disk' tial data files, relative files, and mysterious USR
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See program listing an page 163. (Qf
A Perfect for Your 64
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Missing Key
IWop( the I fulfill Manager.
Tin1 lli'xl dulll I in--".- iii:iiiii^inv. I fur I In- < nilci-limi.
urrangemenl mid diNplny <»f til|>liHiinmt-ric <Inta.
"I he iiiiii|in- putfern nuilchinu im<l sciircliing
The Key you've looked
ciipidiiliiic-t iiinl.i- dMIlS ilu- I)i>hi rnoeutvhlnai for, but wasn't there.
|ii-ii<:i-]iiii in uilithii-. After j>r< if! rii mini tig; I'm- hour* you |ircMN HI N for
Paltirn malvhing: n fin nl eherk of your wort - ilir nompuler loeks up.
('ml III- llni'd nil iil In r ill' lldill - <>l i In- H|riii£.
NihIiIns appears on ihascrccn< You press HUJN/STUI*
■■■tiuthlnfl ■ you presH ltKSTOI(K,..nniliiii(: - you Innk
Mii|> search trrlini<|iii< lii ni'lik-vc a "In^ii'id AND".
for iiit- miHMiiii: ki-y Itm ii Isn't there, \»« you don't
u lilli -cin-i liiu.; lii-ivvci-ii I ii-hU.
have in turn off yitm* I'limpiitcr mid In-c )ioui> of work.
• l)i>|iln> either those records fmnid hy u Hi-un-h nr
Add Hit- Missing Key:
Ihoae NOT found. * Proas tlii" key mid i he computer resets itnelf
PrlnU'reonlml: from nity kind nf luck-up. ,
• Itcm'riiiip- initl ituprMs field--. * l.nnd mid run the nro^ram included with (In- f
• Siipri'HH Field illicit, O 0% #\fll Mi — inn ki-y mid yniir'HASKi' prn[:ram is re-iorcdJ
■ In-eii -Inhi (lOchnnu-icrl if\iw, M^% JJ » ' * I iiki--. iiuiliin^ imity I i-iini yiuii- rumpiilci . neillirr
■ Spli'fiively prim racordn. ^^ " meiniiry or a plii^-in porl.
* Fits onto your Commodore 64 kfyhom-d |N<> wiring

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The Inner World
Of Computers
Part 5: Small Is Beautiful
Tom Prendergast

In this final installment, an old programming also adds another 3K of memory to give you a
trick is combined with the new skills de total of 6519 RAM bytes.
veloped in the previous four installments. The
author includes a powerful technique that
demonstrates how so much can be achieved in
B ut despite its shortcomings, the VIC is a pow
erful computer. Big isn't necessarily better, and
one of the smallest computers—the VIC-20.
you can't always measure a program's value by
its length alone. There are few things thai you
can do on expensive machines that you can't do
I think the VIC-20 is the greatest thing since on a VIC. It takes some doing, maybe, and it may
ELFS (the tiny ELectronic FingerS that not be as easy, but it can be done.
toggle the even tinier bit-switches inside If you counted every letter of every word on
your computer). It's in ex pensive, easy to this page, including spaces, you'd find there were
use, and fantastic for games and graphics. about 6000. That's 6000 bytes (every letter or space
The VIC does have its limits, though. For one uses a byte of memory)—-not counting pointers
thing, the large screen characters and short lines
(22 characters across) make word processing an ^ XS
awkward task. A few lines on a typewritten page IF" ATTRIBUTE APPLIES

fill up the VIC screen. PUT m IN ALPHA
Another handicap is the small amount of
memory. You get only 3583 bytes on the unex-
panded VIC. This is still a couple of thousand 2
more bytes than the fabled Univac and ENIAC- 4
the big mainframes of 30 and 40 years ago that
filled up whole buildings and brought on the age
of computing. But unless you're sentimental about

such things, you're not going to be happy for
long with only 3.5K of memory.
After I'd run out of memory on too many
programs that I considered very small, I bought a
Super Expander. Not only does this cartridge
make it easy to do HIRES (High RESoIution
graphics) by adding commands like DRAW, "Biiiamite" gives you several options for displaying data.
PAINT, I'OINT, and CIRCLE, but Commodore Here the information is shown in the table format.
110 COMPUTE)1* Gazelle Marcl.1984

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QUEST ■ A different kind o( STARFIRE

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You'll have to build an army em-up. see them in the
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and such—just to store this page in RAM. That's customers, but you want tu rank them by the
a lot more memory than you have on the unex- amount of money spent with you, by credit rating,
panded VIC. How can you even begin to process your best customers. You have a list of all your
that much data? and so on. You probably have all the information
You could feed the data in from tape a few you need in the customer file, along with the
bytes at a time, I suppose, process it, and then amounts billed and to be collected {accounts re
pull in some more data. (Jut that would take a lot ceivable). Of course, you don't want to disturb
of time and tape. You'd also be using up most of that file, but going through it can tell you what
your memory for tape handling and "overhead." items your customers usually order, their fre
So what can you do? quency of ordering, and how fast they pay or
For an answer, let's look back at the small don't pay.
memories on the early mainframes. One reason The files are probably in alphabetical order.
for those small memories was the cost—something Later on, you can arrange the list for mailing by
like $10 a bit (not a byte, a bit). This meant it often zip code or some other way, but to demonstrate
was cheaper to pay people to file things manually the program we're using, "Binamite," let's just
rather than to use expensive computer memory take the first 15 names out of the file, write them
to store it. So, early on, a technique called bit in on a sheet of paper, and number them. (Remem
dexing was developed, in which one bit did the ber, by using paper instead of the computer, we
work of a byte—or even hundreds of bytes. save a byte for every letter.)
Computers have added a lot of memory since
1. Mary Contrary
then, but the basic way a computer works hasn't 2. Mary Lamb
3. Little Boy Blue
4. Ms Muffit
5. Fifth Name
6. Sixth Name
7. Seventh Name

and so on until we have 14 names.

Next, we want to know the type of items
they've bought, so we'll know what to put in our
catalog. Let's call these items "attributes" and
assign letters of the alphabet as labels, like this:
A) Sports Clothing
B) Bats and Balls
C) Caps
D) Down-Filled Jackets
E) Extra-Large Sizes
F) Feminine Finery
G) 10-Gallon Hats
H) Helmets
Creating a data table with "Binamite." I) Insulated Boots
J) Junior Sizes
K> Skis
changed. That's why this old trick works as well L) Lambswool Jackets
today as it did then. M) Muffs
N) Notions
O) Ozone ware

Bit indexing is a kind of shorthand, with each These can be any length since we're keeping them
bit representing some unit of information, like a on paper instead of in VIC memory. They don't
name on a list. If (he bit is turned on, that name is have to match the letters alphabetically, either: B
on the list. And since we already have our list on doesn't have to stand for Bats and Balls, or C for
paper, why not keep it on that same piece of paper Caps. It just makes it easier to remember what
and use a form of bit indexing to process it on the letters we've assigned to what items when we ask
VIC. By doing this, we can handle the equivalent Binamite later to match them against the names
of thousands of bytes of data without eating up on the list.
precious memory. Now, with all the paperwork out of the way,
This isn't a big deal so long as the data we let's build the program up bit by bit.
want to process is in an organized list already and
we just have to write some numbers beside the
items on the list. you might expect from the name, Binamite
Let's say you're in the mail order business works on a binary system. You may remember a
and want to send catalogs or a special mailing to short program in last month's installment that
113 COMPUTED Gazette Ma.dil9B4
A Basket Full of Software Values
at Chick-Size Prices?

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converted binary numbers (Vs and O's) to decimal. A, or B, or whatever, to the name. (Rows read
That program was an exercise for this month's across, columns read down.) The arrangement
program, because we're using basically the same will become clear after we've typed in the neces
algorithm for Binamite. sary lines for n trial run.
In last month's program, we input the binary Line 120 is where we INPUT the dots (periods)
digits in that conversion program as a string in to fill the alpha cells. We skip a cell, leaving it
stead of a number. Ordinarily, the computer can't empty (no attribute), with the space bar. We can
use a string to do arithmetic because the digits are also delete a dot with the delete key, or go back
seen as characters, not as numbers. and fill in a dot with the cursor left key.
However, if you ask for the VALue of a string, Line 120 is probably the trickiest line in the
the computer will start from the left and convert whole program because we have to first print a
the string digits to a number. (If it finds a letter or row of alpha cells (using 15 shifted L graphics),
a graphic that's not a number, it stops.) Suppose then bring the cursor left 17 places so that it will
you have a .string like this: be flashing and ready for INPUT at the first alpha
cell (Column A).

If you ask the computer for the VALue of BS, you'll 120 INPUT" #[3 SPACES}{RVS}LLLLLLLLLLLLLL
L{17 LEFT}"tB$:L=LEN(B$T—
get this:

?VAL(B$) Now we get to the real meat of the program-

101 [the letter B is ignored] converting the string of dots we've just INPUT,
We still have to convert the binary, because the 13$, to binary, then to a decimal VALue we can
computer treats that 101 as a decimal number 101, AND later:
not as a binary 5. So we use the MIDS function to
130 XP=L-1:FOR 1=1 TO L:DM$=MIDS(B$,I,1):
extract one digit at a time and multiply the VALue IF DM$ > "1"THEN PRINT "(UP}":DM$="":
of the 1 or 0 by its power of two. All of the place GOTO 120
values are then added together to get the decimal
equivalent of the binary string, BS: Note that we've created a temporary lioliliii^ tiring,
DMS, in line 130. This makes DMS the equivalent
MIDS(BS,1,1) = "1"
of MIDS(B$,1,1)—that is, one digit of binary string
MID$(B$,2,l> = "0"
MIDS<BS,3,1> = "1"
B$, in place I, whatever I is at the moment—and
saves us line space because we don't have to keep
Placcpower: 212 211 2tO
typing "MIDS(BS,I,1)" all the time. That's DMS's
BS: 1 0 1
only function—a temporary string.
1*2 2=4 (1 multiplied by the second power of 2)
0*2ll = 0 (0 multiplied by the first power of 2)
If you input anything but a period or a space,
1*210= l (1 multiplied by the zero power of 2) the IF throws you back to INPUT (line 120).
140 IF DM$="." THEN DM$="1"
In the program, we use a FOR/NEXT loop for
Line 140 converts a dot (period) to the binary
MID$ manipulation and multiplication of the
digit 1. Skipping a cell, or wiping out a dot (with
the space bar or delete key), gives the empty space
a value of zero, the binary digit 0.
■I o give you some hands-on experience this
150 D=D+(VAL(DM$))*2TXP:XP=XP-l!NEXT
month, we will take you through the creation of a
program step by step. So we're going to type in Line 150 multiplies each binary digit by the
just the bare bones of the program at first, and power of its place, then adds all the place values
explain each line's function as we go. Some of together for a decimal value given to D.
these lines will be out of order as we type I hem When the FOR/NRXT loop is completed, we
in, but the VIC will automatically rearrange them GOSUB 300 in line 160 to deposit the row value
in the proper numeric order. into an array, then line 170 sends us back to line
Here's the first line to type in: 120 to process another row:
170 PRINT"{UP]"TAB(2)T:BS="":D=0:IFT<TT T
The letters ABCD...up (o O identify the columns HEN 120
for the "alpha cells" (rows of little boxes), which When we've completed our input to the alpha
correspond to our list of attributes. By processing cells—assigning the attributes—line 240 will give
these cells instead of long data strings, Binamite us a number which we jot down beside each name
saves you lots of memory. Each name has a row on our list. With this encoded number, later we
of alpha cells, and when we INPUT a dot—one can analyze our list of names almost any way we
byte—into a cell, we attach that column's attribute want.
114 COMPUT&'s Gazelle March 1984

|ust when you thought a degree in accounting
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UNCLE! cakes your hand and guides you through
the tax manuals, asking ]ust enough questions
to translate the Information for up to 28 forms
and schedules. UNCLE! has a good memory;
just give your name and SSN once and UNCLE!
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Plus, if you want to noodle with numbers,
UNCLEI has a calculator-type scratch pad. You
can't fool your UNCLE!: if you enter an error, it
will be flagged. When you're through conversing
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240 FOR 1=0 TO TT:PRINT"#"I+l"i3 SPACES}" umn could be a range of wholesale prices from
D(I):NEXT SI to $5, the B column a range from S6 to S10, and
so on.
We're almost finished with our stripped-down
Or you could use Binamite to keep track of
version of the program except for typing in line the books in your library. The name column would
10: be the title of the book, and the letter column the
10 PRINT CHR$(147):TT=14:DIM D(TT),B$(TT) book's location—on shelves A, B, C, in bookcase
But don't forget our GO5UB. Notice that we've D downstairs.
got to fence off our GOSUB routine from the rest See program listing an page 163. <Sf
of the program so that the VIC won't run into it
and generate an UNDEF'D STATEMENT ERROR.
So, actually, line 260, with its END, is part of
GOSUB 300:


with Ihe "F2500" cooling fan for your
300 B$(T)=B$:D(T)=D
Commodore 1540/1541 disc drive
310 IF LEN(BS(T)}<15 THEN BS(T)=LEFT$("
{15 SPACES}",15-LEN(B$(T)))+BS(T) Protect your valuable programs from
excessive heat buildup
,4 must for every disc drive owner
Now let's LIST what we've done and check
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very end of the line—but not past column O—
before you hit RETURN. If you don't, you'll land
Other than that, Binamite is easy to work, .1983 TAX RETURN HELPER
once you're familiar with it.
Fast and easy income tax preparation.

W hen you're comfortable with your trial run, Form 1040 anO Schedules A.B.C.D.E
EnTer and modify data on a screen copy ol [he Torrn

type in the complete program. Lines 10 and 240 Works like a spreadsheet - ah itie lines affected by a change are in-
slantly updated
are different, but you've got the hard part out of Form 1040 and Schedule A are automatically corelaEed.
Automatic tax tompuialion Irom builHn la* laBles and schedules
the way. Forms can be printed or saved
Price i'i la* doducHble.
The beauty of Binamite is its flexibility. You Cassia* VIC20(lflKRAM)cirC64 J?3

can plug almost any kind of data into it to produce Disc. VlCZ0(16KflAM)nr C6J S33
{Add Si 50 S A H) Chock. MO or credil Card
various graphic relationships between persons
and items. For instance, if we want to find out m 845 WELLNER RD . NAPERVILLE. 1L 6O540, (312)%M25Q «a

(he most popular item among our list of best cus

tomers, we can quickly spot it by noting the
column with the most dots.
Binamite isn'J very impressive right now be
cause we're only processing a list of 14 names.
After you get the hang of it, though, you can easily
process hundreds of items—as many strings as Send for your FREE COPY of
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116 COMPUTE'S Gaicltc Mordi19S4

For VIC And 64
Todd Heimarck, Assistant Editor

This month's "Power BASIC"—a continuing POKE and ASCII numbers whenever you want.
series of helpful utilities and routines— Note that if you write a program that POKEs
provides a short machine language routine any of the address locations of the cassette buffer
that automatically calculates ASCII and POKE (828-1019), you may lose ASCII/POKE Printer.
values. It's a handy utility you can use while Also, if you use a cassette player for SAVEs,
writing a BASIC program. LOADs, or tape files, you will erase the machine
language program, l-'ortunately, il is entirely re
locatable, so if you want to use the cassette buffer,
Reference Tables you can change line 10 to move it to another part
Chances are, PRINTing to the screen was one of of memory. On the 64, it is usually safe to use any
the first things you learned to do in BASIC. You of the memory locations from 49152 to 53247. If
probably also learned how to control where the you have a VIC-20, you will have to protect part
computer prints by putting cursor commands of BASIC RAM (52 bytes worth) with POKEs to
within strings or by using SPC and TAB com 51,52, 55, and 56.
mands. The PRINT command is common, primar
ily because it is so easy to use. But in certain situ LOADing And Using
ations, you may need to find out a character's
ASCII number. And sometimes it is quicker to
The Program
simply POKE a character onto the screen. If you have a 64, type in Program 1, If you have a
But before you can POKE, you have to know VIC, use Program 2, but if your VIC has 8K or
the character number. Let's put a row of hearts at more of expansion memory, change line 23 to
the top of the screen. So, we need to POKE a bunch read:
of 81s. Wait, those are solid circles. What's the 23 DATA 169,0,133,212,174,0,16,32,205, 221
number for hearts? I know that list is somewhere ,232,208,204
in this book. Make sure the DATA statements are exactly as
If you use POKEs or ASCII values in pro printed. SAVE it to tape or disk and VERIFY (if
gramming, you know how annoying it is to flip you have a cassette drive). RUN the program and
back and forth through the reference book, losing type NEW. The program is now in your cassette
time and patience. Even worse, you could lose buffer. BASIC memory was cleared when you
the book and end up typing She character and typed NEW, but it did not touch the cassette
PEEKing screen memory to get the POKE value. buffer.
Anytime you want to use ASCII/POKE Printer,
Let The Computer Do The Work type SYS 828. The computer will wait for you to
Your computer already knows the POKE values type a character and then display that character
and ASCII numbers, so why not let it do the in the upper-left corner with the ASCII value to
work? the right and the POKE value below. Type another
This short machine language program, character and you get two new values.
"ASCII/POKE Printer," does not use any BASIC To exit (back to BASIC), hold down SHIFT and
memory. Its 52 bytes remain in the cassette buffer, press RETURN. This returns you to your program.
ready to convert letters and graphics characters to SYS 828 will send you back to ASCII/POKE Printer,
COMPUTE'S Gazette Marclil9S4 1)7
and so on. You can toggle back and forth as the values, you can really save time. The program
need arises. was written to be short and simple, but if you are
familiar with machine language, you could modify
Special Cases it to do much more.
There are some ASCII numbers that have no
equivalent POKE. For example, adding CHR$(13) Program 1:
to a string will force a RETURN after the string is ASCII/POKE Printer—64 Version
printed. But ASCII 13 cannot be POKEd to the 10 FORJ=828TO879:READK:POKEJ,K:NEXT
screen (what would a RETURN look like?). ASCII/ 15 READY:IFY<>999THENSTOP
20 DATA32,228,255,240,251,170,201, 141, 208
POKE Printer will give you the correct ASCII num
bers, but for certain characters, like RETURN, it
21 DATA32,210,255,169,255,13 3,212,138,32,
will print a blank space and list a POKE of 32 210,255,169,32
(which is the number for a blank space). In the 22 DATA32.210,255,169,0,32,205,189,169,13
case of function keys, CLR/HOME, 1NST/DEL, ,32,210,255
and color commands, it will print a reverse video 23 DATA169,0,133,212,174,0,4,32,205,189,2
character, as if in quote mode, and the correct
25 DATA999
ASCII number. But the POKE number will be
wrong. Keys that perform a function—clearing Program 2:
the screen, for example—are not characters that
ASCII/POKE Printer—VIC Version
can be POKEd to the screen.
Also note that you cannot get values for in 15 READY:IFY<>999THENSTOP
verse video characters, which do not have separate 20 DATA32,228,255,240,251,170,201,141, 208
ASCII numbers. To program a reverse character, ,1,96,169,147
precede it with a CHR$(18). To POKE an inverse 21 DATA32,210,255,169,255,133,212, 138, 32,
video character, add 128 to the POKE value of the
22 DATA32,210,255,169,0,32,205,221,169,13
regular character.
This machine language utility will be most 23 DATA 169,0,133,212,174,0,30,32,205, 221,
helpful when you are writing BASIC programs. 232,208,204
By letting the computer tell you ASCII and POKE 25 DATA999 <ffi

118 COMPUTE'!'s Gazelle March 19B4

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Dynamic SAVE
For VIC And 64
Stephen S. Leven

These short programs, for the VIC or 64, can 3. Use two tapes (or disks). For tape, first
take the tedium out of frequently SAVEing SAVE on one tape, then SAVE on a second.
and VERIFYing your BASIC programs. For The third time you SAVE, use the first tape
disk and tape users. again. Continue to alternate tapes, so that if
something happens during the SAVE, or
your tape is damaged, you still have your
When you are typing in a long program, it's a previous version on the other tape. (Follow
good idea to SAVE portions of it frequently, and this same procedure for disk backup.)
to make backup copies. But it is tedious to con 4. Finally, when you have finished debugging
tinually type SAVE "PROGRAM NAME", wail your program and it runs perfectly, make
until the program is saved, retype SAVE "PRO one or two backup copies. It is a good idea to
GRAM NAME", then wait again. "Dynamic keep an archive tape (or disk) for emergencies.
SAVE" will do this work for you, whether you If your working copy of the program fails,
use tape or disk, using a technique known as the you can retrieve your program from the
dynamic keyboard. archive tape (or disk).

Why You Should SAVE The Dynamic Keyboard

Periodically Technique
A sudden loss of power—during a thunderstorm The term dynamic keyboard basically means that
or when you accidentally knock the power cord you have your program display certain screen
from the wall socket—can instantly wipe out all instructions which are executed after the program
your hours of hard work. Even something as ends. You do this by inserting program lines which
simple as turning on the dishwasher or garbage CLEAR the screen and PRINT the instructions
disposal can cause a voltage drop that garbles the on the screen just before the END line, and
program in memory. then load the keyboard buffer with the cursor
These four bits of advice will minimize the controls and RETURNs necessary to execute those
consequences of a sudden power failure or elec instructions.
trical glitch: When the program comes to the END in
struction, it goes into immediate mode. The first
1. SAVE your program every 15 minutes or thing it checks is the keyboard buffer, which con
so, or whenever the changes you have made tains your RETURNs and cursor controls. It then
will cause you a serious setback if they are executes them just as if you were typing them in.
lost. As the cursor moves across the commands printed
2. If you use tape, SAVE two copies of the on the screen, they arc automatically executed.
program, one after the other, to reduce the
chance of losing the program due to accidental Tape And Disk Versions
damage to one section of the tape. Program 1 is for tape users, and Program 2 for
120 COMPUWs Gazelle Murch!984
commodore COMMODORE 64:

1520 Color Printer/Plotter S169.00 Epson(MX100, RX80, FX80, FX100) CALL
M-801 Dot Matrix/Parallel $21 9.00 Okidata(82. 83. 84, 92, 93) CALL
1 530 Datasette S69.00 Star Gemini 10X $299.00
1541 Single Disk Drive S249.00 Star Gemini Delta 10 S559.00
1600 VIC Modem S59.00 Smith Corona TP-2 S439.00
1610 VIC Term 40 S49.00 C.ltoh Prowriter8510P S379.00
1 650 AD/AA Modem S89.00 C.ltoh Gorilla $209.00
1702 14" Color Monitor S249.00 SD-1 Disk Drive ^.^P S349.00
1 311 Joystick (each) $4.99
1312 Paddles S11.99 Ugh. Pen CA.HDC.°: S32.00
3 Slot VIC Expansion Interface S32.00
1110 VIC 8K S42.OO
6 Slot Expansion Interlace S79.00
1111 VIC 16K S69.00
Casssette Interface S29.00
1011 RS-232 Interface $42.00
Parallel Printer Interface $49.00
1211 Super Expander $53.00 Parallel Printer Interface w/Graphics S69.00

CUM 64 Relorence Guida . . SI a 00
, C-64 DISKS
Homo Invoniorv S11.00 Spulhng Beo-
! EasyColc S05.00 Household Finance S23.OO
Conllpotffl S37.99
Grados 2. 3. 4. 5. or 0 $9.00
' EasyFlnancfl I, II, III. IV SI 3.00 P»cMan S37.99
C-64 CARTRIDGES Malh Dull SB.00
! Ens,Mail SIS.00 Trashman - - 129 00
Donkey Kong S3?-99
Portloho Manager $16.00
> EasyScript S39.OO Dig Dug S37.99 Daia Manager SI 6.00
Word/Name Machine SI9.O0
Homo Inventory £11.00 Defender S37.99 VIC 20 DISKS
EasySpell Si 9.00 Household Finance S29.00 Pobotron S3?. 99 General Ledger $69 00
Accounts Receivable sag.oo
VIC 20 CASSETTES Stargate S37.99 MFilling List Manager 535.00
I Accounts Payable S39.00 Homo Inventory -.,-,.. . S12.00 HE8 FnveuEoiy Package S69.OO
t General Lodger S3g.00 Household Finance S14.00 VIC 20 CARTRIDGES Paymll S69.00
Assembler SI 0.00 VIC Forth £32 00
VIC 30 CARTRIDGES Dala Base - - S49 00
lobo sag.oo HES Mon S29 00
Astro Blltl 121.00 C64 CASSETTES
Pilot S39.00 Block Hot* £33.00 HE3 Winer 529.00
Black Bon SI 2.00
Pet Emulator SIB.00 S29 00
Tr ashman...- ....,121.00 Color Sketch ....4 20 00
Screen Editor SI9.00 Synlhesound £21.00
ChoBlittor S2I.O0 Match Maker S16.00
Music Machinfl SI 5.00 Shamus , S29.OO
Music Composer... $1 5-00 □ YNATECK $29.00 Mailing List Manager 345.00
VIC 20 CARTRIDGES .'. DISKS C-64 DISK Turlie Graphics S29.00
j GortekitheMlcroChiD5(C|...$19.00 inventor, Package , $79 00
Codowntei S75.00 C 64 CARTRIDGES
General Ledger S79.00
SuBer Slot(H) SI4.Q0 HES Mon £29 00
Payroll S79.00
I Super Alien (R) SI 4-00 EPYX HES Writer , „.... S35 00
. Jupiter Lander [R| $14 00 NUFEKOP Base., S69 00
VIC 20 CASSETTES CalcResult SI 39.00
Radar Rat Race (H) SI 4.00 Ricochet. 132. DO
Alion Panic £10 00 Black Bo« Sie.00
Counl Adventure IR) $21 .00 Sword of Farfloal £34.00
Plnball Snoctacular(R) $19,00 Rnco Fun.Drag Race SIC 00 Color Skotoll .' S32.00
Rescue al Rlgel S24.00
Match Maker $20.00
I VIC Reference Guide SI 3.00 The CMup £10.00
Enlermmator £19.00
C-64/VIC 20 CARTRIDGE 3D Men S16.00
Galactic Bhti $19.95
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disk users. It is a good idea to LOAD Dynamic the disk command to SAVE and Replace the pro
SAVE before you start working on your program. gram, followed by a colon and the command to
You can change the line numbers if you wish, VERIFY the program on disk. Since the user does
but, by using the line numbers I've used, you can not need to take any action (such as rewinding a
easily remember that RUN 60000 will perform tape) in the disk version, verification can begin
your SAVE. immediately after the SAVE. For that reason, the
Program 1 SAVEs two consecutive copies of additional keyboard buffer POKEs in line 60050 of
your program, including Dynamic SAVE, to tape. Program 1 are not needed in the disk version, so
When the SAVEs are completed, the screen will the program ENDs after POKEing a 2 in location
be set up to perform a VERIFY of each copy. Just 198 to indicate two characters in the keyboard
rewind the tape and press RETURN. buffer.
Line 60010 defines the character for the quote
mark, since using the CHR$ equivalent is the best How To Use The Program
way to PRINT it on the screen. This line also de To use this program for saving to tape:
fines the name of the program to beSAVEd, which
1. Type or LOAD Program 1 into your VIC-20
is stored in the variable N$. Change the contents
■or Commodore 64 before you start writing
of N$ to the name of the program you wish to save.
your program. Substitute your program name
Line 60019 is a REM line, reminding you to
in place of DYNAMIC SAVE in line 60010.
use either line 60020 or line 60021, depending on
whether you have a VIC or a 64. These two lines 2. When you're ready to SAVE your program,
set the screen and border to their default colors, place your tape into the recorder and type
and define the character colors for use in line RUN 60000. The screen will clear, then the
60030. These colors are selected so that program message PRESS RECORD AND PLAY ON
operation on the screen is invisible. It's a good TAPE will appear.
way to avoid screen clutter. If you want to see
3. Press RECORD and PLAY. The computer
what the computer is doing, simply change the
will supply its typical response, OK, followed
value of CIS to that of C2S in line 60020 or 60021.
by SAVING and whatever program name
Line 60030 changes the character color to that
you supplied.
of the screen color by printing CIS. Then it clears
the screen and displays the following message: 4. After the first copy of the program is saved,
the response SAVING and the program name
will be repeated to indicate that the second
After printing, the character color is restored copy is being SAVEd. When the second SAVE
to normal by printing C2S. is finished, the familiar READY message will
Line 60040 loads the keyboard buffer with a be displayed, followed by the flashing cursor,
HOME (ASCII 19) and RETURN (ASCII 13), just positioned on the line with the double VERIFY
as though they had been typed in. command (V-:V-).
Line 60050 POKEs the' following characters to
5. Be sure to rewind your tape to the beginning of
the keyboard buffer: V, SHIFTed E, a colon,
another V, and another SHIFTed E. (V-SHIFT-E is
the jjrugnun. Then press RETURN. The
computer will respond with PRESS PLAY
the Commodore abbreviation for the BASIC com
ON TAPE. After you press PLAY, the
mand VERIFY.)
normal VERIFY routine will take place: OK,
The keyboard buffer (memory locations 631-
SEARCHING, FOUND and your program
640) can be loaded with up to ten characters. The
name, VERIFYING, OK. The process then
first character to be executed should be POKEd
repeats for the second copy. If you choose
into location 631, the second into location 632,
and so on. (The character codes may be found in not to VERIFY, use the cursor controls to
the appendices of V1C-20 User'* Manual, VIC-20 move the cursor off the V-:V- line before
pressing RETURN.
Programmer's Reference Guide, Commodore 64 Cher's
Manual, or Commodore 64 Programmer's Reference If you use disk, type or LOAD Program 2,
Guide.) Location 198 must be POKEd with the making sure to substitute your program name in
number of characters in the keyboard buffer, in place of DYNAMIC SAVE in line 60010. When
this case seven. The END statement assures that you're ready to SAVE, simply type RUN 60000.
the program will end at (his point and pass control The computer will then display SAVING and
to the keyboard buffer. VERIFYING messages at the appropriate time.
Program 2 is similar to Program 1. The main Once Dynamic SAVE is in place, you can face
differences are in line 60030 and in the characters the possibility of a power failure with a little less
POKEd into the keyboard buffer. In the disk ver dread.
sion, line 60030 PRINTs, at the top of the screen, See program listings on page 165. GB

122 COMPUWs Gazelle Morch 198-1

Let Your Computer "SPEAK



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COMPUTE!'! Cazollo March 1984 123

Dan Carmichael, Submissions Editor

The Indexer
from the program, change the value of the variable
N in line 900. This variable represents the exact
number of DATA statements included. If you
This month's offering presents a small data number consecutively, beginning at line 901, it
base program, "The Indexer." Designed as an
will be easy to figure out how many DATA state
index for computed gazette articles, it can be ments there are. And anytime you update your
used for a variety of purposes. It runs on any
program, you should SAVE a copy to tape or disk.
size VIC-20 and the Commodore 64.
Once the program is running, you'll be
prompted to select the target of your search. You
can search for article subject, article name, name
If you're like me, you probably keep your back
of magazine, or type of computer. To start the
issues of COMPUTES's GAZETTE, There's a wealth of
search, press the indicated function key. You'll
reference material in each issue. The only problem
then be asked for the target of your search, just
is remembering just what issue contains that arti
enter the search keyword, press RETURN, and
cle you so desperately need.
the program will perform the table search.
This month, we'll look at a small data base
If you're using the program with an unex-
program that allows you to keep an index of arti
panded VIC, memory will become a problem as
cles or books that are of interest to you. "The In
you add DATA statements. String arrays—the
dexer" stores such information as magazine (or
kind used in this program to store data—use a lot
book) name, subject matter, article title, month
and year of issue, page number, and the type of of memory. In addition, the DATA statements
take up six bytes plus one byte per character. If
computer the article applies to. It can also search
you accumulatea lotof data, an expander cartridge
for that article by subject, article name, magazine
name, and type of computer. will come in handy. The Indexer is written to run
on a VIC with any memory configuration, as well
Storing Data In The Program as on the Commodore 64.
The Indexer is machine independent—it does not
Tips For Data Entry
store data on a peripheral device such as a tape
Subject: Your searches will usually be dune by
cassette or disk drive. Information is read into the
article subject, so keep this category as broad as
program from DATA statements and is stored
possible. For example, let's say you want to index
within the program in an array. If you study it
various articles about game paddles. Enter all of
carefully, you'll sec some useful array and table
them with the subject "paddles," even if some
look-up techniques.
are about drawing with paddles and others about
Each DATA statement you enter must include
using them in games. That way, when you enter
the following six elements in order, and each entry
"paddles" as the target of your search, the index
should be separated by a comma.
of all articles on this subject will be displayed.
DATA magazine name, article title, subject, Spelling: Watch your spelling, and be consist
month, year, page number, type of computer ent with your subject category names. For ex
Be careful when entering the DATA state ample, don't enter one subject as "paddle" and
ments—a misplaced or forgotten comma will another as "paddles." The computer will see these
cause errors when the program is run. Be sure as two completely different categories.
not to use commas or colons when typing in the Memory: As stated before, The Indexer can
article titles. use a lot of memory, so you might want to abbre
viate article titles. For example, the GAZETTE col
How To Use The Indexer umn "Machine Language For Beginners" could be
Type in the program, carefully watching all cursor entered as "ML For Beginners" or even "Beg ML."
control characters, and save it to tape or disk before Although this program was written as an
running. The five DATA statements at the end of article index, it can be adopted for other uses. The
the program are optional, included only as ex data base has six elements and can search by any
amples of the DATA statement format. If you of four variables. It could be easily adapted for
wish to begin your own data base, you can replace other uses such as a birthday reminder or an elec
the DATA .statements from line 901 on. tronic phone book. The applications are up to you.
Each time you add or delete DATA statements See program listing on page 151. <3)
124 COMPUTE'S Gazelle Morch 1981
64K(mVIC 20

(>4K Memory
The power of any computer is measured by its
I wo Expansion Slots
memory capacity. The more memory you have,
the more powerful your programs can become. Write Protection
SELECT-A-RAM gives your VIC 20 the power of Reset Switch
memory. 65,536 bytes of power to be exact. txpandable with 64K and 128K Modules
Enough programming power to rival any Home 5oft Select Control
Compatible with All Program Cartridges
The power hungry programmer can also add
more memory. Each of SELECT-A-RAM's two and Hardware Devices
expansion slots will accept any amount of memory Provision for Optional External Power
from 3K to 128K. One Year Limited Warranty
SELECTA-RAM's powerful expansion capabilities
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Select. Soft Select allows your V!C 20 to perform Distributed in Ciruda bv
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other memory expansion devices, ie,, disk drive PAX SOFTWARE
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Vic 20 ii a Trade Mark of Commodore Electronics Limited PO Box 43006, Austin, TX.. 78745-0001, (512) 282-B222

Printing Tables
Pat Slater

If you've discovered a clever, time-saving technique, or a 6 J=4 :rem 241

brief but effective programming shortcut, fend it to "Hints & 8 OPEN4,J :rem 20
Tips," do COMPUTED GAZETTE. If we use it, we'll pay 10 FOR 1=1 TO 5 :rem 215
20 READ A$,BS: IFI$="S"THEN35 :rem 22
i/eii $35.
30 PRINT#4,A$; TAB(10-LEN{A$));B$:GOTO40
:rem 214

One of the limitations of Commodore BASIC is 35 PRINT#4,A$; SPC{10-LEN(A$)};B$ :rem 19

40 NEXT I :rem 236
the total lack of formatted PRINT statements. If SORENSON, MATTHEWS, NG, JO
you're used to PRINT with format or PRINT NES :rem 186
USING, it may seem impossible to print neatly 60 DATA BURL, YATES, RUVALDS, KING, REDLA
aligned tables with Commodore BASIC. SIK :rem 132

The language does provide TAB and SPC When executed, the program prints:
functions for screen displays, but both simply WATTS SORENSON
space over when used to print to a printer or a file MATTHEWS NC
with PRINT#. The programs I've included will JONES BURL
format for screen or printer, depending on your YATES RUVALDS
input. They're especially helpful for use with for
matting printed output Let's look at an example: If you use this method to align numbers (along
with STRS to convert the numbers to strings),
several problems pop up as shown in the next
prints 15$ starting in column 20 regardless of the example:
size of AS, but
PR[NT#4,A$;TAB<20);B$ PUTI$ rem 151
4 IF I?O"P"ANDI$<>"S"THEN 3 rem 241
prints A$, skips 20 spaces from the end of AS, 5 IF I$="S"THENK=3:GOTO8 rem 154
then prints B$- There's no telling where BS will 6 K=4 rem 242
end up unless you know the size of AS. This being 8 OPEN4.K :rem 21

the case, you must find a way to count spaces 10 FOR N=l TO 5 rem 220
20 READ I,J:IFI$="S"THEH35 rem 222
when doing formatted printout.
One way to count spaces is to use the LEN rem 199
function. For example, the statement below will 35 PRINTS4 I;SPC(8-LEN(STR$(l))}; :rem 4
place AS in column 1, BS in column 15, and CS in 40 NEXT N rem 241
50 DATA 78 66, 40.00, 139.30, -77 22, 200
column 30:
0.00 rem 213
I'RINT#4,A$;TAH(14 - LEN(AS));B$;TAIi(14 - LEN 60 DATA -142.91, 6.56, 12.50, 521.12, 9.9
(B$));CS 9 : rem 83

The following program uses the LEN function This program prints:
to align rows of names: 40

PUT IS :rem 151 2000 -142.91

4 IF I$<>"S"AND I$o"P"THEN3 : rem 241 6.56 12.5

5 IFI$="S"THENJ=3:GOTO8 :rem 153 521.12

126 COMPUTE!'s Go/e'le Morchl984

Notice that the numbers are aligned on the
left (at the sign position) rather than by decimal
point, and that trailing zeros are lost after the Which
decimai point. To make the individual numbers
appear in the correct format (40 as 40.00, for ex
Software Is
Worth The
ample) you can convert them to strings as follows:
I$ = STRS<INT[])) + "." +IUGHTS(5TRS(I'100),2)

The first term gets the integer part of the number,

next the decimal is added, and finally it is neces
sary to multiply by 100 and grab the last two digits Find out in:
to keep from losing trailing zeros.
Once you have the number in correct format, The SOFTWARE
use the LEN function to count spaces and tab
before printing each number as shown in the ex
ample below: The newsletter that gives you
3 PRINT"{CLR}SCREEN OR PRINTER S OR P":IN the real story behind the software hype.
PUT U? :rem 163
• No advertising means hones!, unbiased evaluations
4 IF US<>"S"ANDUS<:>"P"THEN3 :rem 9
5 IF U$="S"THENK=3:GOTO8 :rem 166 • Topnoich reviewers offer opinions you c^n trust
6 K=4 :rem 242 • Get in-depth reviews of software for:
8 OPEN4,K :rem 21
Gsmes and Eniertalnmem • Graphics ana Music • Hume
10 FOR N=l TO 5 :rem 220 Applications • Eduction ■ Business • Prog r.i mm ing Aids
20 READ I,J jrem 61 'Telecommunications "Andmorei
22 I$=STR${lNT(l))+"."+RIGHTS(STR?(I*100)
,2) :rem 140
,2) :rem 145 64/VIC 20 EDITION
30 PRINT#4,""TAa(8-LEN{I?));1$;TAB(17-LEN Devoted only to software for Commodore's home compute's.
(J$));J$ :rem 200
40 NEXT N :rem 241
50 DATA 78.66, 40.00, 139.30, -77.22, 200 AVAILABLE ON NEWSSTANDS
0.00 rretn 213
Published ten times ayear. 3j«e«i( charter r«t<t
60 DATA -142.91, 6.56, 12.50, 521.12, 9.9
9 :rem 83 Subscription rate $35.00 a year U.S f^XT
Now you get the printed numbers aligned by
decimal position:

78.66 40.00
Start Getting The
Most Out Of Your
139.30 -78.22
2000.00 -143.91
Software Dollar!
521,12 9.99

Using LEN to count spaces this way allows FILL OUT AND MAIL TODAY OR CAR
you to print neat-looking tables of words and/or 800-336-3535 TO ORDER |ln Penna. 215-691-1912)
numbers. Though a lot of functions are involved,
it doesn't take nearly as much time as the printout
VEIJ ve enclosed niy check of money
process, so it won't slow down your program. (Of
Older for S29 95
[P. y. iDle i" Ti1'.1 Su'tw. ire Buyer'
YOU HAVE BEEN GIVEN $25,000 □ Send me more inloimanon ughi ti

Phone larea code)

Do you hn.B anough BUSINESS SAVVT foi
■Buy luppNoi 'Buy uquipmsni 'Wanpoo ifwenionei V City Stale
Ara you AOGRISSIVI ...<i.ugh (oi Computer Model: [ | VIC 20 □ Commodore 6^
'HJr*. hie ajid rfi*(i[llI*1 u (>e'*un"el 'Adworfilfl vttithvsiy f
Am you CUhNlhO *nougK io hendlvi
'O^o A ir^luroo^ft SgcutiTv prcblcm^ cluc^unFinQ ntor^Gt pri^^i '
If so you lutl may be SHARP enough la stay fa bufnttt
ond bteome a gordwn ihovel TYCOOM'' The SOFTWARE BUYER'S REPORT
Tap. (17.91 DIlC ))•.<> Bethlehem, PA 18018
TURBO SOFTWARE P.O. Box 11711 Rock HIM, S.C.
cg m

Apple recently reduced the price of its Lisa to down trackballs). Using the mouse is supposed to
around $8000. Lisa, whose acronym supposedly be more natural than pressing cursor control keys.
Stands for Local Integrated Software Architecture, Many people complain that the mouse is a gim
was actually just the in-house code name for the mick, taking up extra desk space and requiring
machine (insiders claim it was named after a you to take your hands away from the keyboard
girlfriend of Steve Wozniak, Apple co-founder). to move the cursor.
The name of the machine was leaked so exten Both hardware and software companies were
sively that Apple was forced to market with the impressed by and envious of the Lisa. Lisa was
code name, hence the apocryphal acronym. really a new product, an innovation in an industry
Lisa is a dedicated workstation with a mouse, of "me, too" computers and software. Well, the
ultra-high resolution graphics, and icons (pictorial copycats didn't waste any time. Companies began
diagrams). "Dedicated workstation" means that developing their own integrated software, com
there is one user per computer, rather than many- plete with icons, windows, and even mouses.
users sharing a large computer via separate termi The effort is Promethean, as companies try to
nals. The advantage of a dedicated workstation is bring the S8000 capability of the Lisa to your S2000
its exclusivity, privacy, and speed of access. The micro (of course, they charge you only $81)0 to
entire power of the computer can he dedicated to $1000 for the software).
one user, rather than spread out among many.
This is the primary concept behind so-called per
sonal computers.
The disadvantage of dedicated systems sur
faces in environments where people need to share
and exchange information. That is why Local
Area Networks (LANs) are hooking up these small
computers, usually to a central hard disk. A LAN
doesn't violate the concept of personal computers;
it just broadens (heir communication capabilities.
Some companies are going too far, though, and
we are seeing expensive business microcomputers
which are mediocre mimics of the large, powerful,
but impersonal minicomputers and mainframes.
Apple claims you can start using Lisa within
20 minutes, without any instruction manuals. If
you remember your first experience with a com
puter, you may be inclined to doubt this. Yet Preparing to type with Magic Desk I,
there's something new here. Apple has drawn on
the experience of research al Xerox's Palo Alto
Research Center (PARC). The Lisa is an intuitively Commodore's Reaction:
understandable system. Magic Desk I
Most of this "user-friendliness" (to use a Commodore also caught icon-fever. At the January
term that has become banal in (he industry) comes 1983 Consumer Electronics Show (CES), they
from Lisa's linked menus. The menus lead you introduced Magic Desk I, a software package for
from one option to another and are primarily pic (he f>4 which was not available until around
torial, drawing on the Lisa's very high resolution November. The price is down-to-earth, with a
capability (pun somewhat intended). suggested retail of S60-S70. What Commodore
A highly visible characteristic of the Lisa is and others (Microsoft [Windows], VisiCorp [Visi
the mouse, used to make selections as you move On], Quarterdesk Software [DesQ])seem to forget
the cursor about. The idea is the same as a joystick is that Apple spent the equivalent of a hundred
or trackball (some mouses are merely upside- man-years developing Lisa. Some integrated pro-
128 COMPUTE!'-: Gaelic March 1981
' ":<
unlocks me door to rhe Commodore 64


Word Processing
Rle Monogemenr
Home Rnance
Electronic Paintbrush
Terresrrial Gome

The Gateway to Five Worlds 129.95

Internorional Tri Miao

1010N. BoroviaSre. G
Orange, CA 92667
grams may be capable, others might just copy trieve a page from it. Any of these operations will
Lisa's gimmicks. cause a picture of the disk drive to appear, and
Magic Desk may be right for some people, the actual drive will whir and click a surprisingly
but it's not for everyone. When you plug in the long time, considering that you are only trying to
Magic Desk cartridge and turn it on, a picture of a file one page. I found this quite frustrating.
desk appears. On top of the desk are several icons: This is also where Magic Desk gets confusing.
pictures of a typewriter, telephone, calculator, None of the icons arc labeled, so it's like reading
card file, and ledger. Under the desk is a waste- those pictorial traffic signs in a foreign country. If
basket, and to the right is a filing cabinet. A digital you get stuck, you can press the Commodore
clock on top of the filing cabinet keeps time. A logo key and a heip screen will appear. The icons
door to the left "opens" the way to new appli you are using will be named; you can select any
cations. Above this scene hovers a ghostly hand, of (hem with the hand to get a more complete
your cursor. description.
I found Magic Desk novel and rather easy to
use, though the pictures are both a blessing and a
curse (I would prefer an English menu of choices).
What you gain in ease of use and intuitive opera
tion, yuu lose in power, speed, and efficiency.
Compared with the "old way" of doing things,
Magic Desk is limited once you're no longer a
the hand at the typewriter and the sere
video typewriter. Indeed, it works j beginner. It slows you down as you pursue a task
tronic typevriter, conplete with speci
type., the screen strolls horizont through a chain of menus. The video typewriter
r.n has almost none of the advantages of a true word
processor. It's just like an IBM Selectric. You don't
have to learn anything, but you don't have a
tenth of the flexibility and power of even a mild-
mannered word processor. Apparently, this is
not a problem in Commodore's eyes. Indeed, the
press release sells this similarity, emphasizing
a typewriter is not a word processor, and implies
Creating text in the typewriter mode. you're better off that way.
Nonetheless, Magic Desk can be an excellent
With the joystick, you move the hand to the ntminlimidating way to learn to use a computer.
appropriate picture and press the fire button to Magic Desk may change the mind of anyone who
select it. Magic Desk I supports only a few of the "hates computers." It lets you perform basic com
icons: the typewriter, wastebasket, filing cabinet, puter tasks with a minimum of fuss, and can lead
and digital clock. Magic Desk II will support the you into more powerful applications later. Despite
ledger (spreadsheet) and the calculator. Presum its limitations. Magic Desk points the way to the
ably, the phone will be used with a modem, and future of home computer software.
the card-file as a simple data base manager. Mngic Desk 1
Point the hand at the typewriter and the Commodore Business Machines
screen transforms into a video typewriter. Indeed, 1200 Wilson Drive
it works just like a modern electronic typewriter, West Chester, PA 19380 S60-S70 Q
complete with special effects. As you type, the
screen scrolls horizontally. The margins are always
visible, and you can change them at any time.
With the function keys you can set, clear, and
move to tab stops. When you press RETURN, the
Commodore 64.
paper pops up a line and the typeball whirs to the Make lax lime easy with last, accu TAX DEDUCTIBLE
beginning of the next line, complete with sound rate Sgenerous software. Designed
lor professionals to compute lowest
effects. This is perhaps a bit too cute. rate from tai tables, X, V, Z 8 5-year
After you type your letter, you can return to avg, Spreadsheet design prims
»pD9.y u i
results for Epson & other serial bus
the desk and file the letter. With the hand, you pUM yilNlCli- IDA JUIIIJ3 "Ib'UUGU.

can open one of the three file cabinets. Each Visa £ MasterCharge accepted.
cabinet holds ten file folders, each of which can

Computer Software
hold ten pages of text. What you are really doing & Consulting
is loading and saving your files to disk, but this is 7510 Fbi ridge Way
Anchorage, Alaska 99502
supposedly transparent. You just select a folder, (907) 349-74B5
name it if you like, put your typing into it, or re
130 COMPUTE!'s Gazette March 1984
Commodore 64
American Peripherals


(disk or tape) (disk or tape)

1030 LANGUAGE TRANSLATOR 6^14 Type Tutor S19. 95

English ta German. S'O 645 Assembly Language
584 PIANO-64 S19.95 Tutor $14.95
Change your 61 to a piano. 687 Fractional Parts $14.95
126 TRAFFIC SIGNALS S1S.9S 902 Estimating Fractions 514.95
Teach your child safely. 695 Tutor Math 514.9S
1310 POCO S21.95 (70 Square Root Trainer $14.95
Like Q-Bert. 699 Counting Shapes 514.95

596 TELLING TIME 521. 95 694 Money Addition $14.95
Hi res Round clock. 689 Math Dice 14.95
1219 TVPESETTER 519.50 67a Speed Read $14.95

with a difference! Hl-res printing on 1525.

1276 ELIZA 519.35
Haps and Capitals S19.95
Sprite Editor $19.95
Has conversation with you. 901 Sound Synthesizer
Unexcelled communications power and 1016 ELECTRONIC CRADEBOOK Tutor 19.95
compatibility, especially for professionals and Teacher special 521.95 696 Diagramming
574 LOCATION OF COUNTRIES Sentences $14.95
serious computer users. Look us over; SuperTerm Geography $11.95 690 More/Less S14.95
isn't just "another" terminal program. Like our 575 CANCER SIS. 95 68S Batting Averages S11.95
Kids and smoking. B02 TIcTac Math S16.95
famous Terminal-40, it's the one others will be 76! ELEMENTARY ELECTRICITY 901 Balancing Equations 514.95
Judged by. 51h-9th gr. 5211.95 90S Missing Letter 514,95
1264 TRAVEL ABOUT AMERICA 364 Gradebook 515.00
• EMULATION—Most popular terminal protocols: Series or" 7 programs on B10 French 1-1 S8O.Q0
Geog, and History $150. 611 Spanish 1 1 580.00
cursor addressing, clear, riome, etc. 576 SOUND EFFECTS $15.95 807 English Invaders 51G.95
• EDITING — Full-screen editing of Receive Buffer Demo and prog. aid. fl09 Munchword $16.95
139 STRATKCLYDE BASIC Si2 Puss In Boot Slo.oo
12 lenoni t lest. 531.95 SI] Word Factory $20.00
ACK-NAK. CompuServe, etc. 10T4 GEOMETRY SERIES 660 Hang-Spell 514,95
• FLEXIBFLITY-Select baud, duplex, parity, stopbits, 20 progs, with hi-res 905 Division Drill 14.95
Disk $300 Tape $100 906 Multipllc. Drill $14.95
etc. Even work off-line, then upload ro system! 128 TEST MAKER S21.95 907 Addition Drill 514,95
■ DISPLAY MODES-40 column; 80/132 with Makes multi-choice tests. 9QB Subtraction Drill $14.95
side-scrolling 101B LARGE NUMBER ADDITION 910 Simon Says 14.95
Great display 521.95 911 Adding Fractions 514.95
■ FUNCTION KEYS-8 standard. 52 user-defined 1175 VIC 20 EMULATOR 53U.95 912 Punctuation 514. 95
■ BUFFERS—Receive. Transmit. Program, and Screen Run most VICs on 64.
• PRINTING — Continuous printing wilh Smart ASCII
Machine code. 529.95 EDUCATIONAL
interface and parallel printer, buffered printing 1017 MORTGAGE 519.95
otherwise Docs all loan calculations. Series on disk
■ DISK SUPPORT-Directory. Copy. Rename, Scratch 6yr.-10yr. 414.9S Computer Science |30 pr.J 5350
im MAESTRO $34.95 MS Biology (70 programs) $500

Options are selected by menus and EXEC file. Software All conceivable music and HS Chemistry (40 programs) $150
sound functions in 1 program. HS Physics (60 programs) $475
on disk with special cartridge module. Compatible with 12B0 WATTS and AMPS 514,95 HS SAT Drill 160 programs! 599
CBM and HES Automodems; select ORIG/ANS mode, Household eJec. gales. Elem. Social Studies (IS pr,) 5325
5B0 MATCHING SHAPES Elem, Science {IB programs) 522S
manual or autodial. Further French (12 pr.) $95
I.Q. Builder 514.95
Further Spanish (12 pr.) $95
Write for the full story on SuperTerm; or. If you Statistics (12 programs) $95
already want that difference, order todayl
Requires Commodore 64 or VIC-20. disk drive or Darasetie, ana To; American Peripherals
compatible modem VIC version requires !6K memory expansion Please 122 Bangor Streel 516 226-SB49
specify VIC of 64 when ordering Lindenhurst. NY 11T57

Ship toj Name


Smart ASCII Plus .. . $599-5

Town. State, ZIP

Please send your complete 64K catalog. Over 600 programs.

The only Interface which supports, streaming —sending
characters simultaneously 10 the screen and printer - with
Isfivcify disk or Tape)

Also great for use with your own programs or most

application programs, i.e.. word processors. Print modes:
CBM Graphics |w/many dot-addr printers), TRANSLATE,

Complete with printer caDle and manual On disk or cassette.

VIC JO am) Commooora M »™ trademarks of Commodore Elsctronkcs. Lid.

Charge to my credit card NV State Residents 7.251 tan $
Sand lor a Iree brochure. VISA MASTER CARD COD add 52.00 5

(816) 333-7200 MAIL ORDER: am ;■-:■: snipping

E*p. date
t .....,.., foreign orders add $2.00 $......,..
Shippinq 5..1.75...
handl Ing H350 tor C.O.D.); VtSArtJastBrcarcl Total Amount 5
MIDWEST accepted (card! and uxp. Dale! MO >B5*Jents Signature

add 5.625% salsa tax. Foreign onlers payable
USJ, U.S. Bank ONLY, ado S5 shuflmdiB. Commodore 61 is a trademark of Commodore Business Machines. Inc.

311 WEST 72nd ST. • KANSAS CITY • MO - 64114

COMPUTED Gazelle March 1984 131

COMPUTED PC & PCjr Magazine

Each month, COMPUTED GAZETTE will tackle some the prospect, but eventually Commodore quietly
questions commonly naked In/ new VIC-20/Commodore shelved the idea—probably because it was too
64 users ami by people shopping for their first home hard to accomplish at an affordable price.
computer. In the meantime, the Commodore 64 was
introduced. Unfortunately, some people jumped
to the conclusion that this was the "chameleon
computer" Commodore had hinted about. Within
a few months, independent companies began
I've heard about emulators available for
announcing and even advertising Apple emu
the Commodore 64 that allow it to run all Apple
lators for the 64. The idea of an Apple emulator
software and software for other computers, too.
was very attractive to new 64 owners because
I've seen some magazine advertisements by mail
almost no soft ware was available for the computer.
order companies for emulators. Do you plan to
But there are formidable obstacles to making an
review any of these emulators?
Apple emulator for the 64.
It's true that the computers are superficially
£%m We haven't reviewed any emulators be similar—both .ire 40-column color computers with
cause, at this writing, they simply don't exist. 64K. Random Access Memory (RAM), Microsoft
Furthermore, we urge readers to be cautious about BASIC, and compatible microprocessor chips {the
emulators—a lot of misinformation is circulating. 6502/6510). But the memory maps are quite differ
We, too, have heard all the stories about ent, and the Apple lacks many of the 64's special
Apple emulators for the Commodore 64, and have features (sprites, 16-color high-resolution
seen the ads in magazines. Usually we telephone graphics, polyphonic synthesized sound, etc.).
the company advertising the emulator and try to This is important because much commercial soft
obtain one for testing and review purposes. Al ware these days is written entirely in machine
most always the response is something like, language, including almost all games. ML pro
"They'll be ready for delivery within a few weeks." grams are specific to the memory configuration of
Then several months go by, and still no emulator. the machine on which they were written. Even
Some companies have been promising to deliver seemingly slight changes to the native computer's
emulators for more than a year. We have yet to operating system or memory layout (such as add
see one. ing expanders to a V1C-20) can render some ML
Heed this advice: Do not order or buy an emulator programs unusable. The problems of emulating a
unless you first see an actual, working model. Other totally foreign computer are infinitely greater.
wise, you will probably be disappointed. Even if an Apple emulator were developed,
Why are we so emphatic? Because true emu there would be one more problem. Almost all
lation of another computer is not something that Apple software is published on floppy disks. The
is easily accomplished. There are hundreds of Commodore Disk Operating System (DOS) is in
problems to be overcome, especially when de compatible with the Apple DOS. And the data is
signing something like an Apple emulator for the stored in different formats. An Apple emulator
Commodore 64. Yet, some companies persist in would do you no good unless you also had an
promising—and even advertising—Apple Apple disk drive emulator. This would almost
emulators. certainly require that you buy a separate disk drive
Nearly all these emulator rumors can be indi and compatible interface cables.
rectly traced to a statement made by Commodore In the meantime, let the buyer beware. We
back in early L982, At that time, Commodore heard of one person who paid more than $100 for
hinted that it intended to introduce a personal an "Apple emulator" for his 64 and got nothing
computer that could emulate other popular com more than a cable which allowed BASIC programs
puters on the market, such as the Apple and Atari, to be transferred between the computers. The
A widely read article to this effect was published task of translating the programs so they would
in the Wall Street journal. Everyone was excited by run on the 64 was left up to him, of course. <Bf
132 COMPUTE!'* GoWlo March 19B<i

MANAGEMENT SYSTEM 64 — This integrated business program gives you the computer power once
reserved for large corporations. It stores the names of items, prices, item numbers and does all calcula
tions including tax, shipping costs and discounts. It prints invoices and packing slips in addition to short-
term and long-term reports. Management System 64 even prints mailing labels from customer files. Know
what's selling, whose buying and forget costly, time consuming inventory close downs. S69.95
FINANCE CALC 64 — The leader in business and home financial analysis. You can have up to 1440
itemized expenses and print 1085 different financial reports and bar graphs as it stores and compares up
to 12 different budgets at once. This powerful program is a must for the rising entrepreneur. $49.95

DATA BASE 64 — A perfect record system for any business or home. It can store up to 1200 records for
each file, Each record has a capability of 20 fields of information. The program has multi-level sorting which
facilitates quick and easy recalling of information and printing of labels and reports. It even allows you
to create personal print formats. Data Base 64 also can be used with popular word processing programs


FAMILY PAC — Three of the finest home programs available: $59.95

• CHECKBOOK SYSTEM 64— This easy to use program makes the balancing of confusing checkbook finances
a breeze. It handles over 1300 transactions of up to 40 expense categories. Checkbook System 64 also prints
statements, reports and all types of checks. Pay your bills by computer! Also available as a separate program

• RECIPE KEEPER 64 — This program is a handy kitchen aid that does more that "just file. It can print
out ingredients and directions, as well as calculate ingredient amounts for different serving sizes. The
program comes complete with a mini-word processing section that enables you to type in up to 14 lines
of directions. $39.95

• SPACE MATH 64 — This educational program makes addition, substraction, multiplication and division
learning fun and entertaining for youngsters. Solve math problems, explore the universe, dance to the music
and watch the show. $29.95


STUDIO 64 — Roll over Beethoven, now anyone can create music as expressive and sophisticated as the
most advanced programmers!! With Studio 64, the computer does all the work while you play and enjoy.
It is the only music program available that allows you to create music without any programming knowledge.
Just play and the computer will instantly write the music on the screen. Enter up to 3 voices and choose
from 4 wave forms on any voice. Play your compositions at different speeds and filter settings with syn
thesized drum rhythms! It wili save and recall, add music to your own programs and print lead sheets.
Music is only as far away as your C64. Disk/Cass.$39.95

GAME DESIGNER 64 — This package contains everything you need to design colorful game characters,
backgrounds and entire screens. Animate up to 16 sprites on the background of your choice. Add it to
your own program. The limits are your own creativity. Combine it with Studio 6d to create any game
imaginable. Power game sub-routine included. Disk/Cass. $39.95

— Alt programs come in disk unless otherwise indicated


Sunland Boulevard • Sun Valley. California S135S • Phone [£13j 760-6646
A Guide To
Commodore User Groups
Part 1
Kathy Yakol, Editorial Assistant to be changed or deleted, please contact us so
that we may keep our records current.
In most cases, contact people have chosen to
Here is an updated list of Commodore user groups list their home addresses and telephone numbers.
throughout (ho world. If you have a group that When writing to them for information, please
you would like listed here, or if your listing needs enclose a self-addressed, stamped envelope.

ALABAMA Commodore User Group of DUG (Danville User Group)

Arizona Kenl E. Djvis
Birmingham Commodore DtlUg I't'tlTS 185 Front St., Suite 106
Computer Club P.O. Box 21291 Danville, CA 94326
Harrv Jones Phoenix, AZ 85036 415'820-1222
4S45Avi\ B, Lot 7IJ 602/831-1534
Birmingham, Al. 35208 Napa Valley Commodore
205 923-9260 Computer Club
Hunlsville \ .: knna Commodore PQ BtW 2935
Komputer Society (HACKS) Australian Computer Education
Yountville, CA 94599
Hal Carev 707/944-2797
91102 BercLiirRd. I!O. Box 194
Huntsvflle, AL35B02 Corinda 4075, Old Australia PALS
205/883-0223 Jo Johnson
Shoals Commodore Usei Group Uvermore, CA 'J4550
Warren! B & S 64-PET User Group
S09 VV <ith St. Bryan GoIdschUe Peninsula Commodore User
Sheffield, AL 35660 46H.inbridgePI. Group
205381-1561 I'fcawint Hill. CA 94523 Timothy Averv
415/938-0764 549OidCountvRd.
Walker Area Computer Cub
San Carlos, CA 94070
(WACO California Area Commodore 415 ■■ 591-7697
11.' ^'7J 1 *J'1
Daniel McGuIre Terminal User Society
H9 MtCrory Si. (CACTUS! PET-On-The-Alr
Cordova, AL 35550 DarrHl L. 1 i.ill Max J. !!iihin
205/483-7833 P.O. Box 1277 525 Crestlake Dr.
Alia Loma,CA 91701 Francisco, CA 94132
ALASKA 714/947-0742
Sacramento Commodore
Central Coasl Commodore User Computer Club
Paul Mt'TCtT Group Robvn \\. Graves
PO Box 118 Gilbert Vela 812IS Sundance Dr.
4237 Plumeria Ct. Orangevale, CA 95662
Old HatbonAK 99643
907'286-2253 Santa Maria, CA 93455
805.937-1174 San Femaililo Valley Commodore
User Group (SFVCUC)
ARIZONA C-64 Users t & R Thomas Lynch
215 W. 1st SI., Suite 10548 21208 Nashville
Arizona VIC and 6-1 Users TUstin,CA9268G ChatHworth, CA 91311
Tom Monson 213/7094736
904 VV. Marlboro Cir. Commodore 64 West
Chandler, AZ S5324 Dun Campbell San Francisco Commodore Users
602/963-6149 2917 Colorado Ave. Group
Santa Monica, CA 9(U(V[ Roger Tieice
Catalina Commoiiurv Computer 213.'H2S-93(>K 275-27lhAve. #103
Club Ban Frandsco, CA 94m
GeoreeA. Etope Ilialilo Valley Commodore User 415 3H7-0225
21112 Avo. Gufllermn Group
Tucson. AZ85710 lien Braver San Luis Obispo VIC-IO/64
762 Ruth Dr. Computer Club
Commodore User Group Pleasant Hill, CA 94523 1766 9th St.
Michael Stephany 415'671-(1145 Los Osos, CA '13-102
4578 Monarch Dr. 805/528-3371
Sierra Vista, AZ 85635

134 COMPUTE'1* Gomllc March 1984

So. Cal. 20.6-1 Users Croup Samia Commodore-64 User Central Florida Commodore User
S In r Route Hi ix 1-C Group Group

Pine Vallev, CA <I2(K2 Susan Tlmar F,.irl Preston

619/473-B0H7 1122 Wilson Dr. 6321 Ridgeberry Dr.
Samia, Ontario, Oriando, FL 32811
Soulh Bay Commodore 61 Users Canada N7S 3J6
Group 519.342-2534 Commodore Computer Club
Q.J. Miguel GallegD Garcia Chuck Fi'chko
I?O. Box 3193 Toronto PET Users Group RQ Box 21138
San Ysidra, CA 95(173 1912A Avenue Rd., Suite 1 St. Petersburg, FL 33742
Toronto, Ontario, 813*391-5219
South Orange County User Group Canada M5M 4A1 BBS 5-10 p.m. 7 days a week
Steve Wimer 416/782-9252
2314 Monte Cristo BBS 416023-2625 (7:30 p.m.-9:00 Commodore Computer Club
San ClementB, CA 92672 a.m. Eastern Time) David Phillips
PO. BOX 9726
SI'HINX Utilisatcurs De Commodore Jacksonville, FL 32208
Richard L. I lelnze (Commodore User Group) {JO4/764-M57
1240 Mills St. Apt. 4 PO. Box 685 SIX. H
Menlo Park, CA 94025 Montrea], Quebec, Commodore Users Group of
415/325-0127 Canada 113G 2MG Tallahassee
Daw Lang
Twenty/S i xiy- Four 2301 DebdenCt,
Vancouver Commodore User
Dim Cracrafl Group Tallahassee, HL 32308
BO Box 18473 Chris Brown 904*893^749
San Jose, CA 95158 Canada
408/264-2064 El Shift O(VIC2064Commodore
Valley Computer Club Mikt.1 Schnoke
Dr. Evan M. Thompson CONNECTICUT RO. Box 548
b6i Meadowlark Dr. Cocoa, FL 32922
Turlock, CA 95380 Commodore Usere
ChrisitiiphiT D. RobtrN Gainesville Commodore User
VIC-20 Owners Resource Group
BQ Box 1213
Computer Enthusiasts Louis Wallace
Stratiord, CT06497
(V.O.R.C.E.) PO. Box 14716
Stu Gainesville, FL 32MH
1740 Bodega Ave. Computer Users Group
Petaluma, CA 94952 Li;; Kafaloivskv Gulf Coast Computer Club
707;763-H552 Halls Hill Rd.' |im Johnson
Colchester, CT 06413 131 Fox Kim
20J537-2117 Port Rlchey, FL 3356H
CANADA 813(863-7954
New London Area Commodore
Barrie User Group Users Miami 64 User Group
Call Hunk Robert Kind Dr. Eydie Sloane
5H Steel St. P.O. Hox 1WJH P.O. Sox 561689
liiirrk', Onlariu Miami, FL 33256
Groton, CT06340
Canada L4M 2E9 20?.1HH7-023B 3OM74-35O3
Calgarv Commodore User Group VIC User Group OToe Users Group lor
John Hazard Carol Do vie Commodore 64 VIC 20 Users
37CflslleridgeDcN.E 1070 S. Culony Rd. Da\ Tacev
Calgary, Alberta, Wallingford, CT 06492 321 Alma St.
Canada T3JIP4 2O3.'2()9-7595 JGsslmmee, FL 32741
Calgary Commodore Computer VIC/64 f ieartland User Group
Club ENGLAND Tom Kcouuh
Kiidu O l.i n sun 1220 Bartow Rd. #23
47CoachwoodPi.N.W PET User Group Lakeland, FL 33801
Calgary Alberta, Barry Miles 813/666-2132
Canada T3111 El Polytechnic of North London-
Holloway Rd.
Commodore Computer Club GEORGIA
London, England \7 SDli
N'ii'Is Hanson Trip
PO. Bo\ 91164 C.C.S. User Groups
Wfest Vancouver, B.C., Chuck Morris
PO. Box 656
Canada V7V 3NG
604/738-3311 Bits and Hyles Computer Club Newman, GA 30264
Frank 11. Topping
Commodore 64 User Group Commodore User Group of
1859 Neptune Dr.
Carol 5chemm,in Augusta
Engknvood, FL 33533
David A. Dumas
1322 Naples St. SU'474-6359
Oshawa/Whltby, 1011 River Ridge Rd. Apt. 14-A
Ontario, Canada I.1K1J6 Brandon User Group Augusta, GA 30909
Paul Daughetty 40*738-7223
Nova Sculia Commodore 108 Analewood Dr.
Computer User Group Daia Swappers
Brandon, HL33511
John RoDinson Bilk' FeepteB
66 La riil rnii' Cres. L773H Aubama Aw.
Dartmouth, Nova Scotia Central Florida Commodore User Albany; GA 31705
Canada B2W2P9 Club 912/431-IK131
902434-1524 Stephen K. McManey
Liberty Commodore Users Group
P.O. Box 1594V
Jeannette Burger
Orlando, FL 32858
RO. Box 973
Hinesville. GA 31313

COMPUTES Gazelle March 1784 135

Middle Georgia Commodore User Regional Association of Western Indiana Commodore
Group Programmers [RAP W. 201 Users (W.I.C.U.)
Anthony "Jim" I lomfck Gene A. Meyers Dennis C. Graham
510 Purest Lake Drive 7358 W. 108th PI, 912 South Brown Are,
Warner Robins, GA 31093 Worth, IL 60482 Tferre Haute, IN 47803
9 12/922-7876 312/448-0485
VIC Educators User Group Southern Illinois Citmmudore
Dr. Al Evans User Club
Cherokee County Schools David H. Lawless
1 111 Academy Si.' Commodori; Computer User
171.171;. Main St. Group of Iowa
Canton, GA 30114 Olney IL62450 Curtis L, Shlf&r
The K.nnkakee H.ickers EQ Box 3140
HAWAII DesMoines, 1A 50316
30/64 Hawaii RR#l,Box279
T.A. Clav St. Amu-, IL6U964 COUGAR (COmmodore Users
98-487 r&auka Loop Apt. 804 815/9334407
Group Ames Region)
Alea, HI 96701 Perry I (arisen
V1C-20 Cominodore-64 User
Support Group 662 Pammel Ct.
2(!/64 Hawaii
David R. Tarvin, Sr Ames, IA 50010
Wes Good pastor 515096-2181
EQ Uox 966 114 S. Clark SL
Kailua, HI 96734 IL 62557 Quad City Commodore Computer
217/562-45ffl Club
Commodore User Group of John N, Yigas
I [onolulu Western Illinois I'ET User Group
1721 Grant St,
J.iv Calvin (WIPUG)
Edward L. Mills
BettendorUA 52722
1626 Wilder #701 319/355-2641
I ionolulu, HI 96H22 Rt, 5 Box 75
BOS 944-9380 Quincw IL62301 Siouxland Commodore Club
217656-3671 Garv John sun
2700 Sheridan St.
INDIANA Sioux City IA 51103
Commodore User Croup 712/25H-791I3
Leroy limes Commodore Computer Club
548 S. Center John Patrick
3814 Term Tracy
Pocalello, ID 83201
2118 233-4294 Evansvffle, IN 47711 Commodore User Group o!
812/477-0739 Wichita Inc.
S.K.H.S. Computer Club Walter Lounsberry
li.irney Foster Commodore Hardware User
Rt. I, Box 115
Salmon River High School Croup (C'H'U-G)
Viola, KS 67149
Tim Renshaw
RlgglnB. ID 83549 316/545-7460
9651 E. 21st St.
Indianapolis, IN 46229 Strictly VIC Users Group
ILLINOIS Lloyd D, I'ltdiford
ASSM/TED User Group PO' Box. «>
Commodore User Group/
liteiit Anderson Sedgwlck, KS 67135
The National Science Clubs of
200 S. Century America-Commodore Users
Rantoul, H,6f866 Division KENTUCKY
217/893-4577 Leplev
7704 T.ifl St. Bowling Green Commodore
It I oom i n £ton- N o rm a) Users Group
Merrillville, IN 4M10
Commodore User Group Alex Fltzpatrick
[BNCUG) Louisville Users of Commodore Rt. 11, Creekside Apt, #6
IX'bt.i A. Land re of KV (LUCKY) BowllnR Green, Kf42101
RQ Box 1058 Melanie A. Roesser 502/78 l-'MNH
Bloomineton, IL6I702 127 Locust St.
309M54-KI61 Jefferaonvilfc, IN 47130 The Commodore Connection
Jim Kemp
Commodore 64 User Croup Manchester User Group IMUGI 1010 S. Elm
Gus Pagnotta Richard M. Bellows Henderson, KY 42420
f?Q Box 572 60h L:, Ninth St. 502«27-8153
Glen Ellyn, 1L60137 N. Manchester, IN 46962
Northern Indiana Commodore LOUISIANA
lij* Valley PET User Croup Enthusiasts (NICE)
ArtDekneef Eric Bean Ark-La-Tex Commodore 64 Club
H33 Willow 927 S, 26th St. Pete Whalev
Lake in the Hills, 1L 60102 South Bend, IN 46615 198 India Dr.
312/658-7321 219/288-2101 Shreveporc, LA 71115
PAPUG Peoria Area PET Users' The CBM 64 Club
Group |im Co Iyer C-64 Club of Balon Rouge
Maxlayloi 4755 Klnser Pike Tommv Parsons
KOOSVV Jefferson St. Bloomlngton, IN 474(11 5551 Corporate Blvd. Suite 3L
Peoria, IL61605 812/332-6645 Baton Roure, LA 70HIIH
309/673-6635 504/766-7408
VIC Indy Club
PET VIC Club (E'VC) Fred Imhfluaen Commodore PET User Group
Paul Schmidt BQ oiix 11543 Wayne Lowery
40 S. Lincoln Indianapolis, IN 46201 616N. N'iagiira Circle
Mundelein, ILMXfcO 317/357-6906 Gretna, LA 70053
312/566-8685 504/821-8436

136 COMPUTEI's Gozetlc March 1984

Commodore User Group of Ovachila Woodlawn 20/64 Computer Club South Computer Club
Beckie Walker George Towner Ronald Rupperl
RO. Box 175 1712 Aberdeen Rd, South Junior High School
Swartz, LA 71281 Baltimore, MD 21234 45201 Own
318/343^044 301/608-7867 lielleville, MI4K111

Sixty Four'EM Southeast Michigan PRT User

Do nil is Dillenkoffcr MASSACHUSETTS Group (SEMPUG)
4:559 Cerise \'orm Eisenberg
Boston Commodore Users, c/o
New Orleans, LA 70127 32800 VY 12 Mile Rd.
The Boston Computer Society
504/244-0237 Karmington Hills, Ml 4S018
Three Center Plaza
The VIC/&4 Connection Boston, MA. 02108 University of Michigan VIC-20
Ronnie Rumwii 617/367-808(1 and C-64 User Group
RO. Box 1322 lohn |. Gannon
Commndore 64 User Group of the
Abbeville, LA 70311 School of Public I lealth-Unlv of
Berk shires
3I8<898-0635 Mich.
Hii Rurinski
Ann Arbor, Ml 4H11N
184 Highland Ave.
MAINE PittsfieYd, ma 01201 VIC 20 Mail Club
David Koski
So. Me.-64 Eastern Mass VIC-20 User Group
51074 Mott #11
Ed Moore Frank Ofdwav
Canton, MX 48188
lOWalkerSt. fiHaggRd,
Portland, Ml- 04102 Marlboro, MA 01752 VIC for Business
617/485-4677 Mike Marottii
VIC and Commodore Users of
6027 Orchard Ct.
Maine IVA.C.U.M.) MASSPET Commodore User
I'al Young Group
Lansing, MI 48910
RFD 1, Box 103 Day id Rogers
Ellsworth. ME 04605 BQ Box 307
East raunton, MA 02718 MINNESOTA
MARYLAND Minnesota Users of l'CT
Needham Area VIC-20 User (MUPET)
Capitol Area PBT Enthusiasts
Group (VICHAM) Ion 'I. Minerich
llene Hotfman-Sholar RO iiox 179
WflKflm Splllane
366HunneweIISt. Annandale, MN 55302
P.O. Box 1602
Rockville, MD 2OH5O
Needham, MA 021M 612/963-5056
Compu cats' Commodore
Computer Club SIGMA Association of Commodore User
Betty Scnueler Orvananos Enrique Groups (ACUG)
6S0WBelAIrAve. Holbein No. 174-6Col. Napoles Tony Ott
Aberdeen, MD 21001 03710, 10378 Coburg Lands
301/272-4195 Mexico, D.F St. Louis, MO 63137
or 272-0*72 563-03-05 314/867-0016
BBS 867-6950
Hagerslown User Group
(HUG XX) MICHIGAN Joplin Commodore Computer
Joseph Rutkowsld User Group
Commodore Computer Club
23Coventry Ln. R. D. Connely
Hageretown, MD 21740
John R. Wallev
422 S. Florida Aw.
4106 Eastman Rd.
300797-9728 JopUn, MO 64801
Midland, MI 48640
Long Lines Commodore Club 3177835-5130 Kansas City PET User Group
Ibm Davis (KCPUGI
Commodore Computer Club of
323 N. Charles St, Room 201 Kitk Wesl
Baltimore, MD 21201 Gerald W. Carter nQ Box 36492
301/547-251* Kansas City, MO Ml 11
734 Dunn a Dr.
Parklawn VIC-20 C-64 User Club Temperance, MI 46182
BBS 237-2502
Dr. S. R. Joshi 313 847-0426
6001 Roindexter Ln. Mid-Missouri Commodore User
DAB Computer Club
Kockville, MD20852 Club
Dennis Burlin^
3D1/443-4300 1H04 V.indiverDr.
RQ Box 542
Columbia, MO 65202
Rockvillc VIC/64 Users Group Watervllet, MI 49098
Thomas !.. Rounds 6167463-5457
HO. Box 8805 Northland Amateur Radio
DUC-Durand Users Club
Rockville, MD 20856 (V1C-20/64)
301/231-7823 Alan Boyer
John Davis
VIC and 64 User Group 6780 S. Byron Road
Uberty MO 64068
Tom Derifici Durand, Ml 48429
21000 Clarksburg Rd, 517/2HH-4566
Bovds.MD 20841 The Commodore User Group of
301/4280174 Jackson Commodore Computer St. Louis, Inc.
Club Dan Wekiman
Westinghouse Friendship Si!e Alfred I, Bruey I!O. Box 6653
Commodore Users Group 201 S. GrinneD St. St. Louis, MO 63125
Lee Biirron Jackson, Ml 49203 314^9684409
RO. Bux 1693
Baltimore, MD 21203
(do WesHnghouse Electric Corp.) m

COMPUTE!1* Go/one Match 1984 137

three subadventures, which
New Printer From VIC-20 Typing begin with the hijacking of a
Commodore Tutorial Drokon warship and advance to
a defense of the planet. The final
mission is a hunt-and-tracking
Commodore has released a new Mastertype, a typing tutorial from game.

printer, the MPS-801, which will Brt>derbund, is now available for Available only on diskettes,
replace the 1525. According to a the VIC-20 in a cartridge format. the program is available for
source ai Commodore, the MPS- The tutorial consists of 18 S39.95.
801 is slightly faster than the progressive lessons set within a Progressive Peripherals &■ Software
1525, features a cartridge ribbon, game format. You defend a 2186South Holly, Suih-2
paper advance knob and button, spaceship from a barrage of let Denver, CO 80222
(303) 759-5713
and supports full-size paper. ters or words by correctly typing
The printer also includes two them as rapidly as possible.
seriai ports to enable daisy chain Lessons may be saved on Music, Business,
ing, and the printing mechanism either disk or cartridge for future
has been relocated for a quieter use. Included are an illustrated Personal
sound. Price was not set at press instruction manual, hints for
time. winning the game, and direc
Programs For 64
tions for creating your own cus
Quick Reference tomized lessons to improve
M'Soft has developed several
typing and spelling.
Guides For The VIC-20 cartridge version
new programs for the Commo
dore 64 on disk,
VIC And 64 of Mastertyyw sells for S39.95.
Smart ($79.95) features five
BrSderbund Software, Inc.
different programs, all of which
17 Paul Drive
John Wiley & Sons has published load from one main menu: word
San Rafael, CA 94903
Quick Reference Guiiles for the (415)479-1170
processing, money manage
VIC, 64, and Timex 1000 com ment, amortization, record keep
puters, similar to the guides the ing, and time management.
Twin-Disk Wallstreet Microscope (S99.95)
company previously published
forthellJM PC, Apple II, and Adventure offers price and financial analysis
Atari 800. of common stocks, with each
The 6 x 12-inch four-panel Game For 64 stock rated against ten criteria. It
guides list and define such items is available with a ten-year his
as BASIC statements, system tory of Fortune 500 companies.
controls, memory statements, Cybcnvorhi, a two-disk, interac Muskwrih'r-64 ($69.95) is a
video and graphic controls, and tive keyboard/joystick adventure music-composing, editing, and
other topics. game for the Commodore 64, playing program that also prints
The guides are available for has been produced by Progres sheet music for compositions
$2.95 each. sive Peripherals & Software. created using the system.
The player's mission is multi- Double E Electronics
John Wilt'}/ & Sons, Inc.
605 Third Avenue layered, set on the planet Cyber, 12027 Pacific Street
NcwYork, NY 10158 and includes full use of the 64's Omaha, NE 68154
(212) 850-6000 sprite capabilities. There are (402) 334-7870
138 COMPUTE'^ Gomlle Morchl984
For VIC • »O / COM - 64

Legal Agreements* Skramble (T) (txdling)

10 75
Snakmm IT) [pat manl 10 75 12.75
For Your Pintail Wlmtd (T) 10 75 1275

T«nple ol Apilal (16K) (T) 27.EO 27 SO
Sword of Fargcal (16K) (T) 21.80

The Banner Machine '
For the Commodore iiA (3 enira fonts available!
Just answer the questions & your For the VIC-30 with 24K memory {2 extra fonts memory
flvflifaQlf) ■ Use on any Gemini or Esson MJ! with
computer & printer does the rest! Gra'trax or the FX and ftx pnrrters. Also Commo
Simple Will dore "595t ana Banana with (he C-64 ■ Menu-
driven program oneratei Tike a word processor ■
Agreement of Sale ■ Peal Eirata
Agreement of Sale - Goods
Makes *i<jns up To 13' lall by any length * Make*
Oordcrs of width* up (o H* • a iii« of letter*
L*m« ■ Rftiidantial from U" to 8" high • Proportion ii spacing Auto-
Leas* - Commfl.rciol madC centering. Right and left juittfymg • S499S
Power of Attorney Tape or Disk (Specify computer equipment*
Employment Contract For the Commodore 64: + 14 Day Money Back Guarantee
Promisiorv Note Home Finance Manager Keep detailed records of
Partnership Agreement taut deductions, bank payments, monthly charges, * Boosts VIC to 21K RAM
rndtHidual Hem erpentes. wl cnecks Store more
Compuiar Software Contract
man £00 Transactions per month S39.95
+ Top Quality, Fully Tested
Computer Hardware Contract
Pre-Nuptial Agreement
CTBl-64 Permiis lislin^ qf 06* programs on nan- + 90 Day Warranty
Commodore printers Lists control symbols m
Separation Agrsamtnt readable form lape or djsk £34 95
Construction Contract Microbrokcr Encmng, realistic and educational
Ganaral Raloew sTdcv market fimulation i34 95 Tapt or Disk on Credit Card Orders
For Informational purpoiet only Prcichool Efluciiionl Programt ABC Fund 153 Fun,
not intended ai a subttnuta for legal advisa. anO Ginger the Cat wjth AcToJbon and SuDUactionr

Guaranteed to work on your printer.

Number HuntH ontJ Letter HunT AU 5 programs
have bngrir. color, music, ana action Each Si4.95
Call: (303)245-9012
J S19,95 Each Program iCassette)
FarmnLaior A sCieniihc calculator for tasks which
rerjgire repetitive anThrr.etic compulations Save
10 AM ■ 9 PM MST Every Day
J S24.95 Each Program (Disk) formulas and numeric expressions. S33 95
Add $1.50 postage S. handling. Grade Organiier teachers-store grades for 6
65 Otner Buiinesi & Home Programi classes up to 40 student* each, 680 grades per
2692 Hwy 50 Suite 210
studeni Print in(enm and final reports class
also available
rotter*, and more1 Disk 539 Q£ Grand Junction, CO 81503
FREE CATALOG » Cardinal Software Ptrwmol clutks allow 3 wi><?ki
Shipping & liaiiiHirHi $2 50
LEGAL BYTE SOFTWARE Virginia Micro Syittrnsr 136*4 Jf " -—^ Colorado i '- nii add Sales Tan
Box 579, Gwynodd Valley, PA 19437
Davij Hwy, v/ooODrin^c, Va i??i9i CO COD add 12 00
ITii.n. (70])4t1-4Ht
(215)643-7666 (609} 424-5485 . Ask for our fr«e catalog

TOLL FREE 1-800-621-6131 FOR ORDERS
4251 W. Sahara Avc, Suite E Las Vegas, Nevada 891 26 CASSETTES
1541 Disk Drive 249 C. Itoh Prowriter $379 'C-05. C-06, C-10, C-12, C-20, C-Z4, C-32
1525 Printer 229 Nec. 8023A 429 im'i int ludirrg lupplln of Compulir CmaHn.

1702 Color Mont 259 Banana Printer 209 nrw longBr lenjjlli E-IZ'I ifc mfnuitt ptr mid*) orc.nir
lii; oii.-d law its: n«H>d It.- Mini 16K prDgiimi.
Hes Mon 29 Hayes 1 200 Modem 489 ^^i BASF-LHD |DP5} world vtnuttti Itp*.
^ ^ Pramlom 5 icr*n ■hall with hatter.
Paper Clip w/p ... 115
COMM. 64 DISK ■ffl " V* Error ftn ' Money back ryuaranlaa. .Mb
Calc Result ... 140 Call: 213(700-0330 : mm «»
Temple Of Apshai $33
Sysres-Utility . ..go
Upper Reaches Apshai 18 . MjUL TO .. "OHH IO (JhMixgflh. C» 91311
Renaissance 30 — — — — — — OROEFI fOHM - — — — _ _ _

Jump Man 33 1 iDOJ. 1 PW. TOTU

Vic-20 .... 90 zc; . '«
CiDDVilm'U 1
Zorkl 33
Datasette 64
Zorkll 33
1600 Modem 85 T«- ' e ", "jTT^ Eaefi ccune includes '
Zorklll 33 L U ■ I'M 2 llMII onrj BO'H 1
Word Processor 95 n w ." 00 sold SENriltty In Cent 1
Frogger 30 _ "■? ' I
U S shicmBiiByUPS •
1311 Joystick 8
Jawbreaker 24
■s C">
II Pjrcel Pusi preltifK). J
1312 Paddles 16

Ft. Apocalyse 30 500 c-irna- 1

12103kExpander 34 350 OrC-IOl J0K«|
Pharoh's Curse 30
Starter Pack D/C 5 22
Hi '."-■. - [Qi PI

/stopping si 7