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p-~-.-. -. -.-. -;l .

&Jz
Ex.

Long Appoggiaturn.

I.

~~-~===e===i ,,, =4~


Playecl.

~~ . , J. 1 ff J

Short Appoggiatura.

Short Appoggiatura, Modern


version. (See Acciaccatura... )

- ~

I'Iayeu.

ORNAMENTAO

jT3!~="i$~X ~I

Musical Ornaments Harry Alfred Harding


THE

LONG

APPOGGIATURA.

2.~The Long Appoggiatura is not often found in music cornposed sin ce the end of the eighteenth century. * It is indicated by a
note printed in small type (not counted in the time value of the bar)
placed before a Melody note (Principal note), from which (if divisible into
two parts) it takes half its value ; tnc accent is upon tlze Appoggiatura.
Ex.

2.

Sonata No. 7.)

(MOZART,

Ex. 3

(CZE.RNY, Op. 355.)

~~t-=Flli~~:w~~~
(! ft-J=;-9
tt~

MU SI CAL

Ex. 4.

RNAMENTS.

'

(J. S. Q.BACH,
Prelude
j'--- XVIII, Book 11.)

=1JJ_j
!, ~ '-~~~r ~
~- }:B=I::tE==:l-:==~I
-..~ ---l:'"l- ~
1H-~~C...~-+:.-~.~ =--______
-ti:::=c..
-i
i'_-.= --~~~F=.
'. ~--

-~~==5==-_
~~=~-
-- ! 1 1
1

-j~~~~---m~
Played.

=
- .,.,

qL

* Modern composers write the Long Appoggiatura with ordinary sized notes
embodied in the time of the bar.
'
3.-When

the Long Appoggiatura is placed before a dotted

it generally takes two thirds of its value :Ex. 5.

Ex. 6.

(J. S.

BACH,

note,

Prelude XV, Book II.)

~~~~=id~I
Plavc d.

4.-When the Long Appoggiatura is placed before a short dotted


note, it sometimes takes onc third uf its value :Ex. S.

,-.,

(J. S.

t~IP%

BACl-I,

Organ Pre lude and


Fugue in B minor.)

.t-t-11

5.-When the Long Appoggiatura is placed before a note tied to a


shorter one, it takes the whole vaiue of the first note, even if it be

p~
\-=:_~~~===11

Played.

--\----

THE
7.-I~

SHORT

APPOGGIATURA.

old music the Short Appoggiatura is sometimes indicated

by a hook, or two hooks, from above ,. ~. from below (, f ;,*(see

J.

S. Bach's Suites,)

'
.
:
:
_"'""~_,,_
j=t=r-;-= .
Ex.

13.

12.

;,,.= ~

Played.

:J=@:;:~ll
s

MUSICAL

RNA:\.fENTS.

very difficult to distinguish between thern;"


rernernber that in the works of J. S. Bach, the
more frequently intended than the Long. Bach
the Long Appoggiatura in the text with notes of

it may be helpful to
Short Appoggiatura is
generally incorporated
ordinary size.

8.-The Short Appoggiatura in modern rnusic is more easily


discernible, because it has a stroke across its stern and hook J', and it
is now called the Acciaccatura. In sorne compositions written at the
end of the eighteenth and the beginning of the nineteenth century,
the Appoggiatura
is written, whenis the
intended,
but
the Short Appoggiatura
oftenAcciaccatura
expressed is by
a smallandnote in
vice versa; the
the same
opinions
of theasvarious
authorsAppoggiatura,
differ as to when
precisely
manner
the Long
it is this
therefore
is the case, therefore, it is impossib'e to give any reliable rules on the
subject.
* In J. S. Bach's original MSS. the Short Appoggiatura is generally indicated
by these hooks.

THE ACCIACCATURA.
(Italian, Acciacare, to crush.)
9.- Thc Acciaccatura
is playedRNAMENTS.
rapidly on the beat of
MUSICAL
Principal note, whiclz retains its accent.

~~
! :. .
J:
Ex. 16
15.
Ex.

Ex. 17.

Papillons

the

-=~--

No. X 1.)

Op.
: '
'i )" )" )" (SCHCl\lANN,
)"
A"
!
r-~
*
t~---f~~==r-~~~
~
~-.:~~:~f!~-~:;Jf-~--==tI
-.--- -t1Fz---~__
.,
---------~-2
=i
-"-=- -=---- ----L.......
- --f~-==t=:-_-=:==c=---+===

(SCICUl'llANN,

22.)

i----is:_--~ ----. ~I
~
'W=
:~... __
E~:;=m~-==g=~~
$E11
-;-1,<)--m,---~~_!-~-_:--_!_:-=:!-~-~~~~==4
--- - - ____ 4
--H
J
....._____.,
i
-.+!'
-_

Played.

~3{

_ _.t__l-------p--=-'.:::
/\
r.--f--- ---::- --'='t-/\ - ---

/\

--

;~~

...i~

!:::=~ 1 r;
/\
J..,.
~~
:
---..-.--- - ,, .... _ ... ;

ti~'
Played.

_._.,~ --

,~.

---

;;::::

;;:::

----\

;::::

._!_

--

-~--~,---~==

---- -

/\

,.._
... ' ....
;;::::

-f'Cc:il
--~-1- -~..
'-..../1
------------------------------

~_
-

* Sometimes, however, the accornpnnying harmony will help the student to



arrive at a right conclusion, as to whether the Appoggiatura should be long or short,
for instance, in the following extract from J. S. Bach's Sarabande, Suite V., it will
10.-When
a sltake,
that the rule the
givenAcciaccatura
in paragraph 3, is
for placed
the Long befare
Appoggiatura,
is quiteit simply
be seen
inapplicable, the
because
the consecutive
fifths shake
which ensue
Trehle and Bass.
noteof upon
which the
is tobetween
commence.
indicares


~I

J I.

Played as a Long
Appoggiatura.

__
-;-1,<)--m,---~- -~-~~~--H

Played. from it,


~~* it :should,.._be played as
bar line separates the Acciaccatura
:~--... ~_
follows :-

-- 4 ---____

-f'Cc:il
--1- ~'-..../1

--~-

....._____.,

..

10.-When the Acciaccatura is placed befare a sltake, it simply


indicares the note upon which the shake is to commence.

13.-When the Acciaccatura is placed before the /oioes: note of an


Arpeggio chord, or of several Arpeggio notes (in small type), the time
of the Acciaccatura should be taken out of the preceding note."

r~-~ -- ~.~-~-==-=.==11
Ex. 19.

Ex. 25.

(CHOPIN,

No. I., Op. 37.)

11.-When the Acciaccatura is placed befare tlze lzigltest note of


an Arpeggio chord it should be played as follows :Ex.

20.

THE

DOUBLE

APPOGGIATURA.

( German Doppelvorschlag, A nscltlag.)


r 4.-The Double Appoggiatura consists of two notes in small type,
*
Acciaccatura
the Principal
upper G. note, before which they
the timeHere
of the
which
is takenbelongs
from tothe
are written; the distance of thefirrt of the two notes from the Principai
note is not restricted, but the second note must be only one degree
above, or below it.
MUSICAL
RNAMENTS.
I!

* See After Notes.
Ex. 26.


Ex. 27.

(J. S.

IlACH, Sarabanc e.)

' ~---:rt~.
~~--~*a----..-,,
------=i::--=

_4_c::::: __

-----------

Ex. 23

J--

Piayetl.

,..-----..._

=~

~s---1_1

-;-1'-~a--~~hi!!,.-.._

-----

fi :::A---~=r===t===c==
THE

UPPER

MORDENT.

15.-The Upper Mordent w (German, Pralltriller)~' consistsofthe


Principal note, the note of the scale above, and the Principal note
again, played as quickly as possible in the time of the Principal note.
The third note should be of longer duration than the preceding ones,
and should bear tlze accent. t
Ex. 30.

Ex. 29.

12

MUSICAL

Jcwf1_ ~
RNAMENTS.
Played.

Played.

/\

"

note, Mordent
upon which
the Upper
is placed
17. 16.-When
-When thetheU pper
is placed
beforeMordent
a chord,
it only
is
preceded
by
an
Appoggiatura,
the
Mordent
is
delayed.
The
affects the particular note before which it is placed.
Appoggiatura is sometimes indicated by a slur, also by the old
Ex. 34
Short Appoggiatura
sign ~.

1--,,
./ --------

f3F"~~
Ex. 31.

:~~
-

~1:-===5;;f3==
!JZ==fCIC~~~~1
1
r q,__: .-n13
$0
Ex. 32

Played.
MUSICAL
RNAMENTS.


----4--+-' ,J) ----
18.-The
Upper Mordent is sometimos l'layed.
indicated by the actual
Played.
notes printed in smallTHE
type, LOWER
(See AfterMORDENT.
l'-lotes, Ex. 140, paragraph 7 3.)
1

---

jTTJ?t ==
. fr" .. 1

~~=:~~:~j~I

Ex. 35 Lower Mordent 'o/ (German,


Played,Mordent) is not found in
20.-The
~~the note
' of the scale
modern music; it consists of the Principal note,
below*
(unless
andis often
the used
Principal
again,
* The
U pper otherwise
Mordent signindicated),
w ( Pralltrilier
to indica note
te the shake,
especially
J. S. Bach,
(See paragraph
62.) of the Principal note; tite tlzird
played
as by
rapidly
as possible
in the time
t In quick passages the accent is often necessarily upon the first note of the
note
should
be of longer duration than the preceding ones, and should
Upper Mordent,
bear the acceu/,

=.i r----.,

_ttrtj':.c~~Ill

Played.

19.-Whcn an accidental is placed above the Upper Mordent sign,


it si:-;nifies that the up/1er note is to be raised or lo wered a semitono.






Ex. 37. (GRIEG, Musctte,

~~-- =~:~~==----==~

-~u

Op. 40.)

.-When an accidental is placed below the Lower Mordent sign,


it signifies that the lower note is to be raised or lowered a semitone.
21
1

Y-~:L

_/-

.-----..

- .,-~----11._ifl

-~,

. --:-

r-__

A goocl effect is oten produced by beginning the upper Morclent with a Short
,\p:oggiatura when the Principal note is preceded by one of thc same pitch. (See
:-1hakes, paragrnph 55.)

(German, Doppelschlag.)
27.-The Turn '" MUSICAL
divides theRNAMENTS.
note ovcr which it is placed (the
15
Principal note) into four notes, viz., (m modern music*) the note of
the scale above, the Principal note, the semitone below (see exceptions)
and the Principal note again
; in TURN.
qui'ck time these notes should be
THE
equal, in modera/e and slow time the last note should be longer than
the others.
(German, Doppelschlag.)
27.-The Turn '" divides the note ovcr which it is placed (the
Principal note) into four notes, viz., (m modern music*) the note of
the scale above, the Principal note, the semitone below (see exceptions)
and the Principal note again ; in qui'ck time these notes should be
equal, in modera/e and slow time the last note should be longer than
either of the notes of the Turn is to be accidentally
the 28.-\Vhen
others.
raised or lowered, the necessary signs are invariably placed over, or
under the Turn si gn.
Ex. 49

28.-\Vhen either of the notes of the Turn is to be accidentally


raised or lowered, the necessary signs are invariably placed over, or
under the Turn si gn.
Ex. 49

MUSICAL

RNAMENTS.

Ex. 58.

29.-Sornetimes these necessary signs are omitted, though


Also expressed.
obviously intended; the folloioing
rules are-tit-lj~H,___,_1
gen to _J---1;;;1---J-+-:
lzelp tite ---110
student,
wlzen suc/: is tlze case.
Played.

30.-The under note of a Turn is generalty a senutone below the


Principal note, especially
K is :ithis the case,

A. 59.
\Vhen the Turn is placed upon each note of a scale
passage.
Ex.
Sonata
No.though
1.)
29.-Sornetimes these necessary signs (HAYDN.:..,
are omitted,
Ex. 51. intended; f the
obviously
folloioing rules are gen to lzelp tite T.L
student,
~_;_;'_-----u~:f.-:!!.wlzen suc/: is tlze case.

~=t!"i
Ji=~~
e]~~

tE=n
J~~;;~~~~=~:t~]~~j
note of a Turn is generalty a senutone below the
1

11

~
~~A. ------.
-dis': placed, !
the ~-G1i
Turn
-\Vhen
:.: :.:. ::3-=~,
5

-:"~l~-.. ~-iif- ... ,-

Ex. 51.

Ji=~~ e]~~

----

ll

= -~~~:~~=~Jr--u-==11
r:==:~r----;;i~==~=-=1~.-~ 19r~~~~-

30.-The under
Played.
~
....-----..
Playe
d.
Principal
note, especially
is this
the case,
'l./

';1' ---

~--

-!!'

_,

~_

--~~-~-

~1=
upon 11each
note of a scale_ passage.
,

~~-#lf~t=:'-;t~---~' .

J~~;;~~~~=~:t~]~~j

placed
long note,
Principal notes
noteof
* In33.-When
J. S. Bach's the
worTurn
ks the is
Turn
shouldafter
be aplayed
wit h the
t h e diatonic
lasts
for
nearly
its
full
value,
leaving
just
enough
time
for
the
Turn
at
.he scale, un l css otherwise clirected.
the end.
Playe d.

- :.: :.:::3-=~,~~~@=U
r:==:~~==~=-=1~.
19r~~~~--~~~:~~=~J
~~-#lf~t=:'-;t~---~' . -==11
Ex.

60.

ll

';1' ---

J*-t:3-~.

~--

-~------

(BEETHOVEN,

-:"~l~-.. ~-iif- ... ,Played.


----

-!!'

* In J. S. Bach's wor ks the Turn should


.he scale, un l css otherwise clirected.

Op.

2,

No. 2,)

be played

wit h t h e diatonic

notes of


34.-When the Turn is placed over, or after a dotted note,
followed by a note of the value of a dot, completing the beat, or division
of the beat, but not of the same ,iJltch, the last note of the Turn should

notes without stopping on the dot.


Ex. 65.

ti

38.-When the Turn is placed over a note, preceded by one oj the


sanie _pitcli of twice or four times its value, it should be played be/Ne
the note over which it is placed, even if the second note be dotted.
(See note to paragraph MUSICAL
57 .)
RNAMENTS.
19
Ex. 66.

_144$2=~
==i==--=

e, Op.~.
51, =1
No.
: :.~-!.}_-==.-. Rondo
...- in:::
:~.--1. 1.)
: '=---"'-~-P4-~
~
v
--~-~. ~ 11
1f __ ~0 =1=--l]
--~
. F--f-t===T
. --Op..-355, No. 33.) 1:1
F.x. 67.
Ex. 68.

(BEETHOVEN,

Played.

--

~~

---E-'-_._-IE-.,_m!!:

-.J

__--4

-~-

-------

(CZERN\',

This rule also holds good when (under the same conditions) the two
notes are tied.
Ex. 69.

~=

!!~-------!'

Sonata,
Op. 31, No. z.)

(BEETHOVEN,

-::i==U

---________
--- __::---::r___.,,
--

:::j - -~

-i

When, however, the second of tite two tied notes is dotted, the Turn may
be played as explained in paragraph 34.
Ex. 70.

JPbit

(BEETHOVEN,

Sonata,

Op. 31, No. 2.)

"==is~

etc.

39.-When the Turn is written out in ful! (in small tye) it i:-:
generally played in the same manner as when indicated by the usual
sign ,.....,,
Ex. 7r.

(CLRMRNTI,

-~~-.z:----

---1'.----~--~~-'!r--~

-~--~=::1:

:1

----

Played.

_..- ~=---=-=1---~=

:-l-t-----*--~~-<
~~------.-~--

Op. 38, No. z.)

-~-11
-----~- - =-

~
-~---j--.;- {;

=~~-

~==t==
.. =u
=~--1-,,-~
- ~.
I

~--

-=:p:_!

48.-The Shake is indicated by the sign Ir (in old music byNV,..Yvv ),


the note over which it is placed is called the Principal note. The
MUSICALnote,
RNAMENTS.
22
Shake consists of the Principal
and the note of the scale above*
being played in a rapid and regular manner, alternately, during the
value of the Principal note 1

THE
P!ayed.SHAKE.

Ex. 81.

(Italian, -==11j'l-e"c:S:-_1i~
Trillo; German, Triller; French, Trille.)~::i:=il
~r=f2-=g~~=4
_t::=:=f::_= . ~==--Wr---='p ~I
~I"~

-~.

48.-The Shake is indicated by the sign Ir (in old music byNV,..Yvv ),


the note
over which
it is placed
is called
the sixth
Principal
The
49.-When
the Shake
is placed
upon the
of thenote.
harmonic
Shake
the Principal
andflattened
the note seventh,
of the scale
above*
minor consists
scale, theof upper
note mustnote,
be the
because
the
being
in a(therapid
and is
regular
manner, second
alternately,
note ofplayed
the scale
seventh)
an augmented
from during
the sixth.the
value of the Principal note 1

1!9~f~~
=__ ~J=;a;~~._~-~!$=r;;!?'~1_'i~JJ~Ju;:=;::_~~-0
~r=f2-=g~--==11j'l-e"c:S:-_1i~
~::i:=il
Ex. 82.

Played.

tr

Ex. 81.

P!ayed.

:;=1

~=4

_t::=:=f::_= .

~I"~
~==--Wr---='-

-~.

~I

TURN
OF THE
SHAKE.
49.-When THE
the Shake
is placed
upon the
sixth of the harmonic
minor50.-The
scale, theShake
upper generally
note mustends
be with
the flattened
because the
a Turn, seventh,
wbether indicated
or
note
the scaleis (the
not, of
especially
this seventh)
the case-is an augmented second from the sixth.

1!9~f~~=__ ~J=;a;~~._~-~!$=r;;!?'~1_'i~JJ~Ju;:=;::_~~-0
an accented note (the last note of the
Ex. A.
82. When
tr it is followed by Played.
Turn of the Shake rnust be the Principal note; to accomplisb tbis it is
often necessary to introduce a triplet near the end),
:;=1

Ex. 83.

Played.

tr

--------

~ffi-=~l~~=c-=;t~
~~:#J=_t~==r=~~H
~====
THE TURN OF THE SHAKE.
v

'-/'

B. When Shake
(in modern
music)
is followed
another indicated
note of theor
50.-The
generally
endsit with
a Turn,by wbether
same
name,
whether
tied
to
it
or
not,
and
the
Turn
sbould
end upon
not, especially is this the casethe second note. (In old music, see paragraph 51 C.)

A. When it is followed by an accented note (the last note of the


84.
tr
Turn Ex.
of the
Shake
rnust be the Principal note; to traccomplisb tbis it is
often necessary to introduce a triplet near the end),

14-r-+-W?---r=ll ~~fe~
-------~ffi-=~l~~=c-=;t~~~:#J=_t~==r=~~H 23
~====
Ex. 83.

or

Played.

tr

v
MUSICAL

RNAMENTS.'-/'

There
is one excepi
ion (see paragraph
B. When
(in modern
music) it 49).
is followed by another note of ' the
t
A
waved
line
is
sometimes
placed
after
the
shake
sgn IrTurn
~{see sbould end
Ex.orMAJr-.
9-:>).
C.
When
(as
in
old
music)
it
is
by~,IW',),NW,
same name, whether tied to it or not, indicated
and the
upon

""'

the second note.

(In old music, see paragraph 51 C.)

fEr-D
P=~~~e-jl
14-r-+-W?---r=ll ~~fe~
Ex.~~~
Ex. 84.

tr

tr

Played.

or

Observe that the Shake cornrnences


paragraph 54.)
51.-There

on the

upper

note.

(See

is no Turn to the Shake-

A. When it is followed by an unaccented note.

There is one excepi ion (see paragraph 49).


Ex. 86.
t A waved
linetr is sometimes placed after the shake sgn Ir ~{see

(See paragraph 53.)


Ex. 9-:>).

~=-r-e ~---~-E-~-- R
~~=e:---~=Et=--c-1]

MUSICAL

RNAMENTS.

C. When (in old music, Bach, Handel,) it is placed upon a tied


note. In this case the Shake ends a little before the second note; (for
modern music see paragraph 50 B).
(J. S. BAcH, Pre lude XVI., Book l.}

-----------r(l . __

Ex. 90.

tr -------:::~:::::::~::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::~::::::::::::::~~

:;-h---
=Fe ------------------

-----:----===--====------------------'!::OPlayed.

-,c.__
l=tc'---~c

,.-.,.

1"fh1'4~~

~~~~1

This rule <loes not hold good when the second of the tied notes is a
dotted one, followed by two small notes indicating the Turn.
Ex. 91.

(J. S. BAcH, Fantasie


in e minor.)

Played.

N\Af ' --!!!!!!~


~~
'=
:f::!=:j
______, _--l""'T-,,,

._'

.,.---L::1.
~:-,--l~
-i=~-r=i.
'--=-1~ ~-~
,,_lL-p:.,,_._,,_lll.,_1:--.--

_L_

gu
-

"-"

D. When expressed by
notes after the Shake.

MN

unless the Turn is indicated by two

Ex. 92.
Played.
Ex. 93

JF~~D

["tr~~gj

Played. ~

E. When followed by a rest ; (in old music the Shake need not
occupy the whole value of the Principal note, when followe<l by a rest.)

l~~R -+-r
Ex. 941r

_"1

Played. ~

H ~ r I' r ;o/fEH

Ex. 951r
In old music.

Played.

~=U

F. When the Shake is upon a note of small value.

Ex. 96._,..(HAYDN,
Sonata No. 5.)

-i-!'--

E r r r r r E E llP!ayed.~
tr

tr

~-_r'-.!

#tggtEtgtWJI