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THE HISTORICAL PROCESS

MOVEMENTS TOWARD INDEPENDENCE:

Adult Suffrage

GROUP MEMBERS
Latoya (Group Leader)

Nicardo
Sashauna Pearson
Othniel Scott

BRIEF OVERVIEW OF PRESENTATION


Content
Definition of Adult Suffrage
Importance of Adult Suffrage

Brief History
Standards in effect prior to Adult Suffrage
What led to Adult Suffrage

Standards in effect after Adult Suffrage


Interesting Factoids
The Caribbean Sphere of Adult Suffrage
Benefits of Adult Suffrage
Activity

Slide
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89
10 11
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15 16
17 18

DEFINITION OF
ADULT SUFFRAGE
Universal Adult Suffrage is the right of citizens in a
given society to vote in an election (to choose a
government to represent them). Usually the only
restriction applies to people under the age of 18.

BRIEF HISTORY (PART 1)


Jamaicas negro population was enslaved in 1655.

Even after slavery in Jamaica many Negros (blacks) were still faced with:
Labour Exploitation
Racial Domination
Highly Priced Goods
Heavy Taxation
A Justice system which worked against peasants.
The government remained oblivious (Gave a blind eye) to the growing discontent of
the citizens resulting in in riots, slaves fighting for equality.

BRIEF HISTORY (PART 2)


In 1866, the Old Representative form of Government was replaced with
the Crown Colony Government .
Still, the majority of Jamaicans reaped little benefits from the Crown
Colony Agreement and as a result, changes was achieved overtime at a
very slow pace. (see endnote)
Riots continued to plague those in authority, where the blacks
demanded better working conditions and representation for workers
especially in 1938.
The continuous agitation/disturbances of the 1930s led to the granting
of Universal Adult Suffrage in Jamaica in 1944.
`Endnote: More Information about the standards that were in effect
prior to adult suffrage will outlined in the next slide

STANDARDS IN EFFECT PRIOR TO


ADULT SUFFRAGE (PART 1)

Voting was restricted to every sane adult who had a certain criteria namely:
Place of Birth
Residence
Age
Race
Ethnicity
Gender
Ownership of Property
Payment of Taxes
Education
Criminality
Service in the Military
Religion

STANDARDS IN EFFECT PRIOR TO


ADULT SUFFRAGE (PART 2)
Woman were not allowed to vote.
Had a Member of the Legislative Council (MLC).
One (MLC) per parish, with the upper house of the Executive Council
being appointed by the Governor.
Top positions in government were reserved for the British people.

WHAT LEAD TO ADULT SUFFRAGE


During the 1930s the number of blacks in the council were rising.

As a result, because of he lack of freedom and accompanying oppressive social


conditions, riots broke and hunger marches by the unemployed and distressed
civilians. *
Communication between the agitators (as the black were commonly known as)
increased thereby leading to better orchestration (organization).
The authorities not only toke military action against the agitators but sought to
appeal the government in London for a commission of enquiry ( ).
This commission, the Moyne Commission, when published recommend social and
political reform.
As a result the solution, which aim was to return to a normal and peaceful coexistence, would be to let the people get the right to vote, trade union representatives
and political independence thereby leading to Adult Suffrage.

*FOOTNOTE
Numerous

attempts was made to gain economic, political and


social rights for the Jamaican people
Alexander Bustamante
Norman Manley

STANDARDS IN EFFECT AFTER TO


ADULT SUFFRAGE
Changes in the electoral system, the first being the redrawing of
constituencies based on the number of voters, rather than along parish
lines.
Voting was made possible between both genders. The new system
extended voting rights to adult irrespective of their race, sex or social
class.
Originally, only those over the age of 21 could vote. Recent
developments with regard to age was reduced to those over 18 years of
age.

INTERESTING FACTOIDS
1
2
3

Jamaica became the third state in the British Empire to conduct elections on this
basis (Adult Suffrage), preceded only by New Zealand and the United Kingdom,
the mother country of the Empire.
The first Country within the Caribbean to gain full Adult Suffrage was Jamaica in
1944.

In 1944, Jamaica was the only colony, the only state with a black majority within
the Caribbean.

THE CARIBBEAN SPHERE OF


ADULT SUFFRAGE
Territory

Adult Suffrage

Jamaica
Trinidad and Tobago
Antigua
Virgin Island
Dominica
Grenada
Monsterrat
St. Kitts and Nevis
Anguilla
St. Lucea
St. Vincent
Guiana
Honduras
Cayman Island
Turks and Caicos
Bahamas

1944
1945
1951
1951
1951
1951
1951
1951
1951
1951
1951
1953
1954
1959
1959
1961

BENEFITS OF ADULT SUFFRAGE


Voting is made possible between both genders. The new system extended voting
rights to adult irrespective of their race, sex, social class or any other criteria.
Voter turnout and enthusiasm for elections are higher, as more persons are involved
in the voting process. In other words, they (voters/citizens of the country) have a
direct bearing on the persons elected to rule a country.
For example (Next Slide)

Total Voters Jamaica


100.00%
90.00%

84.50%

81.46%

86.10%

Percentage of Total Voters

80.00%
70.00%

63.93%

60.00%
50.00%
40.00%
30.00%
20.00%
10.00%
0.00%

1950

1955

1960

1965

1970
Year

Percentage of Total Voters

1975

1980

1985

ACTIVITY
Crossword Puzzle on Adult Suffrage
The first to give in the crossword puzzle and get all correct will receive