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NPTEL Chemical Mass Transfer Operation 1

Assignment and Short type questions

Module 5: Distillation
Assignment Problems:
Assignment Problem 5.1: The vapor pressure of an alcohol is 10.0 torr at 14.7
C. Calculate the vapor pressure at 52.8 C if its vaporization is 47.2 kJ/mol.
(Ans: 100.2 torr)
Assignment Problem 5.2: Consider a mixture of components A and B obeys
Raults law. Plot the boiling point diagram of the system at 1 atmospheric
pressure. The vapor pressure of A and B are given in the following Table.
Temperature 0C
Vapor pressure of Component
A
Vapor pressure of Component
B

80
760

85
877

90
1016

95
100 105
1168 1344 1532

110
1800

345

405

475

760

557

645

Assignment Problem 5.3: An equimolar mixture of A and B is separated by a


flush distillation at atmospheric pressure. Use the vapor pressure data of A and B
as mentioned in problem SA 4.2.
(i) Plot the temperature of the distillatory as a function of f, the fractional
vaporization.
(ii) Plot the composition of liquid leaving the distillation unit as a function of f.
(iii) Plot the composition of vapor leaving the distillation unit as a function of f.
Assignment Problem 5.4: Suppose a N0 moles of mixture of binary components
consisting N0A mol of A and N0B mole of B are charged to a batch still. Let by
batch distillation, NA moles of A and NB moles of B left in the still and xA and xB
are the compositions of A and B respectively at a given time. Total moles left in
the still at that given time is N. If dN mole is vaporized for a small interval of time.
Show for constant relative volatility (AB)

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NPTEL Chemical Mass Transfer Operation 1

NB NA

N 0 B N 0 A

1 / AB

Assignment Problem 5.5: A system of mixture of component A and B follows


the bubble-point temperature and dew-point temperature curve as follows
respectively:
T (0C) = 46.93x4 - 77.82x3 + 14.31x2 + 11.17x + 61.1 and
T (0C) = -31.72y4 + 65.78y3 - 63.73y2 + 24.45y + 61.1
Where T is temperature and x & y are the mole fractions of compositions in liquid
and vapor respectively.Explain why the system at 42 mole% of A is azeotropic in
nature? All calculations if any will be corrected upto two decimal point.
Assignment Problem 5.6: A mixture of 40 mole % isopropanol in water is to be
batch-distilled at 1 atm until 70 mole % of the charge has been vaporized.
Calculate the composition of the liquid residue remaining in the still pot, and the
average composition of the collected distillate. VLE data for this system, in mole
fraction of isopropanol, at 1 atm are (Seader and Henley, 1998):
T, K
366
357
355.1
y
0.220
0.462
0.524
x
0.012
0.084
0.198
Composition of the azeotrope is x
353.2
Ans: 0.067

354.3
353.6
353.2
353.3
354.5
0.569
0.593
0.682
0.742
0.916
0.350
0.453
0.679
0.769
0.944
= y = 0.685; boiling point of the azeotrope =
K.

Assignment Problem 5.7: A liquid mixture containing 40 mol% A and 60 mol%


B is to be separated by distillation by using a reflux ratio of 3.5 mole per mole of
product so as to form an overhead product containing 95 mol% of A and a
bottom product containing 95 mol% of B. The feed enters the column as liquid at
its boiling point. A is more volatile than B. Determine:
a. the minimum reflux ratio
b. the number of theoretical plates
c. Minimum number of theoretical plates
d. The position of feed plate
VLE for A-B system in Q.6 is as
x
0
0.20
0.40
0.60
0.80
1.0
y
0
0.38
0.61
0.78
0.92
1.0
th
Ans: (a) 1.567, (b) 10, (c) 6.6, (d) 4 plate from the bottom
Assignment Problem 5.8: A liquid mixture of benzene toluene is being distilled
in a fractionating column at 101.3 k Pa pressure. The feed of 100 kmole/h is
liquid and it contains 45 mole% benzene (A) and 55 mole% toluene (B) and
enters at 327.6 K. A distillate containing 95 mole% benzene and 5 mole%
toluene and a bottoms containing 10 mole% benzene and 90 mole% toluene are
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NPTEL Chemical Mass Transfer Operation 1

to be obtained. The amount of liquid is fed back to the column at the top is 4
times the distillate product. The average heat capacity of the feed is 159 KJ/kg
mole. K and the average latent heat 32099 kJ/kg mole.
The equilibrium data:
Temp.(K)
353.3 358.2 363.2
366.7
373.2
378.2
383.8
xA (mole fraction) 1.000 0.780 0.580
0.450
0.258
0.13
0
yA(mole fraction)
1.000 0.900 0.777
0.657
0.456
0.261
0
Calculate
(a) The kg moles per hour distillate, kg mole per hour bottoms
(b) No. of theoretical stages at the operating reflux.
(c) The minimum no. of theoretical stages required at total reflux
(d) Overall efficiency at operating conditions
(e) Overall efficiency at total reflux conditions
Ans: (a) 41.2 kg mole/h, 58.8 kg mole/h (b) 7.9 (c) 5.9 (d) 0.79 (e) 0.59

Short Type questions:


1. What is distillation?
2. What is the boiling point of water if the atmosphere is 3.0 atm? Ans: 407 K
(Apply Clausius-Clapeyron equation)
3. What is relative volatility? How can it be calculated from partial pressure?
4. If the relative volatility between two components is equal to one, is the
separation by distillation possible?
5. How constant boiling mixture be formed? What is the possible way to
separate such mixture?
6. What is azeotrope? Give an example of azeotropic system. How
azeotrope mixture can be separated?
7. Derive the Rayleigh Equation
8. What are the limitations of McCabe-Thiele Method?
9. Why the reflux ratio R is important in distillation process?
10. How reflux ratio affect on number of theoretical stage?
11. What are the fundamental differences there which is to be thoroughly
understood by the designer to design a multicomponent distillation
column?
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